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Contents
Iorevord 8OFhIF 8O8IOCk
Introduction 8OFhIF 8O8IOCk AND GkAFMF 8MAkI
Archives 80F 8kFAkFII
Art Iilrarianshiµ FkICA FODFN-IFNAhAN
Art Iicensing kO8FkI GkO8F AND JOhN kO8IN8ON
Art Tourism JANF ChI8hOIM
Arts Administration GkAFMF 8MAkI AND CIAIkF WAI8h
Auction Trade k0FFkI IOO¥FY AND 8AkAh h0NI
BooI Editing FIIFFN CADMAN
BooI PulIishing FhIIIF COOFFk
BooIseIIing 8OFhIF 8O8IOCk
Conservation: An Overviev AII8ON kIChMOND
Conservation: Ceramics and GIass J0ANIIA NA¥AkkO
Conservation: EaseI Paintings DA¥ID CkOM8IF
Conservation: Paµer MIkF WhFFIFk
Conservation: TextiIes FkANCF8 IFNNAkD AND MAkY 8kOOk8
Curating: Iurniture FIFANOk IOIIFkFF
Curating: Historic BuiIdings MAY kFDFFkN
Education Ior Young PeoµIe F8IhFk 8AYFk8
Exhilition Organizing NIGFI IIFWFIIYN
IreeIance VorI CIAkF FOkD-WIIIF
¡eveIIery hFIFN DIMMICk
¡ournaIism JOhN k088FII IAYIOk
MarIeting kAIF kNOWIF8
Museums and GaIIeries AMY 8AkkFk
Photograµhy MAXINF ADCOCk AND kIChAkD DFNYFk
Picture Research FANDOkA MAIhFk-IFF8
The Practising Artist JANF AIIFN
SIide Iilrarianshiµ JFNNY GODFkFY AND ¥ICkY 8kOWN
Teaching: AduIt Education MA0kFFN FAkk
Teaching: Art & Design CoIIeges IO8hIO WAIANA8F
Teaching: Oµen University ¥FkONICA DA¥IF8
Teaching: SchooIs CAkOI JACO8I
Teaching: Universities COIIN Ck0I8F
Teaching: VorIers` EducationaI Association ¥FkONICA DA¥IF8
+
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8OFhIF 8O8IOCk
CnO||, //| S¦uoen¦ Mence|s' Ò|cup,
Cc-eo|¦c|, Cc/ee/: |o A/| ¬|:|c/,
L
ast year, vhen a reviseJ anJ upJateJ version ol the I995 eJition
ol Cer::rs io Art Eistorv appeareJ, ve vere JelighteJ vith the response
anJ enthusiasm vith vhich it vas receiveJ. DemanJ so exceeJeJ our
expectations that it became necessary to print a thirJ eJition ol this popular
volume.
Major changes to this eJition incluJe nev chapters on the artist
practitioner, bookselling, jevellery, paper conservation anJ sliJe
librarianship. In other respects the book remains unchangeJ lrom last year's
lormat ¬ each chapter Jescribes a career vith its positive anJ negative
points, the qualilications requireJ to vork in each lielJ, the availability ol
voluntary vork placements anJ vhere jobs are aJvertiseJ.
As on previous occasions, the book has been proJuceJ by representatives ol
the stuJent members ol the Association ol Art Historians (AAH). The
motive behinJ this upJateJ eJition remains unchangeJ. it alerts art
historians ¬ prospective anJ present ¬ to the Jiversity ol employment
prospects available to them. Naturally, a book ol this moJest site cannot
claim to be a comprehensive guiJe. Nevertheless, the broaJ range ol
potential career opportunities open to art historians is encouraging anJ, in
the absence ol a comparable publication, the book lills a serious gap in UK
careers literature. The StuJent Members' Group trusts that not only the
content but also the enthusiasm ol the knovleJgeable contributors vill
inspire you as you embark on anJ Jevelop a career in art history.
It has been a pleasure to vork on this publication lor a seconJ year vith
Graeme Smart, vhose JeJication to the project has translormeJ this volume
lrom a moJest booklet into the valuable hanJbook it has nov become.
In aJJition to the contributors the eJitors vish to thank Claire Davies
(AAH Senior AJministrator) lor her practical assistance, MingHui Chen
lor the cover Jesign anJ ]annet King lor her valuable aJvice Juring the
proJuction ol this book.
4
8OFhIF 8O8IOCk AND GkAFMF 8MAkI
Eo|¦c|s, Cc/ee/: |o A/| ¬|:|c/,

A
lthough art history as an acaJemic Jiscipline is only just over a century
olJ, its practice Jates back to the lilteenth century, vhile its subject
matter is as olJ as human civilitation itsell. Hovever, ol ongoing concern to
art historians is vhether or not their Jiscipline is in crisis. This Jebate is
topical partly because several Jegree courses in the Jiscipline, (mainly) in
the nev universities, have been closeJ or are unJer threat ol closure anJ
because, more generally, application numbers to art history Jegrees are
lailing to rise.
Nevertheless, this book acknovleJges, inJeeJ celebrates, art history's
methoJological anJ practical Jiversity anJ vievs it as a Jiscipline that
equips its stuJents vith a range ol commercially marketable skills. StuJents
anJ voulJbe stuJents ol art history shoulJ leel encourageJ by the broaJ
range ol careers JescribeJ in the lolloving pages, vhich Jemonstrates the
manilolJ applications ol an art history Jegree.
As many ol the contributions testily, graJuates' prospects can be enhanceJ
by their jobseeking approach anJ the strategies aJopteJ as they embark
upon a career. At the outset, unJertaking voluntary vork can establish
valuable contacts, proviJing relerees anJ muchneeJeJ vork experience to
go on a CV. Only in a lev exceptional circumstances Joes one make a
Jattling Jebut in the career ol one's choice, a lirst job is olten a relatively
routine post but it can oller the opportunity to be insiJe the organitation in
vhich one vishes to vork. Taking relevant courses can improve
employability anJ promotion prospects. It is vorth researching vhether
there are specialist courses available to enhance existing interests anJ skills
anJ vhether it is vorth investing the time in taking more general courses,
lor example those in IT anJ vorJ processing, so as to improve overall
marketability.
Netvorking anJ becoming knovn vithin the lielJ can begin Juring an art
historian's stuJent Jays. AttenJing conlerences, vriting book revievs (lor
1|: Art Foor, lor example), obtaining vork placements anJ joining groups
5
such as the AAH's StuJent Members' Group (SMG) vill all increase a
stuJent's employability.
The SMG can assist in a number ol vays. The Group's VoluntaryVork
IunJ ollers linancial assistance (up to J2J per Jay, a maximum per stuJent
ol J5JJ) to stuJents vho secure vorkexperience placements in a museum,
gallery, heritage site or other visualartrelateJ environment in the UK. The
SMG holJs three conlerences a year anJ proviJes an excellent lorum lor
stuJents to present papers in a stimulating anJ supportive environment. Ior
more inlormation about SMG activities please click on the stuJent link on
the AAH vebsite at vvv.aah.org.uk
The book contains inlormation about numerous resources. Some are
mentioneJ by more than one contributor, examples incluJe, lor job
aJvertisements, 1|: Caercieo (jobs.guarJian.co.uk), anJ, lor those interesteJ
in public lecturing, the National Association ol Decorative & Iine Arts
Societies (vvv.naJlas.org.uk). Hovever, there are a lev that, because they
Jo not 'belong' to a particular career, are not mentioneJ. Ior those
interesteJ in an American perspective on careers in art history, the
University ol Notre Dame vebsite incluJes a page vhich covers similar
territory to that ol this book (vvv.nJ.eJu/-crosenbe/jobs.html). Details
about History ol Art postgraJuate courses can be lounJ at
vvv.prospects.ac.uk. Another excellent online source ol
lellovships/grants/jobs/conlerences is the HArtHist list (vvv.arthist.net).
This GermanbaseJ, but multilingual, site lists an impressive array ol
international opportunities.
It has alreaJy been observeJ in the IorevorJ that this book lills an
important gap in British careers literature. Its coverage is viJe, anJ its
content both interesting anJ practical. Any impression that there is a Jearth
ol employment opportunities avaiting art history graJuates can be
countereJ by the number ol options illustrateJ in this book. AnJ, ol course,
ve voulJ velcome any suggestions, be they amenJments to the existing
content or recommenJations lor aJJitional entries to be incluJeJ in luture
eJitions ol the book. Your comments shoulJ be aJJresseJ to ch
stuJents´aah.org.uk .
Ve hope you are as inspireJ by the opportunities available to art history
graJuates as ve are anJ voulJ like to take this chance to vish you every
success vith your job search!
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
ó
V
hen applying by telephone lor a proJuct or service that requires the
Jeclaration ol my prolession, I have become useJ to the lolloving
somevhat conlusing exchange.
'I'm an archivist.' 'An alchemist`' 'No, an archivist.' 'Vhat's that`'
Despite the lact that archives generally have a higher public prolile than ten
or 2J years ago, surprisingly lev people are avare ol the prolession ol
archivist. It Joes not seem a common path lor art history stuJents, Jespite
the lact that it proviJes unique opportunities lor access to original artvork
anJ Jocumentation, vhere art historical subject knovleJge can only
enhance one's vork. Perhaps the misperception ol archives as Justy anJ
JevoiJ ol human lile is too pervasive, yet in truth, an archive teems vith lile
in the tales tolJ by its contents.
An archivist`s roIe
In the course ol their Jaily vork anJ lile, artists create archives, the rav
material ol art historical stuJy, anJ archivists lacilitate this stuJy by
managing anJ Jocumenting archives to prolessional stanJarJs. Letters,
Jiaries, notebooks, photographs, sketchbooks, preparatory Jravings, prints,
sales recorJs anJ other Jocumentation constitute a unique source ol
inlormation, anJ are about as close as you can get to the artist vithout
having knovn them. Ol course, archives cannot alvays be taken at lace
value, they are elements ol inlormation vhich builJ up a boJy ol historical
eviJence. InJeeJ, art archives are not only ol interest to art historians. like
any historical recorJs, they are increasingly useJ by other Jisciplines. As one


80F 8kFAkFII
/|cn|v|s¦, !O¦e /|cn|ve
7
ol an archivist's key skills is to be as objective a meJiator as possible
betveen the source anJ the user, specialist subject knovleJge can be an
asset. In perlorming that meJiator's role, an archivist vill be in Jaily contact
vith primary source material, vhich incluJes many visual materials such as
Jravings, sketchbooks anJ other preparatory materials, as vell as the more
usual corresponJence anJ other textual recorJs.
It is an interesting anJ varieJ job, involving the same principles as vork in
other museum anJ gallery collections. archivists acquire, catalogue anJ care
lor archives, anJ make them available to users. In larger archives, it is
possible to specialite in one ol these areas, in a smaller institution, an
archivist might be responsible lor all ol them. The process ol acquisition
involves negotiation vith Jonors or venJors ¬ vho might be artists, other
art vorlJ ligures, or their lamilies ¬ aJministering the process ol acquisition,
anJ accessioning incoming material. As a cataloguer, an archivist vill
proJuce the linJing aiJ that allovs users to pinpoint the material they neeJ
lor their research. The archivist is thus able to control the item's security.
This involves researching the subject, arranging the material, lolloving as
lar as possible the vay it has alreaJy been organiteJ, anJ Jocumenting the
component items at an appropriate level ol Jetail anJ accorJing to
prolessional stanJarJs. Collections management incluJes ensuring that
material is appropriately packageJ anJ storeJ, arranging lor conservation
vork to be carrieJ out vhen necessary, anJ tracking movements ol material.
Last, but lar lrom least, the material is maJe available, primarily through
searchroom lacilities anJ ansvering enquiries, but also through Jisplays,
publications, eJucation activities vhich bring collections to viJer
auJiences anJ, increasingly, the Internet.
¡ol µrosµects
Like other organitations, artrelateJ businesses anJ institutions are
increasingly employing prolessionals to manage their valuable inlormation
resources, not only their historical archives but also the recorJs ol current
activities, an area vhich is knovn as recorJs management. UnJer the Public
RecorJs Act, public boJies are responsible lor the care anJ management ol
their current anJ historic recorJs. In national museums, these incluJe
acquisition anJ exhibition recorJs, as vell as strategic Jocuments lrom all
parts ol the institution. This vork can bring an archivist into contact vith
the real nutsanJbolts ol hov a museum or gallery vorks, at a level vhere
s/he can have a real inlluence on hov the organitation manages its
inlormation resources.
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
8
The prolessional lielJ ol archives covers a much viJer range ol subjects than
just art, the number ol specialist art archives is small. Hovever, many
archives vhich Jo not specialite in art, such as university collections,
contain quantities ol visual materials or artists papers.
QuaIiIications
Although there are unqualilieJ roles in archives (usually calleJ 'Archive
Assistant'), to carry out the lull range ol Juties outlineJ a postgraJuate
qualilication (Masters or Diploma) in archive stuJies is requireJ. There are
only a small number ol universities currently ollering these qualilications
(s:: Iurther inIormation), although a groving number ol other universities
oller recorJs management courses. Competition lor places is high, the
aJvantage ol this is that the market is not saturateJ, anJ the employment
rate across the prolession is excellent, although this Joes JepenJ to a Jegree
on llexibility in the kinJ ol collection an archivist is prepareJ to vork, at
least initially. In orJer to gain a course place, signilicant experience ol vork
in an archive is usually a prerequisite. A small number ol institutions oller
paiJ precourse placement roles, usually lasting a year (a list ol these is
available lrom the Society ol Archivists), but many people vork on a
voluntary basis anJ support themselves through other vork.
The Society ol Archivists has a recommenJeJ minimum salary level lor
qualilieJ archivists, vhich, though not universally aJhereJ to, or high on a
commercial level, Joes mean that archive posts generally compare vell vith
other museum salaries.
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Job odvert|sements
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w: www.O|cn|ves.c|g.u|/cO|ee|oeve|cpnen¦/,ccvOcOnc|es.n¦n|
Recc|os MOnOgenen¦ Scc|e¦y
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Orgon|zot|ons
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Recc|os MOnOgenen¦ Scc|e¦y, wccos|oe, Cc|eneO¦n Bc¦¦cn, Speen,
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ARCHIVFS

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/|¦|s¦s' POpe|s Reg|s¦e|, Museun /|cn|ve, \|c¦c||O & /|ce|¦ Museun, B|y¦ne
|cuse, 23 B|y¦ne Ro, |cnocn w14 0ÒX t: 020 7ó02 0281 ex¦. 2º0
e: Op|@vOn.Oc.u| w: www.Op|.Oc.u|/O|¦|s¦s/ncne.n¦n
/ seO|cnOc|e oO¦OcOse cf O|¦|s¦s' pOpe|s ne|o |n O|cn|ves Oc|css ¦ne
ccun¦|y.
/RC|ÒN, !ne NO¦|cnO| /|cn|ves, Kew, R|cnncno, Su||ey !wº 4Dd
t: 020 887ó 3444 e: enqu||y@nO¦|cnO|O|cn|ves.gcv.u|
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||s¦s O|cn|vO| |epcs|¦c||es O|cuno ¦ne ccun¦|y.
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O|cn|ves. |eOo cf ReOoe|s' Se|v|ces, |ynOn K|e|¦nOn ReseO|cn Cen¦|e,
!O¦e B||¦O|n, M|||cOn|, |cnocn Sw1P 4RÒ t: 020 7887 8838
e: |eseO|cn.cen¦|e@¦O¦e.c|g.u|
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Courses
dn|ve|s|¦y Cc||ege |cnocn, Scncc| cf ||c|O|y, /|cn|ve, Ono |nfc|nO¦|cn
S¦uo|es ¦S|/|S}, Òcwe| S¦, |cnocn wC1E óB! t: 020 7ó7º 7204
e: s|O|s-enqu|||es@uc|.Oc.u| w: www.s|O|s.uc|.Oc.u|
dn|ve|s|¦y cf ||ve|pcc|, Cen¦|e fc| /|cn|ve S¦uo|es ¦|dC/S}, Scncc| cf ||s¦c|y,
º /ce|c|cncy SquO|e, ||ve|pcc| |óº 7wZ t: 0151 7º4 2411
e: w||||Onc@||v.Oc.u| w: www.||v.Oc.u|/|ucOs
dn|ve|s|¦y cf wO|es, /ce|ys¦wy¦n, DepO|¦nen¦ cf |nfc|nO¦|cn S¦uo|es,
/ce|ys¦wy¦n, Ce|eo|g|cn SY23 3/S. Ccn¦Oc¦ D| Cn||s BOggs t: 01º70 ó22183
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w: www.Oce|.Oc.u|/en/p|cspec¦us/ccu|ses/n|s¦c|y-O|cn|vO|.pnp
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
10


FkICA FODFN-IFNAhAN
!O¦e ||c|O|y Ono /|cn|ve
V
orking in an art library is an excellent vay to use your art
knovleJge, to remain current vith exhibitions anJ research, anJ to
be surrounJeJ by interesting material. There are many sectors in vhich you
can vork. In aJJition to universities anJ museums, public libraries olten
have art sections.
Large libraries are olten structureJ into Jillerent lunction groups.
bibliographic services Jeal vith the acquisition anJ cataloguing ol material,
user services are responsible lor public vork ol the library, such as relerence
enquiries, anJ, increasingly, libraries are Jeveloping teaching or research
support lunctions, as vell as project management. Many people train as
librarians anJ linJ themselves vorking on Jigititation ol images or ol
books. In smaller lacilities, you may vork as a solo librarian anJ be involveJ
in all aspects ol service Jelivery anJ planning, sometimes incluJing
Jesigning a nev library.
Librarians olten vork on temporary or lixeJterm contracts, vhich proviJe
gooJ vays to broaJen your experience. The temporary agencies are a gooJ
source lor contracts (s:: Iurther inIormation). The art library vorlJ is
small anJ specialiteJ. Hovever, there remain gooJ prospects lor longterm
employment.
There are opportunities lor specialitation in artists' books, rare books,
auJiovisual material, bibliography compilation, archival material, prints
anJ Jravings, photograph anJ/or sliJe collections, anJ computer systems.
BuJgeting anJ general management also ligure prominently in the vork ol
11
most librarians. There are usually opportunities to be involveJ in creating
Jisplays, as, in some libraries, there are posts ol a curatorial nature.
Librarianship is largely a postgraJuate prolession requiring either a
graJuate Jiploma or an MA in librarianship or inlormation management.
Hovever, it is possible to vork in libraries vithout a lormal qualilication.
The ChartereJ Institute ol Library anJ Inlormation Prolessionals (CILIP)
(s:: Iurther inIormation) is the prolessional boJy anJ their vebsite has
lists ol accreJiteJ postgraJuate courses. It also has inlormation on S/NVQs,
HNC/Ds, anJ City & GuilJs qualilications lor library assistants.
Most UK anJ IrelanJ postgraJuate courses require that an applicant has a
year ol library or inlormation environment vork experience. This can be
obtaineJ either as a library assistant or as a graJuate trainee. GraJuate
traineeships, usually lixeJterm contracts lor a year, are specilically
JesigneJ to give the trainee the opportunity to gain vork exposure to the
variety ol lunctions in a library. The CILIP vebsite has Jetails ol such
vacancies. They are aJvertiseJ tovarJ the enJ ol each year, anJ the closing
Jate lor most applications is ]anuary or Iebruary, to start at the beginning
ol the lolloving acaJemic year.
Many libraries that Jo not specialite in art vill olten have an art subject
librarian to aJvise on the purchase ol art stock anJ proviJe specialist user
eJucation. They might also hanJle art enquiries. Fnquiries can be maJe in
person, over the telephone, or through email or Internet enquiry lorms. In
many libraries, subject librarians are becoming responsible lor more than
one subject. So one might linJ onesell covering arts anJ humanities subjects,
or perhaps art anJ business, etc.
Fnquiries range lrom backgrounJ anJ biographical inlormation to vrite
obituaries anJ proliles ol artists, to Jetails about a specilic vork or artist, to
iJentilication ol an artist's signature, to pictures ol animals to proviJe
inspiration lor a Jesign stuJent's briel. In other vorJs, an enquiry can be
about almost anything. The Jetail requireJ varies, anJ Joing the research lor
an enquiry can be lullilling. It is important lor a relerence librarian to be
lamiliar vith the general relerence sources lor art anJ Jesign. It is also vital
that they can exploit the Internet anJ other electronic resources, such as
bibliographic Jatabases, to search lor journal articles anJ other sources in
orJer to responJ to queries.
ARLIS/UK & IrelanJ (Art Libraries Society) is the prolessional society lor
art librarians in the UK (s:: Iurther inIormation). There are a number ol
similar organitations in North America, Australasia, ScanJanavia, the
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
12
NetherlanJs, IlanJers, Germany anJ Irance. ARLIS/UK & IrelanJ has a
StuJents & Trainees committee, among others. The committees run events
anJ vorkshops on matters relating to the prolession anJ they scheJule
visits to art libraries in the UK. The Society proJuces its ovn journal anJ
members' nevsletter, as vell as a variety ol publications specilic to the
prolession, such as guiJelines lor veeJing stock anJ on cataloguing archival
material.
ARLIS runs an annual conlerence in the summer, comprising three Jays ol
talks, visits, anJ vorkshops on a Jillerent theme each year. There are also
opportunities to netvork vith other prolessionals. Libraries are
increasingly reliant on collaboration vith other organitations to get lunJing
anJ run projects, netvorking is one ol the vays this is lacilitateJ. There is
one lunJeJ bursary lor a stuJent to attenJ the vhole conlerence, Jetails can
be lounJ on the Society's vebsite.
StuJents interesteJ in a career in librarianship may also be interesteJ in the
chapter on SliJe Librarianship (pp. 99).
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ART LIBRARIANSHIP
13
A/| Dccumeo|c||co, c|-OnnuO| cu||e¦|n cf /R||S/N/. ||ee ¦c nence|s,
p|ev|cus |ssues Ono ¦Oc|es cf ccn¦en¦s OvO||Oc|e cn ¦ne|| wecs|¦e.
A/| ||c/c/|e: Jcu/oc|, quO|¦e||y puc||cO¦|cn cf /R||S/dK & ||e|Ono.
AP||S |ew:-:|ee|, c|-ncn¦n|y news|e¦¦e| cf /R||S/dK & ||e|Ono. ||ee ¦c
nence|s, ¦ne ¦ex¦ cf pOs¦ |ssues |s OvO||Oc|e cn ¦ne /R||S wecs|¦e.
C|||| JcOc|e, ncn¦n|y puc||cO¦|cn cf C|||P. ||ee ¦c nence|s, w|¦n ccn¦en¦s
Ono se|ec¦eo O|¦|c|es f|cn ¦ne nOgOz|ne OvO||Oc|e cn ¦ne wecs|¦e.
C|||| Ocze||e, c|-wee||y news|e¦¦e| cf C|||P. ||ee ¦c nence|s. !ne p|Oce
wne|e ncs¦ ||c|O|y Ono |nfc|nO¦|cn c|gOn|zO¦|cns pcs¦ ¦ne|| vOcOnc|es.
14
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
R
ights licensing vork is an essential part ol the arts meJia anJ
publishing inJustries. The level ol eJucational qualilication requireJ
varies. Although some agencies ask lor an unJergraJuate Jegree anJ may
lean tovarJs the arts, there are plenty ol opportunities lor vorking your
vay up lrom scratch.
The Design anJ Artists Copyright Society (DACS) is the UK's collecting
society lor artists anJ visual creators, ollering three copyright anJ relateJ
rights services to artists anJ visual creators. DACS vas lounJeJ in I98+ as a
notlorprolit organitation, unJertaking copyright licensing on behall ol
artists vho are members ol DACS' inJiviJual rights licensing service. More
recently, DACS has become involveJ in the collective licensing ol artistic
vorks. Collective licensing proviJes a means lor copying to be licenseJ, anJ
royalties to be paiJ anJ JistributeJ to creators, vhere it is generally
impractical lor creators to license their vork Jirectly. Some examples
incluJe photocopying pages ol books anJ magatines incorporating visual
vorks, or recorJing lor eJucational purposes ol UK terrestrial channel
broaJcasts ol programmes incorporating artistic vorks. DACS has
negotiateJ a share ol royalties lrom these sources lor visual creators, anJ
pays it to them annually through its Payback service. DACS also aJministers
a nev right lor artists, the Artist's Resale Right. This came in to lav on I+
Iebruary 2JJ6, anJ entitles artists to a share ol the resale value ol their
vork vhen it is solJ by a gallery or auction house.
InJiviJual rights members incluJe the lolloving.

