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PRINCIPLES
OF

ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY
ski:AT

VOL.

I.

HENRY FROWDE

Oxford University Press Warehouse

Amen Corner,

E.G.

PRINCIPLES
OF

ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY
Rev.

WALTER
Elrington

W. SKEAT, Litt.D.
Oxon

LL.D. Edin., M.A.
and Bosworth

Professor of A nglo-Saxon in the University of Cambridge

FIRST SERIES

THE NATIVE ELEMENT

'

Or should we careless come behind the rest In power of words, that go before in worth, Whenas our accent's equal to the best, Is able greater wonders to bring forth? When all that ever hotter spirits express'd Comes better'd by the patience of the north.'
Daniel, Musophilus

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS
1887
[

AH

rights reserved ]

c.er.|

%\^
i

PREFACE.
The
present volume
of English
is

intended to serve as a help to

the student

etymology.

In

my

Etymological

Dictionary, the

numerous examples of

similar letter-changes

are invariably separated from each other,

by the necessity

for

adhering to the alphabetical order.
to re-arrange the results so as to

It is therefore

advisable

shew what words should be
time.
It is

under consideration

at the

same

only by a com-

parison of this character that the various phonetic laws can

be properly observed and tested.
I have

found

it

advisable to follow the example of Mr.

Sweet, in his History of English Sounds, and to consider

what may be called the
apart from the
h2ive purposely

'

native element

'

of our language

Romance
all

or imported element.

Hence

I

excluded

words of French origin from the

present investigation.

A few French
illustration,

words are quoted here

and there by way of

but no inferences are here
If the

drawn from the

results

which

their history furnishes.

present volume should meet with
issue another volume, to
will deal particularly,

approval,
'

I

propose to

be entitled

Second Series/ which

and almost

exclusively, with the M'ords

which have been imported into English from French, as well
as from Latin, Greek, and other languages (except Teutonic

and

Celtic) a/ler the

Norman Conquest.
their

I have,

however, here taken into consideration such Latin

and Greek words as found
Chap. XXI)
;

way

into

Anglo-Saxon

(see

and have been

careful to include

words from

VI

PREFACE,

Scandinavian sources, as these mostly belong to an early
stage of the language (see Chap. XXIII).
I

have also con-

sidered the Celtic element of the language (see Chap.
as well as the times, from

XXII);

words which have been borrowed,

at various

Dutch or some other

Low German

source (see

Chap. XXIV).

A
is

Hst of the few

and unimportant words of

German

origin

also included, for the sake of completeness

(see Chap. VI, p. 85); so that all the Teutonic sources of

our language are thus accounted
ject of the

for.
'

Whilst the main subof our very composite
all

book
it

is

the

'

native element

language,

is

convenient to consider, at the same time,

words of Teutonic origin (except such as have reached
second-hand, through the French or some other

us, at

Romance

language), as well as the words of Celtic origin and such as

were borrowed from Latin

at

an early period.

The
I

exact contents of the book
full
'

may

best be learnt from
this Preface.

the very

Table of Contents which follows
'

may

here say, briefly, that I begin with a very short sketch
;

of the history of the language

and give an explanation, with

specimens, of the three principal Middle-English dialects,

corresponding to the three principal dialects of the
period.
I then discuss the chief

earliest

Anglo-Saxon vowel-sounds,
is

purposely choosing the long vowels, because their history

more

clearly

marked and more
It will easily

striking than that of the

short vowels.

be seen

how

very largely I have
that

here copied from Mr. Sweet.
is is

I then

shew

Anglo-Saxon

cognate with the other Teutonic tongues, and explain what

meant by

this;

and

further, that

it

is is

cognate with the

other

Aryan tongues, and explain what
and secondly

meant by

this also.
is stated,

Next follows a discussion of Grimm's Law, which
first

in its usual form,

in a

much more

simple

form, obtained by leaving out of consideration the

com-

PREFACE.
paratively unimportant sound-shiftings peculiar to the

Vll

Old

High German.

The

consideration necessarily involves the

distinction of the guttural

sounds into the two

series

known

as 'palatal' and 'velar' sounds; a point which, I believe,

nearly
ignore.
Peile.

all

English works on English etymology
I

commonly
Dr.

have here received

much

assistance from

Next follows a statement of Verner's Law, with
This
is

illustrations.

succeeded by an account of vowel;

gradation and of vowel-mutation

both subjects of

the

highest importance to the student of English etymology,
yet frequently receiving but
little

attention.

Chapters XII
Suffixes, of

and XIII deal with Prefixes and Substantival
native
origin
only.

Chapter

XIV

deals with

Adjectival,

Adverbial, and Verbal Suffixes, also of native origin only.

Chapter

XV

explains what

is

meant by an Aryan

root,

and

how

English words can sometimes be traced up to such a

root, or

deduced from

it.

Chapter

XVI
viz.

attempts a short
the changes that
;

sketch of a highly important subject,

have

at various

times taken place in English spelling

in

order to enable the student to see for himself that Early and

Middle English spelling was intended

to

be purely phonetic,

and

that the present almost universal notion of spelling

words
is

so as to insinuate their etymology (often a false one)

of

comparatively modern growth, and contradictory to the true
object of writing, which
is

to express
their

by symbols the spoken
This

words themselves, and not

long-dead originals.

necessarily leads to a brief account of the phonetic systems

of spelling employed by Mr. Ellis and Mr. Sweet, though of course the true student
these two masters
I give
will

consult the original works of

of our language.

In Chapter XVIII,

an account of the various Teutonic consonants, and

trace the history of each

downwards

to the present day,

Vlll

PREFACE.
is

which

the only
;

way of dealing

with

them

that avoids endlittle

less confusion

it

also renders the results, after a

study,

perfectly easy to

remember.

In the next Chapter,

I

consider

the phonology of words (chiefly as regards the consonants)

more

fully,

and shew the various modes by which
Chapter

their

forms

suffer change.

XX

deals with

'

doublets,' or

double

forms of the same original word, and with words formed by
composition.
plaining
all

A

list

of

compound words
I

is

appended, ex-

those, of

common
I

occurrence, of which the origin

has been obscured.

then discuss, as

have already stated,
Celtic

the early words of Latin origin;

words of
list

origin;

words of Scandian

^

origin (with a second
;

of

compound
Friesic

words of obscure form)
origin or which have
tinental)

and words which may be of

been borrowed from Dutch or (con-

Low German.

The

last

chapter

treats,

very briefly

and perhaps inadequately, of the important

effects

produced

upon the sound of a word by accent and emphasis. The whole volume is nothing but a compilation from the
works of others and from
tionary.
it is

results obtained in
it

my own
original
astray.

Dic;

I trust there is in

very

little

that
to

is

for

better to follow a

good guide than

go

experience in teaching has suggested the general

Some mode of
to

arrangement of the book, which cannot be said

to follow

any particular order;
conduce to
clearness,

yet I believe

it

will

be found

and

that, if the

chapters be read in

the order in which they stand, the whole will be

more

easily

grasped than by another method.
ters

Perhaps, however, Chap-

XVIII-XX, which

are not difficult,

advantage, immediately after Chapter V.
rigid order prescribed
*

may be The

read, with

exact and
for

by theory

is

seldom best suited

a

Scandian
;

is just

as

good a word

as the long

and clumsy word Scan-

dinavian

see note to p. 454.

PREFACE,
beginner; and
it

IX

is

for

beginners in philology that I have
the

principally written.

To

advanced student
all
;

I

can only

apologise for handling the subject at
that

being conscious

he
I

will find

some unfortunate
if I

slips

and imperfections,
better trained, or

which

should have avoided
all.

had been

indeed, trained at

It is

well

known how completely
it is

the
it

study of the English language was formerly ignored, and
is

painful to see

how

persistently

disregarded (except in
for the notion

rare instances) even at the present
prevails that
I
it

moment j

does not pay.
of some of the books which I have found
I

append a
useful,

list

most
also

and from which
to

have copied more or

less.

I

beg leave

acknowledge

my

great obligations to the

works of Mr. Sweet, and
I

to the kind

and

friendly assistance

have received, chiefly as regards Aryan philology, from
Professor
Celtic,

Dr. Peile, Reader in Comparative Philology.

Rhys

has kindly helped

me

in the chapter
;

upon

and Mr.

Magnusson
some

in that
I

upon Scandian

but for the present form
I

of those chapters

am

solely responsible.

have also received

assistance from

Prof Cowell and Mr. Mayhew.

The

Index of Words, intended to make the book useful
reference,
is

for frequent

my own

work.

LIST OF BOOKS CONSULTED.
(/ mention the editions which

I have

used ; they are not always

the latest.)

Anglia: Zeitschrifi fUr
1886.

englische Philologie.

Halle,

1878-

Bahder, K. von
Sprachen.

:

Die Verhalabsiracia

in den germanischen

Halle, 1880.
:

Brugmann, K.

Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der

X

PREFACE.
indogermanischen Sprachen.

Erster Band.

Strassburg,

i886.

Douse, T.

le M. An Introduction to the Gothic of Ulfilas. London, 1886. (This admirable book appeared too late
:

to be of

much

help.)

Earle,

J.:

Anglo-Saxon Literature,

London

(S. P.

C. K),

1884.
Ellis, A.
J.
:

Early English Pronunciation.

Parts I

III.

London, 1869, 1870.
fixed to Part III
;

(The

tract

on Glossic

is

pre-

it

was

also published separately.)

FiCK, A.

:

Vergleichendes

Worterbuch der indogermanischen
Gottingen, 1874-6.

Sprachen.

Dritte Auflage.
J.
:

Helfenstein,

A

Comparative

Grammar of

the Teutonic

Languages.

London, 1870.

Koch, C. F.
3 vols.

:

Historische

Grammatik der

englischen Sprache.

Weimar, 1863; and

Cassel, 1865-8.

Kluge, F. Kluge,

:

Nominate Stammbildungslehre der altgermanischen
Halle, 1886.

Dialecte.

F.

:

Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache.

Strassburg, 1883.
X-OTH,
J.
:

Etymologische angels cechsisch-englische Grammatik.

Elberfeld, 1870.

Maetzner, Professor
C.
J.

:

An English Grammar ;
3 vols.

translated

by

Grece, LL.B.

London, 1874.

Morris, R.: Historical Outlines ofEnglish Accidence. London,
1872.

Morris, R.

:

Specimens of Early English, from 11 50

to

1300.

(Parti.)

Oxford, 1885.

Morris and Skeat: Specimens of Early English, from 1298
to

1393.

(Part 11.)

Oxford, 1873.
on
the

MtJLLER, F.
2 vols.

Max

:

Lectures

Science

of Language.

Eighth Edition.

London, 1875.

PREFACE,
MUller, Iwan
schaft.
:

xi

Handhuch der Klassischen Alter turns- WissenHalbband.
Nordlingen, 1886.

Fiinfter

Peile,

J.

:

Introduction to Greek

and Latin Etymology. Second
London, 1877.
Second
edition,

edition.

London, 1872.

Peile, J.: Primer of Philology.

Rhys,

J.

:

Lectures on

Welsh Philology.

London, 1879.
Sayce,

a.

H.

:

Introduction

to

the

Science

of Language.

2 vols.

London, 1880.
:

Schade, O.
Sievers, E.

Altdeutsches Worterduch; Halle, 1872-82.

:

An
:

Old English Grammar, translated by A.

S.

Cook.
Skeat,

Boston, 1885.

(A most

useful book.)

W. W.
of

An

Etymological Dictionary of the English
edition.

Language,
list

Second

Oxford, 1884.

(See the

Works consulted
:

at p. xxv.)

Skeat,

W. W.

A

Concise Etymological Dictionary of the

English Language.
list

Second
p. xi.)

edition.

1885.

(See the

of Dictionaries at
:

Skeat,
to

W. W.
1579.

Specimens of English Literature ;
(Part

from 1394
Oxford,

m.)

Oxford, 1879.

Skeat,

W. W.
W. W.

:

The Gospel of St. The Gospels

Mark

in Gothic.

1882.

Skeat,

:

in the

Anglo-Saxon and North4 vols.
is

umbrian
1

i^and

Mercian) Versions.

Cambridge,
nearly ready.)

871-1887.

(St.

Matthew, in the press,
:

Strong, H. A., and Meyer, K.

Outlines of a History of the

German Language.
Sweet, H.
.

London, 1886.

:

Sweet, H.

:

A Handbook of Phonetics. Oxford, 1877. A History of English Sounds. (Eng. Dialect
London, 1874.
:

Society.)

Sweet, H.

An

Anglo-Saxon

Reader.

Fourth

edition.

Oxford, 1884.

XU
Sweet, H.:

PREFACE,

An

Icelandic Primer.

Oxford, 1886.

Sweet, H.: The Oldest English Texts. (E.E.T.S.) London,
1885.

Trench, R. C.
1875.

:

English Past and Present.
the

Ninth

edition,
edition,

And On
:

Study of Words.

Tenth

1861.

Whitney, W. D.
Second

Language and

the

Study of Language.

edition.
:

London, 1868.
Vocabularies.
2 vols.

Wright, T.
Second

Anglo-Saxon and Old English
edition.

Edited by R. P. Wulcker.

London, 1884.

ABBREVIATIONS AND SIGNS.
A.S.

—Anglo-Saxon;

the

Wessex or Southern
of the

dialect of

the Oldest English.

M.E.

— Middle

English;

chiefly

thirteenth

and

fourteenth centuries.

E.

—Modern
'

English.
'

The
*

ordinary grammatical abbreviations, such as
v.'

s.'

for

substantive,'

for

*

verb,' will

be readily understood
'

;

as

also the ordinary abbreviations for languages, such as
for
'

Du.'

Dutch,'

'

Skt.' for Sanskrit.

(See Concise Etym. Diet.)
:

The

following signs are introduced to save space
to

<
'is

is

be read as

'

is

derived from,' or
its

'

comes

from,' or

a later form than.'
'

(Compare
').

ordinary algebraical

meaning of

is less

than
'

>

is

to

be read as
or
'is

produces,' or
earlier
'

'

becomes,' or

'

is

the
its

original of,'

an

form

than.'

(Compare
for the

usual algebraical
..
*

meaning of

is

greater than.')

is

the symbol of mutation,

and stands

words

by mutation.'

PREFACE.
II

XIH
'

signifies

'

a stem of the same form as/ or
in.'

the verbal

stem which appears

It

denotes parallelism of form.
'

Hence

>
to

,.

is

to

be read as
'is

produces by mutation/

< <

..

is

be read as

derived by mutation from/
derived from the verbal stem

II

is

to

be read as
in.'

'is

which appears

<

..

II

is

to

be read as

'is
in.'

derived by mutation from the

verbal stem which appears
* prefixed to a
retical form,

word

signifies that

it

is

an original theo-

evolved by
*

known

principles of development.

V
If

signifies
it

Aryan root'

be desired to know to which conjugation a modern

English strong verb belongs, the reader has only to consult
the Index, referring to pp.
1

61-167.

*^*

I

have not always been consistent in writing the

theoretical

Teutonic forms of words.
is

Thus
really

the theoretical

Teutonic stem of E. whole

given sometimes as haila, and
represents
the

sometimes as hailo.
original Gothic stem,

The former
and the
latter

the original Teutonic

stem.
that

The

inconsistency will not give

much

trouble,

now

it is

pointed out.

PRONUNCIATION OF ANGLO-SAXON.
The
A.
S. so-called accent (as in the case
S.

of d) really marks

vowel-length; thus A.

d—\.2X.

a.

The
at p.

pronunciation of the long vowels
;

d^

/, /,

<5,

H, is

given
;

52

of/, at

p.

66

;

of ^, at p. 67
u,
cp,

;

of
;

/(?, /<?,

at p.

68

of

the short vowels a^

e^ t\ 0,

at p. 71

and

of_>',

at p. 66.

See also

p. 301,

and consult Sweet's A. S. Grammar or Primer.
S.

For remarks on the A.

consonants, see pp. 299-302.

ERRATA.
p. 79,
1.

9.
1. 1.

For

usally read usually

P. 108, P. 117, P, 155,
P. 183,
P. 268, P. 291,

1.
1.

For tweir read tveir II. '¥ ox fader xt^Afadar and for ^father read *fathar 16, For '^lis-an read *leis-an 4 from bottom. For pt. t. read pp.
15.
;

11.
1.

12-16. Dele from Bo-th to <^aV^.
II.

[See p. 456.]

Dele shire
13. Vowel-influence

P. 352.

For
1.

read 13. Consonantal infltience

Pp. 386-408. \x^\yQ2.^Ym^sM MORPHOLOGYxt^A
P. 406,

FHONOLOGY

8 from bottom. Dele
line.

would

P. 445, notes, last

P. 470, note, last line.

For suce read tisce For seiri read eiris

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Preface

Chapter
quoted.

I,

Introductory.
§ 2.

§ 1.

A passage from
§ 4.

Shakespeare

English literature and the English language.

§ 3. Vocabulary of

Modem

English.

Composite nature
1

of that vocabulary

Chapter II.— The Sources of the English Language.
§ 5. Necessity

of observing chronology.

§ 6.
§ 7.

Additions to the

Vocabulary of the English language.
languages are ceaseless but
language.
Arabic.
Italian,
silent.

Changes

in the

§ 8.

Sources of the English

Celtic; Latin; Scandinavian;

§9. Enumeration of these sources. Native English Dutch; Greek; French; Hebrew;
Additions from Spanish,
§
10.

Modem stage of the language.

German, Russian, Turkish, &c.

The Modem

Period begins about A.D. 1500. Importance of this date with regard to the Vocabulary. § 11. Foreign things denoted by
foreign words.

Examples of words borrowed from Dutch,
Historical Survey
;

Gaelic, Italian, Spanish, Russian, Greek
dates.
§
13.

&c. § 12. Useful shewing the influence of
;

historical events

upon the English language.

continued during the Modern Period

....
§ 14.

The same
5

Chapter

III.

The Native Element; Dialects of Middle
§ 16.

English.

Tests for distinguishing native English words
§

from borrowed ones.
nunciation
to indicate.

16.

The passage from Shakespeare
§
17.

(formerly quoted at p. i) examined.

Changes

in pro-

much

greater than the changes in our spelling

seem

Necessity for examining the old forms of words.

from time to time. Values of a, e, and u in the time of Chaucer. § 19. Middle- English Vowels. I^^'ccessity for some study of Chaucer. § 20. Chaucer's
§ 18. Variations in spelling
0,
I,

spelling.

The Midland

Dialect.

Passage from the

Man

of

— —

' ;

XVI

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Remarks upon the pronunciation of the words in § 21. The vocabulary of the words in the same
;

Law's Tale.
this passage.

passage considered
§ 22.

preponderance of native English words.

Changes

§ 23. History of

Dialects;

words in the same passage. some of these words. § 24. The three main Northern, Southern, and Midland. The § 25.
in the spelling of

Southern

Dialect.

Passage
§ 27.

from

Trevisa's
in

translation

of
;

Higden's Polychronicon. with a continuation. the above passage.
§ 28.

§ 26.

The same

modem

English

Interesting information found in

Peculiarities

The Northern

Dialect.

Conscience.

Pecxiliarities

of the Southern Dialect. Passage from Hampole's Prick of of the Northern Dialect. § 29. The

Passage from the Handlyng Synne, East-Midland Dialect. written by Robert of Brunne. Peculiarities of the East-Midland Dialect. Its strong resemblance to the standard literary English. § 30. Difference between East-Midland and West-Midland.

Area over which these

dialects extend

.

.

.

.

19

Chapter
§ 31.

back.

IV. The Native Element: the oldest dialects. The three main dialects of Middle- English traced further They appear as Northumbrian, Mercian, and Wessex.
'

Anglo-Saxon

includes the
'

co-extensive with

Old

English.'

Northumbrian dialect. and of the Wessex dialect. § 33. Modem literary English derived from the Old Mercian dialect. Table of thirty-two English words, with their corresponding Old Mercian and broken Anglo-Saxon (or Wessex) forms. § 34. The A. S. vowels not found in modern English, nor commonly used in the Old Mercian dialect. § 35. Chronology of A. S. writings and
'

only, and is not Remains of the Old Remains of the Old Mercian dialect
dialect
§ 32.

Wessex

manuscripts. The Lauderdale MS. of Alfred's translation of Orosius older than the Cotton MS. of the same. § 36. Specimen of * Anglo-Saxon,' i. e. of the Wessex dialect St. Matt. xiii. 3-8.
;

grammar, etymology, and 40 pronunciation to be leamt from the above extract
§

37.

Useful lessons in

English

.

.

Chapter
sooth.

V.

English Long Vowels.

§ 38.

Change of proEnglish 00 in
§

nunciation of the A. S. 6 in s6^ to the

modem

The same change

exemplified in other words.

39.

General shifting of vowel-sounds.

The A.S. vowels
E. oa,
ee, t, 00,

a, e, i, 0, ti

have been replaced by the
bat, bete, bitan, bot,

modem

on.

The A.

S.

d-butan have become

boat,

beet, bite, boot,

a-bout.

§ 40.

English should be traced downwards as well


TABLE OF CONTENTS.
as upwards.

; ;

xvii
PAGE

The former method shews the true process of the development. The A.S. vowels / and u have become, phonetically, ai (mod. E. l) and au (E. oti). The A.S. /, ie, ie, /a, eo, <£ have become, phonetically, f (E. ee). The A. S. a has Decome^; and has become il. § 41. The vowel-sounds are
(^

affected

by the

consonant that follows (or sometimes, that
Special influence of the consonant
a.
r.
;

precedes) them.

§

42.

History of the A.S.

Examples
;
:

:

rd,

a roe

;

twd, two
;

dhtCf
§ 43.
;

ought
eye

;

ir, oar
e.

;

dn, one

The A. S.
;

Examples
;

he,

-kdd he

(suffix),
;

-hood
;

&c.

keh, high
/.

her, here
:

ege^

hrec, rick

&c.

§ 44.

The A.S.
-lie
;

Examples
-ly;
;

bi,

by
45.
;

hiw, hue;

wif-men,

women;
: ;

(suffix),

&c.

§

The
Oder,

A.S.

rSd,

Examples sc6, shoe mor, moor swor, swore other moste, must behojian, behove goman, gums rood, rod Examples hii, &c. § 46. The A.S. ti.
6.
;

;

;

:

how;
§ 47.

sdr, sour;

ciiQe,
;

could; riim, room; rdh, rough;

&c.

y {ie) how pronounced. Confused with A. S. /. Examples: hwy, why; hyr, hire; fyW, filth; &c. § 48. The A. S. <E, ea, eo usually become E. ee. Examples scs,

The A.

S.

;

:

sea

;

hwaeg,

whey

;

&c.

§ 49.

The
;

A.S.

/<2

;

usually written

ea in mod. E.
§ 51.

§ 50.

The A.

S. eo

usually written ee in mod. E.

Summary

of results of Chapter V.
/,
/, S,

Exceptional instances
u,

of the development of A. S. d,

and

y.

Note on the
50

Short Vowels

Chapter
§ 52.

VI.

Teutonic Languages cognate with English.
in tracing the history

Value of the vowels
is

of etymologies.
§ 54.

§ 53, English this
*

not derived from German.
;

Source of
of

common

error
§ 55.

confused ideas

as

to

the meaning

German.'

The Teutonic Group
East Teutonic
:

of Languages.

Modern
Danish,

German

a bad guide to English etymology.
§ 56.

Eastern and Western

Teutonic.
Icelandic.

Gothic, Swedish,

Great value of Icelandic for English etymology. Anglo-Saxon, Old Friesic, Old Saxon, § 57. West Teutonic Dutch, German. Old, Middle, and modern High German.
:

§ 58. Teutonic types.
*

Meaning of a type
*

'

;

and of the terms
Teutonic dental

base

'

and

*

stem.'

The mod.

E. bite

is

nearer to the Teutonic
§ 59.

sounds.
into
2,

type than the equivalent G. beissen. German has changed Teut.
medial
/

d

into /; Tout, initial/

into

ss,

and
G.

final / into 2, tz, ss, s

into d.

§ 60.

Change
/

of Teut,

d

to G.

/.
;

and Tcut. /A Examples. § 61,
;

j

Change of Teut.
Examples.

to

2 {ss, medially
///

2,

tz,

ss,

s,

finally).
.

§ 62.

Change of Teut.

to

G. d.

Examples.

VOL.

I,

b


XVlll

;

TABLE OF CONTENTS,
PAGE
§ 63.
';

The forms Vater and Mutter are exceptional. labial sounds. German has initial pf for /
final/ into/.

Teutonic

Examples.

§ 64.

and turns Teut. Teutonic /remains as G./

though sometimes written v. Teut. v appears as G. b. § 65. Teutonic guttural sounds. Teut. g, k, h frequently remain unchanged in German or final k becomes G. ch. § 66. English and German compared. Double changes -in some words. E. thorpe = G. Dorf. The vowel-changes require explanation as
;

well as the consonantal changes.
foot')

A.

S.

^=G.

u.

A.^.fot (E.

— Of.
in

Fuss,

§ 67.

Paucity of English words borrowed

from German.
all

List

of E. words borrowed
period.
§ 68.

from German

;

the

modem

Sound-shifting.

What

is meant by 'cognate' words, § 69. E. foot 'cognate* with Goth, fotus. Gothic, Swedish, Danish, and Dutch, all resemble English in their use of consonants; whilst German

differs from them all. English not § 70. Results of §§ 54-69. borrowed from German (with a few exceptions). German is not

the sole Teutonic language, nor our easiest guide.
rather consult Gothic,

We

should

Old
'

Friesic,

&c.

German

is

distinguished

from other Teutonic languages by
Primitive Teutonic
*

certain consonantal shiftings.

types

can be constructed.
§ 71.

All the Teutonic

languages are sister-languages.
(rarely e).

The A. S. ^ = Teut. Al

bat (boat)

arises by where A. S. e is due to z-mutation of 6. § 73. The A. S. /=» Teut. t. A. S. hwil (while) = Teut. HwfLO. § 74 The A. S. 6 = Tetit. 6, or Teut. e or is due to loss of n in on (for an). A. S. stdl (stool) = Teut. stolo. A.S. spon (spoon) = Teut. spSni. A. S. tSQ (tooth) = Teut. tanthu. § 75. The K.S>.ii = Teut. u ; or is due to loss of n in A. S. un — Teut. ON. A. S. nd (now) = Teut. N0. A. S. 7/^z/3 = Teut. MONTHO. § 76. The A. S.^ commonly arises by mutation from Teut. t (or AU, or EU). = Teut. au. A.S. heap (heap) = Teut § 77. The A.S.
;

A. S. stdn (stone) = Teut. staino (or staina). A. S. = Teut. beto (or bata). § 72. The A. S. / commonly mutation from Teut. 6. A.S./V (feet) = Teut. FOTI

m

HAUPO. § 78. The A. S. eo = Teut. eu. A. S. leof (lief) = Teut. LEUBO (or LEUVO). § 79. The A. S. <z commonly arises from an
z-mutation of
d. § 80.

Results of Chapter VI.

Table of equiva72

lent long vowels in English, A. S., Du,, G., Dan., Swed., Icel.,

Goth., and general Teutonic

Chapter VII. Classical Languages cognate with English. Grimm's Law. § 81. How to compare Latin forms with
English.

The

Lat» pater

is

cognate with E. father,

§ 82.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

xix
PAGS

Examples of E. words borrowed from Latin before the Conquest. § 83. Words cognate with native E. words may often be found in Greek, Sanskrit, &c. Modem comparative philology commenced in the year 1 7S4. Sanskrit not a mother-language, but a sister-language. The same is true of other Aryan languages. also called Indo-European § 84. The Aryan family of languages
'

'

;

or Indo-Germanic.

The Indian group.
Hellenic,
'

The
Keltic,

Iranian group.

The

Lettic,

Slavonic,

Italic,

and Teutonic
;

The three 'sets of Aryan languages Classical, Low German, and High German. Classical pitar, irarrjp, paUr,
groups.
§ 85.

Grimm's Law as it relates to the dental series of D, T. The memorial word ash changing to sha, and HAS. (I) Sanskrit DH, D, T (2) English D, T, TH (3) Old High German T, TH, D. § 87. Meaning of the symbols DH, D, T, TH as applied to various languages. Examples of classical (initial and medial) of classical (initial and medial) T and of classical D. Skt. § 88. Exceptions to Grimm's Law. bhrdtar, A.S. brSdor, G. Bruder; as compared with Skt. ///ar, A. S. feeder, G. Vater. The exceptions can be explained by Vemer's Law. as it relates to the labial § 89. Grimm's Law and guttural series of letters, BH, B, P, PH and GH, G, K, KH. Examples of the shifting of classical BH, B, and P and of classical GH, G, and K. § 90. Needless complication of Grimm's Law due to the attempt to drag in the Old High German forms. by omission of the Old § 91. Simpler form of Grimm's Law High German forms. In the series DH, D, T, TH, each classical' symbol is shifted to the Low German sound denoted by the symbol which next follows it. § 92. Difficulty of including
&c.
§ 86.
;

letters

DH,

;

;

;

DH

;

;

;

;

;

;

'

*

'

the Old High German sound-shiftings under Grimm's Law. Value of Grimm's Law. re§ 93. The Aryan type of a word statement of the simplified form of Grimm's Law. Re-statement of Grimm's Law, as applied to the dental series of symbols DH, D, T, TH 97
;

Chapter VIIL—Simplified Form of Grimm's Law.

§ 94.

Ilie dental, labial, and guttural series of consonants must be treated separately. Aryan and Teutonic. Old High German

§95. Dental Series. Aryan D: Skt. d\ Gk. 8; Aryan T Skt. /, th Gk. t Lat. t, Aryan DH Skt. dh, d\ Gk. d, t; Lat./ (initially), d, b (medially) Slav., Lith., Irish d. Goth. / Dan. d § 96. Teut. t (Aryan D) (when final). Teut. TH (Aryan T) :" Goth, th A. S. J), C Icel. Teut. D (Aryan DH) Goth. I), 5 ; Dan. and Swed. /,</; Du. d.
excluded.
Lat. d, L
:
;

;

:

;

:

;

;

;

:

ba

;;

5<K
d. § 97.

TABLE OF CONTENTS,
PAGE

> and <. The series DH> D > T > TH equivalent to D < DH T < D TH < T. § 98. Labial Series. BH > B > P > PH. Difficulties relating to the
Meaning of the symbols
is
;

;

Teutonic/.

§ 99.

Aryan
tt
;

B

:

Skt. ^

;

Gk.

j8

;

Lat.

b.

Aryan
:

P

:

Skt. /,

ph

;

Gk.

Lat., Slav., Lith. p.

Aryan

BH

Skt.

bh; Gk.
Goth.
/^.

ip\ Lat. /,

h (initial), b (medial). § 100. Teut. B: Teut. p: Goth./. Teut. ph Goth./(or, by Vemer's
:

Law,^).

BH >B>P>PH(F)isthesameasB<BH;P<B; F<P. §10L Guttural Series. GH > G > K > KH. Diffi.
symbob, owing
§ 102.

culty of interpreting these

to the double values

of the Aryan G, K, and
the Aryan

GH.

Palatal and velar sounds of

sounds denoted by K, G, and

Aryan palatal Aryan velar sounds denoted by Q, Gw.and GHw. § 103. Aryan G (palatal) Skt./; Lith. z Slav, z Gk. 7 Lat. g Teut. K. Aryan Gw (velar) {a) Skt. gj Gk. 7 Lat. g > Teut. K. {b) Skt. g,J Gk. iS Lat. b, z'>Teut. Q (K, KW). § 104. Aryan K (palatal): Skt. f; Lith. sz Gk. k Lat. c > Teut. GH Goth. k. Aryan Q (velar) ; Skt. k, ch Gk. k, t, tt Lat. c, qu, v Lith. k > Teut. KHw (Hw) Goth. hw,f, h. Skt. h Gk. § 105. Aryan GH (palatal) X Lat. h,f{g) Lith. > Teut. g. Aryan GHw (velar) Skt. gh, h Gk. x? <^> ^ Lat.^, h,f{gu, v) ,Lith. g Teut. Gw(g). Guttural Series (velar). GHw > Gw § 106. Grimm's Law
G.
Explanation by Prof. Sayce.

GH.

:

;

;

;

>

:

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

>i

:

;

;

;

>

:

Q > KHw (Hw).
§ 107.
:

Otherwise, Q

> < Gw Hw < Q Gw (G)< GHw.
;

;

Table of regular substitution of consonants. § 108. Examples Teut. K Aryan G. E. kin 'LoX. genus, Gk. 7eVos Skt. Jan (to beget). § 109. Examples from Scandinavian. Y.. chin; La.t.gena,Gk.'Y4vvs. § 110. Teut. K>E.<:/^. § 111, Teut. K final. and other examples. E. eke Lat. augere Aryan K. Examples. E. horn, Lat. § 112. Teut. KH (H) cormi. Aryan GH. Examples. E. gall\ § 113. Teut. G Lat.y^/; Gk. xo^J?. Aryan Gw. Examples. § 114. Teut. Q E. queen Gk. 7^57 ^i.Jani^ Aryan Q. § 115. Teut. Hw Examples. E. who; Lat. qui; Skt. kas. § 116. Teut. Gw, Aryan GHw. Examples. Aryan D. § 117. Teut. Examples. E. tame Lat. doniare Skt. dam. § 118. Teut. TH Aryan T. Examples. E. thin Lat. temiis; Skt. tanu. Aryan DH. Examples. E. dare; Gk. Oapffeiv. § 119. Teut. Aryan B. Paucity of examples. The possi§ 120. Teut. P bility of Aryan P remaining unshifted. § 121. Teut. ph (f)< Aryan P. Examples numerous. E. father Lat. pater Gk. TTCTiyp Skt. pitar. Aryan BH. E. brother § 122. Teut. B

<

;

;

;

;

<

<

<

;

;.

<

G<
<

T<

;

;

;

D< <

;

;

;

<

rater; Skt. bhrdtar lazX.f

,

.

115


TABLE OF CONTENTS,
Chapter
IX.

:

Xxi'
PAGE

Consonantal Shifting

;

Verner's Law.

§ 123.

about Grimm's Law, as originally explained. The Second Shifting (from Low to High German) much later in time than the First Shifting (from Aryan to Teutonic). Probable date of the Second Shifting. § 124. In what sense 'Law' is to be understood. The vagueness of popular notions on this point. difficulty of § 125. Sound-shifting not confined to Teutonic explaining its origin. § 126. Anomalies explained by Vemer's^ Statement Law. § 127. Vemer's Law discovered in 1875. of the Law. Peculiarities of Aryan and Teutonic accent. § 128. Vemer's Law, as stated in the original German with a translation of it. § 129. Examples. Gk. k\vt6s does not answer tO' A. S. A/udy but to A. S. hlud (E. loud) this is due to the accent being upon the second syllable. Change of s to z, and afterwards Causal verbs accented on the suffix. Explanation of the to r. equivalent forms rmr and raise. § 130. Points in A. S. grammar explained by Vemer's Law. Why the A. S. sjtiSan (tQ cut), pt. t. sndd, makes the pt. t. pi. snidcnt, and the pp. sniden (instead of snidon and sniSen). Why mod. E. comparative adjectives end \n-er. §131. Vedic Accentuation how connected with AngloDifficulties
;
; ; ;
'

Saxon
fjorm.

spellings.
§

§ 132.

General Results

;

in

a slightly different

133.

Examples.
TYievfox^s

Shiftings of guttural, dental,

and
E. 143

labial consonants.

The occurrence

of r for s in English.
,

hare = Q, Hase.

lore, better, forlorn, frore

Chapter X.— Vowel-Gradation.
drink, drank, drunken.
§ 135.

§ 134.

Meaning of gradation
in

:

Found

also

Greek

and

Latin.

Modern English gradation very

imperfect.

Confusion of
Necessity

past tenses with past participles.

Strong verbs often become
§ 136. S.

weak

;

the converse seen in the case of wear.

of considering the

M. E. and A.
:

forms of E. verbs.

The

Seven Conjugations Memorial couplet.

fall, shake, bear, give,

drink, drive, choose.
:

§ 137.

Reduplicating Verbs
§ 138.

the ytxhfall.

No
A.
(3)

real

gradation here.

The

four principal stems of

S.

the

Verbs: (1) the present stem; (2) the first preterit-stem; second preterit-stem (4) the past participial-stem»
;

Stems

oifall'. {i) fcall-an

\

(a)//^?//;

{7,)

fioll-on

\

{^) feall-en.

§ 139. Principal E. verbs of the/at//-conjugation,

§ 140.

The

verb shake.
a, 00, 00, a.

Stem-vowels

:

a, d, 6, a.

Mod. E. Stem-vowels
§ 141.
§

Example:

shake, shook, shook, shaken,

Principal E. verbs of the J^a/(v-conjugatlon.

142. General
;

resemblance
«tem-vowel8
:

in the conjugations of bear, give,

and drink
e (1)
;

Teut.

e (0, «f

^>

C«)

;

or else c

(1), a, ^,

or else


XXU
e
(e), a,

:

TABLE OF CONTENTS,
PAGB
«, o («).

General formula: e,
§ 143.

a, o.

Compare Gk.

Tp€(pfiv, eTpcuJyov, r€Tpo<pa.
e

(0 a,
a,

ce (d),

o {u)

;

Teut. E, A,
§ 145. §

the bear-conyngzXion.
{i), <E

The verb dear. Stem- vowels t{ = l),o. § 144. Verbs of The verb give. Stem-vowels e
:
:

(d),

e

(z),

§ 147. § 148.

The verb

drink.

Verbs of the ^V^-conjugation. Stem-vowels e {eo, i), a {ea, cb), u, o iu).
146.

Verbs of the ^rz'«>('-conjugation. § 149. The verb drive. Stem- vowels Gothic ei, at, i {at), i (at). /, d, i, i; § 150. Verbs of the ^riV^-conjugation. § 151. The verb choose. Stem-vowels eo {ti), ea, u, o Gothic iu, au, u {an), u {au). § 152. Verbs of the choos e-con]Vig2it\on. § 153. Table of stems of the seven conjugations {fall, shake, bear, give, drink, drive, choose) in Teutonic, Gothic, A. S., E., Du., G., Icel., Swed., and Danish. § 154. Comparative Table of Vowel-Sounds, as deduced from the gradation seen in strong verbal stems. § 155. Remarks on the Table. Teut. A may be lengthened to A (becoming 6, t). Teut. E may be graded to A, or o. Teut. t may be graded to Ai or i. Teut. EU may be graded to AU or U. The E-group E, A, O. The i-group f, i, Al. The U-group EU, U, AU. Values of Teut. a, 6, &c., in various Teut. lan: :

;

:

:

:

guages.

§

156.

Various values of Teut. long
S.

i.

§

157.

Equivalents of

A.

d

in

other Teut.

languages.

§ 158.

Equivalents of A. S. / in other Teut. languages.

same of A.
of A. S. u.

S.

/.

§ 160.

The same

of A. S.

6.

§ 161.

§ 162. §

A. S. <B. same of A.

164.

The same of A. S. y. The same of A.
§ 166.
§

§ 163.
S.

ea.

The The same The same of The § 165.
§ 159.

S. eo.

Necessity of observing equivalence
Practical application of gradation in

of vowel-sounds.

167.

comparative philology.
goose, tooth, other, sooth.

§ 168.

The

Skt.

Four words containing A.S. S: word sati; E. suttee. § 169.

Derivatives can be formed from ajty of the verbal stems. § 170. This result much neglected. § 171. Derivatives from verbs of the /fl;//-conjugation. § 172. Derivatives from stems of verbs
like shake.
§

derivatives from stems. from stems. § 175. Z?rm,^-conjugation derivatives from stems. § 176. Driveconjugation derivatives from stems. § 177. Cy^<7(?J^- conjugation: derivatives from stems. § 178. Brief Summary of Results. Table of vowel-gradations 156
§ 173. ^(?«r-conjugation
:
:

174.

6'zV^-conjugation
:

derivatives

:

Chapter

XI.

Vowel-Mutation.
§ 180.

§ 179.

'

A man said to
ie {y)
;

Gold-

burh, buy a whole goose and a cow cheap

'•;

explanation of this
of eo to

memorial sentence.

Mutation of ea to

TABLE OF CONTENTS,
the same
;

XXlii
PAGE Original
:

and of

eo to ie (y).
ti',

§ 181.
ea, eo.

I-mntation.

vowels

:

a, o,

w,

d, 6,

ea, eo

;

Mutated vowels
'

e,

y,

y;

<£, e,

y;

ie {y) ;

ie {y).

§ 182.

Meaning of concealed 'mu-

§ 183. A mutated to E. § 184. O mutated to Y. U mutated to y. § 186. Long a mutated to long M. § 187. Long O mutated to long E. § 188. Long U mutated to long Y. § 189. Long EA mutated to long IE (y). § 190. U-

tation.

§ 185.

mutation.
the symbols
(i)

§ 191.

>
.
.

mann

>
.

Examples of A. S. mutations. Meaning of and in combination with the symbol (. .). menn. (2) gold gylden. (3) burh by rig,

<

>

.

.

>
in

.

.

(4)
.
.

hdl>.

hcelati.

(5) gSs

>

.

.ges.

(6)

ai

>

.

.cy.

(7) ceap

>

depart, cypan.
.
.

§ 192.

Examples of mutation
.
.

modem
. .

A > E. o > Y. u > Y. § 193. § 194. > t. § 198. > A § 196. 6 > § 197. EA > Y EO > Y. § 199. Recapitulation of examples of
English.
§ 195.

A
.

.

.

.

.

fi.

.

.

.

;

.

.

English. § 200. A vowel may be affected both by gradation and (subsequently) by mutation . . 190

mutation in

modem

Chapter XIL Prefixes and Substantival Suffixes.
Prefixes
:

§ 201.

A-, after-, an-, ann-,

at-, be-, c-, e-, edd-,

emb-,for- (i),

for- {2), fore-, forth-, fro-, gain-, im-, in-, 1-, mid-, mis-, n- (i), n- (2), «- (3), n- (4), of , off-, on-, or-, out-, over-, t-, thorough-^
to-{i)y to- (2), twi-,

un-

(1),

un-

(2),

un-

(3),
:

under-, up-, wan-,
§ 203. Suffixes ex.

with-, y-.

§ 202. Substantival Suffixes

-dom, -hood, -head,

-lock, -ledge, -red (i), -red (3), -ric, -ship.

pressive of diminution

:

-c, -el,

-en, -ing, -ling, -kin

.

213

Chapter XIIL
Aryan
suffixes
:

Substantival Suffixes
-o, -1,
-i,

(continued).

§ 204.

-wo, -wa, -mo, -mon, -Ro, -Lo, -no, -ni, -nu, -to, -TI, -TU, -ter (-tor), -tro, -ont, -es (-OS), -KO. The Aryan -TO may become Teut. -to, -tho, or -DO fem. -A. Examples of (-TA, -THA, or -da). § 205. Aryan -O Modem English words which once contained this suffix masc. fem. day neut. deer fem. half, &c. § 206. Teut. suffix -an
-u, -10, -lA,
; : ;

;

;

-On (=
gall,

-An).

Examples: masc,

bear, bow, bourn, cove, drop,

shank, smoke, spark, stake, wit;

fem.,

crow, ear, eye^

Jly, heart, tongue,

Aryan -I. Examples: Examples: masc. hip-, § 208. Aryan -u. Gothic -y'a; masc. wand; fem. chin; &c. 5 209. Aryan -lO Aryan -lA, A. S. -e. Examples: end, herd (shepherd), &c. Examples: bridge, crib, edge, &c., all feminine. 5 210. Teut. -YAN. Examples: masc. ebb,8cc.; fem. eld, &c. Teut. -In a; A. S. -en. Examples: main, sb., swifte. § 211. Aryan -wo.
week; ashes. fem. queen; 8cc.
§

207.

;

;

XXIY
Examples

TABLE OF CONTENTS,
PAGE
:

bale, cud, meal, tar, glee, knee, tree, straw, lee ; also
§ 212.

dew, low, snow.

Aryan -wa

;

feminine.

Examples claw^
:

§213. Teutonic -WAN. Examples swallow, arrozv, barrow, sparrow, yarrow, widow. Examples beam, bosom-, bottom, doom, dream^ § 214. Aryan -MO. fathom, film, foam, gleam, gloom, haulm, helm, holm, loam, lime^ qualm, seam, slime, steam, storm, stream, swarm, team; also room, boom. Example: home. § 216. § 215. Aryan -mi. Aryan -MON (-men). Examples: barm, besom, bloom, name, Examples: titne; sXso blossom. § 217. Aryan -RO; Goth. -ra.
gear, mead, shade, shadow, sinew, stow.
: :

masc. acre, beaver, finger, fioor, hammer, otter, steer, sumtner^ tear, thunder; also anger-, iem. feather, liver, tinder; neut.
bower, lair, leather, timber, udder, water, wonder ; also stair.
Sufifix
-le,

-RU
-I.

:

exx. hunger, winter.

§ 218.

Aryan -LO
beetle,

;

English,

-el,

Substantives of verbal origin;
;

bundle, &c.

Angle, apple, &c.

fowl, hail, nail, rail, &c.

Sickle, tile, jnangle.

§ 219. Teut. suffixes -rana, -arna.

Examples: acorn, iron. Examples: heel, nettle, throstle; § 220. Teut. suffix -lan. navel. Teut. suffix -ILSA. Examples: burial, riddle, shuttle. Examples beacon, oven, raven, token, § 221. Aryan suffix -NO. weapon ; bairn, blain, brain, corn, horn, loan, rain, stone, thane, Exx. soken, em wain, yarn; game, roe. Aryan suffix -Nl. (eagle). Aryan suffix -NU. Exx. qtiern, son, thorn. § 222. Exx. haven, sun, teen. Teut. suffix -NAN. § 223. Aryan suffix
:

-TO.

{a) E. suffix -th

;

birth, broth, &c.

{b)

E. suffix
{c)

-t,

after

f,gh, n,
-th
;

r^ s ; as theft, light, brtmt, hart, frost,
§ 224.
;

E. suffix d; E.
{a)

gold, blade, blood, &c.

Aryan
§

suffix -Ti.

(a) E. suffix
{c)

as birth,

{b) E. suffix -/

flight, gift, thirst, &c.

suffix -d\ deed,glede,

mind, &c.
{b)

225.
-/
;

Aryan

suffix -TU.
(c)

E, suffix -th

;

as death,

E. suffix

loft, lust,

E. suffix

-d; flood, shield, wold. § 226. Suffixes augmented by adding -« food, maiden. § 227. Aryan suffix -ter (-tor), l^^t.frater.
;

{a)

Goth, -thar

;

brother,

{b)

Goth, -dar father, mother,
;

{c)

E. -ter; daughter, sister.
suffix

§

228. Aryan suffix -TRO

:

Teut.

-THRO, -THLO. (a) The form -thro; rudder, lather, murder, leather, (b) The form -dro bladder, adder, fodder,
;

ladder, iveather.
foster, bluster,
needle,

(c)

The form
;

-tro
;

;

halter, laughter, slaughter,
{e)

id) Suffix -s-tro

bolster, holster,
;

Suffix -plo

{f) Suffix -Qlo spittle, (g) Suffix -tlo bristle, throstle. {h) A.S. suffix -Id; A. S. bold, whence E. build; threshold.
Participles.

Present § 229. Aryan suffix -ont (-ent, -nt). Hence errand, flend, friend, tidings, wind, youth. §
suffix -OS, -ES.

230.

Aryan

Lat. opus, gen. operis.

{a) E. hate,

awe, lamb, &c.

; ;

TABLE OF CONTENTS,
{J})

XXV
PAGE

E. suffix

-s, -ze,

-X
%

;

adze, ax, bliss, eaves,

(c)

E. suffix

-;",

ear

(of com), children.
-L-S
;

231. (a) Suffix -s-la

;

housel, ousel, {b) Suffix
;

burial, riddle, shuttle.

§ 232. E. suffix -ness

for -n-es-s*

§ 233.
earnest.

Aryan suffix E. words in
§

-{i)s-to; sophist, dentist , florist ; harvesty
-st',
;

twist, trust, last, wrist, rust, grist,
§ 235.
;

§ 234. Teut. suffix -s-ti

fist, listen.

Teut. suffix -s-TU
§

mist.
suffix

236. Teut. suffix -s-T-man
;

blossom.

237. Teut.
;

-SKA

tusk, husk.

§

238. A. S. suffix -es-tran
§ 239,
suffix

E. suffix

-ster ; spinster, so7igster,

&c.

E. suffix -er, expressing
;

the agent.

§

240.

Aryan

-KO

Gk.

-«os,
;

Lat.
folk,

-cus

;

Goth, -ha-, -ga ; body, honey, ivy,
whelk, yolk,
{a)
silk.

sally.

E. -k

hawky
A. S. 225

§ 241. Teut. suffix -ga, -an-ga, -in-ga, -tin-ga.
;

A.

S. suffix -ing
;

patronymic and diminutival,
*

{b)

suffix -u?ig
*

the so-called

verbal

'

substantive.

How
and
;

to parse

for breaking a

window.'

Chapter
-ly,

XIV.
§

Adjectival,
242.

Adverbial,
§ 243.

Verbal
or

Suffixes.
bleaky

The

suffixes -fast, -fold, -ful, -less, -like

-some, -ward, -wart, wise.

&c.

§ 244.

hard.

§ 246.

Aryan -i mean. Aryan -10 Gk. -lo-%
; ;

;

Aryan -o blind, blacky quicky § 245. Aryan -u dear, free, mid, newy
;

wild; also (with mutation) keen, sweet, § 247. Teut. -i-na; beech-en, gold-en, &c. Goth, -ei-na A. S. -en E. -en, -n § 248. Aryan -wo call-ow, fall-ow, mell-ow, narr-ow, sall-oWy yell-ow. Also few, nigh, raw, slow, true,yare. § 249. Aryan -MO war-m. § 2.">0. Teut. -ma-n fore-m-ost, hind-m-ost, 8cc. ; bitt-er fai-r slipp-er-y. Aryan for-m-er. § 251. Aryan -RO
;

;

;

;

;

;

;

,

,

-LO; A.

S. -ol,-el\

britt-le, ev-il, fick-le, id-le, litt-le,

mick-le

rakehell, ai-l,fou-l.

§ 252.

Aryan -NO
;

;

brow-n, ev-en, fai-Uy

giv-en, heath-en, gree-n, lea-n, ster-n

east-erti,

&c.

§ 253.

Aryan-To; pp. suffix,
&c.
{b)

{a) lL.-th\ uncou-th,nor-th,sou-th ; four-thy

E.

-/

;

cleft, reft,

&c.

;

set,

hurt, &c.
E. -d

;

deft, left, softy
sal-ty

swift ;

brigh-t, ligh-t, righ-t, sligh-t, straigh-t, tigh-t ;
;

swar-ty tar-t, eas-t, wes-t
dea-d, lou-d, nak-ed.
ei-ther, nei-ther.
% 255.
;

was-te.

{c)

;

bal-d, bol-d, col-dy
;

§ 254.

Aryan -KO

;

Goth, -ha

Aryan -ter o-ther, whe-thcry Aryan -ont, -ent (cf. §. 229). § 256. might-y, man-y ; bus-y, craft-y, disz-y,
;

dought-y, dust-y,foam-y, heav-y, wear-y ; an-y

;

sill-y.
;

§ 257.

Aryan -ISKO, -SKO
mar-sh, ra-sh.

;

A.

S. -iscy

E. -ish, -sh, -ch
Brit-ish,

heathen-ishy

Engl-ishy Dan-ish, Fren-chy

Welsh,
for
-ly^

&c.

;

fre-sh^

Aryan -is-TO, S 258. Adverhial Suffixes;
-ways, -wise.

-YONS-TO; E. superl. -est, -meal, -ward, -wards, -way,
;

§ 259. Suffixes, -j, -se, -ce

else, need-s^ on-ciy twi-et*


TABLE OF CONTENTS,

; ^

XXvi

PAGE
Suffix -^r; ev-er, nev-er, yesf-er-day.
Suffix

-^w

;

wkil-om,
§

seld-

om.

Suffix

-l-ing,

-l-ong ;

head-l-ong,
;

dark-l-ing.

260.

Verbal Suffixes.
glist-en, op-en ;

Suffixes -en, -n

fatt-en, length-en, &c.
§ 261.
§
;

daw-n, drow-n, faw-n, lear-n, ow-n.
&c.
;

Suffix k\

har-k, lur-k, scul-k, smir-k, stal-k, wal-k.
;

262.

Suffix

-le, -I

babb-le, rumb-le,

draggrle, dazz-le, Sec.

draw-l,

niew-l, wau-l.

Suffix -er

;

glimm-er,Jlult-er, glitt-er, welt-er. Cf.

z\socrti7?ib-le,knee-l,8i.c.

cleanse, rinse ; clasp,

Also gird-le,fett-er. grasp; lisp

§263.

Suffix

-ji?;

261

Chapter XV.
of a root.

Derivations from Roots. § 246. Definition §266. Affixes are due §265. Discussion of roots. care is to be exercised in to roots. § 267. Examples of roots discriminating the vowel-sound found in a root. A list of fifty
;

roots.

§

268.

How

to discover the root of an E.

word

;

ex-

emplified in the case of the
§ 269.

word
;

listen,

from the root
root.

KLEU.
glory

Other words derived from the same

§ 270. Results
client,

of the two preceding sections
slave, are all
;

listen, loud,

lumber,

from the same root. § 271. The root GHEU, to pour whence GHEUD and GHEUS. Hence are chyme, chyle, alchemy ?, chemist ?, fuse, con-found, re-fund, fut-ile, con-fute, re-fute, foison, found; gut, in-got; geys-ir, gush; Bill-i-ter Lane. § 272. The root sek, to cut, with its derivatives ; s£c-ant, seg-ment, bisect, insect, scion, sickle, &c. § 273. The root SKAD, to cut sched-ule , shing-le, scatt-er, shatt-er. § 274. The root skid, to cut; schism, schist, zest, squill, abscind;
;

shed, shide, sheath,
sciss-ors.

skid ;

cces-ura,

circum-cise,
;

&c.

;

chis-el,

§ 275.

The

root skap, kap, to cut

apo-cope, syn-

cope,

chip,

comma, cap-on ; shape, shave, shaft, scab, shabby, chop, shear, share, chump. § 276. The root sker, to shear
;

shore, short, shirt, shard, score, scaur, skerry, skirt; scar-ify,

char-acter

;

cuir-ass,
;

s-cour-ge.

§

277.

The

root skel, to
§ 278.

divide

;

scale, shell
;

scall, skull, skill ; shale.

The
;

root
ex-

SKARP, to cut
cerp-t,

sharp, scarp, scarf, scrape,
harv-est.
§ 279.
;

scrap, scrip

s-car-ce

;

The
§

root skalp, to cut;

scalp-el, sculp-ture, scallop, scalp

shelf.
;

280.

The root skur,
scro-ll.

to cut

;

cur-t

;

scru-ple, scrutiny

shroud, shred, screed;

§281. Remarks on the tracing of roots

....
§
'

280

Chapter XVT.

—Modern

English Spelling.
'

282. Arch-

bishop Trench's remarks on etymological spelling. Fallacy of the argument. Neglect of phonetic considerations. § 283. History the only true guide to spelling; importance of pho-

TABLE OF CONTENTS,
netics.
§ 284.

XXVll
PAGE

Account of the symbols employed in English. The Celtic alphabet. The Anglo-Saxon alphabet. § 285. Value of the A. S, symbols especially of c, g, ge,f, r, s. Double values of / and s. use of § 286. The A. S. vower-system
;

;

accents to denote vowel-length.

The A.
§

S.

system of writing was
1

intended to be purely phonetic.
in spelling
;

287. a.d.
;

150-1300, Changes
as a consonant, v as

new

use

oiy

;

use oik, '^,gh

z/

a vowel

;

introduction of ch, sch,

y
ce,

a,& a.

consonant, qu,

wh

;

new

use of/, S.

Disappearance of

ea, eo.

Introduction of the

Anglo-French system of spelling; the English language is reHence qu, c as s, spelt by scribes accustomed to Anglo-French. u and y as consonants, ay, ey, v, w, ch, i as/, &c. Change of ch (or A. S. a to oa, 00. § 288. Symbols in use about 1300 hc\ ph, sch, th, wh ; ai, ay, au, aw, ea, ei, ey, eo, ie, oa, oi, oy^ Further ou, ui, eu, ew; kk, cch, sc. § 289. A. D. 1300-1400. changes in spelling; use oi gh, aa, ee, 00, y for long z; French
;

eo.

§ 290.

About

a.d.

1400.

Spelling of Chaucer (Ellesmere
§ 291. List
;

MS.;

see
;

Appendix
diphthongs
; ;

A).

of Symbols in 1400;
;

vowels
biform

consonants

digraphs

doubled

letters §

;

digraphs

initial
;

and

iinal

combinations.

292.

Changes
guage.

since a.d. 1400

loss of the final -e in the spoken lan-

§ 293. History of the spelling of the
final e

words

bo^te,

stone;

shewing how the

(mute) came to be used to indicate the
History of the spelling of the
result.
§

length of the preceding vowel.

French word cone
from P'rench.

;

with a similar
tell.

294. Origin of the

words derived Use oi ge for/, and oi ce for s. § 296. History of the plural suffix -es, both in English and French words. § 297. Use of a double consonant to indicate that the preceding vowel
spellings ride, white,
§ 295. Spelling of
is short.

Why

the medial consonant

is

not doubled in inanagc^

matins, bigot, metal, colour, busy, canon, &c.
follerate.

The

spelling
final s.

Use of gge

for finally.

Doubling of r and of

§ 298.

A.D. 1400-1500.

idle final -^ in

Use of Caxton's spelling in 1471. impossible places. § 299. Caxton's use of vowels,
Origin of the
z.

diphthongs, and consonants.
consonant.
3

symbol/

Use oiv

confused with

Caxton's use of digraphs, and of
combinations.

yiox\.
tch ;

Biform digraphs; origin of § 300. Review, shewing that the old spelling was meant to be phonetic. Confusion between the close and open 0, and the close and open e. Anglo-French words introduced in the Anglo-French spelling.
Explanation of initial^
Initial

disuse of thth.

Borrowing of French words from the French of Paris. § 301. lavention of Printing. Origin of the Tudor- English oa to denote

— —

XXVIU
open
Of

TABLE OF CONTENTS,
PAGE

and ea to denote open
final
e.

e.

Other changes.
bs, bt, cs, gs,

§ 302. Effect

of the loss of

Origin of final

&c.

§

303.

Revival of learning.
origin.

Attempt to be consciously etymological. Different treatment of native words and of those of Latin or Greek

The new spellings doubt, debt, fault, victuals, advance. Innovations in spelling made"_ on a false principle. § 304. Stupidity of the pedantic method.
style,
tiro,
;

Blunders of the pedants

;

sylvan,

Syren verbs in -ize ; aneurism ; scent ; tongue. Error in § 305. Changes made since the time of Shakespeare. writing have for hav, and stiff {ox stif. Uniform spelling (about Marked and violent changes in pronunciation abate, 1690).
;

beet.

Results.

§ 306.

Summary of the preceding investigation

.

294

Chapter XVII.
the spellings
*

Phonetic Spelling.
'

§ 307. Unsatisfactory
'

character of the so-called

etymological

spelling.
scent.
;

Absurdity of
§ 308.

scythe, tongue, sieve,

rhyme,

The

glossic

'

system of Mr. Alexander

J. Ellis

useful for repre'

senting English dialects.

§ 309. Outline of the
§ 310.

glossic

'

system,
of

as applied to ordinary English.

The *romic' system

Mr. H. Sweet. Advantages of this system. Vowels as represented by Mr. Sweet. § 311. Consonants as represented by Mr. Sweet. spelling, with some § 312. Specimen of romic
'
'

modifications.

romic system exemplified. List of the chief vowel-sounds and diphthongal sounds in AngloSaxon Middle English, and Modern English, as exhibited in twentyeight characteristic words. § 314. Some other sounds, found in
§ 313. Utility of the
*
'

,

Tudor- English.
Sweet.

§ 315.
:

Note

various modifications of the
.

Great value of the works by Ellis and * romic system
'

;

with illustrations

.

334
§ 316. Classification § 317. Voiceless

Chapter XVIII.
of consonants
;

English Consonants.

gutturals, dentals, labials, &c.

and voiced consonants.

Why

k

is

voiceless, but

g

is
:

voiced.
k, ch,
t,

Why s

is

voiceless, but z is voiced.
s,

Voiceless letters
:

wh. Voiced letters g,j, d, th (in thine)y b, V, z, zh, w. § 318. Importance of the above distinction. Affinity of voiceless consonants for other such, and of voiced consonants for other such. Illustrations. § 319. Voiced consoth (in thin), p, f,
sh,

nants are nearer than

the

others

to

the nature

of vowels.

Liability of voiceless letters to

become voiced.

§ 320. Substitu-

tion of one voiceless (or voiced) letter for another of like kind.
Illustrations.

of

effort.

External influence, due to mental association.

§321. Origin of consonantal changes. Economy Ex-

; ;

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
amples of this. nantal change is
palatalisation {k
§ 322. Principal

XXIX
PAGE

effected in
;

methods by which consQEnglish. Examples of § 323.

> ch) assimilation {kd > kt)
;

voicing (^

> ^)

;

vocalisation (^

;

substitution {k y- t)\ metathesis {sk

kj)

abbreviation (A. ^.fugol
(excrescent p, &c.)
(5

>
;

Y^./owl)

;

unvoicing (^
{c

> j) > >
^)

;

addition

symbol-change
;

>

k)

;

mis-

apprehension

> 2)
;

;

doubling of consonants
§ 324.
;

consonantal influ-

ence {er

>

ar)

confluence.

Examples of palatisation.
as in chaff, char-tuoman,

§ 325. History of K.
charlock, &c.
;

A'>
tch
;

ch

initially,

finally, as in ache, beech, bench,

&c.

§

326. kk
§

> M. E.

cch

Voicing; k
Substitution
lobster.

> E. > ch
^

as in bitch, flitch, itch, &c.
§

327..

'>-

j

',

as in ajar, jowl, jole.
;

328. k'p§

g\
^

dig, sprig, trigger.
;

Final k lost
/
;

sigh, barley, /, every.

329.

>

aj^, apricot, bat,
j/z
;

mate, milt,

i^

>/>
;

§ 330. j^

>

ashes, ash, dish,flsh, &c.

Initially, as

m shake, shame. Sk'y- ks = x', Kw'= cw > qu. Kn > g7t or n
gnash, gnaw, nibble, nap.
§

mix,
;

y ex,

ax, &c.

§ 331.

knave, knead, &c.

gnarled^

332.

History
/; Jui

of

H.
;

When

sounded

initially;

misuse of h. hi ">

>
m

n

hr
;

>

r; as

borough^ &c. § 333. Final h, now gh bough, &c. The combination ough explained. § 334. Final ht', noyf ght. §335. Loss of^; finally, as fee, lea; mediin ladder, nap, rather,
ally, in trout, not', initially, in
see, tear,
s.,

it.

Loss of A.

S.

h

;

^ar (of corn),

Welsh.

§

336.

Hw >

wh

;

wh
G;

for

w,

in whity

•whelk,

whortlebeny.

§ 337.

History of

gear, get, giddy,

Ge y as in ye, yea, yes ; also in yard, yare, &c. Gi Mid. E. 5. A. S. ge>>', as in yard (rod), yearn, &c. 7or i-. A. S. ^(? ^ in e-nough. G lost in //, itch, icicle. § 338. Final and medial g y or i, in ^/<zy, g gh, in neigh g
&c.
',

>

>

>

:

>
;

^^'oy, key, ail, blain,

&c.

;

^

> > w or 020, in bow,fo^vl, &c., and in
;

morrow, &c.

;

^

>/", in dwarf;

g

is lost

in steward, nine, tile.
§

Ng >

«^^ in «w^^, j/i>i§7 A. S. eg M. E. ggox gge

g is

lost in /^«/.

339. Double
;

^;

>

>
g

E. dge, in bridge, edge
final

is

vocal-

ised in lay,

lie,

buy.
s.

Gg

or

preserved in Scand. words,

as in egg,

v.,
\

egg,
t

§ 340.

History of T.
after

pride, clod
eido,

>

th, in

swarthy, lath.
/,

T > d,\n proud, T lost in anvil, best, last,
s.

&c.

§ 341. Excrescent

m
;

or

Dissimilated gemi§

nation.

Y.\x.\ against, amidst. Sec, anent.

342, History of

TIL

Voiceless th
;


^,

;

voiced th (8)

6

>
;

d, in afford, burden,

could, &c.,

J)

>

in height, nostril,

&c.

ths

>

ss, in

bliss,

lissom.

Th

lost,

in

worship, wrist. Sec, and

in whittle,

whack.

k 843.

History of D.
in
«/^^4?/,

Vcmer's Law.

D>
;

H

',

hither, thither,
;

&c.

;</>/,

cuttlcflsh, tilt (of cart)

woiU^ built, &c.


XXX
§ 344.

