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copyright 2002-2010

This manual is intended to cover the more advanced concepts of ChronoSync. Most information needed to use and run ChronoSync can be found in ChronoSync’s Help, located within the application, and on our website in the Tips and FAQ sections (

Chapter 1. Introduction
Welcome to ChronoSync! 8

Chapter 2. Basic Overview
ChronoSync Documents! Synchronizer documents! Container Documents! Synchronization Operations! Backup Operation! Blind Backup Operation! Synchronize Bidirectional Operation! Mirror Operation! Bootable Operation! Synchronization Operations Quick Guide! Setting Up A Synchronization! 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 13

Chapter 3. Scheduled Synchronization
Background Synchronizations! Sequential vs. Concurrent Execution! Waking From Sleep! 15 15 15

Chapter 4. Advanced Concepts
Change Detection! Collection! The Last Identity Test! Deletions! Triggers! Anomalies?! Baseline Synchronizations! Extended Attributes & Access Control Lists! Automatically Connecting to File Servers! Connecting to ChronoAgent ! Other Server Options! Removable Media! File Comparison Helpers! Archiving! 18 18 18 18 19 19 19 20 21 22 23 23 24 24

Chapter 5. Examples
Synchronizing Desktops With Laptops! Setting Up Your Synchronization! Controlling Which Folders to Synchronize! Cloning Data Using a Mirror Synchronization! 27 27 28 29

Bootable Backups! Synchronizing Email Clients! Changing Archive Location! External Drive Synchronization! Synchronize 3 Macs! 29 30 31 32 32 Chapter 6. Common Errors Dealing With Conflicts & Errors! Conflicts! Date Roll Backs! Daylight Savings! Disk Full! Apple Error Codes! 35 35 36 37 37 37 .

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Chapter One Introduction .

You may work on certain files on your desktop in your office . They can. In this scenario. In this case. ChronoSync performs synchronization in a very efficient way . the main target. Its fundamental role is to take a collection of files stored in one place and maintain an identical copy of those files stored in another place. all the changes made in one target.Introduction Chapter 1. The ‘places’ that ChronoSync will synchronize are called targets and the process of keeping both targets identical is called synchronization. 8 .it identifies and copies only the files that have changed since you last synchronized. The situations in which synchronization is necessary are quite numerous and varied. A perfect example is a laptop and desktop computer. if ever. the backup target.Backup. Figure 1. be much more intricate and complex.this would be your desktop target.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 1 .1 . however. Introduction Welcome to ChronoSync ChronoSync is a file synchronization and backup utility for Mac OS X. The user rarely.2 -Bidirectional or Mirror Synchronization Synchronizations really can be as simple as outlined above. Because it performs its job quickly and efficiently. When you return to the office. blind backup or bootable backup synchronization. any changes you made to the files on your laptop need to be copied back to your desktop. ChronoSync offers a tremendous degree of flexibility so that virtually any synchronization scenario can be handled. ChronoSync is flexible and powerful enough to handle just about any synchronization scenario you can think of . ChronoSync would be configured to perform a backup. using ChronoSync will not be a burden and will not significantly affect your daily work flow. In this scenario.this would be your laptop target.some of which may even push the limits of the term synchronization.they exist merely as a backup in case one of the files on the main target is accidentally deleted or becomes corrupt. directly accesses files on the backup target . Figure 1. The most common need for synchronization is to simply maintain a redundant backup of your data. Blind Backup or Bootable Backup Synchronization Another common need for synchronization is to keep two sets of files that are actively modified in sync with each other. ChronoSync would be configured to perform a bidirectional synchronization. will get copied over to another target. You may then want to bring the same files home on your laptop so you can work on them at night or on a business trip . This intelligence is known as incremental or blind backup synchronization.

Chapter Two Basic Overview .

Synchronizer documents A ChronoSync Synchronizer document contains all of the information necessary to keep two targets synchronized with each other. This differs from an application based interface where only a single set of data and options are presented. Conversely. Mirror. A Synchronizer document also contains a snapshot of every file being synchronized in each target.” or “Remove” toolbar icons) in the Documents panel. ChronoSync allows the creation of two types of documents: synchronizers and containers. A word processing program is an example of a document based interface. you may need different types of synchronizations in various situations. This document may be saved anywhere on your computer’s hard disk. Synchronizer documents in a container can be rearranged by dragging them. Backup. you’re basically done . a ChronoSync document can be opened at a later date by simply double-clicking it from the Finder. Once you configure a ChronoSync document to perform a desired synchronization. Apple’s iPhoto is an example of an application based interface because only a single library of photos is managed and the user cannot open or save different libraries. This includes a reference to each target. a Container document contains one or more Synchronizer documents that have been previously saved. because each document you create can be saved as a separate file. you can make changes to your ChronoSync document to alter its behavior.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 2 . run your synchronization then quit ChronoSync. Blind Backup. Running a synchronization on a container will execute each contained Synchronizer document in the listed order. Each is discussed in the following sections. The fact of the matter is that few people have a singular synchronization need. Basic Overview ChronoSync Documents ChronoSync utilizes a document based interface.. Bidirectional and Bootable.Basic Overview Chapter 2. Likewise. This sections defines these variants and offers examples of how and when each should be used.all your settings are stored within the document. You can then open the saved document at any time. You simply drag documents in and out (or click the “Add. the type of synchronization to be performed.. Container Documents Simply put. This snapshot is referred to as the synchronization tree because it maintains the same hierarchical relationships of files and folders as they exist in your targets. This means that all your configuration settings as well as specific information about the set of files being synchronized are contained in a single document. A Container document contains one or more Synchronizer simply open and execute the appropriate document at the appropriate time. 10 . This allows you to synchronize several Synchronizer documents in one easy step. A Synchronizer document contains all the information necessary to synchronize two targets. With ChronoSync you would configure two separate documents to perform each task . For example you may want to keep a redundant backup copy of all your working documents. This means that. you just set it and forget it! Being document based. numerous option settings to control ChronoSync’s behavior and zero or more rules to inform ChronoSync of what type of files need to be synchronized. Additionally. ChronoSync offers nine synchronization operations. These operations have five variants. In most other aspects. If you desire. affecting the order in which they run. Synchronization Operations The synchronization operation is specified on a Synchronizer document’s Setup panel. ChronoSync provides tremendous flexibility. you may need to keep your desktop and laptop computers synchronized with each other. Container documents behave just like Synchronizer documents. but generally. more likely than not.

the left file will get copied back to the right side! 11 . those changes are applied to the right target. the file will not be synchronized because it’s considered the same in both targets (the last identity test told it so). The main difference is that with the bidirectional operation specified.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 2 . Not so in a mirror left-toright operation . if you have mirror left-to-right enabled. if you modify a file on the right target. ChronoSync is “blind” to what is happening on the destination side of your synchronization. The bidirectional synchronization operation would be used when doing a Home-to-Home synchronization. In this scenario. modifying a file on the right target would result in replacing its left side counterpart. it will be synchronized! Also. if a file in your destination target is deleted. it would normally get deleted on the left. however. Blind Backup Operation The Blind Backup operation essentially pays no attention to files in the destination target. the corresponding file in your source target will not get synchronized. modifying a file on the right side will result in it being overwritten by its left-side counterpart. when detected. however. the blind backup logic will forever after be used. For example. When a change is detected. it will get synchronized back to the left side. is more than skin deep! What this means is that ChronoSync will scan both targets as it does in a bidirectional synchronization. then the Backup operation behavior is applied. too. Thus the change moves in a left-to-right direction.Basic Overview Backup Operation ChronoSync employs its change detection logic to identify files in either target that have changed and. but won’t allow a synchronization to occur that will go against the bias. In a backup synchronization. If ChronoSync has never synchronized a file before.initial synchronizations. the direction of the synchronization is used to determine which target should be monitored for changes. Mirror Operation When the Mirror operation is in effect. A similar behavior is applied to deletions. Only a change to your source file will cause it to get synchronized. In fact. Note: Backup synchronization is the operation of choice for the overwhelming majority of synchronization tasks. applies those changes to its counterpart. synchronizations will only be allowed to occur in one direction. only the right target is monitored for changes and. making sure that file is synchronized to the other target. Conversely. In the Backup operation. It also allows you to perform an initial synchronization with an empty destination target and have all your files synchronized. Once ChronoSync has collected information on a file. it will invert the direction of such synchronizations! For example. it performs similarly to Backup mode except the “Last Identity Test” is never performed. however. synchronizations will only occur left-to-right. There is one critical exception to the above behavior . when right-to-left is the specified direction. Basically. suppose you modify a file in your source target then use the Finder to copy the file over to the destination target. however. For instance. Synchronize Bidirectional Operation This operation is similar to the Backup operation. those changes are applied in a right-to-left direction. Bidirectional includes both the "Left-to-Right" and "Right-to-Left" directions. This allows you to add files to your source target and have them get synchronized. nor does it care if a file’s counterpart exists or not. only the files on the left target are monitored for changes. Under a bidirectional synchronization. hence the name. if so. both targets are monitored for changes and the most 'up-to-date' file between the two targets is selected. This feature. Under mirror left-to-right. In a Blind Backup synchronization. if a file is deleted on the right side. Therefore. as in all modes. if left-to-right is the specified direction. If both files in the targets change. a conflict will arise. It only pays attention to files in the source target. and thus has not collected any information on the file.