kO8FkI GkO8F (2005)
|c/me/|, Ccpy||gn¦ /ov|se|, Des|gn Ono /|¦|s¦s Ccpy||gn¦ Scc|e¦y
0FDAIFD 8Y JOhN kO8IN8ON (2006)
D||ec¦c| cf Se|v|ces, Des|gn Ono /|¦|s¦s Ccpy||gn¦ Scc|e¦y
15
i UK artists anJ their heirs anJ beneliciaries
i a number ol overseas artists
i the vorks ol another +J,JJJ international artists as a result ol
reciprocal agreements vith similar visual art copyright societies
(olten knovn as collecting societies) in 2¯ other countries.
These agreements mean that each national society is entitleJ to license the
repertoires ol all the others vith vhich it has agreements. DACS also
aJvises its members on copyright queries anJ promotes its artists' vork
through organiting exhibitions.
Collecting societies license copyright material lor a lee. A DACS inJiviJual
rights licence is a type ol contract alloving the licence purchaser to use a
specilic artistic vork or selection ol artistic vorks in a range ol proJucts,
lrom traJitional eJitorial uses in publications to commercial merchanJise.
DACS pays ¯5 percent ol any licence revenue to the artist. The terms ol the
licence vill be very specilic as to vhat the licensee (purchaser) can or
cannot Jo vith the image ¬ stipulations as to permitteJ uses may also vary
lrom artist to artist. DACS' role consists then not only in the collection anJ
payment ol licence lees on behall ol its members, but also in the protection
ol the integrity ol the vork itsell anJ the reputation ol its artists.
Legal qualilications are not generally a prerequisite lor jobs in licensing, anJ
applicants shoulJ not be JeterreJ il they have never stuJieJ intellectual
property rights. There are many people vorking in the area ol rights
licensing vith excellent knovleJge anJ experience acquireJ over the years.
One aJvantage ol vorking in rights licensing is that specialist legal
knovleJge can be JevelopeJ relatively quickly. This kinJ ol knovleJge is
very marketable anJ may leaJ to opportunities in the major art institutions
or across a broaJ spectrum ol the meJia. Licensing is a global market anJ
these skills may leaJ to opportunities to vork abroaJ. A seconJ language is
a great asset anJ vill open Joors in UK or USovneJ lirms vith loreign
clients or ollices.
IndividuaI rights Iicensing at DACS
Generally, the entry point at DACS is to vork as a licensing executive.
Licensing executives vork to achieve annual revenue targets, anJ liaise vith
colleagues on the marketing anJ promotion ol artists anJ their vorks.
Fxecutives act as a gobetveen vith clients, agreeing vhich vorks may be
reproJuceJ. Alter consulting the artist (or estate) anJ approving samples ol
the proposeJ proJuct, DACS then issues a licence anJ charges a lee baseJ
upon a clearly JelineJ pricing moJel. Collecting societies must alvays be

CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
ART LICFNSING
17
avare ol the requirements ol competition lav, anJ pricing structures must
be clear, equitable anJ not create Jistortion in the marketplace, either by
uncompetitive pricing, or by giving more lavourable treatment to a section
ol licensing customers to the Jetriment ol others. Alter retaining a small
commission to cover costs (currently 25 percent), DACS pays the remainJer
ol the licence lee to the inJiviJual creators. One ol DACS' principal aims is
the promotion ol artists' copyright. Through licensing activities, DACS aims
to aJJress a stilltooprevalent culture in vhich many people still Jo not see
vhy they shoulJ have to pay a lee to reproJuce an artist's vork.
Anyone consiJering a career in licensing shoulJ Jo their homevork belore
applying, because the ethos ol an organitation is important in terms ol
vhether an inJiviJual lits in anJ vhether they enjoy their vork. DACS
enjoys a gooJ rapport vith the artists it represents anJ vith many ol its
clients. Licensing vork by its nature can occasionally be repetitive anJ an
interest in your artists or your clients is essential. On the other hanJ, there
is great satislaction to be gaineJ by seeing an innovative use ol an artistic
vork, anJ knoving that one has vorkeJ harJ vith the artist or their heirs
anJ the licensing customer to bring this about.
DACS Joes not have a lormal vork experience programme at present but
has on occasion in the past recruiteJ stuJents on placement lrom university
arts anJ meJia courses to vork on specilic projects or to unJertake
research. This may vell continue as anJ vhen the neeJ arises.
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CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
18
V
ork in the travel business is multilaceteJ. It can be consiJereJ in
roughly lour areas.
SµeciaIinterest escorted/guided tours
Opportunities break Jovn into the lolloving lielJs.
i Acmioistretioo eoc merr:tio¸ oj toars ¬ This involves brochure vriting,
proJuction ol travel Jocuments anJ tour notes, anJ obtaining post
tour leeJback.
i 1oar meoe¸:r/:scort ¬ FscorteJ tours, more olten than not, require the
services ol a tour escort or manager. This entails taking care ol the
vellare ol tour members. Responsibilities can range lrom making sure
the tour members assemble on time to retrieving missing prosthetic
limbs on ThirJ VorlJ trains.
i 1oar i:ecio¸ ¬ A prospective tour leaJer can organite her/his ovn
group. Once a grounJ base ol loyal supporters has been lormeJ, the
potential tour leaJer can act as a lree agent anJ name her/his subject
anJ Jestination, or s/he can approach a tour promoter to create a
programme. The essential prerequisite to tour management or tour
leaJing, apart lrom acaJemic knovleJge, is prior experience anJ
knovleJge ol a tour's Jestination.
i Ca:st i:ctar:r ¬ This role is usually perlormeJ by an inJiviJual not
necessarily conversant vith the vorkings ol tour management.
Selection ol any guest lecturer normally JepenJs on an inJiviJual's
preexisting or proven reputation in a lielJ ol expertise. Some tour


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operators specialiting in art tours require a guest lecturer to have a
PhD or to have publisheJ on the subject ol the tour. A guest lecturer
has the lolloving options. to approach an establisheJ tour company
or to volunteer to help organite tours lor art clubs such as the
National Association ol Decorative & Iine Arts Societies (NADIAS),
or to set up inJepenJently.
RetaiI traveI
The vork involves booking anJ issuing air tickets, making hotel anJ car hire
reservations or booking package holiJays. Vith a backgrounJ in art history,
a travel agent can guiJe a client to areas ol cultural interest anJ Jevise
customiteJ itineraries vith a strong art content, accorJing to the client's
vishes.
Driver/guide
A Jriver/guiJe can apply to the Institute ol Tourist GuiJing lor training.
Iluency in a loreign language is helplul. No specilic qualilications are
requireJ but knovleJge anJ interest in art history voulJ be an asset.
TraveI journaIism
Opportunities exist in the lielJ ol travel journalism lor the graJuate vith a
general ability to vrite anJ assess her/his surrounJings vith llair.
Summary
To summarite, a travel agent, consultant or tour manager neeJs to be
knovleJgeable, numerate anJ literate, anJ possess vellJevelopeJ
interpersonal skills. Fvery project can open up nev areas ol research anJ
nev liaisons vith customers anJ suppliers ranging lrom bus companies to
ovners ol private collections vorlJviJe.
The travel business hovever is very vulnerable to the consequences ol
international inciJents. A strategically placeJ bomb can knock out not only
tourism in, say, Fgypt or Bali, but also specialist travel companies anJ tour
operators Jealing in that area.
The increasing popularity ol the Internet also presents a lormiJable
challenge lor anyone in the travel business.
Iortunes are not usually maJe in the travel business. Hovever, lov pay can
be compensateJ by access to JiscounteJ air lares anJ travel opportunities.
Vhile retail travel anJ tour aJministration can oller lulltime employment,
the role ol tour escort/manager or guest lecturer voulJ be on a lreelance anJ
parttime basis.
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
20
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Ncc|e CO|eocn|O, 2 Cnes¦e| C|cse, Be|g|Ov|O, |cnocn Sw1X 7BE t: 020
7752 0000
e: |nfc@ncc|e-cO|eocn|O.cc.u| w: www.ncc|e-cO|eocn|O.cc.u|
K|||e| |c||oOys, 4 wO¦e||cc Ccu|¦, 10 !neeo S¦, |cnocn SE1 8S!
t: 0870 112 3333 e: ¦|Ove|@||||e|nc||oOys.ccn w: www.||||e|nc||oOys.ccn
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t: 020 7º53 1257 e: |nfc@|ns¦|¦u¦e-cf-¦cu||s¦-gu|o|ng.c|g.u|
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NO¦|cnO| /sscc|O¦|cn cf Decc|O¦|ve & ||ne /|¦s Scc|e¦|es ¦N/D|/S}, N/D|/S
|cuse, 8 Òu||fc|o S¦, |cnocn wC1N 1D/ t: 020 7430 0730
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Courses
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ART TOURISM
21
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hoosing a job in arts aJministration can be the start ol a varieJ,
interesting anJ satislying career lor a graJuate in art history. Arts
aJministrators proviJe essential support lor organitations such as galleries,
museums, arts centres, arts councils anJ local authorities, negotiating vith
lunJers, venues, ollicials anJ artists in orJer to bring the arts to the public.
Their responsibilities are equally various, incluJing Jealing vith linancial
anJ legal matters, marketing, sponsorship, ollice management, health anJ
salety, training anJ prolessional Jevelopment. Arts aJministrators also
implement policies proJuceJ by arts councils anJ regional arts boarJs, in
aJJition to the lacilitating or organiting ol artistic events, such as
exhibitions, anJ the support anJ encouragement ol artists, especially nev
talents. Not surprisingly, the smaller the organitation, the more ol these
responsibilities that vill lall to the inJiviJual arts aJministrator.
The potential scope is enormous but vhether the job is promoting Jiversity
in the arts, acting as a project manager lor a public commission or securing
lunJing lor a lixeJ builJing, the arts aJministrator vill be someone vith
gooJ management anJ people skills, llexibility anJ enthusiasm.
Iormal arts aJministration qualilications are not manJatory lor those
vishing to enter the prolession, although many practitioners possess a
Jegree in an artsrelateJ subject. Hovever, some universities anJ colleges Jo
oller Jegrees, or subjects as parts ol Jegrees, in arts management or
aJministration (s:: Iurther inIormation).
22
Like all careers in the arts, there is intense competition lor arts
aJministration jobs. Relevant experience is likely to be as uselul as your
Jegree so it is a very gooJ iJea to search out temporary vacation anJ
voluntary vork to aJJ to your CV.
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ARTS ADMINISTRATION
23
Courses
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||e cu||c/: w|:| |c ||cok F|uoeO S|ec|e/O. |c|||og|cm C||, Ccuoc||. |c/
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CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
24
A
uction houses combine commercial anJ acaJemic expertise to iJentily,
market anJ sell line art, antiques anJ collectables. Vhether you are
selling Jinosaur eggs or a vork by Damien Hirst there vill be an auction
house vith a specialist lor you.
Auction houses these Jays are central to the line art, antiques anJ
collectables market selling some USS3 billion vorlJviJe annually. The
breaJth ol knovleJge, both technical anJ operational, requireJ, especially
vith regarJ to the lav, in vhat is a global market, is consiJerable.
There are plenty ol employment opportunities in both international
salerooms anJ provincial auction houses.
Ior those vishing to catalogue, value anJ sell there are tvo main paths.
i As a generalist, your knovleJge vill neeJ to be broaJ, but sounJ,
across all the major Jisciplines, incluJing paintings anJ prints,
lurniture, silver, Fnglish anJ Furopean ceramics anJ glass, Oriental
ceramics anJ vorks ol art, clocks, vatches anJ barometers, anJ
vorks ol art anJ collectors items. It may also be necessary to reler
clients to specialists vhen appropriate.
i As a specialist, you vill concentrate in one small area ol expertise (e.g.
contemporary art or eighteenthcentury Fnglish lurniture).
Both oller opportunities in lulltime employment or as a parttime consultant.

k0FFkI IOO¥FY MkIC8
Sen|c| PO|¦ne|, Rupe|¦ !ccvey & Cc., /n¦|que Ono ||ne /|¦
/uc¦|cnee|s & \O|ue|s, wes¦ Sussex*

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Execu¦|ve, RcyO| |ns¦|¦u¦|cn cf CnO|¦e|eo Su|veyc|s
" Mr Toovey is also Chairman ol RICS Arts anJ Antiques Iaculty's Marketing Publicity & Promotion
Group, anJ ViceChairman ol RICS Arts anJ Antiques Iaculty BoarJ
25
A varieJ Jay can involve meeting clients at (the client's) home or at the
saleroom to value objects lor sale, probate (e.g. inheritance tax) or
insurance. Other Jays vill be spent on research anJ reports. AnJ, ol course,
there is the theatre anJ excitement ol the auction sales.
Auctions are a JeaJline inJustry vhere catalogues must be printeJ anJ
posteJ to potential buyers in gooJ time. This sometimes requires extra
hours.
The salaries vithin the prolession are moJest to begin vith, anJ it is likely
it vill take consiJerable time to acquire the vorking anJ practical
knovleJge usually necessary lor promotion anJ greater pay. Salaries are
generally comparable vith those ol museum prolessionals. Usually, the more
senior the post the better the remuneration.
The majority ol auction houses, especially international operations, vill be
looking to hire graJuates vith an art history or relateJ backgrounJ.
Qualilications matter much more than in the past, anJ this trenJ vill
continue as global business increases. The only internationally recogniteJ
prolessional qualilication is that ol the Royal Institution ol ChartereJ
Surveyors (RICS), vhich has a specialist Arts anJ Antiques Iaculty. This
qualilication is highly regarJeJ by the prolession, other prolessions anJ
clients. Its stanJing among the prolessions, anJ the coJe ol practice vhich
sets its members apart lrom the unregulateJ sector, gives clients the
assurance they neeJ that they are in gooJ hanJs.
QualilieJ RICS prolessionals vill olten vork very closely vith lavyers,
bankers, accountants, insurers, loss aJjusters anJ other prolessionals in the
course ol their business lives.
Public avareness ol the auction vorlJ, line art, antiques anJ collectables
has openeJ up meJia anJ other public opportunities lor some auctioneers
anJ valuers (e.g. on television anJ raJio, speaking to collectors' societies).
Many Jealers start their vorking lives in auction houses vhilst others move
into insurance, conservation/restoration, or become Jirectors or curators in
museums. They Jevelop their skills anJ broaJen their knovleJge in the
saleroom, learn about the vorlJ ol business, anJ Jevelop a netvork ol
contacts vho share their love lor, anJ enjoyment ol, the things vhich
lascinate them.
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY

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AUCTION TRADF
27
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
28
F
Jiting can be interesting vork, although you may neeJ to Jo routine
jobs initially to gain valuable experience. The early stages ol an eJiting
career are unlikely to be vell paiJ although it can become more
remunerative as you progress. A lirst Jegree is a minimum requirement lor
someone embarking on an eJiting career anJ a higher specialist Jegree
voulJ be benelicial in orJer to become a commissioning eJitor.
Publishing is nov marketJriven, so it is very olten the Jesigner rather than
the eJitor vho makes Jecisions. In some circumstances, though by no
means all, a book's appearance can be more important than its content.
As in most other lielJs, routine aJministration is a vital aspect ol the job, a
methoJical approach is therelore essential. FJiting is more than reaJing
manuscripts hovever, anJ strong interpersonal skills are important
qualities lor the voulJbe eJitor ¬ tact anJ Jiplomacy are inJispensable
vhen Jealing vith authors. At managing eJitor level, one has to
communicate continually vith other people vho lorm part ol the publishing
process.
Publishing is a rapiJly Jeveloping lielJ because it relies so heavily on
inlormation technology. Mastery ol a Jesktop publishing program, such as
QuarkXpress, is a necessary skill, especially in magatine vork. TraJitional
copyeJiting anJ prooling skills are still an essential prerequisite.
Career oµtions
At entrance level, a trainee eJitor voulJ begin by proolreaJing anJ copy
eJiting, belore progressing to eJiting. FJitors learn to revrite anJ


FIIFFN CADMAN
||ee|Once Eo|¦c|

restructure copy belore reaching the level ol managing eJitor, at vhich level
overseeing several titles, other eJitors' anJ lreelancers' vork anJ sometimes
managing buJgets proviJes a varieJ anJ challenging role. ProJuction eJitors
liaise vith printers, typesetters anJ most ol the other Jepartments vithin a
company. A commissioning eJitor voulJ neeJ to cultivate many contacts in
her/his lielJ, have a knovleJge ol the market, be able to manage buJgets anJ
authors, anJ have the intelligence, imagination anJ inspiration to generate
bright iJeas lor nev projects, vorking at this level can sometimes leaJ to
travel anJ proviJes interesting challenges. The eJiting ol nevspapers anJ
magatines is signilicantly Jillerent to book eJiting as the turnarounJ ol
material has to be much laster. The ability to vork to tight JeaJlines is
therelore an essential skill. Vebsites also neeJ gooJ eJitors.
Other possible areas ol vork incluJe book publishing. At the outset ol your
career it is aJvisable to lirst gain inhouse experience vith a publisher
belore lreelancing. Check major museums anJ art galleries lor those vith
publishing programmes. There are also national, regional anJ local
government Jepartments vith responsibilities lor the proJuction ol cultural
Jocuments. In aJJition, there are also nongovernmental organitations (e.g.
Fnglish Heritage) anJ voluntary sector boJies vho may publish inhouse.
SenJing unsoliciteJ letters anJ CVs to publishing houses is rarely
proJuctive. Netvorking is one ol the vays people get themselves knovn. Il
you knov someone in the traJe, talk to them anJ linJ out as much as you
can. Publishing is a lastchanging arena, particularly because it is
technologyJepenJent anJ linkeJ to innovation anJ the vicissituJes ol
technological trenJs. To contact publishers, consult the extensive lists in a
current eJition ol the writ:rs` eoc Artists` Y:erooor anJ/or 1|: writ:r`s
Eeocooor. These are publisheJ annually. Iamiliarite yoursell vith vhat is in
the bookshops to unJerstanJ vhat inJiviJual publishers proJuce, so that
you can approach them vith some knovleJge ol the genre ol vork they
publish. You coulJ also ask lor copies ol their current catalogues anJ check
their vebsites.
Job odvert|sements
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CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
30
Orgon|zot|ons
Scc|e¦y fc| Eo|¦c|s Ono P|ccf|eOoe|s ¦SfEP}, R|ve|cOn| |cuse, 1 Pu¦ney B||oge
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SnOf¦escu|y /venue, |cnocn wC2| 8!J w: www.¦nesyp.c|g.u|
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BOOK FDITING
31
32
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
B
ook publishing is a large global inJustry. Vhat lollovs is locuseJ on art
book publishing (broaJly JelineJ as covering the vhole range ol visual
arts), but much ol it applies more generally to other areas ol publishing.
One shoulJ keep in minJ that publishing is a business anJ, as such, is
governeJ by the neeJ to make a prolit ¬ it is quite easy to proJuce even gooJ
books at a loss. A soliJ business sense is thus invaluable in vhatever area ol
publishing one vorks. On the vhole, margins in art book publishing are
slenJer anJ the markets are competitive. Salaries therelore tenJ to be
commensurately moJest but it can be a very revarJing career, both
intellectually anJ creatively. Though publishing as a vhole is a signilicant
business, art book publishing is quite a small vorlJ anJ, vhile vorking lor a
specialist art publisher is likely to make the most use ol one's art historical
training, the longer one remains in that lielJ the harJer it is to move into
publishing in other subjects or markets. Some skills anJ experience are
translerable, others less so.
The activities ol publishers, in vhatever lielJ, are governeJ by the perceiveJ
market lor inJiviJual books anJ, as such, this is the simplest vay to JiviJe
up the inJustry, though markets are not alvays as clearly JelineJ as this
voulJ suggest. The lolloving is primarily locuseJ on the UK inJustry but
many ol these companies vill have international ollices. In aJJition, there
are many companies in other countries that also publish art books.