; ;

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAGE

Loss oi d, as in answer^ gospel. Excrescent d\ after n, in ss, in bless, hound (to go), dwindle after /, in alder, elder; ds gossip. iV w, in hef?ip, wimberry, § 345. History of N.
;

>

>

&c. \n'>
lost

I,

mjlannel, periwinkle

(fish).

§ 346,

N lost in A. S.
Initial

also lost in Thursday, agnail;

and

in inflexions.

in adder, auger

;

an;

lost in drake.

% 347. Intrusive

n n

;

«^w/, nuncle, nightingale
in

bittern,

marten, stubborn.
/*

Nd >
Use

??;«,

winnow.

§ 348.

History of P.

>

^, pebble,

dribble,

wabble, cobweb.

T ">/(%>), in knave.

Excrescent j^ after m, as in
z;.

empty.

§349. Historj'ofP\ Often sounded as
;

of^

F > V initially, in vane, vat, vinewed, vixen finally, in lives, calves, calve. F lost in hast, hath, had, head, lord, lady. Fm >
mm,
in

lemman, Lammas, woman.
Excrescent

§ 350.
b, after

History of B.

B.
&c.

> /, in gossip, unke??tpt.
§ 351.

m

;

in e?nbers,

History of M.
§

J/ lost
§ 353.
;

in Jive, ousel, soft;

Hants, aunt.

352.

History of Y.

m "> n in ant, Aryan Y preserved in ye,
-^

yea, yes, year, &c.

History ofR.

>
;

/,

in smotilder\

rr

>

dd,

in

paddock

r lost in speak, speech

r intrusive in

bridegroom, hoarse, surf.
§ 354.

Metathesis of r, as in bird, btirn, &c.
lost in each, which, such, as,

History of L.
in

L
It

England

not sounded in calf;

>

tf,

in totter.
S.

§ 355. in

History of
tj'ce,

W,

A.

S.

-we >• -ow,

arrow.

A.

-w absorbed
;

knee.

W

lost in ooze, cud, lark, aught, soul

sw.

Hw >
S. s
;

wh.
6"
"p-

Wr.
written

H > wh,
;

and

in initial wl, thw, tWy

in whole,

whoop.

§

356.
sc,

History of
in scythe

ce, finally; s

>

r,

in cinder; s

>

z, 6"

in adze, bedizen,

with which cf

rise, besom.

Voicing of

J.

> sh,
r,

man.
§ 358.

§

357. S >•

in gush s "> ch, in linch-pin, henchby Vemer's Law, as in are, were, lorn, &c.

S

lost, finally,
§

in burial, riddle, pea.

Origin

of s in

skates, bodice, eaves.

359.

S intrusive,
shine
;

in island.
§

S

"> p, in paddle (small spade). prefixed in squeeze. S <,f,in sneeze ;

Sp

lost in neeze.

360. History of

SK.

Sk

{sc)

exceptions.

The word
sp.

schooner.
§ 361.

St

> sh, in shame, > in blossom,
ss,

&c.

Metathesis of J>^and

Table of Principal Con-

sonantal Changes

344
;

Chapter XIX.
Phonology.
letters
;

Various Changes in the Forms of Words
§

362.

Palatalisation

;

Voicing of voiceless
Assimilation
;

Vocalisation of voiced letters
Metathesis.
§

;

Substi-

tution

;

363.

Abbreviation.

Aphesis defined.

Loss of initial consonants, as in nip, nibble, &c. § 364. Loss of medial consonants, as in drowti, ear, &c. § 365. Loss of Loss of final n. final consonants, as in barley, every, 8cc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
especially in inflexions.
final s in burial,

XXXI
PAGE

Loss of
§

final

w

in glee^
;

knee

;

loss of

&c.

366.

Loss of medial g, as
ant, &c.
§ 367.
ass,

in Jiail.

Syncope as in eer for ever. Loss of a medial vowel, as in adze^

Examples of violent contraction. Vowel-shortening. Apocope. Loss of genders in English. Final a lost, in
s.
;

bow,

final e lost, in

crow, ettd
§ 368.

;

final o lost in heat, eld

;

final

^

lost in door, son,

wood;

final se lost in

alms;

final

en

lost in lent,

kindred; &c.
abbot,

Unvoicing of voiced con§

sonants, as in

want
;

(mole), gossip, purse.

369.

Addition.
-yer, -ier,

Vowel-insertion
in

whisper, besom, &c.
in wallow.

The

E. suffix
-ier.

bowyer, brazier, &c.

Origin of the suffix

Insertion of o before

w, as

Addition of inorganic

mute

e.

§

370. Consonantal insertions.

H wrongly
whoop,

prefixed,

as in yellow-hammer.

Wrong

insertion of h, in whelk,

rhyme

and of n, yew, you.

in newt.

N

;

suffixed, as in bittern.

Y prefixed,
-woof.

in

R

inserted, in bridegroom, hoarse, surf, swarths.

inserted in could.

W

L
in-

inserted, in whole,
letters.

S

serted in island.
f

§ 371. Graphic changes; wh &cc. § 372. qu\ hw Misuse of symbols. List of symbols that are most often Errors of editors and of early printers. confused. § 373. The word owery. The phrase' chekyn a tyde. Ghost-words (see foot note). § 374. Doubling of consonants to denote

Excrescent

>^

;

cch'P' tch; h';;>gh; cw-p-

>

;

'

vowel-shortening.

Needless use of c in acknowledge
§ 375. h.
§

;

needless

doubling of/ in afford, affright. consonantal influence. Effect of
of^.
or
§ 377.

Vowel-changes due to
376.
§ 378.

The same;
o.

effect
z.

of « or m. of

The same effect The same;
;

effect of Wf/ in lengthening

Effect of z«.
§ 380. Effect

§379.

Effect of »*

n upon a preceding
;

nd in

lengthening u.
trill

§ 381. Effect of r

on the preceding vowel.
§

Loss of

of r.

Er > ar
vowel.

examples.
§

vowel
ew.

;

ag >
§ 385.
;

upon a preceding 383. Effect of w, wh, and qu upon a following and of iw to aw. § 384. Change of wi to u
382.
Effect of /
;

Confluence of forms.

Definition of
;

'

confluence.*
;

Examples
whelk;

three words spelt
§ 386.

sound

barse and bass

wilk and
Further
bcatj

&c.
defined.

Homonyms.

Homographs and homo§ 387.
ale, ail;

phones

examples.
beet; 8cc

Examples of homographs. §388. Examples of homophones;

384

Chapter
phism.

XX.— Doublets and
Definition of doublets.

Compounds.
§ 390.

§ 389.

Dimor-

Doublets .sometimes

due

to

a difference of dialect, as ridge, rig; or to borrowed

— —
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAGE
in the case of deck, a doublet of thatch.

XXXlI

words from abroad, as
§ 391.

One

of the pair

may be

Scandinavian, as in the case of

dale, doublet of dell, &c.

§ 392.

One

of the

pair

may
;

be

Both forms may be Latin examples. § 394. Substantive com§ 393. Compound Words. pounds. Adjective Compounds. Verbal Compounds. § 395. List of Compounds, of native origin, in which the origin has been more or less obscured. § 397§ 396. Petrified forms. Hybrid forms 414
French or Latin
;

examples.

Chapter

XXL—Early

Words of Latin
Chester.
§ 399.

origin.

§

398.

Latin of the First Period.
port, pool, mile, pine, v.

Street, wall.

Wme,

wick, of

Latin of the Second Period.

Words such
such words.
in

as A. S. sanct are not to be included.
§ 400.

Two

sets

List of
still

Words
;

of pure Latin origin, found

Anglo-Saxon, and
§
still

in use

including those of the First

Period.

401. List of unorignal Latin words found in Angloin use.
§ 402. Classification of

Saxon, and
in the

Words found

Notice of some two preceding Lists. § 403. Remarks. Latin words found in Anglo-Saxon that have been supplanted by French forms 432

Chapter XXII.
the subject.

English.

§

The Celtic eleiv.^nt. § 404. Difficulty of Welsh has frequently borrowed words from Middle 405. Most Celtic words have been borrowed at
§ 406.

a late period.

Words

of Irish origin.

§§ 407-409.
origin.
§ 412.

Words
§ 411.

of Scotch-Gaelic origin.

§410. Words of Welsh

Words

possibly of early Celtic origin.

Anglo-

Saxon words

of Celtic origin

443

Chapter XXIII.
§ 413.

The Scandinavian or Scandian element.
§ 414.

Period of the borrowing of Scandian words.

Language of the Northmen.
landic
;

its

Scandian.

Scandian defined. § 415. IceIt may be taken as the best type of archaic form. E. long o', as in both. § 416. The Icel. long a

>

Examples.
§ 418.

§ 417.
Icel.

The
i

Icel.

The

long
or-

>
0,

long e'>Y.. ee; as in kneel, lee. E. ee, as in leech or t, as in grime.
;

Examples.
root, scoop,
ih\^^),

§ 419.

The
E.

Icel.

long

<?

> E. 00,
;

as in bloom,

loott,

loom

;

as in bowline

or ou, as in

bow

(of a

plough, slouch.

§ 420.

The

Icel.

long

ti

> E.

00, as in

booth, droop, hoot, pooh', or E. ou, as in
cotver,
Icel.

bound

(ready), cow, v.,
§ 422.

&c.
>/

§ 421.

Icelandic vowel-mutation.

The

long

> E.

f;

as in Jie, mire^ shy, sky,

S7iite, v.

§ 423.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
The
e£/a?7.

XXxiii
PACK

Icel.

long
f,

^

> E,

ea, as in

scream

;

or E.

ee^

in seemly^

sneer \ or E.

as in eider-duck, fry (spawn), sly\ or E. ai, in

fluster.

The Icel. au\ whence E. loose, stoop, s., gawky, The Icel. ei > E. ai, as in bait or ea, in weak, queasy or ^/, in groin. § 426. The Icel. ey appears in geysir\ of. also die, v., j^^^/, v., tryst, s. cf. § 427. The Icel.y^',y«
§ 424. § 425.
; ; ;

E. shealing, meek.
ged, ken
;

§

428. Mutation

;

a

>

.

.

^,
;

as in beck, dregs,

o

>

.

.y,

whence drip, filly, flit,
;

lift

u'P'

.

.y,

whence

U-mutation of a bark (of a tree), brindled, ledge. Verbal derivatives formed by gradation. § 429. Gradation. Strong verbs of Scand. origin fling, rive, take, thrive. Other
;

skim.

verbs of Scand. origin.

The

pp. rotten.
§

§ 430.

Aryan

suffixes

exemplified in words of Scand. origin.

431.

The

suffixed-^

of the neuter gender
§ 432.

;

athwa7't, scant, thwart, toft, want, wight.

The

suffix -sk in bask, busk.

The

suffix -ter in sis-ter.

The
in

suffix -St in trust, tryst.

§ 433.

Verbal

suffixes
;

;

-en, -n, as
-el,

batten, fawn; -k, as in lurk; -ch, in filch
;

-le

or
;

as in

bungle, grovel
rinse.

-/,

as in kneel

;

-er,

as in blunder

-se,

as in

The
;

verb gasp.

§ 434. Palatalisation rare in Scand.

words
served

sk

is

often preserved.

Final

g

is

also

commonly

pre-

;

large

number of Scand. words ending

in g, gg, or con-

taining gg. The sb. egg. Final sk sh, as in dash ; -sk remains in whisk, bask, busk ; fina^ s sh, in gush, flush. § 435.

>

>

Voicing of voiceless

letters.
;

Various examples.

§ 436. Vocalis-

ation of voiced letters

fawn, bow (of a
\

ship), gain,

how
;

(hill),

low, adj., low (flame), roe
tion
;

fiaw, fraught.

§ 437. Assimila-

brad, gad,
;

s.,

ill,

odd, 8cc.

§ 438. Substitution

k

>

t,

as in nasty
thesis
;

s

> sh, in gush.

The word sledge.
;

§ 439.

Meta-

Loss of initial letter, whirl of a final letter, as in roe (of a fish). § 441. Unvoicing of voiced consonants; blunt, shunt. excrescent b and n. The § 442. Additions words whisk and windlass. Pecu§ 443. Graphic changes. liarities of Icelandic spelling. § 444. Misuse of / for / § 445. Vowel-changes due to consonantal influence or other
gasp, dirt.
;

§ 440. Contraction.
letter, as in bask,

2i&m

lee

of a medial

;

cause.

Vowel-lengthening.

Change of en
less obscured.

to in

;

hinge, fling.

§ 446. List of

Compound Words,
more or

of Scandian origin, in which

the origin has been

rowed from

modem

Icelandic, Swedish, Danish,

Note on words borand Norwegian 453
eleBorrowings
sea-temiB

Chapter XXIV.
ment.
VOL.
\.

—The Old

Friesic

and Old Dutcfi
§ 448.

§ 447. Scarcity of Information.

from Dutch have taken place at various dates.

Many

C

XXX IV
are

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAGE
;

Dutch
;

examples.
List of

§ 449,

Many

cant terms are of

Dutch

Dutch words borrowed in the time Dutch words in Shakespeare. § 451. Introduction of Dutch words into Middle English. Difficulty of
origin

examples.

§ 450.

of Elizabeth.

the enquiry.

Examples.

§ 452.

Imperfection of the remains of

Anglo-Saxon

481
§ 453.

Chapter XXV.— Effects of the English Accent.
Shortening of long vowels often due to accent.
§ 454.

Rule

I.

by accentual stress, when a word Examples (a) words is augmented by an additional syllable. augmented by a suffix (/;) words augmented by composition, the vowel being followed by two or more consonants ; (c) compound words, in which the vowel is not clogged by consonants. In dissyllabic compounds, a long vowel in the § 455. Rule 2. latter syllable may be shortened by the want of stress. Examples. (Note that, by Rules i and 2, both the vowels in A. S. Dt'mstdn In dissyllabic are short in modem English). § 456. Rule 3. words, the vowel of the unaccented syllable, if short, may disappear hence ' crushed forms,' such as hern for heron lone for alone. In trisyllabic words, the middle (un§ 457. Rule 4.
often shortened
:

A long vowel is

;

;

;

accented) vowel or syllable
forms,' such
z.%

may

disappear

;

hence
is

'

crushed
in

fortnight iox fourteen-night.
for Gloucester.

This
§
off.

common

place names, as in Gloster

458. Effect of

emphasis

;

differentiation of to
it.

and

too

;

^j/and

Loss of h in

unemphatic

Voicing of final

s in plurals

of substantives, &c. 491

Notes
Appendix A. Appendix
B.

501

Further Illustrations of §§ 60-65

.

.

503

Specimens of Spelling
. .

509
. ; .
.

Index of English Words

.

513

General Index of Principal Matters Discussed

.

539

ENGLISH ETYMOLOGY.
CHAPTER
Introductory.
§ 1.
I.

It will assist
if

me

in explaining the scope of the pre-

sent

book

I first of all

make a few remarks upon a given
For
this

passage of English

literature.

purpose,

I

open

Booth's reprint of the celebrated 'First Folio' edition of
Shakespeare's plays,
first

printed in 1623.

In Actus Tertia*
^

of

The Taming
:

of the

Shrew,

Gremio thus speaks of

Petnichio
*

Tut, fhe's a Lambe, a Doue, a foole to him He tell you fir Lucentio ; when the Priefl

:

Shoulde aske if Katherine fliould be his wife, Ij by goggs woones quoth he, and fwore so loud, That all amaz'd the Prieft let fall the booke, And as he fi^oop'd againe to take it vp. This mad-brain'd bridegroome tooke him such a cuffe, That downe fell Priefl. and booke, and booke and Priefl, Now take them vp quoth he, if any lift.*

Those who

are accustomed only to

modern

print

and

spelling will at once notice slight variations between the old

and modern methods of printing

this

well-known passage.
affirmative

Thus

the use

of

/

to represent
;

the

aye

has

certainly a peculiar look

and few people would now make This will at once use of such an expression as if any list.' help us to see that our language has a history, and that it
'

alters

from time to time.
I.

The importance
B

of studying our

VOL.

a
language
student
in

INTRODUCTORY,
historically
is

[Chap.

I.

can

hardly

be

over-estimated.
it,

A
is

who

unacquainted with the older forms of
^

no wise

qualified

to give opinions

upon

the derivation of

English words, unless the word be derived from Latin or

Greek
easily

in so obvious a

manner

that the derivation cannot
fair

be missed by such as have received a
;

education
to

in those languages

and even

then,

if

the
is

Word has come

us indirectly, through the French, he

very likely to miss

some important point concerning it. § 2. Glancing once more at the above
consider the various points about
attention
it

quotation, let us
call for special

which

and study. First of all, we naturally ask, who was What kind of the author, and at what time did he live ? literary work is here exhibited, in what relation does it stand to other works by the same writer, and what is the exact
date of
its

composition
is

?

These are questions which

chiefly

belong to what

called the history of English

literature,

and

to literary history in general.

Looking

at

it

once more from

another point of view, we
written,

and

at

what period ?

may ask, in what language is this What were the peculiarities of

the language at that period, as regards the pronunciation,

the spelling, the

method of printing and punctuation, the grammar, and the nature of the vocabulary? These are
questions which belong to the history of the English lan-

guage, and to the history of language in general.
§ 3.

With a view

to limiting the field of observation

and

enquiry as far as possible, I propose, in the present work, to
consider chiefly the vocabulary, and further to limit
this, for
it

the most part, to the vocabulary of our language as

is

current at the present day.

And

further, as

regards

the

vocabulary, I propose to deal mainly with the etymology of
* I have frequently heard such grossly false statements concerning English so confidently uttered by supposed ' scholars that any hint of
'

contradiction

was

hopeless.

Nothing was

left

but to listen in silent

shame.

§4.]

COMPOSITE NATURE OF ENGLISH,
go
to

3

the words which
ject of

compose

it

;

so that the precise sub-

our enquiry

is,

in fact, the

CURRENT IN MODERN ENGLISH.
carefully

At

the

etymology of words Same time, it must be
mentioned above

borne in mind, that
less intimately

all the points

are

more or

connected with the subject.

We

shall certainly

make a

great mistake unless

we

are always

ready to accept such help as

may be
at

afforded us

by con-

sidering the literary use of words, the phonetic history of
their

changing forms, the dates

which certain changes

of form took place, the dates at which certain words (previously

unknown) came

into current use,
in

and the changes
their

to

which words are subject

consequence of

grammatical

relation to each other in the sentence.

Whilst,

on the one
are often

hand, we limit the subject as far as possible in order to

master the essential principles with
obliged,

less effort,

we

on

the other hand, to

make use

of

all

the aid that

can be afforded us by proper attention to chronology and
linguistic history;

and we
all

.often find ourselves

compelled to

seek for aid from

the resources which comparative philo-

logy can yield.

Inasmuch, however, as the vocabulary and
be, to

grammar of every language can

some

extent, con-

sidered independently, I propose to leave the

grammar

in

the background, and to refer the reader, for further information concerning
lish
it,

to Morris's

'

Historical Outlines of

Eng-

Accidence,' and Matzner's 'Englische Grammatik,' of
is

which there

an English translation by C.
*

J.

Grece. Another

work is the Historische Grammatik der englischen Sprache' by C. F. Koch, which, Hke the work
highly important

by Matzner, contains a great deal of valuable information about the vocabulary as well as the grammar. To these three books I shall have occasion to refer particularly, and
I

have frequently drawn upon them
§ 4.

for illustrative

examples.

The most remarkable
is

f)oint

about the vocabulary of
Certainly

modern English

its

composite nature.

no

language was ever composed of such numerous and such

B 2

4
diverse elements.

INTR OD UCTOR V.
The
sentiment of the old
^
'

Roman

— homo
*

has been fullyhumani nihil a me alienum puto adopted by the Englishman, with a very practical effect upon his language. This important subject, of thje various sources whence our language has been supplied, will form and the succeeding Chapters of the subject of Chapter II the present volume will deal with what may be called the native element or the primary source of modern English. I also take into consideration Latin words found in AngloSaxon, and early words of Celtic and Scandinavian origin. The secondary sources, including the very important French

sum

:

;

element, will be dealt with in another volume.
^ ' I am a man, and nothing which relates to man can be a matter of unconcern to me;' Terence, Heautontimorumenos, i. i. 25.

CHAPTER
The
§ 5.

II.

Sources of the English* Language.
In
considering the various
sources

Chronology.

from which the vocabulary of modern EngHsh has been
drawn, our most important help
is

chronology.

A

strict

attention to chronology will often decide a question

which

might otherwise be somewhat obscure.

A

single

example

may

suffice to

shew

this,

and may

furnish further instruction

surloin,

by the way. Johnson's Dictionary, in treating of the word under the spelling sirloin, refers us to the 5th sense
of
sir,

under which we

find, accordingly, that sirloin is

*a

tide

given to the loin

of beef, which one of our kings

knighted in a good humour.'

This

is

one of those famous
public,

and abundant falsehoods which the general
usually have

who

no

special linguistic experience, applaud to the

echo and believe greedily; but any student who has had but a moderate experience of the history of language cannot but
feel

question,

some doubts, and will at once ask the very pertinent who was the king? Turning to Richardson's

Dictionary,
entitled
is

we

are told that surloin
the First.'

is

'

the loin of beef, so

by King James

Not
is

the slightest evidence

offered of this historical event, nor

any

hint given as to

the author

who

is

responsible for such a statement.

But

in

an account of some expenses of the Ironmongers' Company, in the time of Henry VI, quoted by Wedgwood from the

Athenaeum of Dec. 28, 1867, we find the entry *A surloyn Thus chronology at once tells us that the word beeff, vWdJ was in use at least a century before King James I was born,
and
eff"ectually

disposes of this idle and mischievous invention.

6
In
fact,

SOURCES OF ENGLISH.
our loin
is

[Chap.

II.

merely borrowed from the French longe
a
quotation

(formerly also spelt logne), and our surloin from the French
surlonge^.

In Littr^'s French Dictionary

is

shewing that sur longe was already in use in the fourteenth
century, which carries the word's history
still

further back.

Hence we

learn the very necessary lesson, that etymology

requires scientific treatment,

and does not
;

consist in giving
at

indolent credence to

silly

guesses

and we

once estabhsh
vocabulary

the value of chronology as a helpful guide to the truth.
§ 6.

Additions to the Vocabulary.
has,
for

The
of
true

of the English language

many
It
is

centuries,

been

steadily increased by the constant addition

borrowed from extraneous sources.
words, being no longer wanted,
or

new words that many

having their places

supplied by more convenient or more popular expressions,

have from time to time become obsolete
additions from without.
the exact date at which a

;

but the loss thus

occasioned has always been more than counterbalanced by
In some cases we are able to
tell

word has been introduced.
readily given.

Two

examples of

this

may be

The

verb to boycott

was

first

used in 1880, being suddenly brought into use by
Captain Boycott, of

the peculiar circumstances of the case.

Lough Mask House,
and
to

in

Mayo

(Ireland),

was subjected

to a
lived,

kind of social outlawry by the people

among whom he

whom

he had given offence.

called boyeoth'ng,

and

the use of the

Such treatment was word may be readily
advise that
is

understood by help of the following extract from the Scotsman

newspaper of Dec.

4,

1880:

— 'They

men who
work
for

pay

full

rents shall be Boycotted;

nobody

to

^ Thus surloin is really the upper part of the loin from F. sur^ Again, the F. sur is from above, and O. F. logne, longe, the loin. Lat. super, above and longe represents a Lat. fem. adj. lumbea, formed from lumbus, a loin. In many cases I shall not give the details of such
;
;

etymologies, as they can be found in
in the epitome of
it,

my

Etymological Dictionary, or

called the Concise Etymological Dictionary, both of
Press.

which are published by the Clarendon

§7.]

ADDITIONS TO THE VOCABULARY,
is

7
is

them, nobody

to sell

them anything, nobody

to

buy

anything of them.'

Further, the people

who

acted against

Captain Boycott were called Boycotiers, and the Echo news-

paper of Dec.

7,

1880, even ventured to speak of 'the latest

victim of Boycottism ^'

Here

is

a case
at

still

fresh within the

memory of most of us, which a new verb can be formed
social oppression
:

once shows how readily
express a
its

to

new kind of
is

whilst the date of
that
it

introduction
to

so

well

determined,
it

would be useless

search for

examples of

earlier

than 1880.

The
is

other example to

which

I allude is the

word moh^ which

a mere contraction

of the Latin mobile or mobile vulgus (the fickle crowd or
multitude),
use,
first

introduced as a convenient form for
its

common
about

and afterwards retained because of

convenience.

This word can be dated, without
1688.
is

much

risk of error,
4to.,

In Shadwell's Squire of Alsatia,

1688, the word

spelt mobile

on
xii.

p. 3,

but mob on

p. 59.

(See Notes and
Sebastian, written

Queries, 6th S.
in 1690,
sc.

501).

In Dryden's
in

Don
i.

we

find the

word mobile
I

Act

sc. i, whilst in

Act

iii.

3

it

is

shortened to mob.

In 1692, he again uses mob, in
have given, in

his preface to

Cleomenes.

my

Dictionary,

examples from the Hatton Correspondence, of the use of
mobile in 1690, but
find

mob

in 1695.

We

shall not

be likely to

many examples

of the use of mob before i688, nor of

mobile long after 1690.
§ 7. Changes introduced unceasingly but silently. These constant additions to our language are seldom much noticed by any of us. They usually creep in unobserved
;

or

if,

as in the case of boycott^ they are so curious as to

upon our attention, the novelty soon wears and we soon come to employ them without much reIn this gard to the manner or time of their introduction.
force themselves
off,
*

matter of language,' says

Archbishop Trench, 'how few

aged persons ... are conscious of any serious difference
*

The word

is

well explained and illustrated in Cassell's Dicticnary.

;

8

SOURCES OF ENGLISH.
their early youth,

[Chap.

II.

between the spoken language of
of their old age
;

and

that

are aware that words

and ways of using
;

words are obsolete now, which were usual then that many words are current now, which had no existence at that time
that

new idioms have sprung

up, that old idioms have past
. .

away.
are
it

But there Andyet it is certain that so it must be. few to whom this is brought so distinctly home as
.

was

to Caxton,

who

writes

— "our

language

now used

from that which was used and spoken when I It will thus be seen that it is best to fix an was born \"
varieth far
'

absolute date for the period of the language under discussion; and I therefore take the year 1885 as our starting-

which this work was commenced. Sources of the Language. Before we can discuss the etymology of any word employed in modern English, it
point, being the year in
§ 8.
is

necessary to be quite certain,

if

possible, as to the source

whence the word has come to us. It would be useless to try to explain such a word as elixir by the help of Latin or
Dutch, because, as a matter of
and, as such,
is

fact, it is
el-iksir.

a term of alchemy,

due to the Arabic

Here
'

el [al) is the

definite article,
stone,' is

and

iksir,

i.

e.

essence or

the philosopher's

not a true Arabic word, but borrowed from the dry or dried up, a term applied to the residuum

Greek
left

^rjpov,

Archbishop Trench gives a long list of words which have found their way into English from various sources ^ but I have since given a fuller and more exact hst
in a retort ^ in the

Appendix
of
'

to

my

Dictionary *.
'

In the attempt to

settle

this question

distribution

of our w^ords according to the

languages whence they are derived,
1

we always
;

receive great
See
801.

Trench

*
;

English Past and Present,'

lect. i

9th ed., pp. 8-10.

the whole passage.
^
^
'

Explained in the Supplement to English Past and Present,' lect.

my Etymological Dictionary, p.
i.

See also Morris, Eng. Accidence,

§ 29.
* ' Distribution of Words/ at p. 747 of the larger edition, or p. 603 of the Concise edition.

§ 9.]

SOURCES OF ENGLISH.

9

Hence the following Canons for Etymology are of primary importance. Before attempting an etymology, ascertain the earliest form and use of the word, and observe chronology. If the word be of native origin, we should next trace its
help from chronology and history.
'
'

word be borand the history rowed, we must observe geography of events, remembering that borrowings are due to actual contact. We may be sure, for example, that we did
history in cognate languages.
If the
not take the word elixir directly from the Moors, but rather
obtained
it

through the medium of Latin, in which language

alchemical treatises were usually written.

Enumeration of these sources. The various sources may be thus enumerated ^ Taking English to represent the native speech of the Low-German conquerors of
§ 9.

of English

England, the

earliest accessions to the

language, after a.d.

450, were due to borrowings from the Celtic inhabitants of our island. Latin occupies the curious position of a language which has lent us words at many different dates, from a
period preceding historical record^

down

to
at

modern

times.
date,

Many

Scandinavian words were introduced

an early

Norman Conquest in io66, although many of them cannot be traced much further back than 1200, or even somewhat later. Owing to an almost constant trade
chiefly before the

or contact with Holland, Dutch words have been borrowed
directly at various periods
;

the chief of these being, in
III

my

and Elizabeth, A considerable number of words have been borrowed from Greek,
opinion, the reigns of

Edward

many
*

of which belong purely to science or literature rather
fuller details, sec Morris,

For

'

Several Latin words were

known
i.

Saxon invasion of England.
strdt (camp, Csesar, mile, pine,
Prehistoric P'orms of

English Accidence, oh. iii. to the Teutonic tribes before the Such words are camp, cdserc, mil, pin,
e.

punishment,

strfeet)
;

;

*

Dialects and
Soc.

Old

English,'
tsa

by

II.

Sweet
vjall,

/'////.

Trans.,

Some, such 1876, p. 543. learnt from the Britons.

port (harbour),

&c.,

may have

been

10

SOURCES OF ENGLISH.

[Chap.

II.

than to the spoken language.
directly

Such as have been borrowed
the revival of the study of

may

mostly be dated from a period not earlier than

the reign of

Edward VI, when

Greek took place owing to the teaching of Sir John Cheke and others at Cambridge ^ Before that period, many Greek words found their way indeed into English, but only indirectly,

through the medium of Latin or French;

such

words commonly
of medicine.

refer to ecclesiastical affairs or to the art

The Norman conquest opened
first

the

way

for

the introduction of French words

into English, but this in-

troduction was at

very sparing, so that the number of
writings before the year 1300
that date, the influx of
is by them was

them extant in English no means large. After

immense, especially during the fourteenth century; so much
so that bj the end of that century the composite character of

our language was completely established.
of
this

One

great cause

was

certainly the influence of the law-courts,

which

notoriously retain to the present day
that have
their

many

old French words

dropped out of current

use, or have never found

way

into our daily speech*^ Besides these sources, there

are no others of importance much before 1 500, with the sole and curious exception of the Semitic languages, Hebrew and The Hebrew words are due to the influence of the Arabic. Hebrew Scriptures, which rendered such words as seraph and sabbath familiar to Greek, Latin, and French authors at an
early
period.

Arabic words came through

contact with

Eastern commerce, or were due to some acquaintance, either

through the medium of Latin or by way of France and
Spain, with the

Moors who had

established themselves in

the latter country.

But about the year 1500, our language entered upon what
^
*

Thy age, like ours, O Soul of Sir John Cheek, Hated not learning worse than toad or asp, When thou taught'st Cambridge, and King Edward, Greek.'
Milton
;

Sonnet

vi.

' ;

§10.]

MODERN STAGE OF
be definitely called
its

ENGLISH.

II

may

modern stage.

Not only did the

discovery of America render possible the gradual introduction

of a few native American words, but English was brought
into closer contact with Spanish

and Portuguese, owing and
trade,

to

the stimulus thus given to foreign travel

and the
French

increased

facilities for

them.

At

the

same

time, the

language began to borrow largely from

Italian, especially

(1547-1559);

during the reigns of Francis I (151 5- 1547) and Henry II and we frequently borrowed Italian words,

not only indirectly, through the French, but directly also.

in

Wyatt and Surrey studied and imitated 1545 we find Ascham, in his Preface

Italian,

to Toxophilus,
'

and already com-

plaining that
latin, french,

many

English writers use
^^

straunge wordes, as

and Italian

see Arber's reprint, p. 18 ^

The
it,

end of the sixteenth century, and the century succeeding

made our travellers familiar with such foreign languages as German 2, Russian, Turkish, and Persian; and later still, words have been introduced from many others, including various
Indian languages, and the diverse tongues scattered over the
continents of Asia, Africa, and America, the remoter parts of

Europe, and the distant islands of Polynesia.

We

have also

borrowed Spanish words

indirectly,

through the medium of
of France (1589-16 10)
earlier date.
It

French, from the time of Henry

IV

and even

directly,

from a somewhat

may

be remarked that the influence of French upon English has

now
will

lasted for

more than

five centuries.

§ 10.

The Modern Period begins about 1500.
may
be drawn by taking the date
1

It

thus appear that a tolerably distinct, though arbitrary,

line of separation
'
'

500

See an essay on The Influence of Italian upon English Literature,* Ross Murray; 1886. ^ The number of words directly derived from Gernmn is very small. A considerable number were derived from Old or Middle High German through the medium of French. The common popular delusion about the 'derivation of English from German is refuted below.

by

J.

'

'

Some

prefer to lake the date 1485,

i.

e.

the date of the accession o£

12
as indicating the

SOURCES OF ENGLISH,
commencement of
a

[Chap.

II.

new

stage in the his-

tory of our language.

Roughly speaking, and with very
of the
all

few exceptions,

this date separates the earlier stages

language from nearly

contact with such languages as

Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, German, Greek (as

used in

science or as an immediate source), Turkish, Russian,

and

Hungarian

in

Europe, and (with the exceptions of HeJ^rew,

Arabic, and, to a slight extent, of Persian) from nearly every

tongue not spoken within the European continent.
therefore,

If,

we
is

ascertain

that a given

word was already
earlier, the

in

common

use in the fifteenth century, or

range of

our search

much

limited.

Words
is

of Eastern origin are,
;

in general, easily detected

and

set aside

and when these

are disposed of, the

choice

usually limited to English,

Low German,
the other. often

Scandinavian, or Dutch on the one hand, or

to French, Latin, or

Greek

(in

a Latin or French form) on

The Celtic words stand apart from these, and present much difficulty; and there are doubtless some
word borrowed from French turns out
origin.

cases in which a

to

be ultimately of Celtic
recede from

Owing

to

this

gradual

narrowing down of the number of original sources as we

modern

to

more ancient

times, the question of a

word's origin frequently resolves

itself into

the tolerably simple
?

form

is

it

native English, Scandinavian, Latin, or French
all

These four sources are
tion of

of primary importance, and will
;

each of them be considered hereafter
the two former
§ 11.

but (with the excep-

words borrowed before the Norman Conquest) only
fall

within the scope of the present volume.

roreign things denoted by foreign words. The best way to set about the enquiry into the etymology of a given word is, as I have said, to find_out the earliest example
of
its

use.

Yet even without
as the date of the
it.

this aid,

our general knowledge
period.

Henry VII,
Nothing
till

commencement of the modern
is

is

gained by

The

discovery of America did not take place

1492, and the very year 1500

famous

for the discovery of Brazil.

3

§11.]

FOREIGN WORDS FOR FOREIGN THINGS.

1

of history and geography will often indicate the true source,

by

telling us

something about the thing which the word

indicates.

Examples of this may be seen in Trench's English Past and Present/ lect. i. The mere mention of holland suggests Dutch ; whilst geography tells us that Holland contains the town of Delft, whence our delf, as well as the province of
*

Gelderland, whence our guelder-rose ^.
Icelandic,

The

geysir suggests
clan^

and meerschaum German.
gillie^

Such words as

claymore^

loch, pibroch, slogan,

whisky, can hardly be
allegro, andante,

other than Gaelic.

Such musical terms as

duet, opera, pianoforte, solo, sonata, soprano, trio, are

of course

Italian;
lava,

and so are

canto, cicerone, doge, incognito, intaglio,
stiletto,

macaroni, mezzotinto, stanza,

vermicelli,

vista.

The

very forms of the words at once betray their origin.

Similarly the student of Spanish easily recognises the

words

armada, armadillo, don,duenna, flotilla, grandee, hidalgo, junta,
lasso,

matador, mosquito, negro, peccadillo, primer0, quadroon,
the name of a coin), who have no acquaintance
tornado, vanilla',

real (as

and 'even

those

with that language naturally

associate armada, don, duenna, grandee, hidalgo, matador with

Spain, and lasso, negro, quadroon, with the Spanish colonies.

We

cannot mention a drosky, a rouble, a

steppe,

or a versi

without thinking of Russia, nor such words as amazon, ambrosia,
antistroJ)he,

asphodel,

episode.

Hades,

ichor,

myriad,

myth, nepenthe, panoply, strophe, tantalise, threnody, without

being reminded of the glorious poetry of ancient Greece.

Tales of Persian origin or accounts of travels in that country
are sure to introduce us to the bazaar, the caravan, the

divan

;

the shah, the pasha, and the dervish will not
will the

go uncalls

mentioned; nor

Eastern imagery be complete without
It is the
;

the ghoul, the houri, and the peri.
his

Malay who

sword a
tea
;

creese,

and who runs amuck

the Chinese

who

grows
*

the Thibetan

who acknowledges

a supreme lama,

The

spelling guelder- is due to the French spelling Gueldre.

M
a
czar"^.

SOURCES OF ENGLISH.

[Chap.

II.

while the Tartar calls his chief lord a khan, and the Russian

Bantam

is

in Java;

gamboge

is

only a French

spelling of Cambodia. Australia possesses the kangaroo

and

the
is

wombat

;

the inhabitant of Tahiti tattooes himself.

Guinea

on

the west coast of Africa,

and the Canary islands have
and a dance.
Stories about

given a

name

to a bird, a wine,

the North American Indians speak of the moose, the opossum, the racoon, and the skunk
;

of the warrior with his moccassins,

tomahawk, and wampum, and his squaw in the wigwam.

These instances may
give other examples in
§ 12.

suffice for the

present; I propose to

due course.

Useful dates.
less

The

following dates are

all

of them

more or

important in relation to the changes which

have taken place in the English language.
. First landing of Cassar in Britain . B.C. 55 Agricola builds his line of forts, and reduces Britain A.D. 81 to a Roman province . about 180 Christianity introduced into Britain .
. .

Hengest founds the kingdom of Kent . Augustine converts ^thelberht Northumberland submits to Ecgberht . Ecgberht defeats the Danes . . The Danes winter in Sheppey Peace of Wedmore between Alfred and Guthorm Danish invasions begin again Ascendancy of Cnut
.

;

.... .... ....
.
.

~

.

449
597

.

.

829 836
855 878 980 1 016 1066 1258
1275

Battle of Hastings

EngHsh proclamation of Henry III. First parliament of Edward 1 Year-books of Edward I. (Reports of cases
.

.

.

y

in

Anglo-

Edward

I 292-1 306 invades France 1339-40 Pleadings first conducted in English, though recorded

French)

III.

....

in Latin

1362

*

CcBsar.

Not, however, a true Russian word ; but a Slavonic modification of Similarly the knout is denoted by a word borrowed from Swedish,
allied to E. knot.

and

5

§ 13.]

HISTORICAL SURVEY,

1

English first taught in schools of the Roses Introduction of Printing into England Columbus discovers San Salvador Modern stage of English begins Ariosto publishes his Orlando Furioso.

....
.

a.d. 1385

Wars

1455-71
1477 ^ 1492 about 1500 (Beginning
. .

....
.
.

.

of Italian influence)

1516
.

1/

Testament first printed Sir John Cheke teaches Greek at Cambridge The Netherlanders resist Spain
Tyndale's
Battle of Ivry.

New

(Beginning of frequent borrowings in
1

French from Spanish)
Authorised version of the Bible First folio edition of Shakespeare
Civil

.... ....
.

.

1525 1540 1566

590
1
\'

161

,

.

War

1623 1642-9 1730 1757 1769
1779'^

Proceedings at law recorded in English Clive gains the battle of Plassey Captain Cook's discoveries in the Pacific Ocean Goethe's 'Sorrows of Werter' translated into English Carlyle translates Goethe's 'Wilhelm Meister'
..

....

.

.

1824

.

§ 13.

Historical Survey.

A

few remarks

will

make

clear the bearings of these events

upon our language. When
but the reduction of the

Julius Csesar arrived in Britain, the inhabitants of the south

were speaking a Celtic
island to a

dialect,

Roman

province under Agricola gradually inits

troduced a knowledge of Latin, which led in

turn to

a knowledge of Christianity.

After the

from the
founded
of Kent.

island,
in
it

it fell

an easy prey to

Romans withdrew English invaders, who

various kingdoms, the oldest of which was that

Ecgberht's acquisition of Northumberland brought

the whole of

England under one

ruler

;

whilst the mission

of

St.

Augustine brought

English.

amongst the pagan Ecgberht's defeat of the Danes only marks the
in Christianity

beginning of a long struggle of two centuries \
cursions
still

Their in-

continued, so that in 85*5 they spent the whole
earlier,

' The Danes, in small numbers, had invaded England even 787 and 832 ; see Morris, Eng. Accidence, $ 33.

ia

6

1

SOURCES OF ENGLISH.
homeward

[Chap.

II.

winter in Kent, instead of retreating
season, as they

for

that

had been wont to do. The peace of Wedmore brought with it some cessation, but at the close of the tenth century we find them again aggressive, until a Danish

kingdom was

at

last

established

under Cnut.
.

Thus we

already see that there must have been a considerable fusion

of English with Latin and Scandinavian before the

Norman
dialects.
first

conquest, whilst a few terms had probably been borrowed

from the vanquished Britons, who spoke Celtic

Edward

the Confessor's
slight

relations with

Normandy

in-

troduced a

acquaintance with French, and the battle

of Hastings rendered that language and Latin almost para-

mount
lost,

for

a time.

But English remained so much the
it

language of the people that the knowledge of

was never

and on one

solitary occasion

Henry

III actually issued

a proclamation in the native language, on the i8th of October,

1258^
Statutes

Throughout

his reign

and
in

that of

Edward

I all the

and Reports of cases
;

the law-courts were in

French or Latin

but there was always a succession of
^.

various literary works in English

The wars

of

Edward HI
from

brought us into closer relation with French as spoken in
France,

which

by

this

time

differed

considerably

the Anglo-French into which the original

Norman-French

had passed, along a path of its own. Trevisa, an English writer born in Cornwall, records the interesting fact that, in the year 1385, children left off translating Latin into AngloFrench, of which

many

of

them

scarcely

knew a word, and

were wisely allowed by

their masters to express themselves

* Edited by A. J. Ellis, in the 'Transactions of the Philological Society.* Another copy of it was edited by myself for the same society in 1882. ^ This succession of English writings may most easily be seen by consulting, in order, the four following works in the Clarendon Press ' Series viz. Sweet's* Anglo-Saxon Reader Specimens of English from 1 1 50 to 1300,' ed. Morris; 'Specimens of English from 1298 to 1393,' ed. Morris and Skeat; 'Specimens of English from 1394 to 1579,*
:

;

ed. Skeat.

7

§14.]

HISTORICAL SUMMARY.

1

in their native tongue^.

This circumstance, together with

the permitted use

of English in the law-courts, marks the

period when, after a long struggle, English had completed
its

ascendancy

over Anglo-French,
latter

though

not

without

borrowing from the
to the time of the

a large

number of words.

Down

Wars of
;

the Roses

we

find three distinct

and well-marked literary dialects of English, the Northern, but the result of that struggle gave Midland, and Southern the ascendancy to the Midland dialect^ which then became
the standard literary dialect

and has ever

since so remained.

The

introduction

of printing gradually brought about an

enormous
that date,

difference in the principle of spelling words. Before

none but phonetic spelling was

in use, every

word

being written as pronounced by the scribe, and sometimes
according to a rule of his own, thus producing considerable
variety.

This variety was gradually lessened, till at last it but this gain in uniformity to the eye was became uniform accompanied by a far greater loss, viz. the absence of
;

phonetic truth in representing the sounds, so that the un-

phonetic and indeed unsystematic spelHng of modern English
is

truly deplorable.
§ 14.

Modern

Period.

The

discovery of America gave
travel,

an enormous impetus to foreign commerce and
only

not

opening out a new world,
distant

but
of

making us
old

better
also.

acquainted with

regions

the

world

Tyndale's
reformation

New
in

Testament marks the period of a great
religion,

and of a

large

advance towards

freedom of thought.
influence

The

teaching of Greek had

much

upon the revival of 'classical' learning. The marriage of Henry II of France with Catharine de Medici made Italian popular at the French court; whilst Wyatt
and Surrey again introduced among us the study of
which had

Italian,

fallen

into

neglect since the days of Chaucer
*

*

For
VOL.

this curious passage, see

Specimens of English,

1

298-1393,

p. 241.

Or
I.

see p. 31 of the present volume.

C

l8
and Lydgate ^.
induced

SOURCES OF ENGLISH:
The
revolt of the Netherlands against Spain to

many

English volunteers
the

serve

in

the

Low
into

Countries

against

Spaniards,

and

brought

us

closer contact both with

also

became

partially

Dutch and Spanish; the latter known in France during the wars

Our sailors frequently obtained some knowledge of Spanish and Portuguese, besides gainThe ing words from the new lands which they visited. influence of the Authorised Version of 1611 and of the plays of Shakespeare requires no comment. It is remarkable that great changes in English pronunciation seem to have taken place about the time of the Civil War ^ but some obscurity still rests upon this difficult subject. In 1730 a national reproach was taken away by the tardy confession that English was a fit language in which to record proceedings, af The victories of Clive opened up to us the great Jaw. resources of India; and the discoveries of Captain Cook
(of Navarre).
;

of Henry

IV

largely extended both our geographical
territory.

knowledge and our
fact

Perhaps the most remarkable
ignorance of the

of

all

is

the

almost

total

lishmen down to
neglect of

German language among Eng1824; even to this moment the marked
in our English schools proves
.part

German

an amazing
Still

lack of wisdom

on the
its

of parents and teachers.
late years

there

has been a great advance of
admission of
value
;

towards a more general

bids us not to despair of the

and this hopeful sign of progress coming of a time when not only

German, but even English itself, will be considered worthy of careful and scientific study in our schools and colleges.
^ These authors were acquainted with Italian literature, but they introduced into English no Italian words. ^ Some very important changes took place still earlier, soon after

15,00.

CHAPTER

III.

The Native element: Dialects
§ 15. It
test
is

of Middle English.
is

worth while to consider whether there

any

whereby words of native EngHsh origin
others.
is

may

be

known

from

It

is

here that even a small knowledge of

grammar

of great service.

With

all

our word-borrowing,

nearly the whole framework of our
at the beginning,

grammar was English
since.

and has so remained ever
their source.

Borrowed

words have usually been made to conform to English grammar, irrespective of
index
is indices^

Thus

the Latin plural of
is

but the use of the form indices

not to be

commended. The English plural indexes is much better, and will sooner or later prevail. For a Hst of pure English
words, see Morris, English Accidence, § 31.
to say here that all the
tions,
It

may

suffice

commonest

prepositions, conjuncto this class
;

and adverbs of time and place belong
auxiliary,

all

strong,

and

defective
;

verbs;

all

pronouns and
their

demonstrative adjectives

adjectives that
;

form

degrees
in -dom,

of comparison irregularly
-hood,
billion^

most substantives ending

and 'ship\
&c.
;

all

the cardinal numerals except million^

all
;

the ordinal numerals except second^ millionth^

billionth,

&c.

and

finally,

a large

number of

substantives

expressing the most homely, familiar, and necessary ideas.
It is quite

easy to form sentences that shall contain no word
;

that
St.

is

not purely English

see e.g. the

first

four verses of

John's Gospel in the Authorised Version.

Pure English

words are often characterised by strength,
c 3

pith,

and

brevity,

;

;

20

MIDDLE-ENGLISH DIALECTS.
They
it it

[Chap.

III.

being frequently monosyllabic ^

form, in

fact,

the

backbone of the language, and give
being usually made
their
to

vitality.

Words from
words
is

other languages are annexed and, as

were, subjugated,
native
in

conform
case

to

the

inflexions

and grammatical use^.
in

This

remark-

ably exemplified

the

of

borrowed verbs, which
take,
-/.

(with the exception of the

Scandinavian

rive,

thrive^

invariably form the past tense in -ed, -d, or

Thus

the

and Lat. adapt make the past tense daim-ed, adapt-ed; and the verb to boycott (see sect. 6) makes the
F. claim

past tense hoycott-ed,
§ 16.

By way
i,

of further example, I here repeat (but in
quotation from Shakespeare already

modern

spelling) the

given at p.

and

print in italics all the

words

that

may be

considered as purely English.
'

Tut (f), ske's a lamb, a dove, a fool to him : Fit tell you, sir Lucentio when the priest Should ask, if Katharine should be his wife, Aye, by Gog's wounds, quoth he, and swore so loudy That all «-mazed the priest let fall his book, And, as he stoop d again to take // up. This mad-brained bride-groom took him such a cuff, That down fell priest and book, and book and priest Now take them up, quoth he, if any list!
;

This

result is not a

little

remarkable, but might perhaps
is

have been expected, when the force of the passage
sidered.

con-

As

for the

words

left

in
;

roman

type,

it

may be

remarked that
(of
aye,

fool, sir, are

Greek

origin),
t.

French priest is a Latin word borrowed in the Anglo-Saxon period
cuff,

take (pt.

took),

are Scandinavian

;

a-mazed

is

a

^ The chief exceptions are commonly French; as air, hour ; fi^it, grain, grape, juice -; beast, vein, chair, fork, dress, robe, cap, boot, &c. Some are Scandinavian. See Morris, Eng. Accidence, § 31.

*

For a

list

of some foreign words which keep their original plurals.

see Morris, Eng. Accidence, § 84.

§ 1 7.]

CHANGES IN PRONUNCIATION.

1\

hybrid word, the root being Scandinavian, while the prefix ais

whilst Katharine

Enghsh; Lucentio is an ItaHan name of Latin origin, was formed from a Greek adjective. The difference be§ 17. Changes in pronunciation.
its

tween the above passage in

original spelling,

and the
little

same
is

in

modern English,

is

so slight as to cause but

trouble to any one

who
;

tries to

read the former.

But there

really a concealed difference

between the two of the most
are ignorant of phonetics

startling character

one which hundreds of readers would

never suspect, and which
will

many who

hardly credit.
all

The

researches of Mr. Ellis ^ have proved,

past

controversy, that the pronunciation of words in the

time of Shakespeare differed so widely from that
that Shakespeare himself, if

now

in use,

he could

now be

heard, would
at

scarcely receive a patient hearing, but

would probably be

once condemned as speaking a kind of foreign language,
at least, a kind of

or,

bad broad Scotch. Such is the prejudice mere custom, that scarcely one of his hearers would care to consider the question is our modern pronunciation, after all, a real improvement ? But the scientific student of
due
to

language knows perfectly well that the difference
source of trouble to us.

is

really

a

We

have, in fact, so modified

and

altered the old vowel-sounds, that

pared with the sound of the words,
fusion.

modern speUing, as comis a mere chaos of conwritten symbols

The vowel-sounds expressed by our

now

differ

from those of every nation in Europe, however

closely they

once agreed, as they certainly

did,

with the

continental system.

A

single

example

will

illustrate this.
he^

We now
ordinary.

pronounce

tea

so as to rime with

we, she\

but no other nation ventures on a pronunciation so extra-

The
is

F. the, G.

and Du.

thee,

Swed. and Dan.
as

ie,

are

all

alike
It

pronounced as an E.
not long ago since

toy,

riming with day, fay^
;

gay.

we

said toy ourselves

is

*

'

Early English Pronunciation,' by A.

J. Ellis.


1%

MIDDLE-ENGLISH DIALECTS.
I

[Chap.

III.

witnessed by the famous lines of Pope^.

have frequently
that the third
sea^

met with people who were
line of

entirely

unaware
that the

Cowper's poem of Alexander Selkirk, ending in

gives a perfect rime to survey)

and

same pronun-

ciation of sea (as say) reappears in the third line of his

hymn

beginning with the words

'God moves

in

a mysterious way/

Sea^ in fact, was in Middle English spelt see, and was pronounced with the ee like a in Mary not far removed from The A. S. s(P, though difthe ee in the Dutch zee, G. See. Whence we ferently spelt, was pronounced just the same.
;

deduce the perplexing

result, that the

A. S. sd,

M.

E.^

see,
;

ex-

pressed precisely the same sound by different symbols

whilst

Tudor-English and Modern English express, on the contrary,
different

that

sounds by the same spelling sea. This ought to shew some study of Middle-English and Anglo-Saxon proall

nunciation should precede

our attempts to trace backhterally,

wards the etymology of English words; otherwise we,
cannot pretend to say that we
are talking about.

know what word
is,
it is

it is

that

we

For the real word

of course, the uttered
truly (or falsely)

sound, not the written symbol by which
represented.
§ 18.

Since, however,

it

is

only with the written symbols
the present, I propose to
;

that I

can

easily deal in a

book hke

trace chiefly the variations in spelling from time to time
in

and
their

quoting words from foreign languages,

I shall

quote them

as they are written, without at the

same time indicating

pronunciation.

It

may, nevertheless, be

clearly understood,
is

that the difficulty of ascertaining the pronunciation

far

^

'

Here thou, great Anna, whom three realms obey. Dost sometimes counsel take and sometimes tea^

Rape of the Lock,
^
3

iii.

8 (1712).

A. S. = Anglo-Saxon, the dialect of Wessex before the Conquest. M.E. = Middle English; from about a.d. hoc to 1500.

\

;

§ 19.]

MIDDLE-ENGLISH VOWELS,

23

greater in the case of English than of any other language,
especially in the case
tinental

of the vowels.
Latin
is

Nearly

all

the con-

languages, including

—the

usual

Southern-

English pronunciation of which
in a

simply execrable

— agree

uniform system of simple vowels, and usually employ
e^
/,

the symbols «,

^>

«» to represent
beet,

(nearly) the sounds

heard in E. baa^

bait,

boat,

boot.

The

fact

that old

French words were introduced
into

freely

and

in great

number
did not

Middle English without any change of
to

spelling, is quite

enough
at

shew
was

that the

pronunciation of
;

M. E.

materially differ from that of Anglo-French
that date
still

for the spelling

phonetic.

This enables us to say,
a,
e, i, 0,

definitely, that, in the

time of Chaucer, the symbols

u

modern (and ancient) continental values The student who has § 19. Middle-English Vowels. as yet made no special study of Middle English may, at any rate, gain some clear notion of it by making this his startingThat is, he may take the words baa, bait, beet, boat, point. boot as mnemonics for remembering the sounds indicated by and he should at once learn these five words by a, e, i, 0, u heart This will give him the sounds of the long vowels and some idea of the short ones may be gained by an Thus the attempt to shorten these sounds respectively.
had
their
;

M. E.

cat, but,

were pronounced

like caat, boot,

but with the

There are plenty of Northern for the speech of Englishmen who pronounce them so still the North is much more archaic, in many respects, than the clipped, affected, and finical pronunciation of the Southvowels somewhat shortened.
;

erner,

who

has done his worst, only too successfully, in

his;

attempts to ruin our pronunciation.

From what has been
*

here said,

it

will

be manifest

that,

It is quite certain that Celtic, English,

tained their symbols from the Latin alphabet
^ '

and French scribes all ©band employed them, at
;

the

first,

with nearly the same powers.

Our

insular position has altered

this.


24
if

MIDDLE-ENGLISH DIALECTS.
we wish
to

[Chap.

III.

choose

good symbols
if

for

the

representato be in the
ai^ ee,

tion of sounds,
least

and

especially

we wish them

degree understood by foreigners, such symbols as

oa, 00 (in bail, beet, boat, boot) are the
It is

worst possible to take.

owing

to this consideration that

Mr.

Ellis

has founded
the
old^

the alphabet which

he

calls palaotype,
;

upon

or

foreign values of the vowel-symbols
similarly

and Mr. Sweet has

constructed the alphabet which he calls
presents
;

Rornu^
not

As

the subject
it

some

difficulty,

I

shall

now
like,

further pursue

but I must remind the reader that he will

never clearly understand what

Middle English was
will

unless he will at least take the trouble to read

some passages
he
will find

of Chaucer with attention.

If

he

do

this,

the selections in the Clarendon Press Series of great use.

The

best

and

clearest explanation of the pronunciation of
is

Chaucer's English

that

by Mr.

Ellis,

which

will

be found
edition of

near the beginning of the introduction to

my

Chaucer's

'

Man

of Law's Tale.'

§ 20. Chaucer's spelling.

Midland

Dialect.

In order
the

to exemplify the

spelling

of Chaucer's time, consider

following passage from the

Man

of Law's Tale, lines 281-

387.
vn-to the Barbre nacioun moste gon, sin that it is your wille But Crist, that starf for our sauacioun, So yeue me grace, his hestes to fulfille I, wrecche womman, no fors though I spille. Wommen ar born to thraldom and penance, (And to ben vnder mannes gouemance.'
*

Alias
I

!

;

;

In modern English
*

this

would be

spelt as follows

:

Alas
I

unto the Barbar ^ nation must go, since that it is your
!

will

j

*

PalcEO-type,

i.

e.

old type, old symbol.

See

Ellis's

Early English
See

Pronunciation.
"^

Romic,

i.

e.

according with the
of Phonetics.

Roman

values of the symbols.
^

Sweet's

Handbook

Barbarian.

§ 20.]

A PASSAGE FROM CHAUCER.
But Christ, that starved^ for our salvation, So give me graced his hests to fulfil; I, wretch^ woman, no force ^ though I spill ^; Women are born to thraldom and penance, And to be under man's governance.'

25

The
natives

reader will at once perceive that one of two alter-

must be

true.

Either

Chaucer had no ear
or
else

for

melody, and wrote very bad poetry;

his English

must have materially

differed in

accent and pronunciation

from that now in use. The former of these alternatives is not found to be true. A careful examination of Chaucer's metre shews that he had an unusually delicate ear for melody, and
that his versification
is

exhibits surprising regularity.
that poetry, at
least,

also reason

to

believe

There was then

pronounced with an utterance more deliberate and measured
than
full

we should now
syllables,

use.

The word

na-ci-oun

had three
most

and sa-va-ci-oun had

four.

But the

remarkable points are (i) that the old plural in -es (now -s) formed a distinct syllable, as in the dissyllabic hest-es; (2) that the same is true of the genitive singular, as mann-es
;

and

(3) that in

many

instances the final

-e

also

formed a

distinct

and separate
and four

syllable.

Hence

there are two syllables

in mosi-e^ will-e, wrecch-e, spill-e; three syllables in/ul-Jill-e,

pen-dn-ce;

in

gov-er-ndn-ce.
final syllables

Observe also the
of nd-ci-oHn^ sa-vd-

secondary accent on the
ci-oHn]

and on the penultimate

syllable

of gov-er-ndn-ce.

Lastly, note that the accent o{ pen-dn-ce was, at that date,

on

the latter part of the word, not (as
If the reader will

now)

at the

beginning'.

now

take the trouble to read the above

passage aloud rather slowly, at the same time bearing in
*

Died.

^ *

I. e.

may He

give

me

such grace.
*

' •

Wretched.

It is

no matter.

Perish.

English has a way of throwing back the accent nearer the beginning of the word. Thus the Ital. balcdne has actually, in modern Knghsh,

become

bdlcony, thoughfirst introduced as balc6ny. as a variant of antique \ and August as well as august.

We

even have dntic

;

a6

MIDDLE-ENGLISH DIALECTS,
will,

[Chap.

III.

njind the above hints, he

even with the modern (very
faint

wretched) pronunciation, gain a
§ 21.

notion of

its

melody.

Another lesson may be drawn from the same passage,
it

by printing
native
follows

so as to shew,

by

the use of

italics,
it

the

words of
as

origin.

With

this

understanding,

appears

:—
*

Alias

!

vn-to the Barbre nacioun

/

inosie gon^ sin that it is
Crist, that

your

wille

;

But
/,

star/for our sauacioun,

So yeue me

grace, his hestes to fulfillej

wrecche wofmnan, no fors though I spille Woinmen ar born to thra\-dom and penance, And to ben vnder inannes gouernance.'

Here once more there
English words, which
Definite article
that,
:

is

a remarkable preponderance of true
thus grammatically distributed.
:

may be
:

the.

Pronouns
wille,

/, me,
;

it,

his

;

our,

your;
;

no.

Substantives

womman
:

genitive,

mannes

plural, hestes,

wommen.
:

Adjective
;

wrecche.

Auxiliary and
:

anomalous verbs
yeue, born.

moste

ben,
:

is,

ar.

Strong verbs
spille.

starf,
:

Weak
:

verbs

gon, fulfille,
under.

Adverb
:

so.

Prepositions

unto, for,

to,

Conjunctions
is

sin, that,

but, though, and.

Of
is

the remaining words, one
;

of hybrid

formation,

viz.

thral-dom

its

first

syllable is Scandinavian,

but the
spellings

suffix

English.

Barbre and Crist are French

of words which are ultimately Greek.
all

The
I
is

re-

maining words are
All

French; nacioun, savacioun, grace, fors,

penance, governance, being substantives, while alias
interjection.

an

these French words are of Latin origin.

The remarks
adverbs, or

in §

15 lead us to expect, in general, that
likely to

words of foreign origin are

be substantives, adjectives,

weak verbs. We may indeed go a little further, and expect the weak verbs to be of Scandinavian, French, or Latin origin whilst words from remoter languages are com;

monly mere names,
§ 22.

that

is,

nouns

substantive.

Changes in

spelling.

As regards

the spelling of

§ 22.]

THE THREE MAIN DIALECTS,
we may
first

27 remark that
It lasted

the English words in this passage,

the use of v for initial u in vn-io, vnder, has merely a sort of

ornamental value, and
for

is

not otherwise significant.

many
p. I.

centuries

;

indeed,

we have

already

seen

the

spelling vp for up (twice) in the extract

from Shakespeare

on

This use

is

not found in Anglo-Saxon, the
U7i-to,

MSB.

of which have the same spellings of

under, up, as

we use
S.

now.

The word
is

moste

is

not only dissyllabic (as already
long.

noted), but

remarkable for having the

The A,

word was

mdsle

(=

misZ-e), also dissyllabic,

where the accent

denotes the length of the vowel.
history clearly enough.
It

We

thus see the word's

was

at first m^sfe, the past tense
lost,

of an obsolete present m^/; but the present being

the

same form was used for both present and past. Then the final e dropped off, giving mosf, riming with /los^ ; next the
vowel-sound altered
the vowel-sound
till

it

rimed with roos/;

after

which,

was shortened, and
calls
'

altered in character
it

by

what Mr. Sweet
at present.

unrounding,'

till

rimed with
regular,

rus/, as

These changes were slow and

and can be
indeed the

explained by analogy with other words.

This

is

chief object of this present work, viz. to exhibit so

many

examples of regular changes
the student to observe

in the

vowel-sounds as to enable

some of

the phonetic laws for himself,

or at least to understand them clearly.

And

it

may be

remarked, by the way, that the comparative lateness of the
discovery of printing was in one respect a great gain, since

we now have an abundance
in

of

MSS.

written before that date,

which the spelling was free and phonetic. In fact, the Englishman who hastily rushes to the silly conclusion that
Chaucer's

MSS.

are remarkable for their
if

'

bad spelling

'

will

some day
to be

discover,

he cares to take the pains and happens
*,

open

to conviction

that the spelling of the thirteenth
is,

and fourteenth centuries
'

in general, fairly

good.

As a
foolish

Our very

familiarity With

modem

English

is

a source of

much

prejudice.

aS

MIDDLE'ENGLISH DIALECTS.
it

[Chap.

III.

guide to the sounds of words,
the present day, which
the sounds which
the
'

is

vastly superior to that of

is

utterly untrustworthy as indicating
It
is

symbols mean.
spelling.'

not for

us

moderns
§ 23.

to talk of

bad

The
the

fact that

will-e

is,

in

Chaucer, dissyllabic,

is

due

to

the fact that the A. S. willa

was the same.

again,

word's history

is

easy.

The A. S.
into

Here form was

will-a

j

the final a

was weakened or dulled
final
~e
;

an obscure
the A. S.

sound denoted by a

after

which
will\

this light syllable

dropped
spill-e
is

off,

giving the

modern

just

as

now spill. The word slarf is interesting grammatically. The M. E. infinitive sterven (usually written steruen ^) meant to die. The verb was a strong one, forming
its

past tense as starf^ and
(written

its

past participle as storven or
often

y-storven

storuen, y-sloruen),

shortened

to

storv-e or y-storv-e

by dropping

the final n.

But

in course

of time the true past tense and past participle were lost sight

became the modern weak starve, pt. t. and At the same time, the general sense of the word was narrowed, so that it no longer means to die in any
of,

and

sterven

pp. starved.

manner^ but only

the causal sense,

changes

in

more frequently takes These curious the form and sense of words are full of interest
to die

by famine ; or
to die

to

make

by /amine.

to the student of language.

Of

the remaining

words

in this

passage, I shall say no
§

more

at present.

24.

The three main
and

Dialects.

In the thirteenth and

fourteenth centuries,

in the former part of the fifteenth

century, there were three distinct Hterary dialects, the Northern, Midland,

and Southern.

Roughly speaking, the Hum-

ber and the

Thames formed a part of the boundary-lines between them. The Northern dialect occupied the land to
Humber, including a considerable
part of

the north of the

Scodand, and extending as far north as Aberdeen, of which
^

The symbol u

is

sounded as v when a vowel succeeds

it.

§ 25.]