12 . deleted files from one target will not be deleted from the other target. Also. deleted files from the right target will not be deleted from the left target. Blind Backup Left-to-right The left target will be monitored for changes. Blind Backup Right-to-left The right target will be monitored for changes. This is called a bootable backup. To authenticate before setting up your Synchronizer document. deleted files from the right target will not be deleted from the left target. Also. deleted files from the left target will not be deleted from the right target. in case you decide to no longer have ChronoSync authenticated. Any changes detected will be copied to the right target. This allows you to access all the files and folders on the system. the following guide describes each operation in detail. ChronoSync will prompt you to enter your Admin password. Note: The first time a Backup Right-to-left synchronization is run.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 2 . Synchronization Operations Quick Guide To help you quickly determine which operation is best for you. However if you backup your entire hard drive with the correct settings.e. then you can restore files and even boot from this drive in the event your internal hard drive fails.Basic Overview Bootable Operation Under normal circumstances. in most cases. You may want to revoke such access. i. Backup Left-to-right The left target will be monitored for changes and compared to the right target. the first time a Blind Backup Left-to-right synchronization is run.. Note: The first time a Backup Left-to-right synchronization is run. Note that the first time a bidirectional synchronization is run. Outside of the Users folder there are System and Application files. the first time a Blind Backup Right-to-left synchronization is run. such as in a situation where you are stepping away from your computer with ChronoSync still running and you don't want someone else to sit at the machine and have full access to all files via ChronoSync. it will not get replaced by the same file in the right target unless the right file has actually changed. Any changes detected will be copied to the left target. Any changes detected will be copied to the opposite target. Any changes detected will be copied to the right target. Synchronize Bidirectional Both targets will be monitored for changes. you can choose “Authenticate. When you choose a Bootable operation. doing so requires knowledge and expertise of what files are important and what role they play in the operation of the system. ChronoSync will no longer ask for an Admin password and will allow Admin access to all files until the program is quit. you could not restore them. Backup Right-to-left The right target will be monitored for changes and compared to the left target. Once authenticated. Any changes detected will be copied to the left target. Note: A “Deauthenticate” choice appears in the menu after an authentication is complete. Important: If a file in the right target is modified or deleted. rather than being restricted to just your 'Home' user files. Important: If a file in the left target is modified or deleted. it will not get replaced by the same file in the left target unless the left file has actually changed.. Backing up these files would serve no purpose since. deleted files from the left target will not be deleted from the right target.” from the ChronoSync application menu. This menu item is just an option for entering your password instead of waiting for ChronoSync to prompt for the password. it makes little sense to backup your entire boot drive.

such as the operation. 13 .if you prefer your laptop to be your right target. options or rules... it will result in the right file overwriting the left file.. Note: The first time a Mirror Left-to-right synchronization is run. It is highly recommended that this computer be the one that has to connect to the other. This is purely for the sake of example . Launch ChronoSync. In our example.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Mirror Left-to-right Chapter 2 . Only volumes can be specified for this operation. Note: The first time a Mirror Right-to-left synchronization is run.” button in the “Left” group of the Setup panel. it will result in the left file overwriting the right file.. Mirror Right-to-left Files will only be copied right-to-left. deleted files from the right target will be deleted from the left target.. you should use your laptop. If a file on either the left or right target is modified. Click “Choose. go ahead and select it as such. deleted files from the left target will be deleted from the right target. We also assume you’ll be selecting your laptop as your left target. Use the file selection dialog to locate the folder on your laptop that contains the documents you wish to synchronize. you may specify any other desired settings. This will be the folder on your desktop computer with which you will be synchronizing. Next choose your right target. Only volumes can be specified for this operation. Doing so will save you a step by automatically connecting to your shared computer. First. Setting Up A Synchronization The first step to setting up a Synchronizer document is to decide which computer will be responsible for the synchronization. Bootable Left-to-right A bootable copy of the left target will be copied to the right target. choose your left target by clicking the “Choose. Once you have selected your targets. If a file on either the left or right target is modified.Basic Overview Files will only be copied left-to-right.” in the “Right” group and navigate to the folder on your desktop machine. A new Synchronizer document will be automatically created for you. Bootable Right-to-left A bootable copy of the right target will be copied to the left target.

Chapter Three Scheduled Synchronization .

If there are no dependencies between synchronizations. however. ChronoSync will always have to be running for scheduled synchronization to occur. ChronoSync will perform the synchronization in the order that they appear in the Scheduled Documents Manager window (top to bottom). Concurrent execution will take advantage of Mac OS X’s multi-threading capabilities. Wake system to synchronize is disabled by default. It will generally result in faster synchronizations. The scheduling options are extremely flexible to handle almost any scenario. Scheduled Synchronization The “Chrono” in the name ChronoSync comes from the fact that synchronizations can be scheduled to run automatically at any time of the day. at different intervals or on different days. 15 . ChronoSync automatically installs a separate program call the ChronoSync Backgrounder. instruct it to do its job. Sleep is a low power mode in which the contents of the computer’s memory are retained. the ChronoSync backgrounder will launch ChronoSync. To enable sequential execution. When you do so. However. visit the Scheduler pane of ChronoSync’s Preferences dialog. The result is concurrent (simultaneous) execution. Many user’s configure their computers to go to sleep after a certain period of inactivity. This is called sequential (in-order) execution. It does this in a manner that won’t affect any work you are performing in another application. When a scheduled synchronization is due to occur. visit the Scheduler pane of ChronoSync’s Preferences dialog. all without requiring user intervention.Scheduled Synchronization Chapter 3. This is called the wake system to synchronize feature. Fortunately. To enabled it. Keep in mind that with this option disabled. ChronoSync offers very sophisticated scheduling capabilities. You can schedule any number of ChronoSync documents (synchronizers and containers) so they run automatically. If. there is a good possibility that your computer may be asleep at the time. If one synchronization is dependent upon the results of another synchronization. you can disable it via the Scheduler panel in ChronoSync’s Preferences dialog (located under the “ChronoSync” application menu). Waking From Sleep If you schedule your synchronizations in the middle of the night. especially if you have a computer with multiple CPUs. concurrent execution will have no net benefit if you don’t schedule multiple synchronizations to occur at the same time. Simply turn off the “Use background scheduler” option. Concurrent Execution When two ChronoSync documents are scheduled to run at the same time. but no application programs are actually running. a divider line appears where the entry will be placed if you were to release the mouse. Background Synchronizations ChronoSync does not have to be running for a scheduled synchronization to occur. To modify the order. then quit ChronoSync. Sequential vs. there is no way for the scheduler to perform that synchronization because all programs are suspended while the computer is asleep. simply click-and-drag the entries in the Scheduled Documents Manager. Utilizing the ChronoSync backgrounder is the default behavior. for some reason you do not desire this behavior. ChronoSync has the ability to program your computer to wake itself up when the time draws near to run a synchronization. You can even schedule the same document to run twice. which quietly and silently monitors the scheduled items database. you may want to disable sequential execution. Turn on the setting labeled “Run scheduled items sequentially”. and you have scheduled multiple synchronizations to occur simultaneously. you should ensure the proper order of execution in the Scheduled Documents Manager.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 3 . If your computer is asleep when it’s time to run a synchronization.