FhIIIF COOFFk
Eo|¦c||O| D||ec¦c|, |Ou|ence K|ng Puc||sn|ng
BOOK PUBLISHING
33
Tyµes oI µulIisher
1rec:
The traJe market is the broaJest but most unpreJictable market lor art
books anJ Jescribes the market ol socalleJ 'eJucateJ general reaJers'. It
incluJes 'collee table' books anJ more imageleJ titles. Companies that
publish books lor this market incluJe most ol the specialist lirms, such as
Thames anJ HuJson, PhaiJon, Taschen, Prestel, Laurence King Publishing,
Merrell anJ Reaktion, as vell as the art lists ol some ol the larger, more
general publishers, such as Dorling KinJersley, Pavilion, Orion, anJ Carlton.
Acec:mic eoc r:j:r:oc:
Books lor this market are aimeJ at other prolessional art historians.
Publishers in this category incluJe most ol the above, together vith others
such as Ashgate, RoutleJge anJ university presses (Yale is the major
publisher in this lielJ, but there are also the university presses ol OxlorJ,
CambriJge, Manchester anJ others).
Fcacetiooei
Books lor this market are aimeJ at stuJents in schools, colleges anJ
universities. Many ol the publishers in the above tvo categories also publish
lor this market.
Vas:am eoc ¸eii:rv ¡aoiis|io¸
Increasingly, galleries anJ museums are also setting up their ovn companies
in orJer to publish exhibition catalogues, books anJ other printeJ materials
that promote their exhibitions anJ collections. In the UK, this incluJes
those attacheJ to the Royal AcaJemy, the Tate, the National Gallery, the
Victoria anJ Albert Museum anJ the British Museum.
PulIishing roIes
There are a number ol Jillerent roles in book publishing.
Fcitoriei
This is the area vhere art historical knovleJge voulJ be most applicable. It
incluJes the vork lrom commissioning a title to proolreaJing, copyeJiting
anJ inJexing. Ior commissioning, you vill neeJ a reasonable knovleJge ol
the subject area, market avareness anJ gooJ business sense, you vill also
neeJ to Jevelop contacts to enable you to commission the right authors.
Computer literacy is crucial lor most eJitorial tasks, anJ lamiliarity vith
VorJ anJ QuarkXpress are perhaps the most important lor an eJitor (s::
BooI Editing chapter).
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
34
Pictar: r:s:erc|
Picture research is usually a key role in the proJuction ol any illustrateJ
book (s:: Picture Research chapter).
D:si¸o
Design is an important leature, especially lor art books, anJ incluJes not
only the Jesign concept (the 'look') but also the JetaileJ page layout ol the
book. The vhole process is nov increasingly Jigital, anJ so requires gooJ
computer skills, as vell as creative ones. Most books are laiJ out using
QuarkXpress soltvare (sometimes InDesign) anJ the vork tenJs to be Jone
on Macs.
Procactioo
This covers all the physical stages ol a book's creation, primarily origination
(the creation ol gooJ printeJ reproJuctions ol the images) anJ printing.
ProJuction vork lor art books is lairly similar to that lor any other
illustrateJ books.
Verr:tio¸ eoc sei:s
This incluJes all ol the stages requireJ to get the linisheJ books marketeJ
anJ solJ ellectively, incluJing liaising vith bookshops.
Pi¸|ts
Publishers olten sell the rights to their books to publishers in other
countries so as to spreaJ the comparatively high costs ol illustrateJ books.
This is usually a JeJicateJ publishing role (s:: Art Iicensing chapter).
Language skills are a Jistinct bonus lor this vork, vhich may incluJe
loreign travel.
An increasing number ol the above roles are olten lilleJ by lreelance stall,
especially copyeJiting, proolreaJing, Jesign anJ picture research.
Vork experience can be obtaineJ in many publishing companies (especially
larger companies) though it is olten ollereJ on a lairly ec |oc basis. Some
companies, again the larger ones, also have more structureJ graJuate trainee
programmes vhich oller a viJe range ol experience in Jillerent areas ol
publishing.
BOOK PUBLISHING
35
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CARFFRS IN " HISTORY


8OFhIF 8O8IOCk*
Cc-eo|¦c|, Cc/ee/: |o A/| ¬|:|c/,
T
he role ol a bookseller can be varieJ. The job can incluJe unpacking
stock vhen it arrives in the shop, packing books to senJ them out to
clients anJ everything in betveen. This coulJ consist ol the selling,
cataloguing anJ repair ol books as vell as liaising vith customers anJ
suppliers, basic accounting anJ stock control anJ returning any unsolJ
magatines, perioJicals anJ journals to publishers.
BroaJranging abilities are uselul lor this vork. GooJ interpersonal skills
are a key requirement lor a bookseller, along vith excellent proJuct
knovleJge. Although the majority ol books solJ at Shipley's are vritten in
Fnglish, languages are uselul vhen vorking in a cosmopolitan environment
such as the Charing Cross RoaJ, as is being streetvise. Computer literacy is
nov essential in this traJe, anJ touchtyping skills are a Jelinite asset.
Catalogue proJuction is an important aspect ol the job, although Shipley's
has a housestyle, anJ booksellers are traineJ on the job. Vhether or not
one vorks alone voulJ JepenJ on the site anJ location ol the organitation
one vorks lor. Fmployment vith an inJepenJent bookseller voulJ involve
using a viJer range ol skills than vorking lor one ol the national chains ol
booksellers such as Vaterstones or Ottakar's, vhere employees' Juties are
mainly restricteJ to the selling ol books.
Vith the Jramatic rise ol Jealing over the Internet anJ electronic
companies such as Amaton anJ ABF Books (AJvanceJ Book Fxchange) ve
37
"This contribution on bookselling is baseJ on an interviev by Sophie Bostock vith Ian Shipley, ovner ol
Shipley's, specialist art booksellers, Jealing in nev, olJ, rare anJ scholarly books on art, anJ vith Marius
Kociejovski, vriter anJ seller ol antiquarian books.
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
38
JiscusseJ the possibility ol booksellers vorking vithout a shop. Although
many ol the bookshops on the Charing Cross RoaJ have JisappeareJ oving
to enormous rent increases, Ian Shipley thinks it is aJvantageous to vork
lrom a shop anJ it helps sales ¬ people linJ it reassuring il you have a
physical presence. AccorJing to Marius Kociejovski, the bookshop is °the
soul ol the traJe¨. Ian Shipley agreeJ, aJJing that there is a big Jillerence
betveen bookselling anJ book Jealing ¬ the lormer is a vocation, albeit a
vocation that one can acciJentally slip into.
InJeeJ, this vas the case lor Ian Shipley himsell, vho stuJieJ Iine Art at
Brighton School ol Art. Ian subsiJiteJ his stuJies by Joing casual labour at
Nevhaven Jocks but vhen he realiteJ this line ol vork coulJ be Jangerous
became involveJ in the book traJe insteaJ. Ian starteJ his career by vorking
as a packer lor a vholesaler selling exhibition catalogues lrom the UniteJ
States. He Jescribes himsell as having °JrilteJ¨ into bookselling vhen,
vhilst researching his thesis, he realiteJ that there vas a niche market lor
rare art books, particularly outolprint catalogues.
Although the number ol booksellers is in Jecline, JemanJ lor books still
remains the same but they are being solJ in a Jillerent vay. TraJitionally,
booksellers have lrequently solJ their stock via mail orJer, catalogues useJ
to be printeJ anJ maileJ to customers, but this inlormation can nov be
accesseJ online. Ior Ian Shipley, the main source ol competition comes not
lrom the ecompanies but governmentlunJeJ boJies ¬ institutions such as
the National Gallery, the National Portrait Gallery, anJ the Tate, etc. The
past tvo JecaJes has seen the grovth ol the exhibition catalogue. Iormerly,
catalogues useJ to concisely list anJ Jescribe vorks ol art shovn at an
exhibition, novaJays, they tenJ to be lavishly illustrateJ volumes that
incluJe scholarly essays. The rise ol this genre ol catalogue has partially
resulteJ in the grovth ol the gallery bookshop. Although the major galleries
present some competition to the art bookseller's traJe they are geareJ to
selling books relating to current exhibitions anJ tenJ not to stock rare
catalogues anJ, consequently, both kinJs ol retail establishment are able to
coexist.
Vhen askeJ about hov he envisageJ bookselling in 2J years time, Ian
Shipley remarkeJ that many more people voulJ be buying books online. In
the case ol Shipley's, one ol the lirst bookshops to utilite the Internet, online
traJing has beneliteJ the business. Ian is ol the opinion that the olJstyle
book collector has JisappeareJ anJ that the great collector has been
replaceJ by the great consumer. Increasingly, people reaJ only vhat they are
tolJ to.
Variety coulJ be seen to be a positive aspect ol this line ol vork as every Jay
is Jillerent in a bookshop. Hovever, as in many artsrelateJ careers, salaries
in bookselling are not high. A starting salary lor a trainee at Shipley's voulJ
be JI2,JJJ.
QuaIiIications and µersonaI quaIities
Ian Shipley alvays employs graJuates to vork in his shop, prelerring those
vith a broaJ knovleJge ol art history anJ the art vorlJ more generally. He
recommenJs reaJing a paper such as 1|: Art X:ws¡e¡:r to remain current
vith vhat is going on in the art vorlJ. Booksellers are generally very
knovleJgeable anJ vellreaJ people.
As excellent interpersonal skills are absolutely necessary lor vorking in this
sector, it is essential lor job applicants to Jemonstrate gooJ conversational
ability anJ an avareness ol vhat is going on in the art vorlJ anJ in the
vorlJ in general. Booksellers are requireJ to converse intelligently vith a
viJe range ol customers as vell as other agents (eg publishers'
representatives). The ability to think on one's leet anJ to think laterally is
also an aJvantage.
Training is given at Shipley's the training perioJ is three months though it
can take up to I2 months to become a competent bookseller.
Booksellers rarely aJvertise posts. Ian Shipley olten responJs to speculative
letters anJ people Jropping oll CVs. Occasionally, customers have become
employees. Institutional jobs (lor example posts in museum bookshops) are
aJvertiseJ. Occasionally, Shipley's vill accept volunteers anJ ollers training
in lieu ol vages.
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quc¦e ¨S¦uoen¦ Mence|s cf ¦ne /sscc|O¦|cn cf /|¦ ||s¦c||Ons Òffe|¨ ¦c c|O|n
¦ne|| o|sccun¦.
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!e|e S¦cuffe| D|en¦n, 5cck:e|||og |c/ Dumm|e:, Jcnn w||ey & Scns |¦o., 2005
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40
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
AII8ON kIChMOND
Depu¦y |eOo, RC//\&/ Ccnse|vO¦|cn, Ccnse|vO¦|cn
DepO|¦nen¦, \|c¦c||O Ono /|ce|¦ Museun
C
onservation is concerneJ vith the care anJ preservation ol a huge
range ol vorks ol artistic anJ historical importance. Conservation
involves the unJerstanJing ol materials anJ technology as vell as the
historical anJ social signilicance ol these vorks. All vorks ol art anJ
artelacts are Jeteriorating, some more quickly than others. The lirst Juty ol
the conservator is to slov Jovn the rate ol Jeterioration either by
manipulating its environment (preventive conservation) or by intervening in
the object itsell. Conservators treat objects, physically anJ chemically, in
orJer to preserve them. It is sometimes necessary to restore them to a
presumeJ previous state in orJer to lacilitate unJerstanJing. The vork ol
conservators enables us to unJerstanJ anJ enjoy our patrimony vhile at the
same time ensuring that it vill be preserveJ lor luture generations.
Conservators vork in the public interest anJ their activities are therelore
governeJ by coJes ol ethics.
The µroIession
The conservation prolession has evolveJ into tvo main groups. one lor
moveable cultural property (e.g. museum collections), anJ another lor built
heritage. Currently there are moves vithin the prolession to bring these
groups together. Conservation prolessionals can be lounJ in museums, in
large heritage organisations, such as Fnglish Heritage anJ The National
Trust, anJ in private businesses ranging in site lrom single inJiviJuals to a
lev vith as many as 3J+J personnel. Vhile tventy years ago museum
conservators vere mainly to be lounJ in stuJios, vorkshops anJ
laboratories (°at the bench¨), novaJays conservators take their place
alongsiJe other museum colleagues in teams vhich plan, prepare anJ
41
execute gallery installations anJ temporary exhibitions, eJucational
programmes anJ public events. Many conservators vho are traineJ to vork
on objects linJ themselves more anJ more olten Jealing vith people anJ
resources. Some leave the stuJio altogether anJ JeJicate themselves to
management. Other conservators spenJ most ol their time Jealing vith
preventive conservation programmes. Still others have moveJ lrom practical
conservation to conservation eJucation. Another group ol conservation
prolessionals, conservation scientists, are qualilieJ chemists or physicists
vho stuJy anJ aJvise on the materials anJ Jeterioration ol art anJ artelacts.
Conservators vorking in private practices may Jo much ol their vork lor
the art market, hovever, they may also tenJer lor vork vhich museums anJ
other heritage groups contract out. In this vay the interlace betveen the
public anJ private sectors is becoming more lluiJ. The knovleJge base ol
the prolession is continuously JevelopeJ, conservation research ranges lrom
publishing observations maJe Juring treatments to taking part in
international research projects, such as those lunJeJ by the Furopean
Commission.
SµeciaIist disciµIines
Conservation (anJ conservation eJucation) is generally JiviJeJ into areas ol
specialitation. These vary across institutions anJ eJucational programmes.
There are institutions vhich viev themselves as Jealing, in the main, vith
archaeological artelacts (e.g. The British Museum). Others are mainly
ethnographical (e.g. The Horniman Museum). Vhile others are JeJicateJ to
the line (e.g. The National Gallery) anJ Jecorative arts (e.g. Victoria &
Albert Museum). Vithin these are lurther Jivisions ol materials or types ol
object. Some ol the main ones are. organic/inorganic, paper, books,
paintings, textiles, lurniture, metalvork, etc. In smaller museums or
businesses, vhere there may be only one conservator, it may be necessary lor
her/him to vork across a range ol materials or object types.
Conservation education
It is still possible to gain conservation expertise through a perioJ ol
apprenticeship anJ this is the case vith some ol the builJing cralts, such as
the conservation ol stonevork. Hovever, a course in higher eJucation is
nov the prelerreJ route. There is a small number ol BA programmes, but the
generally accepteJ qualilication lor entering employment is last becoming
an MA. A small number ol courses also oller research Jegrees ol MPhil anJ
PhD. Courses usually have both an acaJemic anJ a practical element. They
tenJ to be vocational, in that they prepare the stuJent to enter the
vorklorce as a practical conservator. Fntry requirements vary enormously
anJ it is Jillicult to generalite, each Jiscipline usually has particular skill
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
42
requirements, such as metalvorking or vooJvorking skills. Among the
possible prerequisites lor entry to MA courses. a BA in a relevant subject
(conservation, art history, archaeology, line art/cralt, physics/chemistry, etc)
art/cralt skills, chemistry/physics A level, unJerstanJing anJ experience ol
conservation gaineJ through a BA or vork experience are just some ol the
possible prerequisites. The lielJ ol conservation is enricheJ by the lact that
conservators come lrom many Jillerent backgrounJs anJ conservation is a
seconJ career lor many.
ProIessionaI accreditation
The prolession has recently instituteJ accreJitation baseJ on a set ol
stanJarJs as the portal through vhich the lullylleJgeJ prolessional
conservator emerges.
VorI exµerience
Vork experience in conservation is a thorny issue. On the one hanJ, it is
strongly recommenJeJ belore applying lor a higher Jegree, vhile on the
other, it is very Jillicult to get experience il you are not registereJ on a
course or Jo not alreaJy have a qualilication. In aJJition, vork experience
in the lorm ol an internship is nov consiJereJ by the prolession to be an
essential part ol the lormative process. Vork experience ranges lrom
inlormal anJ irregular perioJs ol volunteer vork to vellJelineJ internships
vhich can last as long as a year. The tasks vill also vary enormously.
Nevertheless, people Jo still manage to get experience vorking in
conservation Jepartments anJ businesses.
Getting a jol
The museum market currently takes the lorm ol a mixeJ economy ol
permanent anJ shortterm contract posts to enable museums to Jeal vith
the continually changing JemanJs ol large projects. Many conservators
toJay have to be prepareJ to move lrom one job to the next every lev years.
The private sector is equally llexible, vith many businesses hiring stall to
Jeal vith projects requiring specilic skills. ]obs in national museums are
generally aJvertiseJ in the national press. It is also vorth looking on the
vebsites ol the prolessional boJies (s:: Iurther inIormation) anJ in the
conservation publications vhich carry classilieJ aJvertising. Iinally, a briel
vorJ about pay. A museum employee's pay is JetermineJ by the rules
governing public sector spenJing. Research has shovn that museum
employees are less vell paiJ than their counterparts in the private sector,
anJ that increases in salaries over the past thirty years have only just
exceeJeJ inllation. It is not all baJ nevs, hovever. The baseline lor
employees starting out on their careers has risen consiJerably over the last
CONSFRVATION
43
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
44
JecaJe or so. Nevertheless, it is probably lair to say that most conservators
leel that the benelits ol having Jirect involvement vith real artelacts anJ
vorks ol art outveigh many ol the JisaJvantages.
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B||oge, |cnocn SE1 ºBÒ t: 020 7785 3807 e: nence|sn|p@|ccn.c|g.u|
w: www.|ccn.c|g.u|
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ccnse|vO¦|cn ccu|ses f|cn O|cuno ¦ne wc||o.
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45
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY

Courses
¨!|O|n|ng |n Ccnse|vO¦|cn: / B||ef Òu|oe ¦c |u||-!|ne Ccu|ses |n ¦ne dn|¦eo
K|ngocn¨ /vO||Oc|e cn ¦ne |ccn wecs|¦e ¦c||c| cn EoucO¦|cn Ono !|O|n|ng}.
8ooks
Cn||s COp|e, Cco:e/.c||co Sk|||:. JuOgemeo|. |e||cO. Dec|:|co-|ck|og,
|cnocn: Rcu¦|eoge, 2000
N|cnc|Os S¦On|ey P||ce, e| c|., ¬|:|c/|cc| coO ||||c:cc||cc| |::ue: |o ||e
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coO |u:eum:, |cnocn: JOnes & JOnes, 2000