THE SOUTHERN DIALECT.
'

2g

a native.

town John Barbour, author of the poem of The Bruce/ was The Southern dialect occupied the country to the

south of the

Thames

;

and the Midland

dialect, the district
;

between the other two \

These are only the main divisions sub-dialects are found which frequently combine some of
the characteristics of hvo of the above dialects.

The Midas

land
built

district

contained the very important city of London,
nor//i

on the
if

side of the

Thames; and Chaucer,
It
is

a Londoner, employed this
tion that,
river
'^j

dialect.

a curious reflecside of the

London had been

built

on the other

the speech of the British empire and of the greater

part

of North America would probably have been very

different

from what

it

is.

It

might have abounded with
all

Southern forms, and we might

have been saying vox for

/ox;

as indeed,

curiously enough,

we

actually say vixen

instead oifixen.
§ 25.
this

The Southern
dialect,
still

Dialect.

By way

of exemplifying

Southern

and

illustrating the

whole question of
'

dialects

further, I

now

quote a part of the famous pas-

sage from the translation of Higden's Polychronicon

made

by John of Trevisa, a Cornishman,
ylond,

in

1387 ^

'As hyt ys yknowe houj* meny maner people bu))" in }>is ))er buj> also of sa meny people longages and tonges nof>eles Walschmen and Scottes, ))at buj) no3t ymelled wi}) ojier nacions, holde)> wel nyj here furste longage and speche, bote-3ef* Scottes, |)at were som tyme confederal and wonede
;

^ For more exact information, see Specimens of English, ed. Morris and Skeat introd. sect. 6. ' This supposition is merely made for the sake of illustration. Practically, it is absurd. No sane men would have placed a town on the less
;

convenient side of a river.
'

See Morris and Skeat,

'

Specimens of English,'

pt.

ii,

p. 240.

The
In

date shews that Trevisa was precisely Chaucer's contemporary. translating from Iligden, he adds several remarks of his own.
* is

The symbol ^ (except when initial) indicates a guttural sound, and now written ^^, though the true sound is lost. As an initial letter, it
)£/'=ye/.
is
*

means ^; lhu%

The symbol/

now

supplanted by

M

;

read

du//i, this.

— —
30
wij)
]>e

M.'DDLE-ENGLISH DIALECTS.
Pictes,

[Chap.

III.

drawe somwhat
wone]> in
|?e

Flemmynges,
lysch men,

J)at

after here speche. Bote )>e west syde of Wales, habbe]) yleft

Also Enghy hadde fram J)e begynnyng J)re maner speche, Sou))eron, NorJ)eron, and Myddel speche (in |>e myddel of J>e lond) as hy come of ])re maner people of Germania no]?eles, by commyxstion and mellyng, furst wi|) Danes and afterward wij) Normans, in menye J)e contray-longage ys apeyred, and som vse|) strange wlafFyng, chyteryng, harryng and garryng,
)>ey5
;

here strange speche, and speke)) Saxonlych ynow.

grisbittyng.

pis apeyryng of

on

ys, for

of al o])er longage, and for to construe here lessons and here j^ingesja.

J)e bur|)-tonge ys by-cause of twey ))inges chyldern in scole, ajenes^ J)e vsage and manere nacions, bu|> compelled for to leue here oune
:

Freynsch, and habbe)?, su))the J)e Normans come furst in-to Engelond. Also, gentil-men children bu]> ytau3t for to speke Freynsch fram tyme J)at a^ buj) yrokked in here cradel, and and oplondysch connej) speke and playe wi]) a child hys brouch men wol lykne ham-sylf to gentil-men, and fondej) wij) gret bysynes for to speke Freynsch, for to be more ytold of.'
;

§ 26.

In modern English,
is

this will

run as follows

:

island^, there be also, of so

known how many manner (of) people be in this many people, languages and tongues. None-the-less, Welshmen and Scots, that be not mixed ^. with
*As
it
[i.

other nations, hold

e.

preserve] .well nigh their *

first

language

and speech, but-if [i. e. except that the] Scots, that were (at) some time confederate and dwelt ^ with the Picts, draw somewhat But the Flemings, that dwell * in the west after their speech. side of Wales'', have left their strange speech, and speak Saxon-ly
^ Here ^ begins the therefore represents^.

main part of the word, Read a-yenes.
island
is

a- being a

mere
isle.

prefix.

It

2

The modem
is
'

s in

due to confusion with F.

The

right

spelling
2

rather i-land) so that Trevisa'sj/<7«</is well enough.

Lit.

*

Here
he.

melled/ or meddled. for their is Southern

;

from A.
;

S. hira,

of them, gen.
is

pi.

of

y,

5 From A. S. wunian, mod. E. wont.
^ This Wales.

to dwell

the pp.

wumd

the

M. E.

wotted,

is

an interesting notice of the colony of Flemish weavers m.

§ 26.]

THE SOUTHERN DIALECT,

31

enough. Also Englishmen., though they ^ had from the beginning three manners (of) speech, Southern, Northern, and Middle-speech (in the middle of the land), as they came of three manners (of) people of Germany none-the-less, by commixture and mingling, first with Danes and afterward with Normans, in many (of them) the country-language is impaired^ ;

chattering, growling and snarlgnashing (of teeth). This impairing of the birthtongue is because of two things one is, for (i. e. because) children in school, against the usage and manner of all other nations, be compelled for to leave their awn language, and for to construe their lessons and their things in French, and have (done so), since the Normans came first into England. Also, gentlemen's children be taught for to speak French from (the) time that they be rocked in their cradle, and can speak and play with a child's^ brooch ; and uplandish men* will (i.e. desire to) liken themselves to gentlemen, and try ^ with great business (i.e. diligence) for to speak French, for to be more told of (i.e. held in higher estimation).'
ing, (and)
:

and some use strange babbling,

The remainder
that
I

of the passage
the

is

also of such importance
it

here subjoin
^.

general sense of

in

modern

English
*

This predilection for French was

common

before the

first

was afterwards somewhat changed. For John Cornwall, a master of grammar, changed the mode of teaching in his grammar-school, and substituted English for French construing and Richard Pencrich learnt that kind of teaching from him, and other men from Pencrich so that now, in the year of our Lord 1385, in all the grammar-schools of England, the children leave French and construe and learn in English, whereby they have an advantage in one way and a
pestilence of 1349, but
;

;

disadvantage in another.
»
;

The advantage

is,

that they learn

A. S. hi, hig, they pi. of M, he. A-peired and im-paircd merely difTcr in the prefix. ' Lit. child his, which is an idiom not found earlier than the twelfth century. The A. S. is cildes, mod. E. child's. * L e. country people. * K.^. fandian, to endeavour, try; orig. to try \o find, as it is a de'

rivative oifindan, to find.
*

For the

original, sec

Specimens of English,

1

398-1 393,

p. 241.

a

3
their

MIDDLE-ENGLISH DIALECTS.
grammar in now
less

[Chap. III.

time than they used to do; the disad-

vantage, that

children from the grammar-school
their left heel,

know no
if

more French than does

which

is

a loss to them

they have to cross the sea and travel in strange lands, and in many other cases. Moreover gentlemen have now much left oflf teaching their children French Also, as regards the afore.

.

.

Saxon tongue that is divided into three and has remained here and there with a few country people^, it is a great wonder for men of the east agree more in pronunciation with men of the west, being as it were under the same part of heaven ^, than men
said

;

men of the south. Hence it is that the Mercians, that are men of the Middle of England, being as it were partners with the extremities, better understand the sidelanguages, Northern and Southern, than Northern and Southern
of the north with

understand each other. All the language of the Northumbrians, and especially at York, is so sharp, slitting, grating, and unshapen, that we Southerners can scarcely understand that language ^ I believe it is because they are nigh to strangers and aliens that speak strangely, and also because the kings of England always dwell far from that country. For they turn rather towards the South country and, if they go northwards, go with a great army. The reasons why they live more in the South than in the North may be, that there is better cornland there, and more people also nobler cities, and more profitable
; ;

havens.'
§

27. This passage contains

many

points of interest.

By
who
be

Welshmen and

Scots, Trevisa means, of course, those

retained the old Celtic dialects.

The remark
;

that English-

men came
true.
district,

of three kinds of people of Teutonic race,
in the

may

In the North, the Angles prevailed
the Angles and Saxons
''

Midland

;

in the South, the

Saxons

and
^

Jutes.

There were

also certainly a considerable

number

^
^

I. e.

This statement is Higden's it is certainly too strongly put. under the same parallel of latitude. This is Trevisa's own statement; men dislike any dialect that
;

is

unfamiliar to their
*

own

ears.
;

Or, possibly, the Frisians

'we should then have three chief races,

Angles, Frisians, and Saxons, the Jutes being limited to Kent and the Isle of Wight.

;

§ 2 7.]

THE SOUTHERN DIALECT
it

33

of Frisians, but
located;

is

hard to say in what part they were

they were probably distributed over the Midland
the island.

and Southern rather than the Northern part of

Trevisa also distinctly recognises the mixture of EngHsh with

Scandinavian and French, and bears witness to the great,
but unsuccessful, efforts

made

to replace English

by French

the latter being in especial favour with the upper classes^.

As
first

regards the linguistic points of the passage

itself, it

may

be remarked that the grammatical inflexions in Southern
English
are

more numerous and
In
this

elaborate

than in the

Midland, whilst in the Northern
they are fewer and simpler.

dialect,

on the. contrary, respect, modern English

shews more of the Northern than the Southern manner.
Especial characteristics of the Southern dialects are the use
of
huj>,

a variety of heth,

i.

e.

be

;

the use of the suffix -eth

i^-ep)

in the plural of the present indicative, as in holdep^ wonep^

hahbep ; the frequent use of the
as
in

prefix_>/-

before past participles,

y-knowe^

y-nielled'^, etc.

We
is

should also notice the

use of hy (A. S. hig) as the plural of

he^

where modern English
;

employs the Northern

Ihey,

which

of Scandinavian origin
'

also the curious use of a, once with the sense of

in,'

^ in a

Freynsch, and once with the sense of
yrokked.

*

they,' as in

pat a bup

One more remark
it

of great importance

may be
is

made more
lary,

here, viz. that

is

the Southern dialect which agrees

closely than either of the^others with

what

called

Anglo-Saxon.

Turning

to the consideration of the vocabu-

we

notice that the

French words

in this

passage are

rather numerous, viz. maner^ peopU, longage^ y-melled (where

the prefix J/'

is

the A. S. ge-\ nacions^ strange^ mell-yng (with an

Anglo-French was the court-language. I suppose that, even down end of the fourteenth century, many of the nobles habitually spoke nothing else. ' The Midland dialect sometimes employs this prefix, and sometimes drops it. The Northern dialect, like modem English, drops it always. Hut in Barnes's (modem) Dorsetshire poezns, we find a-zmt for sent ( M. E. y-sent\ orgont for gone.
to nearly the

VOL.

I.

,

D

;

;

;

34
E.

MIDDLE-ENGLISH DIALECTS.
suffix), coniray, apeyr-ed,

[Chap.

III.

apeyr-yng (both with E. suffixes),

vs-eth (with E. suffix), cause, vsage, lessons, geniil, hrouch.

As

Trevisa

is

translating

from the Latin, he keeps several of the
;

Latin words of his original

these are confederal,
see
p.

commyxrokked but
is

slioun, scole, compelled, construe',

the original Latin in

the note to Specimens of English,
is

344.

The word
S. as cradol,

Scandinavian.

Cradel

is

found in A.

probably of Celtic origin.
§

The remaining words
It

are English.

28.

The Northern Dialect.
either of the others.

has just been remarked

that the Northern dialect dispenses with inflexional suffixes

more than

This

it

did at so early a

period that poems in this dialect often present a curiously

modern appearance, and would do
if it

so to a

still

greater extent

were not for the frequent introduction of Scandinavian

words,

many

of which are

now

obsolete

in

our modern

literary language.

In other words, the difference between the

Northern English of the Middle period and the English of
the present day
lies

rather in

the vocabulary

and

in the
is

pronunciation than in the grammar.

Barbour's Bruce

as

old as the poetry of Chaucer, but has a

more modern ap-

pearance ^

By way
dialect,

of exhibiting a short specimen of the
here

Northern

I

quote

Hampole's description of

heaven, written about 1340^.
*Alle

maner of ioyes er in that stede, Thare es ay lyfe with-outen dede Thare es yhowthe ay with-outen elde, Thare es alkyn welth ay to welde Thare es rest ay, with-outen trauayle Thare es alle gudes that neuer sal fayle Thare es pese ay, with-outen stryf Thare es alle manere of lykyng of lyfe
;

;

;

^

It

was
is

but this

Unluckily, the MSS. are a century later; written in 1375. On the other hand, the not the real cause of the difference.

more archaic appearance, and this may be That is, Northern poems look later, and taken as a general rule. Southern writings earlier, than they really are. ^ See Specimens of English, 1 298-1 393, p. 124.
extract from Trevisa has a


§ 28.]

; ; ;; ;

; ; ;

THE NORTHERN DIALECT.
Thare es, with-outen myrknes, lyght Thare es ay day and neuer nyght Thare es ay somer fulle bryght to se, And neuer mare wynter in that centre.'
;
;

^iS

Here
spelling

it

should be particularly noted that the scribe's

is

somewhat
8, is

faulty^;

he probably added a

final e to

many words from
that lyfe^ in
1.

habit, but they are not to be pronounced^ so

a mere monosyllable, and rimes with the
is

word

stryf^

which
is

correctly written.
:

In modern English,

the passage
*

as follows

All

manner

of joys are in that stead

;

There is aye life without (en) death ^ There is youth ay without(en) eld^, There is all-kind wealth aye to wield. There is rest aye, without travail There is all goods that never shall fail; There is peace aye, without(en) strife; There is all manner of liking * of life There is, without(en) murkness °, light There is aye day and never night. There is aye summer full bright to see. And nevermore winter in that country.'
*

I subjoin a

more phonetic

spelling of the above passage

:

Al maner of ioys er in that sted, Thar es ay lyf with-outen ded Thar es youth ay with-outen eld, Thar es alkin wehh ay to weld. Thar es rest ay, with-outen trauail Thar es al gods that neuer sal fail; Thar es pees ay, with-outen stryf Thar es al maner of lyking of lyf; Thar es, with-outen mirknes, lyght Thar es ay day and neuer nyght Thar es ay somer ful bryght to se, And neuer mar winter in that contr^.
;

' Ded is still a provincial English form of death; A.S. di^ad {dt^ath), but to the Dan. and Swed. dod. » Eld, old age, used by Shakespeare and Spenser.

it

answers, not to

*

*

Pleasure; lyking of lyf pleasure in life. e, Darkness ; we still use the adj. murky^ and the sb. murki'tuss.

D

a

^6

MIDDLE-ENGLISH DIALECTS.
great characteristic of this dialect
as
is

[Chap.

III.

The
final e

the absence of
at

an inflexion in the spoken language,

least

in the
final e

fourteenth century.

The words which

exhibit

the
ly/,

should rather have been written Al,

sted,

Thar,

ded, youth, eld,

weld, trauayl, /ayl, pees, maner, lyf,ful, mar.

A

characteristic

form

is

sal,

for shall;

this is

never found

except in Northern works.
this dialect is the

Another
o,

characteristic

use of a for long
is little

as in mar, more.

mark of As

regards the grammar, there
the use of es
(is)

to call for

remark beyond
;

for er (are) before alle gudes

this is really

due to the use of the preceding word Thare
Shakespeare has,
behne,
§ 335iv.
'

(there), just as

There

is

no more such

masters,'

Cym-

2.

371

;

see Abbott's

Shakesp. Gram. 3rd ed.

As

regards the vocabulary, the French words are
trauayle, fayle, pese,
contre,
all
is

maner,

ioyes,

of which are

of Latin origin.

Stryf (O. Fr. estrif)
(Icel. sirt^).

a French form
er (are), es

of a Scandinavian word
(is),

The forms

dede (death), ay (aye), sal (shall), are specifically Anglian

or Scandinavian, as distinct from Anglo-Saxon.
are ordinary English.
§

The

rest

29.

East-Midland Dialect of Robert of Brunne.
main
dialects

Now
it

that the three

have been thus

illustrated,

is

worth while to add one more example, which in some

respects
the

comes even nearer

to

modern English than does

language of Chaucer, though written before he was

born.

We

have already seen that modern English belongs to

the Midland dialect, and has a

somewhat

closer affinity with
it

Northern than Southern.
represented
in the dialect

We

find, further, that

is

fairly

employed by Robert Mannyng,

of Brunne (Bourn), in Lincolnshire,
of Wadyngton's 'Le

who

translated William
into English in

1303, with the

title

Manuel des Pechiez' of Handlyng Synne\'
'

He

tells

a story

about Pers (or Piers) the usurer,

who never gave away

^

See Specimens of English, 1298-1393, p. 51.

—— —
;

§ 29.]

THE EAST-MIDLAND DIALECT.
One day he was
came
to
it,

37

anything in charity.
door,

standing near his

when an

ass

laden with loaves of bread.
:

At the same time a beggar approached him

*He sagh Pars come^ ther-with-al The pore^ thoght, now ask I shal. " I ask thee sum good, pur charite,
Pers, yif thy wille be." Pers stood and loked on him Felunlich', with y-en* grim. He stouped down to sake a stoon, But, as hap was, than fond he noon^ For the stoon he took a loof, And at the pore man hit droof. The pore man hent hit vp belyue ®,

And was therof ful ferly'' blythe. To his felaws^fast he ran,
With the loof, this pore man. " Lo " he seide, " what I haue Of Pers yift ^ so God me saue " "Nay," they swore by her^° thrift,
! ; !

Pers yaue neuer swich a yift^^ seid, *ye shal weil vnderstonde That I hit had at Pers honde That dar I swere on the halidom*^

He

;

Heer before yow echoon '^."

'

Of

this

passage

it

is

hardly necessary to give a

English rendering,

although

we have

now

traced

modern some

English words back to the very beginning of the fourteenth
century.

As

regards the grammar,
-e.

the grammatical use of the final

com-en (A. S. cum-an^ the
*

infinitive

we may chiefly notice Thus com-e is short for mood of the verb. The
distinctly pronounced.

I

I also
'
*

mark with two dots such final ^'s as are to be amend the faulty spelling of the MS.
(understand man).
"

The poor one

'

Felon-ly, angrily.
it

'

Eyne, i. e. eyes. Wonderfully.
Their,
**

Then found he none.
«

Caught

up quickly.
• Gift.

Fellows, companions.
gift.

"

Gave never such a

" Holy

relics.

" Each

one.

;

38

MIDDLE-ENGLISH DIALECTS.
-e^

[Chap. III.

por-e has a final
deii7iite,

because the adjective

is

what

is

called
it.

that

is, is

used with the definite

article

preceding

An

adjective

is

also definite, if preceded
;

by a demonstrative
Will-e
is

or possessive pronoun

hence

this por-e likewise.

from A.
for

S. wi'U-a, as

has been explained once before

(p. 28).

The formy-en (dissyllabic) answers to the A. which we now use eyes. In the seventh
-e
;

S. eag-an,

eyne
a

line, fo seke is

gerund, and should take the final
elided before the following vowel.
he
lif-e, lit.

but

it

happens to be
in a lively

Belyv-e stands for A. S.
life,'

by

life,

but here meaning *with
is

way, quickly.
{blilh-e).

Blyth-e
is

from the A.
but the final

S.

dissyllabic

Uid-e

Seid-e

the

past
;

tense of a
-e,

weak verb
in

(A. S.
is

scBgd-e),

and

is

dissyllabic

such a case,

often dropped, as in seid four lines below.
pt.
t.

Swor-e

is

the

pi.

of a strong verb (A. S. sw6r-en).
(A. S. understand- an).

Vnderstond-e
is

is

an

infin.

mood

Hond-e

a dat. case
is

(A. S. hond-e, hand-e, dat. of hond or hand).
for hefor-en (A. S. be/or-an).
fact,

Befor-e

short

All the grammatical forms, in

are

easily explained

from Anglo-Saxon.
viz.

As

regards

the vocabulary, the French words are few,

Pers (from
the sb.

Lat. Petrus, originally Greek); the adj./or^ (O. F. povre);

the phrase

pur

charite {pour chartte'), for

charity;

/elun in felun-lich\
Scandinavian,
viz.

and the verb
hap,
took,

save.

Five words are

felaws,

thrift,

and halidom.

The

rest are English.

§ 30.

East-Midland different from West-Midland.
seen that
the

We

have thus

standard

literary

language
than

agrees

more
if

closely with

the

Old Midland
Southern.
it

dialect
It
is

with either the Northern or the

worth

enquiring

we can

find out
is

any

limits of
difficult

East to West.
find that the

This

a more

we pass from question; yet we
as
is

Midland

dialect

can be subdivided into Eastthat
it

Midland and West-Midland, and
these that

the former of
It is

comes nearest

to our current speech.

not

easy to define the limits of these dialects, but perhaps

we

;

§ 30.]

THE EAST-MIDLAND DIALECT.

39

may

say that the West-Midland included Shropshire, Staf-

fordshire, a part of Derbyshire, Cheshire,

and South Laiv-

As concerning the area from which the chief characteristics of our modern literary language are drawn, we can hardly do more than define it as one of irregular shape, bounded more or less exactly by the German Ocean, the Humber, the Trent (?), the Severn (?), and the Thames and we can only assign to the dialect the general name of
cashire^
;

East-Midland.

It is tolerably certain that
it

it

contained numer-

ous subdivisions, so that
perfectly

can hardly be said to present any

uniform type,

until the time

came when

it

at last
its

began

to

supersede the others and to spread beyond

original borders.

We
it

can, however, safely

draw these con-

clusions, viz. (i) that

contained fewer Scandinavian words

than the Northern dialect, but more than did the Southern
(2) that
its

of the Northern dialect, but

Southern

;

grammar was somewhat more complex than that much less so than that of the and (3) that, as Trevisa says, it was tolerably

intelligible to

men

of

all

parts

of England.

These

facts
its

would be quite

sufficient to

suggest the probability of

ultimate ascendancy, and the matter was entirely settled
the importance of
seat

by

London

as the centre of traffic

and the

of government.

To

which

considerations

we may

perhaps add yet another, that both the universities of Oxford

and Cambridge

lie

within the Midland area.

'

Introd. to Allit.

signify the dialect

Poems, ed. Morris, where West-Midland which Gamett called Mercian.

is

used to

CHAPTER
The Native Element
§ 31.
:

IV.

the oldest dialects.

In the

last

Chapter specimens have been given of the

three principal dialects of the Middle-English,
these, that

and one of from Robert of Brunne, takes us back almost to the beginning of the fourteenth century. We now proceed
push back our enquiries a
little

to

further.
this

There are
during the

sufficient

specimens to enable us to do

thirteenth century

and a

little

earlier^,

but at the earliest

period the extant

monuments of

the language relate almost

exclusively to one dialect only, the Southern;

whereas we

should be extremely glad of more information concerning
the

Midland

dialect.

find traces of the
1

100) they are

For the period before 1200, we still same three dialects, but (especially before called by different names. The Northern,
earliest period, are

Midland, and Southern, as found in the
called Northumbrian, Mercian,
It is

and Wessex or Anglo-Saxon'^.
'

a
*

common
and
'

mistake to suppose that the terms
'
'

Anglo-

Saxon

vertible

Old English (or Oldest English ') are conterms for Anglo-Saxon only accounts for a third
;
*
'

part of

Old English.

Yet the mistake does not lead

to

much

confusion in practice, owing to the unfortunate and deplorable
scantiness of the materials representing the other two dialects.

We
^

can only deal with what we happen to possess

;

so that,

called Early English, a
^

The Middle English of the period from 11 50 to 1300 is sometimes name which is convenient, when required.
;

I here omit, for the sake of clearness, the Kentish variety of Southern

English

though

its

forms are

fairly well

marked.

§ 32.]

OLD NORTHERN AND OLD MERCIAN.
works written
to
in

41

in the absence of

Northumbrian and Mercian,
such evidence as can be

we

are very thankful

accept

obtained from the very considerable remains of the Wessex
dialect
^

that have

come down

to us.

It will

clear the

way

for future consideration to

enumerate the sources of our

information.
§

32.

Old Northern Dialect
literature must, at

:

Old Mercian.

The

old

.

Northumbrian
siderable.

one time, have been con-

The

great historian
'

but
i.e.

we

are told that he

Beda usually wrote in Latin, was doctus in nostris carminibus/
five lines

learned in our native songs, and

have been

preserved of a
dialect

poem

written

^

He

also tells

by him in the Northumbrian us the famous story of Csedmon, a
dialect, a

monk

of Whitby,

concerning

who composed, in that many events recorded in
first

long

poem

the

Old and

New
Of
,^
\*^ 1

Testaments, beginning with the history of the Creation.
this

poem

only the
is

nine fines have been preserved^,

although there

a later poem, also frequently attributed to
similar subjects.

Caedmon *, upon
unfortunately, the

These t|ttien
'

lines form,

sum

total

of the remains of tne Old North-

umbrian poetry, with the exception of the Leiden Riddle,' printed by Mr. Sweet in his Oldest Engfish Texts, p. 149,

and

the

Northumbrian Runic Inscription upon the Ruthwell
in the same, p.

Cross, printed

125.

The

incursions and

* To which we may add the extant remains of Kentish. The Old Northumbrian was the dialect of the Angles, and was thus a kind of It ancient Danish, The Wessex dialect was the dialect of the Saxons. is well known that great numbers of Frisians accompanied the Saxons and I throw out the suggestion, for what it is worth, that the Mercian dialect was partly of Old Frisian origin. ' Sec the edition, by Mayor and Lumby, of Books III and IV of Beda's Ecclesiastical History, p. 177; Earle, A. S. Literature, p. no; Sweet, Oldest Eng. Texts, p. 149. ' Earle, A, S. Literature, Sweet (as above). p. loi * It is, however, a different version, with a different, though similar,
; ;

beginning.

It is only necessary to say here, that it is not in the Northumbrian, but the Wessex dialect. See Earle, A. S. Lit., p. ill.

43

THE OLDEST DIALECTS.
it

[Chap. IV.

ravages of the Danes swept
feelingly

all

away, so that king Alfred

deplores

the

almost

total

decay of learning in
Fortunately,

England caused by
ever,

their devastations^.

how-

we

possess somewhat

more of

the old

Northumbrian

prose.

The famous copy

of the four Latin Gospels,

known

sometimes as the Lindisfarne MS., sometimes as the Durham

book ^, contains Northumbrian
Latin words, throughout.
Ritual, edited
also

glosses, or explanations of the

The MS. known

as the

Durham

by Stevenson for the Surtees Society in 1840,
in

abounds
in

Northumbrian glosses of the Latin prayers
Another copy of the Latin Gospels, known
is

contained
as the

it

^

Rushworth MS.,

also glossed throughout

^.

In

this

copy, the glosses or explanations are in the Northumbrian
dialect throughout the Gospels of St.
St.

Mark*,

St.

Luke, and
Matthew's

John^, but the glosses upon the words of
in the

St.

Gospel are

Mercian or Midland

dialect,

and were

formerly supposed to furnish the only extant specimen of this
dialect before the

Norman
we
find

conquest.

But in Mr. Sweet's

Oldest English Texts, published for the Early English Text
Society in 1885,

some

additional

and highly im-

portant examples of Mercian, the principal being (i) the
'

Vespasian Psalter and Hymns,'

i.

e.

a copy of a Latin

Psalter
^

and

Hymns

with Mercian glosses, extant in

MS.

See Earle, A. S. Literature, p. 190. ^ See the Northumbrian and A.S. Gospels, synoptically arranged, published by the Pitt Press, ed. Kemble and Skeat. (The Gospel of The Lindisfarne MS. is in the St. Matthew is now being reprinted.) MS. Cotton, Nero, D. 4.' The Rushworth British Museum, marked MS. is in the Bodleian Library. ^ The glosses are not very correctly printed. See my Collation of the Durham Ritual, published for the Philological Society in 1879, Appendix,
'

p. 51*.
* The glosses to St. Mark, chap, i, and chap, ii, verses 1-15 are someThe handwriting times said to be Mercian, but this is a mistake. changes in the middle of v. 15 of St. Mark, chap, ii ; but the dialect changes at the very beginning of that gospel. 5 Excepting, strangely enough, the glosses to the first three verses of

chap,

xviii,

which are Mercian.

§ 33-1

OLD MERCIAN.
i,

43

Cotton, Vespasian A.

in the British

Museum,

and" (2) the

'Corpus Glossary,'
Christi College,

i.e.

a collection of Latin words with

in the library of Corpus These scanty remains are all that we possess of the Northumbrian and Mercian dialects, and are in

Mercian glosses extant

MS. No. 144

Cambridge.

not such as to give us
dialect so well

much

help.

We

can never judge of a

from mere glosses as we can from a connected

and

original composition.

What we most
dialect

desire, viz. a fair
like before the

specimen of what the Mercian
conquest,
is

was

precisely the thing

which

is

almost unattainable.

Being thus deprived of the very great help which might have
been obtained from
fuller

information concerning the Mercian

and Northumbrian

dialects,

we

are almost entirely thrown

back upon the extant specimens of the Southern, or Wessex
dialect, usually called
'

Anglo-Saxon ^.' Fortunately, these are
off indeed. For specimens Anglo-Saxon Primer and Anglo-

abundant, or
of

we should be badly

this dialect, see Sweet's

Saxon Reader.
§

33.

Modern Literary
It

English, derived
'derived' from
it

from Old
the Anglo-

Mercian.
that,

ought, then, to be carefully borne in mind,

when we

say a

word

is

Saxon, we commonly

mean

that

is

derived from an Old

Mercian form, which
This

in

some cases probably coincided with

the recorded A. S. form, but in other cases certainly did not.
is

an obscure point, especially as the Mercian glosses
dialect very

which we possess do not always exhibit the
distinctly,

but rather shew some slight variations from the
Still

Wessex
solely

(A. S.) dialect.

the following table (compiled
text of
St.

from the Mercian glosses upon a Latin

Matthew's Gospel)

may

be of some slight

interest, as furnish-

*

Some

call

it

'

Old English'; but 'Anglo-Saxon'
Besides,
it

is

best retained

as being generally understood.

has a special technical meanIt does not in the least ing, viz. the old southern dialect of Wessex. follow that the people of ancient England, or even of the South of it, ought to be called • Anglo-Saxons.' They should be called ' English.'

44

THE OLDEST DIALECTS.
to the

[Chap. IV.

ing examples in which the modern English form seems closer
to the

Mercian than Modern.

A.

S. type.

§ 34.]

BROKEN VOWELS.
Anglo-Saxon
dialect
*

45
Even a glance

§
at

34.

broken
will

»

vowels.
a

this

comparative table

reveal

peculiarity of the

Wessex

which properly belongs neither to the Mer-

cian dialect^ nor to

modern English.
/,

This

is

the use of ea
ea denotes

for a before the letters

r, h,

x.

The symbol
'

that the vowel was, to speak technically,

resolved into the diphthong

e-a, the

i. e. was two vowels being pro-

broken,'

nounced

in rapid succession'^.
-feald^ gealla,

Hence such forms
healt,

as

eall,

ceald, /eallejf,

healf^

nearu, eald, seald,

weall, gearo,

where the Old Mercian
its

dialect preserved the

old vowel a in

purity,

and the modern English has partly
slight

done the same, though with the
ald^ salde, to cold^
-/old,
'

change of
all

cald, -fald^

old,

sold.

In

these words

the

Southern
ing
/

*

breaking

is

due to the influence of the follow-

or

r.

Similarly,
eo,

we

notice the Southern use of the
z*,

'broken' sound
seol/or,
Still

substituted for

in the

words betweox,

where modern EngHsh has kept the original sound.
are the cases in which the

more marked and curious
ea, /o,
is

Southern dialect has
element
long^.

diphthongs in which the former
fuller explanation,

These would require

which
that

I

pass over for the present.

It is sufficient to notice

our standard

modern English
*.

follows
*

the
'

Mercian
vowels in

dialect here also,

and knows nothing of

broken

such instances as those above
O. Fr.
alle, all

;

keke,

cheek

;

elleva, eleven

;

falla, to fall

;

-fald, -fold

;

half; halt;
*

herde, heard;
;

licht, adj. light;
;

liaga, to lie;

aldy old;

selover^ silver, silver

wal, wall

ierde,

a rod.

The
;

scribe of the

Rushworth glosses sometimes inconsistently writes

ea for a

he doubtless knew that the Southern scribe^ used the symbol,

and needlessly followed their example. ' For an account of A. S. pronunciation, see Sweet's A. S. Primer, or A. S. Reader. ' In my Etym. Diet., I have unfortunately placed the accent, or mark of length, upon the latter element. This was the method formerly in
vogue, but
*
it is

probably

less correct.

But they arc found in the dialects. Barnes, writes mcdke for make, sheddy for shady, Uddy

in his Dorsetshire
for lady^ Sec.

poems,

4^
§ 35.

THE OLDEST DIALECTS.
Chronology.
is

[Chap. IV.

The

necessity of paying due regard

to chronology

just as great

when we

deal with Anglo-

Saxon writings

as in

any other
it.

case.

Strange mistakes have

arisen from neglect of

Our

materials are abundant,

and

some of them

are of very early date.

We

have

MSS. con-

taining Latin words, with 'glosses' or explanations in Anglo-

Saxon, going back at least

to the eighth century.

We

have

MSS.

of the time of Alfred,

who
in

died in 901,

and many
late

homilies

by

^Ifric,

which,

round numbers, may be
Other

dated a

Httle earlier

than the year looo.
till

A.

S.

MSS. were
year 1154.

certainly not written
S.

after the

Conquest.

One

copy of the celebrated A.
It is

Chronicle records events of the

obvious that

MSS. ranging

over three and

a half centuries ought not to be treated as if they were all contemporaneous. Some change in the language might be
expected to take place during that time, and such
to be the case.
dictionaries
is is

found

Curiously enough, the Anglo-Saxon of the
generally given according to the spelling of
i.

the later period,

e.

of the eleventh century or the latter

part of the tenth, merely because the

MSS.

of that period

were ^most accessible and
stage of the language

first

received attention.

This

thing that differed

was taken as the standard, and anyfrom it was looked upon as dialectal'
'

A

curious example of this occurs in Dr. Bosworth's edition
translation

of Alfred's
exhibits

of Orosius,

the

preface

to

which

much

painstaking and care.

The
by.

editor gives

an

accurate description of the two extant MSS., one of which,
called the Lauderdale MS.,
is

proved

him

to be consider-

ably older than .the other, or Cotton
to prove that the Lauderdale

MS.
is

He

next proceeds

MS.
of
it.

the original,

and the
:
'

Cotton MS. simply a

late copy

He
its

truly says
for

It is
it

not only the antiquity of the Lauderdale
(distinguished, but for its use of accents,

MS.

which

is

grammatical forms,

^nd important

readings.

...

It is

more accurate than the

Cotton MS., in distinguishing the termination of -an and -on

§ 36.1

ANGLO-SAXON (WESSEX DIALECT).
In the Cotton MS., there
;

47
is

both in nouns and verbs.

great confusion in these terminations

whilst in the Lauder-

dale MS., they are generally correct.'
as to say that
*

He

even goes so far

there are so

many

instances of great careless-

ness in the scribe of the Cotton observer to say,
this
it is

MS.

as to lead a casual

the
is

work of an

illiterate scribe.'

After

explanation,

it

clear that,

in editing the work, the

correct course

would have been

to take the older

MS.

as the

basis of the text.

Curiously enough, this was not done, the
*

reason for the other course being thus assigned.

The
and

Cotton

MS. was made

the basis of the text, as

its

style

orthography have more the appearance of pure West-Saxon^
than the Lauderdale, which, though older than the Cotton,

has a more northerly aspect.'
edited the earlier

Mr. Sweet, however, has since

MS.

for the Early English

Text

Society,

and we now know that
dale
§

the peculiar spellings of the Lauder-

36.

MS. are due solely to its superior antiquity^. Specimen of Anglo-Saxon. A simple specimen
is

of late Anglo-Saxon

here subjoined.
(xiii.

It is

taken from an
in the tenth

A.

S. version of St.

Matthew

3-8),

made

century, as extant in
*

MS. Corp. Chr.

Coll.,

No. 140.

And \ii \i. S6))lice ' ut code se s^dere his s^d t6 sdwenne. h€ seow, sume hig f^ollon \s\\ weg, and fuglas comun and &ton \i.. S6|)lice sume fdollon on st^nihte, \k.x hit naefde micle eor])an, and hra^dlice up sprungon, for |;dm ))e hi'g na^fdon ))£ere eorj^an
^ I. e. the West-Saxon of the dictionaries. I owe so much to the bounty of Dr. Bosworth that I wish to clear him from blame in this matter. Writing in 1850, more than a quarter of a century ago, he had not sufficient confidence to make what would then have been condemned as an innovation. His arguments really go to shew that he would have

preferred the bolder course.

Mr. Sweet has lately published some Extracts from Alfred's cheap form so that the spelling of this famous MS. can be easily studied. » The denotes th, as in M. E. The accent indicates that the vowel I)
'
*

Orosius,' in a very

;

is

long

;

thus 6

would be marked

d, if

we adopted

the notation of the

Latin grammar.


48
d^pan
;

THE OLDEST DIALECTS.
s6|)lice,

[Chap. IV.

forscruncon, for ))dm

up sprungenre sunnan, hig ^druwudon and S6))lice sume J)e hig nsefdon wyrtrum. fi^ollon on ))ornas, and ])d jiornas wdoxon, and forJ)rysmudon Jjd. Sume s6|)lice feollon on gode eor|)an, and sealdon weastm, sum

hundfealdne,

sum

sixtig-fealdne,

sum

])rittig-fealdne

^.'

Notwithstanding the unfamiliar and strange appearance of
the spelling
this

and grammar, a large number of the words
still

in

passage are only old forms of words

in use.

The
clue.

^'Oid/orJ^rysmudon soon perished, and has been obsolete for

many

centuries, but to
literal

most of the others there

is

some
:

In very

modern

English, the passage runs thus

And when sowed ^, some, they fell with (i. e. beside the) way, and fowls came and ate them. Soothly, some fell on stony (places), where it had-not (lit. nad=ne had) mickle earth, and quickly* (they) up sprung, for that that they had-not of-the earth depth soothly, up-sprung sun, they dried-away and for-shrunk (i.e. shrunk extremely), for that that they had-not root ^ Soothly, some fell on thorns, and the thorns waxed, and choked them. Some soothly fell on good earth, and produced (lit. sold) fruit®, some hundred-fold, some sixty- fold, some thirty-fold.'
*Soothly, out went'^ the sower his seed to sow.
that he
;

So important is the study of Anglo-Saxon to such modern English, that some good and useful lesson might be learnt from nearly every word of the above passage. As regards our grammar, for example, such words as /ugl-as=^/owl-s, porn-as-=- thorns^ at once shew that the modern English plural commonly ends in -s because
§ 37.

as are interested in

a considerable number of A.
-as
^

S. plurals

ended

in -as.

This

was weakened

to

-es^

as in the

M. Y.^foul-es^
;

ihorn-es,
is

and

Compare Sweet, A.
;

S. Primer, p.

62

where the spelling

some-

what normalised. ^ M. E. yede, went
'

now
'

obsolete.
is

The

true

modem
;

equivalent
I

sew, the verb being once strong.
grass.'

In

Cambridgeshire, they say
*
*•

Lit. rathly

sew the field,' and ' I mezv the from rath, soon, whence rather, sooner.
allied to

Compare
Lit.

E. wort.
;

®

growth

wax,

i.

e.

grow.

§ 37.]

ANGLO-SAXON (WESSEX DIALECT).

49

then these dissyllabic words were crushed into monosyllables,
with loss of the indistinct sound denoted by
e.

Leaving
that

such things to the grammarian,
lary,

we may

turn to the vocabu-

and the

first

word
-lie,

tells

us two

facts.

The

first is,

the adverbial suffix -ly was once spelt

-lic-e

(two syllables),

an extension of
form of the

which

is

nothing- but an unaccented
is

adj. lie, like;

so that sooth-ly

sooth-like, i.e. in
is

a manner like sooth or truth.
importance, because
it

The second
to

of far greater
It
is,

concerns phonology.

that the

A.

S.

long

^

(as in s6d)

came

be written

00 (as in sooth),

the doubling denoting length.

After this, a change

came over
;

ihQ pronunciation, but the symbol xera^mtdi the
is,

same

the result

that 00

no longer denotes the sound of oa
00 in boot, or ou in soup.

in boat, but the

sound of

This

latter

sound

is strictly

represented, according to the Italian method, by long

u,
o.

or H,

whereas the original sound

is strictly

represented by
is

We
oOj

see, then, that as far as the written

symbol

concerned, the

A.

S.

6 has (at least in this instance) been replaced by

whilst the sound indicated has shifted
at

from

to H.

The

period

which

this shifting

took place seems to have been between
If the
let
it

1550 and 1650; see Sweet, English Sounds, p. 56. reader follows this explanation, which is not difficult,
at

him
up.

once learn

this

example by

heart,

and treasure

Whoever knows this fact, has laid hold of a great general principle, some of the bearings of which will be shewn in
the next Chapter.
*

Prononnced nearly as oa

in boat,

but without any after-sound of u

;

exactly as oh in G. Sohn.

VOL.

I.

CHAPTER

V.

English Long Vowels.
§ 38.

Returning to the consideration of the comparison of
first

A.

S.

sS^ with E. soothe the
this is

question

we

naturally ask

is,

whether
tion,

an isolated instance of a changed pronuncia-

or are there other words in the
it

same predicament?
to the older

We

find that

is

no

isolated instance, but only a particular

example of a general law.
such words as

If

we look

forms of

cool, stool, tool,

tooth, goose,

soon, moon, noon,

broom, doom, gloom, brood, mood, rood, and even look (in which
the vowel has been shortened),
scribes wrote these

we

shall find that the

M. E.
o,

words sometimes with a double

but
they

sometimes also with a single one; in the

latter case,

meant the long sound all the same, but this sound was to them a long o, not a long u. Strange as it may seem, it is certain that many millions of Englishmen have for years accepted the symbol oo (plainly a long 6) as expressing the sound of the Italian long u, without ever stopping to wonder how they came to employ so extraordinary a spelling To
!

return to the consideration of the words cited above,

it

may
;

next be observed that the words moon and soon were formerly
dissyllabic, written

moon-e or mon-e, and soon-e or son-e
-e,

whilst the verb look took, in the infinitive, the suffix
-ten,

earlier

and appeared as
stol, tot,

look-e, lok-ien.

Hence, the A.

S.

forms
:

of the above words are, with perfect regularity, as follows
cdl,
*

top, gos^, sSn-a,

mon-a, non^, brom, dom, glom,
is

The

final e in the

mod. E. goose
;

a mere
it

(late)

orthographic expe-

dient (i.e. a phonetic spelling), in order to

or (technically) voiceless
also in the case of horse,
^

if

written goos,

shew that the s is hard, might be read as gocz. So
i.

M. E. and A.

S. hors.
e.

The A.

S.

n6n

is

borrowed from Lat. nona,

nona hora, ninth

1;

§ 39.]

SHIFTING OF VOWEL-SOUNDS.
This A.
S. 6 will

5

hrod, mod, rodj locian.

be again discussed
to the

hereafter,

when some apparent exceptions
Shifting of vowel-soiinds.

law

will

receive attention (§ 45).
§

39.

Another important
that

result is this.

Such a change of pronunciation as
u
{00

from
have
all

long

{pa in boat) to long

m

boot) could not

taken place without a general shifting of pronunciation

along the

line.

If in the series -iaa, bait,
set,-

beet, boat, boot,

we

disturb one of the

we run
fell,

the risk of upsetting the whole
;

scheme.

This

is

precisely

what took place
as
it

the whole of

the long-vowel

scheme

were, to pieces, and was

replaced by a

new scheme

throughout, the net result being
(as in baa, bait, beet, boat,
die-

that the A. S. sounds of a,
boot)

/, i, 6, H,^

have been replaced by the modern English sounds

noi^di phonetically
boot,

by

6,

i,

ai,

0.,

au (sounded as
i,

in boat, beet, biti\
H, are shifted

bout).

Three

of the old sounds,
,

6,

two of the old vowels
to disappear^.

i,

ii ,

are developed into diphthongs,

whilst the remaining A. S. sounds d,

/ (as

in baa, bait)
it

seem
once

From

this brief account,

will

be

at

seen that the investigation of the old

sounds of modern

English vowels requires great care, and must be conducted

on regular
separately.

principles,

each sound deserving to be studied
the short vowels
therefore, in

This

is

even the case, as we have seen, with the
;

long vowels, which are the easiest to trace
require even

more

attention,

and should

my

opinion, be studied afterwards,

when

the changes in the long

vowel-sounds have become

familiar.

Meanwhile,
fact that the

it

will

prove useful to commit to

memory

the

A. S. sounds, as occurring in baa^

hait^ beet^ boat,

hour, originally 3 p.m., but afterwards shifted to midday. home the fact that the A. S. (^ = Lat. 0.
*

This drives

The word haa

is

merely imitative, and the pure sound of the Italian

a
is

is

rather scarce in English, father being the stock

the words baltn, calm, &c., being of French origin.

common, but answers
A.
S.

to

A.

S. a,

cc,

ca, e,
*

example of it, and The sound in dait or i, not to any of the above

aeries of

long vowels.

E

2

5a
hoot^

ENGLISH LONG VOWELS.

[Chap. V.

have most commonly been replaced by the modern
boat,
beet,
is
bite,

English sounds heard in
easiest

boot,

bouf^.

The

way of remembering

this

by the help of simple
is

examples, such as these that follow.
1.

A. S. bat (pronounced baat), A.
S. bet-e'^

our mod. E.
bait-y,

boaf.

2.

(pronounced nearly as
our mod. E.
beet.

or as bait-er

with quiescent
3. 4.

r), is

A. A.

S. bit-an
S. bot

(pronounced

beet-ahn),

is

our
is

mod

E.

bite.

(pronounced nearly as boat)
'

our

boot, in

the

sense of advantage, as in the phrase
5.

to boot.'
is

A.

S. d-biitan

(pronounced ah-boot-dhn),
full

our a-bout.

All this has been learnt from a
first

consideration of the

word

Soplice of the A. S. extract in § 36 above.

This
l

may
§

serve as a faint indication of the lessons to be obtained
fallen into so great neglect.
//'A'

from a study which has
as upwards.

'yIi/VxaJL

40. English should
Hitherto

be traced downwards as well
object has been to prepare the

my

way by

tracing English words backwards from the present

when the literary monuments which have come down to us were mostly written in the Southern dialect, commonly called Anglo-Saxon. This course is a natural one to take, because we thus pass from
time to the period before the Conquest,

what

is

familiar to
scientific

what

is

less

known.
it

Yet

this is clearly

not the

course, because

reverses the order of
S.

succession.

Hence, when we have obtained the A.
easily

form,

we ought

to return over the

can then more

same ground once more, as we account for, or at any rate record, all
This
is

changes of pronunciation, and we are in a better position to
explain results that appear to be anomalous.
.

the

course pursued by Mr. Sweet, in his History of English
This general rule has several exceptions, some of which are noted The present account is merely general or popular. For scientific details see the article by Mr. Wells, noticed at the end of § 40. ^ This is an excellent example, because the A. S. de^e is not an English word, but merely borrowed from Lat. de^a, where the e was pronounced
^

below.

nearly as at in dazf, or (strictly) as ^ in F.

de^e.

§4F.]

SHIFTING OF VOWEL-SOUNDS.
I

^'>^

Sounds S and
as

now

extract several examples from his

book

in order to complete the history of the English long vowels,

we

are
to

now

in a position to understand

it.

I

beg leave
'

also

draw attention to an admirable

article

On

the

Development of Old English Long Vowels/ by B. H. Wells,
which appeared in the German periodical called 'Anglia,'
vol. vii. pp.

203-219.

Mr. Wells gives the

investigations in the following

words

:

— We
'

results

of his

find that the

extreme A.

S.

vowels i and H have, by a sort of guna, been
Ital. a^

brought nearer to

the one
ou^ ozu]

becoming ^r[mod. E.
^

J]

and the other au [mod. E.
A.

The

other long vowels

on the contrary, shew exactly the opposite tendency, for ea, eo, d have become i [mod. E. ee\, while d S. /, ze,
7'/,

has become

0^

and
the

0^ u.

Wherever, then, the vowels could
of the vowel-scale [given by
;

move toward
Ital. u, 0, a,
e,

extremes

i\ they did so
diphthongs.

where
is

this

was not

possible,

they formed

Such

the

development when

undisturbed by consonantal influence.'

He

adds that 'the
m,

only consonants which exercise a general modifying power
are w^ r,

g

{h),

but the mutes

r, d, /,

and the

labials

_/,

have a modifying influence on special vowels with which
their articulation is related.

A

following syllable also tends

to

weaken the preceding
§ 41. It is

vowel.'

He

proceeds to examine

these disturbing causes in careful detail.

found that vowel-sounds are often

aff'ected in

their quality
is

by the consonant

that follows
is

them
that

^.

So much
alters the

this

the case

when

this

consonant

r,

it

quality of nearly every vowel.

The vowel-sounds

in

bat,

*

Pnblishcd for the Philological Society and for the English Dialect

Society.
^
*

As

to the nature of this change, see Ellis,

On

Pronunciation,

i.

233:

In each case the change simply consists in

commencing the vowel with

a sound which
and, as
'
it

is too open (i.e. with the tongue not sufficiently raised, were, correcting that error in the course of utterance.' or qu. Also by a preceding consonant, chiefly in the case of

w

Compare wan,

quantity, with can, ran, pan.

;

54
het, hit

ENGLISH LONG VOWELS.
respectively, are not the

[Chap. V.

same

as in bar^ berth, bird.

This must be carefully borne in mind, and shews why Mr.

Sweet arranges
influence

his

examples according
the long vowels, which
to,

to

the consonant

which follows the vowel.
little

Fortunately, r has comparatively

upon

we

shall take first.

We now
d, or

proceed

enquire into the fortunes of the A. S.
in baa, or the interjection

long

a^

pronounced as aa
(long

ah !

§ 42.

The A. S. a

a).

came

to be written as long o in E. such words are pronounced with a sound which we should now

The rule is, that M. E., and in mod.
o

A. S. a

also call long
,

o.

But

this

M. E. long

was probably an

intermediate sound between aa and oa, and

commonly
Mr. Sweet

pro;

nounced nearly
as oa in broad.

as

au in naught, according
S. bat is

to

or

Thus A.

M. E.

boot,

pronounced

nearly as mod. E. bought, which gradually passed into E. hoat\

so that the order of sounds
boat.

is

given (nearly) by baat, bought,
still

The M. E. sound

is

given

more

closely

by the or
sld, sloe

in border.

Examples are
wd, woe
swd,\SiQ
;

as follows,
gd, I go
;

rd, a roe

;

la,

lo

!

nd,

no

;

dd, a

doe

;

td, toe.

In the word
E.
so.

w

was dropped, giving the M. E.

soo, so,

But
and

there are two words in which a

w preceded
upon
it,

the vowel,
it

exercised a modifying influence

causing

to pass

through two

stages.'

Thus
M. E.

it

passed into the modern long o
there,
it

sound even in M.
pare

E.,

and instead of stopping

shifted

again, because the

5 often shifted into long w,
coal) \Vith

M. E.

cool, col

(pronounced as
w,
after

commod. E. cool

(§ 45).

And

further, the
;

producing

this modifica-

tion,

dropped out

so that the A. S.

as hoo in hoot), whilst the A.S.

twd

is

hwd is now who (pron. now two (pron. as tooY.
and pronounced
S. dhte into E.

See Sweet, Hist. Eng. Sounds,

p. 54.

The

guttural
in

sound denoted by

h,

as the^^.

mod. G. ch

Macht, has modified A.

ought -^

probably by preserving very nearly the sound which the diph^

This influence of a preceding

w will receive attention hereafter.

; ;

§ 42.]

THE ANGLO-SAXON LONG
in

A,

^^

thong had

Middle English.

Similarly, ndht has
sufiQx -y) the

naught or nought, whence (with a

become word naught-y.
not^

By
has

constant use, naught was often 'widened' to

which ?
Also

now

established itself as

an independent word.

hdl,
hdlt'g,

whole; mdl, mole
holy
;

(a blemish, spot); ddl"^, dole.

;

a derivative of hdl^ whole.
hdr, hoar
; ;

ar, oar

rdr-ian, to roar

;

/ar, lore
;

;

sdr^ sore

mdr-e,
boar.

more

gdr-a^ gore (of a garment)

^^<fr«

^,

yore

;

^(zr,

(Note

how
wrdp^

the r modifies the preceding vowel, and

tends to preserve the
dp^ oath
larly
;

M. E.
adj.,

sound.)
;

wroth, but also wrath
the

and
of o

simi-

cldp^

cloth,

in
IdB,

which
loath;

M. E.
to

sound
loathe;

has

been preserved;
to clothe.

Idd-ian^^

cld^-ian,

drdsy arose

;

to, those
is

;

gdst^ ghost (in

which the

intro-

duction of the h
difficult

quite unmeaning).

A very

curious and

word

is

hds^

M.

E. hoos^ also hoors,

now

written

modern Southern E. sound is concerned, the r is not trilled, and the vowel hardly differs, if at all, from that which we have already found in cloth, from
hoarse]
as far as the

A.

S. cld^^.

It

probably retains very nearly the
;

M.E.

sound.

prdw-an, to throw
all

sdw-an, to sow

;

mdw-an, to

mow
In

crdw-an, to crow; cndw-an, to know; bldw-an, to blow.
these the

A.^.w

accounts for the modern spelling, but

the

w
u.

is

nearly lost, being represented by a faint after-sound
in sndw,
is

So also ceptional word
of
^

snow;
to

sdwel, sdwl, soul.

An

ex-

pdw-qn,

thaw (instead oi thow^)\
prefix ge- is all-abundant,

here

It

appears ;i3 ge-ddl.

The A. S.

and makes
sound of
represents

no
'

difference to the word.

The A. S.
;

ge-, as occurring here before d, represents the

mod. E. ^
^

at

I

keep ^

did so in late A. S. to represent the mod. E. th in clothe, whilst
rate, it

any

I

J)

the mod. E. th in cloth.
*

both symbols confusedly. pronunciation, which is like that of horse. Many people sound the oa in hoarse as a diphthong. " Thow, says Dr. I'cile, is the pronunciation in North Cumberland, where it rimes with snow.

A.

S. uses

The sound

varies.

I here give

my own

^6
the

ENGLISH LONG VOWELS.
dw
has preserved the

[Chap. V.

M. E. sound, Uke
;

that of

au

in

naught.

Compare

naught, cloth^ wrath, above.
drdf, drove (the final

hldf, loaf {h

being dropped)
?)

f in
v).

A.

S.

(and in Mercian

being probably pronounced as
is

A

most important word
a parasitic

dn^

with dawn, later with hone), but
fifteenth century,

M. E. oon (riming at first now riming with hun. In the
sprang up before the
initial
;

w

vowel, which by that time
this

may have become
:

like o in hone

then the w modified the would produce a form woon into long u, after which the u was shortened and long
'

unrounded ^,' giving the curious E.
is

one, in

which the

initial

w

only written by comic writers,

who

(correctly

enough)

write wun.

The

spelling

won

is
1.

found as early as in
7927.

Guy

of

Warwickj

ed. Zupitza, note to

The word

is

doubly

interesting,

because the compounds

on-ly, al-one, l-one (short

for al-one), l-one-ly (short for al-one-ly), at-one, all preserve

the sound into which

it

would have passed according to the
the A. S. dn,

usual rule.

Besides

this,

when used

as the

indefinite article,

soon

lost its length of vowel,

and became

an with short
final n)
a.

a.

Hence our modern
is

an, or (with loss of

An-on

short for an-oon.

N-one, short for

ne one, not one, has followed the fortunes of one,

on account
hdn,

of

its

obvious connection with

it.

Other examples are scdn,

shone, past tense '^; stdn, stone; grdn-ian, to groan;

bone.

hdm, home
Idg, Idh,

;

Idm, loam

;

fdm, foam

;

cldm, prov. E. cloam,

used in Devonshire to mean earthenware.

low

(the final guttural being

dropped)
;

;

fag, fdh,

foe

;

ddg, ddh,

dough

:

so dg-an, to

own

dg-en,

own

(i.

e.

one's own).

^

*

Rounding

is

pression of the cheek -passage and narrowing of the lip-aperture

Phonetics, § 36. effort required for rounding.
^

a contraction of the mouth-cavity by lateral com; Sweet, Unrounding means the relaxation of the muscular
'

Properly shoan ; but often shortened to shon.

;

§ 43.]

THE ANGLO-SAXON LONG
oak
;

E.

57

dc^

strdc-ian, to stroke

;

spdc-a,

spoke of a wheel

tdc-en, token.

rdd^ road;

Idd,

lode (a vein of ore, course);
;

wdd, woad;
brood,
spelt

gad, goad

;

tdd,

toad

dbdd, abode.
its

But brdd, M. E.
is

has absolutely retained
broad, because that

M.E.
S. suffix

vowel-sound, and

sound was represented by oa
A.

in Eliza-

bethan English *.
-hod, which,

The
to

-had became M. E. -hood,

owing

its

non-accented position in compound

words, has been shifted and shortened into E. -hood, as in

man-hood, child-hood, maiden-hood.
this

suffix

was

-h^d,

and

in the

The O. Friesic form Laud MS. of the A.
1.

of
S.

Chronicle, under the year 1070 (ed. Earle, p. 209,

6 from

bottom)

it

appears as -hed ;

this

accounts for the variant

-head, as in Godhead, maidenhead.
dt-e,

an

oat, pi. dt-an, oats

;

wrdt, wrote

;

gdt, goat

;

bdi,

boat.

But

hat,

M.E.
*

hoot

(pronounced
'

as
ic

haughtwdt, M.E.

in

haught-y), has been

widened
soap

to hoi\

and

/

woot (pron. want), has been similarly altered to
rdp, rope
;

/ wot.
;

sdp-e,

;

grdp-ian, to grope

pdp-a, the

pope.

In the

last case, the

A.S. word

is

merely borrowed
origin,

from the Lat. papa, a word of Greek
*

signifying

Here the very vowel-sound and spelling of the mod. E. word are quite sufficient to prove, without recourse to history, that the word was borrowed from Latin before the
father.'

Conquest.
F. pape, and
ape.

Otherwise, w^e should have borrowed

it

from the

we should all be saying pape, as if it rimed with Compare pap-al, pap-ist, pap-acy, all words of F.

origin.
§

43.

The
long
e,

A.S. 6 (long

e).

The
this

A.S.

/had
it

the

sound

of

Ital.

or the PVench

e in bite^

or nearly that of ai in

haU\ the M.E. usually preserved
shifted into the
*
*

sound;

has since

sound of
M. E.

ee in beel

".

In one word, the
viz. in

hb

[

= aw

in

awel has been preserved up to

the present day,
'

the adj. Irddi/;' Sweet, Eng. Sounds, p. 61.
p. 61.

See Sweet's Hist, of Eng. Sounds,

; ;

58

ENGLISH LONG VOWELS.
he,

[Chap. V.

Examples,

he ;

de\

thee

;

we,

we
;

;

me,

me
;

;

ge, ye.

The

A.S.

he'h

presents

some

diffculty

in M.E., the final
lost

guttural

was sometimes

kept,

and sometimes

the vowel-

sound was sometimes kept, and sometimes shifted; and hence such varying forms as hegh, heigh, hey, hy. The shifted form prevailed, becoming at last hy (pronounced as
E.
he),

out of which was regularly developed a mod. E. hy

(riming with by\

But we

still

preserve in our spelling a

reminiscence of the

final guttural,

and spell the word high.
is

In just the same way the A.S. n^h

our nigh.

her, here; ge-her-an, to hear; wir-ig, weary.

The

pt. t.

ge-Mr-de,

Ht.

heared,

is

shortened to heard;
is

such examples
are of

as this, in
value.
hel, heel
ie'p,
;

which the shortening

obvious,

some

std, steel

;

fil-an, to feel.

teeth.

ge-lef-an,

to

be-lieve

^ ;

slef-e,

sleeve

;

the

A.S. (and

Mercian X)f between the two vowels being probably sounded
as V.
scene, adj.,

E. sheen,
;

lit.

showy, but
;

now

used as a
;

sb.

^

wen-an, to ween

gren-e, green

cen-e,

keen

cwen, queen,

quean.

But

ten

has preserved

its
;

long vowel only in the

compounds
shortened to

thir-teen,
ten.
;

four -teen, &c.
de'm-an, to
§

when used alone
;

it

is

sem-an, to seem
^g-e

deem

tem-an, to teem.

(Mercian

eg-e,

33)

is

an occasional form of A.S.

^age, eye.

word belongs to the group containing This ege became M.E. eye, egh-e, ey-e, the symbol 5 (when not initial) being used to represent a gh or y. But the vowel-sound was frequently shifted
Strictly,

the

the long diphthong ea.

Chaucer constantly uses the
^

dissyllabic formj;-*?',

pronounced

The simple verb lieve was common in M, E. as leuen. Evidently from a popular delusion that it is etymologically derived from the verb to shine, with which it has no connection. Curiously enough, the adj. sheer really is connected with shine, but popular etymology does not suspect it.
^

§ 43-]

THE ANGLO-SAXON LONG
heard between
-e

E,

59

as

ee in beei^

followed by a light vowel, with a light intervenis

ing^-sound, such as
'

ee

and ing

in

mod. E.
or long i

see-ing.

Then

the final

dropped, and the

M.E.^

developed regularly into the mod. E.

diphthongal

sound

which we write u
form
eye,

Yet we

still

keep, in our spelling, the

representing a sound which has been obsolete for
It is this

many

centuries.

unlucky and unreasonable con-

servatism which has brought our
dire confusion.

modern
is

spelling into such

The
;

history of eye

parallel to that of

high

and

ntgh, discussed above.

e'c-an,

to eke

r/c,

reek (smoke)
;

;

lee (substituted for l/ac),

a leek

;

s^c-an, to seek
bec-e,

Mercian
;

c/c-e (see § 33),

A.S. c/ac-e,

cheek

;

beech

(tree)

3r/r, breek,

an old plural form,

afterwards

made
it
/,

into the double

plural breeks (hence also

breech, breeches).

The mention

of this

word
ee

breeches occurs

opportunely;
Italian long

reminds us that our
that,

really

means the
is

and consequently
it

when
see

shortened, the

short form of

is

short

t ;

whence
hint,

it is

that breeches

prohr/c

nounced
ing,

britches.

With

this

we

that A.S.

(substituted for hr^ac),

became M. E.
to

reek,

which, by shorten-

gave us E. rick ^
to

he'd-an,

heed

;

r/d-an,
;

read ;
;

sted-a,

steed
;

;

sp^d,

speed
(a

;

fid-an, to feed
;

n^d,

need

med,
;

meed gUd, gleed
bl/d-an,

burning coal)

brid-an, to

breed

to

bleed

;

cr^d-a"^, creed.

swit-e, sweet; sc^t (for sc^ai), sheet ;y^/, feet;

mil-an, to

meet

;

grit-an, to greet
;

;

b^t-e, beet.
lit.

wip-an, to weep

crip-el,
",

one who creeps, a creeper,
shortened to cripple.
Cf.

M. E.

crep-el, later creeple

but

now

rick above.

*

'Keek, a

Mow

or

Heap

of Cora, Hay, ftc'—Bailey's Diet., ed.

=*

lieve.
»

Borrowed from the first word of the Latin creed, viz. crSd-o, I beHence the A. S. ^=Lat. e, as above. 'In them that bee lame or crecpclks' \ {MlfiY Frampton, Joyftill

60
§ 44.

ENGLISH LONG VOWELS.
The A.
S. i

[Chap. V.

(long

i).

The A.

S.

long

i

was
it

sounded as

ee in beet.

In course of time, a sound resembling
before
it

aa in haa was developed
is

[see p. 53, note J so that 2,

now pronounced

as a diphthong,
ai^
viz.

rectly
Ital.

be represented by

which would most cora sound composed of the
/.

a rapidly succeeded by

Ital.
it

The
is

principal inter-

mediate sound through which

passed

one which may

be represented by

Ital. ei^

very nearly the sound of a in name.
ir-en, iron;
;

Examples.
wil-e^ wile
;

U, by^-

wir^ wire.

hwil, while

mil^ mile.

In the

last case, the

word

is

not English, but borrowed from the Lat. milia pas-

suum, a thousand paces.

Here

is

a clear case in which the

A.S.i=2\
lid-e, lithe
is,
;

wri^-an, writhe

;

bM-e,

blithe.

ice,

where the spelling with
is

ce is

a mere orthographic
;

device for shewing that the s
rise
;

hard, or voiceless

ris-an, to

wis, wise

;

the i

is

shortened in the derivative wzs-dSm^

wisdom, by accentual
sti-weard,

stress.
1.

M. E.
i

sti-ward (Havelok,

666), should have

become sty-wardj
coalescence of

in

accordance with

its

etymology, but the

with

w

has resulted in a diphthong, whence
S.