16 . From time-totime. you typically will not have to re-enable it. If such occurs. the ChronoSync backgrounder will display a dialog informing you of the situation and you’ll have to re-visit Preferences to turn this feature on again. ChronoSync may “lose” the authorization to wake the computer up.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 3 . ChronoSync will correctly handle any changes made to your schedule after enabling this feature.Scheduled Synchronization Note: Once you have enabled this feature. however. This will typically happen after installing a new version of ChronoSync or perhaps upgrading your system software.

Chapter Four Advanced Concepts .

such as in your initial synchronization or when a new file has been created in a target. the file is tagged for synchronization. if the current modification date of a file is May 13th. it tries to determine if the files stored in each target possess the same attributes as each other. In a nutshell. Change Detection ChronoSync detects changes differently from how most other synchronization programs do so.the comparison is relative to the last known state.a clear sign that it has been deleted! 18 . In some synchronization programs. Once it does this. 2010 12:15 PM.econtechnologies. For example. This means that ChronoSync has never encountered this file before and thus has no reference information to compare it against. however. Basically. use our online support form: ChronoSync determines that the file has changed.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 4 . The Last Identity Test When ChronoSync determines that a file has changed relative to its last known state. Because of this. If so. This section covers some advanced concepts in synchronization. it will perform one last test between the actual files on each target. ChronoSync can detect changes in various scenarios that would go undetected (or worse detected the wrong way) by simply comparing the files in each target against each other.php.Advanced Concepts Chapter 4. If a difference is detected. or if the counterpart was determined to be identical. In such an instance. 2010 7:45 AM. even though the current modification date is older than the last known modification date. that file is in an uncollected state. Collection The first time ChronoSync encounters a file. This section is geared for those more advanced users who are interested and willing to push ChronoSync to the limits. By monitoring for changes relative to the last known state. Understanding just how ChronoSync detects file changes is very useful when configuring synchronizations. Note: You can tell if ChronoSync has collected the state information for a file pair if the “Last Synchronized” column in the Analyze panel contains a date and time. deleting a file from one of your targets may result in its counterpart getting copied back over the deleted copy. The technique employed by ChronoSync for change detection is called relative state monitoring.the same file in the opposite target. After synchronization occurs. Advanced Concepts There are so many powerful features you can take advantage of within ChronoSync. we’ve prepared a simple primer on the logic employed for change detection. before it goes ahead and tags that file as needing synchronization. It is also very useful to understanding some of the advanced concepts presented in this chapter. it simply updates the information it has recorded on the files and moves on without synchronizing the file pair. ChronoSync will have recorded the last known state of both files and will employ relative state monitoring for each subsequent synchronization. Note: If you encounter a specific situation not covered in this manual. Deletions Relative state monitoring makes it very easy for ChronoSync to detect deletions. but the last known modification date of the file is May 19th. This prevents unnecessary synchronizations from occurring in instances where you may have manually copied a file from one target to another using the Finder or another program (which may be ChronoSync via another Synchronizer document). can easily detect the deletion because a file for which it has previously collected state information simply doesn’t exist anymore . ChronoSync collects information on both files in the file pair. ChronoSync. ChronoSync has no choice but to compare the file against its counterpart . what this means is that ChronoSync compares the current state of a given file against the last known state of the same file .

but is usually one of the following: Discrepancy #1 .Advanced Concepts Triggers The above example uses a file’s modification date as the criteria for determining whether or not a file has changed. or any other application. Baseline synchronizations are invoked using the “Baseline scan. If you were synchronizing bidirectionally. Setting up this synchronization as a Mirror operation would do this. ChronoSync will attempt to apply the metadata to to the destination file. for instance. and its counterpart.Incapable File System: Not all file systems are created equal. Thus it won’t consider the discrepancy a problem . saving this recorded information in the Synchronizer document. is newer than your source.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 4 . yet clearly. You can mix and match which attribute changes will trigger a synchronization. Note: It is possible to configure ChronoSync so that it would detect the file pair in this example as out-of-sync. This is useful in situations where you may simply not care about changes to certain metadata or when you are synchronizing to a device that does not support certain metadata and/or cannot support it reliably.Source File Hasn’t Changed: If performing a unidirectional (left-to-right or right-toleft) may be a ‘problem’ in the purest sense of the word. The cause for such a discrepancy could be many things. you may have the need to perform a baseline synchronization. This is because the file in your left target (your source target) hasn’t changed at all. Baseline Synchronizations When configuring a synchronization document for the first time. However. cannot associate all of the metadata that Mac OS X associates with its files. This filesystem is accessible by Mac OS X but does not support all of the metadata that HFS supports. could do anything about! Note: Most external Firewire and USB hard drives are shipped pre-formatted with a Microsoft Windows-specific file system. For example. Most non-HFS file systems. in fact. however. you may have selected a file pair in the Analyze panel that ChronoSync indicates is synchronized with each other (a check-mark for status). It collects the states of all files in your targets. to name a few. but if the file system doesn’t support it. Anomalies? While relative state monitoring produces more accurate synchronizations than alternate approaches. its access permissions. ChronoSync will still list that file pair as in sync. A baseline synchronization goes through all the steps normally performed by a full synchronization. An example would be a file server for which there is no way to maintain the same owner/group membership as your local machine. In such a case. This information is known as metadata and it covers pieces of information such as who owns the file. In such cases.. the detailed file information displays a discrepancy.. nothing more can be done. 19 . if synchronizing left-to-right and you modify a file on your right target. there is some information about files that aren’t stored within the file itself but are necessary to synchronize. since ChronoSync records the last known state of the destination file. which has changed. all that ChronoSync cares about is whether or not the source file has changed. However. they should be reformatted with the HFS-Extended file system using Disk Utility. This is by far the most common and universal method for detecting file changes since the operating system automatically updates a file’s modification date when data is written to it. and ChronoSync has collected information on a file pair. but it doesn’t actually synchronize any files. ChronoSync can detect changes to a file’s metadata.” command in the “Action” menu. but it isn’t a ‘problem’ that ChronoSync. ChronoSync would indicate the file pair as out-of-sync and needing to be copied right-to-left. there are times when it may appear that it is not synchronizing a file pair accurately. Discrepancy #2 . Unless you need to share such hard drives with Windows based computers. it will know that the file cannot retain all of the properties of the original. Exactly which metadata ChronoSync should monitor for changes are user definable and are called triggers. its Finder color label and whether or not its file extension is hidden.