Full-tlme Dlploma Programme avallable
Conservation-Restoration of:
CERAMlC5 AND RELATED MATERlAL5
BOOK5 AND LlBRARY MATERlAL5
FlNE METALWORK
YDOLGDWHGE\WKH8QLYHUVLW\RI6XVVH[
Tbe programme alms to develop students' practlcal
skllls tbrougb conte×tual studles, speclallst lectures,
demonstratlons and vlslts.
Tbe small group o| students allows |or blgb levels o|
personal tultlon |rom practlslng pro|esslonals. Students
work on objects o| blstorlcal lmportance |rom
museums and prlvate collectlons.
6RPHEXUVDULHVDYDLODEOH
For tbe dlploma prospectus please contact.
Tbe Admlsslons O||lce, West Dean College,
West Dean, Cblcbester, West Susse×, PO18 0QZ.
T 01243 818299
E dlplomas@westdean.org.uk
www.westdean.org.uk
Ceramics and GIass
J0ANIIA NA¥AkkO
Sen|c| Ccnse|vO¦c|, Scu|p¦u|e, Me¦O|s, Ce|On|cs Ono Ò|Oss
Ccnse|vO¦|cn Sec¦|cn, \|c¦c||O Ono /|ce|¦ Museun
47
C
eramics anJ glass conservation anJ restoration generally relers to line
Jecorative ceramic anJ vessel glass, antiques anJ collectables. The
specialitation also incluJes. archaeological material anJ antiquities, staineJ
glass (vinJovs anJ art vorks), ceramic sculptures, architectural schemes
incluJing terracotta, tiles, chanJeliers anJ mirrors, colJpainteJ ceramics
(rather than glateJ through liring) anJ enamels on metal. In aJJition,
ceramics anJ glass are olten lounJ as components ol lurniture, textiles,
metals, anJ together vith other materials.
Conservation incluJes all activities JirecteJ at ensuring the survival anJ
preservation ol the objects. Restoration implies vork not essential to the
survival ol the object. Both aspects ol the vork are baseJ on ethical
Jecisions anJ proceJures using reversible treatments anJ materials
vhenever possible.
People arrive at conservation lrom a variety ol backgrounJs, olten artistic,
but also acaJemic anJ business. These Jays there is much more to
conservation than bench vork. Nevertheless, the hanJson practising
conservator neeJs patience anJ an eye lor Jetail, gooJ colour vision, manual
Jexterity anJ an ability to plan anJ carry out complex anJ Jelicate
proceJures. Conservation science is an intrinsic part ol all conservation,
incluJing the areas ol preservation anJ prevention. All conservation vork
shoulJ be lully JocumenteJ, gooJ vriting skills are therelore essential.
Ceramics anJ glass conservators vork lor the private sector (antiques
Jealers, private inJiviJuals) or the public sector (museums, The National
Trust, etc). The vork olten requires the reconstruction ol a broken object by
bonJing, using a variety ol materials to lill gaps, moJelling missing parts,
anJ retouching the lills vith colJ paints. Hovever, conservators are also
requireJ to renev JeteriorateJ previous restorations. some aJhesives
eventually lose their strength anJ cannot holJ the veight ol the object, the
materials useJ to lill gaps in glass become yelloveJ anJ unsightly, paint
materials useJ to retouch lills in ceramics eventually Jiscolour so baJly that
they become aesthetically Jistracting.
There are other interesting aspects lor conservators to explore. Fxamples
incluJe research carrieJ out by conservation scientists, such as testing the
ageing characteristics ol conservation materials, interJisciplinary projects
betveen conservators, chemists anJ materials scientists, anJ collections
management.
Large museums have conservation Jepartments vhere conservators are able
to specialite in one Jiscipline, such as ceramics anJ glass. Small museums
may employ a conservator vith a multiJisciplinary knovleJge base or senJ
vork out to private conservators. Positions in museums are lev although
courses may incluJe a placement in a museum as part ol the course. Other
alternatives lor conservators are to linJ employment in an establisheJ
private vorkshop or to set up a vorkshop on their ovn or in partnership
vith colleagues.
Courses vary in length, sometimes accorJing to previous experience. Tvo or
three years ol lulltime stuJy is usual. Course Jescriptions have clear
outlines ol their content anJ emphasis, vhether acaJemic or practical,
specialiteJ or multiJisciplinary, it is up to the prospective stuJents to be
clear about their ovn neeJs.
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wes¦ DeOn Cc||ege cffe|s nOny pcs¦g|OouO¦e ccnse|vO¦|cn Ono |es¦c|O¦|cn
ccu|ses, cc¦n spec|O||zeo ¦ce|On|cs, ccc|s, On¦|que fu|n|¦u|e, c|cc|s, e¦c}
Ono gene|O| ¦O M/ |n Ccnse|vO¦|cn S¦uo|es}.
De Mcn¦fc|¦ dn|ve|s|¦y, S¦uoen¦ Rec|u|¦nen¦, |Ocu|¦y cf /|¦ & Des|gn, De
Mcn¦fc|¦ dn|ve|s|¦y, !ne ÒO¦ewOy, |e|ces¦e| |E1 ºB| t: 011ó 257 7555 e:
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B/ ¦|cns} Des|gn C|Of¦s
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48
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Sen|c| PO|n¦|ngs Ccnse|vO¦c|, !ne Ccnse|vO¦|cn Cen¦|e,
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nJiviJuals entering this lielJ ol the conservation prolession vill
unJertake the practical conservation anJ restoration ol a viJe range ol
easel paintings ol all types in both public anJ private collections. They vill
be vorking to ensure the proper care ol a painting, JeciJing on appropriate
treatment vhere neeJeJ anJ securing, as lar as possible, its preservation lor
luture generations.
A career in painting conservation can be extremely revarJing, anJ an
experienceJ conservator may carry out practical vork anJ research on
important vorks ol art in a major collection. The range ol skills neeJeJ by
the conservator is broaJ anJ an inJiviJual vill be requireJ to embrace
practical, theoretical, aesthetic anJ ethical issues in combination. To list a
lev key elements, the vork requires a very high level ol manual skill, a
sounJ unJerstanJing ol the backgrounJ to the materials anJ techniques ol
painting, an aptituJe lor problem solving anJ an acute perception ol the
aesthetics ol a painting surlace. KnovleJge ol material sciences, incluJing
physics anJ chemistry, is also requireJ. Accurate colour vision is essential.
¡ol µroIiIe
As a paintings conservator, one ol the main motivations is the satislaction ol
the unique personal contribution to the improveJ conJition anJ luture
survival ol a vork ol art. The painting is literally in the conservator's hanJs,
anJ her/his vork, employing the requireJ range ol practical anJ acaJemic
skills, enables the painting to be seen anJ unJerstooJ to its best possible
aJvantage. The conservator vill usually be responsible lor all stages ol
treatment to a painting, vhich may incluJe structural vork anJ
50
consoliJation ol loose or llaking paint, varnish anJ Jirt removal lrom the
painting, anJ the inpainting ol losses anJ application ol varnishes.
The conservator may also unJertake research on a number ol Jillerent
aspects ol a painting, vhich can be just as revarJing as the practical
treatment siJe. This coulJ be to iJentily the pigments anJ meJia employeJ
by the artist, or to linJ out more about the Jevelopment ol the composition
ol the image through examination by xraJiography or inlrareJ
rellectography. This research may contribute greatly to an unJerstanJing ol
the art historical context ol the vork anJ may be incluJeJ in publications or
exhibition material relating to a particular vork or artist. (It is lair to say
that the opportunities lor such research are probably greater in the public
than the private sector ¬ some ol the inlormation in the training course
vebsites listeJ belov covers aspects ol the scope ol vork in both areas in a
little more Jetail.)
In the public sector, a conservator's Juties vill usually extenJ beyonJ the
practical treatment ol paintings to incluJe collections storage issues,
responsibility lor specilying anJ managing environmental control in Jisplay
galleries anJ the processing ol outgoing anJ incoming loans ol paintings
betveen institutions. Vith more experience, the conservator may be able to
Jevise nev proceJures or improveJ systems in these areas in collaboration
vith other museum anJ gallery prolessionals.
Career oµµortunities
It voulJ be unrealistic to approach this career vithout the clear
unJerstanJing that there are lever jobs than there are traineJ painting
conservators, anJ that the jobs that Jo exist are usually at the lover levels ol
public sector pay across the UK. Positions in public collections Jo arise
occasionally, although these may only be shortterm contract posts, rather
than permanent positions. Fven in lulltime posts in the public sector,
career anJ pay progression can be painlully slov or nonexistent. The
broaJer pattern ol employment in public collections has changeJ
signilicantly over the last lilteen or so years, vith many institutions seeing a
reJuction in the number ol lulltime stall. Vhat has emergeJ in some cases
is a culture ol conservation provision, il there is any, being contracteJ out to
private conservators.
There are some opportunities in the private sector, partly lor the reason
stateJ above, though any jobs may be lev in number each year, anJ as vith
public sector vacancies, competition lor positions (normally vith
establisheJ private conservators) vill be intense. There is the option ol
starting out inJepenJently as a sellemployeJ painting conservator in the
CONSFRVATION
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private sector, but this is a very Jillicult path to lollov. In aJJition to a
stuJio anJ equipment, a conservator neeJs clients, anJ many private
painting conservators vill attest to the lact that it can take up to ten years
to Jevelop a suitable client base.
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52
|ns¦|¦u¦e O|sc cffe|s OovOnceo |n¦e|nsn|ps fc| ccnse|vO¦c|s wnc nOve
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P
aper conservation can be JiviJeJ betveen the conservation ol books
anJ Jocuments anJ that ol vorks ol art on paper, the latter incluJing
prints, Jravings, vatercolours, vall papers, posters, collage, etc. In large
public collections Asian anJ occiJental vorks ol art on paper may be
treateJ by those vith similar training, but vorking in Jillerent stuJios
appropriate to the type ol treatments being carrieJ out.
Conservators ol vorks ol art on paper come lrom quite Jiverse backgrounJs
anJ may have alreaJy haJ another career prior to embarking on specilic
conservation training. There are specialist paper conservation courses at
unJergraJuate anJ graJuate levels. An unJergraJuate qualilication in paper
conservation or an associateJ specialism is usually a prerequisite lor entry to
graJuate courses in this lielJ. GraJuates in art history, line arts or sciences
are particularly velcomeJ, especially vhen they possess gooJ problem
solving abilities, a linely tuneJ aesthetic sensibility anJ accurate colour
vision. Hovever, acaJemic learning neeJs to be combineJ vith manual
Jexterity anJ a sensitivity to the artists' original intent.
Paper conservation requires a particularly thoughtlul anJ systematic
approach coupleJ vith a high Jegree ol manual Jexterity anJ a great Jeal ol
patience. Successlul paper conservation treatments olten combine
interventive action such as surlace cleaning, vashing, repair anJ loss
compensation vith more preventive measures such as improveJ methoJs ol
mounting, lraming, storage anJ Jisplay. Unlike the conservation ol
paintings a vork ol art on paper may not appear to be raJically changeJ in
appearance as a result ol treatment, as in most cases there are no surlace
MIkF WhFFIFk
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54
layers such as JiscoloureJ varnish to remove. Vhenever possible, the paper
conservator tries to keep the bigger picture in minJ anJ concentrates on
stabiliting the object as vell as trying to improve its appearance.
Conservators vorking lor public institutions have a slightly Jillerent role to
play than those vho are sell employeJ or are vorking lor commercial
galleries anJ Jealers. The lormer are olten locuseJ on both exhibition vork
as vell as collections management issues. SellemployeJ paper conservators
olten have to Jevote more energy to improving the appearance ol the vork
anJ have to treaJ carelully to ensure that sounJ ethical principals prevail.
This vill involve carelul liaison vith clients to ensure that vork is
completeJ on time anJ vithin a given estimate.
The paper conservator in an institution may spenJ a gooJ Jeal ol time
preparing objects lor loan or internal exhibition, as vell as vorking on the
core collections. S/he vorks together vith conservation mounters anJ
lramers anJ liaises lrequently vith curatorial colleagues. In a museum,
maintaining the authenticity ol the material olten takes preceJence over
cosmetic consiJerations. Institutional conservators may also be engageJ on
research into the materials anJ techniques ol vhich vorks ol art on paper
are composeJ, as vell as contributing to publications anJ preparing
JiJactic panels lor Jisplays.
At present the employment situation in the UK anJ Furope is lairly static
anJ the numbers ol jobs in museums anJ public institutions are limiteJ.
UnJer the current political climate money lor the arts is strictly limiteJ anJ
nev positions only occur inlrequently. The small number ol jobs at a senior
level make career progression quite Jillicult anJ this may account lor the
increasing number ol senior people Jiversilying into heritage anJ collection
management jobs.
Hovever, there is a huge neeJ lor paper conservation expertise all over the
vorlJ anJ there is consiJerable scope lor those vho enjoy travelling anJ
vorking in Jeveloping countries. The linancial revarJs are moJest, but this
is olten balanceJ by the pleasure gaineJ lrom the vork itsell, improving
public access, sharing expertise anJ helping to ensure longevity ol
signilicant artelacts.

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TextiIes
MAkY 8kOOk8 (1ºº5)
Ccnvenc|, M/ Museun S¦uo|es, !ex¦||e Ccnse|vO¦|cn Cen¦|e,
dn|ve|s|¦y cf Scu¦nOnp¦cn
0FDAIFD 8Y FkANCF8 IFNNAkD (2006)
Ccnvenc| M/ !ex¦||e Ccnse|vO¦|cn, !ex¦||e Ccnse|vO¦|cn Cen¦|e,
dn|ve|s|¦y cf Scu¦nOnp¦cn
T
extile conservation is a multiJisciplinary lielJ. It combines scientilic
analysis, a knovleJge ol textile history anJ techniques, ranging lrom
tapestry to moJern libres, vith the practical skills necessary to carry out
conservation treatments. RemeJial treatment typically involves cleaning,
lolloveJ by proviJing a veak textile vith a nev support either by stitching
or through an aJhesive treatment. RecommenJations lor noninterventive
treatment are an important aspect ol a textile conservator's vork. The right
environment, vhether in storage or on Jisplay, is critical vhen caring lor
textiles.
Textile conservators vork in both the public anJ private sectors. IunJing is
increasingly tight, anJ a substantial proportion ol careerentry jobs are nov
baseJ on short contracts. Hovever, textile conservation ollers a lascinating
combination ol analytical problemsolving anJ hanJson vork as vell as the
chance to extenJ anJ Jevelop knovleJge ol our rich textile heritage.
Careerentry programmes are at MA level although it may be possible to
linJ an apprenticetype position in an existing vorkshop.