E. stavard.
is

In precisely the same manner the A.
or spue
;

spiw-an

now spew
Iff,

and the A.

S.

hiw

is

now

hue.

life

;

-an J to shrive, not a pure A. S. word, but serif
scribere
;

borrowed from Lat.
to drive
;

cnf, knife
in the

;

wif, wife

;

drifan,
(lit.

fife,

five.

But

compound
stress,

fif tig
if

five-ty), the i is
fifty.

shortened by accentual

whence E.
written

Similarly the A. S.

wifmen,
is still

later

form wi'mmen (by

assimilation oi

fm

to

mm),

pronounced as

wimmen.
Newes out

It is,

however, always spelt women, in order to pair

of the

Newe Founde Worlde,

fol.

52, back.

*Croked

cre-

pilHs' ; York Plays, p. 255, 1. 36. ^ E. final i is written y, as in by, my, thy, any, many. ^ Compare line\ for, whether we derive line from the A.S. Hn-e, a cord, or from F. ligne, either way we are led back to Lat. linea, a derivative of

Ifnum,

flax.

1

§ 44.1

THE ANGLO-SAXON LONG

/.

6

off with the

(more corrupt) singular woman) see Woman in
swin, swine
scin-an, to shine
serin, shrine,

my

Etym. Dictionary.
;

din, thine

;

;

not an English word, but borrowed from Lat. scrinium ; win
wine, borrowed from Lat. uinum,
original

and

actually preserving the

sound of Lat u
into

(

=

ze/);

min, mine; twin, twine; pin^
Lat. poena was whence the verb In French the same poena
pin,

pine-tree,

borrowed from Lat. pinus.
A.
S.

The

transferred

in the

form

pin-an, to

pine, to pine away.
Y..

hec2.me peine, whence
rim, rime
less
;

pain.

now

almost invariably spelt rhyme, by a need-

which

and ignorant confusion with the unrelated word rhythm, is of Greek origin, whereas rim is pure English.
is

Curiously enough, the word really entitled to an h
spelt without spelt rime
it
;

I refer to

the A. S. hrim, hoar-frost,

now now

by

loss of initial h.

A

considerable

number of
is

A.

S.

words beginning with h^l^Jm^i}X

lost the initial h^

even in the M.

E

.

period.

The A.

S.

Um,

lime,

pure
slim,

English, but allied to the cognate Lat. lim-us,
slime
;

mud;

tim-a, time.

siige, stye,

sty; slig-el, a
to

stile, lit.

a thing to climb over, a
*

from

slig-an,

climb;

stig-rdp,

sii-rap,

sty-rope,'

or

rope to climb on a horse by,
stirrup.
lie,

now

shortened (from steerup) to

like; as a suffix, -ly (by loss of the last letter); stric-an,
;

to strike

sic-an,

M.

E. sik-en,

now
like,

sigh,

by

loss of the final

letter as in

the suffix -ly from

though the spelling with

gh
E.

preserves a trace of the lost guttural.
to sneak,

The

A.

S. snie-an,

presents an extraordinary example of the pre-

servation of the original vowel-sound ^

To
it

these

we must

add

riee, rich,

not borrowed from French, though existing as

riehe in that language,

which borrowed

from a Frankish

source
*

;

the

M.

E. riehe was regularly developed from A. S.
stee,

Compare

the prov. E. (Cumberland)

a ladder;

from A.S.

stl-gan, to climb.

; ;

62
rice
?*,

ENGLISH LONG VOWELS.
by the usual change of A.
S. -ce into

[Chap. V.
-che^

M. E.

and the

at first long, is

now

shortened.

The

A.

S. dic^ a dike,

a masculine substantive, with a genitive
also used as a feminine, with a genitive
latter
all

dic-es;

but

it

was was

and

dative dtc-e.

The

case-forms regularly produced a M. E. dich-e^ used in
;

cases of the singular

hence mod. E. dich ^ now always
/.

written ditch^ with needless insertion of a
i

Here

again, the

has been shortened.
id-el,

idle
;

;

rid-an^ to ride

;

sld-e^
;

side

;

sHd-an, to slide
;

wid, wide

glid-an,
\

to glide

cid-an^

to chide

iid,

tide

hid-an, to bide

brid~el,
;

a bridle.
initial

smit-afiy to smite
is

writ-cm, to write, in which the
;

w

no longer sounded
rip-e, ripe
;

hwit, white

;

Mt-an, to bite.

grip-an, to gripe, the form grip being due to

F. gripper, a

word of Teutonic

origin.

The words
that the A. S.
i

of Latin origin above mentioned, viz. mile,

shrive, shrine, wine, pine (tree), are of importance, as proving

was

really the
ee.

Latin long

i,

and therefore pro-

nounced
§

as

mod. E.

(long o). The A. S. 6 was sounded and usually preserved the same sound in M.E. But in the modern period the sound was shifted, having been moved up to the high position ^ of long u.
45.
as oa in hoat,
'

The A. S. 6

'

Examples.
t6h,

sc6,

shoe

;

do, I

do

;

id,

too, to.

tough.

Here

the final guttural has been

changed to/;
^

whilst the vowel-sound has

been shortened and

unrounded'.'
6 had been

The

spelling with ou indicates that the A. S.

regularly

reduced to the sound of ou in you before the
'

shortening and

unrounding
in swor,

'

took place.

mor, moor.

But

swore ;^^r,

floor, the

long

o

has
r.

been preserved, though altered in quality by the following
* ' Dich, or dike ' ; Minsheu's Diet., ed 1627. Sweet, Hist, of Eng. Sounds, p. 56. The date assigned

A

^

for the

change is A.D. 1 550-1 650. ^ See note above, viz. p. 56, note

i.

;

§ 45-]

THE ANGLO-SAXON LONG
Stool
;

0.

63

stdl,

col,
;

cool

;

iol,
;

tool.

M. E. oother, other, first became what we should now write oother, after which the long u was shortened and unrounded,' giving E. other. So also The modern spelling is consistent, after a brd^or is brother.
s69, sooth
/^^,

tooth

Sder,

'

sort

;

for if

it

be once accepted as a rule that
u,
it

00 shall stand

for the

sound of long

ought to follow that

may

reason-

ably represent short
gos,
;

u.

Cf. doth, son, govern, &c.

goose but gosling has been shortened to gosling. h6sm,
in

bosom,

which the former

has at present a variable proit is

nunciation; in Ogilvie's Dictionary

sound of

00 in boot, whilst in

Webster,

it is

marked as having the marked as having
is

the sound of 00 m/oot.

The
is

longer sound

in

accordance

with the rule
hear,
hrdst,

;

the shorter
roost,
sb.,

that

which
lost.

I

am

accustomed to
In

h being

In bldstma, blosma,
u.

blossom,- the

has been shortened without shifting to

moste, I must, the w-soiind has
other, brother,

been modified precisely as in
is

above; the only difference
hl6w-an, to low, as a
;

that

it

is

now

spelt phonetically.

r&w-an^ to row
flow
;

;

cow

;

fl6w-an, to

grow-an, to grow
In
all

blow-an, to blow, or flourish as a

flower.

these the

w

is

preserved to the eye, and the

attentive ear will detect a slight after-sound of u.
h6f, hoof; be-h6f-ian, to
;

behove, which preserves

its

long

glof, glove, with the

s6n-a, soon

;

n6n,

same changes as in other, brother. noon (from Lat. nona) mSn-a, moon
;

m6n-ad, month, with the same changes as in brother
an-dceg,
like the

;

M6n-

Monday,
same.
;

like the

preceding

;

gc-dSn, ddn, done, pp.,

To

these

add
;

sp6n, a chip, E. spoon.

gl6m, gloom

d6m,

doom

br6m,

broom

;

biSm-a, bloom.

Also gdm-a,
sl6h,

pi.

g6m-an, the gums, parallel to mSste, must.

(M.E. sl€W)\ w6g-ian, to woo; drdg^ drew But ge-nSg is mod. E. e-nough, just as tdh (already explained) is now tough. The word bSh took the form bough even in M.E., and occurs, e.g. in Chaucer,
slew

(M. E.

drffiv).

;

64
Cant. Tales,
1.

ENGLISH LONG VOWELS.
1982.

[Chap. V.

This M.E. ou had the French sound
result of this early shifting

of ou in soup
the

;

and the

was

that

sound

shifted yet

once more

in the

modern

period, thus

becoming E. bough (see § 46), in which the final guttural sound, though preserved to the eye, is entirely lost to the ear.
woc^ woke, has preserved the long 6\ in every other instance,
all

words

in -6c

of them are

now end in -00k and curiously enough, now pronounced with the short 00 oifoot^ not
\

the long 00 of
scSc,

boot.

Hence
boc,

hroc, a

rook ;

loc-ian, to

look

shook;

coc,

a cook;

book;

broc,

brook;

hoc, a
'

hook;
'

/orsoc, forsook.

No

such form as A.
it

S. croc for

crook
it

has

as yet been found, but
cf. Icel.

is

highly probable that

existed

krokr, Swed. krok.
took.
;

Similarly, the Icel. 16k has given

the

M. E.

fod-a, food

m6d, mood; brod, brood.
st6dj

But the old w-sound

has been shortened in

stood

;

g6d, good;

and

still

further

changed^

m fl6d,

flood; modor,
is

mother;
it

blSd, blood.

The

history of the A. S. r6d

curious;

not only produced,

according to
rod, in

rule, the
is

mod. E.

rood"^,

but also the mod. E.

which the

shortened from an older (M. E.) pro^. *.

nunciation such as raud (riming with gaud)
fot, foot
§ 46.
;

bot,

boot,
li
ic

i.

e.

advantage, profit

The A. S.
miilus,

(long u).
in the
b.

The A.

S.

long u answers

exactly to the Lat.

words mul, a mule, borrowed

from Lat.

and mur,

wall,

borrowed from Lat. murus^.

^ ' In modem English, we have a very anomalous case of iinrounding of the back-vowel u, but [riming with foo{\ becoming bdt [riming with cut\ ; Sweet, Hist. Eng. Sounds, p. 43. At the same time, the vowel has been lowered from high to mid.' ^ Rood in rood-loft and rood (of land) are the same word. ^ The lengthened sound of E. short is heard in the not uncommon
' '

use of
*
'

dawg iox^dog.
But the A.
to

Mr. Sweet adds hwSp-an, to whoop.

to threaten.'

The

w in whoop belongs

S. hwopan means Tudor English. The M. E.

form is houpen, from F. houper. ^ Observe that A. S. mdl (from millus) would have become mowl in mod. E. But mule was re-borrowed from French at a later period.

;

§ 46.]

THE ANGLO-SAXON LONG

U.

6^
Ett-

Examples of these words are given by Grein and
miiller.

The
Ital. at,

history of the A.S.
i.

u (sounded as
so the former

oo in hoo{)

is

parallel

to that of the A.S.

Just as the latter was developed into
/,

mod. E. long

was developed

into

Ital.

au,

mod. E. ou

in bout.

Moreover, the change took

place

To

this

much about the same time, viz. in a.d. i 550-1 650. may be added, that just as a final long i is ornaby,

mentally written as y, as in
final

my, thy, &C.5 so likewise the

ou

is

often ornamentally written ow, as in cow, how,

now, and in a few words the same spelling prevails even

when the sound is not final, as in owl, shower, Examples, hu, how ^H, thou nu, now
;

town.
cH,

;

;

cow

;

bru,

brow.
iir-e,

our

;

silr,

sour

;

sciir,

shower

;

biir,

bower.

In

n/ah-ge-biir, neigh-bour, the

« has simply

lost its

accent and

length,
ai-e,
sii^,

and the sound has become
owl
;

indefinite^.

/ill, foul.
;

south
its

mii^,

mouth

;

uncUd, uncouth, which has pre-

served

old sound.

In cud-e, the u has been preserved,
;

but has been shortened

the

mod. E.

is

coud (riming with

good), always carefully misspelt could, in order to satisfy the

eye that
hits,

is

accustomed

to
;

would and
mils,
;

should.
;

house ;

lUs, louse
tiln,

mouse

pUsend, thousand.

diin,

down
it

;

town
adj.,

brun, brown.
its

riim,

room, has preserved

old sound, but
'

is
*

now

a sb.

originally,

was an

meaning

spacious

'

or

roomy.'
its

bUg-an, to

bow;

rUh, riig, rough, has changed
w?is
first
'

final

guttural to f, whilst the vowel

shortened to the

sound of
has kept

00

m/oot, and then altered by

unrounding.'

briic-an, to
its

brook

;

this

word, being mostly used in poetry,

old sound, but in a shortened form.

' Mr. Sweet derives E. boor from A. S. ge-bur, with the same sense. But boor is a purely modem word, borrowed from Du. boer. The A. S. btir would have become bower as in fact (in another sense) it did.
^

VOL.

1.

F

66
hlM, loud
at.,
;

ENGLISH LONG VOWELS.
scrihd^

[Chap. V.

shroud.
d-but-an, about; priil,

out;

clut^

clout;

proud (with

change of

/ to d).

f

§

47.

The A.

S.

f

been given of the A.

S.

(long y). Now that examples have long vowels a, e\ i, 6, H, it is worth
This
vowel denoted
Y,

while to explain the long vowel denoted in A. S. by j/.
is

nothing but a lengthened form of the A.

S.

by J/.

The Romans adopted

this letter

from the Greek
(v) in

in order to represent the

sound of the Greek u

words

borrowed from that language.

The
;

Latin had originally

neither the symbol nor the sound

hence the very spelling
believed that

of such words as abyss, anodyne, apocalypse, asylum, &c., at

once reveals

their

Greek

origin.

It is further

the sound of the

Greek

v (and therefore of the Latin

and

A. S.y) was that of the

German u

sound of A. S.y was
grun.

that of the

Hence long German « in
in ilbel.
this fact, yet

also, the

Gemiith,

There can hardly be a doubt as to
practically,

independent of

it

as far as

we are, modern English is
sound was
i
lost

concerned.
at rather

For

it

is

quite certain that this

an early period, and that long

y

and long

were

common sound correctly That is, the sound of _/ was identified with that of M. E. i, the sound now denoted by ee in beet. Hence the symbols i and y became convertible, and
confused, and

merged
latter

into

the

denoted by the

symbol.

the

M. E.
since
I,

versely, the

ofy

was often written by, as at present and conword pryde was often written pride. The history the Middle-English period is precisely the same as
bi
;

that of

already explained in § 44 ^

Examples,
suffix as that
^

hwy, why;
ki-ne,

cy,

ky^, the old plural of cow,
thfe

whence the mod. E.

by the addition of

same

plural-

seen in ey-ne, the old form of

eyes.

was
1.

with i even in Icelandic. Thus Icel. fyrir fyrir in the Icel. Dictionary. ^ We find Kie for cows in Golding's translation of Ovid, fol. 26, 23 (1603). Bums has kye in The Twa Dogs, 1. 5 from end.
find confusion of
;

We

y

often 'written y?rz>

sqq.

'

'


§ 48.]

THE ANGLO-SAXON LONG M.
fire.

6"]

hyr, hire, sb. ; /yr,
ge-fyl-an, to
file

^ an old word

now

only used with the
de-,

unnecessary addition of the French prefix
spelt defi/e.

and therefore

In the A.

S. /yl^, filth, the /

has been simply

shortened from the old /-sound, without diphthongisation.
hy^, a hithe, or haven.
lys, lice, pi.

of

liis,

louse

;

mj/s,

mice,

pi.

of mus, mouse.
in /ysf,

But the old /-sound has been simply shortened
fist
;

wjysc-an, to wish.
i.

/lyd, hide,

e.

skin

;

kyd-an, to hide

;

dryd, bride

;

pryt-e^

pride.
§

48.

The A.
S.

S. §e, 6a, 6o.
/<z,

Other long sounds are deof these

noted in A.

by ^,

eo.

The examination
It
is,

be deferred for the present, especially as they
studied in Mr. Sweet's book.
that there are a large

may may be

however, worth observing

sounds answer to
like the

number of instances in which all three mod. E. ee. The A. S. a was pronounced

long or drawled sound of a in
following are regular examples
;

man

;

or,

according

to Sievers, like the G. long a.

The

:

sd^ sea
^/, eel
;

fcer^ fear
mcEl,
;

;

rdr-an"^^ to rear
;

;

Mr,

bier.

meal

kdl-an, to heal ; ddl-an, to deal.

hdp,
wreath.

heath

hdd-en^

heathen

;

scdp^

sheath

;

wrdp^

Ices-an, to tease

;

tcts-el, tds-l^-z. teasle.
;

d/-en, even, evening

lci/-an, to leave.

^/^«-f, lean, adj.;

cldn-e, clean;

mcen-an^ to
'

mean;
*

ge-

mdm-e^ mean,

adj., in
;

the sense of

'

common
;

or

vile.'
;

[hwdg, whey
*

hndkg-an^ to neigh

grdg^ gray, grey
'

cldg^

'For Banquets Issue haue I fiVd my Minde; Macb. ill. i. 65 (ed. 'Their moumefull charctt, yf/<r^ with rusty blood;' Spenser, F.Q.i. 5. 32. ^ Mr. Sweet distinguishes between the close and open sounds of <£ and the distinction is real. In many cases, however, the mod. E. ee results from both alike. I therefore venture, for the present, to combine his two sets of examples.
1623).
;

F 2

; '

68

ENGLISH LONG VOWELS.
But here the

[Chap. V.

r

clay.

g became

a vocalic y^ and a diphthong

resulted.]
Idc-e^ leech, (i)

a physician, (2) a

worm;

sprdc, speech,
tdc-an,

(with a curious loss of medial r);
to teach
;

rcEc-an, to reach;

blcBc-an, to bleach.
i.

wc^dj weed,

e.

garment, chiefly in the phrase
grdd-ig,
;

*

a widow's
ndd-l,

weeds' J

sdd,

seed;

greedy;

deed,

deed;

needle

;

rdd-an, to read

Idd-an, to lead.
S.

strdl, street,

not an A.

word, but borrowed from the

Lat. strata, in the phrase strata uia, a laid or paved road.

The

representation of the Lat. a by A. S. (b is unusual there was probably an older form strdt. See Prof. Cook's edition of Sievers' Old English Grammar, § 57. hldt-an^ to bleat;
;

hdt-o, heat
/

;

hwdtt-e, wheat.

So

also sldp, sleep.

The A. S. ^a was a * broken § 49. A. S. 6a (long ea). vowel, i. e. the two elements were separately pronounced in
rapid succession, with a stress on the former element.
nearly imitated
initial

It is

by sounding payer or gayer without the
examples of
this spelling in

/

or g,

fl^d, flea (see

Bosworth and

Toller's A. S. Diet).
/ar-e^

ear

;

sear-ian, to sear

;

near, near, originally an

adverb in the comparative degree (from neah, neh, nigh);
gear, year
e'ast,
;

te'ar, tear.
;

east

east-or, ^ast-re, Easter.

he-re'af-ian, to
be'an,

bereave

;

le'af,
;

leaf; sc^af, sheaf.
;

bean,
;

gleam, gleam
be'ac-en,

seam dream, dream
s^am,
ne'at,

steam, steam
;

stream, stream

t/am,
;

team

;

beam, beam.

beacon,
;

neat, sb.
;

be'at-an, to beat.

Map, heap
adj.

hleap-an, to leap

dap,

sb.,

whence E.

cheap,

^

Y

The A. S. e'o was a 'broken' composed of the elements / and sounded nearly as Mayo without the initial and no sound
§

50. A. S. 60 (long eo).
like the above,

vowel

M

;

ofJ/.

§51-]

SUMMARY OF
ic seOy
;

RESULTS.
she; /eoh (Mercian
beo,

6g
//>^,

preo, three;
§ 33)> fee
;

I see;

s/o,
;

fr^o, free

gleo, glee

u
;

I be

;

b^o,

a bee.

hleor, a cheek,

whence was formed
;

the E. verb to leer ; deor,
b/or, beer.

deer

;

d/or-e^ dear
;

dreor-ig, dreary

hw/ol, wheel

ce'ol,

keel of a ship.

seoff-an, to seethe,

freos-an, to freeze; preost, priest.
tre'ow^ treo, tree.
;

cneow, cneo, knee
//^,
lief,
i.

;

e.

dear

J^eof, thief
;

;

cleof-an^ to cleave, split.

be-tw/on-an, between
^r/<7^,
yf/^/,

fe'ond, fiend.

a reed

;

weod, a
2i

weed

;

neod, need.

a ship, hence

fleet; cr/op-an, to

creep; deop^ deep.

The number
mod. E.
§ 51.
ee, is

of words omitted, as not giving exactly the
all large.

not at

Summary.

Now

that

we have noted some of

the

principal results respecting the A. S. long vowels,

a brief

summary of the whole may prove useful. The A. S. long vowels a, e, i, 6, H, were sounded nearly as the vowels in E. baa^ bait, beet^ boat, boot. They corresponded, exactly to the Latin
«,
<?,

t,

d^u; as may be seen

from the following (amongst other) examples.

The
A.
S.

A.

S. pdpc^,

a pope, was borrowed from Lat. papa
beta
;

;

be't-t,

beet,
;

from Lat.
S. n6n,

A.

S. serin,

a shrine, from
;

Lat.

scrmium

A.

noon, from Lat. nojia

A.

S. mUl,

a

mule, from Lat. mulus \

The mod. E. sounds
seen from the A.
bSt,

to

which they respectively correspond
beet,
bite,

are those heard in boat,
S.

boot,

{a)bout, as

may be

forms of those words,

viz. bdt, bite, bitauy

dbHtan.

u
it

was sounded like the Greek long At a rather early period was confused with long t, and followed its fortunes hence
A.
S.

The

See § 39. y or long

y

(v)

or the mod. G.

il

in griln.

;

mod. E.

micfi

from A.

S. mfs,

used as the plural of mouse,

A
*

S.

mUs.

See § 47.

A. S. mtil (as already noted) would have become mod. E. moul ; the later E. mule was borrowed from O. F. tnuU in the 13th century.

: : ; : :

70

ENGLISH LONG VOWELS.
denoted by A.
S. ^, ^a, io,
ee.

[Chap. V.

The sounds

have

all

been most

frequently replaced by the

In the course of many
taking place,
it is

See §§ 48-50. centuries, whilst these changes were

mod. E.

hardly surprising that

some words

suffered
rules.

changes not quite in accordance with the general

Some
1.

of the more important of these exceptions have been

discussed, with the following results.

Under words containing the A. S. d, we must also innaught, clude so, swd who, /izvd two, /wd ought, dh^e
:

;

;

;

;

ndM; wrath, adj., wrdd', cloth, cldp\ hoarse, hds\ thaw, pdwan one, an, a, dn none, nan shone, scdn broad, hot, M/; wot, wdL drdd -hood, -head- (sufiixes), -Md We find among these such sounds as 00 in doof, due to a preceding w; also au in gaudy, which was probably the in not) &c. See § 42. sound of the M. E. 00; 2. Under words containing the A. S. e, we must include
not,
;
;

;

;

;

;

high, heh {heah)

;

nigh, neh {neah)

;

eye, ege i/age)

;

rick,

hr/c {hrhc)] cripple, crepel) ten,
3.

ten.

See
i

§ 43.

Under words containing
;

the A. S.

we must .include
zai/men,
rice
;

wisdom, wisdSm

fifty,
;

/i/iig ;

women,
;

and even
dU(e).
;•

woman, wifman
Also:
the vowel
is

stirrup,

siirdp

rich,

ditch,

stew2Lrd, stiweard ;

spue, spiwan;

>^/w,

hue

in
;

which
with

affected

by w.
§ 44.

Also

:

sneak, snkan

unaltered vowel.
4.

See

Under

w^ords containing the A. S. 6

we must

include

swore, sw6r, floor, Jldr, which remain

little

altered except

by

the loss of the trilling of the r
S,

;

behove, hehofian, woke,
:

w6c, which keep the A.
Oder
;

sound.

Also
;

tough, tdh
flood,

;

other,

brother, brodor

;

mother, modor

^dd; blood,
Also

dlod; glove, glq/";

gums,gdman; must,
dcEg
;

mdste; month, mdna3^

Monday, monan
bosom,

done, don ;

enough, gendh.

h6sm', stood, st6d\ good, god', shook, scoc (with other

words

in -ook^
;

;

foot, fot.

Also
:

:

gosling, gosling

;

blossom,

blostma
5.

rod, rod.

Also

bough, boh.

See

§ 45.

Under words containing

the A. S. u

we must include

1

§ 51.]

NOTE ON SHORT VOWELS,
;

7
;

neighbour, neah{ge)bur ; rough, rith
brucan.

could, cH^e

brook,

v.,

Also

:

uncouth, uncu^, room, rUm, which preserve

the A. S. sound.
6.

See

§ 46.
filth, fylp fist, fyst ; from the sound of ee in beet
:

Under A.
;

S. j;-words

;

wish,
to that

wyscan

due

to alteration

of /in biL

See § 47.

Note on the Short Vowels.
For the
history of the Short Vowels, I

must
;

refer

the

reader to Mr. Sweet's History of English Sounds

especially

as even the above sketch of the history of the
is

Long Vowels
note, however,

very imperfect, and requires

to

be supplemented and
I

modified by reference to that work.
that the symbols
^, i,

may

and

0,

frequently remained unchanged,
for

so that the words A.
S. precisely as

nei, in, oft, on,

example, are spelt in

they are spelt now.

The man
is

A.

S. short

a in man, a man, was pronounced as in
but in mod. E. the pronunciation of

the mod. G.

Mann;

peculiar,

and may conveniently be denoted, phone-

tically,

by the spelling mcEn.
glad.

The

A. S.

cb

had

this

very

sound, so that the A. S. glced was pronounced exactly as
its

mod. E. equivalent

Curiously enough, this

is

not

a case of
the

survival, for the

M. E. glad was pronounced with

the sound of the G. a in

Mann

or glatt, which accounts for

modern

spelling.
;

The

A. S. short u had the sound of 00 in book

so that

was pronounced nearly as the mod. E. sooner would be, if the 00 of soon were altered to the 00 of book. The sound of u in the mod. E. sun differs considerably from
sun-ne, the sun,
*

In lowered.' and some words, represented by by French scribes so that the A. S. sunu became M. E. sone^ mod. E. son. Hence the modern son is pronounced preSimilarly, the A. S. /«/"-«, M* E. cisely like the modern sun. Jou-c (with u for z;), is the mod. E. love.
this,

having been

both

'

unrounded

'

'

Middle-English, the A. S. u was, in
;

;

CHAPTER

VI.

Teutonic Languages cognate with English.
52.

§

Value of the Vowels.

In the

last

Chapter,

some

account has been given of the sounds of the English long
vowels, for the particular purposes of shewing that a scientific

study of etymology must take phonology into account, and
also of emphasising the fact that the study of

vowel-sounds

in particular

is

of great importance.
*

It

was

rightly objected

against the reckless

etymologists' of a former age that they

paid hardly any regard to the consonants, and to the vowels

none
shall

at all.

Scientific

etymology requires that great attention
but
still

be paid

to

the consonants,

greater to the

vowels.
gives
life
;

For after all, it is precisely the vowel-sound which and soul to the word. The combination rn signifies
but, if

nothing

between these two

letters,

at pleasure,

we

obtain quite different results.

we insert vowels By insertion of
;

a or

u,

we

obtain different parts of the

same verb

ran being

a past tense, and run a present tense or an

infinitive

mood.

By other
and
it is

insertions,

we

obtain words denoting totally different

and unconnected

ideas,

such as rain^

rein, roan,

or rune

^

somewhat extraordinary that the first and second of these words sound precisely alike, and can only be differentiated or distinguished to the ear by the context in which They are distinguished to the eye by a they are used.
They guessing etymologists delight in ignoring the vowels. us that a rein guides a horse in running, or that ruttes are so Such abcalled because the runic verses run or flow easily, &c., &c..
^

The

would

tell

surdities are still uttered, I fully believe,

almost every day, at least in

England.

§ 54-]

ENGLISH AND GERMAN,
unmeaning
difference in spelling,

73
which has
only-

casual and

been obtained by altering the spelling of M. E. rein

to rain.

The

etymological distinction
is

is

obtained only by the disis

covery that rain
§ 53.

of English origin, whilst rein

French.

English not derived from German.

We

have

also seen in the last Chapter that the history of the vowel-

sounds of

many

purely English words can be carried back,

practically, to

about the eighth century.

We

thus find, for

example, that the sound of
that of

in stone has

descended from
is

d

in stdn.
:

The

next question for consideration
this

plainly this

what do we know about

A.

S.

a

?

Can we

by any means trace back its history still further ? We have no English records that can help us here it only remains to see if any help can be obtained from any external source.
;

This leads us

at

once to a previous question

is

English an
it ?

isolated language, or are there other languages related to

The
is

usual answer that generally occurs to the popular
truth,

mind
is,

one that ignores about six-sevenths of the
All that

and
'

in

the main^ grossly misleading.

many

people can
is

tell

us

is

that,

by some occult process, English
due
to a strange

derived

from German.'

^ § 54.
mology.

This mistake

is

jumble of

ideas,

and has done immense harm
Yet
it

to the study of English etythat
I

is

so
it,

common

have often heard

something very
this
*

like

or statements practically based

upon

assumption, even from the lips of
'

men whose
better.

course of

classical

studies should have taught

them

Ask what

and not unfrequently the reply will be, expressed with a contemptuous confidence, that it comes from the German beissen, as if ihere, at any
is

the etymology of the English

bite^

'

rate, is

an end of the matter

!

It

does not occur to some
/

men

to enquire

by what process a
is

has been developed out
affinity

of a double j\ nor

any account made of a possible

• As a fact, the development is the other way, the Gennan ss being due to the original Teutonic /, which again answers to an Aryan d.

74

TEUTONIC LANGUAGES.
It is

[Chap. VI.

of the word with Latin and Sanskrit.
this

easy to see

how

singular

idea
the

arose,

viz.

from the

persistent

use by
is

Germans of
called
'

word Germanic

to express

what

better

the Teutonic group of languages.'

By

a confusion

natural to half-knowledge, the English popular

mind has
*

rushed to the conclusion that what has thus been called

Germanic

is

all

one thing with what we now

call

German,'

whereas the two things implied are widely
attention will preserve the reader from
himself.
§

different.

A
A

Httle

making

this

mistake

55.

The Teutonie Group
is

of

Languages.
to.

careful
it

comparison of English with other languages shews that
does not stand alone, but
closely related

many, others.

Our
Old

moderny^t?/, A. S.y^/,
Friesic

is

expressed in Gothic hy/otus, in
in

and Old Saxon hy fot^
in Icelandic

Swedish hy foi, in
voet, in

Danish hy/od,
ingly,

hy foir^
in

in

Dutch by
are,

Low
ease,
infer

German (Bremen) hy foot, and
all

German hy/uss. Accorddialects

these languages

and

in

this

obviously allied to each other, and
(correctly, as
it

we might hence
o,

happens) that the fundamental base of the
f,

word
the

is

obtained by combining

long

and t

;

omitting

for the present the question as to whether

word can

in

any way be
initial

traced.

We
that

any older form of might also infer that

Danish has a habit of turning
habit of turning

final / into d, that
v,

Dutch has a

/"into

and
if

of turning

final / into ss.

But

the

German has a habit modern German has a

habit which so obscures a word's true form, and so disguises
its

original type, surely

it

must be but a poor guide, and indeed,
set.

the most misleading of the whole
tion of a large

A

similar
this

examina;

number of words

will

deepen

impression

and
laid

it

may,

for the purposes of English- philology, be fairly

guages,

down that, amongst the whole series of Teutonic lanGerman (in its modern form) is practically the worst
all to the uninitiated,

guide of
lent use

though

it

can be put to excel-

by students who know how

to interpret the

modern

§ 56.]

EAST TEUTONIC,
its

75
latest

forms which

words assume^.

According to the

method of division, the Teutonic languages have been divided The into two branches, viz. the East and West Teutonic ^. East Teutonic languages are Gothic (now extinct) and those of the Scandinavian group. This group contains two subdivisions, viz. the eastern, comprising Swedish and Danish,
and the western, comprising Icelandic and Old Norwegian.

The West Teutonic branch
with
its

includes

all

the rest, viz. English

older forms, such as Northumbrian, Mercian,

and

Anglo-Saxon; Frisian (which, together with English, seems to
form a separate branch)
(including Dutch); and
;

Saxon or Low German Prankish Upper German or High German.
;

There were numerous other
cation.
this

dialects

which have died out
classifi-

without leaving sufficient materials for their linguistic

A

few words concerning the principal languages of
useful
^.

group

may be

§56. East Teutonic. Gothjo- Gothic, or, as it is also called, Moeso-Gothic, being the extinct dialect of the Western

Goths of Dacia and Moesia, provinces situated on the lower

Danube,
it s

is

the oldejjt of the group,
.

and the most

perfect in

inflexional forms
it is

This must be only taken as a general

statement, for

not

uncommon

for other

languages of the

group
literary

to exhibit

older

forms in special instances.

The

documents of Gothic reach back to the fourth cencentury, and are of very great linguistic value. The chief
in Gothic
A.D.
is

work
about
*

a translation of parts of the Bible,

made
is

350 by Wulfila, bishop of the Moeso-Goths, better
IVhitsunday
de-

I continue to receive letters asserting that our

rived from the

modem German

Pfingsten.

I

am

told, practically, that

the history of the word and phonetic laws ought certainly to be neglected,

because
'

it

tradicted.

is an obvious fact which ought on no account to be conAll proof is withheld.

Calle<l East
is,

and West Germanic by German

writers, because

Ger-

man

with them, coextensive with Teutonic.
;

' Compare Morris, Outlines of Eng. Accitlence, and particularly J 9 The History of the German Language, by II. A. Strong and K. Meyer,

1886.

75

TEUTONIC LANGUAGES.
as Ulphilas, though this form
is

[Chap. VI.

known

merely a Greek

corruption of his Gothic name.

MSS.

dates

from the
it

sixth

The most important of the century. The great antiquity of

Gothic gives

a peculiar value, and the student of English

etymology can hardly do better than gain some acquaintance
with
it

as soon as possible.

It is

by no means

difficult to

an

Englishman, owing to the very close relationship in
fundamental particulars between the two languages
languages, best
^.

many

Swedish and Danish. These are national and literary known in their modern form. Neither of them possess monuments of any remarkable antiquity. Icelandic. The numerous remains of the early Icelandic
literature are of the highest value

and

interest to

Englishmen,

and the language

itself is still in full activity,

having suffered

but very slight change during
secure and isolated position.
fact that
it

many

centuries,

owing

to

its

Its great interest lies in the

does

?ioi

greatly differ from, andy

for practical

purposes, fairly represents the language of the old Danes

who

so

frequently invaded

England during many
^,

centuries before the

Conquest, and

who

thus contributed a considerable

number
to

of words to our literary language
provincial dialects,
especially

and many others

our

Lowland Scotch, Yorkshire,

and East Anglian.
extant

With a few important exceptions, the

MSS.

are hardly older than the fourteenth century,

but the forms of the language are very archaic.
value of Icelandic
is

One

great

that

it

comes

in to supply, especially as

regards the vocabulary, the loss of our old Northumbrian
literature.

our
^

The old Danish (as preserved in Iceland) and own Anglian or Northumbrian must have had much in
my
edition of the Gospel of Saint
subject, Lecture

See

Mark

in

Gothic (Clarendon

Press Series), intended as an elementary book for beginners.

And

see,

on the whole of Language.
^

V in Max

Miiller's Lectures

on the Science
at the

The people who

derive all English from

German shudder
Here they
are

idea of deriving English words from Icelandic.
again.

wrong

§ 57-]

WEST TEUTONIC.
The
is

77

common.
but Norse

Icelandic has often been called

a

name which

strictly

Old Norse, means Norwegian, and
This has been
are numerous;

should be avoided as likely to lead to ambiguity.
§

57.

West Teutonic.
Wessex

Anglo-Saxon.
dialect.

explained already, as exhibiting the oldest form of English
in the Southern or

The MSS.

many

go back to Old English comprises the scanty remains of Old Northumbrian and Old Mercian as
are of great importance, and the oldest the eighth

century at

least.

well as the

abundant remains of Anglo-Saxon.
This language
still

Old
Saxon;
*

Friesic.

is

closely allied to
to

Anglo-

perhaps

more

closely

the

Old Mercian.
Muller,
'

The

Frisians of the continent,' says

Max

had a

literature

of

their

own

as early, at least, as the twelfth cen-

tury,

if

not earlier.

The

oldest

literary

documents now
centuries.'

extant' date

from the thirteenth and fourteenth
this

Notwithstanding

comparative lateness of date, the forms

of the language are often very archaic.

Old Saxon.
of continental

This

is

the

name
is

usually given to the old
literary
It
is

dialect of Westphalia, in

which the oldest
written.

document
called
is

Low- German

the

Heliand,

i.

e.

the Healing one, the Saviour,
It is

and

a

poem
us,'

founded upon the Gospel history.
says

'preserved to

Max

Muller,

*

in

two MSS. of the ninth century, and

was written

at that

time for the benefit of the newly con-

verted Saxons.'

Dutch.

This

is

still

'

a national and
to
literary

literary language,'

and 'can be traced back
thirteenth century.'

documents of the
is

Closely allied to Dutch
far

the Flemish
this
is

of Flanders
dialect of

;

and not very
is

removed from

the
'.

Bremen, which

worthy of particular mention

German.
*

The

particular language
'

now

usually

called
special

In

my

Dictionary, I have used the tenn

sense, as has long

been usual, with reference to the work Bremen Worterbuch, printed in 1767, in five volumes.

Low-German in a known
'

as the

78

TEUTONIC LANGUAGES,

[Chap. VI.

German
It

is commonly called High German by philologists. was formerly considered as standing apart from all

other

languages of the

Teutonic

group,

because

of

its

remarkable diversity from the

rest as regards the

consonants

which

it

now

employs.

The remarkable
'

formula of con'

sonantal sound-shiftings usually called

supposes that

Grimm's Law prethe High German occupies a class by itself.
is

But

this

apparent diversity

really delusive,

because

it

is

only the more modern form of the language which exhibits

such characteristic variations.

In the eighth century, or at

any

rate in the

seventh century, the
sufficiently

German
that

consonantal
of the other
in the

system agreed

closely with

Teutonic languages; but

this is

no longer the case

modern stage of the language. 'If we compare English and modern German, we find them clearly distinguished
from each other by regular phonetic changes ^'
think the difference
is

One would

so

marked

that

it

cannot well be

mistaken
error,

;

yet

it is

a curious example of the force of popular
students

that

many

who

are perfectly aware of this

material difference between the two languages at once forget

the fact as soon as ever English etymology

is

discussed,

and

go on deriving same as ever^.
to the

hite

from the modern German
is

beissen just the

The High German

subdivided, chronolothe seventh

gically, into three stages

— Old High German, from

eleventh century;

Middle High German, from the

twelfth to the fourteenth century;

Modern High German

(or

German), from the end of the fourteenth century to the
present time.
§ 58.

Teutonic types.

By ^comparing
many

all

the above

varieties of Teutonic,

we can

practically construct, at least

as far as relates to the forms of

words, an original

Morris, Hist. Outlines of E. Accidence, § lo, In the Christian World of July 9, 1885, a correspondent complains that a reformed spelling would loosen ' the ties that bind our language
^ '

to the

German whence

it

comes.'


§ 58.]

TEUTONIC TYPES.

79

Teutonic vocabulary which shall represent and include the

whole
types
*

series.

The forms

thus obtained are called 'Teutonic

or

'

stems/ and are of high value for the purposes of

etymology.

In constructing them, we must take into account,
^

not merely the monosyllabic base

of each substantive, such

as FOT ior foot, but the vowel-suffix which determined the

character and

manner of

its

declension.
called
its

The
stem.

type of a
I define

substantive, thus obtained,

may be

a stem of a substantive as the (usally monosyllabic) base
with the addition of the suffix which determines the character

of

its

declension ^.

The

exact meaning of this

is

best seen

from an inspection of the modes of substantival declension
in Gothic, which,

on account of

its

antiquity

and general

many particulars) to the earliest Teutonic word-forms, may frequently be taken as the standard to which the others may be reduced. By way of further explaadherence
(in

nation, I quote the following (slightly

amended) from
:

my

Introduction to St. Mark's Gospel in Gothic, p. xxxv
'

The

stem^ ox crude form of a substantive

is

the supposed

original

form of

it,

divested of the case-ending.
after

To

this

stem the case-ending has been added,
has
frequently
suffered

which the case
appears
'fish,'

degradation,

and

in

a

weakened form.
fisks!

Thus

the stem fiska signifies

whence

was formed the nominative
This
vf Old

fiska-s, afterwards contracted to

Jisks belongs to

what

is

called the A-form,

or A-declension of substantives*.

The

wotd/boff Goth. nom.

/o/u-Si belongs to the U-form, so that the true stem of the
*

I define the dase of a

divested of suffixes.
'

Thus,

in the

word to be that part of it which is left when Thus the base of hat. />isc-zs, a fish, is pise-. Lat. nom. pisris, a fish, //j-r- is the ha.se, pisci- is the

stem, and

-s is the case-ending denoting the nominative case. These not be the best terms, but I find them useful. ' Called dase in the passage here quote<l. (I have since found it convenient to reverse the use oi stem and base as formerly given by me.)

may

Such

is

the account usually given in Gothic grammars.

The

de-

clension might

more exactly be called the o-declension, and the stem described as FISKO. Cf. the nom. i^LJisko-s ( '=^fisko-€s).

8o

TEUTONIC LANGUAGES.
is

[Chap. VI.

word

FOTU, which

may be

taken as the primitive Teutonic

type of the word foot.

A
'

large collection of Teutonic types,
is

both of substantives and verbs,

given in the very valuable

work of

Fick,

entitled

Vergleichendes

Worterbuch
is

der

Indogermanischen Sprachen.'
speaking, the English
archaic types, whilst the

This book

especially ser-

viceable to the student of Teutonic

philology.

Generally

forms are tolerably close to these

modern German
it

frequently deviates

from them in some remarkable way.
as a matter of course, that whilst
principles to derive
is

It follows

from
all

this,

contrary to

true

one modern Teutonic language from another, it would practically cause less error to derive German from English than conversely. Those who think it praiseworthy to derive hite from the German bei'ssen'^ would do much
is

better

if
;

they were to say that the

German
beissen

beissen

from the E.

bite

and

if

they were to take into account an

older form of English,

and so derive the G.
still.

from the

A.

S. bitan,

they would do better
^

In

fact,

Fick actually

gives BiTAN
this verb.

as the Teutonic type of the infinitive

mood

of

§

59. Teutonic dental sounds.
is

The

phonetic changes

by which German
they are now.

distinguished from English were at the

outset few, but afterwards

became even more numerous than Modern German has given up a few of the
It will therefore

old distinctions, thus practically returning, in such respects,
to the ancient type.

be simpler to leave out
as

of

sight,

for

the

present,

such

distinctions

no longer
still

exist in spelling,

and

to give examples only of such as

remain.

The most important

of these changes are exhibited in

^ I feel obliged to continue to protest against this childish error because I find, by experience, that it is deeply rooted, widely spread, and extremely mischievous. The circumflex over the i denotes length, i, e. it has precisely the same value as the accent over i in dUan.
'^

;

§ 62.]

TEUTONIC DENTAL SOUNDS,
^,

8l

such words as begin
d^
t,

in English, with the dental sounds
it

or

M^.

In such words,

is

the English which pre-

serves the original Teutonic dentals,

and the German which

has changed them into something

else.
;

Thus German has
otherwise
finally,
it

changed d
ally

into /; / into z
ss medially,

(if /

be

initial

gener-

employs

and
/);

z, tz, ss

or s

making
as in

four varieties of the changed
§

and

th into d.
t.

60. Teutonic

d becomes German
Medially; as in E.

Initially
eitel.

;

E. death, G. Tod.

idle,

G.

Finally;

as E. bed, G. Belt) E. red, G. roth^.

In further

illustration

of these changes, see the numerous examples collected in

Appendix A.
§ 61. Teutonic t becomes German z, initially; or ss, medially ; or z, tz, ss, or s finally. Initially E. tame, Medially; E. water, G. G. zahm (pronounced tsaam).
;

Wasser ; E.
salt,

nettle,
;

G. Nessel.

Finally (chiefly after
;

/,

r)

;

E.

G. Salz

E. heart, G. Herz
;

or (chiefly after a short

vowel), E. net, G. Netz
white, G. Weiss
;

or (chiefly after a long vowel), E.

or (rarely) E. that, G. das.

But the

final /

is not changed when preceded by E. gh, /, or s ; fight, G./echt-en ; E. o/t, G. o/t) E. guest, G. Gast>

as in E.
Initial /

remains when followed by r
further
§ 62.

;

as in E. tread,

G.

treten.

For

examples see Appendix A.

thank, G. dank-en.

E. path,
thousand,

Teutonic th becomes German d. Initially E. MedinWy E./eather, G. jFeder. Finally; G. P/ad. But O. H. G. diisunt, answering to E.
;
;

is

now tausend.
the

It is

amusing

to find that beginners

frequently found their ideas of the resemblance of English to

German upon
that this
*

word

butter,

G. Butter

;

but

it

happens

is

a non-Teutonic word, being of Greek origin.

Similar changes often take place

when

the dental letter

is

not initial

see examples.
*

This

is

a simple sound, awkwardly denoted by the use of two
is

symbols.
'

The G.
I.

th

(now, at any rate) nothing but a

/,

and

is

so pronounced.

Modem German
VOL.

spelling-reformers write rot for roth, \itrj scusjibly.

G

82

TEUTONIC LANGUAGES.

[Chap. VI.

Further illustrations will

be found in Appendix A.

The

remarkable exceptions to the general law which are presented by the
Y..

father and mother (G. Vater^ Mutter') are

discussed below in Chapter IX.
§ 63.

Teutonic labial sounds.
d,
t,

The changes

in the

dental letters

th,

which distinguish German from English
be tolerably regular and complete.
labial letters, viz. b^p,

spelling, are thus seen to

Less complete are the changes in the

f

{v).

For a Teutonic

d,

the O.

H. G. often has
is

/, as in
in the

pruoder, brother; but this distinction

not

made

modern language. path, G. P/ad; E.

German
apple,

often turns

/

into pf, as in E.

G. Ap/el; but most English words

beginning with p, and most German words beginning with The most regular change is in the p/, are non- Teutonic.
substitution of

Germanyfor
:

the

Teutonic/
;

final.

Examples
Dorf; up,
hoff-en
;

deep, tie/;

heap, Hauf-e
sleep,
v.,

leap,

lauf-en
,

^;

sharp, scharf ;
auf.

sheep, Schaf;

schlaf-en
;

thorp,

Occasionally

they

is

doubled

as in hope,

ship, Schiff.

§ 64.

The Teutonic

f,

when

initial,

usually remains as/"

German. The Old High German frequently has v for initiaiy and a few archaic forms still preserve this peculiarity of spelling, though the v is pronounced precisely as E.y
in

Examples
when
G. 3
;

:

father,

Vater

;

fee,

Vieh.

The

English f,

final,

usually represents a Teutonic v,

and appears as

as in E. deaf, G. tauh.

See Appendix A.

Teutonic guttural sounds. The Teut. guttural sounds g, k, h usually appear unchanged in modern German. The O. H. G. has k (or g, as in /ians, cognate with E. goose; but this distinction is no longer made. The M. E. (obsolete) guttural sound still represented by^^^ in our modern spelling
§ 65.

answers to G. ch ; as E. hght,

s.,

G.

Lz'cht.

We may

notice

*

The M.

E. tepen, A. S. hleapan, often means

'

to run,' like the G.

laufen.

§ 66.]

ENGLISH AND GERMAN
instances in which Teut. final k

83

some
§

becomes G. ch\ as

in E. break,

G. brech-en ; see Appendix A.

English and German. It will probably have that, in some words, /wo changes have taken place. Thus, in the word //lorp, the initial /k has become d in German, whilst the final / has become /*; the German
66.

been observed

form being Dor/.
importance,

But, as these changes are in accordance

with rule, no difficulty arises.
viz.

There

is

a matter of more

the question of vowel-sounds,
to lay

upon which

I

have already endeavoured
of the vowel-sounds
everj/ pair

see the relation between //lorp
is

much stress. It is and Dor/ because the
But
let
it

easy to
identity
that, in

obvious.

be noted

of equivalent English and
is

German words quoted

above,

it

absolutely essential that the original identity of

the vowel-sounds
If,

must be capable of being established \
is

for
it

example, the G. Fuss
is
;

really equivalent

to the E.
/

/bo/y

not enough to say that the change from

to ss

is

regular

long

u.

we must further investigate the meaning of the G. By tracing the word backwards, the O. H. G. forms
was and as
the A. S. for foot
is

are found to be /uoz^, /uaz, /baz, fdz^ so that the vowel

once a long

;

fot, the vowel-

In precisely the same way it may be shewn that E. do — A. S. don, whilst O. H. G. shews the changed or shifted form ion, also written toan, iuan, tuon,

sounds are equivalent.

'

*

mod. G. thun ; and again,
the vowel-sound
viz.

that

an original Teutonic long

is

common

to the following pairs of words,

E. blood, G. Blui] E. brood, G. Brul; E. hood, G. Hut\

E. rood, G. Ruth-e-, l^./oiher^, G. Fuder] see § 74.

In

all

* There are some exceptions, due to what is called vowel-gradation. But there are rules in this case also. The subject will be resumed when vowel -gradation has been explained. ^ Notice the final z, which is the most regular German substitution for E. /. The G. 2 is, in fact, sounded as ts, and is nothing but a kind of / to which a parasitic sibilant sound has been added. ' The mod. K. /other is almost obsolete; however the may ndw be sounded, it was once long, the A. S. form beingyWtrr.

G

2

; ;

84

TEUTONIC LANGUAGES.

[Chai-. VI.

Other similar cases, certain relations between E. and G. vowel-

sounds can be established by investigating the sounds in A.

S.

and O. H. G.

When

this

has been done, so that the ultimate

and
fully
is

original identity of the E. foot with

G. Fuss has been

demonstrated,

we can

then say that either of these
i.

words

COGNATE^ with the other,
This

e.

ultimately identical, or at

least very

closely related, at a remote (and indeed a preis

historic) period.

a point which must be very clearly

understood before any true ideas as to the relationship of

words can be formed.

If
is

we

say that the E. foot

is

derived

from the G. Fuss
talking nonsense,
that the G.

(as

actually said

by many), we are then
all

and contradicting
is

history;
is

if

we

say

Fuss

derived from the Y^.foot (as

never said

know

by any, because Englishmen dare not say so, and Germans better), we are talking a trifle more sensibly, and conlittle less.

tradicting history a

We must, however, use
'

neither

phrase

;

we must drop
te,jm
'

the term

derived

'

altogether,

and

employ the

cognate/

It follows that

English and Ger-

man

are sister-languages, as they are rightly called.

Though

originally of twin birth, time has treated

them

differently

we might

say that English has preserved the features of the

mother more exacdy than German has done. Similar remarks apply to all the other languages of the Teutonic
group.

They

are all sisters

;

but the features of

German

are

more

altered than those of the rest.

sisterly relationship is

a totally different

Such cognation or thing from derivation
It

for the latter
§ 67.
is

term implies an actual borrowing.

English words borrowed from German.

true,

however, that English has actually borrowed a few

words from German in quite
'

modern

times.

This

is

altogether a different matter, and in such cases the

word
is

derived

'

can be correctly employed.
it

As

this

matter

one

of considerable interest, and
*

will greatly clear
*

up

the whole

A term
;

of Lat. origin, meaning

co-bom,' or sprung from the same

source

related as brothers or sisters are.


§ 68.]

COGNATE WORDS.

85
or derived

matter to shew the nature of these borrowed
words, I here subjoin the whole
derived
list

of E. words directly

from

German,

copied
as

from
:

my

Etymological
camellia,

Dictionary.

The

list

is

follows

Bismuth,

Dutch, feldspar ^fuchsia,fugleman, gneiss, hock (wine), huzzah,
landau, maulstick, meerschaum'^, mesmerise (with French suffix),
plunder, poodle, quartz, shale,
swindler, trull, wacke, waltz,
veneer, a

wheedle

(.?),

zinc.

To

these

may be added
;

French
viz.

word

in a

Germanised form

and a few Dutch words,

dollar, rix-dollar, etch, wiseacre,

borrowed by Dutch from
as the

German.
This
is

a very remarkable

list,

words are

all

of

modern
zinc,

date.

No

less

than

five

of them, feldspar, gneiss,
;

quartz, shale, wacke, are terms of

are

metals;

hock,

landau,

camellia, fuchsia, mesmerise, are
is

modern geology bismuth, are mere place-names; from personal names. There
directly

not a single

word

in the

whole of the English language that

can be shewn to have been borrowed
before
a. d.

from German
various

1550.

There
this
is

are,

however, some which have

been borrowed

indirectly,

through French, from

German

dialects;

merely because

several

words are of Frankish or old Danish
as will be duly explained

origin,

French having been

imported into France by Teutonic invaders and conquerors,

when we come

to treat of French.
is

The

real use of the

cognate Germai\ forms

that they help

us in the construction or investigation of primitive Teutonic
types and
'

bases.'

Cognate words. The occurrence of consonantal changes in German words, whereby they exhibit^eviation

§68.

from the Teutonic types,

is

called shifting, or in

German,

Lautverschiehung (sound-shifting).

Thus, in the Teut. type
;

* Pronounced meershum, with ee as in beet (Ogilvie) whereas the The fact, that we can thus alter a German G. ee resembles ai in bait. sound almost at once, helps us to understand that we have altered Middle English sounds in the course of centuries.

;

86

TEUTONIC LANGUAGES,
/

[Chap. VI.

FOTU, Y./oot, the

has, in

German,

shifted to z, later ss

;

the

German word being
more
primitive

Fuss.

As

the

Enghsh so
it

frequently

preserves the Teutonic consonant intact,

is

in this respect
that
often'"

than German.
are
'

But we cannot say
it

German words

derived

'

from English, because

happens, on the contrary, that modern
original vowel-sound intact,

German

preserves the
it.

where the English has altered

Map) answers to a Teutonic type HAUPO (Fick, iii. 77), O. H. G. hauf, hou/e, mod. G. Haufe; and in many other cases the German vowel-sound is more

Thus

the E. heap (A. S.

primitive than the English.
sisterly relationship
i.

By

such considerations the true

of English to

German is fully

established

e.

we can

only, in general, consider pairs of related

words

as being cognate.
§

69. In precisely the same

w^ay,

'E./oot

and Goihic/otus are cognate
'

we can only say that the we must not talk about
;

English words as being
is

derived

'

from Gothic.

Yet Gothic
merely

so archaic, that

it

often preserves the original Teutonic
is

type correctly, as in this very word fotu-s, where s
the suffix peculiar to the nominative case.
It

must also be

remembered
th,

that

mndtrn Gprmnn
Teutonic

in

thft

only

Tmtnnir
d,
/,

language which shews a
&c.)
fr

shiftJ Tig- r>f '-^^r.gnr.oni-c

(such as

om the

original

type,.

The

other Teutonic
in

languages

commonly resemble both English and Gothic
consonant*; the chief exceptions being
k,
/,

their use of

that, in

commonly voiced,' ^ and appear whilst initial ih commonly appears as / in as ^5 d, b, and v Danish and Swedish, and as d in Dutch ^ Hence most other Teutonic languages present, to the eye, a more familiar appearance than German does. Yet few notice this, because they seldom make the comparison till they have partially
Danish, a final
/,_/, are
'

^ ;

^

Consonants are either

'voiceless,' as k, t,p,f,

&c.

;

or 'voiced.'

The
;

meaning of this
^

distinction will be explained hereafter.

As

in E. book, foot, deep, deaf;
;

Swed. tome

Dan. torn

;

Dan. Du. doom.

bog, fod, dyb, dov.

E. thorn

§ 7T.]

TEUTONIC
German, and
at the

AI,

87

same time neglected the rest. If Dutch or Danish /rj/, he would find either of them easier than German, as he could more Surely the Dutch often guess at the meanings of the words. and Danish daad are more like our deed than is the G. That.
learnt

an Englishman were

to learn

§
this

70.

If the reader will kindly refer to the beginning of

Chapter, he will see

53) that the original question

was this, viz. What can we find out about the A. S. d, or about any other of the A. S. long vowelsounds? This problem has not been lost sight of for a moment, but it was absolutely necessary to consider other
with which

we

started

questions by the way.
sufficiently

We

have

now

considered these
it.

to

enable us to proceed with

By way

of

digression, in sections 54-69,
is

we have seen

(i) that English

not derived from

German
;

except in a few modern in-

stances of word-borrowing
sole other that

(2) that

German
all,

is

neither the
;

Teutonic language, nor our easiest guide
rather to consult,
first

(3)

we ought

of

such languages as
Friesic

the extinct Gothic, the

monuments of Old

and Old
from
all

Saxon, and the modern or old forms of Dutch, Icelandic,
Swedish, Danish
the rest
;

(4) that

German

is

distinguished

by

certain curious consonantal shiftings, which have

been
all

sufficiently exemplified; (5) that,

from a comparison of
(6) that the relation of
is,

the Teutonic languages, primitive Teutonic types of words
;

can be, and have been, deduced
English to
all

and

the other Teutonic
;

languages

speaking

generally, that of a sister to sisters

English being a language

which, so to speak, has

fairly

well preserved

many

of the

more
long

striking

features of the primitive

Teutonic motherS.

tongue.
a,

We now
or
d.

proceed to consider the value of the A.
ai (rarely d).

§ 71.
(a)

A.

S.

d

= Teut.

To

take a special instance, the E. stone answers to A. S

stdn

;

see § 42.

Other forms are these
;

:

Goth, stains, worn.
sten
;

;

Du. stem ;

Icel. steinn

Dan.

sten

;

Swed.

G.

Stein.

From


88
a comparison of

TEUTONIC LANGUAGES.
all

[Chap. VI.

these forms, and consideration of a large

number of other A. S. words containing the same symbol d, and by calling in the aid of phonology ^, it has been concluded that the primitive Teut. sound was that of
followed by
Ital.
is
?',

Ital. ai^

a

thus producing the diphthong

the

sound of which
long
z,

not very far removed from that of mod. E.
line^

as heard in

mine, thine
little
it

;

though perhaps the
clearly.

<z^-sound should be heard a
tive

more
347.

The

primi-

Teutonic type

is
;

staino,

being a masculine substantive
iii.

of the <?-declension

cf Fick.

Judging from

this

example,

we should expect
Swed.
e (long),

to find, at least in

many
Icel.
ei,

cases,

that the A. S. a corresponds to Goth, ai,
e (long),

Du.

ee,

Dan.

G.

ei;

and we

shall find that these

equivalent vowels occur, in the various languages, with surprising regularity.
1.

I give half-a-dozen
S.

examples

:

E. whole, A.
hel,

M/, Goth,
G. heil
:

hails'^,

Du.

heel, Icel. heill,

Swed.
iii-

Dan.
A.

heel,

Teut. type

hailo (Fick,

57) ^ 2. E.

dole,

S. ddl,
deel,

Goth. dail-s% Du.
Theil:

deel,

Icel.

deila,
iii.

Swed.
142).
3.

del,

Dan.

G.

Teut. type dailo

(id.

E. oalh, A. S.
ed,

djf,

Goth, ailh-s
:

^,

Du.

eed,
(id.

Icel.
iii.

eiSr,

Swed.
4.

Dan.

ed,

G. I^id
hool,

Teut. type aitho
S. hdl,

4).
heel,

E.

hoi,

M. E.

A.

Goth, (missing), Du.
heiss.

Icel. heilr,

Swed.

hel,
it

Dan.

hed,

G.

Here, though the

Gothic

is

missing,
(id.
iii.

would

clearly have

been

"^

hails

:

Teut.

type HAiTO
5.

75).

E.

/

wol,

M. E.

wool, A. S. wdl, Goth, wail,

Du.

weel,

^ Phonology deals with the history of the sounds which, in each language, the written symbols denote. It is all-important, but it is easier to deal, in an elementary treatise, with the written symbols.

-s is merely the nom. case suffix. Fick gives the types in the forms haila, daila, &c. ; but the final vowel of the Teut. type is now usually taken to be o see Sievers. Hence the types should rather be written as hailo, dailo, aitho, haito, WAIT, RAIPO,
^
'

The

;

§ 72.]

TEUTONIC LONG
veit,

E.

89

Icel.
(id.

Swed.

vet,

Dan.

veed,

G. wetss: Teut type wait

iii.

304).

6.

E. rope, A. S. rap, Goth, raip (in the comp. skauda-raip,
reep, Icel. reip,

a shoe-tie, latchet of a shoe), Du.

Swed.
:

r^/>,

Dan.

r^3,

G. Reif (a hoop, ring, sometimes a rope)
(id.
iii.

Teut.

type RAiPO
It
is

247).

easy to see from these examples that the Teutonic

vowel-sounds can often be exactly analysed, and we are
generally able
regularity.

to

account

for

any

slight

deviation

from
hjem,

Thus

the E. home, A. S.
;

hdm, Goth, haims, should
is

answer to Dan. hem or heem

but the Dan. form

where the

/

is
z

plainly

an

insertion,

indicating a parasitic
e.

sound of short
(d)

introduced before the long
in

Teut.

d.

But there are other cases
S.
az.

which the sounds
seen in E.

corresponding to A.
tonic
6oaf,

a are so different that the original Teu-

sound cannot have been
A.
S. da/

Such a case

is

(no Gothic form), Du.

doo/, Icel. dd/r,

Swed.
:

ddf,

Dan. daad
B^To;
A.
S.

(the

G. Boo/ being borrowed from Dutch)
iii.

Teut.

type BATO (Fick,
cf.

200), though

it

should rather be written as
§

Sievers,
pi.

O. E. Grammar,

57,

where he instances
Icel.

mdgas,

kinsmen, as compared with

mdg-r,

Swed. mag^ Dan. maag, Goth. megs.
answers to Teut.
obscure,
its

Here

the A. S.

d
is

e

(long

e)

;

but the history of this word

origin being quite

unknown.
S.

But certainly the
ai.

mos/ usual original value of A.
§

d

is

Teut.

72. A. S. 6
it is

commonly

arises

from Teut. 6 (long

o),

unless

due to contraction.
words containing long
e require individual
;

(a) Certain A. S.

investigation

the long e

seeming to

arise

from contraction.

Thus E.
(b)

we-=.K. S. w^, answers to Goth, wets, a fuller form.

In other cases, / occurs as a variety of a more usual
;

/a) as in h^h, high, usually h/ah

n/h, nigh, usually n/ah

;

such words are
contain
{c)

best

considered together with those that

/a.

Putting such special instances aside, the A. S. / most

;

90

TEUTONIC LANGUAGES.
6,

[Chap. VI.

frequently arises from a changed form of original
feet, pi.

as iny^'/,
is

oi /6t, foot.

This peculiar change
(in

is

due to what

specifically called

mutation
it

German

umlaut), a subject of
after-

such importance that
wards.
pi.

will

be specially considered

By way
;

of example,
teeth, pi.

we may
of
t6(f,

notice //I (as above),
;

of /6t, foot

t/J>,

tooth

ges, geese, pi. of

gds,

goose;

dem~an, to deem, derived from
to bleed,
coal,

the

sb.

dom,

doom;
gleed,

bled-an^

from the

sb.

blod,

blood; gled,

a

glowing

from the verb glSwan^ to glow.

Similar examples are rather numerous.
feet with other languages,

we

find that Gothic

Comparing the E. and Dutch
pi.

keep the

^- vowel

unchanged, as in Goth, /otjus,
voei.

o^/otus;

Du.

voeien, pi.
;

of

But

Icel.

fotr has
;

pi.

fcetr (written

ioxfcetr)

G. Fuss has

Swed. fot has ^^.fotter Dan. fod has t^\. /odder ; Hence, in this instance, A. S. / is pi. Fusse.
cb ioe),
d,

equivalent to Icel.
respectively of Icel.
§ 73. {a)

Swed. and Dan.
o,

o,

G.
u.

il,

mutations

Swed. and Dan.
1;

G.

A.S. i=Teiit.
i
is

unless

it is

due to contraction.

The A. S.

commonly an

original sound, represent-

In Gothic, it is written ei, but the same sound Dutch denotes the long i by tj] mod. German denotes it by ei ; but English, Dutch, and German have all altered the original sound, with the same final result. That
ing
ee in beet.
is

meant.

is

to say, the

Du.

tj

and G.

et

are

now sounded

like

E. i in
i.

mile,

but the original sound was like the A.

S. i in mil,

e.

as in E. meal.

This parallel development of sound in three
is

separate languages

curious and interesting.

Meanwhile,

the Scandinavian languages have preserved the old sound
the Icel.
as
i,

Swed. and Dan. long / being

still

pronounced

ee in beet.

Three examples may
I.

suffice.

E. while, A. S. hwil, Goth, hweila, Du. wijl,
rest,

Icel. hvila
(rest),

(only in the special sense of

or a bed), Swed. hvila
;

Dan.
(Fick,

hvile (rest),
iii.

G. weile (O. H. G. hwild)

Teut. type hwilo

75).