See the section on the Blind synchronization mode for more information. contact support and we’ll help determine if a baseline synchronization is necessary. it will detect countless file differences because of the fact that metadata was not correctly associated with the files. or a wireless connection. The only way to prevent ChronoSync from copying all files to your empty target on its initial synchronization is to perform a baseline synchronization first. if you are connecting directly to another computer (such as a laptop). you’ll have to configure file sharing to be enabled on your desktop machine. There are occasions. that such preservation is not possible. Baseline synchronization is useful when starting with two targets that already contain a set of files that you consider synchronized. For example. and prefer to run ChronoSync from your laptop. you may want to enable the "Ignore extended attribute and access control list errors" option in the "Reporting & Error Handling" group in the Options panel or else a large number of files may report errors when synchronized. However. you may skip ahead to Connecting Via File Sharing. such as when communicating with a foreign file system and/or file server. Extended Attributes & Access Control Lists ChronoSync supports both Extended Attributes and Access Control Lists. your server’s administrator will have to set up a user account and password for you. the remote computer appears as a volume on your desktop. Another popular use of a baseline synchronization is when configuring a Blind synchronization to function in a blind backup capacity. They provide much finer grain control over what users and groups can access specific files.ChronoSync will collect state information on every file and use that for its relative state monitoring on all subsequent synchronizations. Thus if you have a desktop/laptop configuration.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 4 . Access Control Lists are an extension to the standard UNIX access model. numerous pieces of metadata will not get associated with the copied files. 20 . such as Airport. You may initially want to start with an empty target. ChronoSync will try to preserve extended attributes and access control lists.Advanced Concepts Note: Baseline synchronization performs a specific role which is useful only in very specific and advanced scenarios. Regardless of the physical connection method. You typically connect to a file server via a wired connection. They can also override standard user/group access limitations. If you then use ChronoSync to set up a synchronization. one of the two computers will have to be set up to allow the other to share files. but you will have to do so on the machine that will not be running ChronoSync. Whenever possible. but feel you may need to use it. Extended Attributes are arbitrary pieces of information that you can attach to any file. however. In this instance. You can specify this volume. Once connected. or more likely. such as Ethernet. a folder within this volume as one of your targets in a ChronoSync Synchronizer document. You do not need to invoke this function for so-called “ordinary” synchronizations. The information can be small (such as a version number) or large (such as PDF data containing an entire user manual on how to use the file it is attached to). As mentioned previously. Connecting to File Servers Using ChronoSync to connect to a file server is a popular way to synchronize data between two computers or to backup your data in a central repository. Once this is provided. you must enable file sharing on one of your computers. later in this section. Either computer can have file sharing enabled. suppose you used the Finder to copy all your files over to an external Firewire hard disk that is formatted using a Microsoft Windows compatible filesystem. If you do not understand this feature. If your are synchronizing with a central file server. you can simply perform a baseline synchronization . Rather than isolate and disable the trigger associated with the metadata discrepancy.

. switch to the Finder and use the “Network” browser that is built in. 2. A list of all available computers should appear... that is what you should specify when connecting to your desktop machine via file sharing. ChronoSync then records information that it can use to automatically re-establish the connection to that file server when performing synchronizations in the future. you will have to explicitly instruct ChronoSync that it should not try to automatically connect to the file server.” button to see a list of server mounting options. The first thing you need to decide is how will ChronoSync log in to your file server.” dialog appeared above the “Choose. When you specified your file-server based target in the Setup panel. a descriptive message on the Sharing pane provides information on how you can connect to this computer . we will assume you are doing so from a laptop computer. If “File Sharing” is may want to make a note of this. To do this. The only way to turn it off is to revisit the Sharing preferences panel and turn it off.Advanced Concepts To enable file sharing. This icon represents your shared computer and you can open it and navigate the folders.. Doing so is simple. There are three options: 1. a new icon will appear on the sidebar in Finder windows. Once file sharing is turned on. This ensures you have access and privileges to all your local documents. Keychain Based Login . In such situations.. The first option presented is “Attempt to mount server”. No login: ChronoSync will not attempt to connect and login to your file server. however.thus if your username on the desktop machine is “jdoe”. Connecting Via File Sharing The next step in achieving connectivity is to connect to the shared computer from your other machine. After doing this. Direct Login: ChronoSync will attempt to connect and login to your file server using a name and password that you specify in your Synchronizer document. When you select a folder on your shared computer as one of your targets. even between restarts of the computer. Select it and click “Connect”.The keychain is an operating system feature that serves as a repository for various services which require user authentication. open a Finder window and look under the “Shared” group in the sidebar to find a list of servers. an “Options. Click the “Options. Automatically Connecting to File Servers The steps above show you how to enable file sharing.. just as if they were stored on your laptop. Turning this option OFF is all you must do to instruct ChronoSync to never attempt to connect to the selected file server when working with this Synchronizer document. launch “System Preferences” and choose the “Sharing” pane. it will remain on. Seamlessly performing this operation requires a little more information from you.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Enabling File Sharing Chapter 4 . Keychain Based Login: ChronoSync will automatically attempt to connect and login to your file server. connect to a shared computer and specify the files on a shared computer as one of your targets. Note: Under Tiger. it is your responsibility to connect to the file server before asking ChronoSync to perform a synchronization.” button in the respective target box. No Login .If this option is desired. You will be prompted for a name and password. You should use the same name and password used on the desktop machine as your local user . ChronoSync automatically identifies that the target is residing on a file server. When file sharing is enabled. For the sake of this example. It is a handy way to store names and passwords for various 21 . but it will do so using a name and password that has been added to your user’s keychain. among which should be your desktop machine. turn it on by clicking the checkbox in the list (you may have to authenticate first). Each of these options is detailed on the following pages. 3.

you want to add your name and password to the keychain. you must follow the steps presented earlier in the Connecting Via File Sharing section (if you are presently connected to a file server. 22 . however. Connecting to ChronoAgent ChronoAgent is a transparent piece of software that. however. to access all of the files on the ChronoAgent machine as if it was a locally attached hard drive.if you don’t take these steps. If you correctly supply this information. the synchronization process will be aborted.” button. please consult the ChronoAgent manual. Choose this. When specifying direct login. you must take a couple extra steps.If you prefer not to add your name and password to your keychain. It is worth noting that Direct Login may not work as expected under Leopard IF you also have keychain entries for logging on to the same server. You must then specify the logged in file server.. If not. Turn ON the “Login as” option. connection will be established and synchronization may proceed. For more information on ChronoAgent and how ChronoSync connects.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 4 . the name and password you specified will be added to your keychain. This enables direct login. This is purely optional . located on another computer. If.. Doing so is done in the server options sheet.Advanced Concepts different services and has the advantage of allowing the user to lock or unlock all entries in the keychain in a single step.” above your Synchronizer document’s “Choose. ChronoSync will attempt to connect to the file server using the name and password you just added to your keychain. An error will be logged and the program will continue. Once ChronoAgent has been configured on a computer. A connection profile can be set up within ChronoSync’s Preferences.. Once presented with the login dialog (where you specify a name and password) you will notice the “Remember this password in my keychain” checkbox at the bottom of the dialog. The ChronoAgent gives ChronoSync full root access to destination computers. another computer running ChronoSync can connect to it. Instructing ChronoSync to connect to a server using a keychain based name and password requires no extra configuration in ChronoSync . The extra steps that you do have to take. ChronoSync assumes it should automatically attempt to connect to that file server and it should do so using a keychain-based authentication. Email notifications are highly recommended to inform you that scheduled synchronizations are regularly occurring. You should use the Keychain Access utility to delete any and all keychain entries associated with this file server. ChronoSync will present you with a name and password authentication dialog whenever it is attempting to connect to a file server. allows a copy of ChronoSync. You must then specify a username and password to connect to your file server. The agent is configured and controlled via a System Preferences pane. you can still configure your Synchronizer document to automatically connect to the file server. This should be the same user name and password you would specify when connecting to the file server from the Finder. Before it can do so. If successful. Direct Login . however. or a folder on that server. First. a Connection Profile must first be defined in order to establish communication with the agent. These steps are taken when you initially connect to your file server. involve adding your name and password to the keychain. as one of your targets in ChronoSync. displayed by clicking “Options. your username and password are encoded in the Synchronizer document (in an encrypted form) and used by ChronoSync when it attempts to connect to the file server. when installed on a computer. You may then proceed to log in. scheduled synchronizations will not grind to a is the default technique that ChronoSync uses to connect to file servers. Forever after. you should dismount it by ejecting its icon). When you specify a target that resides on a file server. Note: If a volume cannot be mounted for whatever reason.

