# DOPPLER EFFECT

Revise basic concepts • The wavelength, λ, is the distance between any two successive identical points on a wave • The frequency, f, is the number of crests – or complete cycles – that pass a given point per second. The unit of frequency is hertz (Hz) • The period, T, equals 1/f and is the time elapsed between two successive crests passing by a fixed point. • The relation between frequency (f) and period (T): f=1/T or T=1/f
• • •

The amplitude, A, is the maximum height of a crest, or depth of a trough, relative to the rest position.
The pitch of sound is determined by the frequency; the higher the frequency, the higher the pitch.

The wave velocity, v, is the velocity at which wave crests (or any other part of the waveform) move. Velocity = frequency x wavelength v= f x λ

Activity 1 Prior knowledge

WAVES TRAVELING IN WATER

Complete the following activity in groups and give feedback to the larger group. Scenario 1 A stationary bug is jiggling its legs and bobbing up and down in the middle of a quiet puddle (remaining in a fixed position).  Discuss this scenario in terms of: the pattern, frequency and distance between wave crests (the wavelength) of successive waves.  Complete the drawing below.  Explain what is encountered by the observer in positions A and B?

A

B

Top view of water waves made by stationary bug jiggling in still water.

Scenario 2 Suppose the jiggling bug now moves across the water with a speed less than that of the wave speed.  Discuss this scenario in terms of: pattern, frequency and distance between wave crests (the wavelength) of successive waves.  Complete the drawing below.  Explain what is encountered by the observer in positions A and B?

A

B

A top view of water waves made by bug swimming to the right in still water Dinaledi teacher training on grade 12 content: Module 2: DOPPLER EFFECT

1

Activity 3 fl = THE DOPPLER EQUATION v ± vl fs v v s fl = frequency heard by the listener fs = frequency emitted by the source v = speed of sound in air 340 m∙s-1 vs= velocity of the source vl = velocity of the listener. The Doppler Effect can be explained in terms of a change in the frequency or pitch of sound when either the listener (L) or the source (S) is moving with respect to each other. passes him and moves away from him? 2. Present your explanations in a table. 3.3 If the frequency of the train whistle is 456 Hz and the speed of sound on that day is 340 m∙s-1. the frequency (number of waves per second) and amplitude (loud or soft) of sound waves encountered by the observer. Example 11: On a windless day a train approaches a level crossing at 30 m∙s-1 with its whistle blowing continuously. This apparent change frequency is due to the motion of the source (or receiver) and is called the Doppler Effect. calculate the whistle frequency that Japie hears: 1. What does the observer hear while the truck moves towards him. When the source (S) is moving towards the listener (L) the frequency becomes higher than that of the source at rest.1 f l = v v s 340 + 0 456 = 340 − 30 1 Example with permission taken from: OBE for FET Physical Sciences Exam Study Guide Dinaledi teacher training on grade 12 content: Module 2: DOPPLER EFFECT 2 . the lower signs apply if they are moving apart.1 while the train is approaching 1. and when the source travels away from the listener.3.3. the frequency is lower. Thus the upper signs in numerator and denominator apply if source and/or object move toward each other. 1. Solution: 1.2 Doppler effect v ± vl fs 1. Japie stands at the crossing.2 while the train is moving away from him.1 Increased pitch 1.Activity 2 Answer the questions in groups: DOPPLER EFFECT FOR SOUND WAVES 1. watching the train approach and then pass by. Give examples of encountering the Doppler Effect in everyday life. Explain the above phenomenon in terms of changing pitch (low or high sound).3. What is your understanding of: “an apparent change in frequency?” 4.2 What is the name of this phenomenon? 1.1 What change in the pitch of the sound does Japie notice as the train approaches him? 1. Note: The frequency is higher when the observer and source approach each other and lower when they move apart.

01 – 5 051.3. Dinaledi teacher training on grade 12 content: Module 2: DOPPLER EFFECT 3 . (ii) The reflection of the wave from the moving object is equal to the object reemitting the wave. What is the expected beat frequency if blood is flowing in large leg arteries at 2.50 m∙s-1 (vL) to detect the sound wave of frequency.47 340 − 3.01 Hz Thus the frequency shifts by 5 104. (i) The moving object acts like an observer (listener) moving towards the source with speed vobs= 3. fL(detected).340 456 310 = 500.g to measure the rate of blood flow or the heart of a fetus.50 m∙s-1 (i) fL(detected) is the frequency “detected” by the moving object f det ectedl = = v ± vl fs v v s 340 + 3.54 Hz The above Doppler technique is used in a variety of medical applications.03 Hz = Example 2 A 5 000 Hz sound wave is emitted by a stationary source. and the speed of sound in human tissue is taken to be 1540 m∙s-1 .5 5000 = 340 = 5 051.47 = 52. This sound wave reflects from an object moving 3. This is similar to the frequency detected by the moving object (source) and stationary observer. f emitted = = = v ± vl fs v vs 340 + 0 5051 .0 m∙s-1 directly away from the sound source? APPLICATIONS OF THE DOPPLER EFFECT • Weather forecasting using radar.50 340 5051 . What is the frequency of the wave reflected by the moving object as detected by a detector at rest near the source? Solution: There are two Doppler shifts. Suppose the device emits sound at 3.2 f l = v v s 340 + 0 456 = 340 + 30 340 456 = 370 = 419.50 5000 340 − 0 343 .50 m∙s-1 toward the source.47 336 . usually with ultrasonic waves in the megahertz frequency range e. The time delay between emission of radar pulses and their reception after being reflected off raindrops gives the position of precipitation.13 Hz v ± vl fs 1. The source is moving towards the detector. acting as a moving source with speed vS = 3.5 MHz.5 = 5 104.47 Hz (ii) The moving object now “emits” (reflects) sound of frequency fL(emitted). Check your progress: A Doppler flow meter uses ultrasound waves to measure blood-flow speed.

Hubble and others realized that the most obvious explanation for the "red shift" was that the galaxies were receding from Earth and each other. How the red shift in light waves can be linked to the Doppler Effect in sound waves? 2. astronomers noticed that distant galaxies had peculiar light spectra. the depth of the sea. In 1929 astronomer Edwin Hubble compared the galaxies' spectra with their distances. its light will be shifted to longer (red) wavelengths. Explain your understanding of the statements below taken from the text above.Measuring the Doppler shift in frequency tells how fast the storm is moving and in which direction. calculated using different methods. Ultra-sonic frequency (higher than 20 kHz) sound waves are used:  to locate underwater objects. It turns out that a special version of this everyday effect applies to light as well -.” Dinaledi teacher training on grade 12 content: Module 2: DOPPLER EFFECT 4 . DOPPLER EFFECT FOR LIGHT Activity 4 In groups read the following excerpt The "Red Shift” Early in this century. the action of heart valves and the development of a fetus can be examined.html These examples are greatly exaggerated. • Sonar (sound navigation range). Specifically." Doppler shift is what makes a car sound lowerpitched as it moves away from you. the location of reefs or sunken ships. Red-shift examples This conclusion is based on a cosmological effect that is similar to the everyday "Doppler shift.com/sky/redshift.arachnoid.if an astronomical object is moving away from the Earth. Statement 1: “the amount of "red shift" was proportional to distance” Statement 2: “if an astronomical object is moving away from the Earth. Tumors and other abnormal growth can be distinguished. and showed that the amount of "red shift" was proportional to distance. Explain in your groups: 1. the galaxies' light spectra were shifted toward the red end of the spectrum. the faster the recession. and the farther the galaxy. its light will be shifted to longer (red) wavelengths. Receding Advancing http://www.  for medical imaging.