1

§ 74-1

TEUTONIC LONG
E. writhe, A. S.

0.

9
Gothic,) Icel. rida

2.

wriSan, (not in

(initial

w

being
;

lost),

Swed. vrida, Dan. vride (not in Dutch
iii.

or

German)
3.

Teut. type wrIthan (Pick,

309).
S.

E. rhyme, which should be spelt rime, A.

rim, Du.

rijm, Icel. rima,

Swed. rim, Dan. riim^ G. i?^zw ; Teut. type

RIMO.
(3)

An

interesting instance in which long i arises
is

from

contraction

seen in 'E.five, A. ^-fife^fif, Du.

paring this with G./Unf, O. H. G. finf, Goth. In consequence of this that a Hquid has been lost.
short
i,

Com^?^ we see
vijf. loss,

the

O. H. G. fin/, Goth, fim/, has been lengthened by what has been called the principle of comas

seen

in

pensation

;

the length of the vowel-sound
It is

making up,
vowels.

as

it

were, for the loss of the consonant.

a general rule that

simple contraction
contraction

commonly produces long

Such

may

arise either

from the loss of a consonant, or

by

the contraction of a diphthong into a pure long vowel.
§

74. A. S. 6

= Teut.
in

6 (long o) or 6 (long

e)

;

or

is

due to loss of n in on (for an). {a). The A. S. 6 commonly represents an
0,

original Teutonic
oe,

which appears
6,

Gothic as

^
0.

in

Dutch as
in

in Icelandic

as

in

Swedish and Danish as

and

German

as long u

(sometimes written uh). Three examples
pare § 45. 1. E. siool, A. S.

may

suffice.

Comstoll,

stSl,

Goth,

stol-s,

Du.

sioel,

Icel.
:

Swed. and Dan.
type st6lo (Fick,
2.

stol,
iii.

G. Siuhl (O. H. G.
341).

siuol, stual)

Teut.

E. hoo/, A. S. >^^(not in Gothic), Du. hoe/, Icel. h^r,
//u/-,

Swed. ho/ Dan. hov, G.
3.

Teut. type hofo

(id.

iii.

80).

E. brother, A.

S.

br6dor,

Goth, brothar,

Du.
:

broeder^

Icel. brddir,

Swed. and Dan. broder, G. Bruder
iii.

Teut. type

br6thar
(3)

(id.

204).

A.

S. 6,

before a following n, sometimes stands for

'

The Gothic

needs no accent, as (like the Goth,

t) it is

always

long.

92
West-Teut.
§ 68. § 71
1.

TEUTONIC LANGUAGES,
^,

[Chap. VI.

or general Teut. e

;

see Sievers, O. E.

Gram.

For the values of Teut. e

in different languages, see

wE. spoon^ A. S. spSn (properly a chip of wood), Du.

spaan, Icel. spann, spSnn, Swed. span, Dan. spaan, G.
(with long a),
(Fick,
2.
iii.

Span

Spahn

(a chip,

splinter): Teut.

type speni

352).
do, the

In the pp. of the verb to

A.

S. ddn, done,

answers

to

Du. ge-daan, G. ge-than, where the original West-Teut.

vowel was plainly a (from
ic)

common

Teut.

e).
0,

,

A.

S.

6 also results from the lengthening of a short
for the loss of

by compensation
originally an.

n in the combination
is

on,

This happens when the an
gds, a goose,
is

followed by s

or

^

{th).

Thus
iii.

for "^gons, a

changed form of
;

gans ^5 as shewn by Du. and G. gans, a goose
GANSi (Fick,
99).
cf.

Teut. type

So

also tdp^ a tooth,

is

for "^tonp,

changed

form of ianth
(id.
iii.

;

Du., Swed., Dan. iand; Teut. type
thirdly,

tanthu

113).

And

E.

other,

A. S. 6Ser,

is

for *on^er,

changed form of an^er, as shewn by Goth, anthar, Du. and
G. ander
§ 75.
:

Teut. type antharo
S.

(id.

i.

1 6).

A.

u=Teut.
S.
all
ii

-Cl

(long u); or is due to loss of

n

in nn.
(a)

The A.
^;
:

answers to Goth., Du., Swed., Dan., and
See
§ 46.

G.

u, Icel.

long.

Goth, nu, Du. nu, Icel. nii, Swed. and Dan. nu, G. nun (from O. H. G. nu) Teut. n^.
E. now, A. S.
ni^,
:

Example
(d)

We

find also
:

Du. m, Dan. uu, G. au.

Example
Swed./ul,
{c)

'E./'oul,A. S./til, Goth. /uls,

Du.

vui'l, Icel./iill,
iii.

V>2iYi.fuul,
S.

G./aul: Teut. fOlo (Fick,

186).

^ also arises from loss of n in un followed by s or th', compare the loss of n in on {=an) in § 74. Thus E. us, A.S. iis, is for *uns, as shewn by Goth, and G. um, Du. ons. Also E. mouth, A. S. mild, is for "^munth, as
^

The A.

A.

S,

an

is

constantly replaced by on

;

we

often find lond for land,

&c.

;

§ 77.]

TEUTONIC AU.

93

Teut. type

shewn by Goth, munihs, Dan. and G. Mund, Du. mond: montho (Fick, iii. 231). So also E. could, misis

written for coud, A. S. c0e,

for *cunde

;

cf.

Goth, kuntha,

Du.
A.

konde^
is

Swed. and Dan.

^2^«i/(?,

G.

k'6nnte\ and, in fact,

the n

preserved in the present tense can.
;

And
and

E. south,
in

S. J^^, is for *sunth

cf.

O. H. G. sund, south,
the sunny quarter,

now sild;
is

.fact,

the

word south means A.
S.

a deri-

vative of sun.
§ 76.

y commonly arises from Teut.
S. j/,
is

tl

(long u).

(a)

The A.
the
pi.

like

the A. S.

/

(see § 72),

arises

from
6.

mutation, but

modified from ^ instead of from long
is

Thus
mus,

of miis, mouse,

mys, mice.
pi.

Similar modifications are seen in Icel. mils,
pi.

myss, Swed.
that the

moss;

G. Maus,

pi.

Mduse\ which shew
Swed.
of
'6,

A.

S.J/, in this case, is equivalent to Icel.j/,

G. du.
a

Another interesting example

is

A. S.
of

cy, pi.

cii,

cow
S.

Dan.

koer, pi. of ko
o,

;

G. Kiihe,
U.

pi.

^w^.

Here A.

y

answers to Dan.
(3).

G.

Cf. E. ki-ne (p. 66, note 2).

It

may

also be observed here, that the A. S.
^0
;

y

also

arises

from a modification of ia or

but

it

will

be found

hereafter, that these represent Teut.

au and eu

respectively;

from an u or from a diphthong containing u. This § 77. A. S. 6a commonly represents Teut. au. is an important and interesting fact, as it enables us to trace the derivation of many words which contain A. S. ia see
see §§ 77, 78.
original long

The

net result

is

thatj/ always arises

;

§ 49.

To

take an example

;

E. stream, A. S. striavi, (no
straumr, Swed. and Dan.

Gothic form,) Du. stroom^
s/r'6tn,

Icel.

G. Strom (O. H. G. straum^ stroum):
(Fick,
in
iii.

Teut.

type

STRAUMO
that

349).
is
*

We
suffix,

shall further find, hereafter,

-MO

strau-mo
is

a

and

that the Teut.

au

arises

from what
primitive

called a
;

gradation^' or 'strengthening' of a
is

eu

this

would shew that strau-mo

founded

*

The term

gradation will be fully explained hereafter.

See Chap. X.

94
upon a Teut.

TEUTONIC LANGUAGES.
root streu, which certainly

[Chap. VI.
'

meant

to flow';

so

that strea-m merely

means

'that which flows/

I subjoin

three other examples.
j

E. heap, A.

S.

heap,

(no Gothic,) Du. hoop,
:

Icel.

hopr,

Swed. hop, Dan. hoh, G. Haufe
iii.

Teut. type haupo (Pick,

77).

E.
ost,

eas/,

A.

S. /as/,

Du.

oosf, Icel. aus/r,

Swed.

'6st{an),
s. v.

Dan.

G. Oj/, Ost{en): Teut. stem AUS-TA-(Kluge^,
us, to burn, shine brightly.
S. ceap,
kijp, s.
s.

Oskn):

from the root

E. cheap, A.
^«/<f/»,

barter,

Du.
s.,

i^(?^/>,

s.

a bargain, Icel.
s.
;

s.,

Swed.

Dan. kioP,

G.

^az^

Gothic has

the verb kaupon, to
§

traffic,

bargain.

78. A. S. 6o

commonly represents Teut. eu
S. leof,

(Goth.

m)^
E. /z*^(dear), A. Goth. Hubs, Du.
lief, Icel.

Ijuf-r,

Swed.
iii.

Ijuf,

G.

/z<?(5

(O.

H. G. Hup): Teut. type leubo
Du.
:

(Fick,

278).
Y..

freeze, A..S. freos-an,

vriez-en, 1cq\. /rj6s-a,

Swed.

frys-a, Dan. frys-e, G. frier-en
iii.

Teut. type freus-an (Fick,

192).
§

79. A. S. se

commonly
be more
A.
that

arises

from a mutation of
;

A.

S. a.
{a).

This

will

fully treated of hereafter
S.

it

may

suffice to say here that

hdlan, to heal,

is

a derivative of

hdl,

whole

;

and

examples of

this mutation, or modifica-

tion of vowel, are
(<5).

numerous.

In some cases,
A.

^

appears instead of

a,

even though

the ordinary rules for vowel-mutation do not apply.

Thus

E.

sea,

S. sce,

answers to Goth, sahvs, sea
as A. S. a.

;

though the

Goth, ai

commonly appears

Sievers (Gram. § 90)

thinks that the mutation here points to the fact that saiws

must, originally, have belonged to the z-declension.
See Kluge, Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache, 1883, Dan Mob is for kob ; the prefixed i is due to a parasitic i slipped in before the 0. Cf. Dan. hjem, p. 89.
^
"^

^

There are various (somewhat troublesome) exceptions.

§8o.]
§

TABLE OF RESULTS.

95

80. Results. As the results above arrived at with regard

to the long vowels in the

Teutonic languages

will often

be

found to be

useful, I

here subjoin a table exhibiting the
the most characteristic words.
It
all

various forms of

some of
it

must not be considered as exhaustive, nor as exhibiting
the possible varieties are most common.
;

merely exemplifies such varieties as

Special words often present peculiarities
treatment.
I

which require special
forms
first,

quote

Low-German
letters.

then the High-German, next, the Scandinavian and

Gothic, and lastly the Teutonic types in capital

In giving these examples,
the vowel-sounds.

I

have re-arranged the order of
a, /,
/, 6,

Hitherto, I have treated of
eo,

in alphabetical order, adding ea,
scientific

m

at the end.

A

u,y more
:

order
Teut.
ai,

is

obtained by taking them in four groups
6

(i)

a

(=

e\

(=

Teut. /);

(2)

i

(=

Teut. i\ d

(=
(3)
/o

Teut.
(^

strengthening oii\

d

(modification of a
(4)

= ai)\
ii),

(= {= Teut.
I

Teut. 6\ i (modification of o)\
eu),

H {=
..

Teut.

/a

(=

Teut. au),
*

j/

(modification of u,

/o,

/a).
*

use

<

to denote

derived from,'

and

to denote

mutation';

so that

<

..

denotes 'derived by mutation

from.'

All the vowels cited are long.

96

TEUTONIC LANGUAGES,

[Chap. VI.

CHAPTER

VII.

Classical Languages cognate with English

;

Grimm's

Law.
§ 81.

Latin forms compared with English.

If

any

Englishman were asked the question, whence are the words
paternal^ maternal,
at

and fraternal derived, he would probably
Latin.

once reply

— from

As a

fact,

it is

more

likely that

they were derived from French, and that the spelling was

modified (from

-el to -at) to

suit the

Latin spelling of the

originals, viz., paternaliSy maternalis, fraternalis.
it

Be

this as

may, the answer
the

is

sufficiently correct;

for the

French
told,

words, in their turn, are of Latin origin, and the ultimate
result
is

same

either way.

We

should further be

that these adjectival formations are due to the Latin substantives pater, father, mater,

mother,

2Xidi

frater,

brother.

On
how

this result,

however,

we may found a new

enquiry, viz.

comes
frater
pater
?

it

\}ci2X

father, mother, brother have so curious a re-

semblance (yet with a certain difference) to pater, mater,
?

Are we
Such a

to say that father

is

derived from the Lat.
;

was no doubt once common indeed it was only a century ago, in 1783, that Mr. Lemon wrote a
belief

Dictionary to prove that

all

English

is

derived from Greek.

But there

is

some hope
is
little

that such a fancy as that of deriving

father from pater
the words a

fast

becoming

obsolete.

If

we compare

carefully,

wc can
in

hardly help being struck

with something strongly resembling the consonantal shifting

which wc observed above

considering the spelling of
that the

German.
shifted, in

In

§ 63,

we found
to

E.

p
is

is

sometimes

German,

f\

so that E. sharp

cognate with

vol.

I.

H

98

GRIMM'S LAW.

[Chap. VII.

G. scharf'. but here we have an apparent shifting from a Latin

p

to
b,

an

Y,.f,

In

§ 64,
is

we

find that

an E.

f may answer
;

to

G.

so that E. half

cognate with G. halb

but,

on com-

paring Lat. /rater with E. brother,
shifting

we have an apparent
In
all

from a Latin

/

to

an E.

b.

three cases, viz.

Lat. pater, mater, /rater, as
brother, there is the

compared with

"E./ather, mother,

the case of English and
are cognate
;

same apparent shifting from / to th^. In German, we found that the languages
to conclude, as before, that, in the case

are

we

of such words as are not absolutely derived from Latin,

English and Latin

are

cognate languages,

with

certain

fundamental differences of spelling due to sound-shifting?

A

comparison of a large number of native English words
all

with their corresponding Latin equivalents proves, beyond
doubt, that such a statement of the case
that English
relation.
is allied
is

the true one^,

and

to Latin, as

it is

to

German,

in a sisterly

This proposition only holds, of course, with respect
it

to the true native part of the language, so that
sary, in instituting the comparison, to

is

neces-

choose such English
in

words as are of proved

antiquity,

and can be found

Anglo-Saxon forms.
§

82.

Early borrowings from Latin.
it

We

know, how-

ever,

from

history, that the introduction of Christianity into

England brought with

a knowledge of Latin, so that even

in the earliest historical times,

words began to be borrowed
But pure English words
all
;

from that language by the English.
guages, and can usually be thus

frequently have equivalents in nearly

the Teutonic lan-

known
(if

and a comparison
any) in Latin soon

of such words with their equivalents
^

Curiously,

it is

feeder, mSder),

where the

only apparent in the case oi father, mother {A. S. shifting is really to d. The third case (A. S.

brodor)
^

is

right enough.
is,

There

however, a fundamental difference in the nature of the

shifting.

The O. H. German usually exhibits sounds shifted from Low German; but the Low German sounds are shifted, not from Latin or
Greek, but from the original Aryan speech.

§ 83.]

COGNATE WORDS.
us, clearly

99

shews

enough, that the consonantal shifting which

marks
There
the
letters,

off English

from Latin
it

is

much more regularly and
shifting,

fully carried out than
is

is

between English and German.
complete
not only of
labial

found to be a
letters,

fairly

dental

as

before,

and

(partially)

of the

but of the guttural letters as well.

This circumstance
whether
or not.
;

in itself provides us with a partial test for telling

an English word
such
is

is

really of Latin origin
is

When
the
it^.

the case, there
cognate^

no sound-shifting
derived

but

when

words are only
Paternal
is

we can

often at once observe

(ultimately)
it.

from pater, but father

is

cognate with
in
2l

Or, to take a few examples of words found
S. candel) is

Anglo-Saxon, our candle (A.
candle, because a Latin c
;

from Lat. candela,
cognate because d
often

would be

shifted in
discus,

words

our dish (A.
be shifted
;

S. disc) is

from Lat.

would
tell

else

and even

in other cases,
close

we can
is

these borrowed words

by the very

resemblance they

have to

their Latin originals.

In practice, there

seldom
If
field,

any

difficulty in detecting these

borrowings

at once.

§ 83.

Greek, Sanskrit, and other languages.
manner, that
Y..

next extend the area of our enquiries over a wider
shall find, in like
Tzarrip,

we we

father

is

cognate with Gk.

is

Greek language (as far as it is original) The same is true cognate both with English and Latin.
and
that the

of Sanskrit, in which the vocative case of the word ^ov father
is pilar''-,

the connection of which with
It
is

Gk.

TraxT^p

and Lat.
study

pater cannot be doubted.

certain that

no event has

given such an
*

impetus and such certainty to the

never shift at
'^

Latin letters, viz. /, in, it, r, s, v, Again, a few borrowed words, such as hemp, were borrowed at so early a period that they actually exhibit sound-shifting. The nominative case drops r, and lengthens the vowel, thus producing pad. Sanskrit substantives are quoted, in my Dictionary, in the forms called bases. These bases are theoretical forms, on which the mode of declension depends. The * base ' of pitd is pitri, or /i/r, the final letter being a vocal r.
always, because several
all.

Not

H

2

TOO

GRIMM'S LAW.

[Chap. VII.

of philology as the discovery of the relation which exists

between Sanskrit and such languages as Greek and Latin. This discovery is just a century old. See the account of Sanskrit philology

given in

Max
'

Mliller's fourth lecture

on the

Science of Language, where
edition,

we

find, at p.

i8i of the eighth

called

the statement that the history of what may be European Sanskrit philology dates from the founda-

tion of the Asiatic Society at Calcutta, in 1784/
true relation of Sanskrit to other languages

When
that

the

was once underthe
considerable.
arit

stood,

it

was not long before

it

was perceived
cognate
exhibits
at first
is

number of languages with which
It

it is

so happens that Sanskrit often
^ ;

extremely

chaic forms
is

hence the mistake was
still

made

(and

often

made

by those who have not studied the subject

with sufficient care)

—of

supposing that Greek, Latin, and
it
;

other languages are derived from

which would deprive

all

such languages of

much
This
at

of their individual peculiarities of
is

form and grammar.
case.
sister

now

understood not to be the
sister
^

Sanskrit

is

most only an elder
also

among

the

languages;

and we

know

that

the
it

languages
are those

which obviously stand in a
Hellenic,

sisterly relation to

which have been called the Indian, Iranian,
Italic,

Lettic, Slavonic,

and Keltic groups, or
also stands in the

'

branches,' of lan-

guages^, none
shifting
;

of which exhibit any marked consonantal
it

but

same

relation to the

Teu-

tonic group of languages (spoken of in the last chapter).

The

only difference between the Teutonic languages and the

rest is that all of

them (except modern German)

exhibit a

and which other languages seem to leave only traces. But this regularity is sometimes late, and due to analogic influence. ^ Greek really shews an older vowel-system, a fact which is now becoming better understood. ^ Morris, Hist. Outlines of E. Accidence, § 12. Sievers calls them the Indian, Iranian, Baltic, Slavonic, Greek, Albanian (mentioned by Morris under Hellenic), Italic, and Celtic groups ; and adds Armenian.
^

Sanskrit exhibits an extremely regular system of formation

inflection, of

I

§ 84.]

THE AR YAN LANGUA GES.
some of
the original consonants, whilst the
partially exhibits a double or repeated shifting.

I

O

shifting of

modern

German
as

We

have already seen that the shifting seen in German consonants

as

compared with English and sister languages
;

is

no bar

to their being considered

just in the

same way,

the shifting
is

seen in

English as compared with Latin, Greek, &c.,

no

bar to their having a similar relation.
§

84.

Aryan family

of languages.

The whole

set of

languages which are thus found to have a

sisterly relation to

each other are usually called Aryan, or languages of the

Aryan

fam^ily.

Another name

is

Indo-European, because

they contain the most remarkable languages of India and

Europe ; but this is a clumsy name on account of its length. Aryan is much better, because there is no doubt as to its
conventional meaning,

and

it

is

sufficiently brief.

A

third

name
nearly

is

Indo-Germanic, but
Europe.
clearly

this

has led to

standing,
all

and indeed inadequately
It is

much misundersubstitutes Germany for
not mislead
but
it

a

name which does
it,

who popular mind
students

understand

feeds the

Enghsh

with false notions, and
silly

is

probably in part

responsible for the

notion about the derivation of English
of course, in Germany.
If the

from German.

It originated,

study of comparative philology had been pushed forward in

England

as

it

has been in Germany, some English teacher

might have spoken of the Indo-English family of languages.
Fortunately,

no one has ventured on

this,

and the time

for

coining such a word has passed by; meanwhile, the term

Aryan suffices for all needs. we may mention some of the

Among
best

the

Aryan languages,
a dead language;
it,

known.

The

Indian group contains Sanskrit,
dialects,

now

modern
others \
^

sprung from

dialectal

forms of

such as
\

Hindi, Bengali, and even

much

of the true Gipsy speech

and
as

The Iranian group
iii.

contains
full

modern Persian
;

(i.e.

See Morris's Accidence for the

list

also

Peilc's

Primer of

Philology, chap.

102
far as
it is

GRIMM'S LAW,
original, for nearly half the
is

[Chap. VII.

language

is

borrowed
;

from Arabic, which

a Semitic or non-hxyzx^ language)

the

so-called Zend, or language of the old Persian sacred writings;

the language in which the very interesting cuneiform inscriptions are written
;

and

others.

Of the

Leitic or Baltic group,

the most interesting

is

the Lithuanian, spoken in parts of

Eastern Prussia, and remarkable for extremely archaic forms.

The

Slavonic group

contains Russian, Polish,

Bohemian,
sometimes

Servian, &c.; the most important, from a purely philological

point of view, being the Old Bulgarian, or as
called,

it is

Church-Slavonic, being

the

language 'into which

Cyrillus

and Methodius

translated the Bible, in the middle of

the ninth century^.'

The

Hellenic group contains various
Italic

forms of Greek.

In the

group, the

most famous
not even yet
it

language
extinct

is

the widely

known
form
;

Latin,

which

is

it its

fixed literary

but beyond

this,

is

famous
lan-

as being the

main source of the

so-called

Romance

guages,
the

viz. Italian,

Spanish, Portuguese, French, Proven9al,

Roumansch

of the canton Orisons in Switzerland, and
of Wallachia and Moldavia.
are,

the Wallachian

These Ro-

mance languages

in fact, totally different in character

from English, in that they are really derived languages, borrowing ALL their words from something else, and chiefly, as
has been
all its

said,

from Latin.

English,

on the other hand, with
Next,

borrowings, has a native unborrowed core, and has only
in order to amplify its vocabulary.

borrowed words

the Keltic group contains

Welsh, Cornish (now extinct),

Breton, Irish, Gaelic, and
portant, philologically,
tonic
is

Manx;
Old

of these, the most imIrish.

the

Lastly,

the Teu-

group contains English, Dutch, German, &c., in the Western division, and Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, and Gothic
;

in the Eastern
§

as already explained.
sets.

85.

The three
^

Inasmuch

as the Teutonic lanit

guages alone exhibit consonantal

shifting,
i.

will

be found

Max

Miiller, Lectures, 8th ed,,

227.

§85.]

THE THREE

SETS,

IO3
for all the

extremely convenient to use some

common name
lie
*

languages of the Aryan family that
group.

outside the Teutonic

A very

convenient

name
is

is

the classical languages,'

because the term classical

naturally associated
I

by us with
I
*

Greek and
shall,

Latin,

and perhaps

may add

with Sanskrit.
'

accordingly, henceforth use the term

classical

in this

Aryan languages except those of the Aryan languages into three new sets, for the sole and special purpose of examining the phenomena of consonantal shifting more (i) the classical languages; (2) the exactly. These sets are Low German, Scandinavian, and Gothic languages, of which English may here be taken as the type, both from its intrinsic importance and because it is the one which we most wish to discuss and (3) the High German language, in a class by itself, though it has no real claim to such a position.
sense, to denote all the

Teutonic group.

I shall also temporarily divide all the

:

;

Before proceeding to discuss this
to point out three
all

shifting,
'

it

may be

as well

examples

in

which the

classical'

languages

keep, in reality, to the same unshifted sounds.

Thus,
^
;

for

father
pitar"^,

we
Gk.

find the
Trarjjp,

Sanskrit pilar (base pitv

^),

Old Persian
but the

Lat. pater,

Old

Irish athir, athair

word

is

lost in

Russian and Lithuanian. Again, for brother we
*,

find the Skt. bhrdtar

O. Pers. brdtar ^

mod

Pers. birddar,

* Sanskrit not only possesses a symbol for the consonant r, but also These are denoted a pair of symbols for the short and long vocalic r. in Benfey's Dictionary by ri and ri. In my Dictionary, I have denoted them by ri and r/, putting the r in Roman type. But it is now usual to print r (without i) for the short sound, and to put an accent above it to represent the long one. ^ Mod. Vi:rs.pidar, with / weakened to d. This is a case of weakening, not of shifting in the particular sense to which I now wish to confine it. ' The Old Irish drops the initial /; the th (=/ + /i) is very different from the English M, and is really a / that has been afterwards aspirated, In Irish characters, it is written as so that there is no real shifting. a dotted /; we might print it atrV, aiair. * In these words the aspirated bh has been weakened to b, or, as some it is not a think, an original b has been asjiirated so as to produce bh
\ •

shifting

'

in

the narrow sense in which

I

am now

using the word.

;

I04
Gk.
(fypdTTjp,

GRIMM'S LAW,
Lat. fraier^

[Chap. VII.
hratru'^^

Old Slavonic

Russian

braW^i Polish brat, Old Irish brdthir {brdtir\ Lithuanian
brolis. So also mother corresponds Zend mdtar (mod. Pers. mddar, with d weakened from /), Gk. ft^rT/p, Lat. mater, Church Slavonic mati, Russ. mate, Lithuanian mote (rarely motere), Irish ma-

brotelis,

contracted into

to

Skt.

mdtar,

thair (where the ih

is

an aspirated or dotted
it

/).

Whilst

we

are discussing these three words,

may be

interesting to

shew the forms which they assumed in the unoriginal languages
which we term Romance.
matrem, fratrem, became
frate (now only used

The

Latin accusatives^ patrem,
Ital.

respectively

padre,

madre,
for

in the sense oi friar, the

word

brother being the diminutive

form

fratello)

;

Span, padre,
viai,
\

madre, fraile (only in the sense of/rtar)^; Port, pat,

frade (only

in the sense

of/rmr); Yiench

pere, mere,

O. Proven9al/^z>'(?, maire,fratre ox fraire

(friar);

frere Roumansch
are

frer (brother), Wallachian frate (brother) *. § 86. Grimm's Law : the dental series.
in a position for clearly understanding

We

now

what
of

is

meant by the
'

famous scheme of consonantal
though
it

shifting,

or regular interchange
*

of consonants, which goes by the
I

name

Grimm's Law
philologist.

suppose that the

first

person to draw attention to

was Erasmus Rask, the celebrated Danish
will find

The

English reader
Miiller's

a

full

explanation of the law in

Max
II,

Lectures on the Science of Language, Series
I

Lect. V.

here give a similar

explanation

in

slightly

different words, as far as relates to the dental series of
letters, viz.

E.

d,

/,

and

th.

First of

all,

let

us divide the

^

See note

4, p.

103.

2

We must

take the accusative as the
for
'

Romance

type, as will be seen

hereafter.
^

The Span,

brother '

is herf?iano,

from Lat. germanus.

The word

fraile stands for an older fraire, derived from fratrem, by loss of t.
*

the Lat. accusative

chian has tafe,

The Roumansch has mame.

bap,

mamma,

for

father

oxidi

mother

;

the Walla-

'

§ 86.]

TRIPLE SOUND-SHIFTING,
into three sets or

105

Aryan languages
sical'

groups: (i) the 'clas-

Low German; High German, being the oldest form of the Next, let us provisionally call the sounds present German. denoted by dh"^ in Sanskrit, 6 in Greek, and th in English by the name of Aspirates; the sound denoted by d^ Soft and that denoted by /, Hard. Then it is found that
languages, as defined above; (2) the
(3) the Old
'^

;

where the
fact is

first

group of languages usually has Aspirates, the
third,

second has a Soft sound, and the

a

Hard sound.

This

what

is

called

Grimm's Law, and may be thus ex-

pressed in a tabular form.
(i) Classical

Languages

....
. . .
.

DH
D T
5

'^

(2) (3)

Low German

(English, &c.)

Old High German

.

.

.

--

This succession, of Aspirate,
pressed by the memorial word
Further, the

Soft,

and Hard, may be ex'.

ASH

same succession

of'shifted sounds occurs,

if,

instead of beginning with Aspirates,

we begin

with a Soft

sound; only we should be careful
Aspirate by

to denote

the Teutonic

TH

rather than

DH*.

We
may

then get the suc-

cession Soft, Hard, Aspirate, which
^

be expressed by

The

Skt. has a dh, or aspirated d, a sound
'

original Aryan.

By an

aspirate

is

which also belongs to the meant a momentary consonant fol-

slight /i-sound, not so distinct as in back-house, ant-hill \rnad-house\ &c., but of the same nature. These sounds, however, are found only in Sanskrit and Greek ; in the other languages they are represented by the corresponding continuous consonants—^, ch (German), M, 2,/.' Peile, Primer of Philology, p. 162.

lowed by a

'

I prefer the

term

*

voiced

'

or

*

sonant.'

The meaning of
*

*

voiced

will be explained hereafter.
' *

Hard sounds
If

are

voiceless.'

Peile,
It

Primer of Philology, Appendix,
difTerence.

p. 162.

be loosely accepted as representing the Teut. aspirated dental sound, it would then appear as if .the succession of sounds is DH, D, T ; D, T, and T, DH, or briefly DH, D, T, following each other as in a circular order. The more correct succession DH, D, T, does not bring us back to our starting-point, but leaves, as it were, a gap in the circle.

makes a great

DH

DH

;

D

;

DH

TH


I06
the memorial

GRIMM'S LAW,
word SHA.
This

[Chap. VII.

may be

expressed, in

a

tabular form, as follows.
(i) Classical languages
.

.

.

.

(2)

Low German
if

(English, &c.)
.

.

.

.

D T

(3)
Lastly,

Old High German

.

.

.

TH

we

begin with
Soft,
;

Hard

sounds,

we

get the succession

Hard, Aspirate,
morial word

which

may be

expressed by the me-

HAS

or, in

a tabular form, as follows.
. .

(i) Classical languages

.

.

T

(2)
(3)

Low German
single

(EngHsh, &c.)
.

.

.

.

TH
D
SHA by HAS by
:

Old High German

.

.

.

The
shifting
shifting

word

ASH

will

enable us to remember the
this into

order of succession, as

we can change
latter

A

to the end,

and again change
form.

SHA

into

S to the end of the

Expressed in a single
(i) Sanskrit, &c. (2) English, &c.

table, the formulae are as follows
.
.
.

DH
D T

.

.

.

D T

T

TH
D
Before
observe

(3)
§ 87.

Old High German

.

.

TH
T,
first

Meaning of the Symbols DH, D,
the above law usefully,

TH.

we can apply
that the letters

we must

DH,
to

D, T,

TH, are here
is

used as mere ^ymbols^

which require

be interpreted according to the peculiarities
being considered.
All

of the particular language which
the languages use

D

and

T
;

;

but the sounds and symbols

answering to DH and TH vary. For DH, Sanskrit commonly has dh ^, Greek has 6 Latin has_/ initially, and d or d medially. For fk, Anglo-Saxon scribes use the symbols p and tS indiscriminately; but it is convenient to restrict the symbol J? to the sound of //i in /hn, and ^ to the sound of //i in /h'ne. The original Teutonic fk was probably p only,
^

There

is

also a (rarer) Skt. ik,

which need not be

cojjisidered in the
'^

present connection.

§ 87.]

THE SYMBOLS DH,
is still

D^ T, tJ^\

IO7

which
at the

the only

sound used

in Icelandic

when occurring
f)

beginning of a word.

In English, the original

has

given

way

to

tS initially

in the case of a few

words in very

common
thou (as

use, viz. in all

words etymologically connected with

the (as thai, this, they^ them, there, thence, thither, &c.) or with

In the middle of a word, \ has thee, thine, thy). been weakened to % between two vowels; compare breath
with breathe (M.E.
exception,
dissyllabic.
It is also
bretheri).

Smooth

is

only an apparent

for

the

M. E. form was

smooth-e,

which was

important to observe that the Old High
/

German

was not th (or {)), but ts, which was denoted by the symbol z the German z is pronounced as
sound of aspirated
\
;

ts

still

Hence we may otherwise express
Gk.
e,

the

law as

follows.

DH
D
T

(Skt. dh,

Lat./(^,

b)).

D
T
/,

(Skt., Lat. d,

Gk.
G.

5).

(A. S. d).

(A. S. 0.

(G.

/).

TH
T
/

(O.H.G.

z,

z, ss).

(Skt., Lat.

Gk.

t).

TH
will

(A. S.

J)

(S),

E. th).

-J>(G.O.

A

few examples

be interesting, and are here given

;

beginning from
Initial

DH.
Skt. duhitar (put for
'^

DH

;

dhughitery daughter;
,

Gk.
tuon,

Bvydrrjp;

E. daughter; G. Tochter.
* ei-erj-fii), I

Skt. dhd, to put,
;

place,

Gk.

Ti-Brj-ni (for

put

E. do

;

O. H. G.
/),

M. H. G.

tun,

mod. G. thun (with
Skt.

th

sounded as
*

or

thn (in reformed spelling).

dih

(put for

dhigh) to
to

smear, Gk.

Oiyydufiu, to touch,

handle,

Lat fingere,

mould;

Goth, deigan,

to

mould, knead, whence daigs, dough, E.

dough
*

;

G. Teig, dough.

So also in O. French, the wonl avez was once pronounced aoets, which at once explains its derivation from the Lat. habdis, by loss of h and i. The O. Y./iz, son, is now writtenyf/2, to preserve the old sound; and assez is, in English, assets. ^ When an asterisk is prefixed to any word, it means that its form is
theoreticai.

Io8

GRIMM'S LAW,

[Chap. VII.

Medial
ruder

DH
/),

;

Skt. rudhira, blood,
;

Gk.

e-pvdp6s, red, Lat.

(=

* rudker), Irish ruadA
;

E. red, Du. rood, Dan. and
r<?/,

Swed. rod, Goth, rauds

O. H. G.

mod. G. ro/k (with

/A

sounded as
Initial
Irish /u,

or rof (in reformed speUing).
Skt.
//;

T

;

/vam (thou), Gk. rv (Attic
A.
S.

av), Lat. /«,
//^«;
iri,

Welsh
Skt.
/r/;

^^, E.

//lou,

Icd.pu, Goth.
Russian

G. du.
O. Irish

/rz*,

three,

Gk.
E.

rpel?,
//^r^^,

Lat. /r^j,
Icel.

A.

S. J?r^o,

/rzr, Goth. threis\

G.

^r^z*.

Medial T;
alter (for

Skt. antara,
;

other;

Lithuanian aniras, Lat.
* o«^<?r

* anier)

Goth, anthar, A. S. ^^^r (for
;

=
;

* ander,

by

loss of n), E. ^/^^r
dZ«3;f^«

G. ander.
to

D.
E.
/^w,

Skt.

(ten),

answers
z^/^«.

Gk.

fie^a,

Lat. decern

Goth, iaihun ; G.
fi^z;^,

Skt.

dva (two), Gk.
twd, Icel.

Suo, Lat.

duo, Russ.

Irish

da

;

E.

/ze;^?,

A.

S.

/ze^^/r,

Goth.

twai; G.

2ze;^2'.

Skt.

^<2;z/f3:,

Gk.
of

ace. o-SoVr-a, Lat. ace. dent-em^

Welsh
"^

dani',

E.

/(?<?//^j

A.

S. tod,

Dan. /^«^; G. zahn

(for

Zand).

As an example
Gk.
cS-eii/,

medial D, we may
;

take
eat,

Skt. ad, to eat,

Lat. ^^-^r^

A.

S.

et-an,

E.

Du.
G.

et-en, Icel. ^Z-^,

Goth, it-an;

O.H. G. ez-an, ezz-an, mod.
ts

^jj'-m (used for ets-en,
ss).

by assimilation of

into the easier

sound of
§

88.

Exceptions to Grimm's Law.

If

we examine
In the
viz.
first

the E. words brother, father, mother, and the above law,
place,

compare them with
regular, Skt.

we

obtain

some

startling results.
fairly

the

forms of brother are

bhrdtar,

1^2^%. /rater,

A. S. brodor, G. Bruder.

Similarly beside

the Lat. pater, viater,

we should expect
and G.

to find A. S. ^feeder,
fact,
"^

modor, and G.
feeder,

'^

Fader, "^Muder; but, as a
d),

we

find A, S.

moder (with
/).

Vater (for

Fater), Mutter

for this apparent

be sure that there must be some reason anomaly; and it was from this conviction that Verner disco ^red what is now known as Verner's Law, which explains the apparent anomalies in the operation
(with

We may

of Grimm's

Law

;

and actually extends

it.

This important

§89.]

LABIAL AND GUTTURAL SERIES.
is

IO9
see

matter

treated

of below, in

a

separate

chapter;

Chapter IX.
§

89.

G-rimm's
series

Law;
letters,

labial

and guttural
D, T,

series,

I

have purposely confined the examples of Grimm's
of

Law

to

the dental

DH,

TH.

Rask and

labial series of letters

Grimm made -the Law more general by trying to include the BH, B, P, PH, and the guttural series GH, G, K, KH. But the law is imperfectly carried out in
of the usual examples which are adduced to
illustrate
it.

these cases, as will best appear from a consideration of a few
I

purposely keep

some of the more
Gk.
doc,
^jyy-o'j,

difficult

points in

the

background.

BH
E.

(Gk. 0, Lat.y).

L^it./ag-us, beech-tree

;

deech, allied to

A. S.

a beech-tree, a dock ; Swed. dok,

Du.

Buche.

The O. H. G. is puocM, also btiochd, mod. G. Here the change from Gk. BH^ to Low German B is regular; and so is the change, from Low German B to German P in O. H. G. puochd. But we cannot ignore the fact that puochd is only an occasional form, which modern literary German does not recognise; and the same is true in other cases. Hence there is, practically, no regular second shifiing from Low G. h to High G. p. P. Skt. pad, foot Gk. -nov^ (gen. ttoS-os), Lat pes (gen.
5euk, beech.
;
;

ped-is)

E. foot, Goth, /otus, Swed.yi?/;
ss for z).

O. H. G. /6z, fuoz,
is

mod. G. Fuss (with

Here there

a shifting from

PH {=1 /)', but there is no second shi/ltng Low German PH to High German B.
P
to

Low

G.

from

B.

Gk.
;

KuvuajSiff

Lat. cannabis,

hemp

;

A.

S. hcenep^ henep,

E. hemp
shifting

O. H. G. hanaf, henef, G. Hanf.
p,

Here we have a

from b to

and again from p to/, the aspirated form
is

of p.
again
is

But the example

somewhat

unsatisfactory, because

the Teutonic forms are merely borrowed from Latin, which
is

borrowed from Greek.
The Gk.

Thf

chief point here gained

the observation that the law of sound-shifting
*
«/>

may even

answers to Sk. bh in general.

;

no
was borrowed
very rare.
at

GRIMM'S LAW.

[Chap. VII.
if that word Such cases are
is

apply to the case of a borrowed word, but only

an extremely

early period.

The
classical

reason for choosing this example

that

there does not appear to be any other satisfactory instance in

which a

'

'

B

is

shifted to a
;

Low German

P.

A

GH \
Gans.
regular
;

Gk.

x^?",

a goose

Lat. anser (the initial guttural
'^.

being wholly

lost);

E. goose^ A.

gos

(for * gens),

Du. gans,
r^^^j
;

led. gas (for *gans); O. H. G. gans, occasionally

G.
is

Here the

shifting

from

GH
is

to

Low German

G

but the O. H. G. cans

an occasional form, and

/here is no regular second shifting to

German K. The E.^

is,

in fact, also a

German g
;

;

cf.

E. go, good, goat, with G. gehen,

gut, Geiss.

K.

Gk.

Kapdia, heart
S. heorte
;

Lat. cor (stem cordi-), O. Irish cride

E. heart, A.
shifting

O. H. G. herzd, G. Herz.
is

Here
;

the

from

K

to

KH (weakened to h)
gen-us
;

regular

but there

never

was

at any time a second shifting to a
yiv-os, race, Lat.

German G.
S. cynn, race,

G.
tribe,

Gk.

E. hh, A.

Icel. kyn,

Goth, kuni; O. H. G. chunni, khunni, kunni,

race.

Here

the shifting from

G to Low German K is regular
German

;

but the apparent shifting to O. H.
delusive.

KH
;

{kh, ch) is

This, again,

is

a mere occasional form

and, as a
/^

fact, there is in

general no second shifting.
cf.

The

E.

is

also

a

German k;
§ 90.

E. king,

kiss,

cow, with G. Konig, Kuss,

Kuh.

Needless complication
is,

of

Grimm's Law.

The

net result

therefore, that the second shifting breaks

down,

for practical purposes, even in the specially selected

instances,
is

and

in

two cases
trace of
it.

(see

under

P and

K

above) there

absolutely

no

If to these

two cases we add

those in which occasional O.
selected (see under

BH, GH, G)

High German forms have to be in order to make the law
far as

operate,

we may say that it practically breaks down, as High German is concerned, mfive cases out of nine.
^

If to

Gk. X answers to Skt. gh

for the present purpose.


§91.]
this

;'

NEEDLESS COMPLICATION.
the case (noticed under

Ill

we again add
is

B

above) of which

there

but one good example, these yfz^^ cases are increased

to six.

In other words, Grimm's law

is

only useful, as far

as the

High German
it

is

concerned, in the case of the dental

series of letters

to force

DH, D, T, and TH. It was quite a mistake beyond its true value, merely in order to drag in Such an attempt greatly the Old High German forms. limits the choice of examples, which have to be selected with
a special view to the Old High German, without any real
gain
^.

It is

not only simpler, but what

is

of

quence,

much more
sight,

accurate, to leave the

more conseHigh German
to

forms out of

and

to confine our attention to the other

Teutonic forms.

This would enable the
for

Law

be stated

much more
shiftings

simply,

we have

already

seen that the

from the 'classical' forms to Low-German are

carried out with sufficient regularity.

Even
mere

the case noticed

above, under B, only breaks
there
is

down

for

lack of examples

nothing to contradict

instance, of a

which the

it. There is no example, for word containing a Latin or Greek h in corresponding letter of the cognate native EngUsh

word

is

also

b.

Simpler form of Grimm's Law. It would seem to follow that, if we omit the High-German forms, we may state Grimm's Law by simply saying that in the series DH, D, T, TH, a classical DH corresponds lo a Low German D,
§ 91.

a classical a

D to a Low German T, and lastly a classical T to Low German TH. This we can easily remember by writing down the symbols DH, D, T, TH, in succession,
and saying that the sound denoted by each classical symbol (whether DH, D, or T) is shifted, in Law German,' to the sound denoted by the symbol which next follows it.
' *

> * Jhat the O. H. G. shifting is historical and recent was, it is true, admitted by Grimm, but he liked to lose sight of the fact whenever he wanted to magnify tlie law. His framework is much too big for the

facts.'

II.

C. G. Brandt, in Amer. Journal of Philology,

i.

153.

Iia
This
is

GRIMM'S LAW.
true,

[Chap. VII.

and

is

well worth

remembering ; but when
to the labial

we come

to apply similar

methods

and

guttural

series, certain difficulties occur, especially in the latter case.

In other words, Grimm's
re-stated, with

Law

requires to be simplified,

and
to

necessary corrections.

The endeavour

do

this will
§

occupy the next chapter.

92.

We
was

may, however, with respect
it

Old High Grerman: value of Grrimm's Law. to the Old High German,
exhibits took place, as far as
direction as 'the
It
it

say that the shifting which
carried out, in the

same

former

shifting,

but not to the same extent.

was obviously a much

later

development, due to similar causes, whatever they
been.
shifting

The

old theory, that the imperfect

may have Old High German
tenable,

took place simultaneously with the more complete

shifting seen in

Low German,
how
it

is

no longer

and
It is

it is

not easy to see

arose, except from

an exaggerated
not
in its old

idea of the value of the Old

High German forms.
Yet even

only inexplicable, but can be disproved.

and imperfect form, the statement known as Grimm's Law is of the highest value, and has been the real basis of all We must remember later improvements and discoveries.
that the great object of applying
it is

to enable us to detect

the cognation or sisterly relationship of words.

We
it

see, for

example, that the

IjdX.'frater

can very well be the same word
it

as the E. brother, because, although
sight,
it

looks unlike

at first

really corresponds to

it,

letter for letter, all the

way

through.

The
0,

Lat._/"
b.

answers to the symbol
Lat.
<?,

BH, which

shifts

regularly into E.
tonic long

The
shifts

a
e.

is

long, answering to

Teu-

Goth, long
/)

i.

the A. S. 6 in brodor.
to

The

symbol

T

(Lat.

regularly

A.

S.

f),

afterwards

weakened to t5, E. th. Lastly, the suffix -ter is found in a varying form -tor at a very early period and the common Aryan suffix -ter becomes -ter in Latin, and -der, -dor, in A. S. There is not only an enormous gain in detecting
;

i

these real equalities which are concealed under apparent dif-

'

§93-]
ferences, but

THE ARYAN TYPE,
we

II3

also get rid of the absurdity oi deriving native

English words from Latin or Greek, and

we

at

once put

them on
ultimate
§ 93.

their

true level as being equally
type.
:

from the same

Aryan

The Aryan type

Law,
sider

re-stated.

We

must pause

simpler form of Grimm's for a moment, to conlike.

what

this

Aryan type was

In trying to gain an

idea of the Aryan type or original form of each word,

we

need not consider the Old High German, which may well be, and in fact wa^, a mere development from an archaic
Teutonic type which exhibited only
teristics.

Low German
'

charac-

We

then have to consider whether the

classical

or the
those

Low German
of the parent

consonants approach more nearly to
speech.

For

it

is

obvious that a

word
the

ways ; either was Teutonic, viz. brat»er, and the classical type bhrater was developed from it or the case was reversed. In the former case, the Aryan type resembled
like brother

may have

originated in two

original

type

;

brather;
latter

in the fatter case,
is

it

resembled bhrater.

The

theory

the one universally adopted ^

Perhaps the

decision in this direction
for

was
is

at first

due

to

an innate respect

such languages as Greek and Latin, and, in particular, to
the language which approaches

the notion that Sanskrit

most nearly

to the

Aryan
in

type,

though

this position

may be

more
*

fairly

the decision really rests
classical'

But upon other grounds, viz. that the languages are far more numerous and more
claimed,
respects,
for

many

Greek.

divergent

than

the

Teutonic

languages;

and

it

is

far

easier to suppose that the shifting took place with respect
to

a

single

group which was spread over a small

area,

than wiih respect to all the other
family."
It
is

groups of the whole
than of the
viz. thai

from such considerations that we may more
guidance of the
*

safely accept the
'

classical

'

There is yet a third theory, which may be the true one, oldest form was hkater; but I shall not here discuss it. VOL.
I.

the

I

114

GRIMM S LAW.
It

[Chap. VII.

Low German

types in estimating the forms of the original

Aryan parent speech.
most near
the
'

may

therefore be safely

assumed

that the 'classical' type
it,

is

also the

Aryan

type, or

comes
^

and

that the

Low German

or Teutonic

types

are formed, by a tolerably regular shifting, not really from
classical
'

type, but

from the original Aryan which the
All that
is

latter exactly, or nearly, represents.
is

now
'

needed,
in §

to read

'

Aryan

'

in place of

'

Classical languages

86

;

and we may
that the

also, if

we

please, substitute 'Teutonic' for

'Low

German' without any fear of error, merely remembering High German forms can be obtained from the

general Teutonic forms whenever they are wanted.

We
to

can

then state the
the

Law

thus, nearly as in § 91, with respect to

dental

letters,

and

it

will

be shewn hereafter

be

equally true (with

necessary modifications) for the labial

and guttural -series. Write down the symbols
cession.
It is

DH,

D, T,

TH

in suc-

found that the Aryan sound corresponding to each of these symbols (except the last), is shifted, in cognate Teutonic words, to the sound corresponding to the symbol which next succeeds it.
This
is

the law of consonantal shifting, as regards the letters

in the dental series.

The

extension of the

Law

to the labial

and guttural

series

of consonants will be considered in the next Chapter.
*

Henceforth, I assume the
;

Teutonic

Low German type to be identical with the^ and regard the O. H. German as a development from it.

CHAPTER
Simplified

VIIL

Form of Grimm's Law.

§ 94.

In order to

treat the facts correctly,

it

will

be neces-

sary to consider the dental^ the labial^ and the guttural sets

of letters separately
this order.

;

and

to take them, for the present, in

last Chapter we obtained the may conveniently be here repeated. Write down the symbols DH, D, T, TH, in succession. It is found that the Aryan sound corresponding to each of these symbols (except the last), is shifted, in cognate Teutonic words, to the sound corresponding Teutonic is to the symbol which next succeeds it.

At

the

end of the

following statement, which

here used in the sense of original Teutonic, to the exclusion

of High
a litde

German forms ^.

I

now propose

to look at this

Law
any)

more

closely, explaining the varying values (if

of the symbols, giving numerous examples, and noting exceptions.
§

95.

Aryan

:

Dentals.

The Aryan Dental Sounds
accordingly do
so.

are

DH, D, T.
D.

It is

here most convenient to consider them in
;

the order D, T,

DH

and

I shall

The Skt. ^ is a stable sound; so also is the Gk. 5. In Latin, d is common, but occasionally D appears as /. Thus lacri?nay a tear, was once dacrima^ according to Festus,
and
is

cognate with Gk.

Soicpv,

E. tear) lingua^ a tongue, was High German

* As to the unoriginal character of the Old consonantal shifting, see Chapter IX, $ 123.

secoftd

I

2,

Il6
once dtngua, and
is allied
is

GRIMM' S LAW.
cognate with E. tongue
;

[Chap. VIII.
ol-ere^ to smell,

to od-or^ smell ^
/ is

T. The Skt.
as
th^

sometimes aspirated

after
j/>^a,

s^

and appears

as in sthag^ to cover,

Gk.

o-rey-eti/

;

to stand, Lat.

std-re.

DH.

The Gk. r is stable The Skt. has
;

so
dh.

is

Lat.

/ (usually).

If a verbal root begins with
letter, both

dh
the

and ends with another aspirated

of these letters

appear in the simple, not in the aspirated form.
Skt. dih^ to smear, stands for '^dhigh.

Thus

We

find other occa-

sional instances in which Skt. dh appears as d^ as in dvdra^

a door, put for '^dhvdra

;

cf.

Gk.

6vpa.

The Gk. dh
a syllable
;

is 6.

But Gk. allows of only one aspirate in
for * Qfuxo^-

hence we find rpixos
initiatty

The

Latin dh appears

as/^ but medially as

d

or

b.

Thus Gk.

Qvpa^ a door, is allied to Lat. pl.y^r-^j, doors, the

cognate E. word being door.
Lat. ruber (for *rudher).
(for ^udher);

Gk.
ovBaf),

e-pvd-pos,

E. red,
is

is

in

Gk.

E. udder,
«/(j/«^,

in Lat. uber

whilst E. widow,

L.

answers to Skt.

The Aryan
anian,

DH regularly appears
Irish, as in
^
;

as

d

in Slavonic, Lithu-

and O.

Russ. dvere, O. Irish dor us, a door,

Lith. durys, pi. doors

cf.

Gk.

6vpa.

§96. Teutonic: Dentals.
larly)
it is
;

T

(Aryan D)

;

Gothic

/

(regu-

and so

in A. S., Icel., Swed.,

Dutch

;

but in Danish

TH

weakened (when final) to d, as m/od, foot. (Aryan T) appears as th in Gothic^; written/ or ^in

^ I do not give all the values of these Aryan symbols, but only those necessary for the present purpose ; thus a d may appear in Latin as r, For fuller particulars, see Iwan but not in words cognate with English.

Miiller,

Handbuch

der Klassischen Altertums-Wissenschaft,

Band

II;

Nordlingen, 1885.
^ This change is practically a shifting, and gives the same result. But it differs in this respect, viz. that the Slavonic (and other) races with Aryan D. The Teutonic races were content to confuse Aryan were not contented to do so, but distinguished the real D from T.

DH
))

^

German

editors often write

for

Goth.

th.

§98.]

THE LABIAL SERIES.
The
Icel. initial

II7
th in thin^ but the
initial th

A

.

S.

p

is

sounded as

medial d as ih in
(/)
is

thine.
/,

In Danish and Swedish the
ih (^) as d^
;

sounded as

and the medial
th at all
cf.

owing

to

a

difficulty in

pronouncing

for a similar reason,

Dutch
Swed.

invariably substitutes d\
tre^

E. three with Dan. and
Icel. hrodir^

Du. drie\ and E. brother with
broder,

Swed.

and Dan.

Du.

breeder.

When
d, this
;

the

Aryan

T

appears

(contrary to the rule) as Goth,

phenomenon can be
For exA.S.

accounted for by Verner's
ample,
La.t. /rater

Law

see Chap. IX.

= Goth,
M. E.

brothar, E. brother, regularly; but
^/ather),

on the other hand, Lat. pater =Goth./ader (not
feeder (not */cB^er),

fader, the ioiv^ father being
;

modern.
is lost,

An Aryan ST
when
the

remains st in Teutonic
shift to th.

unless the s

T may

D

(Aryan

DH)

appears as Gothic, &c.,

d, regularly.

Numerous examples of English words which are § 97. cognate with words in other Aryan languages are given
further on.

In giving these

it is

convenient to reverse the order

above,

i.

e.

to give the English

words

before the others

;

so

that instead of saying that the

T, we say
is

that the Teut.

T

becomes a Teutonic answers to an Aryan D, which
It
is

Aryan

D

of course the

same

thing.

only a question of con-

venience.

Similarly Teut.
to

TH
and

answers to Aryan T, and

Teut.
*

D
We

Aryan DH.
into,'

Taking

>

as

the

symbol
for
is
*

for

becomes' or 'passes

<

as the

symbol

results

from,*

see that the series
;

DH>D>T>TH
And
the

the

as

D < DH T < D TH < T.
;

again, these three

same com-

parisons

may be
;

taken

in

order

T<D

;

TH<T;

D < DH
§

without

at all altering the

Law.

98.
for

The Labial
the
labial

Series.
it

If
will

Grimm's Law be equally
take the following form.

true

series,

Write down the series of symbols BH, B, P, Then the Aryan sound corresponding to each

PH

(P).

of these

symbols (except the last), is shifted, in cognate Teutonic words, to the sound corresponding to the symbol

Il8

GRIMM'S LAW,
it. is

[Chap. VIII.

whicli next succeeds
restriction, viz. that there

This

is

true,

with a certain

no very clear example of the second of the three changes, viz. of Aryan B answering to Teut. P. The comparison of E. hemp with Gk. Kawa^is
is

not wholly to the point, as the E. word

is

only a very

early borrowed

word

;

neither
itself

is

the Gk. KawalSis an original

Greek word, being
to

borrowed from the East.
is

The

great difficulty, accordingly,

to

know

with what we are
I

compare the Teut. P, a problem of which
It is

satisfactory solution.

certain that a great

know no number of
M. E.

words beginning with P in the Teutonic languages are
merely borrowed from Latin or Greek
puf,
;

thus E. ///,

A. S.

pj;/ (for "^pu/i)

is

merely borrowed from the Lat.
in

puteus'j

and the

large

number of words

modern English

beginning with

this letter is in

a great measure due to the

very free use of the Lat. prefixes, per-, post-, pre-, preter-,pro-,

and the Greek
with

prefixes, pan-, para-, peri-, poly-, pros-.

Some

have even denied that there are any Teut. words beginning

/; but a

list

of over loo words has been given of
p,

words beginning with

which cannot be proved to be
it is

non -Teutonic ^
ciently
hop,

Besides,
letter in

certain that final

/

is

a

suffi-

common
Icel.

Teutonic, as in E. heap, hip, hope,

and the
cases,

happ, chance,

whence our hap.

One view
is

that might be held concerning the final Teut.

p

that, in

some
leap,

it

remained unshified; thus Curtius compares E.
Kpanr-v6s, swift
;

Goth, hlaupan, with Gk.
Xair-recv, to

E.

lip, lap,

with

Gk.
it

lap

;

E. shape with Gk. aKdn-Teiv, to dig ; and
to see

is

extremely

difficult

severed from E. over, Skt. upari.
I leave the

supposed

shifting of

how E. up can be entirely As this is a difficult point, Aryan B to Teut. P without
shiftings that
;

further discussion,
viz.

and pass on the
to Teut.
real

still

remain,

of Aryan

P

PH

(F)

and of Aryan

BH

to

Teut. B.

These are
^

and

regular, as will appear.

I

have

lost the reference to this article.

§ loi.]

THE GUTTURAL SERIES.
:

II9

§

99. Aryan

Labials.
is
tt,

B P
Skt.

(mentioned above)
is

the Skt.

b,

Gk.

iS,

Lat.

b.

the Skt. p, Gk.

Lat., Slav.,
s,

and Lithuan. p \
in

p may become pk come (T(p.

after

and even

Gk.

o-tt

The may beb,

BH
E.

is

the Skt.

b/i,

Gk.

<^.

The

Skt. bk

may become

when another
^/«t/.

aspirate follows,
it

as in bandk (for ^bhandh^

In Latin

occurs as

f

initially,
;

as in fer-re,

Gk.

(pep-eiv,

Skt. b/iar, to bear, E. <5^^r
afx-cpa.

and

as b medially, as

in am-bo,
initial

both=Gk.
is

It is

worth adding that the Latin
so that the Old Lat. /br-

y

sometimes appears as

/i,

deum, barley,
lost.

usually /lordeum, or even ordeum, the k being

§

100. Teutonic: Labials.
Teut.
S.

The

B
P

is

always b in Gothic; but appears as
§ 122.

(final)

y

in

A.

See below,
is

The
the

Teut.

always

p

in Gothic, &c.

An Aryan SP
is

remains as

sp,

the

p being

unshifted

;

unless j

lost,

when
Teu-

P may become_/^ The Teut. PH is
;

regularly represented by
in

/ in

the

tonic languages.

But there are cases

which the

/ may
are

pass into b

these exceptions can be explained

by Verner's

Law,

for

which see Chapter IX.

Numerous examples
I

given further on, where, for convenience,
first.

take the E. forms

The series BH>B>P>PH(=F) is the same as B<BH; P<B; F<P; or, in another order, as P<B;

F<P; B<BH.
§ 101.

The Guttural

Series.
it

If
will

Grimm's Law be
take the following

equally true for this series also,

form.
*

Write down the

series of

symbols GH, G, K,

Latin has two remarkable exceptions, in which p has been turned into c or ^u, viz. coquere, to cook, put for *poquere (cf. Skt./^r//, to cook), and quinque, five, put for *pinque (cf. Skt. paflchan, five). Here the The O. Irish initial letters have been affected by the following qu. initial / disappears; as in O. Irish ore, a pig, Lat. porcus\ O. Irish
iasc,

a

fish,

Lat. piscis.

'

I20

GRIMM'S LAW,

[Chap. VIII.

E:H(H). Then the Aryan sound corresponding to each of these symbols (except the last), is shifted, in cognate Teutonic words, to the sound corresponding to the symbol which next follows it.
There
holds;
are,

undoubtedly,

many

cases
is

in

which

this

Lawin

but,

unfortunately, there

an

initial

difficulty

determining the Aryan values of

GH,
it.

G, and K, which

greatly interferes with the simplicity of

An

English k or

hard c ought to answer to Aryan G, as

it

clearly does

we compare E.
word found
difference

kin with Gk. yeV-os;
for

by the same
is yoCy,
is

rule,

when we

might expect that the Gk.
is /SoOy.

cow

but the actual

This suggests that there

some

initial
-y)

between the values of the Aryan
/3).

G
;

(=Gk.

and

G = Gk.
(

There are also reasons

for supposing that

the

Aryan

K

and

GH

are

now

generally admitted.

had each two values and these facts As Mr. Wharton remarks, at

p. ix

of his

Etyma

Grseca, 'the Ursprache [parent or
^,

Aryan

speech] distinguished kv
or ch,
s, z, z,

gv,

ghv (Lithuanian

^,

g^ g, Skt. k

g

or J, gh) from
,

k,

g,
,

gh (Lithuanian
;

sz^ z, z,

Slavonic

Zend, f z, z, Skt. f /, k) Greek properly represents the former by it, /3, <^, but sometimes instead by k, y, x, which
in other cases stand for original
/c,

g,

gh'

This important
fully.

distinction deserves to
§

be considered somewhat more
It

102.

Palatal and Velar Sounds.

appears that
'

there were

two
'

varieties of the

Aryan G,

called the

palatal

and

'

velar

respectively.

The former may be
'

considered as

resembling the English g^ with a tendency to become palatal ; the latter is a labialized g. The vocal organs may be shifted
to

form a vowel,' says Mr. Sayce^, 'while they are

still

in

the act of forming the consonant.
labialized letters.

Hence
is

arise viouille'

and

If the front part of the

tongue be raised
being uttered, a
for

and
^

the lips
kv^ §v,

opened while a consonant

By

w is due to
*

ghv are meant kw^ gw, ghw. The frequent use of v German writers, and is nothing less than a nuisance.
i.

Introduction to the Science of Language,

297.


§ I03.]

THE GUTTURAL
is

SERIES.
which the

121
Italian

palatalized or mouille letter

the result, of
«, or the

gl and gn, the Spanish

//

and

Portuguese Ih and

nh are examples \
being mouille \

.

.

.

Certain consonants are incapable of

gutturals, for instance, in

whose formation

the back part of the tongue plays so prominent a part, can

only be so by becoming palatals.

Labialized sounds are

those in which the lips are rounded while the pronunciation

of a consonant
the the

is

in process.

Labials and gutturals shew

same fondness for this labialization, or " rounding," that palatals and dentals do for mouillation; and a com-

parison of the derived languages proves that the primitive

Aryan speech must have possessed a row of labialized or " velar " gutturals kw, gw, ghw of which the Latin qu and our own cw, qu [and wK\ are descendants. There is nothing

to

show

that these velar gutturals
;

were ever developed out of

the simple gutturals

so far back as

we can go

in the history

of Indo-European speech the two classes of gutturals exist
side

by

side,

remain unallied and unmixed.'
palatal K-

and the groups of words containing them I shall denote the Aryan
velar

by K, and the
is

K

by

Q

;

where

Q
u.

denotes
Similarly

a y^-sound that
I shall

prepared to receive a following

denote the palatal

G

by G, and the

velar

G

by Gw,

where Ihe

w

is

added in smaller type to shew that the
it.

G

is

prepared to be followed by

We

shall

now
in

see

how

remarkably these sounds are distinguished
occasionally, but not always, Greek.
§

some of the

derived languages, including Sanskrit and Lithuanian, and

103.

Aryan
i,

G

(palatal).
;

This corresponds to Skt.
it

y,

Lithuanian
Latin g.

Slavonic z
shifts to

in

Gk.

always remains

y,

and

in

It

Teut. K, in accordance with Grimm's
ydpv, Lat. genu, is the

Thus Skt. Jdnu, Gk. E. knee. The Skt. jnd,
Law.

Goth, bu'u,

to

know, Gk. yi-ypa-aKdu, Lat.
is F..

{g)no-scere, Lithuan. Smo/i\ Russ. zna-/r,

know.

'

These sounds resemble the £.

/// in

million and ni in minion.

123

GRIMM" S LAW.

[Chap. VIII.

Aryan
two
first,

Gw (velar).

This

is

more

difficult,

as

it

exhibits

varieties,

which may be marked as

{a)

and

(3).
it

In the
appears

the

Gk. y remains unchanged;

in the second,

as

/3.

{a)

Lat. g.
Lith.

This corresponds to Skt./ or g, Lithuanian g, Gk. -y, It shifts to Teut. K, as before. Thus Skt. janas,
yevo^, Lat. genus, is

gamas, Gk.

E. kin.

Skt yugam, Gk.

Cvyov, L.ith.

Jungas, Lat.

mgum,

is

'E.yoke.

We may

notice

that

it

is

chiefly distinguished
^.

from the palatal

G

by the
Lat.

Lithuanian use of ^ instead of
{d)
^, V.

This corresponds
It shifts to

to

Skt.y or g, Lith. ^, Gk.

/3,

Teut. K, followed

hyuorw; we

often find

gu in English.
guwt's,
is

Thus
cii,

Skt. go,

Gk.

^ovs, Lat. dos, Lettish
is allied

the A. S.
life,

E. cow.
to

The

Skt.jiv, to live,
{

to

Gk.

/3io?,

and

Lat.

uiu-us

= '^guiu-us\
jivoi),

living,

Lithuan. gywas,

Old Slavonic zivu (Russ.

living;

also to Goth, kwi-us {—"^kwiw-us), stem kwiwo, living,
to A. S. cwi-c, E. qui-ck, living.

and

The A.