Leaving this setting off. it instructs ChronoSync to differentiate between volumes with the same name by comparing several low-level properties. Clicking “Options. This allows you to work with a Synchronizer document without actually having its removable media target mounted.e. If turned on. The only requirement is that your media must be mountable on the desktop. Dismount server after synchronization . It indicates that the prompt for media insertion will only be displayed when a Synchronize or Trial Synchronize operation is performed. ChronoSync possesses no special knowledge about exotic devices and thus. Eject media after synchronization . you won’t have to worry about ChronoSync destroying your connection to the server when it completes.Instructs ChronoSync that it should automatically dismount the server after synchronization completes. if you previously inserted the media and are working with files on it. ChronoSync will attempt to mount the server when the Synchronizer document is first opened. this option causes ChronoSync to eject the media containing one or both of its targets after synchronization completes. Thus when you specify a target in a Synchronizer document that exists on a removable volume. an icon appears on Finder’s desktop. This is useful in situations where you connect to a file server only to synchronize and have no other reason to directly access files on it. Removable Media Using ChronoSync with removable media is really no different than using ChronoSync with local hard drives. ChronoSync detects it as such. i. This indicates that media ejection will only occur if ChronoSync prompted the user to insert the media in the first place. it will not work with ChronoSync. This option is useful if you occasionally do have the need to connect to a server and directly access files on it outside of the synchronization attached to the “Eject media after synchronization” option. you don’t have to worry about having the media ejected on you after ChronoSync completes a synchronization. a few other options are presented by this dialog. Other Server Options The previous steps had you visit the server options sheet dialog in a Synchronizer document’s Setup panel.This option is attached to the “Dismount server after synchronization” option.This option is attached to the “Attempt to mount server” option. it instructs ChronoSync to only dismount a server after synchronization if ChronoSync itself was responsible for mounting the server in the first place.When turned ON. when you insert the media into its device. This way... This will only be displayed if the removable volume is not already mounted. Only when synchronizing . The other notable settings are: Only when synchronizing . 23 . Only if inserted for this document . the Setup panel will display the “Options. If you established connection to the server prior to having ChronoSync perform a synchronization.. When a volume is removable. Turning it on instructs ChronoSync that it should only attempt to mount the server when a Synchronize or Trial Synchronization operation is invoked. if it cannot be mounted as a standard volume. ChronoSync will display a prompt dialog asking you to insert the removable media that contains your target.” will display several removable media options. The purpose of this setting is to allow you to work with a Synchronizer document even when the file server it synchronizes with is unavailable.Advanced Concepts Note: ChronoAgent is a separate product available in a separate download.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 4 . Only if mounted by this document .This option is attached to the “Prompt to insert media” option..” button.If turned on.. Strict volume identification . Prompt to insert media . In addition to controlling the technique used for connecting to a file server.When this option is ON.” button above the “Choose.

Browse. . OS Type Code field . The selected application's icon and name will appear in the "Application:" column of the File Helpers list. edit or remove entries in the file helper list. or when the file has no default application. It is your first indication that something is amiss.Advanced Concepts Strict volume identification .e. ChronoSync will recognize the mount and correct its state. and have these fields automatically populated with the information that is derived from the file. You can then simply mount the volume by inserting it in the appropriate device.. If you wish to use the file's default application then no file helper entry needs to be created. Filename Extension . Archiving is often important since not all changes are necessarily improvements. Archiving Archiving data refers to having multiple backup copies of your data that were made at various points in time. You may add. the file helper editor sheet window appears. The chosen OS type code will also be displayed in the "OS Type:" column of the File Helpers list. After toiling with a spreadsheet for a week. In this case the user must set up a File Helper in order to use the "Compare" function on the file. This allows you to drag a file to the area. drop it. Note: If ChronoSync can’t locate the media that contains one of its targets. the “Cannot locate target” message is displayed. The area surrounding this field is also a drop-zone allowing you to drag an application to the area rather than using the accompanying "Browse. The filename extension is not case-sensitive. This is useful when you wish to open the files in an application other than the file's default application. If no default application is found then an alert is sounded and the file will not be opened. First the file helper database is scanned for a helper associated with the file’s extension." button.If turned on.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 4 .. The following is the logic that is used to determine which application will be launched when the "Compare" function is chosen: 1. 4. Note: The area surrounding the “Filename Extension” and “OS Type Code” fields is a drop-zone for drag operations.. This time it is scanned for a helper associated with the file’s type/creator code (if they are defined). it instructs ChronoSync to differentiate between volumes with the same name by comparing several low-level properties. the application that would launch if the file were to be double-clicked on in Finder).. 3. If no helper is found then the file helper database is scanned again. The OS type is case-sensitive and must be 4 characters long. 2. for instance.This will open the Open File dialog and allow you to select the desired application that should be used to compare the specified type of files. When adding or editing an entry. This maintains a ‘history’ of your data. File Comparison Helpers The purpose of file helpers is to give you the ability to select the desired application that should be used to open the specified types of files when the "Compare" function is chosen from the Analyze panel.This is a read-only field that displays the complete path of the application selected. we may come to realize 24 .This is used to specify the OS type that a file must have in order for the specified application to be used when opening the file. The chosen filename extension will also be displayed in the "Extension:" column of the File Helpers list. If no helper is found then an attempt is made to determine the default application that is used to open the file (i.This is used to specify the filename extension that a file must have in order for the specified application to be used when opening the file. Below is an explanation of each property in the file helper editor sheet window: Application .

ChronoSync offers archive handling options to help with the maintenance of the archived items. Overwritten/Replaced . it is possible to restore old files that you may have accidentally (or intentionally) deleted or overwritten. In this view. Deleted . Archiving is used as a way to maintain a collection of files that have been deleted or overwritten by the synchronization process. Within the Archive panel. You can also sort and re-arrange the columns. where these files are listed.If a newer file or folder exists in one target. you are able to expand/collapse folders. If both features are used the “Limit Duplicates.” feature will take precedence.if only we could start over with last Friday’s version.If the “Synchronize Deletions” option is turned on in the Setup panel and a file is deleted from one target. The “Limit duplicates in archive to no less than # copies” will act as a minimum number and will always keep at least the listed number of versions of a file archived. In the Options panel there exists options specifically for the handling of archiving. Note: It is important to understand that archiving requires additional hard disk space to accommodate the extra files.. the deleted file will be moved to the archive where it can later be retrieved. Note that a separate archive is maintained for both targets." from the Actions menu or by customizing your toolbar and choosing the “Restore” toolbar icon..... Chronosync will replace the older file with the newer file. If the “Move to Archive” option is selected. You can also open and restore files directly from the list by control-clicking on a file selection. select files. ChronoSync will delete that file from the other target. Restoration can be accomplished by choosing "Restore. The “Limit duplicates in archive to no more than # copies” will act as a maximum number and will always keep no more than the listed number of versions of a file archived. 25 . If archiving..ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 4 . With archiving. Using archiving capabilities assures that older files are still available. It’s a good method to use when using ChronoSync as a backup utility. The Archive panel allows you view all of your archived files and lists information about the files. The Archive panel is presented to you in what is known as an outline view. the older file will be moved to the archive where it can later be retrieved.Advanced Concepts that all you’ve achieved is really screwing up the formulas . perform actions and tunnel into a folder path. it essentially allows you to go back in time to view older files. There are two archiving instances worthy of mentioning: deleted files/folders and overwritten/replaced files/folders. The “Purge files archived more than # ago” will remove files when their archive date matches the time listed. the Restore operation can be performed to restore old files to their original location or any other location specified on the hard disk.

Chapter Five Examples .