57
58
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
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T
he Jecorative arts can be a neglecteJ area ol stuJy at Jegree level anJ
only a lev stuJents vho go on to pursue one ol the MA courses in the
history ol Jesign, such as that ollereJ by the V&A vith the Royal College ol
Art, tenJ to locus on lurniture lor their Jissertations. Although lurniture
remains central to the Jesign, Jecoration anJ lunction ol interior space, anJ
architects, sculptors anJ textile Jesigners have traJitionally been closely
involveJ vith lurniture Jesign, lurniture anJ the Jecorative arts in general
continue to be overlookeJ as a subject lor stuJy at Jegree level. Therelore
vhilst there is no conventional route to becoming a lurniture curator the
career path can be varieJ, interesting anJ lullilling.
One ol my lirst museum experiences vas vorking as a sixthlorm volunteer
at the Museum ol LonJon. Later, vhile stuJying Classics at university, I
vent on an exchange to Siena, took part in an architectural lielJ survey in
Greece anJ vorkeJ as a volunteer in an architect's practice in LonJon, all ol
vhich maJe me keen to vork vith the visual arts. A natural progression
vas to go to the CourtaulJ Institute ol Art to stuJy ancient art, here I
became interesteJ in later perioJs, particularly the reception ol classical art
anJ architecture in the late I8th anJ early I9th centuries. Alter vorking as
an intern in the Decorative Arts Department at Christie's, South Kensington,
I began a PhD at the University ol Bristol. During this time, I vas accepteJ
lor the Assistant Curators' Training Scheme at the V&A (a liveyear, lixeJ
term contract). Although the Jocumentation vork I unJertook in the initial
stages vas routine, it proviJeJ an excellent grounJing in museum practice
anJ enableJ me to gain experience in various Jepartments. I negotiateJ
unpaiJ leave in orJer to complete my Joctorate, vhen I returneJ I vas
ó0
placeJ on the Victorian Team ol the British Galleries Project. It vas
excellent experience to vork as part ol a large team on a major museum
project. Iolloving this I vorkeJ in the Sculpture Department, unJertaking
more JaytoJay curatorial activities such as managing stores, checking
galleries, maintaining Jocumentation anJ Jealing vith enquiries.
Alter nearly live years at the V&A, I lelt to take up the position ol Curator ol
Iurniture at the Vallace Collection. I have nov been at the Vallace
Collection lor over tvo years, but I still have an enormous amount to learn
about the lurniture collection vhich comprises more than 5JJ vorks ol art.
Vorking Jirectly vith objects, caring lor the collection, curating Jisplays
(most recently, a small Jisplay on MarieAntoinette's lurnishings),
unJertaking research, giving gallery talks anJ lectures to Jillerent auJiences
anJ teaching on tvo MA courses that are linkeJ to the collection is very
stimulating.
There is no quick or Jirect route into a museum job, but here are a lev tips.
i Iurniture history, vhich uses Jocumentary anJ other eviJence to
trace the Jesign, proJuction anJ subsequent history ol items, is still a
relatively nev subject. The Iurniture History Society, runs a series ol
events anJ publishes a nevsletter anJ an annual journal.
i You can linJ out more about lurniture in LonJon at the V&A, the
Gellrye Museum, the Vallace Collection anJ the IreJerick Parker
Chair Collection at LonJon Metropolitan University. Many regional
museums have gooJ collections ol lurniture, as Jo properties run by
the National Trust, Fnglish Heritage anJ other organitations. Visit
the V&A Print Room anJ the Royal Institute ol British Architects
(RIBA) ReaJing Room (also at the V&A) to look at Jesigns lor
lurniture anJ interiors. The ChippenJale Society, baseJ at Temple
Nevsam House near LeeJs, has a lantastic archival collection.
i Get as much voluntary experience as you can. This is an extremely
gooJ vay ol learning about Jillerent job roles anJ vork
environments. Take a look at the range ol publisheJ material on
museology anJ museum practice. Remember that universities
recruiting lor MA courses in Museum StuJies olten look lor voluntary
vork experience as eviJence ol commitment.
i Most museums require you to have unJertaken an MA, especially lor
curatorial roles. Although research skills can be learnt on the job, it is
helplul to have an establisheJ area ol research anJ to have haJ some
experience ol giving presentations.
CURATING
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i Vhen JeciJing on an MA or PhD course, think very carelully about
vhere the subject coulJ leaJ you, especially il it is not a vocational
Museums StuJies course. Try to remain reasonably openminJeJ
vhen applying lor curatorial jobs as it is important to get that vital
lirst experience. It can be useJ as a steppingstone to specialitation.
i ]oin societies that relate to your lielJ ol interest, as they organite
lectures anJ trips anJ proviJe a gooJ netvork ol contacts.
i Vrite articles or short pieces lor society nevsletters, or revievs ol
visits or book revievs.
i Giving gallery talks is a gooJ vay to expanJ your knovleJge anJ gain
conliJence. You can register as a lecturer vith the National
Association ol Decorative & Iine Art Societies (NADIAS) (s:: Iurther
inIormation).
i Fnrol to Jo the Associateship ol the Museums Association (AMA)
course. There are tvo routes, JepenJing on the MA you have
unJertaken ¬ il you haven't Jone an MA in Museum StuJies you vill
require an NVQ in Cultural Heritage.
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CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
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A
n historic builJing may be broaJly JescribeJ as anything ol
architectural or historical merit through longevity or association. It
might be a country house, a private home, or a castle. Many specialists can
be lounJ vorking in an historic builJing. Their roles incluJe eJucation,
conservation, exhibition vork, security, accountancy, lunJraising, estate
management, auctioneering, Jealing, garJening, builJings management,
technical vork, volunteer management, leaJership, housekeeping, retail,
events management, marketing, Jesign anJ collections care.
Vorking in an historic builJing can oller a vealth ol opportunities. a
beautilul vorking environment, international travel, vorking vith vorlJ
class collections, lurthering research anJ engaging vith visitors anJ local
communities. The vork can also be creative anJ lullilling. Hovever, sites
can be remote vith no public transport. Iamilies vho retain ovnership or
partovnership ol the builJing anJ/or collection vill ultimately Jictate
policy anJ mission. Large national organitations such as the National Trust
anJ Fnglish Heritage, even il run at a regional level, can be slov to
implement necessary change.
An historic site can be any number ol Jillerent things to its users, JepenJing
on their neeJs anJ expectations. Ior example, HarevooJ House in
Yorkshire is a country house, a registereJ museum, a library anJ an archive.
It has a too anJ avarJvinning garJens vithin a JesigneJ lanJscape, vhich
contains scheJuleJ ancient monuments. It is also a vorking estate.
Ior those that choose to pursue art history in the historic house, perhaps the
most obvious path to lollov is that ol curatorship. A curator is responsible
ó3
ó4
lor a collection. There are generally tvo vays to commence this sort ol
vork. One is to start at the bottom anJ vork up. The seconJ is to start at a
higher level through a postgraJuate qualilication. My ovn career path is
outlineJ belov, in orJer to oller practical aJvice in terms ol linJing
employment vithin this competitive lielJ.
Case study
I starteJ vith an unJergraJuate Jegree in Iine Arts Valuation at
Southampton Institute. Part ol the appeal ol this course vas the
combination ol history ol art anJ business ollereJ. It also useJ a large
hanJling collection anJ incorporateJ a series ol national anJ international
visits to various collections.
Irom here I vent to The VorJsvorth Trust, in Cumbria, because they
ollereJ voluntary vork specilically lor graJuates. Although I began vorking
on a voluntary basis I vas soon employeJ as a MoJern Apprentice. This vas
a government scheme proviJing basic lunJing in return lor training ol young
people, proviJing them vith a set ol core skills in orJer to improve
employability. This meant that I haJ the opportunity to vork tovarJs an
NVQ in Collections Care anJ Visitor Services. This scheme proviJeJ me
vith a moJest income, time to learn anJ a route into the vorlJ ol cultural
heritage management. It also gave me a stable environment, meJiumterm
security, accommoJation anJ a group ol peers to vork vith anJ learn lrom.
I vas given time to explore several Jillerent types ol vork relating to
cultural heritage. Ve vere also instilleJ vith the importance ol
prolessionalism vithin all aspects ol our vork. CoupleJ vith a specialism,
each MoJern Apprentice anJ volunteer unJertook lrontolhouse Juties,
incluJing several Jaily guiJeJ tours ol Dove Cottage, shop anJ ticket sales.
To supplement my income I also cleaneJ the museum alter hours. This gave
me a key grounJing in the neeJs anJ expectations ol visitors anJ care ol
collections.
The average time ol employment unJer the MoJern Apprenticeship vas I8
months to tvo years, so job applications vere openly encourageJ anJ vas
part ol the NVQ process. By this time I haJ JeciJeJ on a museum career,
having brielly been seconJeJ to a BonJ Street auction house, again as part ol
my NVQ. A key element ol the leeJback I sought lrom various job
applications vas that a postgraJuate qualilication vas essential il I vanteJ
to pursue curatorial vork.
The VorJsvorth Trust proviJeJ a uselul set ol resources on all relevant
courses nationviJe anJ haJ a traJition ol stall attenJing the University ol
Leicester's MA course in Museum StuJies.
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
ó5
The course incorporateJ a tvomonth placement at Temple Nevsam anJ
Lotherton Hall, tvo country houses manageJ by LeeJs Museums Service.
This placement vas an asset to my CV. It also proviJeJ me vith relerences
lrom vithin the sector.
One ol the negative aspects ol this sort ol vork is the neeJ to move to
vherever vork can be lounJ. CoupleJ vith shortterm contracts anJ lov
pay, it can take time to become establisheJ in the lielJ. Recogniting this
neeJ to be mobile, I moveJ to CambriJgeshire alter my postgraJuate Jegree
to vork at The IarmlanJ Museum anJ Denny Abbey as Assistant Curator
lor tvo years. This vork gave me a valuable insight into a variety ol
practices, as the only lulltime member ol stall I vas responsible lor Jaily
site management. I also useJ this time to gain my Associateship ol the
Museums Association (AMA). Irom here I moveJ to the Iittvilliam
Museum in CambriJge as a Research Assistant belore moving up to
Yorkshire anJ HarevooJ House.
It vas only vhen I vas employeJ at HarevooJ that I vas employeJ on a
permanent contract. IixeJ shortterm contracts are common in the sector.
Therelore, there is a neeJ lor the inJiviJual to builJ a 'portlolio career'.
Many curators in historic houses consiJer their positions as 'jobs lor lile', so
openings can be lev anJ lar betveen anJ closely guarJeJ. Regional
collections anJ properties tenJ to value breaJth ol experience anJ expertise
in visitor services above specialist knovleJge because ol lunJing
limitations. Fntrepreneurial ability can make the Jillerence betveen an
average anJ an excellent visitor attraction. Hovever, openings lor acaJemic
posts anJ specialisms Jo exist vithin national organitations. So you may
neeJ to lover your expectations in the short term to gain in the long term
by mapping out hov you vill achieve your goals.
VoIuntary vorI
Voluntary vork proviJes uselul experience lor your CV anJ can oller you
insight into the vay in vhich organitations operate. Approaches lor
voluntary vork, incluJing placements as part ol a postgraJuate course, are
common. The quality ol applications varies. Therelore, a prolessional, polite
anJ competitive approach is essential.
Iirst, be prolessional. ProolreaJ your CV. AJJress your application to an
inJiviJual. Be clear about vhat you voulJ like to Jo anJ vhat you can oller.
Be reliable. Tailor each application to the historic builJing concerneJ. Use
your local career centre lor guiJance on layout lor CVs anJ cover letters.
SeconJly, be polite. It is important to be respectlul to everyone you meet,
not just those you think vill help you. This incluJes lrontolhouse stall anJ
CURATING
other prolessionals in the region. Remember it is a small vorlJ anJ ve Jo
netvork!
ThirJly, be competitive. Here at HarevooJ ve receive many more requests
lor voluntary vork in the curatorial Jepartment that ve can manage.
Therelore, ve are able to select the best inJiviJuals lrom the applications
receiveJ. So you neeJ to Jemonstrate your ability anJ ambition above that
ol others.
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CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
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Cu|O¦c|, Ycu¦n P|cg|Onnes, !O¦e Mcoe|n
Vost ¸eii:ri:s or¸eoiz: :v:ots Ait|oa¸| t|is c|e¡t:r jocas:s oo :cacetiooei :v:ots jor
voao¸ ¡:o¡i: meov oj t|: stret:¸i:s eoc ¡rectic:s c:scrio:c er: e¡¡iiceoi: to t|:
or¸eoizetioo oj ot|:r tv¡:s oj :v:ots eim:c et ot|:r eaci:oc:s, ¸:o:rei eoc s¡:cieiist
THF FDITORS
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very publicly lunJeJ gallery or museum has a programme ol eJucational
activities vhich aims to introJuce art vorks or artelacts to a viJe
auJience. Fvents anJ activities are therelore createJ lor a broaJ range ol
people, anJ the role ol the eJucation team is to reinterpret artelacts lor each
auJience group. KnovleJge ol art or art history is essential lor an
unJerstanJing ol the collection anJ its contexts. Such knovleJge, along
vith an appreciation ol the lactors that motivate the public to visit
museums, shoulJ be combineJ vith a Jesire to enhance public learning anJ
enjoyment ol the collection being visiteJ. FJucation curators are responsible
lor creating annual programmes ol events anJ online or printeJ resources lor
public use. Larger museums JiviJe their eJucation teams into Jepartments
accorJing to inJiviJual auJiences vith specialist curators lor particular
groups. Olten the Interpretation Curator, vho creates all interpretive
material (lor example, vall texts, captions anJ exhibition brochures) vill be
part ol the eJucation, rather than the exhibitions, Jepartment. Many art
historians vork on eJucation programmes in museums.
The many positive aspects ol the job incluJe.
i an opportunity to Jevelop a close relationship vith the art or
artelacts in a museum's collection
ó7
i the chance, in some galleries, to vork closely vith the exhibitions
team to Jiscuss iJeas lor lorthcoming exhibitions anJ relateJ
eJucational events
i llexible vorking hours, vith time oll io ii:a taken Juring the veek to
compensate lor vorking veekenJ or evening shilts
i vorking vith Jiverse auJiences
i the opportunity to reinterpret vorks ol art to encourage the
participation ol existing anJ nev auJiences
i a broaJ remit, ranging lrom programming, managing project teams
anJ teaching to being responsible lor buJgets, outreach anJ
proJucing marketing materials
i the opportunity to play an active role in an important cultural
institution.
One ol the lev JisaJvantages is that remuneration lor this kinJ ol vork can
be lov. The average salary lor eJucation curators/coorJinators is J25,JJJ
but the opportunity to engage in interesting anJ enjoyable vork usually
compensates lor this.
Entry requirements
A lirst Jegree is the minimum qualilication requireJ lor
curatorial/coorJinator posts. An MA is highly Jesirable, anJ a PhD a
Jistinct aJvantage. A minimum ol three years experience vorking in a
museum environment is essential, this coulJ be gaineJ through voluntary
vork vith a local museum or an internship lolloveJ by time spent vorking
as an Assistant Curator or FJucation Assistant. A backgrounJ in teaching is
also an aJvantage, as is project management experience.
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
ó8
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Orgon|zot|ons
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Courses
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eoucO¦|cn ¦n|s ¦ype cf ¦|O|n|ng |s nc¦ essen¦|O|. MOny nuseuns cffe|
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ccu|ses O¦ nuseuns cOn ce On exce||en¦ wOy cf f|no|ng cu¦ Occu¦ ¦ne
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FDUCATION
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NIGFI IIFWFIIYN
P|cfessc| cf /|¦ ||s¦c|y, Scncc| cf |unOn|¦|es, dn|ve|s|¦y cf Sussex
N
ot many art historians vork lulltime as exhibition organiters, unless
they have a post in the exhibition Jepartment ol a museum, gallery or
some other institution such as the Arts Council or British Council. It may be
possible to linJ an opening in such an organitation vith relatively little
experience, although museums anJ galleries are increasingly attracteJ to
canJiJates vho have unJertaken voluntary vork Juring their lirst Jegrees.
Hovever, lor the researcher, organiting an exhibition is an important vay
to publicite your research linJings anJ it is an activity that might vell
lurther a career. Some organitations employ establisheJ scholars on short
term contracts as guest curators, appointments that bring vith them a viJe
range ol JemanJs, all ol vhich neeJ to be clear lrom the outset. Nov that
some museums anJ galleries have been given analogue status by the Arts
anJ Humanities Research Council (AHRC), there are nev sources ol
lunJing available to support research projects in relation to exhibitions.
The curator vill usually be responsible lor vriting a Jralt proposal (i.e. an
outline ol the aims ol the shov anJ the kinJ ol experience that it voulJ
represent lor the organiters anJ the visitors), anJ assembling an outline
object list. Colleagues in the Fxhibition Department, vho vill aJvise on
logistics, costs anJ conservation, vill also comment upon the latter. Ior
example, vill the gallery lloor space be available to allov the intenJeJ
numbers ol objects to be shovn` A buJget vill be Jravn up anJ agreeJ anJ
vill have to cover the costs ol gathering the exhibits lrom their various
ovners anJ keepers. Because ol high transportation costs, some
organitations choose to curate shovs vith exhibits coming largely lrom
70
their ovn collections. The linal lorm ol the buJget vill neeJ to take account
ol sponsorship anJ aspects such as transportation anJ insurance, as the
organitation's source ol expertise, a guest curator may be expecteJ to aJvise
on these issues. The sourcing ol potential exhibits vill require an immense
amount ol letter vriting, emailing, telephoning, travel anJ research. As the
list ol objects is being linaliteJ, there vill be Jiscussions about the Jesign ol
the installation. There vill also be Jiscussion about the kinJs ol harJcopy
publications vhich vill have to be proJuceJ, these might incluJe, lor
example, an accompanying book or catalogue lor visitors to purchase or
perhaps a lree objectlist. An exhibition organiter vill be askeJ to vrite or
comment on the storyboarJs anJ the labels anJ help plan the eJucational
events that vill take place Juring the shov. Vith some projects there may
be involvement in meJia vork. Some arts critics like to be able to interviev
curators as a quick vay ol proJucing lines to use in their revievs. In larger
organitations there vill be specialists employeJ to help vith some ol these
processes. Hovever, in some smaller organitations everyone may be askeJ
to contribute. Successlul exhibitions rely on teamvork anJ require the
exhibition organiter to think harJ about auJiences, vho may not
necessarily be stuJents or other acaJemics but other various Jemographic
groups.
It is important to remember that exhibitions are also temporary events ¬ the
books, catalogues anJ revievs are all that remain ol a project, yet that
project may have resulteJ lrom years ol painstaking research. Some curators
take viJeo recorJs ol the shovs they install. Bear in minJ also vhat a
tremenJous amount ol time exhibition projects may take ¬ several years ol
research anJ planning anJ veeks ol hectic activity running up to the
opening. The most important prerequisites lor a successlul shov are an
imaginative anJ timely proposal, aJequate lunJing, a gooJ team vith expert
colleagues, the capacity to be thorough, organiteJ yet aJaptable, anJ an
element ol luck! Fven quite small shovs can translorm public perceptions
anJ Jisseminate viJely the results ol nev research. Ior some art historians,
the curateJ shov is their most important contribution to the sum ol
knovleJge anJ, complex though they are, art exhibitions gain more
attention lor art history than any other lorm ol practice.
FXHIBITION ORGANIZING
71


CIAkF FOkD-WIIIF
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I
reelance vork is a potential moJe ol employment lor the art historian
toJay vhen lulltime jobs are Jillicult to linJ. Hovever, lreelancing is
never an easy vay ol making a living. It can take up to lour or live years to
establish a reputation Juring vhich time an aJJitional source ol income
may be necessary.
There are many possible sources ol vork lor the lreelance art historian.
i teaching aJult classes such as those run by a Local FJucation
Authority (LFA), local institutes such as Morley College or The City
Literary Institute, the Vorkers' FJucational Association (VFA),
extramural Jepartments ol universities, or the Open University (s::
chapters on Teaching)
i giving lectures in galleries, museums, exhibitions, or lor local or
national societies, such as the National Trust or the National Art
Collections IunJ
i accompanying stuJy tours in the UK or abroaJ, organiteJ by
specialist art tour operators (s:: Art Tourism chapter). Art historians
can also become lecturers vith the National Association ol Decorative
& Iine Arts Societies (NADIAS), (s:: Iurther inIormation)
i unJertaking parttime teaching in universities or art schools (s::
chapters on Teaching)
i engaging in parttime specialist seconJhanJ book Jealing
72
i researching lor other people's books anJ exhibitions or lor television
i vriting, e.g. art criticism, revievs, articles, encyclopaeJia anJ
catalogue entries, pamphlets, textbooks, anJ vhatever comes to hanJ.
At lirst, this vork has to be actively sought. A viJe circle ol personal
contacts is an aJvantage, as vell as the conliJence to market one's ovn
abilities vhen Jirectly approaching inJiviJuals anJ organitations.
Fxperience ol lecturing, vriting anJ aJministrative skills is an asset vhen
looking lor vork at the outset. It is vorth making time at university to gain
some ol this experience on a voluntary basis, in the university itsell, lor
national societies or perhaps lor local museums or galleries.
Vhat makes a lreelancer's reputation is prolessionalism, anJ a broaJ base ol
knovleJge. At lirst, you cannot allorJ to turn Jovn any piece ol vork, no
matter hov small, proviJeJ you leel competent to unJertake it. Any piece ol
vork accepteJ must be Jone vell anJ proJuceJ to JeaJline. This means
that lor the prolessional lreelancer, vork must come lirst, olten it cannot be
litteJ into a ninetolive Jay, anJ this can leaJ to social sacrilices.
Determination, sellJiscipline, persistence anJ, above all, reliability,
enthusiasm anJ gooJ health are Jesirable attributes lor the lreelancer. The
revarJs are a challenging anJ varieJ vorking lile, allorJing the possibility
ol travel anJ meeting interesting people.
The lreelancer may be employeJ on a lee basis, or a shortterm contract, but
Joes not receive a salary. To live on irregular earnings requires JisciplineJ
linancial planning. One ol the subcommittees ol the Association ol Art
Historians, the InJepenJents' Members' Group, is JevoteJ to lreelance
issues anJ coulJ oller lurther aJvice anJ help (s:: Iurther inIormation).
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IRFFLANCF VORK
73
T
here is no specilic acaJemic preparation to become a jevellery
specialist, my ovn story is presenteJ here as an illustration ol the
somevhat circuitous journey one might neeJ to take. Hovever, each step
has proviJeJ a soliJ lounJation lor my present role ol Manager, Iashion
]evellery anJ Gilts, Acting Manager, Iine ]evellery anJ Vatches, at Tillany
& Co.
Alter my preJominantly artsbaseJ vork experience lrom university (a
Jegree in Art History anJ Architecture, succeeJeJ by a postgraJuate Jegree
in Museum anJ Art Gallery StuJies, both lrom Manchester University),
volunteer vork anJ stuJent employment, I Jeliberately chose to unJertake
a year out in inJustry anJ vorkeJ as a creJit controller in the linance
Jepartment ol a chilJren's publisher. This gave me a greater unJerstanJing
ol vorking lile outsiJe the art vorlJ. It vas here that I receiveJ aJvanceJ
training in Microsolt VorJ anJ Fxcel, essential, translerable skills.
Although I vas ollereJ a secure luture career, this vas not my passion
(vhich I alreaJy knev to be jevellery) anJ I therelore useJ my volunteer
vork experience in Phillips Auctioneers to leverage an opportunity to break
into the restricteJ career ol antique jevellery. It is important to remember
that sometimes your lirst role might not necessarily be your Jream job (I
began as an aJministrator in a regional branch), or in your prelerreJ
location, but consiJer vhere it might leaJ anJ the opportunities it may
present. Irom here I vas rapiJly promoteJ to Trainee Valuer, then Valuer,
belore moving to LonJon vith the expansion ol the company as a jevellery
specialist.
74


hFIFN DIMMICk
MOnOge|, !|ffOny & Cc.
During this time I began to acquire my prolessional qualilications. To secure
creJibility anJ Jevelopment in a still maleJominateJ anJ specialist
inJustry, I unJertook my Iellovship ol the Gemmological Association.
It vas the Jesire lor high stanJarJs that motivateJ my move into the retail
sector. Seeing the jevellery as a linisheJ proJuct anJ in perlect saleable
conJition anJ meeting the expectations ol select purchasers subsequently
encourageJ me to move to a BonJ Street jeveller. At this time I completeJ
my gem training vith a Diploma in DiamonJ GraJing. DiamonJs being such
an important gemstone, it is aJvisable to gain a more comprehensive
unJerstanJing ol their origin, properties anJ characteristics. I also useJ this
qualilication to expanJ my CV anJ recruitment potential.
Although this markeJ the pinnacle ol the application ol my art historical
training, I lounJ the antiques inJustry, hovever, not so Jiscerning. In
essence, the jevellery traJe hanJles highly portable anJ yet highly valuable
commoJities but not everyone is motivateJ by a love ol aesthetics, lor some,
the Jesire to make a prolit is overvhelming.
Vorking lor a large, internationally renovneJ corporation such as Tillany's
has many aJvantages, prolessional anJ personal. Promotion opportunities
are available (at the right time) anJ the company heavily invests in both
internal anJ external training. Fmployees are revarJeJ vith a competitive
salary, a gooJ benelits package, but, most importantly, vorlJviJe policies
anJ proceJures that saleguarJ the customers, the merchanJise anJ the stall.
Retail lile is not alvays glamorous, anJ the hours can be long. Although,
sometimes, acaJemic knovleJge may not immeJiately seem to be
appreciateJ, this is vhere a graJuate coulJ really make an impact. Vithin
the recruitment process at Tillany's lor example, I voulJ actively look lor
someone vho coulJ builJ upon their soliJ acaJemic Jegree lounJation anJ
look to impart the commercial 'Tillany Fxperience'. This incluJes sharing
their expertise, honouring commitments anJ creating a liletime ol memories
lor our customers. Ior example, one ol the most revarJing aspects ol the
role is helping someone choose their engagement ring, this process requires
sounJ scientilic anJ historical knovleJge, a cultivateJ aesthetic sense,
commercial acumen anJ a sensitivity to the customer's neeJs.
Iinally, you never linish learning, anJ il you have an insatiable thirst lor
knovleJge anJ are still Jriven to Jeliver the highest stanJarJs you vill
never vant to stop. My last qualilication vas vith the retail jevellery
inJustry's governing boJy, the National Association ol GolJsmiths (NAG),
there, I unJertook the vhat is currently knovn as the Prolessional
]FVFLLFRY
75
]evellers' Management Diploma course. This vas a soliJ vocational anJ
practical course, complementing Jegree level skills anJ theoretical
knovleJge. Vithin the next tvo years hovever, it is my intention to
unJertake an MBA to take my career onto the next level.
As this chapter illustrates, art historians can combine their love ol beautilul
objects vith a career that incorporates commercial, managerial anJ
scientilic knovleJge anJ skills.
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|eve|s wc|||ng |n ¦ne |e¦O|| ,ewe||e|y |nous¦|y.
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8ooks
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Jcnn |c||ng, |cu|: Ccm|c/| ||||co, c| ||||co, & Cc., New Yc||: |O||y N.
/c|Ons, 2002
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY



JOhN k088FII IAYIOk
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l all areas ol possible prolessional activity lor art historians, journalism
is the most Jillicult to generalite about. Fvery experience is inJiviJual,
anJ vhat has vorkeJ as an entree lor one person may vell not vork lor
anyboJy else at all. At the beginning ol the 2Ist century it is not possible to
give even some ol the general guiJelines vhich voulJ have maJe sense 25
years ago. Ior example, membership ol one ol the prolessional journalist
associations, such as the National Union ol ]ournalists or the Institute ol
]ournalists, vas, in those Jays, more or less a sio: ¡ae ooo ol employment by
any major nevspaper or magatine. Nov attituJes have changeJ anJ moveJ
very much against closeJ shops ol any kinJ anJ so the major aJvantage ol
membership is simply the consequent possession ol a recognitable Press
CarJ, vhich ensures lree aJmission to most museums anJ temporary
exhibitions anJ establishes one's creJibility vith press ollices. These
lunctions are also serveJ, lor the art journalist specilically, by membership
ol AICA (Association Internationale Je Critiques J'Art), vhich issues its
ovn membership carJ anJ is viJely recogniteJ internationally.
All this is, in a sense, putting the cart belore the horse, in that the same sort
ol Catch22 situation applies to membership ol these boJies as to other
kinJreJ prolessional associations, such as Fquity. That is, you have to
Jemonstrate that you have experience as a prolessional vriter in orJer to
become a member, anJ you may vell linJ that you have to be a member
belore you are alloveJ to get the requisite experience. So the lirst thing is to
get some vritten vork publisheJ somevhere. StuJent magatines are olten
uselul in that, even il noone outsiJe eJucation takes them very seriously, at
77
least they constitute a means ol publication anJ cuttings look more
impressive than tattereJ typescripts. The same is true ol local nevspapers.
Only tvo or three ol the major regional papers employ someone regular (anJ
then almost certainly not as a stall member) to vrite about exhibitions, but
many are, in principle, villing to consiJer revievs anJ 'think pieces' about
local galleries ¬ especially il they have to pay little or nothing lor them.
The big question is, vhere Jo you go lrom there` But lirst it shoulJ be askeJ,
vhere Jo you vant to go` Vhile practically any nevspaper regularly carries
material about lilms anJ theatre there are very lev that see art activities
(auctions anJ prices apart) in the same light. Only the quality Jailies, the
quality SunJays anJ the major LonJon evening nevspaper have regular art
critics. The number ol veekly magatines vith similar coverage is constantly
reJucing, though on the other hanJ there seem to be more anJ more
monthly magatines lor young men anJ young vomen vhich may 'come over
all arty' lrom time to time, anJ there are alvays airlines' inllight magatines
vhich may see art coverage as part ol lostering cultural tourism. There are
also more specialiteJ outlets, incluJing 1|: Art X:ws¡e¡:r, Voc:ro Peiot:rs, 1|:
Art Foor anJ the more scholarly perioJicals, A¡oiio anJ 1|: Fariio¸too Ve¸ezio:.
In other vorJs, the market is not exactly expansive.
The only vay ol getting into any ol these is by personal contact anJ
knocking at Joors. The process is not necessarily elitist, vhat linally matters
is not vho you knov but vhat iJeas you have anJ hov vell you can vrite
them up to suit the context in vhich you are trying to place the article. The
main hurJle is the lirst. getting someone vho might give you vork to reaJ
vhat you have vritten. That is mainly a matter ol trial anJ error, not
unmixeJ vith a certain amount ol sheer gall. Use any introJuctions you can
set up, anJ be reaJy to vrite to eJitors out ol the blue, enclosing a sensible
CV anJ a selection ol vritings, prelerably publisheJ somevhere. Do not
senJ irreplaceable originals, they may vell lanJ right in the vastepaper
basket. Fxpect noone to be impresseJ vith scholarly qualilications. a lev
art journalists are traineJ art historians, but most are not, anJ eJitors are
more likely to be looking lor communication skills than an impressive
eJucational backgrounJ. Iev national publications have much time, either,
lor courses in journalism, so though you may leel that you may personally
gain something lrom one, Jo not regarJ it as an automatic key to the
prolession.
Most important. hovever you go about the approach, have the courtesy, or
just the basic common sense, to lamiliarite yoursell vith any publication
you are targeting. Il you suppose that eJitors are going to be so amateJ by
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
78
your style anJ eruJition that they are going to hire you on the spot, hovever
irrelevant you may appear to their neeJs, then you are certainly vrong.
Ability to perlorm on time, to length, anJ attractively to the auJience aimeJ
at is lar more important, anJ vill be appreciateJ at vhatever level you hope
to lunction. A lev specilic projects lor articles or nevsy stories might also
be uselul, but it is generally better to submit them in briel outline rather
than vrite the vhole thing up entirely on spec.
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]OURNALISM



kAIF kNOWIF8
|eOo cf Ccnnun|cO¦|cns, Du|w|cn P|c¦u|e ÒO||e|y
A
lthough marketing/communication qualilications are a Jelinite asset,
anJ a Jegree in art history an aJvantage, neither is essential lor those
vishing to enter the Press anJ Marketing Jepartment ol a gallery or
museum, in most cases, hovever, you vill be requireJ to be eJucateJ to a
Jegree level. Opportunities to obtain vork experience vary lrom gallery to gallery.
MarIeting a smaII, underIunded gaIIery ¬ a case study
Dulvich Picture Gallery receives no government lunJing anJ therelore all
its buJgets are tight. There is an aJmission charge lor everyone except
chilJren, stuJents, the unemployeJ anJ the registereJ JisableJ. It is an olJ
master collection ol outstanJing quality. Hovever, it is oll the beaten track.
It runs an avarJvinning eJucation Jepartment anJ three critically
acclaimeJ exhibitions a year.
The lirst thing I JiJ vhen I arriveJ, anJ realiteJ vhatever I JiJ haJ to be as
cheaply Jone as possible, vas to ring the press. Press is lree marketing. To
make lile easier I upJateJ the press list anJ trieJ to speak to as many ol the
press contacts as possible. This meant they leaneJ into their vastepaper
baskets anJ got out my press releases. They starteJ visiting Dulvich, vithin
three months ol my arrival the visitor ligures haJ risen by 25 percent (vhich
vasn't much in those Jays as harJly anyone visiteJ the Gallery).
Vhen the Gallery vas laceJ vith bankruptcy ve helJ a press conlerence at
Christie's, knoving that the press voulJ be more likely to go there than to
Dulvich. I also contacteJ ten important journalists, incluJing leaJer
vriters, anJ tolJ them the story, embargoeJ until the morning ol the press
80
conlerence. This gave them time to research long anJ interesting stories
about the Gallery. The plight ol the Gallery vas on the BBC nevs, anJ the
press coverage extenJeJ to America anJ ]apan. Ve vere sent a cheque that
very Jay by a generous Jonor vho vas inviteJ on to our boarJ.
The next thing I JiJ vas to institute regular events, incluJing lunchtime
lectures, aJvertising them on a very cheap leallet vhich ve JistributeJ
locally anJ in museums all over LonJon. The lirst lecture haJ I¯ people (ve
vere very pleaseJ) but soon over IJJ vere coming. Though the lectures
vere lree a number ol the people vho came then vent into the Gallery,
paying to Jo so. The other important thing about the leallet vas that it tolJ
you hov to get to the Gallery (by train, bus or car ¬ a map vas incluJeJ) as
vell as vhere you coulJ eat locally. I also took on a long struggle vith the
local council anJ eventually got signposts put up pointing the vay to the
Gallery.
On then Jiscovering that the managing Jirector ol MORI liveJ nearby I
askeJ him vhether his organitation voulJ conJuct a visitors' survey lor
lree. Vhich they JiJ. Irom this ve learneJ a great Jeal about our visitors
anJ targeteJ the type ol person vho clearly likeJ the gallery. Ve learneJ
that they vere, on the vhole, miJJleageJ vomen vho likeJ art anJ so any
aJvertising ve JiJ in the luture (anJ ve harJly aJvertise at all) vas aimeJ
at that type ol person.
I then trieJ to Jo some joint ventures vith other more popular galleries. Ve
JiJ a leallet calleJ Soeo:`s Loocoo (the Gallery is one ol a number ol LonJon
builJings JesigneJ by Sir ]ohn Soane). This attracteJ visitors interesteJ in
architecture. Another successlul leallet vas calleJ Ait:roetiv: Jic Vest:rs. The
unvritten message vas that there vere places apart lrom the National
Gallery vhere you coulJ see olJ master paintings. Ve teameJ up vith The
Vallace Collection, Apsley House anJ KenvooJ, all ol vhom haJ more
visitors than ve JiJ. I askeJ a lirm that maJe printing machinery to print
our printing neeJs on their open Jays lor lree, anJ they JiJ. Ve also JiJ
leallet svaps vith galleries vhen ve vere Joing appropriate exhibitions ¬
so vhen ve haJ Murillo anJ the HayvarJ Gallery haJ Goya, ve svappeJ
leallets anJ helJ lectures about each other's exhibitions.
Our visitors tenJeJ to come at veekenJs so ve targeteJ groups to get them
to come miJveek. Ve beggeJ, borroveJ anJ stole lists ol group organiters
lrom, among others, NADIAS (National Association ol Decorative & Iine
Art Societies), the University ol the ThirJ Age, art history societies, the
National Trust, anJ the NACI (National Art Collections IunJ). Three times
a year ve sent them all our lorthcoming exhibitions anJ a lorm telling them
81
MARKFTING
hov to book in. This vorkeJ very vell inJeeJ. Irom one group a veek on
average ve lounJ ourselves having to turn them avay. At one stage ve vere
getting lour groups a Jay. Ve inaugurateJ stuJy Jays (the Director anJ the
Curator JiJ lectures anJ tours) on MonJays vhen the Gallery vas closeJ.
These vere more expensive, but very successlul. Ve inviteJ groups to come
in the evenings as vell, charging them more anJ giving them a glass ol vine.
Ve JiJ promotions vith nevspapers, vith 1im: Jat, vith local railvay
lines, vith local cinemas, anJ vith magatines. This meant the meJia
covereJ each event ve ollereJ more extensively than they might have Jone
othervise. It also meant ve coulJ monitor vho vas coming.
Ve askeJ the British Tourist BoarJ (as it vas then) to bring loreign
journalists to see the Gallery. Il ve haJ loreign volunteers they translateJ
our press releases anJ rang their arts journalists inviting them to come to
FnglanJ to see Dulvich, this has also been very successlul. Ve JiJ
promotions vith local restaurants, vith local estate agents (2 lor I ollers to
people on their mailing lists) anJ vith local raJio.
Ve JiJ a certain amount ol targeteJ aJvertising, in the Royal AcaJemy's PA
Ve¸ezio:, XADFAS P:vi:w anJ, occasionally, in tourist magatines though
Dulvich vas never on a lirst time visitor's itinerary.
Ve vent to a lamous aJvertising agency, McCann Frickson, anJ askeJ
them to Jo lree aJvertising lor us ¬ anJ they JiJ. They JiJ Jesigns lor the
tube aJvertising campaign vhen ve reopeneJ in 2JJJ alter being closeJ lor
I8 months.
Ve target Jestination travel companies. Ior example, lor a Beatrix Potter
exhibition, ve askeJ a ]apanese volunteer to get in touch vith ]apanese
travel agents because ve have been tolJ that Beatrix Potter is extremely
popular in that country. Ve also got in touch vith all the ]apanese
nevspapers anJ magatines in this country anJ vrote to ]apanese
companies baseJ in LonJon telling them about the exhibition anJ hov they
coulJ hire the Gallery lor parties.
Fvery nov anJ then ve have journalists' lunches or breaklast conlerences
anJ keep them up to Jate on things that are happening. Ve try to make
nevs stories all the time. Il a tree is being choppeJ Jovn in the garJen ve
get the local press to cover it. Vhen the JescenJent ol the King ol PolanJ
claimeJ that our pictures vere rightly his (in the I¯9Js the collection nov at
Dulvich vas JestineJ to be the Polish royal collection but history
interveneJ anJ it vas never JelivereJ) ¬ ve turneJ it into a brilliant press
story anJ one nevspaper vent to PolanJ to interviev him.
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
82
Since reopening, ve have, vith the assistance ol a grant, been able to
Jevelop a very gooJ vebsite. Ve hire the Gallery out lor veJJings anJ
parties anJ the income lrom hire has JoubleJ in the last year. Ve got
Absolut VoJka to sponsor latenight opening, anJ ve starteJ a Young
IrienJs group. The IrienJs are nov 5J years olJ. Their membership
increaseJ in 2JJ+ by over 2JJJ, lrom +,JJJ in ]anuary to vell over 6,JJJ by
the enJ ol the year. Annual attenJance has also increaseJ, lrom 3J,JJJ a year
ten years ago to arounJ IJJ,JJJ a year.
Recently, Dulvich Picture Gallery vas voteJ 'Britain's lavourite visitor
attraction.' This vas achieveJ largely by vorJ ol mouth among the IrienJs,
anJ by the use ol the monthly ebulletin to visitors vho like to be alerteJ
about vhat's on at Dulvich. A gentle suggestion vas maJe that they might
like to vote lor Dulvich ¬ anJ they JiJ in their hunJreJs, a prool ol the
success ol emarketing.
The viev Irom a Iarge gaIIery (The Editors, 2uu5)
Kate Knovles's interesting ¬ anJ entertaining ¬ piece illustrates the
resourcelulness requireJ by all those vorking in galleries, although
organitations vith lever stall anJ less money to spenJ than larger
institutions may neeJ to be more creative. The National Gallery has access
to a Jatabase ol I5JJ journalists anJ organites its resources so that it can
employ a Irench PR lirm to promote the gallery in Irance, Spain, Italy anJ
Belgium. As ve have seen, the Dulvich, vith lever resources, sometimes
asks its loreign volunteers to promote the Gallery's lorthcoming exhibitions
to tour operators in their respective countries vhen they return home.
Yet, Jespite the presence ol aJJitional stall in larger galleries (the National
Gallery's Marketing Department comprises lour people vhile its Press
Ollice is stalleJ by another lour), both they anJ smaller institutions use
similar marketing strategies, the Jillerences are principally ol scale. The
press/marketing stall at both Dulvich anJ the National vork closely vith
exhibition stall vhen promoting exhibitions, both also market/aJvertise in
conjunction vith other galleries, both utilite a variety ol meJia ¬ print, TV
anJ raJio nevs anJ comment, anJ, increasingly, the Internet (especially
their ovn gallery's vebsite) anJ email to market anJ aJvertise their
institutions.
1|: Fcitors wis| to t|eor Pez::t|e Pem, E:ec oj Pr:ss, Xetiooei Ceii:rv, eoc jiiiieo
Vers|, Actio¸ E:ec oj Verr:tio¸, Xetiooei Ceii:rv, jor t|:ir essisteoc: io t|:
¡r:¡eretioo oj t|is eccitiooei s:ctioo
MARKFTING
83
The 6th Edition of $ :RUOG +LVWRU\ RI $UW is pubIished by
Laurence King PubIishing Ltd paperback L32, hardback L45
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
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Job odvert|sements
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84
[obn Flemlng Travel Award
Laurence King PubIishing offers an award of L2,000 annuaIIy in
memory of the art historian john FIeming. He and Hugh Honour are
the authors of $:RUOG+LVWRU\RI$UW. The award aims to encourage a
better understanding of the arts from around the worId.
Entries are invited from undergraduate and postgraduate students of
the history of art and architecture currentIy enroIIed in UK
universities, and who wiII stiII be enroIIed at the time of traveI.
RuIes for entry (deadIine mid-February}:
Submlsslon o| an essay o| not more tban 500 words, wblcb sbould descrlbe bow tbe award wlll be
used ln travelllng to sltes o| art blstorlc lnterest
Lacb essay sbould be accompanled by.
i an estlmated breakdown o| bow tbe |unds wlll be used
i a copy o| tbe appllcant's CV
i letters o| recommendatlon |rom two academlc re|erees
Lntrles |rom non-AAH members wlll be accepted
Pre|erence wlll be glven to appllcants wlsblng to travel outslde tbe UK
Tbe wlnnlng candldate wlll be asked to wrlte a report on tbe completlon o| bls/ber travels
[udges o| tbe entrles wlll lnclude Hugb Honour, togetber wltb representatlves |rom tbe AAH
L×ecutlve Commlttee and Laurence Klng Publlsblng.
Appllcatlon |orms can be obtalned |rom, and completed |orms sent to.
Tbe Admlnlstrator, AAH, 70 Cowcross Street, London LC1M 6L[
AMY 8AkkFk
Exn|c|¦|cns Òff|ce|, Nc|¦n EOs¦ Reg|cnO| Museuns |uc,
!yne Ono weO| Museuns Se|v|ce
A
career in museums anJ galleries ollers many possibilities. The sector is
varieJ, ranging lrom large institutions vith numerous Jepartments anJ
upvarJs ol ¯JJ stall, such as the V&A, to collections helJ by organitations
anJ careJ lor by one inJiviJual or a small group ol volunteers.
Museums anJ galleries are lunJeJ by a variety ol boJies, they can be JiviJeJ
loosely into three categories. National institutions, such as the National
Gallery or the National Museums ol ScotlanJ, are run vith Jirectly
aJministereJ government lunJing. Local Authority museums are usually
manageJ by a Jistrict, borough, tovn or county council. University anJ
inJepenJent institutions (e.g. charities anJ companies) are manageJ by
committee, examples incluJe the Vhitvorth Art Gallery, The Boves
Museum anJ the Saatchi Collection.
Iinding a jol
Competition lor jobs in the museums sector is strong. There are various
routes by vhich to qualily lor museum positions, incluJing higher eJucation
anJ vork experience. Assistant Curatorial posts usually require a
postgraJuate Jegree, possibly some specialist knovleJge anJ certainly vork
experience in the museum sector. StuJents can pursue either a specialiteJ
area ol research or a vocational museum/gallery stuJies qualilication. The
latter proviJes a valuable unJerstanJing ol the variety ol Jirections in vhich
a museum career can leaJ. It also equips stuJents vith the intellectual anJ
practical knovleJge, skills anJ avareness requireJ lor curatorship. Vork
experience is extremely important, although usually unpaiJ, anJ stuJents
85
are vell aJviseJ to seek volunteer positions Juring their vacations (s::
Introduction lor more inlormation about the AAH StuJent Members'
Group's VoluntaryVork IunJ anJ Voluntary Placement Lists). Vork
experience is a prerequisite lor most vocational museum/gallery stuJies
courses. A placement in a museum or gallery is also usually an important
element ol such courses. As a curator, much time is spent vith objects, anJ
interpreting their place in artistic, historical anJ social contexts.
Careers other than curatorship (e.g. conservation) require an assortment ol
postgraJuate qualilications. The current recogniteJ qualilication lor an
eJucation anJ learning post, a PGCF, has application lor museums anJ
galleries. Alternative courses lor museum anJ gallery eJucation are currently
being JesigneJ.
Career µaths
It is important to realite at the outset that museum jobs are not highly paiJ,
but are varieJ anJ extremely revarJing. Museums anJ galleries no longer
comprise largely collectionsbaseJ curatorial stall, anJ curators may have to
move to other institutions in orJer to aJvance their careers. Museum
management is becoming increasingly important in a highly competitive
culture anJ tourism market. Vithout accessible, interactive anJ inlormative
Jisplays, museums cannot compete vith large tourist attractions. Vork in a
museum can be JiviJeJ into three main, interJepenJent categories. care anJ
interpretation ol the collection, visitor services (e.g. marketing, publicity,
community involvement, eJucation anJ learning), anJ aJministration.
Collections are careJ lor, JocumenteJ anJ interpreteJ by curatorial,
conservation anJ scientilic stall although curatorial stall spenJ an
increasing amount ol time on aJministration (e.g. Jealing vith enquiries,
Jocumentation, loans anJ interpretive material). Curatorial stall, especially
in smaller institutions, may also be expecteJ to take on everything lrom
marketing to painting valls! Research time is limiteJ, anJ is usually
connecteJ vith nev acquisitions anJ exhibitions. The provision ol
interpretation anJ intellectual anJ physical access to collections is
supporteJ anJ lacilitateJ by exhibition, eJucation, marketing anJ visitor
services stall. All activities vithin the organitation are coorJinateJ anJ
supporteJ by aJministration stall, vho are olten the lirst point ol contact
vith potential visitors. Therelore, a successlul museum Jisplay or exhibition
relies on creative cooperation anJ teamvork across all Jepartments.
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CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
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SCHOOL OF
WORLD ART STUDlES
AND MUSEOLOCY
... nt the Iend¡ng edge o] enqu¡ry ¡nto
nrt, nnd v¡sunI nnd mnter¡nI cuIture ...
Taught MA Programmes
Arts oI Europe Arts oI AIrIca, OceanIa and the AmerIcas
WorId Art CuIturaI HerItage MuseoIogy
Research Degrees
MA MPhII PhD
Develop your specialist interests as a member of an engaged
community of art historians, archaeologists and anthropologists.
For InIormatIon contact:
Sue RoweII (Taught Programmes)
e: s.roweII©uea.ac.uk
t: 0T603 593520
Lyn Marsh (Research Degrees)
e: I.marsh©uea.ac.uk
t: 0T603 593040
w: www.uea.ac.uk/menu/acad¸depts/art/
Sainsbury Centre for
Visual Arts, UEA
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hotography is a broaJ lielJ, anJ there are various routes by vhich
someone can become a photographer ¬ lrom the talenteJ amateur
vhose career begins as a hobby to the stuJent vho takes a specilic course ol
training.
It is olten the case that stuJents vho stuJy line art photography, especially
at postgraJuate level, become inspireJ by successlul photoartists such as
Sam TaylorVooJ or RicharJ Billingham, anJ move to creative
photography as a vocation. It varies as to vhether stuJents bring a line art
or art historical sensibility to their vork, anJ this olten JepenJs on their
experience ol photography as a meJium anJ their exposure to lineart
images at home, school, vorking lives anJ so lorth. Ior many contemporary
photographers, 'line art' or art historical sensibilities are inciJental
compareJ to subject matter, treatment, high quality prints anJ appropriate
context.
Case study: Maxine AdcocI
My interest in photography JevelopeJ vhen I took a prespecialist art anJ
Jesign course at sixthlorm college that incluJeJ specilic subjects at GCSF
level in art anJ photography. I then took a lounJation course in Iine Art.
This vas very intense anJ covereJ a range ol subjects, it is the stage at
vhich most stuJents Jiscover vhere their talents anJ enthusiasms lie. I
then took a Iine Art Jegree in Printmaking vhere photography vas a stage
in the printmaking process. StuJents ol graphic art Jo a lot ol stuJio
photography as part ol their training or one can take a Jegree in
photography.
PHOTOGRAPHY