S.

cwic also took

the (later) form cue (with u for wt)]
couch-grass,
live grass,
it is

hence the prov. E.

otherwise

called

quitch-grass, quick-grass, i.e.

a term applied to a weed {Triticum repens) which

very

difficult to eradicate.

§

104.
c

Aryan

K

(palatal).
;

This remains as
but in Skt.
it

k in

Greek,

and
as g

(sounded as k) in Latin
e.

usually appears
s),

(i.

a sound that has been changed from k to
sz.

and

in

Lithuanian as
in

In Teutonic

it

shifts to

GH,

represented

Gothic, &C.5 by a strongly aspirated h, except in cases"
is

where the h

changed

to

g

in

consequence of Verner's

Law
Old
cant.

;

for
is

which see Chap. IX.
Skt. gata,

Thus
Gk.

E. hund-red, A. S.

hund,

Aryan kento^

k-Koxov, Lith. szimias,

Slav, suto (Russ. sto),

O. Irish

cet (Irish

cead),

Welsh

Aryan
*

Q

(velar) had, from the beginning, a tendency to

More

strictly

kmto, where

the

M

is

vocal

;

the accent being on the

latter syllable.

§ I05.]

THE GUTTURAL SERIES.

12^
:

a parasitic

w

following
is lost

it.

There are two cases

{a)

where

the tendency

in

some

of the languages, so that the
;

Q remains as k
has
o)
c/i,

in Skt.

and Lithuanian
latter

and
k,

{d)

where Skt.

Lat. has gu,
t,

and Gk.
Skt.

either retains

or has

n

(before

or T (before
in

«).

With the

case

we may rank
all

the

examples

which
k.

alone has ck, but

the other

languages have

The Aryan

Q

shifts regularly to

Teut.
{a)

KHw,
are
:

i.

e.

hw, E.

wk
qi,

or

/i
;

(or even

/).

Examples of
Gk.
ris,

Aryan qo or

who

Skt. kas, Lith. kas,

Lat.

gm

(for *quoz), guz's;

Goth, kwas, A.S. /iwd, E. wko.

Also

Aryan werqos, a
Goth, /iw
is

wolf, Skt.

mkas, Gk. Xvkos

(for fXvKos), Lat.
;

lupus (for *w/uguus), Lith. wilkas, Russ.

voW

in this case the

replaced by/", corresponding by Grimm's

Law to

the Lat. /, thus giving Goth, wul/s

of

(d) are

:

Aryan qetwar,

four

;

and E. wo/f. Examples Skt. chaivar^ Gk. Terrapesj
Russ. chet-

rea-aapesj Lat. gua/uor,

O. Irish

ce/h'r, Lith. keturi^

vero,

Welsh pedwar

;

Goth, fidwor^

A.

S.

/eower, E. y^wr.

The

Skt. has the root ruch, to shine,
;

corresponding to Aryan
^,

REUQ ^

but other languages keep the
this

as in Gk.

Xev/co?,

white,

Lat. luc-ere^ to shine;

k becomes Goth, h regularly;
E. b'gh-t (where
-/ is suffixed).
;

hence Goth.

Ituh-ts,

A.

S. l/oh-t,

In this^case the Skt. alone has preserved a trace of q the other languages it is k.
§ 105.

in all

Aryan
;

GH (palatal).

This

is

represented in Skt.

Gk. by x in Latin it is h or/" initially, and h (which often drops out) medially, or g (after a consonant). The Lith. is 5. By regular shifting, it becomes G in Teutonic.
h, in

by

Examples: Gk.
* hanser),
X^'^h)

x^'f*«^''>

winter, answers to Lat. hiems; Skt.

haxnsa, swan, answers to

Gk.

x"?"*

goose, Lat. atiscr (for

Lith. idsis, Russ. gus',
is

A.S. gSs, E. goose.

Gk.

g^llj

Lat. y^/,

E. gall.

Skt. agha^ sin, is allied to

Gk.

ax-oiy

anguish, Lat. ang-or\

and

to Goth, agis, fear,

'

See Root No. 311

in

List

of Aryan Roots, in

my

Etym. Diet,

p. 741-

124
Icel. agi^

GRIMM S LAW,
whence
the

[Chap. VIII.

mod. E. awe, a word of Scandinavian
This
</>),

origin.

Aryan
variable,

GHw

(velar).
6,

is

represented by Skt.
Lith. g.

gh

or h, Gk. X (occasionally
Lat. grains
stranger,
IjdX.

and

Latin

is

very

shewing g, ^,_/ initially, and gu, v medially. Thus is allied to Gk. x°*'P"j I rejoice ; Lat. hosiis^ a

enemy,

is

allied to

A.

S. gcest,

stranger, E. guest.

formus, warm, to Skt. gharma, warmth.
is

Lat. angm's,
Skt. aht\ a

a

snake,

allied to

Lithuan.
is

angi'Sj

Gk.

€xis,

snake.
dreu-zs,

Lat. leu-tSy light,
short,

for "^lehuis,

Gk. e-\axvs; and

for

'^hrehu-is^

Gk. ^pax-vs.

The Teutonic
It

shifts, regularly, to

G.
:

§ 106.

Grimm's Law
doudk

Guttural Series.
series

follows

from the above explanation that the guttural
really splits into a
set, viz.

G, K,

GH,
and

G, K,

GH
§

(palatal),

Gw, Q,
is

GHw (velar).
if

Hence

the

Law in

loi above, which

true

G, K,

GH

are palatal, requires to be supplemented

by the following.
"Write
viz.

down

the following series of velar letters,

Q, KHw( = IIw); then the Aryan sound corresponding to each of these symbols (except

GHw, Gw,

the last)

is shifted,

in cognate Teutonic words, to the

sound corresponding to the symbol which next succeeds it. Numerous examples are given below, where the E. forms come Jirs/. These are given by the double
set

of formulae K<G; H<K; G<GH; Hw<Q; Gw<GHw.
§

and

Q<Gw;

107.

In the above statements, only the ch'e/ pecuof particular

liarities

languages have been noticed

;

the

various consonants are often affected by their peculiar position
in

the

word or by

the

neighbouring vowels

;

for

such variations, books on classical philology must be consulted.
I

believe,

however, that I have
of
'

said

enough

to

enable

me

to

give a table

Regular

Substitution

of

Sounds,' similar to that which Curtius gives in his Greek

§ I07.1

TABLE OF CONSONANTS.
tr.

125
158;
see also

Etymology,

by Wilkins and England,

i.

Rhys, Lectures on Welsh Philology, 2nd
that

ed., p. 14.

Now

we have gone through

the whole series,
first,

we need no

longer consider the dental series

but can take them

in the usual philological order, viz. (i) gutturals, (2) dentals,
(3) labials.

Table of Regular Substitution of Consonants.
In the following
left^

table,

the

and the Teutonic on the extreme

Aryan symbols are on the right. By comparing

these, the shifting of the consonantal

ceived.

sound is at once perOnly the usual corresponding values of the con;

sonants are given

it

is

impossible to include every case.

Aryan.

126
It

GRIMM'S LAW.

[Chap. VIII.

remains to give examples of the above-named corre-

spondences of consonantal sounds.
the right-hand column.
§

These

I shall

take in
i.

the order of the table, but beginning with English,

e.

with

108.
y,

Teut.
k

K
is

(Goth,
§,

k,

A.S. hard r)< Aryan
z,

G

(Skt.

y,

Gk.

Lat.^, Lith.

O. Slav,

O.

Ir.

g\

See § 103.

The symbol
uses c
;

not
it

nevertheless,

much used in A. S., which commonly appears occasionally even in MSS.
In the
latter part

written before the Conquest.

of the A. S.
11

Chronicle

it

appears frequently, and from about
is

50

to the

present day

used before

e

and

z',

because c might other-

wise be supposed to have the sound of j; also before «,

where

it

is

now

silent,

though originally sounded.
iii.

The

order of words follows that in Ffck's Worterbuch,
Initially.

38.

E. kin, A. S. cynn^ Goth, kuni (stem kun-jdf^

Teut. KUN-YO^, a tribe (formed by 'gradation' from the Teut.
root ken);
cf.

Lat. gen-ius, in-gen-ium (whence E. genius,

ingenious), Lat. gen-us, race,

Gk.

yiv-os,

Skt. jan, to beget,

generate.

Root gen,

to beget.
lit.

E. king, A. S. cyn~ing, of (royal) race
;

belonging to the kin, or one

a derivative of kin (above)

E. can,

now

a present tense, but really an old past tense

of A. S. cunnan, to

know

;

from the Aryan root gen, to know,
yvSi-vai,

which
to

is
;

usually altered to gno, as in Gk.
see account of E.

Skt. jnd,

know

know below.
'

E. ken, to know, formerly
rivative of can.

to

make

to know,' causal de-

E. know, A.

S.

cndwan, Russ.

zna-ie, to

know, Lat.
to

no-scere,

old form gno-scere, Gk.

yi-yva-a-Ksiv,
(cf.

Skt. jiid,

know;

Aryan root gno, from an older gen
^

E. can).

The Goth.y is sounded as E. y. Teut. types, printed in capitals, are all theoretical, but are useful for shewing the right form. So also the Aryan types, also printed in capitals, are likewise theoretical. They are given in Fick's Worterbuch but the
^
;

vocalism, as there given, needs reform, and I do not

know

that I have

always

set

it

right.

§ 109.]

EXAMPLES.
S.

127

E. comb, A.

camh, a toothed instrument ; allied to Skt.

jamhha,

teeth, jaw,
S.

Gk.
;

ya/i(/))7,

jaw,

y6fi<pos,
;

a peg.

E. and A.

corn

Russ. zern-o, corn

Lat.

gran-um.
a crane,
;

E. crane^ A.

S. cran^

Welsh garan, Gk.
yrjp-veiv,

yepav-os,

Lithuan. garn-ys^, a stork, gerwe, a crane, Lat. ^r^^-j

named

from the
(above).

cry.

Cf.

Gk.

to cry out.

And

see below.

E. crow, A. S. crdw-an, to crow as a cock.

Cf. L.B.tgrus

E. carve, A. S. ceorf-an

;

Gk.

ypd(j)-eiv,
-^fz/a'j,

to scratch, write.
allied to cool,

E.
f<^/
;

f^/^, adj.,

A.

S. ceald,

Goth,

A. S.

Lat. gel-id-us, cold, ^^/-«, frost.

E. knead, A. S. cned-cm, G. knet-en, Russ. gnei-ate, gne-sti, to
press, squeeze.

\

E. ^«z/^, A. S. ^«^;

frbm the verb to nip

(for knip

%

to

pinch, bite (hence, cut), Du. knijp-en, to pinch;
znyp-ti,

Lithuan.
also

to bite

(as

a goose), to pinch, as a crab;

Lithuan. gnyh-ti, to nip.

E. knot, A. S. cnotta
knute,

;

Swed. knui (whence the Russ.
Lat.

a whip, written knout in E., was borrowed);

nod-US (for * gnodus, like noscere for gnoscere). E.
>(:«^<?,

A.

S. cne'ow,

Goth.

>^'«z«

;

Lat. ^^«z^,

Gk. yow,

Skt.
,

;^««, knee.

E. tleave, to

split,

A. S. cUof-an, G.
yXvcp-eiv,

klieb-en,

Teut. base

KLUB (Kluge);
glub-ere, to peel.
§ to

Gk.

to

hollow out, engrave, Lat.

109.

English,

As the Scandinavian languages are closely allied we naturally find that words of Scandinavian
cast^'lctX.

origin can be classed with English as regards their initial
letters.

Thus E.
a
pile,

and Swed.
(cf.

kast-a,

Dan.

kast-e,

orig. to

throw up into a heap
heap,

E. cast up a mound), from

Icel. koSy
*

is allied

to LAUgt^-ere, to cany, bring,
&

I

suppose that
is

g

appears instead of

in

IJthuanian becanse the

word
*

imitative.

Imitative words frequently

shew exceptional forms.
1
i

' Als far as cital, tlie lang symroyris day, II and kn)'p away' (1513). G. Dou(JLAS Pn.l
;

1.94.

.

IiZ8

GRIMM'S LAW.
Lat,

[Chap. VIII.

whence
Ger-ere
^es-fum.
§ 110.
«

ag-ger,

a
as

=
or

* ges-ere,

mound, a heap brought together. shewn by the pt. t. ges-si, supine
in

K >
z)

{before

e

CH. Examples becomes E. c/i.
.

which

the

A.

S.

c

E. c/iew, A. S. ceow-an, G. kau-en
Uv-attj to chew.

;

Russ. jev-ate^ O. Slav.

E. chin, A. S

rz'«,

Icel. ktnn,

G. ^z««

;

Lat. gen-a, cheek,

Gk.
taste

yiv-vs, chin, jaw.
;

E. choosey A. S. c/os-an, Goth, kius-an
;

Gk.
'^j'us),

yev-onai,

I

Lat. gus-fus,

taste

;

Skt. /wj/^ (for

to

enjoy,

relish.

§ 111.

Final K.
in

In

all

the above examples the Teut.
It will

K occurs at the
add examples

beginning of the words.

be useful to

which

it

occurs

at,

or near, the end of words.

As

before, I give only selected examples,

and

I find

myself
Fuller

compelled to give them as briefly
particulars

as

possible.

can frequently be obtained by looking out the
Etymological Dictionary
all
;

words
is

in

my
The

on which account,
the

it

not necessary to give

the

cognate words, nor
is

full

details.

order of the examples

same

as that in

Fick's Worterbuch.

Medially and finally.
Goth, auk-an;
increase.

E.

eke^ to

augment, A.
Lat.

S. eac-an,

Lithuan. aug-ti, to grow;

aug-ere, to

The mod. E. /
^y-coi/
;

is is

A.

S.

ic,

Goth,

ik

;

Lat. eg-o,

Gk.

cy-©,

but the Skt.

aham
Gk.

(as if for * aghani).
i.

E. rook (bird), A. S. hroc^
to

e.

*

croaker

'

;

Goth, hruk-jan,
cf.

crow as a cock
E. thaichj

;

Kpavy-rj^

a screaming^,

Skt. krug,

to cry out.
s.,

K.^.pCBC, Lat.
roots

ieg-ere, to cover,

Gk.

c7-rey-eti>,

Skt. sthag.

The Aryan

teg and steg, to

cover, are

merely variant forms.
^

Here

sound-shifting occurs twice, both at the beginning

and the

etid

of the word ; so also in thatch, think, &c.

;

§ ii;.]

EXAMPLES,
S.

129
;

E. think, A.

penc-an, from pane, a thought

O. Lat.

iong-ere, to think.

E. thick ; O. Irish E. dake, A. E.
^^^^^,

/z^-^, Irish tigh-e,
t.

thickness, fatness.

S. hac-an, pt.

h6c

\

cf.

Gk.

(fxoy-eiv,
;

to roast.

derived from A. S. doc, beech

Lat. fdg-us,

Gk.

E.

3rf«/^,

A.

S. brec-an, pt.

t.

3r<^^

;

Lat. fra{ti)g-ere, pt.

t.

E. black, A. S. ^fer, orig. blackened by
to

fire

;

\u2X. flag-rare,

burn
E.

;

Gk. ^^iy-uv, to scorch.
A.
S.

bleak, pale,

bide,
cf.

from

blic-an,

to

shine

;

prob.

allied to

Gk.
Gk.

cfiXeyeiv;

Lith. bhzg-eti, to shine.
allied to

E. ;w«f^, M. E. muche,
mic-el;
\i.iy-a<:,
s.,

M. E.
v.

muchel, michel, A. S.

great, fxey-dk-T], fem., great.
;

E. wzZ^,

G. melk-en, to milk,
powerful

O. Irish w<?^, milk
Skt.

Gk.

a-\i.k\y-fiv,

Lat. mulg-ere, to milk.
S. rie-e,
;

E. rzV^, A.
rdj-d, a king.
right,

Lat. reg-ere, to rule

;

We
S.

use rajah in E.
;

Here
to

also belongs E.

A.

S. riht (for * riet^

cf.

Lat. ree-tus (for * reg-tus).

E.

z«;^^'f,

A.

wac-an

;

Lat. ueg-ere,

arouse

;

«z^-z'/,

wakeful.

E. wink-lCi a
bend.

shell-fish,

winch, a crank

;

Lithuan. wing-e, a

E.

ze;(7r^,

A.

S. weorc,

s.

;

Gk. %py-ov

(for * ftpy-ov)

^
;

E. wreak, A. S. wrec-an, orig. to drive, urge, impel
urg-ere
(

Lat.

=

* uerg-ere,

to urge,

Gk.

eipy-eti/,

Ionic epy-eiv
exclude, orig.

=
to

(f^'py-"")? to

impel; Skt. vrf
Cf. E.

{—
wr^g^^,

* verj), to

bend

;

Aryan werg.
to pierce
;

from the Latin.
to pierce
;

P2. j//V^,

O. Fries,

steka,

cf.

O. Sax.
Lat.

stak,

pt.

t.

he pierced;
to prick

G.

stech-en, to pierce, stab;

in-stig-are,

forward, Gk. crTiCfw

(=

* <Trly-y(iv), to

prick, (rriy-fia, a
*

mark made by

pricking, E. stigma,

one of the numerous instances in which English throws light Eng. s/i/t preserves the initial w, which Greek lost at least iwo thousand years ago. The symbol f (di-gamma) means w.

This

is

upon Greek.
VOL.

I.

K

;

130
E.
strike.

GRIMM S LAW.
The A.
S. stric-an is

,

[Chap. VIII.

sometimes used

in just the

same sense as
face
;

Lat. stri{n)g-ere, to pass lightly over the sur-

cf.

Lat.

siri'g-tlis,

a scraper for the skin,

E. speak, for

* spreak,
;

A.

S.

sprec-an (later spec-an)

;

Icel.

sprak-a, to crackle

Lithuan. sprag-eti, to crackle, rattle

Gk.

acf)dpay-05,

a crackling.
;

E.
§

slack, lax

cf.

Skt.

sr/,

to let flow, let loose.
full list

112.

I

have given rather a

of the changes from
clearly.

Aryan g

to Teut.
lists

k

in order to

shew the principle

The

following

are less exhaustive.

Teut.
Lith. ^2).

KH
See

(Goth. >^,^)< Aryan
§ 104.

K

(Skt. f,

Gk.

k,

Lat.

c,

Initially.
cattle,

E. heath'^\

Lat. {bu)-cel-um, a

pasture

for

W. coed {='^ coe/),
cf.

a wood.
S.

E. hen (sing-er) ;
sing.

A.

han-a, a cock

;

Lat. can-ere, to

[E. head, A. S. heaf-od

is

often

compared with Lat.
is

cap-ui,

but the Goth, form

is

hauhith,

and the G.

Haupt, which

would require (says Kluge) a Lat. * cauput. Fick is wrong in supposing that the A.S. e'a was short, and mistakes the
Icel.

form, which was originally haufud^
;

E. heave

Lat. cap-ere, to hold.

(See Kluge,
horn.

s. v.

heben.)

E. horn; Lat. corn-u,
ultimate root
is

Irish corn,

From

the

same

E. har-t, allied to Lat. cer-uus, a hart.

E. hard] Gk. Kpar-vs, strong.

E. harvest, A.
6s, fruit.

S. hcer/-est

;

Lat. carp-ere, to pluck,

Gk. Kapn-

E. haulm, halm, stalk E. hazel, A.
coll.

;

Lat. culm-us,

Gk.

KaXafx-r].

S. hcBsel

;

Lat. corul-us (for * cosul-us),

Welsh

E. home, A.

S.

ham

;

Lithuan. k'im-as, a village, and perhaps
s. v.

Gk.

kco/li-t; ;

see Kluge,

Heim.
cut-is,

E. hide (skin), A. S. hyd) Lat.
*

Gk.

(jkvx-os.
this

See Etym. Diet, for fuller particulars, both as regards

and many

other words.

;

§ 113.]

EXAMPLES.
S. hund', Lat. cent-um,

I3I

E. hund-red, A.
•oV,

W.

cant] Gk. e-Kar-

Skt.

and Zend

gaia, Lith. szimias, Russ. j/^, Pers. sad.
;

E. ^^«r/, A. S. heort-e ; Lat. r(?r (stem cordi-)
Russ. serd/se, O.
Ir. mc/<?.

Gk.

Kapb-ia,

E.

rz'w^,

A.
V.

S.

^r?«^ ; Lat. a'rcus, Gk. KpU-os,

KipK-os.

E. /^a«,

(for * hlean)^

A.

S.

hlinian

;

Lat. dinare^ Gk.

E.

/^^/^ (for

'^

hloud)^ A. S. ^/«^; Lat. m-clut-us, famous,

Gk.

/cXvr-o?,

famous.
'E. eight,

Finally or Medially.
taw, Lat.
oc-to,

A.

S. eah-ta,

Goth.

<2>^-^

Gk.

ok-tco.

\X%) ^mr^
,;^'*
" ;

E.

/^«,

Goth, taih-un] Lat. dec-em, Gk.

8/K-a, Skt. tf^fd^wA-^
.'

W. deg{=*dec).
E.
ze;a.r,

to

grow, Goth, wahs-jan
av$-dpeiv, to increase.

;

Skt. z^f^M

(for *

waks),

;

.

to grow,

Gk.

(Here Gk. ^=Skt.

ks=
x,

Goth,

/is.)

§ 113.

Teut.

G

(Goth.

^)< Aryan
See

GH
;

(Skt.

/i,

Gk.

Lat. ^,y, or, after a consonant,^).

§ 105.

Initially.
* hans-er),

E. goose, A. S. gds, G.
x'7»'>

G^jwj"
;

Lat. ans-er (for

Gk.

Lith. toz>, zamsis
gall.

Skt.

hams-a, a swan.

E. ^^//; L^t/el, Gk. ^oX-^, E. ^w^j/, Goth.
^^zj-Z-j
;

Lat. host-is, stranger, guest,

enemy.
A. S.

Eng. y. The when followed by
Y.. yearn,

initial
e).

E.

g
v.,

also appears as

y

(for

g

A.

S.

gyrn-an,

from gcorn,

adj. desirous

;

G.

he-gehr-en, to long for;
sire.

Gk.

x«P-«5 joyj Skt. ^ar^i', to de-

E. yard, A. S. geard, a court

;

Lat. hort-us, Gk.

x<Jp'"-off

O. Irish gort, a garden.
E. yellow, A.
yellow
green.
;

S.

^^^/«

(ace. geolwe)

;

Lat.
;

helu-us, light

Gk.

x^*^-'??

young verdure of

trees

cf.

Russ. zelenuii^

E. yawn, A. S. gdn-ian,
'^dnien, as if for

afterwards

weakened

to

M. E.
Cf.

A.

S. *

gedn-ian\ Gk.
E. chaos
;

xa^i/-fti/,

to gape.

Gk.

xa.'Oi,

yawning

gulf,

Lat. hi-are^ to gape.
>

K

2

132
E.

GRIMM'S LAW.

[Chap. VIII.

yester -day

^

A.

S. geostra
;

(yester-)

;

Lat. hester-nus, be-

longing to yesterday

cf.

Skt. hyas, yesterday.
:

Finally and Medially

lost in

Mod.E., or represented hyw.
Icel.

E. awe^ a word of Scand.
a.x-09i

origin,

ag-t^

fear

;

Gk.
Skt.

pain, anxiety; Skt. agh-a^ sin.
;

E. main, strength, A. S. mceg-en

Gk.

fjLijx-avr],

means

;

mah

(for *

magk), to honour (magnify).
S.

E. he, A.
lej-ate,

licg-an, pt.

t.

lag

;

Gk.

Xe;(-o?,

a bed

;

Russ.

O. Slav,

lez-ati, to lie.
;

E. wain, A. S. wceg-en
§ 114.

cf.

Lat. ueh-ere, Skt. vah, to carry.

Teut.
Gk.
7,

Q
/3,

(Goth, kw, k] A. S. cw, ^)< Aryan
Lat. g, v,
b,

Gw
b\

(Skt. g, j,

Lith. g, Slav, g, g, O. Ir.

See

§ 103.

Initially.
^^j,

E. cow, A. S. «^ (for *cwu ?)
Skt.

;

O. Irish

ho,

Lat.
Pers,

Gk.

iSou?,

^0;

Pers. ^(fw, bullock.

Hence

nilgdw,
the

lit.

blue cow, written nylghau in English, and used as

name

of a kind of antelope.
v.,

E.

cack-le,

allied to

quack

;

cf.

Lith.

ge'g-e'le,

a cuckoo

(dimin. form); Russ. gog-otate, to cackle.

An

imitative word,
Cf. Lat.

and such
is

imitative

words often remain unaltered.

cachinnus, laughter,

a mere variation.

whence E. cachinnaiion. The E. gaggle Very similar is E. tattle, and even babble.
ta, ta, ba,

All result from such repetitions as ka, ka, ga, ga,
ba, qua, qua.

Cf.
S.

ha I ha!
cealf,

to express laughter.
;

E.

calf,

A.

Goth, kalb-o

Gk.

^pi^-os,

embryo,

young, Skt. garbha, embryo.
E.
coal,

A.

S. col,

G. Kohle, Teut. base kolo

(=kwalo

?).

Cf. Skt. jval-a^ flaming, jvdl-a, flame, jval, to blaze, jvar, to

burn.

E. come, A.

S.

cum-an, Goth kwim-an, Lat. uen-ire, Gk.

^aiv-eiv (for *l3av-y€iv), to

go

;

Skt. ga??i, to go.

E. queen, quean, A.
*

S. aven^, Icel. /^z'^«,
S.

a

woman Gk.
;

yui/-??,

In this

case, the

/ in A.
39).

long a; Sievers, O. E. Gram.
type

§

cwen is a mutated form of ^ = Teut. 68. Hence queen answers to a Teut.

KWANI

(Fick,

iii.

;

§ 115.]

EXAMPLES,
wife
;

1 33

woman,
zandna,

Skt. jan-i, a wife

;

Pers. zan^ a

woman

;

O.

Irish hen^ Gaelic hean.

From

Pers. zan

comes

the Hindustani

women's

apartments,

imported

into

English as
lit.

zananay or
fairy

(less correctly) zenana.

From

Gael, beanshith^

woman, we have E.

banshee or benshee.
S. cweorn, Icel.

E. quern, a hand-mill, for grinding corn, A.
kvern, Goth, kwairn-us;

Lith. girn-a, the mill-stone in a
;

quern, girn-os, pL, a hand-mill

Skt. jdr-aya, to grind,

from

pi, to grow old, to be digested.

E. quell
to die,

is

a causal form, from A. S. cwel-an (pt.

t.

cwcbI\

whence

also the sb. qual-m, A. S. cwealm, a pestilence,
destruction.
Cf.

and the A.
E. quick,

S. cwal-u,

G.

Qual, torment

Lithuan. gd-a, torment.
living,

A.

S. cwic,

Icel. kvik-r

;

a shorter form

appears in Goth, kwiu-s, quick, living (stem kwiw-a), answering to Lat. uiu-us (for * guiu-us), Lithuan. gyw-as, Russ.
jtv-oiy alive.

Cf.

Gk.

/Stor, life,

^'kx.jw, to live.

4

Medially.

E. nak-ed, A. S. nac-od^ Goth, nakw-aths, a
Allied to Russ. nag-oi, Skt. nag-na^

past participial form.

naked, O. Irish noch-t, naked.
Y..yokey § 115.

h.^.geoc] \j3X.jug-um, Gk.

^vy-6v\
S.

^\X. yug-a.
h,

Jeut.

Hw

(Goth, hw,

h,

A.

hw,

E. wh, h)
Lith.

<

Aryan

Q

(Skt. k, ch,
§ 104.

Gk.

k, tt, r,

Lat. qu,

c, v,

and

Slav. k).

See

Initially.

E. hew;

Lith. kow-a, battle, kau-li, to fight,
;

Russ. kov-a/e, to

hammer

cf.

Lat. cu-d-ere, to beat.

E. heap,

A.

S. ^/a/*,

heap,

crowd
;

;

Russ.

kup-a,

heap,

crowd

;

Lith. kup-a, heap,
S.

crowd

Lith. kaup-as, heap.

E. who, A.

^w4

;

Lat. qui, Lith.

and

Skt. ka-s,

who.

E. wheeze, A. S. hwds-an',

Lat. quer-i (pp. ques-tus), to

complain
E.

;

Skt. fZ'aj, to breathe hard.

z^;^//^',

A. S. ^z^//; allied to Lat. qui-es, rest;
still,

cf.

Gk.

tcel-fxat,

I lie

Skt.

fi,

to

lie still.

Medially. E.

lighl,

s.,

A.

S. I/oh/,

Goth. //«^-jM, brightness;
;

Lat. luc-ere, to shine,

Gk.

X*vic-<Jr,

white

Skt. ruch, to shine.

134
§ 116.

GRIMM S LAW,
Teut. Gw,
6,

[Chap. VIII.

G

(Goth, g)

<

Aryan
and

GHw

(Skt. gh, h,

Gk.

;(, <^.,

Lat. g,

h,/igu^
*

v), Lith.

Slav. g).

See

§ 105.

Medially.
E. A.

E. nail, A. S.

ncBg-el]

Russ. nog-ote,

Lith.

nag-as ; Skt. nakh-a (for
j/z7^,

nagh-a).

S.

s tig-el,
j/^^>^,
(/)

from

stig-an,

to

climb

;

cf.

Gk.

o-T6tx-"i',

to go, Skt.

to ascend.

§ 117.

Teut.
E.

T

<
A.

Aryan

D

(Skt. d,Q,\.

d,

Lat. d,

I).

Initially.

lool/i,

S. lo^ (for * lon^),

Goth, iunthus ;
tame.
defi-eiv,

Lat. ace. dent-em.

E. /<2W^

;

Lat. dom-are,

Gk.

dafi-av, Skt. d/aw, to
cf.

E. timber, Goth, tim-r-jan, to build;
build.

Gk.

to

E.

/^<7r,

s.,

Goth, /^^r;

Lat. lacrima, O.

Lat. dacrima,

Gk.

daKpv.
/^(zr, v.,

E.

Goth, ga-tair-an
;

;

Russ.

d/zir-^,

a rent

;

Lithuan.

dir-ti,

Gk.

bep-eiu, to flay

Pers. dar-idan, to tear.
SpO-ff,

E.

/r^^,

Goth.

/rz*2^

;

Gk.

O. Irish ^^zr, Welsh derw,

oak

;

Russ. drev-o,
/^ze;;^,

tree.

E.

A.

S. tun,

an enclosure

;

O. Irish dun, a walled

town, Welsh din (whence din-as, a town).
E.
tie,

tow,
;

v.,

tug

;

cf.

Lat. duc-ere, to draw.

E. tongue

Lat. ling-ua, O. Lat. ding-ua.
;

E.
E.

/^«,
/^,

Goth, taihun
;

Lat.

</^^^z7z,

Gk.

SeVa, Skt.

dagan,

prep.

Russ.
;

^(?,

O. Irish

do, to.

E. trea-d, tra-mp

cf.

Gk. 8pd-mi,
a'w^,

Skt. ^r(2, to run.
dvo,

E.

/z£;c>,

A.

S.

twd; Lat.

Gk.

Russ. and Skt.

^z'«,

Irish da.

Finally and Medially.
E.
<?z//,

E.

at,

Goth, at; Lat. ad.

|

A.S.

tit;

Skt.
;

zz^,

up, out.

E.
eat.

eat,

Goth. zV-aw

Lat. ed-ere,

Gk.

cS-eti/,

Skt. ad, to

E. w^^/; Lat. quod, quid; Skt.
Y^./oot; Lat.
"Y.*
2^0.0,.

/^^</,

what.

ped-em, Gk. ace.

ttoS-o, Skt./<2^.

fleet, float

;

hithu^,!!.

plud-au, I

float.

E.

hett-er,

Goth,

^^/-j,

good; Skt. hhad-ra, excellent.

§ ii8.]

EXAMPLES,

1 35

Y..bite\ l^2X.fi{n)d-ere^ to cleave, pt.t.^^-zVSkt.<5^/<!/, to cleave.

E. wat-er E.
ott-er
;

;

Russ. vod-a^ Gk.

vS-cop, Skt.

ud-an^ water.
;

Russ. vuz'd-ra, Lithuan. ud-ra, otter

Gk.

v8-pa,

water-snake,

E. wit^

whence E. hydra. weet, to know; Russ.
(for
*Fi8-eiv), to
old-a,

vid-iete, to

see, Lat. uid-ere^

Gk.
E.

Ib-eiv

see;

Skt.

r.'?'(5?,

to

know,
to

orig.

to see.
stf

E. z£;^/=Gk.
;

Russ.

sid-iete^

Lat. sed-ere, Skt.
sit.

j*^^,

sit

;

Gk.

e^ofiai (=*o-e5-y<?-/iai),

I

E.

jz£;^r/,

dark, black, Goth, swarfs; allied to Lat. sord-es

(for * sward-es)^ dirt,

whence

sord-td-us, dirty

;

surd-us^ dim-

coloured.
'E.

Cf. E. sordid, surd.

sweet",

Lat. sud-ms
;

{=* suad-m's),

pleasant;

Gk.

jJS-v?

(=*(rfa5-uy), swcet

Skt. svdd-u, sweet.

Cf. E. suave.

E. sweat;
pws),

Lat. sud-or {=.* swid-or^,

Gk.

tS-pa>s

(=*(rft5-

y

sweat

;

Skt. svid, to sweat, sved-a, sweat.

§ 118.

Teut.
See
E.

TH
;

(Goth,

th,

d)=k^Yx^
/d:<^.

T

(Skt.

/,

Gk.

r,

Lat.

/).

§ 96.
//^«/

Initial.

Lat. {ts)-tud, Skt.
s.;

E. thatchj A.S.

J^^rr,

Lat. teg-ere, to cover; Gk. rey-os,

roof, (TTey-fiv, to cover.

Cf. E. tegument.

E. /^/«^ E.
/>^/«
;

;

cf.

0. Lat. tong-ere^ to think.
/(?«>(7y,

Lat. ten-uis^ Russ.
;

Skt. tan-u^ thin.

E. thun-der E. /y^or«
Y..
;

Lat. ton-are, to thunder.
/^rwif,

Russ.

black-thorn

;

Polish tarn, thorn.

thirst; Irish /^r/, Skt. tarsha, thirst;

Gk.

repa-ofiai,

I

am

dry.
thote, V.

E.
erare,

to

endure

(still

in use provincially)

;

Lat. tot-

Gk.

rX^-i/at.
;

Cf. E. tolerate.
tig-e,

E. MzV^'

O. Irish
Russ.
;

thickness, tiug, thick.
Lat. tu
;

E. thou

;

tui, Irish /«,

Pers.
;

/tf.

E. thorp

Lithuan. trob-a, a dwelling

O.

Irish

treb,

a

sctllcment, tribe;

G. Dor/.
;

E. threat-en

;

Lat. trud-ere^ to push, urge

Russ. trud-tte, to

urge to work, vex.

;

136
E.
three',

GRIMM'S LAW.
Irish, Russ., Skt., tri\ Lat. tres^

[Chap. VIII.

Gk.

rpely.

Final and Medial.
E.
tooth
;

E. heath

;

Lat. hu-cet-uvi^ cow-pasture.
dant.
;

Lat. ace. dent-em^
;

Welsh
fly,

'E./eaih-er

Gk.

ner-ofiai, I

Skt. pat-ra, feather

Lat.

pen-na (for *pet-na), a feather, whence E, pen.
E. murth-er [rnur-der), A. S. mor^-or, Goth, maurth-r
ace. mort-em, death.
Cf. E. mortal.
;

Lat.

E.

jf^/y^^

;

cf.

Skt. kshat-a^

wounded.
(Skt. dh, d,

§ 119. init.y^

Teut. med. d, b,

D (^< Aryan DH
Lith., Slav., Irish d).

Gk.

6,

Lat.

Initial.

E. dare, Goth, dars^ I dare
fi%rj"/^,

;

Gk.

6apa-e7v, to

be

bold, Russ. derz-ate, Skt.

to dare.
;

E. dough, Goth, dig-an, to knead
Skt. ^/^ (for

Lat. fing-ere, to
Cf. E. feign,

mould

*dhigh), to

smear.

from the

French.
E. daughter
;

Gk.

OvyaTrjp

;

Skt. duhitar (for * dhughitar).
(for ^ dhvdr-d), '^v&?,.dvere\

E.

^(?^r;

Gk.
\

^up-a,

Skt dvdr-a
pi.,

O. Irish dor-US
E.
d/(?;

'L2it/br-es,
Ti-9i]-fii,

doors.
Skt. a'^^, to put.

Gk.
to

I set, put, place;

Hence E.
E.
sound.

doo-m, Gk.

^€-/>ity.
;

^r^;?^,

hum

Gk.

6prjv-os,

a dirge

;

Skt. dhran, to

Final and Medial.

E. udd-er; Lat. ud-er (for *udh-er),

Gk.

ov6-ap, Skt. udh-an, udh-ar.
;

E. hard; Gk. Kpar-vs, strong

Ionic

Kcipr-os,

strength.

E. E.

^2*<:/^,

A. S. Aj/^; Lat.
Skt.

cut-is,

Gk.

o-AcGr-off.

(5/;^^;
;

dandh

(for

*dhandh), to bind; Pers. handan,

to bind

Aryan bhendh.
Gk.
;

E. r^^;

i-pv6-p6s,

Lat. ruh-er (for
ri^^z^,

^rudh-er)\

Skt.

rudh-ira, blood

O. Irish

red.

E. wid-ow

;

Lat. uid-ua, Skt. vidh-avd.
Cf.

E.
E.

re;^?^^;
j/z"^^,

Lat. uerb-um (for '^uerdh-uni).

Eng.
;

verbal.

A.

S. slid-an, to slide, slid-or, slippery

Lith. J/^^-

«j, slidd-us, shining, slippery.

But E. .y/^a</ has ^ for M;

cf.

Goth,

stath-s.

It is allied to

Lat.

§ 120.]

EXAMPLES.
a station; Skt. sthit-i (for
* stit-i)^

137
an abode;
§ 118.

stat-io^

For
See

similar examples, see §§ 129, 130.

§ 120.

Teut. P (/>)< Aryan There
is

B
in

(Skt.

b,

Gk.

^, Lat.

by.

§§ 98, 100.

Initial.
initially.

no example

which

this

change occurs
O.
Irish

Final and Medial.
ab-all, ub-all,

E. app-le^ A.

S.

cepp-el;

Lithuan. ob-olys, Russ. iab-loko.
S. clypp-an, to

E.

clip^

A.

embrace

;

Lithuan. ah-ghb-H^ to

embrace.
E. thorp
;

Lith. irob-a^ a dwelling, O. Irish treb^ a settle-

ment,

tribe.
;

E. deep^ Goth, diups

Lith. dub-us^ hollow, deep.

There seem, however, to be some clear cases in which the Aryan P has practically remained unshifted in English. This fact has been denied but I think it should be ad;

mitted,

though there may be some special cause, such as
'^.

accent, to account for such exceptions to the general rule.
I

subjoin examples
Initial.

E. path^ A. S. peed

^

pad

\

Lat. pons^ ace. pont-em^

a bridge, orig. a path,

way

;

Gk.

7rar-oy,

a trodden way, path
s. v.

;

'^\.\..path-a (for '^pat-a)^

a path. (See however Kluge,

P/ad)

Final and Medial.
under, up-ari\ over'.
Skt.

E. up^ Goth, tup;
It

Skt. up-a^ near,

can hardly be denied that the
to E.

upari^ over,

is

allied

upper;

and

it

is

equally

certain that Skt. upari corresponds to Goth, u/ar^ E. over.

In
is

fact,

upper and over are mere variants, and an upper-coal

an
*

over-coat.

In the former case, the Aryan p remains
in

There seem to be also some cases

which Teut. P = Aryan P

;

see

further.
^ Some have even asserted that an initial p is impossible in English, and that every E. word beginning with p must be borrowed Yet none will deny that / occurs finally in native words, as e. g. in «/, sharp, warp, shape and if finally, why not initially ? ' The ideas of under and over are mixed ; cf. Lat, sub^ under, sup-ir^ over. Motion from beneath is an upward motion.
!

;

*

'

*

'


GRIMM'S LAW,
;

138
unshifted
in

[Chap. VIII.

the latter case,

it

is

shifted regularly.

The
g,

only reason for assuming that the Aryan p must be shifted
lies

in the

notion that
B, p,

all

the nine

Aryan sounds

k,

GH, D, T, TH,
I

BH

—must

alwoys be shifted in Teutonic.
fact,

look on the occasional apparent unshifting of p as a
lest

which has only been denied
imperfect.

Grimm's Law should seem

Yet we have already seen how very imperfectly

the second shifting, from
out.

Low

to

High German, was

carried

See the examples below.
;

E. heap^ A. S. heap (G. Hauf-e)
kup-a, a heap.

Lithuan. kaup-as, Russ.

(Kluge admits

this relationship,

but notes

the irregularity.)

E. sharp

;

allied

to Lat. scalp-ere^ to cut,

Gk.

o-KopTr-io^,
is

a

stinging insect, scorpion.

(In this case the shifting
/).

pre-

vented by the preceding r or
E. s/ep
;

See Fick,

i.

811.

Russ.

stop-a,

a foot-step.
viz.

(Here Kluge assumes
suppose,

double forms for the root,

stab and stap.)

I believe that further instances

might be given.

I

for example, that our

word

to shape comes, without shifting,
is

from an Aryan root skap, to cut ; and that our word shave
merely the same word in a shifted form.
double root-forms, skab and
§ 121.
s»^ap,

But here again,
(Skt. /,

are assigned.

Teut.

PH

(Goth. /, b)

<

Aryan P
narrjp,

Gk.

tt,

Lat. p).

Examples

are numerous.

Initial.
pi'dar,

'E./ather; Lat. pater, Gk.

Skt pitar,

Pers.

'E./oot; Lat. ace. ped-em,

Gk.

ace. noB-a,

Skt pad, pad,

Pers.

pa, pdi.

E. feather

;

Gk.

TrrfpoV

(for * Trer-epoV),

wing, Skt. patra,

wing, feather.
Y,.fath-om ;
cf.

Lat. pat-ere, to spread,
nop-evoixai,

open

;

Gk.
a

neT-dpvvfii,

E. fare'. Gk.

I

travel,

nop-os,

way;

Lat.

ex-per-ior, I pass through,

whence E.
Gk.
ivpo;
3

experience.

E.for, prep.

;

Lat. pro,

Skt. pra, before, away.

E. farrow, from K.S.fearh, a pig

Lat. porc-us (E. pork).

§ 121.]

EXAMPLES.
Rvi%^. pol-nuu,

139
full.

E. /«//;
TrXrj-prjs.

Skt pur-na^
Gk.

Cf.

Gk.

ttoX-v?,

E./ell,
'E.

s.,

skin;

L2.t. pe/l-is,
\.2X.

7reXX-a.

/bal,

A.S./o/a;

pull-us,

young of an animal, Gk.

E. -fold, as in two-fold \
double, two -fold.
Yj.fall\
cf. Ia2it.fall-i
fall,

cf.

Gk.

8t-7rXao-tos (for * hu-iiXaT-yo^,

(for * sfall-t)^ to err;

Gk.

(r(f)aX\-eiv,

to cause to
lost.)

Skt. sp/ial (for * spa/\ to tremble.

(Initial j

E. few

;

Lat. pau-cus, few, pau-lus, litde.
'Lzi.pisc-u,

"E.Jis/i;

O.

Irish z^jc (for * piasc).
;

E. y»«-/ ;

Lat. pu-lid-us, stinking

Skt. /)^, to stink.

E. fire
'E.feej
"E.

;

Gk.

nvp.

Goih. faihu, cattle; LsX.pecus, Skt. pafu, catde.
lit.

friend, Golh.fn-jonds,
;

'loving;' Skt. /rz, to love.
Cf.

E. freeze, Goth, frius-an

Skt. prush, plush, to burn.

Lat. pru-ina, hoar-frost, pru-na, a burning coal.

E. yf(i?z£;
float;

;

allied to Lat. pluu-ia, rain,
Tiki-nv, Skt. plu, to

Russ.

plu-iie, to

sail,

Gk.

swim.

Cf. E. plover.

Final and Medial.
usually appears as v.

Note that, in mod. Even ^is pronounced

E., the A.S.
ov.

/

E. of
Skt.

off,

A.S.

of,

Goth.

^;
?//izr

Lat. ab (for * j/),

Gk.

ait-o,

<z^-(2,

from.

E. over, A.S.

^r,
t.

Goth.

;

Skt. upari, above.
strip,
;

E. reave, be-reave, A.S. re'af -tan, to
Lat. ru{??i)p-ere, pt.
rup-t, to break
loot,

plunder; allied to

Skt. lup (for * rup), to

break, spoil.
origin,

Our E.

plunder,

is

a Hindi word of Skt.

from Skt.

lotra, loptra, plunder,

a derivative of

/«//>,

to

break, also to spoil.
E..

shave, A.S. sceaf-an, Golh.
;

skab-an', Lith. skap-6ti, to

shave, cut
at the

Gk.

(TKa-n-rtiv,

to cut a trench, dig.

See remarks

end of

§ 120.

§ 122.

Teut.

B

(Jj)

< Aryan BH

(Skt. bh,

Gk.

<^,

Lat./

^

^; Pers., Slav., Irish b).

; ;

140
Initial.

GRIMM S LAW.
E. hane^ A.S. ban-a, a murderer
Irish hen-aim, I strike.
hoc,
;

[Chap. VIII.

cf.

Gk.

<f)6v-0Sf

death,

murder ; O.

E. E.

beech, hook,
3^//-^r

A.S.

beech

;

\^2i\..fag-us,
;

Gk.

(prjy-os.

(comparative);

Goth, ba/s, good

Skt. b/iad-r a,

excellent.

E. hmd; Skt. handk (for ^hhandK), to bind, Pers. hand-an,.
to bind.

E.

bear, v.

;

Lat. fer-re, Gk. ^ep-etv, Skt. bhar, to bear

Pers. bur-dan, to carry; O. Irish ber-ini, I bear.

E. brother ;

l.?!./rater,

Gk.

(f)pdTr)p,

Skt. bhrdtar, Russ. ^r^/'^

O. Irish hrdthir, Pers. birddar.
E. ^^r^,
v.; I^?!. for -are, to

bore, Pers. hur-idan, to cut.

E. 3//^;

'L2X. fi{n)d-ere, pt.
;

t

fid-t, Skt.

3^z<5?,

to cleave.
_;f($^r.

E. beaver
"E.

Lithuan. hebrus, Russ.

^^<5r',

Lat.

birch (tree),

Mercian
Russ.

(^/rr^,

A.S.

(5fd?rr;

Russ. bereza;

Skt. bhUrja, a

kind of birch-tree.
<5/(?-«
;

E.

<5^,

A.

S.

<5«-zV^,

to be, ^«-^z^, I shall
(^v-^iv,

be

Lat. yb-r^, to he,/u-i, I was;

Gk.

Pers. bic-dan, Skt.

M^,

to be.
;

E. break, Goth, brik-an
to break.
Cf.
;

Lat. /ra{^)g-ere, pt.

t.

freg-i,

Y.. fragment,

from the same
6-(f)pvs
;

root.
<2-(5r^,

E.

^r^ze;

Russ.
v.,

^r^z'^,

Gk.

Pers.
;

Skt. ^^r^.

E. brook,

A.

S. bri^c-an, to

enjoy

Lat. />-«/, pp.fructus,
Skt.
^i^zf;'

(=

*frug-tus), to enjoy, yrz<§--^j,
Cf.

fruit,

(=

*hhug,.

for '^bhrug\ to enjoy.

Y.. fruit,

from the French.
burnt
or

E.

<5/^z£;,
3/<3r^/^,

(as

wind)

;

Lat. fla-re.

E.
fire
'

A.

S. 3/^r, orig.

sense
;

'

'

*

scorched by

;

Lat. flag-rare, to

burn

Gk.

cpXey-eiv, to

burn

;

Skt..

bharg-as, light, brightness.

Cf. E. flagrant.

E. blow (as a flower)
flourish
;

;

Lat. flo-s, a flower, flo-r-ere,

to-

O. Irish

bld-the,

bloom,

bldth,

a flower.
b,

Final and
Gothic,
is

Medial.

The

Teut. final

preserved in

weakened

to v (written /") in
is

Anglo-Saxon.

In
its

a few words, such as turf, the v
position.

strengthened to
ve in

f

by

This A.S./ usually becomes

modern English,

;

§122.]

EXAMPLES,
;

141
Gk.
ypdcp-eiv, to scratch,
I cut.

E. carve^ A.S. ceorf-an^ G. kerb-en
grave, inscribe, write
^.

Cf.

O. Irish cerd-ai'm,

E. ca/f; Gk.
calf
:

^pecjy-os (for *ype(p-os), foetus, foal,

whelp, cub,

Skt. garbh-a, foetus.
cleave^ to split,

E.

A.

S. cleof-an, Icel. kljuf-a;

Gk.

yXv(}>-€Lv,

to hollow out, engrave, Lat. glub-ere (for ^ glubh-ere\ to peel.

(We

speak of cleavage with relation to

splitting in

layers,

like peel.)

E. and A. S. turf; prob. related to Skt. darbh-a, a kind of

matted grass.
E. nave (of a wheel), A. S.

«^«,

naf-u

;

Skt. ndbh-i, navel,

nave of a wheel.
E. beaver, A. S. <5^r
;

Russ. bobr\

"LdX.

fiber

;

Skt. babhru,

a large ichneumon.
E.
//iy^

dear, A. S. Uof, Goth,

/z'z^^-j

;

Russ.
;

liob-oi,

agreeable,

liob-o^ it

pleases

;

Lat. lub-et^

it

pleases

Skt. lubh, to covet,

desire.

E. weave, A.

S.

wef-an

;

Gk.

v^-j; (for

*

f €</)-^), a

web
lit.

Skt. vdbh-is, a weaver, in the
*

comp. urna-vdbhis, a

spider,

wool- weaver,' cited by Curtius.
E. shove, A. S. scof-ian,

weak

verb,

allied

to

scuf-an,

to shove, strong verb

;

Skt. kshobh-a (for * skobha), agitation,

kshubh
^

(=

* skubK), to

become

agitated.

Grave and
;

SKARBH
Gk.

carve keeps the

ypaxp-eiv

seem to be variants from the same root, viz. Aryan K (s being lost) ; whilst A. S. graf-an and shew a weakening from k to 7.
^arz/^

Q

y

.
I

yv

CHAPTER
Consonantal Shifting
:

IX.
Verner's Law.

§ 123.

In Chapter VII I have given Grimm's

Law

in the

usual form.

The

original notion, as started

by Rask and
early three

Grimm, seems

to have

been

that, at

period, the Parent (or Aryan)

Speech

some extremely split up into

systems, well distinguished by three different habits of using
the chief consonants.

And,

in

some mysterious way,
It is

this

happened, perhaps, contemporaneously.

obvious that
All ex-

nothing of the kind could ever have taken place.

perience shews that sound- changes take place but slowly, and

new

habits take long to form.

Indeed, the assumption that
is

the three systems took their rise contemporaneously

as

needless as
talk
it is

it is

unlikely.

Further,

it

is

not a good plan to
;

about the shifting of Sanskrit forms into Teutonic

for

quite certain that the Sanskrit forms are often themselves

of a degraded type.
skrit or

The

shifting took place, not
*

from San-

Greek, nor even from the

classical'

languages con-

sidered collectively, but from the

Aryan or Parent Speech.

At what time
sounds,

the

Low German
say
;

languages shifted the Aryan
at least

we cannot

but

we

know

that

it

must

have been in a very early prehistoric period, since the Gothic
of the fourth century shews the shifting almost wholly carried
out.
It is perfectly safe to

say that

it

took place soon after
the other hand, the

the Christian era at the latest.
shifting

On

from the

Low German
much
later,

sounds to the High German

ones was not only

but can be historically traced.

Many

of the oldest
forms.

High German poems abound with Low
celebrated
*

German

The

Strasburgh Oath/ dated

§ 12 3.]

CONSONANTAL SHIFTING.

1

43

842, has dag (not tag) for 'day'; godes (not goites) as the
genitive of
'

god/ though the nominative
Otfrid's metrical

is

got ; thing (not

ding) for 'thing.'

version of the Gospel

history has dohier^ daughter, duan, to do, ihanken, to thank,
ihurstj
thirst,

&c.;

yet Otfrid

was only born a few years
is

before a.d. 800.

As an

exact date

hardly possible,
a.d.

it

is

enough
still

to say that this shifting,

begun about
I

600, was

going on in the ninth century.

cannot do better than

quote the words of Strong and Meyer, in their History of the

German Language,
'

1886, p.

70..

The High German
is

Teutonic group,

language, though belonging to the West yet divided from the other members of this

group, as well as from those of the East Teutonic, by a process
of consonantal sound-shifting which in
great similarity to that which separates

many
all

respects bears

the Teutonic lan-

guages from the other Indo-European languages. It is therefore sometimes called the second sound-shifting process. This process set in about 600 a.d., originating in the mountains of South Germany, and began thence to spread southwards and northwards, affecting the languages of the Langobards, Alemans, Swabians, Bavarians, and Franks, until it gradually came to a standstill in the regions of the lower Rhine. Taking these sound-changes as^a test, we call all Teutonic languages and dialects that were affected by them High German, and all those
left

unaffected by

them we

call

Low German.

*This whole sound-shifting process was, however, nowhere
consistently carried out.
shifted

While the dentals are consistently on the entire High German territory, excepting alone in the Middle-Franconian dialect, the shifting of gutturals in anlaut and in auslaut [i.e. initially and finally] after consonants is confined to the so-called Upper German dialects, and that of initial labials ceases to operate in the Rheno-Franconian
dialect.'
It

follows that
its

High German was
its

originally, as regards the

use of

consonants, in complete accordance with
so that

Low

German ^,
'

later characteristics arc, comparatively,
. .

'The dialectal separation between South and North German . must have begun about the year 600 Dutch, English, Danish,
.
. .

144

VERNER'S LAW.
Grimm

[Chap. IX.

of no particular importance to the student of early English.
It

was natural
it

that

should include

it

in his

scheme,

would have been better to treat it separately, because the facts had to be forced to try to make the scheme look complete. It is not only more convenient, but absolutely
but

more

scientific, to

leave

it

out of consideration in taking a

survey of the consonantal system of the Aryan languages.

We

then have only to deal with one

fact, viz. that

the

Low

German

languages, or (to speak with perfect exactness) the

Teutonic languages generally, shifted the Aryan (not merely
the 'classical') sounds according to a formula which

may

roughly be denoted by the following symbols,

viz.

GHw >
accord-

Gw>Q>KHw(Hw); GH >G >K>KH(H);

DH>D>

T>TH; andBH>B>P>PH(F).
the symbol

Let
*

it

be noted that
into,' in

>

means

'

older than

'

or

passes

ance with
§

its

algebraical value of

'

greater than.'

124.

briefly, this.

The real They

discovery

made by Rask and Grimm

practically said

was,

'

It is

not enough to ob-

serve that the Latin ires corresponds to E. three^ or the Latin
tu to the English thou
;

these are only special instances of
initial /

a great general law, that a Latin
English
initial th,

corresponds to an
;

whatever the word

may be

and, similarly,

for other letters.'

This grand generalisation was an enormous
it

advance, because
laws,

sowedjhe notion
is

that languages have

and

that there

regular correspondence between such

of them as are related.

Possibly they

may

have regarded

rather the letters or symbols than the sounds for

which they

stood

;

and, in

fact, this is

the easiest

the only

way

that

can be perfectly
only

way of beginning, and explained to the eye. At
must
really deal with the

the

same

time, the true philologist
it

sounds themselves^ and

important truth that

by a recognition of this allmost modern advances in the science of
is
.
.

Swedish, and Norwegian

.

Germanic speech, whilst High German has separated common foundation.' Scherer, Hist. Germ. Lit., i. 35.

have really kept to the original form of itself from this

§ 125.]

GRIMM'S LAW.
The symbol
is

1

45

languages have been made.
shift; the

a mere

make-

sound

is

subject to real physiological laws which

are of primary importance, and frequently, or as
say, invariably^ act with surprising regularity \
is

some would
best plan

The

to regard the formulae of

sound -shifting,

in § 107, as fur-

nishing a convenient empirical rule, which should, in every
case of word-comparison, be carefully considered.

The

facts

themselves are nearly two thousand years old, and Grimm's

Law

only formulates them conveniently.
'

I

have already

observed that

Grimm's Law are extremely vague. Many imagine that Grimm made the law not many years ago, since which time Latin and Anglo-Saxon have been bound to obey it. But the word law is then
the popular notions about
;

strangely misapprehended

it

is

only a law in the sense of

an observedfact.
tiated in times

Latin and Anglo- Saxon were thus differenlatter,

preceding the earliest record of the

and
^

the difference might have been observed in the eighth century
if

any one had had the wits

to observe
all
it,

it.

When

the differ-

ence has been once perceived, and
equivalent words are seen to follow
establish

other A. S. and Latin

we cannot
care^

consent to

an exception

to the

rule in order to

compare a
A.
S. cearu,

single (supposed) pair of

words [such as E.
coir<i\

and Lat. cura, O. Latin
125.
It is

which did not agree in the

vowel-sound, and did not originally
§
all,

mean

the

same thing ^.'
that, after

extremely important to observe here
shiftings

several of the above supposed

are not really

confined to the Teutonic branch of languages.

Take,

for

example, the word brother^ Skt. bhrdtar.

BH
*

is

only kept in the

Here the Aryan Skt. bhrdtar Gk. (l>pdTTjp, and the Lat.
,

Exceptions are regarded as due to the external influence of forms to be in the same category. Thus A. S. ruare is now 7ugrt, because we already had «/-/, s/ia//, 7uilt,

which seem

' Some of the spellings in /IClfrcd's translation of Orosius are not a little remarkable. He writes GaScs for Lat. Gcuies, McHia for Media, Athlans for Atlas Pulgoras are liulgarians,' Crecas are Greeks,' &c.
* * ;

'

Prcf. to
I.

Etym.

Diet., p. xxiv.

VOL.

L

146
/rater
;

VERNER'S LAW,
it is

[Chap. IX.

B

that appears in Russ. brat^ (spelt Irairu in the

Old Church-Slavonic), O. Irish brdihair, Lith. brolis, Pers. birddar (Zend and O. Pers. brdtar) as well as in the Gothic
brothar.
nificant;

In

this respect the table
fact,

given in § 107

is

very sig-

and, in
itself,

the weakening of bh to b occurs in

Sanskrit

as in bandh, for bhandh, to bind.
for

Latin often

has

d

for

Aryan DH, and g

GH

;

and, in the

same way,

the E. door goes with Russ. dvere, and O. Irish dorus, as distinct

from the Gk. 6vp-a

;

whilst the A. S. ncBg-el, a nail, goes
nail, as

with Russ. nog-ote^ Lithuan. nag-as^ a
Skt. nakh-a^ itself a variant for * nagh-a.
shiftings

distinct

from

Certainly, the three

expressed by
simplifications

GH>G, DH>D,
w^hich

and

BH>B
it is

are

natural

can surprise nobody.

For
fair to

whatever sounds were denoted by

GH, DH, BH,

suppose that they were more
sounds denoted by G, D, and

difficult

of utterance than the
Further, the Teutonic

B

only.

symbol

KH

merely meant

h,

so that the formula
h^

K > KH
but

really represents a

change from k to
effort.

and of these two
is,

sounds k requires the greater

There

no doubt,
^ ;

some

difficulty

about such changes as

G > K, D > T D

they were probably due to a striving after distinctness, in
order to separate the original
instances

G

and

from the degraded
not

of

GH

and

DH.

They

are

more wongood as

derful than the Highlander's pronunciation of very

Without pursuing this subject further, I will fery coot. merely observe that, in Anglo-Saxon, the Greeks are called
Crecas
quite

as

often

as they are. called

Gre'cas.

The

Gothic bishop Wulfila called them Krekos.

L

Notwithstanding all exceptions, § 126. Verner's Law. some of which are real and some apparent, the Teutonicsound-shiftings exhibit, upon the whole, a surprising regularity; and every anomaly deserves careful consideration, because we may possibly learn from it some useful lesson.
^

I do not here include the change denoted by
case, very rare.

B

> P,

which

is,

in

any

y

§ 127.]

EFFECT OF ACCENT.
just
*

I47

It

was

by taking
Verner's

this scientific

view that the remarkable

law called
ceed
to
it

Law was
'

discovered, which I

now

pro-

explain
explains

and
is

illustrate.

The

particular

anomaly

which
^

well exemplified

by comparing the Lat.

pater mater^frater^ Skt. patar^ mdtar, bhrdtar, with their Teutonic equivalents.
brother,

In modern English we hzNt father, mother
not the case in Anglo-Saxon,

because constant association has given the words the
-ther,

same ending

but this

is

nor even in Middle English \

The Chaucer MSS. have
O.

fader, moder, brother, in agreement with A. S, feeder, viodor^
brodor, O. Friesic feder,

moder, brother,

Saxon fadar,

modar, brothar, Gothic fadar, brothar (the Gothic word for
*

mother

'

being

aithet).

I

may

add,

on

the authority of Dr.

Peile,
fully

whose

assistance in describing Verner's

Law

I

thankstill

acknowledge, that the dialect of S.W. Cumberland
brother, in

employs the word?, fader, mudder,
Anglo-Saxon.

accordance with

It is quite certain that

the true Teutonic types

of these three words are fader, moder, br6ther, whilst the
true

shews the

Aryan types are pater, mater, bhrater. The last of these shifting T > TH, whilst the two former shew T > D. There should be Here is something worth investigation.
reason for this
;

^
p.

some

and the problem

is,

to discover

it.

\ 127.

Various answers might be suggested, but the true

reason was given by Karl Verner, of Copenhagen, in July,

1875, and was published in Kuhn's Zeitschrift,

vol. xxiii.

97 (1877).

Perhaps the

first

thought that might occur to
this, viz. that

any one who takes up the problem would be
the former syllable, whilst the a
this

the Lat. pater differs from frciter in having a short vowel in

mfrater

is

long.

Unluckily,
is

breaks

down
it

at once,

because the a in mater

long^

which links
cause which

with the

wrong word.

Verner shews that nol
is
is

commonly

operates in language

capable ofj
accent.
If
I

causing these variations except one
'

— and that

It is

not easy to find examples ol father, mother before 1500,

Let

the reader try.

L

2


148

;

VERNER'S law.
we
find the
still

[Chap. IX.

we

turn to Gk.,
a),

words

to be

TrciTTjp, fJLrjrrjp,

(ppdrrip

(with long
TTarrip;

which
is,

links

firjTrjp

with

(ppdrr^p,

not

'wdth

hut the fact

that the

Greek does not

in this instance

represent the original Aryan accent, though
guide.
Sanskrit,

it is

often a

on the contrary, gives the
bhrd'tar
it

facts rightly,

good and
after

solves the difficulty.

In Sanskrit, the true old nominatives
(first

were

pi'/a'r, vidta'r,

a long), where the dot

a vowel denotes that

was accented.

That

is

to say, pitar

and mdtar were accented on the

latter syllable,

but bhrdtar

upon

the former.
:

Hence we deduce
T, or

this tentative or pro-

visional rule

{y

If the

Aryan K,

P

immediately follows the
1

^(y position of the accent, it shifts regularly to the Low German h, th, or f ; but if it precedes the position of /^r
J

(^\

the accent,

it

becomes

(as it

were by a double

shift-]

ing) g, d, or b.

To
was

this

that the
at

it must be added, by way of necessary explanation, Aryan and Sanskrit (and indeed the Greek) accent first, at least predominantly, an accent of pitch, and

concerned the tone of the voice, having nothing to do with the
length or
'

quantity

'

of a syllable, nor yet with
that the

stress,

as in

modern
one of

English.

Verner thinks

Teutonic accent was

stress also,

not of pitch only; so that the stress falling

upon

the vowel of an accented syllable preserved the conit

sonant which followed
shifting.

from further change beyond

its first

Otherwise, the consonant following an unaccented
further change.
iki^

syllable suffered

Thus

the Teutonic br6'its

THER, accented on

former syllable, kept

th unchanged th
to d,

but the Teutonic fathe'r, accented (in the earliest period)

on

the latter syllable, suffered a further change of

thus becoming fader.
§

128. Verner's
I

Law

(in

the original German).
shall

I

ought to say that

have only stated Verner's Law, as given

above, in a popular way.
*

His own words

now be

given.

Indogerm.

k, t,p,

gingen

erst tiberall in h, ///,/" iiber; die so

§ 129.1

EXAMPLES.
fricativae

1

49

enstandenen
ererbten

nebst

der

vom Indogermanischen

tonlosen fricativa s wurden weiter inlautend bei
selbst tonend, erhielten sich aber als

tonenden nachbarschaft
tonlose
/>,

im nachlaute betonter
of
all

Silben.'