To do this. all the work performed on the desktop computer needs to be transferred over to your laptop. An analysis begins. You are now pretty much ready to perform your synchronization. Use the file selection dialog to locate the folder on your laptop that contains the documents you wish to synchronize.” button in the “Left” target group of the Setup panel. however. synchronization will begin. your computer is basically in the same state it would be when you first come into the office. This simply means that the two computers must be able to physically exchange information before synchronization can occur. If you dis27 . The good news is that. you will want to experiment and see how each successive synchronization will occur. Next.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 5 . There are usually several ways to do this. When returning to the office. ChronoSync defaults to the “Backup Left-to-Right” synchronization operation. The next step involves establishing the synchronizing operation. Conversely. This will be the folder on your desktop computer with which you will be synchronizing. Next choose your right target. The process of obtaining a connection to the other computer and having its icon appear is called mounting. This is called dismounting. This way. Once mounting has occurred. modifications made to files on either computer will get copied to the other machine. all changes made to documents on the laptop will need to be copied to the desktop machine. you should save the Synchronizer document. and the exact method you use depends upon your hardware configuration and personal preference. To do this. changes are made to various documents. browse to the mounted volume in Finder and then drag that volume to the trash in your Dock (the trash can changes to an “Eject” icon when doing so). For laptop-to-desktop synchronizations. A new Synchronizer document will be automatically created for you. The first step in providing a solution for this scenario is to establish connectivity between the two computers. launch ChronoSync. unless you make massive changes to documents when the two computers are apart. go ahead and click “Synchronize” in the Toolbar. this may possibly take a long time. give it a meaningful name like “Sync with my desktop computer”. This is because from now on. in order to avoid accidentally modifying an out of date file. while at home (or on the road). Also.Examples Chapter 5. Setting Up Your Synchronization Regardless of the physical connection method. you will usually want this to be “Bidirectional”. After it is determined what files need to be copied. one of your computers will be accessible to the other via an icon on the desktop. When this is all done. however.. First. Locate the Synchronizer document you created and double click it. taking advantage of its greater processing power and additional resources. Before you do so. In a hypothetical scenario. The first step is to quit ChronoSync. disconnect from the shared computer. Examples Synchronizing Desktops With Laptops One of the most popular uses for file synchronization software is the synchronization of documents between laptops and desktop computers. This is deemed the safest setting and hence it is used by default. At the end of the day (or the beginning of that business trip). Depending on how many files there are.. just choose “Save” from the Toolbar. only the files that actually change will be synchronized. the first synchronization is the longest one you’ll ever perform. Click “Choose. thus alleviating the burden of specifying them each time you need to synchronize.. This document will save the settings you’ve just made. After your first synchronization is performed. work in the office is usually performed on a desktop computer. Choose a location on your local hard drive where you can readily find it. Once you’ve performed these steps. comparing all the files in your left and right targets..” in the “Right” target group and navigate to the folder on your desktop machine. choose your left target by clicking the “Choose.

you could select your home folders as one of the targets and then exclude your “Music” folder from the Analyze panel. Each Synchronizer document can be synchronized separately. what if you wanted to synchronize your entire home folder but not your “Library” folder. the first thing that ChronoSync will do is to try to reconnect to it. For example. just repeat the process double click “Sync with my desktop computer” and click “Synchronize”. It can meet the needs of almost any synchronization or backup strategy no matter how simple or complex. if you just want to backup all your Photoshop files to an external hard drive no matter where they are located on your Mac you could select your entire Mac’s hard drive as one target and a folder on the external hard drive as the other Target. When the process completes. Rules allow you to exclude specific files and folders from a synchronization. This is a great solution if you want to synchronize some folders but not other folders. Fortunately. etc. you could add them to a single Container document so all three behave as one. for example. there are many ways to narrow down your synchronization scope using ChronoSync. When a folder is excluded. AirPort. Option #4: You can permanently exclude any file or folder by selecting it from the Analyze panel and choosing the “Exclude” command. Boot up both your laptop and desktop. After booting is complete. After this. If the connection is via file sharing. here’s how: At the beginning of the day. At the end of the day. if you wanted to synchronize your entire Home folder but did not want to synchronize your “Music” folder. You could then create a rule to only synchronize Photoshop files . how will you actually use ChronoSync on a daily basis? Given the scenario we’ve been discussing. instead of creating one Synchronizer document for your home folder. this may involve a login dialog appearing where you need to specify your name and password.). Option #5: Create rules. perhaps you want to create three: one for “Documents”. As long as you begin and end the day with this procedure. assuming your laptop is still connected to the network.Examples connected from the shared computer as instructed. you show up at the office and connect to your network using the usual means (ethernet. A connection will automatically be made with your desktop. In some instances your needs may not be as simple as synchronizing one folder to another folder. For instance if you created three Synchronizer documents for your “Documents”. all will be well. You may. you can quit ChronoSync and proceed with your busy day. simply click “Synchronize”.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 5 . but 28 . want to synchronize many different folders at the same level or perhaps synchronize one folder but not synchronize some of the folders contained within it. all the files and folders contained within it are likewise excluded. For instance. For instance. The exclusion will be saved with the Synchronizer document and the excluded file/folder will be skipped every time a synchronization is performed. Option #6: Use a combination of the above methods to synchronize exactly what you want. Option #3: Add multiple Synchronizer documents to a single container document and then synchronize them all as one. Now that you’ve done all this. and assuming you’re connecting via file sharing. “Pictures” and “Library” folders. double click the “Sync with my desktop computer” Synchronizer document on your laptop that you previously created. Any changes made to documents on either machine will be synchronized. another for “Pictures” and a third for “Library”. Find the one that best suits your situation below: Option #1: Select a root folder and everything beneath it. Controlling Which Folders to Synchronize ChronoSync is designed to be flexible. For example. For instance if you want to synchronize all your personal files you would simply select your Home folder. Option #2: Create separate Synchronizer documents for each folder you wish to synchronize.all other types of files will be skipped.

ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 5 . Mirrored synchronizations look for differences between file pairs. Running daily backups or multiple daily backups is essential but backing up System files on a daily basis is not practical. It is a “brute force” technique that makes no consideration for the possibility that data is legitimately changing in both targets. Prior to version 3. To get around this. we now call this process mirroring. "Exclude" the Users folder from your bootable backup Synchronizer document. Synchronization. tunnel to the Users folder.0. any files the student created will get removed.3. The difference between synchronization and cloning are subtle but real.0 however. you could combine both Synchronizer documents in a single Container document. To do this. Cloning is the process of making one target appear identical to another. often simultaneously. however. Just make sure you know what you are doing before you make a change. select it and "Exclude" it. they frequently delete important files. You can schedule the backup or run it manually. The result is that any file the student modified will get updated. 29 . But if we're talking hundreds or thousands of files (especially if they're big). Then you could create a second Synchronizer document to synchronize just your “Mail” folder. First. is a process that involves a little more finesse. To make the terminology easier to understand. and. if synchronize deletions is enabled.they each represent a process that many consider functionally identical. Bootable Backups When setting up a bootable backup. You may want to adjust some settings in the "Options" panel. We at Econ. on the other hand. However. introduced the concept of the biased synchronization mode. however. It seeks to identify changes in one target and to merge those changes with the opposing target. Instead you could set up a “mirror left to right” synchronization document that synchronizes a master set of files (the left target) with the student’s computer (the right target). when a difference is detected. Kids being kids. Thus any change in one target is projected to the other. For example. Furthermore. any new folders added to your “Library” folder would not get synchronized so you would not have to modify your exclusions in the future.Examples you do want to synchronize your “Mail” folder (which resides in “Library”)? You could create a Synchronizer document to synchronize your entire home folder but excluding your “Library” folder via the “Exclude” action. create a second Synchronizer document that backs up your Users folder.0. suppose you run a computer lab in a school and you want each computer configured with a certain set of applications and documents for your students to use. you could just copy all the files over using the Finder. it always copies the file in a predefined direction. just as the Backup synchronization does. This way your “Library” folder gets completely excluded but the “Mail” folder still gets synchronized. Go to the "Analyze" panel. At the end of the day. any file the student deleted will get copied back over. This practice gets more efficient when you realize that any changes that you may make to the master target will get intelligently merged with all the students' computers. modify and overwrite existing ones or create new files altogether. make a distinction between the two. Cloning Data Using a Mirror Synchronization The terms synchronization and cloning are often used interchangeably and for good reason . here are some options that you may want to keep in mind: Adjustments. It does take into consideration the possibility that data is changing in both targets and it also takes into consideration that there may be data in the opposing target that is not a part of the synchronization. Next. Finally. Changes were made in version 3. Both techniques have their uses and which one is “better” depends on the specific task that is being performed. no matter what. If you are tight on disk space you can adjust the "Archive" option settings. ChronoSync had no true cloning capability. Divide up your bootable backup. this can be quite time consuming. Version 3. create two Synchronizer documents: One that backs your System up and one that backs your Users up. you need to restore each machine to a pristine state. even if that means a newer file will be replaced by an older one.