Vork experience can be gaineJ by vorking as a photographer's assistant in
a stuJio. There are stuJios specialiting in line art photography as vell as the
more conventional 'high street' stuJios. Fxperience can be attaineJ by
participating in creative projects in schools. I secureJ a number ol voluntary
positions in local schools anJ vorkeJ as an 'Artist in ResiJence' at a
preparatory school vhere I taught chilJren to take photographs anJ to
vork vith photographic images in the making ol collages, etc.
Another methoJ ol gaining experience is to apply lor 'ResiJencies' vhere
lunJing can be obtaineJ to vork on one's ovn creative projects abroaJ. I
vorkeJ in IinlanJ lor a time on this basis. I covereJ my ovn travel expenses
anJ partially paiJ lor materials, stuJio anJ living expenses vere
supplementeJ by bursaries. There is a lot ol inlormation on resiJencies on
the Internet. Veb pages are highly inJiviJual anJ may vary accorJing to
personal specialisms anJ country. Most sites proviJe contacts to approach
lor bursaries anJ lunJing.
My time is currently JiviJeJ, vorking as a parttime photographer at the
School ol VorlJ Art StuJies anJ Museology at the University ol Fast Anglia
anJ lreelancing, vhich incluJes teaching evening courses in photography at
local aJult eJucation centres, exhibiting my vork anJ vorking through
photographic agencies.
My vork at the university is a permanent parttime position, it proviJes me
vith a steaJy income anJ enables me to support my creative, lreelance
enterprises. At the moment 6J percent ol my earnings Jerive lrom my
permanent post anJ +J percent lrom lreelancing. My post at UFA incluJes
photography lor the reproJuction ol images as sliJes, usually photographing
lrom books anJ other sources to make sliJes. I proJuce images lor
publication, scanning images Jigitally but also using the traJitional Jark
room.
VorIing vith µhotograµhic agencies
Although it is possible to generate vork by Jirectly approaching art
galleries lor exhibitions, photographic agencies can be a gooJ anJ lucrative
source ol lreelance creative vork. There are many Jillerent agencies anJ
they can be variable in quality. It is therelore important to be strategic anJ
thoroughly research the agencies prior to approach. It is best to contact
those that are members ol the British Association ol Picture Libraries anJ
Agencies (BAPLA). Agencies are selective anJ vill only take images they are
conliJent they can sell. IinJing the right agency lor your vork is extremely
important, anJ it is aJvisable to specialite in a particular subject rather than
become a 'jack ol all traJes'. It vill take some time to assemble a large
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
º0
portlolio ol images vith an agency anJ to begin making sales. Il your vork is
accepteJ lor an agency's books you shoulJ receive gooJ aJvice lrom a
picture eJitor vho vill vork vith you on your photographic compositions,
aJvising on the market anJ vhat vill sell. Registering vith an agency anJ
receiving the aJvice ol a picture eJitor is lree but il the agency sells your
vork, to a book publisher lor example, its commission coulJ be as much as
5J percent ol your lee. Vhen you unJertake to vork vith an agency reaJ
your contract very carelully.
Vorking through agencies is a gooJ vay ol marketing your creative vork.
To make contact vith agencies, lirst research those you vish to approach,
compile an appealing portlolio geareJ tovarJs the type ol vork the agency
markets, anJ spenJ time making appointments anJ meeting vith the
agencies anJ picture eJitors vho vill promote your vork. The same rules
apply to approaching nevspapers anJ magatines ¬ alvays research the
organitation anJ appear lor meetings vith portlolios ol appropriate images.
PersonaI quaIities
Sellmotivation, conliJence anJ assertiveness are personal qualities vhich
vill help you succeeJ in a competitive market. A lreelance photographer
vill require a llexible attituJe to receive constructive criticism lrom picture
eJitors vho unJerstanJ the market anJ vill knov vhat it takes to sell one's
vork.
One ol the main tensions in establishing a career as a creative photographer
can be the conllict betveen the neeJ to engage in steaJy, but sometimes
routine, paiJ vork vhile builJing a creative repertoire until the point is
reacheJ at vhich a regular income is guaranteeJ solely by your creative
vork. Nevspaper vork can be creative too, JepenJing on the title!
Training
StuJents can choose to take a specialist BA in Photography, though it can
lorm a component ol other Jegree options ¬ lor example, printmaking or
graphic Jesign Jegrees. There are approximately 5J art schools in the UK
vhich oller this option. There are lists ol these courses online anJ
inlormation is available in Jirectories anJ prospectuses. A small number ol
postgraJuate courses are available ¬ some privileging theory, others practice
anJ others enJeavouring to strike a balance. It is essential to carelully
research the institution(s) you apply to, so as to ensure the bias ol your
course lits vith your objectives.
Higher eJucation institutions are increasingly receiving lunJing lrom
government initiatives to support the early careers ol art anJ Jesign
PHOTOGRAPHY
º1
stuJents anJ to incorporate a prolessional practice option into their
curricula ¬ olten in the lorm ol Creative Fnterprise Centres (CFCs) vhich
enable unJergraJuates to learn hov to commercially exploit their 'cralt'.
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FANDOkA MAIhFk-IFF8
Depu¦y MOnOg|ng D||ec¦c|, !ne B||ogenOn /|¦ ||c|O|y
A
career in picture research voulJ be suitable lor anyone vith a keen
eye, a gooJ visual memory, organitational skills anJ an ability to clearly
unJerstanJ anJ interpret a briel. Because ol the potentially broaJranging
subject interests opportunities are open to graJuates lrom a number ol
Jisciplines.
Vorking as a picture researcher can leaJ to a variety ol roles in a number ol
Jiverse areas, ranging lrom book publishing to vorking lor a greetings carJ
company. In aJJition, the picture research community has its ovn inJustry,
you coulJ enter an inJepenJent picture library, or one vhich is part ol an
institution, such as a museum. The vorking environment can be llexible,
sometimes enabling a researcher to unJertake lull or parttime lreelance
vork lrom home.
Picture research has altereJ Jramatically in recent years oving to the
revolution in inlormation technology. As a result ol this, buJgets are tighter
anJ those commissioning research are more JemanJing in terms ol
stanJarJs anJ JeaJlines.
The jol
A picture researcher is given a briel, vhich requires interpretation. It is
necessary to clarily the client's requirements, to establish a buJget anJ any
JeaJlines vhich neeJ to be met at the outset. Verily vho vill be responsible
lor receiving the images that are selecteJ, hov anJ vhen they vill be
returneJ anJ vho is responsible lor paying the invoice anJ terms anJ
conJitions ol payment. AJvances in IT mean that most images are nov
supplieJ Jigitally, therelore, ensuring that pictures are returneJ is no longer
º3
such an issue. An ability to vork inJepenJently is Jesirable, hovever, you
are alvays vorking lor a client anJ so gooJ interpersonal skills are requireJ
lor the job. Ultimately, picture research is a business anJ you must Jeliver
value to vhoever is paying, brieling or employing you. It is essential to be
proactive in sourcing material, ollering suggestions anJ generating iJeas lor
current anJ luture projects. Clients neeJ to be nurtureJ anJ resources
cultivateJ in orJer to establish anJ maintain a successlul career.
Iullilling a briel comes vith practice anJ it can be learneJ by observing
experienceJ researchers. Many researchers have an area ol specialism anJ
this, combineJ vith general knovleJge anJ a gooJ memory, vill serve you
vell.
Projects can be Jiverse, anJ may require accessing many sources, incluJing
picture libraries, institutions, museums anJ photographers, lor the relevant
material. This may even require liaison vith overseas institutions. Be avare
that some charge hire or service lees, expenses that vill have to come out ol
the client's buJget. Obtaining the images at a reasonable price anJ to
JeaJline may require tenacity anJ excellent interpersonal skills.
QuaIiIications
Qualilications can vary accorJing to the employer. Vithout a Jegree it may
be possible to linJ an entree through a junior position or vork experience
anJ internships. Ior many employers a Jegree is a minimum requirement,
prelerably accompanieJ by some relevant experience. Picture research
courses are available but are not a prerequisite lor linJing employment.
Iinding a jol
Research anJ reaJ relevant journals such as \isa:ii Iot:roetiooei. Art history
graJuates shoulJ also reaJ museum, art anJ historical publications such as
1|: Art X:ws¡e¡:r anJ Vas:am X:ws (s:: Iurther inIormation).
IinJ out the key players in the area that interests you the most. Fxamples
incluJe Getty Images lor picture libraries, Penguin lor publishing, anJ the
BBC picture research Jesk lor TV. The Internet enables one to easily
research prominent names in specialist areas.
Be avare ol key issues allecting the inJustry anJ keep abreast ol them.
Fxamples incluJe copyright changes, technological Jevelopments, buyouts,
takeovers, anJ issues allecting pricing anJ supply ol pictures.
]oin any relevant organitations that aJmit noninJustry members. Fxamples
incluJe becoming a IrienJ ol a museum, joining associations such as the
AAH anJ the Picture Research Association (s:: Iurther inIormation).
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
º4
Remember to netvork anJ maintain contact vith the stuJents you meet
Juring your years at university ¬ they vill make gooJ contacts lor the luture
vhether or not they can Jirectly help you linJ a job.
Research hov jobs are aJvertiseJ anJ posteJ. These incluJe the Internet
(see, lor instance, the British Association ol Picture Libraries anJ Agencies.
vebsite Jetails in Iurther inIormation), MonJay's 1|: Caercieo anJ
relevant magatines (s:: Iurther inIormation). Prospect companies you are
interesteJ in to linJ out vhere they aJvertise.
Research the Jillerent jobs available in the inJustry anJ inJiviJual
companies you are seeking to join. In a picture library a picture researcher is
just one ol many roles, not the only option, anJ it is alvays possible to make
a siJevays move lrom an existing job. The BriJgeman Art Library, one ol a
number ol art libraries in the UK, is a line art photo archive anJ requires arts
graJuates lor picture research or cataloguing. Hovever, there are also other
options in the company, such as rights negotiation, marketing,
aJministration, scanning, vorking vith contemporary artists, IT or PA
vork.
ConsiJer hov you might establish a connection vith a potential employer.
Ask il you can shaJov a researcher lor a Jay, or il you can Jo a
veek's/month's voluntaryvork experience. Fnquire about an internship
(even il no programme currently exists) ¬ tell the employer il you have a
skill vhich you can oller Juring your internship. The BriJgeman Art Library
ollers vork experience in all its ollices anJ has an ollicial internship
programme open to anyone in its Nev York ollice.
Apply lor everything. Search harJ not only lor those jobs vhich are
immeJiately relevant but also those on the periphery ol your sphere ol
interests. Vorking lor a year or tvo in an associateJ inJustry coulJ be the
steppingstone to an iJeal position anJ vill give you time to Jevelop
contacts. Interviev experience is never vasteJ vhether or not it results in a
job.
Vhilst all this might seem a lot ol vork lor no guaranteeJ return it vill be
time saveJ later, giving you a heaJ start once you get a job. Iurthermore, the
vork Jone in researching the inJustry alone vill hone your skills as a
researcher!

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ver the past ten years an increasing number ol artists, Jesigners anJ art
historians have become vhat might best be JescribeJ as counter
jumpers. As art history anJ cultural stuJies have become lamiliar leatures ol
the curriculum in art schools some artists anJ Jesigners have become
increasingly interesteJ in research, theory anJ art history, anJ,
concomitantly, some art anJ Jesign historians have begun to Jevelop their
ovn practice. There are ol course lamous preceJents lor this in Marcel
Duchamp anJ Max Frnst, but this is nov a relatively commonplace
phenomenon. InJeeJ, the vork ol Simon Starling, the 2JJ5 Turner Prite
vinner, vas heralJeJ as researchbaseJ art. Clearly, the iJea ol practice
baseJ research has become embeJJeJ in UK art schools lrom AberJeen to
Ialmouth anJ artisttheorists anJ theoristartists have starteJ to tutor anJ
supervise the emergent practicebaseJ researchers. This nev breeJ ol
practitioner researchers can be exciting anJ challenging to vork vith,
requiring thoughtlul anJ responsive teaching vhich goes vell beyonJ the
stanJarJ art history curriculum ol art schools anJ certainly cannot be
JescribeJ as °service teaching¨ (s:: Teaching: Art & Design CoIIeges
chapter).
As higher eJucation begins to expanJ at postgraJuate level opportunities
lor practitioner theorists are increasing anJ suitably qualilieJ graJuates may
linJ vork as PhD coorJinators or as Masters ol Research Programme
LeaJers or Tutors. The key skill is the ability to make anJ explore links
betveen theory anJ practice anJ to Jevelop the potential lor artist anJ
Jesigner research.
º7
It is quite likely that currently those interesteJ in the emergent lielJ ol
practicebaseJ research vill themselves have PhDs or a backgrounJ in art
school teaching. These nev posts can be lounJ aJvertiseJ in 1|: 1im:s Ei¸|:r
Fcacetioo Sa¡¡i:m:ot or 1|: Caercieo, as art schools become increasingly
researchorienteJ such positions vill become more commonplace. The Arts
anJ Humanities Research Council (AHRC) as vell as the UK HF IunJing
Councils require the Jelivery ol structureJ research training programmes
anJ Schools ol Art are beginning to appoint the nev breeJ ol artist/
researcher/teacher to Jeliver these as art anJ Jesign take their place lully in
the research acaJemy on a par vith the other humanities Jisciplines. The
JiviJe betveen artists, Jesigners, historians anJ theorists vill cease to exist
anJ the articulate artistresearcher vill be the norm.
Teaching anJ tutoring this nev breeJ is both exciting anJ vorthvhile as a
recent supervisory experience vith a PhD stuJent vhose vork straJJleJ
jevellery, phenomenology anJ architecture certainly taught me. So, il that
blenJ ol research, practice anJ teaching leels right to you it is vell vorth
becoming involveJ as currently there are all too lev people villing to take
up the reins.
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CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
º8
T
his prolession may be consiJereJ a Jerivative ol art librarianship (s::
Art Iilrarianshiµ chapter), though vorking vith entirely Jillerent
meJia. In common vith any other career associateJ vith the arts it is highly
competitive.
Vhat is invoIved:
This can vary greatly vithin Jillerent institutions, sliJe librarians are
employeJ in the higher eJucation sector anJ in the museums/galleries
vorlJ. Some ol the routine tasks you might be expecteJ to carry out are.
collection management, cataloguing anJ accessioning nev material, picture
research, tracking Jovn suppliers anJ purchasing nev stock, sliJe
photography (vhere there is no separate photographic service Jepartment),
basic maintenance anJ installation ol sliJe anJ Jata projection equipment
(vhere there is no extra auJiovisual support), assisting library users vith
their image requests, incluJing vorking through their iJeas lor seminars/
lectures anJ maintenance ol an electronic catalogue (vhere one exists).
Vhere sliJe librarians are involveJ in Jigititation projects (either in higher
eJucation or in museums/galleries), traJitional librarians' skills, such as
Jata control anJ knovleJge ol copyright, together vith nev technical skills
relating to the Jigital environment, are also applieJ.
SIide Iilrarianshiµ in the 2Ist Century
The role ol the sliJe librarian is currently shilting anJ evolving to keep pace
vith the unJeniable increase in JemanJ lor Jigital images rather than sliJes.
Some might suggest that this move ostensibly signals the beginning ol the
enJ ol the sliJe librarian's prolession. Iortunately, this is not the case, lirst
JFNNY GODFkFY
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because 35mm sliJes are still lavoureJ by many, especially in locations
vhere Jata projectors are unavailable anJ, seconJly, because the skills ol the
sliJe librarian are still neeJeJ in the Jigital environment.
In higher eJucation institutions, copyright constraints are preventing large
scale Jigititation ol sliJe collections, even il this situation vere to alter, it
voulJ be both unrealistic anJ unJesirable to Jigitite entire collections.
InsteaJ, institutions are laceJ vith the possibility ol subscribing to
commercial schemes, anJ topping up vith more specialist material createJ
inhouse as anJ vhen it becomes possible to Jo so legally (DACS, the
Design anJ Artists Copyright Society, have yet to come up vith a Jigital
equivalent ol their current 'SliJe Collection Licensing Scheme', vhereby
subscribers can legally practise photography).
Subsequently, it is envisageJ that there vill be a perioJ vhere Jigital vill
run in tanJem vith analogue, thus the role ol the sliJe librarian, lar lrom
becoming reJunJant, is evolving into that ol an 'image librarian' or 'curator',
requiring an aJJitional range ol specialist skills anJ knovleJge to match the
nev role. Although this might heralJ a perioJ ol uncertainty, it is an
exciting time to become involveJ in this particular sector. There are also a
variety ol organitations anJ agencies that can proviJe support anJ aJvice
vhen requireJ (s:: Iurther inIormation).
Some people vho vork in sliJe libraries are responsible lor more than just a
35 mm sliJe collection. they might lirst anJ loremost be subject specialists
vith other meJia to Jeal vith, such as paper ephemera, archives,
photographs or auJiovisual material. In this sense, the role ol sliJe librarian
very olten evolves out ol other prolessions anJ cannot alvays be separateJ
lrom them. Therelore, it shoulJ come as no surprise that there is no ollicial
qualilication or a generally accepteJ level ol eJucation that one must have to
enter this prolession, hovever, most vill at least have stuJieJ to an
unJergraJuate level, anJ a postgraJuate qualilication in Librarianship or
Inlormation Management is Jesirable. In the vorlJ ol museums, art galleries
anJ archives, vhere there are many more Jigititation projects taking place,
the skills ol an art historian, especially vhen allieJ to those ol a librarian,
can also be uselully JeployeJ.
Iinally, some institutions take on stuJents to help out in the JaytoJay
running ol their image collections, this is a uselul vay ol both getting
experience anJ a taste ol vhat is involveJ.
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
100
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D/CS cu||en¦|y |un O ||cens|ng scnene wn|cn O||cws sucsc||ce|s ¦c |egO||y
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cc||ec¦|cns ncs¦|y suppc|¦ ccu|ses |n O|¦, oes|gn, O|cn|¦ec¦u|e Ono O|¦ Ono
oes|gn n|s¦c|y. Mcs¦ cf ¦nese |nOge p|cfess|cnO|s wc|| |n cc||eges,
un|ve|s|¦|es, gO||e||es Ono nuseuns, p|eocn|nOn¦|y, cu¦ nc¦ exc|us|ve|y, |n
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101
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he lielJ ol aJult eJucation has expanJeJ signilicantly in recent years.
GovernmentlunJeJ initiatives as vell as nongovernmental
organitations such as The National Institute ol AJult Continuing FJucation
(NIACF) promote lilelong learning through viJening access to learning
opportunities throughout the UK. Many universities anJ Local FJucation
Authorities (LFAs) oller aJult eJucation programmes.
Art history has become an extremely popular subject lor aJults, anJ an
increasing number ol teaching opportunities have openeJ up to art
historians. Vhile lev lulltime lecturing posts in aJult eJucation exist,
there are opportunities lor art historians to vork as parttime tutors. Tutors
require a gooJ honours Jegree anJ have, or be pursuing, postgraJuate
qualilications in art history (e.g. MPhil or PhD).
Teaching aJults can be a most challenging anJ revarJing experience.
Mature stuJents return to stuJy lor many Jillerent reasons, personal anJ
career motivateJ. They may have misseJ out on eJucational opportunities in
their younger years or vish to return alter a break in their eJucation Jue to
lamily or vork commitments. Some vill be seeking entry to lulltime stuJy
or to enhance their career prospects. Others vill come simply because ol
their interest in art history. As a result, a class may be composeJ ol those
vho have little or no prior knovleJge ol the subject anJ others vho have
lrequenteJ major art galleries anJ reaJ viJely on art over many years.
Tutors neeJ to be sensitive to such Jiversity anJ be prepareJ to take a
llexible approach to their teaching. Pitching the lectures at a level
appropriate to the class is a skill that is acquireJ through practice.
102
Mature stuJents are usually highly motivateJ, enthusiastic anJ keen to
learn. Because their knovleJge base anJ lile experience is broaJer than that
ol younger stuJents, they can olten ask challenging questions, anJ tutors
can learn a great Jeal lrom the experience. AJults pay lor these classes anJ
expect high levels ol knovleJge, prolessionalism anJ commitment lrom
their tutors, therelore, gooJ preparation is essential. Tutors are expecteJ to
proviJe stuJent support material lor each class ¬ course notes,
bibliographies ol recommenJeJ reaJing, uselul vebsites, etc. Devising a nev
course ol lectures is timeconsuming anJ the rate ol pay olten lov, but the
experience ol teaching aJults is an excellent learning opportunity lor young
graJuates.
Most classes vill be taught, Jaytime or evening, on campus, but some
learning proviJers also oller ollcampus vork. Ior example, Glasgov
University's Department ol AJult anJ Continuing FJucation proviJes
courses throughout the vest anJ southvest ol ScotlanJ. Types ol courses
incluJe general interest classes vith no course vork, classes vith a small
amount ol assesseJ vork, anJ courses carrying qualilying creJit at all levels
ol unJergraJuate vork, requiring lull assessment anJ marking by tutors.
Courses can run lor a perioJ ol a lev veeks, one semester or the lull
acaJemic session, September or October to ]une. StuJy Jays on a specilic
topic such as an artist or school ol painters coinciJing vith major
exhibitions ol their vork are also popular. Most courses vill require a
minimum number ol stuJents (usually about ten) belore the class vill run.
Unlike mainstream university teaching, classes may begin small, allorJing
the tutor an opportunity to get to knov the class. Mature stuJents tenJ to
become loyal to a tutor anJ may vish to attenJ lurther classes so, vhile
some classes can be repeateJ annually, it may become necessary lor tutors to
Jesign nev courses each session.
Teaching aJults is JemanJing but the benelits can be signilicant. Observing
the progress ol nev stuJents, vith no previous knovleJge ol art history, as
they become enthuseJ by the subject, reaJing books, visiting art galleries,
talking anJ vriting lluently on art, is a revarJing experience. Ior aJult
eJucation tutors, the experience ol preparing anJ Jelivering a range ol art
history courses vithin their specialist subject can enhance their luture
career prospects. Many tutors vho have gaineJ early experience in aJult
eJucation have gone on to linJ lulltime teaching posts in university art
history Jepartments.
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103
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CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
104
Art & Design CoIIeges
IO8hIO WAIANA8F
D||ec¦c|, ReseO|cn Cen¦|e fc| !|OnsnO¦|cnO| /|¦, |oen¦|¦y Ono
NO¦|cn ¦!|/|N} Ono P|cfessc| cf ||s¦c|y cf /|¦ Ono Des|gn,
Cne|seO Cc||ege cf /|¦ & Des|gn, dn|ve|s|¦y cf ¦ne /|¦s, |cnocn
T
eaching art history at art anJ Jesign colleges proviJes the graJuate
vith exciting anJ Jiverse career opportunities. Although the olJ
Council lor National AcaJemic AvarJs (CNAA) requirement ol 2J percent
art history anJ complementary stuJies lor practical art anJ Jesign BA
courses is long gone, most courses proviJe an equivalent amount ol such
teaching. As a historian it is very revarJing to become Jirectly involveJ in
the creation ol art anJ Jesign, although it has its ovn problems. Some art
stuJents are lrighteneJ ol, or at times even hostile to, the Jiscipline ol art
history. To make art history not only attractive but, more importantly,
vorthvhile lor these stuJents is a major challenge ol the job (s:: The
Practising Artist chapter).
A career in art anJ Jesign colleges also allovs viJe scope lor teaching anJ
research in unorthoJox, interJisciplinary or nevly relevant subjects, as the
teaching is rarely conlineJ to narrovly prescribeJ exam topics. Ior
example, since the I9¯Js signilicant Jevelopments in Jesign history have
taken place vithin British art colleges anJ laculties. Some teaching on non
Vestern art is also very common. On the vhole, the teaching centres on
issues lrom the perioJ ol the postInJustrial Revolution, vith a strong
emphasis on the tventieth anJ tventylirst centuries.
In many art colleges art historians are seen as 'servicing' the stuJio subjects,
vhich coulJ leaJ to the marginalitation ol the subject anJ the lecturer
vithin the institution. Colleges vhere there are no Jepartments/units ol art
history anJ vhere art historians are attacheJ to stuJio Jepartments are very
105
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
10ó