I. e.

'

The Aryan

^,

/,

first

shifted into h^ thj

and

/',

the

fricatives thus

produced (together with the voiceless
in voiced
b,

fricative

herited from the Aryan) afterwards became,

s when inwhen medial and

company, themselves voiced
It

[i.

e.

changed to g,

d,

z\

;

but remained unchanged when following an accented

syllable.'
J",

may be added
in
this place, that

that the z, thus

produced from
It is also

further

changed into r

Anglo-Saxon.
it

worth

observing in

is
js

precisely because Verner's

Law
k,
/,

explains the change of j to

as well as the change of

and / to g,

d,

and

b,

that his explanation has

been ac-

cepted without question.
jy §

129. Examples.

The

use of the
it

Law
that

consists in

its
it

wide application, and the proof of
explains a large

lies in

the fact that

number of anomalies

had frequently
satisfactory
differ-

been noticed, and had never before received, any
explanation.
It

has already' been shewn to explain the
S. brodor^ brother,

ence in form between the A.
feeder, mddor, in
d,

and the A.

S.

which the ^ has been further weakened to
fact

owing to the
fell

that the original Teutonic accent

fell

upon

the lalier syllable of those words, whereas in the case of
it

brSdor,

great deal
other,

upon the former syllable. But more than this. P'or example, the
the first syllable
;

it

explains a

Skt. a'ntara,

was accented on

hence the Teutonic
S. dder'^^

form was a"nthero, with the same accent, whence A.
E. other with ih for
^

/,

and no
Teut.

further change.

On

the other
the
latter

hand, the
syllabic
;

Skt.

anta'r,

within,

was accented on
first

hence

the

form was

anthk-r

and

into on,
it

A.S. form was, originally, * anther; but, as A. S. changes an became *on(Jicr\ and again, because A. S. drops w before ///, became 66et., the vowel being lengthened to comj)ensatc for the loss
'

'J'hc

it

of

11.

Cf. tdOt tooth, for ^tartd, Lat. dent-em.

;

150

VERNER'S LAW.
S.

[Chap. IX.

secondly ande'r, whence the A.

under E.
^

unde?',

with a shght

change of sense.
like the Lat.

(The G. unier is still often used precisely Grimm's Law would have made the inter.)

Teut. form anther.
heard, from

Once more,
was

the Skt. gruta' (Gk. hKvtU)^
latter syllable

gru, to hear,

was accented on the
first

the corresponding Teut. form

hlutha;, and secondly

HLUDA*, whence A. S. hlud, E. loud.

Grimm's Law would

have made
'^

it

louth.

Yet again; the

Skt. sphdti' {^^sphdtt, for

spdti\
;

signifying 'increase,'

syllable

the corresponding Teutonic
spodi*,

was accented on the latter word was first spothi',
Y..

and secondly

which (by a rule of vowel-change to be
speed.

explained hereafter) became the A. S. sped^

Grimm's

Law would

have

made

it

speet\

On

the other hand, the Skt.

drya, venerable, honourable, gives a sb. drya'-td, honourableness, accented

on the
-ta.

seco7id syllable,

i.

e.

the accent just presuffix

cedes

the

suffix

Hence

the

corresponding

in

Teutonic was -tha, which usually suffered no further change.

This

is

the

suffix

so

heal-th, streng-th, &c.

common To take
;

in English, as

in weal-th,

another instance,
s to

we may

exemplify the curious change oi

z

and

r,

as to which

ly'

Grimm's Law says nothing in fact, it only occurs where s has been voiced to z in consequence of a following accent. Sanskrit causal verbs are formed by adding the suffix -aya,
as in bhar-aya, to cause to bear, from bhi, to bear.
suffix is

This
a.

an accented one, having an accent on the former
suffix in

The corresponding
tonic were at
first

Teutonic

is

-Jan or

-I'an,

which

also originally took the accent, so that causal verbs in

Teu-

accented on the
rise,

suffix,
^,

not on the root.

Hence, from the^verb

A.

S. ris-an

was formed a causal
first

verb "^rds-ian, in which, by Verner's Law, the s became
z

and afterwards r ;
form
r(^r-an,

in fact,

we meet
rear.

with

it

only in the conat

tracted

mod. E.

Here Verner's Law

^ The mark over the i denotes length only. It has nothing to do with the peculiar Teatonic accent here discussed. So also in the case of rds-ian, &c., the rl^rk still denotes vowel-length only.

§ I30.]

ANGLO-SAXON GRAMMAR.
how
the E. verb to rear
rise
;

151

once explains
simply
there
is

is

the correct causal

form of the verb to
'

i.

e.

the original sense of rear
is

to

a

make to still more
often

rise/

and the form

quite correct.

was But
that

striking fact yet to come.

This

is,

thp Icelandic

preserves ^ unchanged, and does not

always

shift it to

r^

Hence, the Icelandic causal verb of
reis-a
^,

ris-a, to rise,

happens to be

a form which has actually
still

been borrowed by English, and
raise (pronounced raiz).

is

in

In other words, Verner's

common use as Law not

only accounts for the variation in form between rear and
raise^

but enables us to trace them to the same Teutonic
;

form RAisjAN
to

in

fact,

it

tells

us

all

we want

to
it

know.
is suf-

Instances might be multiplied almost indefinitely ;
ficient

say that Verner's

Law

is

most admirable and

satisfactory,

because

it

fully explains so
fail.

many

cases in which

Grimm's Law seems
§

to

130. Points in A. S.

Grammar.

points in A. S.

grammar which Verner's Law
'

There are some explains, and
Thus, among
Sweet's

which are too important to be passed over.
the

verbs

of the
is

drive

-

conjugation

'

(see

A.

S.

Grammar)

the^verb snid-an^ to cut (G. schtieiden).
is

The

past
is

tense singular

ic

snd^, I cut, but the past tense plural
is

wi snid-on^ we
snid-etty

and the pp. shew a weakening of ^ to
cut,

snid-en\ where snid-otiy

d.

The

exp)lanation
fell

is

the

same

as before, viz. that the original accent

on ih^ former

syllable of sni^-an

but on the

laller syllable
is

and on the only remaining syllable-of snd<^y Turning to of snidon and sniden.
once
verified.

Sanskrit, this

at

The

Skt. bhid^ to break or

cleave, has the pt.

t.

bi-bhe'd-a with accent

on
is

the root

;

whilst
^

the

first

person plural of the same tense

bi-bhid-ima' with
is

the accent

on

the last syllable.
final

The

pp.

bhin-na', also

accented on the
*

vowel.

Precisely in the

same way,

the

Thus

Iccl. kjdsa, to choose,

'

The
it

Icel. j,

both

in r/sa
r.

and

has both kosinn ami k/orifm in the pp. reisa, is pronoijnccd as s, not z ; so

that

could not pass into

>

;

152-

VERNER'S LAW.
first

[Chap. IX.

verb c^osan, to choose, has for the
past tense the form c/as
into *cuzon,
;

person singular of the
first

but the plural suffered change,
into curon,

and secondly
can

which

is

the only form

found.

We
*

now

easily foretell that the pp.
;

but coren, as was in fact the case
the s (by

the

was not cosen, modern E. has restoned
preserved in

form-association
chosen.

'

with the infinitive choose), so that
is still

we now have
the

This remarkable r

word forlorfi, which has been isolated from the verb to which it belongs. It was once a pp., answering to A. ^.forloren, pp. oifor-Uosan, where _/br- is an intensive prefix, and leosan is closely connected with (but not quite the same word as) our verb to lose. Hence /br-lorn meant, originally, utterly
lost, left

quite destitute.

Some

other facts which Verner's
here.

Law

explains,

may be
'

also
'

mentioned
is

The Gothic

infinitive

of the verb
the A.
slSgon,
S. pt.

to slay
t.

slahan, contracted in A. S. to sledn

(i p. s.) is sloh (with h^), but the plural is
slain.

and the pp. slagen (with g\ E.

Lastly, the

Greek accents suffice to help us to the form of the A. S. comparative. Gk. has ^Su9, sweet, but in the comparative the accent is thrown back (where it can be) upon the root, as
seen in the neuter
ribiov (cf.

the superlative
find the

rj^ia-ros)

;

and, in

correspondence with

this,

we
is

Gothic comparative

from the base bat- (good)
(with
2).

not bat-i'sa (with s\ but ba*t-iza

Consequently, the A. S. turns the Teutonic suffix
;

-izo into ~ira, -era, -ra, as in bet-ra, E. bett-er
all

and generally,

our mod. E. comparatives end in
in
-esl,

-er,

whilst the superlatives

end

because the s
Cf.

is

protected from change by the

following A
§ 131.

Goth,

bal-isl-s, best,

Gk.

rjd-KTT-os,

sweetest.

Vedic Accentuation.

It is

a singular result of

Verner's Law, that a knowledge of the A. S. conjugational

forms

will

sometimes enable us to give a good guess as to the
!

accentuation of a Sanskrit word in the Rig- Veda
try

Let us

an example.

We

find, in

A.

S.,

that the verb lid-an, to

^ Misprinted slog in the Grammar in Sweet's A. S. Reader; but the Glossary to the same gives references to sloh.

§ 133.J

EXAMPLES,
makes
the past tense IdS,
pi. lid-on,

153
pp. lid-en
;

travel,

and we
takes
that,

further find that the past tense of the subjunctive

mood

the form

lid-e, pi. lid-on.

We

should therefore expect

in the corresponding Sanskrit tenses, the accent falls
suffix

on the

rather than
first

on

the root-syllable

;

accordingly,

we

find

that, in the

person plural of the second preterite, the
last

accent

falls

on the

syllable,

as in bibhidima\

we

clove
falls

130); 3.nd in the perfect potential tense, the accent
suffix -ydm, as in bibhidyd'm, pf. potent,

upon the
cleave.
§ 132.

of bhid, to

General Results.
it

The

following are the general
to the

results given

by Verner, with reference
in a different form.

above Law.
consonantal

They merely state 1. Even after
shifting, the

the

occurrence of the

first

Teutonic languages preserved the original Aryan

accentuation.
2.

But

in these languages, accent

pitch or tone of the voice, but actual stress, perhaps

was no longer a mere accomh^

panied by pitch.
3.
ih,

Whenever

k,

/,

p appear

in

Teutonic sometimes as
is

/, and sometimes as g,

d, b,

such variation

due to the

old Aryan accentuation.
4.

Whenever

s

appears in Teutonic sometimes as
is

s

sometimes as
cause.

z (or r), such variation

due

to the

and same

We
may

thus see that Verner's
in

Law goes

farther than

Grimm's,
fail.

and explains cases
accentuation, which

which the

latter

seems

to

We
Aryan
also

also notice that Sanskrit preserves

the original

Greek frequently

fails to

do.

It is

noteworthy that Gothic has frequently
uniform,
its

levelled,

or rendered

shifted forms, being in this respect a less faithful

representative of the original Teutonic than either Anglo-

Saxon or
§ 133.

Icelandic.

Examples.

A

few examples are added, by way of

illustration.

; .

1 54

VERNER 'S LAW.

[Chap. IX
pi. sISg-on,
t.

Gutturals.

We
So

find

g

for

h

in the
;

A. S.

pt.

t.

from slean (Goth. slah-an\ to slay
sloh, regularly.

whilst the pt.
t.

sing, is

also in the pt.
;

pi.

pw6g-on of pwean
t.

(Goth, ihwah-an), to wash
(Matt, xxvii. 24).

whilst the pt.

sing,

is

pwok
find

So, too, in the pp. of these verbs, slag-en, pwag-en^ not * slah-en, '^pwah-en.

we

Dentals. Examples of d for th {/>) are more numerous and important. Thus, the Skt. Miya, third, is accented on
the second, not the
first

syllable

;

hence the Goth, form
cf.

is

not *pnfy'a, but
thrid,

przcf/a,

with which

A.

S.

pridd-a,

M. E.

mod. E.
find

third.

This change does not apply to the

other ordinal numbers on account of their peculiar forms

thus

we

A.

'$>.

fift-a, fifth, sixt-a, sixth, endly/t-a, eleventh,

twel/t-a, twelfth, all with voiceless /

on account of
as^/f/?

the pre-

ceding voiceless/" or

s.

Such pronunciations

and sixt
original

may

still

be heard in provincial English.
A.
S. seofopa, eahtopa, nigopa,

Seventh, eighth,

ninth, are in

where the

accent just preceded the

/;

whilst fourth, A. S. fe'orpa,

was

conformed
Kpar-vs.

to the
th in

analogy of the prevalent form in -pa.

The d for
E.

hard

is

explained by the accent of the Gk.
as a sufiix,
is
'

-hood,

common

the A. S. had,

Goth,

haid-us, cognate

with Skt. ketw,

a distinguishing
S, under,

mark,' with the accent on the u.

E. and A.
;

Goth.

undar,
anthar,

is

cognate with Skt. anta'r, within
the contrary,
is

whilst E. other, Goth.

on

cognate with Skt. a'ntara, other,

with the accent on the

first syllable.

The

Skt. pp. sufiix -ta

was accented, and for the same reason E. past participial forms end in d, not th examples are E. lou-d, A. S. hlu-d, cognate
;

with Gk. k\v-t6s, renowned, Skt. gru-ta-, heard
eal-d,

;

E.

ol-d,

A. S.
;

cognate with Lat.
A.
S.
de'a-d,

al-tus,

pp. of al-ere, to nourish
whilst
;

E.

dea-d,

Goth, dau-th-s,

the allied sb. is

dea-th,

A. S. dea-d, Goth, dauth-us
;

E. nak-ed, A. S. nac-od,
in -d or -ed,

Goth, nakw-aths

and generally, the E. pp. ends

whilst the Goth. pp. invariably^nds in -th-s.

So, too, in the

case of causal verbs, the primitive accent on the causal suffix

§ 133.]

CHANGE

01'

S TO

R.

155

(A. S. -ian^ in contracted form -an) leads us to expect

d

in

place of

th.

Hence we have E.
of li^-an, to travel

lead^ vb.,
;

A.

S. Iced-an {=.*ldd-

zan), causal

E. send^ A. S. send-an^ Goth.

sand-jan,

a causal verb allied to Goth, smth-s, a journey.
s.

Note
A.

also the A. S. pt.

cwceJj,

quoth,

pi.

cwdd-on

;

and the
seethe.

S. pp. sod-en,

E. sodd-en, from the

infin. seod-an,

E.

Labials.

A

good example occurs
sihun, not f'si/un
It is
;

in E. seDen, of

which

the Goth, form
sapta'n,

is

cognate with Vedic Skt.

Gk.

inTa.

remarkable, however, that the Teut.

b always appears
it

as/ in
as_/^
s.

A.

S. at the
v).

end of a

syllable

(where

was not sounded

but as

See §122.
(for

The
Has-e
A.
S.
;

letter r for

E. hare, A. S. har-a
gas-a'),

*haz-a\ G.
E.
lore^

cognate with Skt. gag-a' (for

a hare.

Idr,

together with the causal verb Idr-an, to teach,
cf.

shew r
with the

for s]
pt.
s.

the Goth, lais-jan, to teach, connected

lais, I

have

learnt,

of which the

infin.

*/uz&n

- -^iU.-

does not appear.
adjectives, already

So

also in the case of all comparatives of
;

mentioned

as in E. de/t-er, A. S. bet-ra,

cognate with Goth, bat-iza,

better.
is

The A.

S.

pp. coren,
;

chosen, from c/os-an, to choose,
the old pp. for-lorn.

mentioned above

as also
in

Another interesting example occurs

the A. S. Y^^./roren, for

which mod. E. has substituted />-^2^;/,

as being

more

easily associated with the infin. freeze.
still
*

But

country people

complain of being/r^^rw,' and we have
is

the authority of Milton for the form frore, which

merely

the A. S./roren with the loss of final n.
*

The parching

air

Burns frore, and cold performs

th' effect of fire.'

Par. Lost,

ii.

594-5.

CHAPTER

X.

Vowel-Gradation.
§
is

134.

One

of the most important matters in etymology

the consideration of the relationship of

some of

the older

vowel-sounds, which are to a certain extent connected by

what
verbs,

is

known
is

as

'

gradation/ or in German, ablaut.

Such

a connection

especially noticeable in the case of the strong
participle

which form the past tense and past
drank, and the past participle
i

by means

of such gradation or vowel-change..
drink
is

Thus
is

the past tense of
;

drunken
to u.

we have
It is

here an alteration from

to a,

and again

ob-

viously highly important that

we should
by the way,

investigate to

what

extent such alterations are regular, and are capable of being
tabulated.
It

may be

noted,

that similar altera-

tions in the vowel-sounds are

found

in other

Aryan languages,
in

and are not confined
find that the verb
Xe-XotTT-a,

to

Teutonic only.
to leave,

Thus,

Greek,

we
a

XeiV-eii/,

makes
;

the perfect tense
is,

and the second
et

aorist e-Xtn-ov

that
t.

there
is

is

gradation from

to

oi,

and again
it

to

Neither

this

gradation confined to the verb;
derivatives;

appears also in various
Xelylns^

thus

we have
\017r-6s,

the

sb.

(=

*X«Tr-rt?),

a

leaving;

the adj.

remaining;

and numerous com-

pounds beginning with
a
letter,

XtTro-,

as in Xino-ypa^fmro^, wanting

whence E. lipogram.
the
sb. fid-es,

In Latin we )\^mq fid-ere

{j=.'^feid-ere),

to trust; in connection with
faith,

ftd-us,

trusty,

which and the

are the adj.
sb.

foed-us

{^=*/otd-us\ a compact, treaty.

These shew a gradation
'Is

1

§

135.]

GRADATION IN MODERN ENGLISH.
(ei)

1 57

from

I

to oe

{pi),

and again
;

to

%.

These are merely given
only

as further illustrations

in the present chapter I shall
it

discuss

gradation

as

affects

the

Teutonic languages,

especially
§

Anglo-Saxon and Gothic.

Modern English is but an unsafe guide to gradation. A considerable number of the strong verbs, which were once irregular/ alperfectly regular, may now fitly be named though that name is chiefly used to conceal the ignorance of grammarians who are unable to understand the laws of
135.
'

gradation.

These

'

irregularities

'

have mostly been introparticiple with that

duced by confusing the form of the past
of the past tense,

and so making one form do duty

for both.

To make

the confusion worse,

we

find instances in

which

the form of the past tense has been altered to agree with
that of the

past participle, besides the instances in which
;

the process has been reversed
in

and a

third set of instances

which a verb has been associated with
belonged to a

another which

originally
allied

different conjugation, or with

an

weak verb, or has been altered from a strong verb to a weak one. Thus the verb to bear has the pt. t. bare, and the
But the
pt.
t.

pp. born, borne.

bare

is

obsolescent,
is

and

is

commonly
the pp.

replaced by bore, in which the

borrowed from
pt.
t.

The
t.

A. S. stand-an, to stand, had the
;

si6d,

and

the pp. standen
the pt.

but the form standen has disappeared, and
is

stood

also used in the pp.
;

spoken shews great confusion
pt.
t.

the A. S. verb

Such a form as was sprec-an,
in

sprccc, pp. sprecen,

which should have given
r,

modern
t.

English, with the loss of
spake,

an
it

infin.

speak, with

the pt.

and a pp.

* speken

;

but

was naturally associated with
pt.
t.

the verb to break, of

which the true

was

brake,

and the

pp. broken.

The
;

result

was the use of

spoken, as associated

with broken

moreover, the past tenses spake and brake have

become
broke
;

archaic,

and arc usually supplanted by spoke and
of broke
is

where the
pp.
;

borrowed from the true form
2^

of

its

but that of spoke from

false form.

The

verb

to

158
hold

VOWEL-GRADATION,
made
the pt.
t.

[Chap. X.

held,

and the pp.
pt.
t.
'

hold-en, but the latter

has been supplanted by the
historically, a

He
;

was held down
but
it

'

is,

shamefully incorrect form

is

now

con-

good grammar, and we must not now say anything to wake made the pt. t. woke, so that it was correct to say / woke but it was confused with the derived weak transitive verb to wake, so that we may now hear 'I woke him up' instead of 'I waked him up,' which was the original phrase. Conversely, we find I waked used intransitively. Many verbs, such as
sidered
else
^.

Again, the old strong intransitive verb

;

'

'

creep, weep, sleep,

which were once strong, are now weak.
wore, pp.

There

is

even one remarkable instance in which a weak verb
t.

has become strong, viz. the verb to wear, pt. worn simply by association with bear, bore, born.
;

The M. E.
t.

weren,
wered,

to wear,

is

invariably weak, with a pt.

werede or

and a pp. wered.
'Of
fustian

he wered a gipoun.'

^'
§ 136. It follows

Chaucer, Prolog,
from
this that the

to C. T.y 75.

modern English strong
S.

verbs

cannot be properly understood without comparing
forms; and
it

them with the Middle Enghsh and A.

is

absolutely necessary to the understanding of gradation that

we should

further consult the Gothic

and other Teutonic

forms, as well as the Anglo-Saxon.

The Middle

English

and A. S. forms will be found in Morris, E. Gramm., pp. 285-307, and need not be

Hist. Outlines of

further discussed

here.

Our

present object

is

to discover the original

Teu-

tonic vowel-gradation,

and

for this

purpose we must compare

with one another the oldest

the various Teutonic languages.

known forms of the verbs in The result is that we can
here keep to that which I

clearly distinguish seven forms of conjugation; and, as the

order of

them

is

indifferent, I shall

* Held occurs in our Bibles as a pp. only thrice (Ps. Song vii. 5, Rom. vii. 6) but holden occurs eleven times.
;

xxxii. 9, Sol.


§ 137-]

REDUPLICATING VERBS,

1 59

have already given in the Introduction to Morris's Specimens of Enghsh from 1150 to
1300,
p.
Ixvii

(2nd

ed.).

The

seven conjugations are exemplified in
the

verbs fall, shake, bear, give,

modern English by drink, drive, and choose ;

which

may

be remembered by aid of the following doggerel

couplet
*

If e'er

Give

;

thou fall, the shake with patience bear ; seldom drink ; drive slowly choose with
;

care.'

The

investigation of the

modes of conjugation of these seven
'to fall.'

^

verbs will
§ 137.

now occupy our attention. Reduplicating Verbs the Verb
:

Verbs

of the 'fair conjugation

differ

from

all

the rest in their

mode
at
all,

of conjugation.

They do not

really exhibit gradation

but the past tense was originally formed by reduplica-

tion,

have the ^^.fall-eh

and the vowel of the pp. was never altered, We still ixovcifall, blow-n from blow, grow-n from

grow, hew-n from hew, and the obsolescent hold-en from
hold.

The word fall can be

traced back to an

Aryan root
Gk.
whence,

SPAL, as seen in the Skt. sphal (for * spal), to tremble;
<7<^aXX-«»/ (for *cr7r^XX-€tv), to trip

up, cause to

fall

;

by

loss

of

initial

s,

we have

the Lat. fall-ere, to deceive,

orig. to trip up,

and the E.

fall.
letter

Both English and Latin
f, because of the
lost s

words begin with the same
the root
;

of

the \jsX.fallere (for *sfallere) being due to a
;

change

of sp to sf (as in Gk. vn to ct0) whilst is the regular Teutonic substitution for Aryan/ by Grimm's Law. Now the
la2X. fall-ere

f

in precisely the

makes the pt. i.fe-fell-i by reduplication and, same way, the Gothic verb hald-an, to hold,
;

makes
also

the pt.
is

t.

in

the form hai-hald'^\

i.e.

the

initial
ai.

letter

of the verb

repeated, followed by the diphthong
t.

So
In a

we have
t.

Goi\\. falih-an, to fold, pt.

fai-falth
t.

;

hail-an,

to call, pt.

hai-hait
to

;

laik-an, to skip, pt.

lai-laik.

*

The Goth. /a//-an,

fall,

does not happen to occur;

if it

did, its

past tense

would he /at -/a//.

;

l60

VOWEL-GRADATION,

[Chap. X.
^ to ^

few cases, the Gothic exhibits a vowel-change from
as well as
reduplication, as in let-an, to
t,

let,

pt.

t.

lai-lot

red-an, to provide for, pt.

rai-roth.

Anglo-Saxon
;

exhibits

but very few examples of reduplication
heht^

the principal being
reord,

Goth, hai-haii,
t.

pt.

t.

of hdi-an, to call;
;

Goth.
t.

rai-roth, pt.

of rdd-an, to advise
;

kolc,

Goth,

lai-laik, pt.

of Idc-an, to skip
pt.
t.

and the
;

disfigured forms
pt.
t.

leort,

Goth,

lai-lot,

of

Ic^l-an, to let

and on-dreord,

of on-drdd-an, to

dread.

More commonly,

the contraction leads to a

comis

plete confusion of the reduplicating with the radical syllable,

and the product

retains a long

vowel or diphthong, which

most commonly
hald,

eo) thus, corresponding to the Goth, haiS.

we have A.
For

Mold, whence E. held.
'^fai-fall,

Similarly, corre-

sponding to the theoretical Goth,
E.
/ell.

we have A.

S./eoll,

further

particulars, see Sievers,

O. E. Gram.

§ 395, &c.
§

138.

It is

found that the A.
all

S. strong verbs \i2cwQ/our

principal stems, to which

other forms

may be
all

referred \

These are:
(i) \hQ present-stem, to

which belong

the forms of the

present tense.

[It

agrees with that of the infinitive mood,
it

which
pose.]

I give instead, as

makes no
to

difference for our pur-

(2) the first preterit-stem,

which belong only the

ist

and 3rd persons of the singular of the

preterit indicative.

[The 1ST
here
the

PERS. SING. OF

THE PAST TENSE

is

the form which I

select.]

(3)

second preterit-stem, comprising

the

2nd person and the
select the

indicative

and the

pi.

indicative of the

same
[I

tense,

whole

preterit

optative or subjunctive.

here

1ST PERS. PL. OF THE PAST TENSE as the representative form.]
(4) the stem of the past participle. In the verb fall these four stems

are, in their

A.

S.

forms,

1

I

copy

this account

from Sievers, O. E. Gr.

§ 379.

§ 140.]

THE VERB 'FALL'
infin.

l6l
;

as follows:

/ea/Z-an (O. Mercian y^//-(2«)
pp. /ea/I-en.
It will

ist pt.

s.

/eo/I;

I St

pt.ipl. /eo/l-on;

be observed

that the

first

and fourth of these stems are
;

identical, if

we

neglect the suffixes

and

that the

same
Full

is

true of the second

and

third.

The mode

of formation of these stems needs no
lists

further explanation in this case.

of the Principal

Stems (or Parts) of the strong verbs

will

be found further on

§

153); P- 167. The following are 139.

the principal

mod. E. verbs
;

which once belonged to the /^//-conjugation
conjugation.

together with
that

some weak verbs derived from obsolete strong verbs of
Here belong
(intransitive),

:

(a) verbs

still

strong, as behold^ fall,

hang
(as

hold, let\

heat)

blow (as wind),
:

blow

a

flower), crow^,
pt.
t.

grow, know, throw
;

{b) go, pp. gone,

the old

being

lost

{c)

verbs

now weak
:

(though hewn,

mown and
walk
;,

sown appear as past
leap, sleep,

participles)

dread, fold, well, wield',

weep

;

flow, glow, low (as a cow), mow, row, sow
:

',

thaw, hezv, swoop, wheeze

{d)

weak verbs formed from

old

strong verbs

:

blend, dye, read, shed, sweep, span.

Explanation

of the anomalies <found in

elsewhere

;

thus the verb

to

modern English must be sought haiig now makes the pt. t. hung,
(for

instead of

M.

E. heng.
in

The forms mew, sew
in

mowed,

sowed) are

still

use

the

East Anglian

dialect,

and

probably in other forms of

provincial
all

speech.

Finally,

the yfl//-conjugation does not at

help us in the matter

of vowel-gradation, but
completeness.
§

is

described here for the sake

of

140.

The verb
is

'

to shake.'
all.

The

second, or shake-

conjugation,

the simplest of

There are but two forms

of the stem, as the pp. resembles the infinitive

mood
stem

(as in

the case above), whilst the vowel of the past tense remains

unchanged throughout.
'

The vowel
in

of the
tr.

first

is

a,

The
VOL.

pp. crawin occurs

G. Douglas,

of Virgil, prol. to

Book

vii. 1.

114.
I.

M


1


VO WEL- GRAB A TION.
is 6.

;

62

[Chap. X.

whilst that of the second

This 6

is

merely due to the
In Gothic,
:

lengthening of a
the vowel
is

;

of.

E. modor with Lat. mater.

the same.

Hence
still

the stem-vowels are
in

a, d, 6,

a

;

and such verbs are

sometimes found

mod.

E., with
infinitive
;

00

{=0)

in the pt.

t.,

and keeping the vowel of the
is

in the pp.

Such a verb
in

ska^e, pt.
t.

t.

s^ook, pp. shak-en

A.

S. scac~an, later sceac-an, pt.

sc6c,

pp. scac~en,
:

§ 141.
still

Examples

modern English include
slay,

{a) verbs

strong

draw, forsake, shake,

swear;

(b)

verbs with

strong past tenses or past participles— j-/^/?^, wake, aivak^
(pt.
t.

stood,

woke, awoke), grave, lade, shape, shave, wash,
laden,
shapett,

wax
{c)

(pp. graven,

shaven, washen,

waxen)

verbs

now wholly weak
take,

ache,

bake, fare, flay,

gnaw,

heave, laugh, scathe, step,

wade (and frequently

shape, shave,

wash, wax); also

a word of Scand. origin, but con-

formed to the conjugation of shake, and therefore wholly
strong.
§ 142.

The

next three conjugations are extremely
differentiation

alike,

and may have been formed by
type.

from a

common
a, u,
o{u),

In Gothic they usually exhibit, respectively, the stemI,

vowels

a,

e,

u,

or else

/,

a,

e,

i,

or thirdly
e{i),

/,

u;
or

corresponding
else
e{i), a,
e,

to
e{i),

primitive

Teutonic
e{i),

a,

e,

or thirdly
is

a, u, o[u)

^

The
is

general
;

idea
start
'

of these

changes

not
e

difficult

to

perceive

they

from a stem containing
'

or

i,

which

modified or

graded in the second stem to
of the

a,

and

in the fourth to

oorti;

unless, as in

the second formula, the fourth vowel returns
first

to
is
it

that

stem.

The form
;

of the third stem

of comparatively small importance

in the third formula,
first

resembles the fourth stem, whilst in the
attempt to lengthen

and second we

see an evident

the vowel {a) of the

singular

number.
e (/), a,

Omitting the third stem, we find the
{u),

order to be
'

which

may

be usefully compared
;

The vowels between
'

parentheses are alternative
?'.'

i.

e.

*

e{z)

*

is

to

be read as

e,

or sometimes

§145-]

THE VERB
to

'BEAR.'

l6'i,

with the gradation observed in
the Gk.
rpe(/)-eii/,

some Greek
the

verbs.

Thus

nourish, has

2nd

aorist %-rpa(^-ov,

and the

perfect T€~Tpo(f)-a.

Even

in Latin

we

find /eg-ere, to

cover, with a derivative /og-a, a garment; prec-arz, to pray,

whence proc-us, a wooer
a companion.

;

se0-f, to follow, whence soc-ius,
is

Thus

the conjugational scheme

evidently

founded upon the gradation of
to O.
detail.

E

to A,

and subsequently

We

can

now examine
bear.'
S.*

these conjugations

more

in

§ 143. { (az), a,
e,

The verb/ to
u
(au)
;

The Gothic
e (i),

stems exhibit
<z?,

the A.

stems exhibit

cb (a),

(«),
is is

corresponding to Teutonic
followed by

e, a,

e (=a),

0.

'Uniformly weakened to i in Gothic, except
r, ^,

The Teut. e when the vowel

or hw^

when
is
it

it

becomes

(short) ai.

In the

fourth stem, the Teut. o

« in Gothic, except under the

same circumstances, when
changes are due
r or
h.

to the effect
:

becomes (short) au. These upon the vowel of a succeeding
;

Examples are

Goth, brtk-an, to break
:

pt.

t.

brak, pi. brek-uniy pp. bruk-ans

and Goth, bair-an^
;

to bear
bar, pi.
e

(with ai for e before r, as explained above)

pt.

t.

ber-UMy pp. baur-qns.

Anglo-Saxon preserves
sound
follows,
:

the

apd

o^

except
/

when a

nasal

when they become
bear, pt.
pt.
t.

and u

respectively.

beer, pi. bcer-on, pp. bor-en
pi.

Examples are ber-an, to and nim-an^ to take,
;

t.

naniy

ndm-on, pp. num-en.
§

144.

Examples

in
;

break, shear, steal, tear
(c) covie^

modern English include [a) (/^) quail, which is now weak
is

bear,
;

and

the form of which
pt.
all
t.

disguised, the
pp.

Goth, being
Curiously
strong,

kwim-an,

kwam,

pi.

kwem-um,

kwum-ans.
still

enough,

these verbs (except quail) are

and

they have even added one to their

number

in the verb wear^

which was originally weak.
§ 145.

The verb
lo

*

to give.'
its

See above, § 135; p. 158. This differs from the forefourth stem, in which there
first

going verb

bear only in

is

a return to the original vowel of the

stem.

This

is

M

2

1 64

VO WEL- GRAB A TION,
pt.
t.

[Chap. X.

observable in the mod. E. give,

gave, pp. given.

Two
t.

examples may be given from Gothic,
ga/j
pi.

Viz.

gib-an, to give, pt.
to see,
pt.

geb-um, pp. gib-ans]

and saihw-an,

t.

sahw^

pi.

sehw-um, pp. saihw-ans.
e in

Anglo-Saxon commonly

preserves the

the

first

stem, the chief exceptions being

when
to

it

takes a
is

give

weakened form or is contracted. really no exception for, though the
;

The

verb

infinitive is
e is

often quoted as gif-an, a better form
radical,

is

gie/an,

where the

and the

i is a parasitic letter inserted after the g,

as

when people
§

call

a garden a gi-arden.
:

146. Examples in modern English include
lie, see, sit,

[a) verbs

still

strong, as eat, forget, get, give,

speak, stick, tread,

weave:
(r)

{b)

verbs

now weak,

2,%

fret, knead, mete, weigh, wreak',
t.

the verb quoth, of which only the pt.

remains

;

and

bid,

originally to pray,

which has

entirely superseded the old verb

signifying

'

c(?himand,' which properly belonged to the chooset.

conjugation.
§

147.

The pt. was also belongs here. The verb 'to drink.' The Gothic stem-vowels
{ail),

are

/ {ai), a,

u

u

[au), with perfect regularity
§ 143,

;

the ai

and au

being substituted, as explained in

only

when
:

the stem-

vowel

is

followed by

to drink [with

Examples are driggk-an, ggk pronounced as ngk\ pt. t. draggk, pi.
r, h,

or hw.

druggk-um, pp. druggk-ans; bairg-an, to keep, pi. baurg-um, pp. baurg-ans.

pt.

t.

barg,

The A.
the eo
r,
/,

S.

stem-vowels are

e {eo, i),

a

{ea,

cb),u,o {u).
is

Here

and
;

ea occur only

when

the stem-vowel

followed by

or h

and
t.

ce

only occurs mfrcegn, barst, pcErsc, strcegd,

and

brcEgd, pt.

oifrign-an, berst-an, persc-afi, stregd-an, and
are
:

bregd-an.

Examples
;

berst-an, to burst, pt.
t.

t.

bcBrst, pi.

burst-on, pp. borst-en

ceorf-an, to carve, pt.
t.

cearf
pi.

pi.

curf-on,

pp. corf-en
drunc-en.
teristic,

;

drinc-an, to drink, pt.

drank,
is

drunc-on, pp.

Of

these, the verb to drink

the most characit

because the verbs which resemble

are most nu-

merous, and are best represented in modern English.
peculiarity of such verbs
is

The
stem,

the use o f i for e

m the

jfirst

§149-]

THE VERB 'DRINK'
is

165
is

which

due

to the fact that the stem-vowel
is

invariably fol-

lowed by two consonants, one of which
(or the

the nasal
It

m

or n

m

ox n

\^

doubled in the A.
A.

S. form).

may be

added
vowel
is

that, in all the
is

verbs of this conjugation, the stemS.)
i.

succeeded
/,

(in

by two consonants, one of which
e.

either m, «,

r,

g^ or h^

either a liquid or a guttural

letter,

§

148. Examples in modern English include

:

{a) swells the
<?,

only partially strong verb which retains the vowel
the pp. swollen
is

though

giving

way

to swelled', {d) a large

number of

strong verbs containing

in, viz.

degm, run (Lowl Sc. rin), spin,
cling, ring, sing, sling, spring,

win

;

bind, find, grind, wiiid',

sting, swing, fight,

wring; drink, shrink,
[c)

sink, slink, stink]

also

swim:

the following

weak

verbs,

some of which
braid,

have obsolescent strong past
melt (pp.

participles, viz.
t.

burn,

burst, carve (pp. carven), climb (occasional pt.

clomb), delve,
starve,

help (pp.

holpen),

molten),

mourn,
'

spurn,

thrash, yell, yield.

day

!

'

belongs here.

The verb worth, as in wo worth the The verb to cringe seems to be a
S. cringan.

secondary form from A.

Quench

is

a secondary

form from A.

S.

/winc-an, to become extinguished.
stint, stunt^

Other

secondary forms are bulge, drench,

swallow, throngs

warp
§

^

149.

The verb
;

'to drive.'

We now

come
ei,
i,

to a

new

gradation
; (ai)
;

where the Goth, has the stem-vowels
S.

ai, i (a/),
i.

and the A.

has the invariable set
is

d,

i,

The The The

Gothic substitution of ai for /
of
r, h,

merely due to the presence

or hw, immediately succeeding the stem-vowel.

Goth,

ei is

merely the way of denoting the long /

(/).

*

It is

worth while to add here that we

find a variation

of vowels

such as chit-chat, dillydally, ding-dong (for *ding-datig), crinkle-cranklc, pit-pat, &c. In many of these the root-vowel is a, weakened to i in the former sylin

reduplicated words, as they are called;

lable.

It is

a meaningless copy of the principle of gradation, and of

late date.

1

66
S.

VO WEL- GRADA TIOJV,
a answers to a Teutonic
ai.

[Chap. X.

A.

Hence

the

common
is

Teutonic form appears equally from either
written
i,

set,

and

to

be

at,

t, i.

We

thus learn that there are two gradations
at,

of

i.

It

can either be strengthened to

or weakened to i

(short).

This corresponds to the gradation observed in the
t.

Gk.

XeiTT-etv, pt.

Xe-Xoi7ra,

2nd

aor. e-Xm-ov,

and

in the Lat.

fid-ere, to

trust,

with

its

derivatives

y^^fi^-wj-

{^"^foid-us), a

compact, zxidifld-es,
to drive, pt.
t.

faith.

Gothic examples are: dreib-an,

dratb, pi. drtb-um, pp. drib-ans; ga-teih-dn,
t.

to point out, pt.

ga-taih, pi. ga-taih-um, pp. ga-iaih-ans.
;

In

A.

S.

we have

drif-an, to drive

pt.

t.

drdf, pi. drif-on, pp.

drif-en.
§

150. Examples in mod. E. include

:

{a) verbs

still

strong

or partially strong, as abide^ arise,

bide, bite, cleave (to

adhere),

drive, ride, rise, shine, shrive, slide, smite, stride, strike, writhe,

write \

to

which add

rive,
;

thrive,
{b)

of

Scand. origin, and

strive, originally

a weak verb
spew, twit.

reap^ sigh,

slit,

xxxi. 36, the A. S. dd-an, to

weak verbs, as glide, gripe, Though we find chode in Gen. chide, is a weak verb, pt. t. cidde.

The

frequent occurrence of long i in the infinitive will be

observed.
§ 151.

The verb

'

to choose.'

This also introduces a new
iu, au,

gradation.

Gothic has the stem-vowels
for

u

{au),

u {au)
S.

;

where the substitution of au
the stem-vowels /o {u),

u

is

merely due to the
r, h,

effect

of the stem-vowel being followed by
e'a,

or hw.
e'a,

A.

has

u, 0.

The

A.
;

S. do,

invariably
sets

represent the Goth,

iu,

au respectively

and both

of

stem-vowels answer to an original Teutonic set expressed by
eu, au, u, u.

We
to
ov,

hence learn that the Teut. stem-vowel eu
This closely resembles the Greek
seen
in
iXeva-ofxai,

can be strengthened, on the one hand, to au, and weakened,

on

the

other,
ey,

u.
v,

gradation
eiKrjXovda,

as

I shall go, perf.
:

2nd

aor. rjXvOov.
t.

Examples

in Gothic are
;

kius-atty

to choose, pt.
pt.
t.

kaus, pi. kus-um, pp. kus-ans

tiuh-an, to pull,
:

tauh, pi. tauh-um, pp. tauh-ans.

In Anglo-Saxon

ceos-an,

§

J

53-1

TABLES OF STEMS,
t.

167

to choose, pt.
*coz-€n), as
pi.

ceas,

pi.

cur-on (for *aiz-on), pp. cor-en (for
pt.
t.

shewn

in §

130; also hug-an, to bow,

b/ah^

bug-on, pp. bog-en.
§ 152.

Examples
verbs
reek,

in

mod. E. include

:

{a) verbs

which

still

shew strong forms,
shoot
;

as choose, cleave (to

S'glit),

fly, freeze, seethe,
lie (to
;

(b)

now weak,

as brew, chew, creep, flee,

tell lies),

rue (all with orig. eo in the first stem)
H,

and
;

bow, brook, crowd, shove, suck, sup (with

in the first stem)

to

which we may add
tug, as

bereave, dive, drip, float, lock, lose, slip, smoke,

being secondary forms immediately derived from strong

forms »
to
its

The

A.

S. be'od-an, to ofi'er,

command, is

represented, as

meaning, by mod. E. bid] but the

mode

of conjugating

this

mod. E. verb has been borrowed from
bid, to

that really belong-

ing to the old verb
^/z^f-conjugation
§
;

beg, pray, which belongs to the

see § 146.

153. I

now

give the four stems of the seven conjugations

in various Teutonic languages, as they afi'ord

much
;

help in

comparing the vowels of one language with those of another.

The

four stems exhibit respectively, the infinitive

the past

tense, i

person singular

;

the past tense,

i

person plural, and

iht past participk, as already said.

I

.

FALL - conjugation.

i68

VO WEL- GRAB A TION,
2.

[Chap.X.

SHAKE- conjugation.

§ I53-]

TABLES OF STEMS.
5.

169

DRINK - conjugation.

170
§

FO WEL- GRADA TION.
154.

[Chap. X.
will give

We

can hence compile a table which
in

an

approximate value of the vowel-sounds
languages.
the

the

different

It is not altogether correct, because some of modern languages have altered the old values of the sounds. Thus the mod. G. pp. ge-irieb-en, driven, has been

substituted for ge-tnb-en, so that the original
really

German sound
short
i.

answering to our short

i

was

also

Such

substitutions

must be allowed

for.

Comparative Table of Vowel-sounds, as deduced from Strong Verbal Stems.
selected are: fall (stem i), shake (i), bear {2), give (2), shake (2), forTeut. long O ; bear (3), for Teut. fi bear (i), give (i), drink (i), for E; bear (4), drink (4), for O drive (i, 2, 4),
for Teut.

[The stems

A

;

;

;

for long I, AI,

and

I

;

choose (i, 2, 3, 4), for

EU, AU, and U.]

Teutonic...


§155.1

TEUTONIC VOWELS.
we may

Ijl

We
follows

thus form four groups of sounds which are related

gradation.
:

In cases

2,

3,

and

4,

collect

by them as

The E-group E, A, O. The I-group I, I, AI. TheU-group; EU, U, AU.
;
;

I

here call the second the I-group because
I
;

all

the varieties
last

contain

;

and

for

the

same reason

I call

the

the

U-group

but the true starting-points are 1 and
also note
:

EU.

We may Teut. A
/,

some of the
also
cs

results as follows.
;

remains as a usually
c,

A. S. also has ea (before
(chiefly before

r, k,

or after g,

sc)

;

;

also

m

and

n).

See Sievers, O. E. Gram. §§ 49-84, throughout. Teut. 0, for A ; here Gothic has long 0, to which answers
^,

A. S.

E.

00.

Teut. E, for

A

:

here Gothic has long
ee.

e,

to

which answers

A.

S. dj

commonly E.

Teut.

E

:

regularly
it

weakened

to

z

in Gothic, except before
at.

r, k, /iw,

when
^
;

appears as a short
t

In A.

S.

it
;

often

remains as
(before
/,

or becomes
/

(chiefly before

m

and

n)

or eo

r,

/i).
:

Teut.

O

becomes u

in

Gothic, except before
S.
n.

r,

h,
;

kw,
the

when

it

appears as au,

A.

has

<?,

occasionally u

latter especially before 7n

and

Teut.

I

:

usually remains i in the Teutonic languages.
:

Teut. 1
Teut.

Goth.
:

et\

Du.

tj;

G.

«

;

the rest,

u
o',

AI

Goth, at) A.
e.

S.

^;

Icel. ei\

E. (commonly)

G.

ei,

ie\

the rest,

Teut.

U

:

Goth., Swed., Dan. «; A. S.

and

Icel. «,

;

Du.

and G.

0.

Teut.

EU:
j/;

Goth, iw, A.

S. io

(and u)\ Icelj'd; Swed.

/«; Dan.
'

G.,

Du.

te;

E. long
;

e^.

E. c/ioose

is

an exceptional form

the right vowel

is

ee,

as in the
is

verbs c/eave (for *c/eeve), creep, freeze, seethe. (with the former e long).

The M.

E. form

ches-eu

1

17
Teut.

VO WEL- GRADA TION.

[Chap. X.

AU:
o.

Goth., Icel. au\ A. S. ea\ G., Du. d\

Swed,

Dan. long

Lastly, if the
§ 80, p. 96,

Table in § 154 be compared with that in which was obtained from different considerations,
all

the results will be found to agree in
§

essential particulars.
at least of the

156.

We
take

are

now

able to

compare some

vowel-sounds in different languages.

By way
is
still

of examples,

We may

the

following.

The Teutonic
It

long i was
preserved in

pronounced
in

like ee in heet.

This sound

Icelandic, Swedish,

and Danish.
But in
E.,

was

also so

pronounced
it

A.S. and M.E.

Dutch, and German,
It

has

suffered a precisely similar alteration.

has been

moved

on, as

if

Du.

ij^
i.

by a new gradation, from I to AI; so that the G. «* and E. long i are all now sounded precisely
as i in hite ^.

alike,

e.

Or

again,

we may

consider the A. S.
it

d,

whence came the E.
guages.
often
it

in stone,

and compare

with other lan-

The

A.

S.

a has not always the same value, but most
§

has the value indicated in

155,

i.e.

it

answers to
e,

Teut. AI.

We

should expect this to answer to Du. long

and accordingly we find the Du. steen answering to A. S. stdn and E. stone. In conj. 6, stem 2, the G. corresponding sound
would seem
to be
;

ie,

but the fact

is

that the G. trieb (drove)

is

a modern form

the O.

H. G. was

dreib or treih,
is'

and the
this

M. H. G. was
of A. S.
result,
a,

treib.

Hence

the G. ei

the right equivalent

as in G. Stein, a stone.

Having obtained
S. ban,

we

are prepared to find other similar examples, of
cited.

which a few may be
heel,

E. bone, A.
leg.

Du.

been,

bone, leg, shank ; G. Bein^ a

E. whole, A. S. hdl, Du.

G.

heil.

E. oath, A.
eek,

S. dp,

Du.

eed,

G. Eid.

.

E. oak,
zeep,

A.
*

S. dc,

Du.

G. Eich-e.

E. soap, A. S. sdp-e, Du.

intermediate sound between I {ee in beet) and ai {i in bite) is ei This is supposed to have been the sound of E. z in the time of Shakespeare. Observe that German actually retains the archaic spell(a in na77te).

The

ing Wein, corresponding to a time when that word was pronounced like E. vein.

§ 158.]

THE ANGLO-SAXON LONG
It is

A,

1

73

G.
to

Seif-e,

not to be concluded that the A. S. a answers
ei in
all

Du.

ee^

and G.

cases, for there are

numerous
here quite

special

instances

to

the

sufficient regularity to

we see shew what we may often
contrary, but

expect,

and

we can
original
§

also see that differences of

vowel-sound in the modern
the

forms of related languages

sound

in the

may easily arise from common Teutonic type.
some
length,
it

same
S.

157.

As

I

have already, in Chapter V, explained the A.
at

long vowel-sounds

may be

interesting to

compare them, as v/e can now more easily do, with their German and Teutonic equivalents. For this purpose I shall say a few words upon each sound, without giving every
detail,

beginning with
S.

§ 42.

The A.
G. zwei\ G. Eld]

a (long
ei,

a).

In

many

cases this answers to

Teut. AI, G.

as explained in § 156.

Examples

:

iwd, two,
dj>,

hdl,

whole, G. heil\ ddl, dole, G. Theil;

oath,

clap, cloth,
;

G. Kleid (a dress); G. Geisi
;

Idp, loath,

G. kid
',

(troublesome)

gdst, ghost,
;

hds, hoarse, G. heis-er
;

dn, one, G. ein
(leg)
;

sidn, stone,
;

G. Stein

bdn^ bone, G.

Bein

Mm,
is

home, G. Heim
viz.

ddh, dough, G. Teig, &c.

But
is

there
less

a second value of the

German
gd,
go,

equivalent,

which

common,
wd,
Idr,

eh] as in rd, roe, G.
We/i;

Reh\

sld, sloe,
td,

G.

Schleh-e;

woe, G.
lore,

G. geh-e\

toe,

G. Zeh-e;

G. Lehr-e\

sdr, sore, allied to

G. sehr^
is,

sorely, very;

mdr-e,

more, G. mehr.

This sound

in

general, merely another development of the

same Teut. AI,
due to the
also spelt
;

and
rdh

either occurs at the

end of a
;

syllable, or is

influence of a following ^ or r
;

thus A. S. rd

is

and A.

S.

sld

is

a contracted form for *sldh- e

see

further in Kluge's
§

Etym. G. Diet.
S. 6

168.

The A.
6,

(long

e).

This most often

arises

from

a mutation of
K.^.//l^
FUsse.
is

as explained in Chap.

XL

Thus E. feet^
foot, pi.

the

pi.

o{ foot, k.S./oot]

cf.

G. Fuss,

sound

is

Hence wc shall often find that the corresponding G. long U, Examples A. S./el-an, to feel, G./Uhl-en
:
;

174
grin-e, green, G.

VOWEL-GRADATION.
grun
; ;

[Chap. X.

cen-e,

keen, bold, G. kiihn

;

h/d-an,
;

to heed, G. hiii-en
swet-e,

bred-an, to breed, G. brut-en, to hatch

sweet, G.

j-^jj-;

gret-an, to greet, G. griiss-en.

But and

there are several examples in which the A. S. e has another
origin;

thus

he%

high,

is

a shorter form of

>^m/^,

high,

corresponds, regularly, to G. hoch.
§

159.

The A.

S. i

(long

i).
:

This commonly answers to
S. bi, by,

G.

ei;

see § 156.

Examples

A.

G. bet;
It is

ir-en, iron,

G. Et's-en;

hwil, while, G.

Weil-e, &c.

very easy to

multiply examples.
§

160.

The A. S. 6
the pt.
t

(long

o).

This commonly answers to

Teut.
to

0; see go, makes
S. 6

oi shake in § 153.
cf.

The

A. ^./ar-an,

the pt. t./or] with which

A.

commonly=G.
;

long u or uh.

G./uhr; so that Examples sc6, shoe,
:

G. Schuh
hoof, G.

d6n, to do,
flSr, floor,

G. thun

;

to,

too,

G. zu
stool,

;

swor, swore,

G. schwur;
hod, hood,
-^w^/,

G. Fluv,

stol,

G. Stuhl; hof,

Huf\

blod, blood,

G. Blut', brod, brood, G. Brut;
rood,

G. Hut;

rod,

G. Ruih-e, &c.

The G.
;

kuol,

M. H. G. kiiele, is allied to an unmodified form appearing in M. H. G. kuol-haus, a cooling house and
cool,

this latter agrees exactly with

A.

S. col, cool.

Two important
G. JBruder ;

examples occur in A.
G. long

S. brodor, brother,
It is

and

mddor, mother, G. Mutter,
u,

surprising to find that this

answering to a Teut. long 0, was really

A

in the

Aryan parent-speech.

We

thus get the remarkable variety
fiaTrjp,
;

of long vowels seen in Lat. mater, Doric Gk.
firiTrip,

Attic

A. S. modor, O. H. G. muotar (G. Mutter^

or again,

in \jdX.fagus,
§ 161.

Gk.

(firjyos,

A.

S. bdc,

G. Buche, a beech-tree.
It

The A.

S.

u

(long u).

was shewn

in §

46 that

the A. S. u has been developed into the
ou, as in hUs,

modern diphthong

a house, just as the A.
i.

the

modern diphthongal long

S. i has been altered to Both of these changes have

taken place in
*

German

also ^
is

Just as the O.
the same.
I

H. G. win

is

The

reason, in both languages,

have already given

it.

See

p. 53, note 2.

: ; ;

§164]

THE ANGLO-SAXON LONG
O. H. G.

V.

1

75
(E.

now

Wei'n (E. wine), so the

Ms

is

now Haus
\

house).

Examples:
foul,
;

hrii^

brow, G. Augen-hraue
;

sur, sour,

G. sauer ; ful,
lus, louse,

G. /aul, corrupt

hus, house, G.

Haus

;

G. Laus

mus, mouse, G. Maus, &c.

But there

are cases in which
as in
dii,

German
;

has preserved the u unchanged

thou, G. du

nil,

now, G. nun

;

cd,

cow, G. Kuh.

Such instances are
realise
is

useful, as they enable the

Englishman to

what the original A. S. u was like, especially when it remembered that coo (cow), noo (now), moos (mouse), hoos
162.

(house) are quite
§

The A.
filth,

common words in provincial English. As found in A. S. viys, S. y (long y).
answers to G. du in Mdiise, mice.

pi.

of mus, mouse,

it

The

be compared with G. Fdulniss, rottensame sound appears in hyr, hire, G. Heuer But in G. Haut, hide, A. S. hyd, and fyr, fire, G. Feuer. Braut, bride, A. S. hryd, the G. au has suffered no modiA. S. fylS,
ness.

may

Much

the

fication.
§

163.

The A.

S. se.

It

appears from the 3rd stem of the
to

conjugation of the verb

bear (§ 153) that the A. S.
a.

dB^

answers regularly, in some cases, to G. long
dl^ eel,

Examples
G. Saat\
sleep,

G. Aal\ mdl, meal, repast, G. Mahl; d/en, evening,
sccd^ seed,

G. Abetid; sprdc, speech, G. Sprach-ey

ddd, deed, G. Thai] nddl, needle, G. Nadel)

sldp,
in

G. Schla/, A.
S.

Sec.

But there are numerous cases

which
In

words containing
(

d

are

mere

derivatives

from words

containing d

= G.

ei),

as explained in the next chapter.
et

such cases, German keeps the

of the

more
is

primitive word.

Thus A.
hdl,

S. hcel-an, to heal
heil).

(G. heil-en)

derived from A. S.

whole (G.
164.

It

is

obvious that

German

is

here an

excellent guide to such a
§

method of
It

derivation.

The A.
is

S. 6a.

appears, from the 2nd stem of

the conjugation of chbose (§ 153), that the A. S. ^a represents

Teut.

AU, and

equivalent to G.

0.

Examples
Put

:

fle'a, flea,

G. Floh\

iar-e, ear,

G. Ohr\

dast, east,

G. Ost\ b/aUy bean,

G. Bohn-e\

siriam^ stream, G. Strom.

examples are

;

176

VO WEL' GRAB A TION.

[Chap. X.

not wanting in which G. has kept the Teut. au unchanged
as in he-reaf-ian,
to bereave,

;

G. be-rauh-en\
;

leaf, leaf,

G.
;

Laub
bifam,

;

seam, a seam, G.

Saum
(tree)

dr/am, a dream, G.
heapj
;

Traum
G.

beam, G.

Baum

;

a heap, G. Hauf-e

\

hleap-an, to run (leap), G. lauf-en

ceap^ a bargain,

Kauf

(both perhaps from Lat. caup-o, a huckster, though Kluge
considers these words as pure Teutonic).
§

165.

The A. S.
1

60.

It

appears, from the ist stem of

choose (§

53), that the A. S. eo (Goth,

m) answers
;

to Teut.
(fee),

EU, G.
Vieh;
be'or^

le.

Examples
Bier

:

se'o,

she,

G.

sie

feoh^ cattle

G.

beo,

bee, G. Bie-ne] dior, deer, G.
;

Thier (animal);
seethe,
S.
e'o

beer, G.

ceol^ keel,

G. Kiel

;

se'od-an, to

G.

sied-en,

&c.

But there are cases

in

which an A.

arises

from contraction; and here G. has
G. drei ; /reo,
free,

ei; as in pr^o,

three,

G. /rei ; /eond, fiend, G. I^eind
in

(enemy).
see,

Another contracted form occurs

A.

S. seon, to

G. seh-en.

§ 166.

same
in

The above examples are intended to shew how the sound may be quite diiferently developed such languages as modern English and modern German
original Teut.

so that, for example, the great apparent difference between
the sounds of 'E.flea

and G. Floh can be explained; they

AU, and that is all. Grimm's Law only enables us to say that, in such a pair of words as the E. token (A. S. tdcen) and the G. Zeichen, the / is regularly shifted to a G. Z, and the k (A. S. c) to the G. ch, But we can now go further, and say that the A. S. a and G. ei are both alike developed from Teut. AI, and exactly
are
different

developments of Teut.

correspond.
Zeichen
all

the

Hence the E. token corresponds to way through, sound for sound; and it
original identity of

the
is

G.

only

when we can prove such an
words can
are
fairly

form that
to say,

be said to be cognate.
not the

That

is

we

bound

to

explain

consonants alone, but the even more im-

vowels also.

If anything, the vowels are of

portance than the consonants, as they enable us to apply

§ i67.]

PRACTICAL APPLICATION.
test.

1

77

a viore delicate

It is

not

till

this principle is

thoroughly

understood that true philology begins.

Mere hap-hazard

comparisons are utterly worthless.
§

167.

gradation.

Practical application of the principle of A knowledge of gradation, as explained above,
Thus, when we know that long a
easily

enables us to trace relationships between words which might
otherwise seem unrelated.

and short a are connected by gradation, we can
understand that the vowel

may
Here

appear as short a in one

language and as long a in another.
the
Skt.

Take,
Skt.
f,

for

example,

gapha^
s^

a hoof.

the

though pro-

weakened from k, and the Skt. ph is an aspirated/, so that the Aryan form of the first syllable was By Grimm's Law, the Aryan k and p answer to Teut. KAP. h andy^ respectively, thus giving the Teut. form of the same
nounced as
is

syllable as haf.

If the
6^

a be graded

to a,

it

becomes, as

above, an A. S.

which gives us A.

S. hof,

a hoof, at once.
practically,

We
one

cannot

doubt that the Skt. gapha^ which,

differs

from ^^only

in exhibiting a short a instead of a long
is

in the first syllable,

really cognate with the

A.

S. h6f,

E. hoof', for the words are identical in meaning.

Similarly,

we can

perceive such connections as the following.
/lijJi/;/,

A.

S.

m6na, moon, allied to Gk.
ma, to measure, the
Skt. md^
to

moon
Y..

;

from the Ary^n root
;

moon

being the measurer of time

cf.

measure
;

160).

food, A. S. fS-da, from
£./<?<?/,

the root pa, to feed

Skt. pd, to feed.

A. S./^7, Skt.

pdd or pad, a
reconciliation
;

foot.

E.

boot,

advantage, A.

S. b6t,

G. Busse,

strengthened from the Teut. base bat, good,
bat-i'sts jbest
;

preserved in Goth, bat-iza^ better,

where bat
E.
;

=

Aryan bhad, as seen
A.
S.
stol,
crn\Kr)^

in

Skt. bhad-ra, excellent.
;

stool,

a chair, support

G. Stuhl, chair, throne
firmly set
cool,

Gk.

a

pillar,

named from being
E.
;

up

;

from the
allied to

Aryan root
Icel.

sta, to stand firm.
(pt.
t.

A.

S.

c6l,

kal-a

kdt),

to freeze

A.

S. ccal-d,

O. Mercian

cal-d (§ 33), E. col-d', cf Lat. gel-u, frost.

E. bough, A.S. b6h,

VOL.

I.

N

'

178
h6g,

VO WEL- GRAB A TION.
an arm, shoulder, bough, branch;
;

[Chap. X.

Icel. hSg-r,

shoulder

of an animal, how (of a ship)
*</>^X-^Oj

cognate with Gk.

tt^x-^^ (for

^^^»

^^^- ^^'^-^ (for "^bhdgh-u), arm. Pers. 3^2^,

arm.
§ 168. The A. S. 6 does not always arise from Teut. 6; and we may here conveniently discuss four words of special interest in which the A. S. 6 arises from the loss of n in the

combination
to

on,
it

the

being lengthened by compensation

make

up, as

were, for the loss of the consonant, because
is

a greater stress
frequent A.
S.

thus

thrown upon
for

it.

Again, on
an,

is

a

and M. E. substitution
changing a into
later

an earher

owing

to the A. S. habit of

before nasals.

English has the
Y..

form bond as well as band^.
cf.

Modern Hence
a.

goose,

A.

S. gos,

stands for "^gons^^gans;

G. Gans,

goose, Lat. ans-er (for '^hans-er=-'^ghans-er\
*xavs),
is

Skt.

hams-a, a swan.
cf.

Gk. xh^ So also E. tooth, A. S.

(for
to^,

for '^tond-='^tand',

Lat. ace. dent-em, Gk. ace. o-hovr-a^

Skt. dant-a, tooth.

E. other, A. S. oder, stands for '^onder^.
Lastly, E. sooth,

*ander)

Goth, anthar, other, Skt. antara.
is

A.

S.

s6d,

for

*so7i^=*san3^;

cf.

Dan.

sand,
;

true,

Icel.

sann-r, true (put for '^sand-r, by assimilation)
true,
'

Teut. santho,

answering to Aryan sent-.
'

The Aryan

sent- meant
'

being,' or

existent,' or
;

'

actual,'

whence the sense of

true

easily resulted

it

appears in the Lat. ace. ab-sent-em, being
at

away, prce-sent-em, being near
this

hand

;

and

it

is

clear that

SENT-

is

short for es-ent-, which

is

nothing but a prees, to be, as

sent participial form from the
in Skt. as, to be, Lat. esse.

Aryan root

seen

It is

not probable that such an
;

abstract sense as

'

be
to
'

'

was the
breathe
is
'

original sense of this root
;

it

most

likely
life.

meant

as seen in the Skt. as-u, vital
'

breath,

Thus

sooth

simply

that

which

lives,'
is

hence
santy

a reality or truth.

The corresponding word
Ormulum, and
in
is

in Skt.

which, as Benfey explains at p. 63
^

(s. v. as), is

properly the

Band

first

occurs in the

of Scand. origin; not

English (A.

S.), as

wrongly marked

my

Dictionary.

§169.]

PRACTICAL APPLICATION.
meant

1

79

pres. part, of as^ to be, but

also right, virtuous, steady,
sati,

venerable, excellent.

The

feminine form was reduced to

with the sense of

'

a virtuous wife'; and this term was after-

wards applied to a widow who immolated herself on the
funeral pile of her husband.

This

is

the

word which we
burning of

usually write

suitee^

and incorrectly apply
suttee, just

to the

a widow.

The

Skt. short a

being sounded as the E. u in
as

mud, we have turned sati into

we
is

write jungle,

punch, pundit, bungalow, thug, Punjaub, for the same reason.

One
and

of the most interesting facts in philology

the bringing
;

together of
it

many words which
all

at first sight

look unrelated

can be shewn that the same root
the

es,

to live, is the

ultimate source of
sooth, sin

words following,
entity,

viz.

am,

art,

is,

(English); essence,

absent, present (Latin);
;

eu- (prefix), [palcE)-onto-logy (Greek)
§

and

sutt-ee (Sanskrit).

169. But the most important application of the principle
is

of gradation

the following.

We

see that each strong verb, are often

possesses four stems,

some of which

much
two

alike,.

Thus, omitting

suffixes,

the stems of scac-an, to shake, are
varieties,

(i) scac- (2) scoc- (3) scdc- (4) scac-, yielding only
viz. scac-, scoc-.

It is

found that derived words,

Ctiiefly

sub-

stantives (sometimes adjectives),

do not always preserve the
sometimes formed from the
shape, sb., agrees with the
lit.
t.

primitive stem {scac^, but are

variant (sc6c-\

Thus

the

mod. E.
;

stem scap- of scap-an, to shape
sing, of the

but the A. S. sc6p, a poet,
sc6py

a shaper of song, agrees with the stem

seen in the

pt.

same
is

verb.

It

is,

however, not correct to say
pt.
t.

that sc6p, a poet,

derived from the

sc6p

;

we may only
same

say that

it

is

derived from that strengthened form of the base
in the past tense.
It
is

which appears

precisely the

case as occurs with respect to the Gk. Xdn-uv, to leave, perf.
Xe-XotTT-a (§ 134).