ChronoSync can replace the newer database file with the older database file but not merge two files together. ChronoSync will see the folder on the destination but not the source and it will think that it needs to get deleted. Run the Users backup frequently. G4. In such an instance. You can partition the drive using Disk Utility. ChronoSync can not combine all the messages so they all exist on both Macs. both of your email clients will contain identical messages. it divides it up creating multiple drives out of one drive. You simply must specify/include or exclude the “MicroSoft User Data” folder instead of “Mail”. Entourage Entourage stores all it messages and data in files located under “Home/Documents/MicroSoft User Data”. Note: If you do this. you will be syncing “Mail” since it is located within your home folder. The same concepts that apply to Apple Mail also apply to Entourage. you synchronize your entire home folder but don’t want to synchronize your “Mail” folder. If you want to synchronize Entourage you just need to synchronize the “MicroSoft User Data” folder. Make sure you "Exclude" this folder from your bootable backup Synchronizer document or the next time the synchronization is run. and "Connect to:" is "Local Volumes (Admin access)" for both targets. What’s the difference? First you need to understand that Email programs store the email messages in database files. wait until after you have performed your initial. If you want to synchronize Apple Mail you just need to synchronize this “Mail” folder.Examples All the settings are the same except the targets are the User folders. you should invoke the “Exclude” action on the “Mail” folder from the Analyze panel. Apple Mail Apple Mail stores all it messages in files located under “Home/Library/Mail”. After doing so. For instance if you synchronize your entire home folder. You can set up a ChronoSync document with the two “Mail” folders from each computer as the targets or set up a Synchronizer document where the “Mail” folders are sub-folders located inside the targets. Synchronizing Email Clients ChronoSync can keep email messages on two Macs in sync but it can not merge the messages together. depending on what you are trying to accomplish. ChronoSync can raise a conflict between the two email database files. the "Operation" is "Backup Left-toright".ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 5 . but it will be up to you to decide which one should be used. however. 30 . If. If you have a lot of space on your drive and want to use the drive for storing other data you have a couple of options: Partition your drive. G5). When you partition a drive. full bootable synchronization so that all the user files are placed on the destination drive and you can test it out. Add a folder. If you have received new email messages on both Macs in between synchronizations. Then you need to perform a one-time forced synchronization from the Analyze panel and copy the messages to the other Mac. Then you can select one of the partitions as the bootable and use the other partitions for other uses. In order to use ChronoSync to synchronize email clients you must first make sure all the messages you want are on at least one Mac. Run the bootable backup once a week and after software updates. or else you could end up with new messages on both Macs again. Warning: When you partition drives you must partition them specifically for Intel-based Macs and Power PC-based Macs (G3. From this point on you should discipline yourself to always synchronize before you use the other Mac to receive email. Instead of partitioning your Mac you can simply add a folder to the drive to store more files. Click on the Options button under Disk Utility under the Partition panel to select your Mac.

Note: It is important to mention that this process is a bit of a hack and is considered an unsupported feature.e. At this time. ChronoSync places it there. ChronoSync will not try to mount the volume. To maintain the archived items folder in a different location. 7) In Terminal. 2) Using Finder. Once identified. i. This automatically pastes the pathname of the folder icon into the Terminal shell. not its contents). If this unsupported feature is utilized in a situation where the "real" archive folder could become unavailable. Changing Archive Location ChronoSync saves deleted and modified files by storing them in an archive folder. DO type the space at the end). The most likely situation that this can happen is if the archive is on a file server or external drive that is not mounted. it is going to fail miserably. now type "ln -s " (again. you have just created a symbolic link to the "real" archived items folder. You can verify this by looking inside your target folder using Finder . Here are the steps to follow: 1) Create a folder that will serve as your "real" archived items folder. make sure the folder icon is accessible in the Finder.e. you must create a symbolic link at the root level of your target named "_Archived Items". Once created. If you don't have a graphical tool for creating symbolic links. ChronoSync will resolve this alias and manage the archive in the new location. and manage your archived files. This pastes the full pathname of the "real" archive folder into the Terminal shell. the archive folder is placed at the root level of your target. Assuming you did everything correctly. 31 . You should have now changed the current working directory in Terminal to the root folder of your target. 9) In Terminal. this time you DO type the quotes).Examples Other Email Clients Consult the documentation that accompanies your application (or contact the vendor) to identify the folder that contains the message databases. make sure the root folder of the target in which you want to create the symbolic link is accessible. It maintains a ‘history’ of your archived files. Things could also go wrong if the "real" archive folder is moved or should see what appears like a folder alias that takes you to the "real" archive folder. 6) In Terminal. If it becomes broken. The Archive panel shows the contents of your archive folder and makes it easy to find. sort. you can do so using the Terminal application. 10) In Terminal. 5) Drag & drop the target's root folder icon from the Finder over to the terminal window. i. press the RETURN key. 4) Type "cd " (DON'T type the quotes and DO type the space at the end). keep a Finder window open that displays the newly created folder (the folder icon itself. 3) Launch Terminal. 8) Now drag & drop the folder icon you created in step 1 to the Terminal window.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 5 . you should combine it with a pre-synchronizaton script that ensures the validity of the archive folder before allowing synchronization to proceed. This can be on any locally attached hard drive or even a file server. DON'T type the quotes. press the RETURN key. not its contents). now type "_Archived Items" (just to confuse you. keep a Finder window open that displays the target's root folder (the folder icon itself. Why this is an unsupported feature? Because ChronoSync does nothing to check the validity of the symbolic link. That symbolic link can point to any other folder on your hard drive or even an external hard drive or file server. apply the same concepts discussed above for Apple mail when synchronizing your email messages.

Follow these steps: When you leave work. When you leave home. When you get to work. but be careful. you have a “Home” computer and a “Work” computer. Note: It is important not to run the wrong Synchronizer document.Examples In a future version of ChronoSync. Choose a folder containing everything you want to synchronize and create an empty folder on the external to contain everything you want to synchronize. You must always run your synchronizations when switching Macs so the data is kept up to date. You must synchronize from a Mac. For instance at Work you could accidentally run the Home Synchronizer document. create a separate ChronoSync document with bi-directional and synchronized deletions selected. Set the Targets as your Mac and external hard drive folder. Here is what you do: On the “Work” Mac. Set the targets as the Mac and external drive. When you get home. 2. Then you need to decide if you want to synchronize from the Master to the two other computers or synchronize from the two other computers to the Master. create a ChronoSync document with bi-directional and synchronized deletions selected. For the purpose of example. Call this ChronoSync document "Home". providing a full user interface and archive validation that will make selecting an alternate location for your archive very easy. synchronize using the “Work” ChronoSync document.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 5 .or just don’t feel like lugging around your laptop . Call this ChronoSync document "Work". synchronize your changes to the external drive and then synchronize from the external drive to your “Home” computer. Using an external drive as a “go-between” will allow you to work on the “Work” computer all day. This should not happen since it will not be able to mount the Home Mac since it is not available. A = Master 32 . You cannot work on more then one computer at a time because if two users are working on the same file then one of the files will get copied over and lost. Choose the folder you created on the external drive and the matching folder you choose from the “Work” computer.or even three computers provided at least one of them is a Mac. Keeping up with this practice is extremely important and requires discipline on your part. synchronize using the “Home” ChronoSync document. On the “Home” Mac. If you have two desktop computers . External Drive Synchronization One popular use of ChronoSync is to use a portable external drive between two computers. synchronize using the “Work” ChronoSync document. Your Targets should be your Home folder or something inside your Home folder. There are two very important rules: 1. First you need to decide which computer will be the Master. synchronize using the “Home” ChronoSync document. Note: It is highly discouraged to synchronize Applications and System files between two Macs. Synchronize 3 Macs You can synchronize 3 Macs . this will become an official feature. You always synchronize before and after switching Macs.this is the ideal solution to keeping your data on the two computers synchronized.