TrAlN, Tbe Unlverslty o| tbe Arts Pesearcb Centre |or Transnatlonal Art,
|dentlty and Natlon ls a |orum |or blstorlcal, tbeoretlcal and practlce-based
researcb ln arcbltecture, art, communlcatlon, cra|t and deslgn.
Focusslng on bow tbe movement o| botb people and arte|acts breaks down
borders and produces new ldentltles beyond tbose o| tbe natlon state, tbe
Centre alms to contrlbute to botb creatlvlty and cultural understandlng.
Tbls collaboratlve venture lnvolves lnternatlonally recognlsed scbolars and
practltloners at Camberwell College o| Arts, Cbelsea College o| Art &
Deslgn and Central Salnt Martlns College o| Art & Deslgn.
Tbe TrA|N Pesearcb Centre supports tbe dlssemlnatlon o| arlslng lssues
and debates by organlslng publlc e×blbltlons and events as well as researcb
projects. |nvlted speakers take part ln an Open Lecture Serles on
Transnatlonal Art beld on alternate Tuesdays eacb term.
For |ull detalls o| tbe course, and otber TrA|N actlvltles, please contact
Dr |sobel Wbltelegg
Pesearcb Centre Admlnlstrator
l.wbltelegg@cbelsea.arts.ac.uk
(020) 7514 2165
For more ln|ormatlon please vlslt. www.arts.ac.uk/researcb/17636.btm
A PbD Skllls Tralnlng Course at tbe Unlverslty o| tbe Arts, London, bosted
by TrA|N. Lstabllsbed ln collaboratlon wltb Klngston Unlverslty and tbe
Poyal College o| Art, tbe course wlll be open |ree o| cbarge to a llmlted
number o| PbD students |rom otber unlversltles |or tbe year 2006-07.
Theory & Practice
of
TransnationaI Art
vulnerable. Some art colleges have JevelopeJ courses relateJ to art history.
This counters the Janger ol marginalitation anJ proviJes opportunities lor
teaching specialiteJ subjects. PostgraJuate research Jegrees are also
becoming more common at art colleges.
A lecturer at an art college neeJs to be prepareJ to teach a viJe range ol
issues, especially on current art anJ culture, in orJer to responJ to stuJent
interests anJ neeJs. Olten the art historian is also regarJeJ as the inhouse
expert on anything Jealing vith theory. Most assessments are baseJ on
essays/Jissertations, the topics ol vhich are proposeJ by the stuJent. This
means you have to guiJe/assess a stuJent on topics you have never Jealt
vith belore. This can be both challenging anJ enriching. An interest in
teaching anJ learning skills is also a positive asset lor graJuates looking lor
employment in art colleges.
Most lulltime jobs in art colleges are aJvertiseJ in the Fcacetioo Caercieo
anJ 1|: 1im:s Ei¸|:r Fcacetioo Sa¡¡i:m:ot (s:: Iurther inIormation). Usually
you neeJ at least an MA, anJ holJing a PhD is a Jistinct aJvantage.
Research is becoming more anJ more important lor art colleges, anJ to have
a soliJ publication recorJ or to have major publications lineJ up lor release
vithin the next lev years voulJ be an aJvantage.
In reality, most lulltimers start their careers as lreelance parttimers (s::
IreeIance VorI chapter). Iractional posts, such as J.5 ol a lulltime post,
are becoming more common anJ may suit graJuates vho have
commitments, such as vriting a PhD, looking alter a lamily or other
interests. In orJer to comply vith their equal opportunities policies many
institutions publicly aJvertise all their parttime posts, though not
necessarily in the above publications. Il you have a particular institution in
minJ, olten you can preregister your interest in getting vork belore a job
becomes available. Vacancies are also routinely aJvertiseJ on institutional
vebsites.
It useJ to be that no lormal teaching qualilications vere requireJ, but this is
changing anJ postgraJuate Jegrees in relevant lielJs anJ/or a PGCF
teaching qualilication are uselul. At some ol the institutions teaching
qualilications are becoming compulsory, but olten you can get traineJ alter
starting your job.
AttenJing conlerences ol the AAH or other more specialiteJ associations
such as the Design History Society is a very important vay ol getting to
knov people vho might employ you. Giving papers at such conlerences is
even better. Prospective employers vill be looking lor someone vho not
TFACHING
107
only has subject expertise but also is capable ol clear, lively anJ prolessional
presentation. Art anJ Jesign stuJents have a very lov thresholJ ol tolerance
lor Jull anJ boring lectures! SenJing unsoliciteJ letters to potential
employers vhom you have alreaJy met at a conlerence can be vorthvhile.
Be carelul vhom you choose as your relerees. They shoulJ be people vho
knov your vork, anJ vho are regularly kept up to Jate vith vhat you are
Joing, they can make uselul inlormal contacts lor you too. Il you get the job,
alvays tell the relerees vhat happeneJ anJ thank them, you may neeJ their
help again in the luture.
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CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
108
¥FkONICA DA¥IF8
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T
he Open University (OU) ollers supporteJ open learning lor parttime
stuJents in the UK anJ abroaJ. Most are mature stuJents lolloving
unJergraJuate programmes vhile vorking anJ/or meeting personal
commitments. Due to the 'open' nature ol the university, many have not
lolloveJ a conventional eJucational route to unJergraJuate stuJy, but olten
have experience anJ qualities vhich compensate lor this. The
unJergraJuate programme generally involves stuJying courses at three
levels, each ol vhich is vorth either 3J or 6J points, JepenJing on the
amount ol stuJy time involveJ. StuJents typically unJertake 6J points ol
stuJy per year, vith an upper annual limit ol I2J points. To gain an honours
Jegree, a stuJent must gain 36J points, I2J ol vhich must be at level 3. Some
stuJents are stuJying lor certilicates or Jiplomas, there is also a boJy ol
postgraJuate stuJents, vith a groving number ol Masters courses being
ollereJ.
Teaching is baseJ on course material vritten by central acaJemics, most ol
vhom are baseJ at the OU heaJquarters in Milton Keynes, vith some baseJ
at one ol the I3 regional centres. This is supplementeJ, JepenJing on the
course, by set books anJ reaJers, specially proJuceJ auJiovisual material,
anJ optional tutorials vhich may be JelivereJ lacetolace, by telephone or,
increasingly, as etuition.
UnJergraJuate courses start vith Level I, vhere stuJents are introJuceJ to
all the Jisciplines in the laculty. Level 2 courses are mainly broaJbaseJ
singlesubject courses, vhilst thirJ level courses require a stanJarJ
equivalent to the last year ol an honours Jegree elsevhere. There are also a
10º
lev seconJ anJ thirJ level interJisciplinary courses. The Arts Iaculty ollers
a number ol short, introJuctory courses locussing on stuJy skills, anJ a
range ol MA programmes. The Art History MA starteJ in 2JJ+ anJ runs
over three years, vith lounJation, subject anJ Jissertation moJules.
EmµIoyment
Ior OU employment opportunities, the best source ol inlormation is the OU
vebsite (s:: Iurther inIormation). All current vacancies are listeJ there
unJer the general heaJing ']obs at the OU', as vell as being aJvertiseJ in the
national press. The lolloving categories ol employment exist.
C:otrei Acec:mics
The Art History Department is baseJ at Milton Keynes, but, because ol the
structure ol the OU, this is not a campus vith unJergraJuate stuJents, anJ
the teaching lunctions ol the central acaJemics are to plan, vrite, Jeliver,
monitor anJ maintain Jistance learning courses leaJing to BA anJ MA
Jegrees. The Department also has a strong research base. As vith all
university posts, vacancies are inlrequent anJ very competitive.
Stejj 1ators
The Arts Iaculty has one or tvo Stall Tutors (in some cases assisteJ by
Iaculty Managers) in each ol the OU's regional ollices. These are acaJemic
posts, vith responsibility lor the aJministration ol the Iaculty's courses in
their region. This incluJes the appointment ol Associate Lecturers to teach
in the region, anJ organitation anJ oversight ol their prolessional
Jevelopment. Stall Tutors also lrequently have a role in the Jevelopment ol
nev courses as members ol course teams. As vith central acaJemics, the
number ol vacancies is small.
Associet: L:ctar:rs
Associate Lecturers (ALs) are parttime stall appointeJ on a regional basis
to tutor a particular course. The lull range ol their Juties, anJ a person
specilication, can be lounJ on the OU vebsite. All tutors are nov expecteJ
to use ICT in some lorm in their vork. A key part ol the tutor's role is
marking anJ giving vritten leeJback on stuJents' essays (typically seven
assignments lor a 6J point course). Ior many stuJents, their course tutor is
their main point ol contact vith the university, anJ tutors neeJ to be
available to inJiviJual stuJents by phone, email or letter, as vell as running
regular (though beyonJ Level I not alvays lrequent) group tutorials.
Iull Jetails ol the recruitment process are on the vebsite. AJvertisements
lor AL posts appear lrom time to time, JepenJing on course start Jates.
There are not alvays vacancies lor all courses or in all regions, there are
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
110
usually, hovever, more vacancies vhen a nev course is starting. Ior this
reason you shoulJ not be JiscourageJ lrom applying again il you are
unsuccesslul the lirst time, anJ it is vorth looking out lor current vacancies
on the vebsite.
The current (2JJ6¯) courses ol most interest to art historians are as
lollovs.
IeveI I. Ao Iotrocactioo to t|: Eameoiti:s incluJes a general introJuction to the
Jiscipline ol art history, anJ a case stuJy on Rothko anJ Varhol, as part ol
an interJisciplinary section on the Sixties. There is a strong element ol
stuJy skills teaching, anJ there are more local lacetolace tutorials than
vith higher levels. A version ol this course, vhich is mainly taught online,
has also recently been launcheJ.
IeveI 2. Art eoc its Eistori:s is a popular course vhich introJuces art
historical methoJs anJ issues, ranging viJely historically, lrom the
Parthenon marbles to Tate MoJern.
IeveI 3. Art oj t|: 1w:oti:t| C:otarv examines critically anJ in Jepth the
changes in art anJ relateJ theoretical issues over the last century.
Art, Soci:tv eoc P:ii¸ioo io Si:oe, Fior:oc: eoc Pecae I2:0¬I+00 examines the
relative claims ol Ilorence anJ other cities to have playeJ a key role in the
Italian Renaissance. This course vill enJ in 2JJ6, to be replaceJ in 2JJ¯
vith P:oeisseoc: Art P:coosic:r:c. Dis¡iev eoc D:votioo P:ii¸ioas Peiotio¸ io Iteiv
I`00¬I500, a 3Jpoint project course, ollers stuJents the opportunity ol
unJertaking inJepenJent stuJy, anJ has no examination. There are also
some interJisciplinary courses vith an art history component, incluJing
From Foii¸|t:om:ot to Pomeoticism (Level 2) anJ 1|: P:oeisseoc: io Faro¡: e
Caitarei Fo¡airv (Level 3).
P:sic:otiei Sc|ooi 1ators
Ol the above courses, only Art oj t|: 1w:oti:t| C:otarv has a summer school.
Tutors are recruiteJ inJepenJently lor these posts, vhich are aJvertiseJ in
]anuary. Remuneration is quite gooJ, but the veek can be JemanJing anJ
stamina is neeJeJ, as vell as the appropriate acaJemic skills.
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CAkOI JACO8I
B|||cec| Cc||ege, dn|ve|s|¦y cf |cnocn, /ssessnen¦ Ono
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A
rt history in schools is taught at postI6 level, anJ lorms part ol the
History ol Art GCSF AS anJ A2 exams ollereJ by the Assessment anJ
Qualilications Alliance (AQA) anJ the Council lor the Curriculum,
Fxaminations anJ Assessment (the Northern IrelanJ boarJ) (CCFA). The
nation's thirJ boarJ, OCR, Joes not aJminister an examination in art
history, although their Art & Design AS anJ A2 contains a Critical StuJies
component. More than 2,JJJ stuJents sit these exams each year.
The majority ol teaching posts are in the inJepenJent sector, but
employment is also available in some state schools anJ colleges ol lurther
eJucation. There are very lev lulltime contracts available. Art history is
olten taught parttime in one or more institutions, or lulltime in tanJem
vith a subject such as Art & Design, History, Classics or a language.
Because ol this the JemanJ lor qualilications can vary. A BA Honours Jegree
ol some kinJ is necessary, usually this vill be in art history.
A postgraJuate teaching qualilication can be valuable, but as there is no
PGCF course JesigneJ lor Art History it is again olten in another subject.
The general teaching, lesson planning anJ pastoral skills acquireJ on PGCF
courses are, hovever, very helplul in learning to organite classes, to iJentily
Jillerent learning patterns (ability anJ Jilliculty), anJ to cope vith
Jiscipline anJ personal issues. PostgraJuate grants are usually available.
Some Art & Design PGCFs contain a Critical StuJies component but they
are not exclusively orienteJ tovarJs postI6 anJ the course content is
Jillerent lrom AS anJ A2. Posts in inJepenJent schools are sometimes
ollereJ to those vithout a PGCF, anJ many vill allov stall to stuJy lor it
alongsiJe their teaching timetable.
112
Remuneration is olten better than in higher eJucation, especially in
inJepenJent schools, vhich sometimes oller accommoJation as part ol the
job package. Terms are longer but holiJays are usually a complete break.
Hovever, teachers have more pastoral responsibilities than Jo university
lecturers. Some people might be attracteJ by the opportunities to
accompany lielJ trips in the UK anJ abroaJ, most teachers are expecteJ to
take at least one trip a year. Career progression beyonJ heaJ ol Jepartment
can be maJe by applying lor aJJitional posts, such as exams coorJinator,
many teachers also vork lor the exam boarJs as markers or moJerators.
The actual classroom vork is in some vays similar to lirstyear
unJergraJuate teaching. Classes are olten small, comprising as many as I5
stuJents or as lev as one. Almost all schools on the British mainlanJ stuJy
the AQA exam anJ, at the time ol vriting, the AS anJ A2 are stimulating but
challenging even lor the most able or conliJent stuJents. The AS can be
stuJieJ in the lirst or seconJ year ol sixth lorm, anJ comprises an unseen
practical critical paper anJ tvo general survey papers (C5th BC¬ CI6th AD
anJ MoJern) vhich stress basic historical anJ stylistic knovleJge. There is
a choice ol ten topics on each paper anJ most schools Jo three or lour lrom
each. The A2 is only stuJieJ alter the AS in the seconJ year ol sixth lorm, it
comprises tvo papers, each covering a single, more locuseJ, historical stuJy
(e.g. Ilorence I+JII+83). It also requires a 3JJJvorJ research essay on a
question ol the stuJents' ovn choice (Turner prite to telephone boxes),
vhich permits an inJepenJent, analytical anJ even more inJepth approach.
The Curriculum anJ Qualilications Authority (QCA) are in the process ol
relorming A levels anJ nev subject criteria vill come into operation arounJ
2JJ8. The nev specilications that vill result are, hovever, likely to be a
more llexible version ol the existing lormat vith a lighter assessment loaJ.
Iull syllabus Jetails are available at the boarJ vebsites, AQA, OCR, anJ
CCFA (s:: Iurther inIormation).
Teaching in schools requires both organitation anJ llair. A lot ol
inlormation neeJs to be JelivereJ in a short time, so classes must be
prepareJ lor anJ useJ elliciently, tests anJ homevork set anJ markeJ
regularly anJ stuJents monitoreJ. There is, hovever, also an element ol
theatricality in the vork, vith the use ol images, the viviJ presentation ol
iJeas, anJ interaction vith an auJience. Both lacilities are as much a
proJuct ol experience as personality, anJ Jevelop vith time.
All this requires energy, especially vhen accompanieJ by report vriting,
careers evenings anJ all the other extras, but it is lullilling. Teaching
requires the inJiviJual to lit into a school hierarchy anJ timetable, but it
TFACHING
113
CARFFRS IN " HISTORY
114
also ollers an unusual Jegree ol autonomy. A teacher's classroom is her/his
ovn space vhere s/he can create her/his ovn stanJarJs, methoJs anJ
atmosphere, so long as gooJ results are lorthcoming. AJJitionally, there is
the satislaction ol vorking closely vith people, anJ art history tenJs to
inspire anJ olten bring out the best in stuJents.
Teaching requires an unusual range ol skills, anJ people vith Jillerent
abilities can linJ a vay to excel. Most ol all, the job is JominateJ by a close
engagement vith vorks ol art anJ an opportunity to open them up to
others. It can, sometimes, be Jillicult or lonely, vorking in a small subject or
a Jepartment ol one, but galleries have excellent eJucation Jepartments,
stuJy Jays anJ teaching aiJs, anJ the Association ol Art Historians Schools'
Members' Group ollers support anJ a lorum lor Jiscussion.
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s openings lor teaching in higher eJucation are lev it is important to
have realistic anJ positive goals il you are aiming to make a career in
lecturing. It is aJvisable to try parttime teaching, to see il you like the vork
anJ are suiteJ to it. You are unlikely, in any event, to be consiJereJ lor a lull
time teaching post belore having been 'testeJ' by parttime vork.
Research anJ publication are essential lactors in the appointment ol nev
teaching stall at universities. Il you intenJ to teach in higher eJucation you
shoulJ register lor a postgraJuate course as a lirst step tovarJs lullilling
your ambition. Not only vill research allov you to Jevelop your interests in
greater Jepth but you vill learn nev skills too. As university Jepartmental
lunJing is, to a large Jegree, JetermineJ by perlormance in the Research
Assessment Fxercise (the next one is to be helJ in 2JJ8) your contribution
to the publication recorJ ol a Jepartment might vell be a lactor in your
attractiveness as an employee as vell as aJvertising your abilities anJ
ambitions. To this enJ, young acaJemics are increasingly being aJviseJ to
Jeliver conlerence papers anJ publish articles or book chapters as soon as
they can in their careers. One vay ol combining research vith teaching is to
apply lor lellovships linkeJ to specilic research projects anJ lor a lixeJ
perioJ olten vith some teaching as an aJJitional responsibility.
A lecturer is constantly preparing nev material lor lectures anJ seminars. In
some vays this can be invigorating, but it can olten be a pressure on top ol
marking essays anJ examination scripts, as vell as in vriting up your ovn
research. This is especially true at the start ol your career. In the 'nev'
universities the range ol material to be covereJ may be viJe, particularly il
115
you are teaching line art or Jesign stuJents, vhose expectations ol the
subject might be quite Jillerent lrom your ovn. All your teaching vill be
challenging at the start, but it can be enjoyable anJ thoughtprovoking as
vell as exhausting. You vill neeJ to Jevelop skills lor Jealing vith large
groups, small seminar groups anJ inJiviJual tutorials, lor asking interesting
anJ pertinent questions anJ lor assessing stuJent perlormance. All these are
harJvon skills anJ are olten acquireJ alter much experimentation.
Although there are no requirements lor lecturers to have teaching
qualilications (a PGCF, lor example), a lecturer shoulJ have gooJ
communication anJ organitational skills. These shoulJ be cultivateJ vhile
you are an unJergraJuate vhen presenting seminar papers or in the liling ol
lecture notes, bibliographies anJ images. As in every branch ol acaJemic
vork, vorJprocessing anJ inlormation retrieval skills are regarJeJ as
essential vhile, increasingly, the ability to present lecture material through
Microsolt PoverPoint is an asset.
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11ó
VorIers` EducationaI
Association
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!u¦c|, wc||e|s' EoucO¦|cnO| /sscc|O¦|cn ¦2002÷2005}
T
he Vorkers' FJucational Association (VFA) has been proviJing aJult
eJucation courses in the UniteJ KingJom lor more than a century, anJ
is a registereJ charity still reliant on volunteers lor much ol its local
organitation. It lorms part ol the netvork ol proviJers ol aJult continuing
eJucation anJ training throughout the country. The national organitation is
JiviJeJ into a number ol regions, each vith a central ollice in a large city in
the region, anJ Tutor Organisers vorking on a more local basis to arrange
the programme ol courses in consultation vith local branches.
Art history courses lorm a popular part ol this local provision, in the lorm ol
Jaytime or evening classes, usually ol I½¬2 hours Juration, vith courses
typically lasting betveen six anJ ten veeks. Potential tutors shoulJ contact
the appropriate Regional Ollice, Jetails can be lounJ on the vebsite (s::
Iurther inIormation). It is helplul il you can outline the sort ol courses you
think you coulJ oller, as this inlormation can be aJJeJ to the Jatabase ol
tutors lor local branches to access vhen planning their annual programme.
AJvantages ol tutoring lor the VFA incluJe the opportunity to plan your
ovn courses, anJ the viJe range ol learners you vill teach, JisaJvantages
are that, in common vith many such organitations, the hourly rate has to be
seen in the context ol the amount ol preparation anJ travelling you may
have to unJertake, anJ reimbursement ol expenses is very limiteJ. Stall
Jevelopment activities, incluJing inJuction anJ a mentoring scheme lor
nev tutors, are also available.

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