First document synchronizes B to A and second document synchronizes C to A. First document synchronizes A to B and second document synchronizes A to C. Set up two Synchronizer documents that Synchronize Bi-directionally with deletions checked. One Synchronizer document resides on the Remote Mac B and the other on Remote Mac C.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Chapter 5 . Both Synchronizer documents reside on the Master Mac. 33 . Synchronizing from the Remotes Remotes must be Macs.Examples B = Remote C = Remote Synchronizing from the Master Master must be a Mac. Set up two Synchronizer documents that Synchronize Bi-directionally with deletions checked.

Chapter Six Common Errors .

Note: Because conflicts are dependent on two files changing. the error will be skipped but posted to the Log or. In the case of an error it will notify you of the problem by displaying an error message. and there’s nothing you can do to resolve it. you can decide which file should actually be used. they can only occur while doing a bidirectional synchronization. Choosing the “Abort” button will abort the synchronization process.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Common Errors Chapter 6. while running a synchronization. The error will get posted to the log for later review. When this is done. While one file will likely be more recent than the other. as the name implies. such as if the file in question is reported as being used by 35 . You may also select the “Ignore all additional conflicts by. You can undo an exclude in the Analyze Panel using the “Include” command. just click “Skip”. If it is a scheduled synchronization. but won’t annoy you with additional error sheets. Do this by clicking “Continue”. will retry the operation that induced the error. Conflicts A conflict arises when two files have been determined to have both changed since the time of last synchronization. Choosing one of the options will inform ChronoSync what to do with future conflicts. if set up properly. only the remaining files that have not been copied yet remain out of does not “stick” for all future synchronizations.” option that provides you with a popup menu of options. a conflict resolution sheet appears. Do so by clicking the radio button associated with the desired file and then clicking the “Continue” button. If a string of errors arise and you just want to finish synchronizing what you can. In the case of a conflict. Errors When an error arises in the course of synchronization.. alerting you to some problem with a certain file within the synchronization tree.. Below lists some common errors you may encounter while using ChronoSync. Common Errors At times. If you determine that the conflict exists for a reason. the condition that caused the error can be rectified. In all such cases ChronoSync will notify you of the problem. You can then use the Analyze panel to determine which one is the correct one. emailed to you. ChronoSync will provide you with a file conflict sheet to let you resolve which file should be used in the synchronization. When such is detected. In the Options panel. an error sheet window will appear. At this stage. you can choose to ignore the error and continue synchronizing. you will find settings which allow you to automatically handle file conflicts. Synchronization will resume as normal. Dealing With Conflicts & Errors Sometimes a file will not get copied because of an error or conflict between the two files. you can abort the entire process by clicking “Abort”. ChronoSync decides to err on the side of caution and flag these files as a conflict. click the “Exclude” button. Sometimes. errors may occur. This will still post errors to the log. If your synchronizer is scheduled. This will exclude the file pair from synchronization and won’t report a conflict for them ever again. conflicts will automatically be skipped unless these conflict handling options have been specified. enable the “Skip any additional errors” check box. If you can’t decide which file should be used. This gives you a chance to immediately resolve the problem and then re-invoke the synchronization. only nothing will be done with the conflicting files. This choice only applies to the synchronization being performed . The “Retry” button. Instead of aborting. When presented with this sheet.

36 . Your first option is to do nothing. To handle date roll-back errors before they occur. you may quickly and easily exclude the offending file from future synchronizations by clicking the “Exclude” button in the error sheet. This also allows you to catch legitimate instances where a file has gone back in time but you don't want it to synchronize. then this is the way to go. but it isn't purely a Microsoft behavior. Other legitimate causes would include the manual restoration of some files by yourself. Otherwise. ChronoSync will continue on with the synchronization. That way. it will resume the synchronization as normal. To track down the files you can get a list of the files and errors in the Synchronizer document’s Log. If you want your backed up files to be an exact image of your source files. living with the warning messages may not be practical. you can use the Pre-determination feature in the Options Panel. If it succeeds. so dealing with the warning messages as they come up shouldn't be that much of a nuisance. A roll back is usually a relatively rare event. Microsoft applications are notorious for this. you'll notice some "Pre-Determination" settings. You can enable roll back pre-determination via the check box and choosing the desired method of dealing with roll-backs from the popup menu. especially if the synchronization is scheduled. We recommend enabling "Archive when replacing" if you choose this option. When dealing with this. If this is the case. "accidental" rollbacks wont permanently wipe out a critical file. It can accidentally happen. Sometimes an error will repeatedly occur that simply cannot be corrected. Once you understand the cause and determine that there isn't a deeper issue. It makes it so that user interaction isn't needed during the synchronization. it will display the error message again. when you inadvertently replace a new file with an older one or it can also happen if something has gone wrong with clock synchronization between two computers or the system clock setting on your computer. in the "Reporting & Error Handling" section. For example. Skip: Don't synchronize the file just because it has gone back in time. In the Options panel of your Synchronizer document. You can undo an exclude in the Analyze panel using the “Include” command. Your options are: Ask User:ChronoSync will stop at each date roll back error and ask you how you would like to proceed.ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Common Errors another application. you can "predetermine" how ChronoSync deals with roll backs. If not. The most common cause is that the files were open and modified by an application at the time of the previous synchronization. This said. such as files you previously modified but then decided to replace them with original versions. extra care should be taken to make sure something isn't seriously wrong with your computer. Date Roll Backs Date roll backs occur when the modification date of a file has gone back in time from its previous known setting. then this is the way to go. though. stay away from it! Copy: This will copy files that have gone back in time. this should never happen. If you always want your backed-up file to have a more recent time-stamp. This feature lets the Synchronizer document know how to handle a roll-back error in case one is encountered. a file name may be too long to be synchronized with a target whose file system doesn’t support long file names. In some cases. Exclude: This will mark such files as "Excluded" and then they will be permanently ignored. Under normal circumstances. but when they were closed by their respective application. we suggest you first try to determine why the files are going back in time. date roll backs will automatically be skipped unless you have specified date-roll back handling in the Options panel. dealing with them in ChronoSync is pretty easy. Note: If your synchronizer is scheduled. the application took it upon itself to restore their original modification date. You'd have to have a really good reason to choose this option. Once you choose your selection from the dialog. In this case.

ChronoSync Userʼs Manual" Common Errors Abort: This selection will cause the synchronization to abort if a date roll back error occurs. you can find them on Apple's Support pages. ChronoSync needs enough space to handle all the files plus twice the size of your largest file. check your destination for available space. make sure the synchronization can accommodate this. it is not a ChronoSync issue but an issue with the Mac OS. if you have an Archive. Apple Error Codes Oftentimes ChronoSync will spit out error codes in its log messages. Daylight Savings When you run into a synchronization problem that is related to a Daylight Savings Time switch. We must rely on the OS for reporting the correct times. It is due to an incompatibility between either the connection method or the format of the destination. It is impossible for ChronoSync to try and interpret when a time is correct and when it is not. In this instance. not ChronoSync. Notice that the time difference appears if you do Get Info on the files from Finder. it allows you to look into why the error occurred. Mostly these error codes are generated by the OS. Also. That is because the OS is reporting the difference in time. 37 . Disk Full If ChronoSync returns a disk full error. handle it and then restart the synchronization. To get a comprehensive list of these codes. The best thing to do is to copy over the differences and then everything will be in sync again.

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