Wc
perf.

find the adj. \oi7r-6s, remaining; not
X«-Xoi7r-a,

formed from

the

but

exhibiting
If

the

same

gradation as that which appears in

^«-Xol7^-a.

now we
and the

employ the symbol

<

to

signify 'derived

from,'

N

2

.

I

80
||

VO WEL" GRAB A TION.
to signify
'

[Chap.

X
we

symbol
poet,
is

a base with the

same gradation

as,'

may, with perfect correctness, express the etymology of
2L

sc6p,

by writing

scop, sb.

<

||

scop, pt.

t.

of scdp-an, to shape.
||,

This
but

sometimes loosely expressed by omitting the symbol

it

must always

be understood', so that if at

any time,

for

the sake of brevity, I should speak of sc6p, a poet, as being
'

derived from the

pt.

t.

of scap-an,' this

is

only to be regarded
*

and inaccurate way of saying that it is derived from a base with the same gradation as scop! And this is all that is meant when E. sbs. are said to be derived from forms of the past tenses and past participles of strong verbs.
as a loose
§

170.

The

result of the last section is important,
it.

because

most English grammars neglect
Loth's

Instances are given in

AngelsachsischengUsche

Grammatik, but they are

taken from Anglo-Saxon, and do not clearly bring out the
survival of the principle in. the

modern language.
I
;

As

this

point has been so
collect

much

neglected, I have endeavoured to

such

examples of gradation as

have

observed

in

modern
§ 171.

English, and
list is

now

subjoin them

but I do not

suppose that the

complete.

7^(2//-conjugation.

There

are

no

examples

of

derivatives
is

from a secondary stem, because the past tense

formed by reduplication, not by gradation.
is

The

verb
will

to

fell

derived, not by gradation, but

by mutation, as
the

be

shewn

hereafter (§

192

/3).

From

primary stem we
;

have such substantives as
derivation
§
is

/all, hold, span, &c.

where the

obvious.

172. -S/^^/^^-conjugation.

There are no modern examples
case

of derivatives from the second stem, except in the
of soke, soken, A. S.
soc,

soc-n

<

||

soc,

pt.

t.

of sac -an, to
S.

contend; and in the doubtful case oi groove, A.

gro/il)
it

<

II

gJ"o/, pt.

t.

of graf-an, to grave, cut.
S. gro/'is

But

I believe

will

be found that the A.
is

unauthorised and imaginary;

that groove

a word of late introduction into English, being
the

unknown

in

M.

E. period

;

and

that

it

was merely

§174.]

EXAMPLES.
Nevertheless, the principle

l8l
still

borrowed from Du.^r(?^z;^\
applies;
groef, pt.
for
t.

Du. groeve

is

derived from the stem seen

in

of Du. graven, to grave.

§ 173. -5^^r-conjugation.

The stems
;

are (i) ber- (2) bcer;

(3) bdr- (4) bor-, as seen (2) na?n- (3)

in ber-an, to bear

or (i) nim-

nam-

(4) num.-

as seen in nim-an, to take.

The

following are derivatives from the

2nd stem; E. bair-n
t.

(child),

A.S. bear-n

<

\\

bar

[

— *bar\ pt.
;

of ber-an, to bear.

Also E. bar-m, A.
E. share, as
(for *scar), pt.

S. bear-m, the lap

from the same.
[

m plough-share,
t.

A.

S. scear

= '^scar) <

||

sccer

of scer-an, scier-an, to shear.

E. qual-m, A.S. cweal-m [^'^cwal-m), pestilence, death

<

II

A. S. cwceI {=*cwal),
is

pt.

t.

of A.S. cwel-an, to

die,

which

now

spelt quail.
:

From From
load

the 3rd stem

bier,

A.

S.

bdr

<

||

bdr-on,

pt.

t.

pi.

of

ber-an, to bear.

the

4th

stem
||

:

bur-den, bur-then, A. S. byir-den, a

<

(by mutation)

bor-en, pp. oi ber-an, to

bear

193).

Similarly bir-th, A. S. ge-byr-d.

E.

>^(?/(f,

A. S. hoi, a hollow, cave
/
i.

<

||

hol-en, pp. of

A. S.

hel-an, to hide.

E. score, A. S. scor, a score,
scer-an, to shear, cut.

e.

twenty

<

||

scor-en, pp.

of

We may
from A.
S.

also note here that nim-b-le
;

and numb
was

are both

nim-an, to take

the latter adj.

actually

formed

from the pp. num-en.
§ 174.

The ^/V^-conjugation.
the

From
il

2nd stem
t.

:

lay, v.,

A.

S. lecg-an
lie

<
a).

(by mutation)

IcBg (=z*lag), pt.

of licg-an, to

(§192
||

E.

sei,

A.

S. setl-an

<

(by mutation)

seel

{=*sal),

pt.

t.

of

sill-aftf

to

sit

(§192

a).

Likewise E.
in

sell-le,

a bench.
pt.
t.

E. Irade (not found
tred-an, to tread.

A.

S.)

<

ll

trad {=.* trad),

of

» • Groepty or Groeve, a Furrow'; Hexham's Du. Diet. 1658. I know of no authority for growe as an E. word older than Skinner (1671).

1 8 :i

VO WEL' GRAB A TION,
S.

[Chap. X.

E. wain, A.

wcBg-n

<

||

wag,
which

pt.
is

t.

of weg-an, to carry.

E. wreck,

M. E. wrak,
pt.
t.

that

driven ashore
(to

<

|1

A. S.

wrcEc {^*wrac), E. wretch, A.

of wrec-an, to drive

wreak).

Also

S. wrcBc-ca, likewise

<

||

wrcBc.

From
sprcec-e

the

3rd stem
sprdc-on,

:

E. speech, A. S. spdc-e, older form
t.

<

\\

pt.

pi.

of sprec-an, to speak.

So

also
S.

the Scand.
sdt-on, pt.

word
t.

seat (Icel. sceti) is to

be compared with A.

pi.

of sitt-an, to
:

sit.

From

the 4th stem
lie.

E.

lai-r,

A.

S. leg-er

<

\\

leg-en,

pp.

of licg-an, to

E. bead, A.
pray.

S. led,

a prayer
is

<

H

bed-en, pp. of bidd-an, to

The same

principle

applicable to Scand. words also.
pi.

Thus E.
log (with

law, A. S. lag-u, borrowed from Icel. lag, order,
sing, sense)
;

law
'

<

|I

Icel.

Id (for '^lag), pt.
lies
'

t.

of

liggja, to lie

the

'

law

is

'

that

which

or

is settled.

§ 175.

The
the

fi^r?>2>^-conjugation.

From
which
pt.
t.

2nd stem: E.

bend,

v.,
it,

A. S. bend-an, to fasten

a string on a bow, and so to bend
is

from A.

S. bend, a

band,

derived (by mutation) from a base parallel, with band,

of bind-an

(§192

a).

E. cram, A. S. cramm-ian

<

\\

cramm,

pt.

t.

oi crimm-an, to

cram.
E. drench, A.
S.

drenc-an

<

(by mutation)

\\

dranc,

pt.

t.

of

drinc-an, to drink

(§192

a).

E. malt, A.

S. mealt,

steeped grain

<

||

mealt, pt. of melt-an,

to melt, hence to steep, soften.

(We may

observe that the

A.

S. pp. molten is still in use.)

E. quench, A.
of cwinc-an, to

S.

cwenc-an

<

(by mutation)

||

cwanc,

pt.

t.

become

extinguished.

E. song,

sing-an, to sing.

M. E. song, So also

sang, A. S. sang

<

y

sang, pt.

t.

of

singe, A. S. seng-an (to

to scorch (alluding to the singing noise
logs), derived

make to sing), made by burning
sa7ig

by mutation from the same stem
A. S. stenc

(§192
pt.
t.

iS).

E.

stench,

<

(by mutation)

||

stanc,

of

stinc-an. to stink.

§ 176.]

EXAMPLES.
ihongj A. S.

1

83

E.

pwang <

||

*pwang,

pt.

t.

of *'J>wing-an,

only found in O. Fries, ihwing-a, O. Sax. thwing-an, to constrain,

compress.

E. throngs
pt.
t.

M. E.
S.

throng, thrang, A. S.

prang

<

|1

prang,

oi prtng-an, to crowd.

E. wander, A.
pt.
t.

wand-r-ian, frequentative verb

<

||

wand,

of wind-an, to wind, turn about.

So also E. wand,
;

originally a pliant rod, that could

be wound or woven

and

even 'E.wend, to go, formed by mutation (192 a). E. -ward as a suffix (in to-ivard, &c.), A. S. -weard (Goth.
-wairth-s)
orig. to

<

||

A.

S.
to.

wearp,

pt.

t.

of weorp-an, to

become,

be turned

E. warp, threads

stretched
t.

lengthwise

in

a loom, A. S.

wearp
across.

<

||

wearp,

pt.

of weorp-an, to cast, throw, throw

E. wrang-le, frequentative from the stem wrang,

pt.

t.

of

wring-an, to

twist, strain, wring.

wrang,

i.e.

perverse,

So also wrong, adj., A. S. from the same stem. We may also
allied to

note that E. swam-p
to swim.

is

swamm,

pt.

t.

of swimm-an,

Similarly the

Scand. word slang, a pole, stake
S. siang,
pt.
t.

(Icel. stang-r) is

4o be compared with A.

of

sting-an, to sting, poke.

From
pt.
t.

the 3rd stem

:

E. borough, K.^.burh, burg

<

||

burg-on,

pi.

oi beorg-an, to keep, protect.
the 4th stem
borg,
s.,
:

From
keep.
the

E. borroiv, A.

S. borg-ian,

verb formed

from borh,

a pledge
S.

<

||

borg-en, pp. of beorg-an, to

So also bury, A. same stem (§ 193).

byrg-an, formed by mutation from

E. bund-le

<

||

bund-en, pp. of bind-an, to bind.

E. crumb, A. S. crum-a

<

||

crumm-en, pp. of crimm-an, to
of drinc-an, to drink.

cram, squeeze.
E. drunk-ard
§

< <

||

drunc-en, pt.

t.

178.

The

</r/z;^-conjugation.
:

From

the ist stem
||

E. chine, a fissure in a

sea-cliff,

A. S.

cln-u, a fissure

cin-an, to split, crack.

1

84
E.
ripe,

VOWEL- GRADATION.
A.
S. rtp-e, adj.

[Chap. X.

<

||

rip-an, to reap.

Hence

ripe

is

'

fit

for reaping/
S.

E. stirrup, A.

s tig-rap,

lit.

rope

to

climb or

mount

by

<
E.

II

stig-an, to climb.

sty,

A.
the

S. stig-o,

a pen for cattle
:

;

from the same.
abood

From
pt.
t.

2nd stem

E. abode,

M.E.
t.

<

||

K.^.d-bdd,

of dbid-an, to abide.

E. dough, A. S. ddh

< <

\\

""ddh, pt.

of *dig-an, to knead,

only found in the cognate Goth, deig-an, to knead.
E. drove, A. S. drdf
drive.
||

A.

S. drd/] pt.

t.

of drif-an, to

E. grope, A.

S.

grdp-ian,

weak verb

<

1!

grdp,

pt.

t.

of

grip- an, to gripe, seize.

E. loan, A. S. Id-n (a rare form)
to lend
;

<
is

||

Idh, pt.

t.

of lih-an,

the -n

is

a

suffix,

and the h

dropped.
pt.
t.

E.

lode,

a course, A. S. lad

<

\\

Id^,

of lid-an, to

travel, go.

Here

the change
;

from
pi.

final

d

to final
is

d

is

due

to Verner's

Law

the pt.

t.

of lid-an

lid-on,

and the

pp. lid-en', § 130.

E.

lore,

learning, A. S. Idr
lais, I

<

I|

"^Ids

(not found), cognate

with Goth,
find out
;

have found out,

pt.

t.

of

'^leis-an, to

track,

see p. 155.
S.

See Lore and Learn

in

my Etym. Diet.
t.

E. road, A.

rdd

<

\\

rdd, pt.

t.

of rzd-an, to ride.

E. slope answers to an A.
to slip.

S. *sldp

< <

||

slap, pt.

of slip-an,

E. Shrove (in Shrove-Tuesday)
shrive,

||

E. shrove,

pt.

t.

of

A.

S. serif- an.

E.

stroke,

A.

S.

strdc-ian,

weak verb
i.

<
<

||

strdc,

pt.

t.

of

stric-an, to strike.

E. wroth,

adj.,

A.

S.

wrdd,

e.

perverse

||

wrdd,

pt.

t.

of

wrid-an, to writhe, turn about.

We
pt.
t.

have at least two Scandinavian words with a corre-

sponding stem-vowel.
of
bita, to

bite;

These are bait, Icel. and raid, Icel. reid <
add
bleak,

beit-a
\\

<

\\

belt,
t.

reid, pt.

of

rzd-a, to ride.

We may also

gleam,

leave, lend, ready,


§ 176.]

EXAMPLES.
stair^ weak, wreath, all
(§ 195).
:

1

85

rear,

v.,

formed by mutation.

See the

next Chapter

From

the 4th stem

E.

bit,

A.

S. bit-a, sb.

<

|1

A.

S. bit-en,

pp. of bit-an, to bite.

E. dri/-t

<
sb.,

II

A.

S. drif-en, pp.

of drif-an, to drive.

(The

suffixed / will be explained hereafter.)

E. grip,

A.

S. grip-e

^

<
||

||

grip-en, pp. of grip-an, to

gripe, grasp.

E.
cover.

lid,

sb.,

A.

S.

hlid

<

hlid-en,

pp.

of hlid-an,

to

E.

slit,

sb.

(whence M. E.

slit-ten,

verb), A. S.

slit-e,

sb.

<

II

slit-en,

pp. of slit-an, to rend.

E. whit-tle, to pare with a knife,
knife

from A.

S. pwit-el,

a

<

||

pwit-en, pp. oipwit-an, to cut.

E. writ, A. S. [ge)-writ
write.

<

||

writ-en, pp. of writ-an,

to

Besides these obvious derivatives,
these
:

we

find others, such as

E. chin-k, formed with suffix k from a base chinpp. of ctn-an, to
split,

<

\\

cin-en,

crack.
'

E.

cliff,

A.

S. clif,

properly a

steep,'
||

or a place to climb

up

;

the

same

as Icel. klif, a cliff

<

Icel. *klif-inn (obsolete),

pp. of kli/-a, to climb.

E. dwin-d-le, formed (with excrescent d) from *dwin-le, a
regular frequentative verb
decrease, dwindle, languish.

<

||

dwin-en, pp. of dwln-an, to

E.

slip,

weak

verb,

M. E.

slip-pen

<

\\

slip-en,

pp. of

slip-an, to slip (strong verb).

E. shrif-t, A. S. scrif-t
shrive
*.

<

\\

-an, to -en, pp. of serif serif

E.

stile (to

climb over),

in

which the
A.

i

has been lengthened

after loss

of g,

M. E.

stiyel,

S. stig-el

<

\\

stig-en, pp. of

stig-an, to climb.
*

'

Curiously enough, grip as a verb is late, borrowed from F. gripper. Not really a Teutonic word but borrowed from Lat. scribere.
;

t86

vowel-gradation.

[Chap. x.

E. Sir id, a striding-place, a well-known place in the valley of the Wharfe
across.

<

||

sirtd-en, pp. of sirtd-an, to stride, stride

Similarly, the Scand. thrif-t

is

pp. of thrive
is

;

and

wick-et, a

to be compared with thriv-en, French word of Scand. origin,

to be

compared with

Icel. vik-inn,

pp. of vik-ja, to turn.
Diet.

See also
It is

wick-et, witch-elm in

my

Etym.

also highly probable that the syllable -dige in A. S.
is

hldf-dige, a lady,
"^digan

from the same stem as
;

'^dig-en, pp.

of

=

Goth, deigan, to knead
is,

and

that the original sense

of our /ady
§

consequently,

'

a kneader of bread.'

177.

The

choose-conjug^tion.

From
A.

the ist stem

we may note
(cf.

the following.

E. dreary,

S. dreor-ig,

of which the orig. sense was gory, dripping

with blood, put for '^dreos-ig
to drip.

Verner's

Law)

<

||

dre'os-an,

E. crowd,

S.J

is

best explained

by supposing (with

Strat-

mann)
pt.
t.

that the A. S. infinitive (which does not occur)

was
the

"^crild-an, to
is

push, not *creod-an, as usually assumed;

found as cread.

In

fact,

Chaucer has the verb croud-en,
is

to push,

and the Dutch form

kruijen,

formerly kruid-en,

which answers to
A.
A.
S.

"^criid-an just as the

Du. buig-en does to

bUg-an

;

whereas, on the other hand, the Du. for choose
is kiez-en,

(A. S. ceos-an)
S. *cre'oda7i

wiih a very different vowel, and an
to a

would answer
'

Du.
'

'^krieden,

of which no

one has ever heard.
E. dove, A. S. duf-a,
lit.

a diver

<

\\

diif-an, to dive.

E.
stoop

lout,
;

s.,

a clumsy, slouching fellow

<

ll

A.

S. lut-an,

to

the change from A. S.
sb. cripple,

H

to E. ou

being regular
vv'ho

(§ 46).
is

The

formerly

creeple^,

one

creeps about,

a derivative of the verb

to creep.
:

From
(where
^
fi?

the
is

2nd stem
a sufPix)

E. bread,
||

M. E.
t.

breed,

A.

S. bre'a-d

<

breaw,

pt.

of br^ow-an, to brew,

Newes

*In them that bee lame or creepelles' (1577) J. Frampton, Joyfull out of the newe founde Worlde; fol. 52, back. See p. 59, note 3.
;

§ 177.]

EXAMPLES.
;

1 87

hence, to ferment
fermented.'
short,

the

orig. sense

j

being

'

that

which

is

Observe that the vowel in bread, though now
in

was long
-less,

E.

the

M. E. commonest
It
le'os-an^

suffix

in

English,
-lees,

also

has a

shortened vowel.

answers to M. E.
to lose.

A.

S.

-Was

<
*

II

leas, pt.

t.

of

The

suffix -less

means
with
the

deprived

of

The A.

S.

Was was

also used as

an

adj.,

the sense of 'false';

hence E. leas-ing (A.

S. leas-ung) in

sense of 'falsehood.'
Icel. lauss, loose,

The

adj. loose is

Scandinavian, from

cognate with A.

S. leas, loose, false.
t.

E.

neat, cattle,

A.

S. ne'at

<
'

||

neal, pt.

of n/ol-an, to use,

.

employ.

^'^ Hence the sense is used,' domestic. ?^'^f^ E. reave (commoner in de-reave), A. S. re'af-ian, to strip of
from
r^af,
s.,

^

clothes, despoil,

clothes, spoil

<
t.

||

re'af, pt.

t.

of

re'of-an, to deprive,

take away.

E. red,
redden. E.
pt.
t,

M. E.
s.,

reed^

A.

S.

r^ad

<

||

read, pt.

of r/od-an, to

reek,

A.

S. r/c,

another form of r/ac, smoke

<

||

r/ac,
still

of r/oc-an, to exhale.

The

original Teut.
;

AU

is

seen in the cognate G. Ranch, smoke
E. sheaf, A.
S.^

§ 164.

sciaf

<

||

sc^af, pt.

t.

of scHf-an, to shove,

push together.
E.
fold,
sheet,

A.

S. scit-e, scyt-e^
sail,
t.

a sheet, allied to sciat, a corner,

corner of a

sheet or rope fastened to a cornqr of

a

sail

<

II

sciat, pt.

of sciot-an, to shoot, hence, to project.

E. throe, A. S. pr^a

<

||

J^r/aw, pt.

t.

of pre'oiv-an,

to

^

suffer.

The vowel

in

E. throe

may have been

influenced by

the Icel. form prd.

From

the 3rd stem

:

E. gut, A.S. gutt, properly

'

a channel'

<

II

gut-on, pt. pi. of g/ot-an, to pour.
pi.

E. sud-Sf

<

II

sud-on, pt.

pi.

of siod-an, to seethe, boil.
i)l.

E. tugy weak verb
pull.

<
:

||

tug-on, pt.

of

tio-n,

to draw,

From

the 4th stem

E. bode^ A.

S. bod-ian^ to

announce

<

II

bod-eriy

pp. of biod-an^ to

command.

8

1

8

VO WEL- GRkDA TION.

[Chap. X.

E. bow, a \^eapon, A. S. hog-a
to bend,

<
is

\\

dog-en, pp. of 5iig-an,

bow.
a
suffix),

E. hro-ih, A. S. bro-d (where -d

put for *brow-^

<

|[

brow-en, pp. of br/ow-an, to brew.
s.

E. drop, A. S. drop-a,
drop, drip.

<

II

drop-en, pp. of dr/op-an, to

E. dross, A.

S. dros,

sediment, that which
fall,

falls

down

<

[|

dros-en, pp. of dreos-an, to
Y.. float, v., Y.. frost,

drip

down.
pp. oifle'ot-an, to float.
*/ros-en, orig.

A. S.floi-tan

<

\\flo/-en,

A. S./ros-t

(/ suffixed)

<

|1

form of

froz-en, pp. oifreos-an, to freeze.

E.

z>2-^(?/,

a mass of metal poured into a mould, from in and

^^^

<

II

got-en, pp. of ge'ot-an, to pour.
s.,

E.

/(9cy^,

A.

S. loc-a,

a lock

<

||

loc-en,

pp. of Mc-an, to

lock, fasten.

E.

lose, v.,

M. E.
orig.

losien,

A.

S. los-ian, orig. to
lor-e7i,
is

become

loose

<

II

^los-en,

form of
/fj^-^/z,

pp.

of leos-an, to lose,

which became M. E.
E.
lot, s.,

and

obsolete.

A.

S. hlot

<

II

hlot-en, pp.

of

hle'ot-an,

to choose

by

lots, assign.

E.

shot,

s.

<

II

scot-en,
is

pp. of sceot-an, to shoot.
j>^(?/,

Also

j-r^?/,

in scot-free,

which
A.

a doublet of

and perhaps a Scand.

form.

Cf. Icel. skot-inn, pp. of skjota, to shoot.
j>^<?z^^,

E.

S.

scof-ian,

weak verb

<

||

scof-en,

pp.

of

scuf-an, to push.

Hence

shov-el.
slop-en, pp.

E.

j/(9/>,

A.

S. slop-pe

<

of sMp-an, to dissolve,

let slip.

-S*/^
s.,

was
A.

especially used of the droppings of a cow.

E. smoke,

S.

smoc-a

<

\\

smoc-en, pp. of sme'oc-an, to

smoke.
E. j^^, wet or sodden
of seod-an, to seethe
;

turf,

hence

soft turf

<

!|

sod-en, pp.

cf.

sodden.
participles, viz. rotten, Icel.
;

We

have preserved two old past

rot-inn, 2.nd for-lorn,

A. ^.for-loren

both belong to strong
scuffle

verbs of the c/^(?^i"^-conjugation.

Shuffle,

are Scand.

words, allied to shove.

Some

derivatives

are formed

by


§ 178.]


RESULTS.
which
will
/o

SUMMARY OF

189
be explained
shut and the

mutation, as

britt-le, dive, drip, &c.,

hereafter; see pp. 204, 208, 203.
sb. shutt-le

The

verb

were also formed by mutation from the 3rd stem

(scut-on) oi sceot-an, to shoot; see p. 204, note i.

Brief Summary of Results.
§ 178.

The

chief results of §§ 153, 154
:

may

also be ar-

ranged as follows

There
shake,
pt.
t.

are 4 principal gradations
t.

;

A,

shook,

with
viz.

the

variation

6 (for A), as seen E (for A) seen
S.
pt.

in in

the pt.

pi.

of bear,

Goth, ber-um, A.

bdr-on
t.

;

E, A, O,

as seen in bear (A. S. ber-an, L.at /er-re),

bare, pp. bor-n,
t.

&c.

;

t,

AI,

I,

as seen in drive (A. S. drif-an), pt.
;

drove

(Goth, draib), pp. driv-en

EU, AU, U,
pt.
t.

as seen in choose

(A. S. c^os-an, Goth, kius-an),

chose (Goth, kaus), pp. chosen

(Goth, kus-ans), &c.

They may be

thus arranged, so as to

shew the

oldest forms (including the

Old High German)

:

Teutonic

CHAPTER XL
Vowel-Mutation.
§

179.

'A man
This

said to Goldburh,
is

€0W cheap!

my

memorial sentence,
the

buy a whole goose and a for remembering
I

the principal contents of the present chapter.
that Goldburh
is

may remark

a real

name

;

it

is

name

of the heroine

in the old English romance of Havelok, which belongs to the
reign of

Edward

I.

I shall

now

discuss each of the words

printed in

italics in

the above sentence.

We
facts.

find, in Sweet's

Anglo- Saxon Grammar, the following
1.

2.

The pi. oi mann, a man, is meitn, men. From gold, s. gold, is formed the adj.
to gild.

gylden, golden,

and the verb gyldan,
3.

Burh, a borough, town, makes the plural
dat. sing,
is

byrig, towns.

The
4.

also byrig.
is

to heal,
5.

From hdl, adj., whole, lit. to make whole.
Gos, goose,

formed the derived verb hdlan^

makes

the pi.

gh,

geese.

6.

Cu, a cow, makes the

pi. cy,

cows

;

hence, by the way,

mod. E. ki-ne, which stands for Here ki- = A. S. cy, and ~en
that h'-ne [=:h'-en)
7.
is

ki-en (like eyne, eyes, for ey-en).
is

a

pi.
^.

sufQx (A. S.

-a?z)

;

so

a double plural

Ceap, a bargain,

whence our cheap

is

derived, produces

a derivative verb ckpan, cypan, to buy.
times written cepan, whence our keep.

This verb was someSee Cheap, Keep, in

my

Etym.
^

Diet.
pi.

The

kye occurs in Northern English

;

it is

spelt kie in Golding's
cf.

translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses, fol. 26 (1603);

p. 66, note.

1

§ 1 8 1 .]

CONCEALED MUTA TION,
To
these results

1

9

§

180.

we may add one more,
in

viz.

that

just as in the 7th

being a later

example we see da changed spelling), so we find examples
ie

to U, or

y (y
io

which the

unaccented ea changes to the unaccented

01 y.

Even

changes

like

ea^

and
in

be remembered
a

These facts can easily connection with example 7. Thus
eo

like ea.

auealm, death, gives the verb d-cwielm-an, d-cwylm-an, to
kill
;

steor,
;

steer, ox, gives the derivative stieric, styric,

a

stirk

and

heorte^ heart,

gives the verb hiertan, hyrtan, to

hearten or encourage.
§

181.

I-mutation.

If

we now
vowels,
in

tabulate the above results,

and
their

call the

secondary or derived vowels the mutations of

respective primary

arrangement, where
the

vowels
in

the

primary,

and those

the

we obtain the following row marked (A) are row marked (B) are the

derived vowels.
(A) (B) a o
e

u

I

^ 6
ffi

li

I

ea,
ie,

eo

I

6a,
ie,

€0

y y

I

6

^

I

y

J

^

This vowel-mutation,
derivatives
If

v^MxoSx frequently
is

takes place in forming

from older words,
should

called, in

German, umlaut.
which
the
i or

we were

to enquire thoroughly into all the cases in

mutation occurs, we

find

that

in

every

case

primary vowel u
(rarely 6)
in

is

influenced

by the occurrence of an
This
refers

the next .syllable.

only to the

primary form of the word, and cannot always be detected in
the

known forms
that the

of Anglo-Saxon
/,

;

for

it

not unfrequently

happens

after

having produced a mutation of the
is

preceding vowel, drops out of sight, and

lost\
;

This

will

be understood by considering a few instances
giving these,
it

but, before

is

necessary to halt by the way, in order to

mention

that, in all the
/,

examples already

cited, the effect is

produced by
*

not by

u.

The

cases in which u produces any

This

is

called

*

concealed mutation,' or concealed umlaut.

It is

very

common.

192

VO WEL'MUTA TION.
so few that
I
is

[Chap. XI.

effect are, comparatively,

leave

them out of
first

sight here.

The

principle of mutation
is

the thing to be

acquired
§

;

after that, all

easy.

182.

cealed mutation occurs in the
for Fraiikish.

Concealed mutation. An easy example of conword French. French is short
But the a
'

in Frankish,

being followed by an
i,

i in the next syllable,

is

modified in the direction of

the

result being a

new vowel
it

intermediate to the other two,' as

Mr. Sweet puts
in fact, a

in his

A. S. Reader,

p.

xix.

There

is,

tendency to turn Frankish into Frenkish, and we
is

actually find, accordingly, that Frencisc

the A. S. form of

the word.

This Frenkish (A.

S.

Frencisc) was afterwards
it
;

shortened to French, as we

now have

so that the
;

i,

after

modifying the a to an

e,

has disappeared

that

is,

the cause
principle

of the mutation has been concealed.

On

the

same

we can now
will
§

explain

all

the above results in order,

which we

proceed to do.
183.

A>E. We
S.,

found (i) that the

pi.

of

or, in

A.

that the pi. of

mann
is

is

menn.

man is men The I eel. pi. is
;

also menn.

This particular word
is

of anomalous declension,

so that the process

the less clear.

Gothic, which

is

repi.

markable

for never exhibiting mutation,
;

makes

the

nom.

both mans and mannans

and

it

is

probable that the

latter

form was shortened to *manna, and afterwards the

final

vowel weakened, thus giving "^manni, which would be regularly

changed

into

menn

in

Icel.

and A.

S.

O. Friesic,

O. Saxon, and O. H. G. have the unchanged plural

man
pi.

same as the man-s, by loss of
(the

singular),
s.
;

which would

result

from the

We
for

can see the

result

more

clearly in

the dative singular
takes the form

it

happens that the A.

S. dat. sing,

menn

as well as the

nom.

plural

;

whereas the

Icel. dat. sing, is

manni, thus affording formal proof that

menn < *menni= manni.

§184(2).
-eins

0>Y.

The

adjectival

suffix

-en

is

written

in

Gothic,

which has gulth, gold, gulih-eins, golden.

§185.]

MUTATION OF
may be
equated to *gold-fn.
to_y,

TO

V.

1

93

Now

ei is

merely the Goth, way of writing

z

(long

z)

;

so that

gold-en

The

f (like z)

produces

a mutation of
regularly \

so that *go/d-zn became gyld-en quite

Similarly,

we can explain

the verb gi7d; for the

regular A. S. infin. suffix of causal verbs (whereby verbs are

formed from pre-existent substantives)
luf-u, s.,love,
is

is

-ian, so that

from

formed the verb

luf-ian, to love, &c.

Hence

the sb. gold gave rise to the causal verb

'^gold-ian, to gild,

which regularly became gyld-an by mutation and subsequent
loss of
i.

This process

is

extremely
is

common

in causal

verbs

;

we

constantly find that -ian

shortened to -an after
substituted

mutation has taken place.
golden for gilden
to gild,
^,

Modern English has
is

but retains the old mutation in the verb

the form of which
(3).

now

explained.
pi.

§

185
is

U>Y.

Burh, town, makes the

hyrig.
is

As
dat.

the i
I

here retained, the cause of the mutation
results.

obvious.

may

mention, by the way, some curious

The

sing., like the
'

nom.

pi,, is

also byrig; so that the A. S. for 'at

the town was cci J)(£re byrig^ the word hurh being feminine, and requiring the fern, form of the def. article. In later English, this gradually became at ther bury, or (by assimilation of th to
/)

at ter bury, a form which at once explains
(i.e.

the

surname Atterbury

at the town).

The name was
some fame
was

borne by a bishop of Rochester,
in the reigns of
fact of the

who
I.

attained to

Anne and George

Curiously enough, the

word borough being of

the feminine gender
of,

often (and at last entirely) lost sight
the dative was likewise forgotten. as an unchangeable neuter,

whilst the true form of

appeared as at

ten

Hence borough was treated and the very sanle phrase also borough, where ten represents the A. S.
final -en is

*

Strictly,

it

became ^/<!/-m, but
;
:

used for -in in A.
§ 69.
'

S.,

the

suffix -in

bcin^ disliked

see Sievers, O.E.

Gram.,

' M. E. f^^ldcn thus St. Chrysostom is called lohn Gilden-moth^ or Golden Mouth SiJecimens of English, 1 29B-1393, ed. Morris and Skeat,
;

p. 69,

1.

8.
I.

VOL.

O

.

1

94
dat.

FO WEL-MUTA TION.
neuter of the
def. article.

[Chap. XI

pdm, the

This has given us
it

the well-known

name

Aitenhorough.

Further,

was not undative,

common
in

to use place-names in the dative or locative case, and,

some
S.

instances, the prep. cEt (E. ^/),
;

which governs a
iv.
1.

was expressly introduced
A.
Reader, 4th ed.
dative form

see note to sect.
at

This

99 once explains the use of the
;

in Sweet's

Bury
(in

as a

place-name

though we also

find the

nominative Burgh, Borough (as in Borough Fen, Cambs.),

and Brough
§

Westmoreland).
JE.

186

(4).

A > long

The

verb

to

heal

is

easily ex-

was made the causal verb '^hdl-icin, whence (by mutation and loss of z") the form hdl-an, M. E. hel-en, E. heal. The original form of the
plained.

From

the adj.

hdl, whole,

causal verb

is

quite certain in this case

;

for Gothic always
adj. hails,
is

employs the form hail-jan {=hail-ian) from the
whole.

In Gothic, the
;

letter

usually

printed

/

really
i,

an English J/

andji^ is the semi- vowel corresponding to
;

as

shewn
§

in §

129

p.

150.

187
its

(5).

6>

E.
^
;

The mod.

E. goose, A.

S. gos,

answers
Gans.

to a Teut. type gans

see Kluge's Worterbuch,

s. v.

But
its

declension followed that of the feminine 'z-stems,' and

plural

nom. was

originally *gosis,

which became *gesis by
ge^s"^.

mutation, and was then shortened to
dat. sing. *gosi

Similarly, the

to g/s likewise.

became '^ge'si by mutation, and was shortened The word /hot, A. S.ySt, answers to a Teut.
;

type FOT, of the masculine gender

see Kluge,

s. v.
it

Fuss.

In Gothic
the

it

followed the ^-declension, but in A. S.

adhered

to the consonantal declension (as in

nom.

pi. */btis

and the

form/J??.
^

It is curious, as in Fick,
in the

Greek and Latin); hence ysti both produced the however, that the nom. pi. sometimes
dat. sing,
iii.

Not GANSi,
'

99

;

for this stem

would have caused
'

vowel-change even

nom.

sing.

^ On the treatment of terminal consonants and vowels in the Teut. languages (G. auslautgesetz), cf Strong and Meyer's Hist, of the German Language, p. 61 the account there given is, however, incomplete, and See Sievers, O. E. Gram., § 133 (b). refers to Gothic only.
;

;;

§ 189.]

MUTATION OF LONG

U.

1 95

follows a different declension,
in

and appears as fotas

;

whilst

M.E. we even
two

find three forms of the plural, m\z. feet^ foten^
latter

3.ndyo/es, the

being of rare occurrence.

Other examples appear in
A.
S. //^, rarely /^^as
;

but this
after the

foo^/i, A. S. /d^, masc, pi. /ee//i, and in 5ook, A. S. d^c, fern., pi. dec form was exchanged for that of the M. E. dohs soon

beginning of the thirteenth century.
(6).

§

188

Long

U>

long Y.

The

E. mouse, A.
s. v.

S.

mus,

answers to a Teut. fem. base mus^;
It

see Kluge,
;

Maus.

belongs to the consonantal declension
originally

the A. S. plural

was

*musis, which passed into the

form *mysis
m^s.

by mutation, and was
examples occur in E.
cH,
cy.

then

shortened
S.

to

Other

lotise,

A.

Ms, and in E. cow, A. S.
the
pi.

both of which are feminine;

forms being
the
latter
is

lys,

Of

these,

the

former

is

E.

lice-,

the

Tudor E. and prov. E. h'e or kye, afterwards lengthened to kt-ne, by analogy with ey-jte and shoo-n, the old
(occasional)
plurals of eye
hus,

and

shoe.

On

the other hand, our house, A. S.

was a neuier noun; and, having a long root-syllable, remained unchanged in the plural see Sievers, O. E. Gr.
;

§

238

;

p. 117,

1.

4'.

That

is,
it

the pi.

was

hUs,

now extended
**.

to hous-es in order to

make

conform

to the general rule

This
§

wh^ we never use the plural hice (!). 189 (7). Long EA > long IE (Y). The
is

explanation of

ciep-an, to buy, is precisely similar to that of hdl-afi, to heal
i.

e.

the mutation

is

concealed.

The

sb,

dap produced

the

derived verb *ciap-ian, after which the / caused mutation and

then vanished.

The
In

other examples are of precisely the
st^r-ic^ stirk,

same

character.
sb.

from sUor, the

i is visible.

The

cwealm, death, produced a verb *cwcalm-ian, passing

* Not mOsi, as in Fick, iii, 241 mutation even in the nom. sing.

;

for this

stem would have caused

' Note the prov. E. hotisen, so often commended as 'a true old Anglo-Saxon form by those who know no better. It is only an early Southern E form, never found before the Conquest.
*

a

.

Lg6

VO WEL-MUTA TION.
kill
;

[Chap.

XI

into cwielman or cwylman, to

and the

sb. heort-e, heart,

produced the verb
to encourage.
§

^heori-ian, passing into hierian or hyrtan,

190. XJ-mutation.

I

have

now gone through
in §
It
is

the 179,

examples represented by the memorial sentence
adding a few more by the way.

now

chiefly

remains to

add
A.
of

that the principle of mutation

extremely

common

in

S.,

and may
even

also

be due, though

rarely, to the

occurrence

u, or

0,
/.

in the following syllable, as well as to the

occurrence of

Striking examples are seen in the A. S.
;

meoluc, milk, seol/or, silver

words

in

which the
'

eo

seems to
'

be due to z^-mutation rather than to a mere
into eo before a following /;
39, 107.

breaking

of

i

see Sievers, O. E. Gram., §§
(cf.

In the former case, meol-uc stands for mil-uc*
;

Goth, mil-uk-s, milk)

and
2','

the eo

is

technically described as
i

being 'a ^-mutation of
eo.

because the u has turned
is

into

In the second case, the mutation
contracted

concealed; seol/or

is

for '^seol{p)/or or *seol{u)/or,

and

eo

is,

as

before, a w-mutation

of

t;

the

Gothic form being silubr.

These forms are of some interest, because mod. E. words milk and silver shews that they belong rather to the Mercian than to the Wessex dialect. The form silofer occurs once, and sylfor twice in
O. Sax. siluhar.
the vowel i in the

A.

S. poetry,

but seol/or

is

the usual form.

syl/ur has been already noticed; see § 33. brian form is sul/er (Matt. x. 9).
§ 191.

The O. Mercian The Northumall

Examples.

I

now
S.,

give several examples of

the above z-mutations in A.

reserving for the present such

as are

still

retained in the

modern language.
will

These are of
leng-ra
(for
cf.

such importance that they
(i)

be noticed separately in § 192. long
;

A>

E.

A.

S.

lang^

compar.

*lang-ira^='^lang-iza)]

Goth, comparatives end

m

-iza;

§ 130. A.S. slrang, strong; compar. streng-ra, stronger.

Also,

from A.S.

lang, the verb leng-an
land, land,

{

From

A.

S.

the verb lend-an

= *lang-ian), to prolong. = '^land-ian)^ to
{

§ 191.]

EXAMPLES,
From A.
name.
S.

1 97

land.

nam-a, a name, the verb nemn-an
strong verb
'

(= *namnt.

zan), to

The

to heave/ with pt.

ho/y

has the

weak

infinitive
is

hebban

{

= ^haf-ian)\
;

instead of the

regular '^haf-an^ which
p.

not found

see Sweet, A. S. Reader,
t.

Ixx^.

Similarly, the strong verb *to swear,' with pt.

swor, has the

weak
is

infinitive

swerian {^"^ swar-iari) instead
;

of *swaran, which

not found

id., p. Ixxi.

In order to save space, and for the greater clearness, I
shall use (as before) the

symbol
'

>

to

mean

'

produces,'

and
I
..

the

symbol

<

to

mean
( .. )

is

produced, or
*

derived, from.'

also use
will

two dots

as the sign of

mutation,' so that

>

mean 'produces by

mutation,'

and

<

..

will

mean

'is

derived by mutation.'
is

My

reason for the use of
is

this

symbol

that, in

German, mutation
example, the

denoted by two dots over a
of

vowel;

for
is

pi.

Mann

(man)

is

Manner,
this

where a

the modified form of a.

In accordance with

notation, A.S. swerian

<

..

*swar-tan',

and again, A.S. leng-ra

<

. .

*lang-ira, compar. of lang.

(2)

O>

Y.

A. S. gold

>

..

gyld-en (for *gold-in, as ex-

plained above).

So

also A. S. horn, horn

>

..

hyrn-ed, horned.
assail.

A.S. storm,
form-a,
first

storin

>

..

s/yrm-an,

to

storm,
first;

A.S.
double
often

>

..

/yrm-est {=*/orm-isi),
A.

really a

superlative (E. foremost),

S. folg-ian,

to

follow,
\\

appears in the mutated iorm/ylgian.
oi ceos-an, to choose

A.

S. cor-

cor-en, pp.

>

..

cyr-e, choice.
cf.

A.

S.

god,

god>

..

gyd-en
(3)

(= *gyd-in),

goddess ;
S. burh,

G.

Gott-i'n,

goddess, &c.

U>

Y.

A.

borough
..

>

..

byrig, plural.
to

A. S.
work.

wurc

(also weorc),

work
..

>

wyrcan {=.*wurc-ian),

A.S. wult, wool

>

wyll-en, woollen.
is

A.S. wulf, a wolf
'Bellona,
is

>

..

wylf-en, a she- wolf; this

not in the dictionaries, but
i.

appears in the following curious gloss:

furia,

dea

belli,

mater Martis, wylfen

'

;

where

*

i.*

the usual con-

' Note the fonn hebban, not he/an ; the doubling of the b is due to the contraction ensuing the loss of i. Observe, loo, that A. S. puts bb iotff', Sweet, A. S. Reader, p. xxviii.


198
traction for id
est,

;

.

VO WEL-MUTA TION.
that
is

[Chap. XI

to say^.
S.

A. '$>.hungor, hunger

>

..

hyngrian, to hunger.

A.

munuc,

monk

(merely borrowed
the sur-

from Lat. monachus)

>

..

mynicen^ a

nun; whence
whole

name Minchin. (4) Long A
heal
;

>

long

M.

A.

S. hdl,

>

..

hdl-an, to

as in § 186.

A.

S. Idr, lore

>

..

Ickr-an, to teach.
;

A.
v.,

S.

stdn, stone

>

. .

stcen-en,

made
. .

of stone

also sidn-an,

to

stone.

A.

S. dc,

oak

>

dc-en,

oaken.

A.

S. brdd,

broad

>

..

brcBd-an, to broaden,

make
A.

broad, &c. goose, "^X.ges
;

(5)

Long
ia; if=E.

O>

long E.

S. gds,

so also
pi.

td^, pi.

fdi, pi.///.
"^beek;

The

A.

S. boc,
pi.

book, makes the
bok-es^

bee, as

but the

M. E.

was

now

books.

A.

S. bot,

advantage, E. boot
;

>
it

..

be't-an

{-^^bot-ian, Goth.

botjan), to profit

Lowl. Sc.

beet,

to profit,

amend

— hence,

to

add

fuel to fire.
st.

Burns uses

metaphorically in his Epistle

to Davie,

8

:

*

It

warms me,

it

charms me.

To mention
It

but her
beets
a'

name

heats me,

it

me,

And
(6)

sets

me
A.

on flame!'
cow,
..

Long

U>

long Y.
cUcf,

S. cu,

pi.

ey,

ki-ne

;

as

in § 188.

So

also

pp.

known

>

cyd-an {=*cuff-ian\

M. E.

kythen, to

make known,

shew, display.

*For

gentil herte kytheth gentilesse.'

Chaucer, Squ.
A.
S. tUn, enclosure,
;

Tale, 483.

town
Thus,

>

..

tyn-an {^"^ tUn-ian), to en-

close

M.

E. tynen.

in the
^

Promptorium Parvulorum,

written in

1440,

we

find:

Tynyd, or hedgydde. Septus!

A.

S. scriid,

a shroud

>

..

scry dan {=.'^scrud-iaii), to clothe,

cover up.
(7).

EA >

IE

(Y).

A. S.

ceap, a bargain (our cheap)

>

..

ciep-an, cyp-an, to

buy (our

keep), in § 189.

A.
kill.

S. de'ad^

dead

>

..

dyd-an {=.^dead-mn), to
^

make

dead,

A.

S. s/am,

See Wright's Vocab., ed. Wiilcker,

col. 194.

;

§ 192.]

EXAMPLES,

1 99

a horse-load

>

..

A.

S.
..

dream^ joy

>

sym-an {^'^seam-ian), to load a horse. A. S. nead^ need .. drym-artj to rejoice.

>

nyd-auj to compel.
It

§

192.

remains to give examples of the z-mutation in

modern English, in which it is by no means uncommon, though our grammars usually say but little about it.
I. (a).

A>
A.

..

E.

In the following words, the Gothic form
S. e is

at

once shews that the A.
E.
ail,

an z-mutation of a.
allied to

S. egl-an

;

Goth, agljan, occurring in the comp.
;

us-agljan, to trouble exceedingly
agty fear (Goth, agis^ fear).

E. awe, from Icel.

In E.
E.

bar-ley,

the former syllable

= A. S.
for er.)

here,

barley

Goth, bans, barley.
bed,

(Mod. E. puts ar
Goth. badi.

A.

S. bed;
pi.

E. bellows,

of bellow,

M. E.

below, belu,

belt,

A. S.

belg,

a

bag

;

Goth, balgs (stem balgi-), a wine-skin.
v.,
it,

E. bend,
a band to
band).

A.

S. bendan, orig. to

string

a bow, fasten

from A.
S. berige

S.

bend,

a band

(Goth, bandi, a

E. berry. A,
E.
better,
best,

(=

*bazige)

;

cf.

Goth,

basi,

a berry.

A.

S. Betra i^-=^batira)\

Goth, batiza, better.
batists, best.

E.
Y..

A.

S. betst

{=*battst)\ Goth,

drench,

K,S. drencan (=.*drandan),
spelling).

to give to drink;

Goth, draggkjan, to give to drink (where ggk
imitation of

= ngk, by an
Goth.

Greek

E.

ell,

A. S. eln (short for *elin

=

*altn)

;

Icel. ali'n,

aleina, a cubit.

E.

^/j<f,

A. S.

elks',

allied to

Goth,

alja,

except;

cf.

Lat.

alias, otherwise.

E. end, A.
l^./ett,

S. ende

;

cf.

Goth, andi-laus, endless.

A. S./enn

;

Goih. /ani, mud.
;

E. guest, A.
A.

S. gest, also ^<jj/

Goth, gasts (stem gasti-),

a guest, gasti-gods, good to guests, hospitable.
E.
//<?//,

S.

y5(f/,

hell',

Goth,

//a/^a, hell.

E. hen, A. S. A^«« (originally *henjd, see Sievers, O. Eng.

200
Grammar,
ed.

VOWEL-MUTATION.
Cook,
§§ 256, 258),

[Chap. XI.

and so fem. of A.

S.

hana,

Goth, handy a cock.
E. ken, to know,

M. E.

kennen, to

make known,
;

Icel. kenna^

Goth, kannjan, to make known.
E.
kettle,

A.

S. cetel;

Goth, katils

not a Teut. word, but

borrowed from Lat.
E.
€g
is

catillus,

dimin. of caiinus, a bowl.
;

lay, v.,

A.

S. lecgan {^^"^ lag-tan)
;

Goth, lagjan.

Here
^

merely a way of writing ^^ and the gemination doubling of the g is due to the contraction ; i^gg < gi).
E.
late
;

or

lety v.,

to hinder, delay, A. S. lettan
latjan, to

(

= *lattan)j

to

make

Goth,

be

late, tarry,
/ is

from the

adj. lat-s (A. S.

Icet), late,

slow.

The double
;

due

to contraction; {tt<tt).
;

E. meat, A.
balgs, a

S. mete

Goth, mats (stem mati-)^ meat

mati-

meat-bag.
;

E. mere, a lake, A. S. mere

Goth, marei, sea.
nati.
)

E.
E.

«^^,

A.

S. net, nett; S.

Goth.

j"^/?^,

A.

sendan {=:* sandtan)

Goth, sandjan.

Y.. set,

K.S.

settan (^=:*sat-tanY;
scell; cf.

Goth., satjan.

E.

Ji^^//,

A. S.

Goth,
;

skalja,

a

tile.

E. j/m^, a place, A.

S. stede

Goth,

staths, pi. stadeis

(stem

E. swear, A.
finitive
;

S. swer-ian,

a strong verb with a weak in-

but the Goth,

infin. is

swaran.
Goth, twalif.

E. twelve, A.
E.
zi'^<2r,

S. twelfe, twelf\

to

wear
S.

clothes, A. S.

werian {=.^waziari)\ Goth.
a pledge

wasjan, to clothe.

E.

ze;f(/,

A.

weddian,

v.,

from

z£'^(/,

s.,

;

Goth.

wadi, a pledge.

E. wend, A.

S.

wendan (^^'wandian),

to turn;

Goth.

wandjan, to turn.
(jS).

Besides the above words, in which the true origin of
so clearly
is

the e
^

is

shewn by
in

the Gothic forms, there are

many

Gemination

common
(see §
1

= '^heffan < '^hafian
/z

A. S. in words of this sort. Thus hebban cc ; cg\ ci 9 1 ), so thatyf bb. So also gi

>

>

>

> //;

mi >

WOT, &c.

§ 192.]

EXAMPLES.
some of which are explained
is

201
in

Others,

my

Dictionary.

Thus
(

blend answers to A. S. blendan^ to blind; but as blendan
really the causal verb

= ^^bland-ian)

due to bland-an, to
a a

mix, the two were confused, and the secondary verb took
the sense

of 'blend.'

Bench, A.
S.

S.

bene (j='^bank-i)
(

is
is

derivative of bank.
derivative
foolish
;

Dwell, A.

dwellan

= ^ dwaliati),
error,

from the base dwal- occurring in Goth, dwal-s,
it

meant
and
is

originally

to

lead

into

then

to

hinder, delay,
ecg (for *aggz),

intransitively, to remain.
aci-es,

E. edge, A. S.
to a

cognate with Lat.
iii.

and answers

Teut. form agjo (Pick,
for Angle-ish
;

lo).
is

E. English obviously stands
Englisc or jEnglisc, derived

the A. S.

form

from Angle,
to

pi.

the Angles.

Fell, K.^./ell-an, is a causal
"^fall-an),
i.

verb {=.*/all-tan), due to the strong vQib/eall-an (for
fall.

Fresh, A. ^./ersc, stands for A. S.

""far-isc,

e. full

of movement, flowing, as applied to water that always flows,

and
(see

is

never stagnant;

formed ixom. far-an, to go, move,
Hedge, A. S. hecge

with the

common

suffix -isc (E. -ish).

Supplement
ecg (for

to Diet.), stands for *hag-jo,
is

form hag-a, a hedge, which
A.
S.

the

from the older mod. E. haw ; cf. edge,
E. length, A. S. lengd,
iii. 265) ; from from langr. E. nettle,

^agjo), just

above.

answers to a Teut. form langitho (Fick,
lang, long
;

so also Icel. lengd, length,

A.

S. netele, is

cognate with O. H. G. nezild (Schade), from a
E. penny, A. S. pening, older form

Teut. type hnatilo, dimin. of hnatjo, a nettle (O. H. G.
nazzd)
;

Fick,
is

iii.

81.

pending,
in

probably a derivative from the base pand, as seen
is

Du. pand, a pledge, G. P/and, which
quell,

(I

think) non-

Teutonic, being borrowed from Lat. pannus, orig. a cloth.
E.

A. S. cwellan {=*cwal-tan), to
t.

kill

<

..

||

cwcel

{z=:*cwa[), pt.

of cwel-an, to die

;

where the symbol

<

..

||

means

*

derived, by mutation,

from the same base as that
of cwinc-an, to go out, be

seen in cwccl'.
to extinguish

E.
..
||

quench, A. S. cwencan {=*cwanc-ian),

<

cwanc,

pt.

t.

extinguished.

E. say,

M. E.

sey-en,

A. S. secgan

(=* sag-tan);


202
cf. Icel.

; .

VO WEL-MUTA TION,
segja, to say
;

[Chap. XI

the original a appears in the sb. saw,

i.e.
lit.
'

a saying, A. S. sag-u.
cutter/
i.

E. sedge, A. S. secg {=*sagjo);
its

e.

sword-grass or sword-plant, from

shape

the original a appears in A. S. sag-a, E.

saw

(cutting instru-

ment).

E.

sell,

A.

S. sellan

(=*sal-ian);

the orig. a appears

in Icel. sal-a, E. sale.

E. smge, put for *senge,

M. E.

seng-en,

A.

S. seng-an, ht. to
;

make

to sing,

from the hissing of a
for singe

burning log, &c.
E. stench, A. S.

the orig. a appears in A. S. sang^ later

form song, E. song.
stenc,

Chaucer has senge

;

C. T. 593 1»

a strong smell, the stem being stan-cied.

(see Sievers, O. E.

Gram,
E.

Cook,
A.

§

266)

;

<

..

||

sianc, pt.

t.

of stinc-an, E.

stink.

step, v.,

S. stepp-an

{=.^ stap-iari)

;

from the strong verb stap-an, to go, advance.
A.
S. strengdu

E. strength,

{^"^ strangiBu)

;

from Strang, E.

strong.
;

So also E. string, A.S. streng-e, a tightly twisted cord E. tell, A. S. tellan (^"^ tal-ian) the same A. S. Strang.
A.
S. tal-u,

from

;

from
i.

a number, a narrative, E.

tale.

E. unkempt,

e.

unkemb'd,

uncombed; from A.
E. web, A.S.
z«;f33

S. cemb-an, to

comb

<
p.

..

camb,

E.

<:(9»2(5.

{=:*wa/-jo), since 3^ results

from the doubling of

/

(Sweet, A. S.
t.

Reader,

xxviii)

<
A.
the

..

II

wcb/ ^^i^waf),

pt.

of wef-an, to weave.

E. Welsh,

S. wel-isc, foreign

<

..A.S. weal-h {^.'^wal-H), a foreigner;

mod. E. Wales properly means the people rather than the
pi.

country, being merely a
weal-as.

sb.

meaning
lit.

'foreigners';

A.S.

E. wretch,

A.

S.

wrecca,

an
t.

exile,

outcast

{z=z'^wrac-jd)

<

..

||

wrcec {^'^wrac),

pt.

of the strong

verb wrec-a7i, to drive, urge, drive out.
the
§

Cf.

E. wrack, from

same
193.

root.

0>
;

..

Y.

I

now

give

some examples of the second

z-mutation
2. (a).

from
v.,

toy.

E. gild,

K.S. gyld-an
Similarly,

<

..

gold, gold;

this
:

has

been already given.

we have

the following
lit.

E. bight, a coil of rope, a bay, A.

S. byht, a bay,

'bend'
Icel.

<

..

II

bog-en, pp. of bug-an, to
..
\\

bow, bend.

E. birth,

burdr, A. S. ge-byr-d<

bor-en, pp. of beran, to bear; so

§ 194.]

EXAMPLES.
E. build, A.
S.

203
byld-an<
..

also E. burden, A. S. hyr-d-en.
bold,
II

A. S.
..

a building, dwelling.

E. bury, A.S. byrg-an, byrig-an<

borg-en, pp. oibeorgan, to hide.

E.

^rz/),

a Scand. word, Dan.

dryppe, to drip

<

..

II

Icel. drop-id, pp.

of drjUp-a, strong verb,

to drop

;

cf.

A.

S. drop-en, pp.

of the strong verb dreop-an, to

drop, drip.

E. drizzle, a frequentative form from a base drys-

<

..

II

'^dros-en, orig.
'E. filly,

form of dror-en, pp. of dreosan,
..

to

fall
a,

in drops.
foal
;

a Scand. w^ord, lcQ\.^lja< a
foal.

IcqX./oH,

cf.

A.

S. /ola,

E.

firsl,

A. S.jyrsl {:=yor-ist)
cyrn-el
grain.'

<., A.S.
E.
kiss, v.,

/or-e,

before,

in front.

E. hrnel, A.S.
is

{=*corn-ila)<
A.
S.

..corn,

E. corn] the sense

'a

little

cyssan {=*coss-ia7t), from

^t^jj-,

s.,

a

kiss.

E.
/?/?,

^wzV,

A.

S.

cnyttan {='^cnot-ian), from

cnot-ta,

a knot. E.

a

(pronounced lyftaY^ put sb. /d?// (pronounced lo/l), *lopt-ia=^*lo/t-ia) from the
Scand.

word,

Icel.

/j///^

for
air;

thus

'

to

lift

'

is

'

to raise in the air

'

;

cf.

E.

lo/t-y, a-loft, also

from

Icel.

lopt,

E. vix-en,

M. E.

vixen, fixen, a she-fox,
precisely parallel
to wylf-en, fern.

k.S.fyx-en {=*/ox-in)< ..fox, Y..fox\ to A. S. gyd-en, a goddess, fem. of god, and
oiwolf;
(/3).

§

191

(3).
is

The

same'' mutation

remarkably exhibited in four

words borrowed from Latin.

Thus

Lat. coquina, a kitchen

> >

.. ..

A. A.

S. cycen (for *coc-in)y
S. mylen,
. .

E. kitchen.

Lat. molina, a mill Lat. moneta, a

my In, M. E.
;

miln, E. mill.

mint >

mynet, E. w/«/

cf.

E. mon-ey (F. vionnaie) from the

same Lat. word.
ened
§

Lat. monasterium, a monastery,
..

was

short-

to

*monisler>

A.

S. mynster, E. minster.
\.oy.

194.

U >

..

Y.

Third mutation; from u
that

3. (a).

There are two good examples

can be

illus-

trated

by Gothic.

E. kin, A. S. cyn\ Goth. kuni.
;

Y^.fill, v.,

k.S./yllan {=Yull-ian)

Goih. /ulljan, to

fill.

In the re-

markable verb

to fulfil,

the second syllable naturally takes

*

There

is

no written fi
(cf.

in

O. Icelandic

;

it

the Latin symbol pt

Lat. scriptus), but

it is

is denoted always b} pronounced ft.

;

204

VOWEL-MUTATION,
'

[Chap. XI.
full/

the mutated form, the sense being

to
is

fill

though, in

composition, the order of the elements
ip).

reversed.
S. '^brytel (not
cf.

E.

britile^
..
II

M. E.

brutel,
t.

answering to A.

found) <

brui-on, pt.

pi.

of breotan, to break up;

A.

S. bryttan (^=.'^brut-ian), to break,
i.e.

a secondary weak verb.
S.
;

E. ding-y,

soiled with

dung; we find the A.
tr.

verb ge-

dyng-an, to manure, in Alfred,

of Orosius,

i.

3

<

..

A.S.

dung, E. dung
E.
to
list, v.,

\\

A.

S. dung-en, pp.
it lisieth,

of ding-an, to throw away.

as in the phr.
. .

A. S. lyst-an

{^•='^lust-ian),

desire

<

A.

S.

lust,

desire,

pleasure.

E. pindar,

also

pinner,

an impounder; from K.^. pyndan [^='^pund-ian), to

impound
bolt that

<
is

. .

pund, a pound, enclosure.

E. shut, M. E.

shutten, shitten, A. S. scyttan, to shut, to fasten a door with a
shot across
stint,

<

..
'

||

scut-on, pp.
'

t.

pi.

oi sciotan, to

shoot \

E.

properly

to shorten

;

cf.

A.

S. styntan,

occurring in the com^^. for-styntan, to
stunt, stupid.

make

dull

<

..

A. S.

The

peculiar sense occurs in the related Scand.

words, such as

Icel. stytta (put for '^stynta), to shorten, stuttr

(put for '^stuntr), short, stunted.

There
:

is

a further trace of
'

the A. S. verb styntan in the gloss

'

Hebetat, styntid

i^for

styntiS); Wright's Vocab., ed. Wiilcker, 25. 28.

E. think, to

seem, as

it

occurs in the phr. methinks,
ixovcv
e.

i.

e. it

seems to me,
to

A.S. me' pynced,
Goth, thugkjan,
it
i.

pyncan
this

{j=.'^punc-ian)^

seem;
;

cf.

*thunkjan, G. dilnken, to

seem
It

whence
happens
(i.

appears that the base of

verb

is

punc-.

that

we

also find

A.

S.

pane, thought, Goth, thagks

e.

"^thanks),

remembrance;
iii.

from the Teut. base thank, to
Fick explains the base puncis

intend, think (Fick,

128).

as due to a Teut. thonk-jo, which

possible

;

but

it is

ex-

tremely likely that
*pincan, pt.
t.

there

really

"^panc,

pp. "^puncen,
thirlen,

was once a strong verb as suggested by Ettmiiller.
A.
s.,

E.

thrill,

M. E.

thrillen,

S. pyrlian, pyrelian,

to

pierce; a verb
^

formed hovapyrel,
tlie

a hole.

Further,

^r^/

Or

else,

from

base seen in A. S. scot-en, pp. of the same verb

see the last section.

It

makes no

difference.

.

§ 195-1

EXAMPLES.

205

Stands for *pyrh-el (as shewn by the cognate
pierced)

<

..

A.

S./z/r/^, prep.,
;

'E.

through.

M. H. G. durchel, Thus 2. thirV
'

was a hole through a thing
pierce.

whence the verb

thirl, thrill, to
'

E. trim, properly to set firm,
'

make

stable, as in

to
.

trim a boat

;

A. S. trjymman^ trymian, to

make
i.

firm

<

trum, firm, strong.

E. winsome, A. S. wynsum,
joy,
..
||

e.

pleasant,

from wyn, wynn,

a fem.

sb.,

put for *wunni (see G.

Wonne

in

Kluge)<

wunn-en, pp. of winnan, to win, gain.

See also Listen in
(y).

my

Dictionary.

There are two good examples of words borrowed from Latin. Thus Lat. uncia> .. A. ^.ynce, E. inch. la. puteus, a
well,
§

pit>
(a).

..

A. S. *puti

(for ""pute-), pyt,

E.

pit.

196.

A>
The

..A.

Fourth 2-mutation.

4.

following examples are well illustrated by the
;

we must remember that the K.^.d commonly represents Teut. AI (Goth, ai); § 71. E. heal, A. S. hdlan (=*hdl-ian), Goth, hailjan, to heal< .. A. S. hdl, Goth. hails, M.E. hool, E. whole. E. rear, A. S. rdran (=.*rdz-ian),
Gothic spelling
Goth, raisjan, to
raise,

cause to

rise

;

where r stands

for s (with

a 2-sound), by Verner's Law.
the doublet raise, /which
just as Icel. reis-a
is

We should also particularly note
And
so
rise.
t.

a Scand. form, Icel. reis-a. of ris-a, to
t.

<

..

||

Icel. reis, pt.
(|

rise,

likewise A. S. r<£r-an<
Shortly, rear

..

A. S. rds,

pt.

of rts-an, to
rise',

and

raise are both causal forms of

but

one

is

English, the other Scandinavian.

()3).

E. any,

M.E.

ani,

A.

S.

dn-ig (with long (£)<
'pale,'

..

A.

S.

^«, E. one.
pt.
t.

E.

/5/^a^',

orig.

A.

S.

blmc

<

..

||

bide,

of blic-an, to shine, look bright or white.
final -th is late
;

E. bread-th,

in

which the

the

M. E. form

is brede, breede,

A. S. brced-u.

This

is

one of the substantives of which

Sievers remarks (see brddu in the Index to his O. E.

Gram-

mar) that

*

they have taken the nom. sing, ending from the
*

i-declension,' though they properly

belong to the weak de-

clension, since they correspond to Goth,
-/.

weak

sbs. in -ei* i.e.

Hence brdd-u

is

for

*br(Bd4<

..

A.

S. brdd,

broad.

And,

.

2o6
in fact,

VO WEL-MUTA TION.
we
find Goth, braid-et, breadth,

[Chap. XI

which
is

is

the very

cognate form- required.
erroneous form.
or
"^/ead,

E. feud, enmity,

a remarkably
"^/eed

The mod.

E. form should have been

but

it

has been curiously confused with the totally

different word y^?^</, a fief, which is of French origin. The M. E. form is fede or feid in the Northern dialect (see Jamie-

son's Scot. Diet.),

answering to the Dan.
S.

fet'de,

a quarrel,
..

feud.

The

corresponding A.
E. foe.
S.

word h/dh-cfe, enmity<
A.
S.

fdh, /a,

hostile,

E.

heat,

hdtu,

is

precisely

parallel in

form to A.

brddu, breadth, explained above.
;

Hence
hoot,

the
hot.

d
cf.

is

an z-mutation of a
hest,

from A.
hest,

S. hdt,

M. E.
ex-

E.

E.

a

command, M. E.
;

has a
is

final

crescent /;
behcss is the
cult,

whils-t, &c.
S.

the A. S. form
behest.

hc^s, just as
is diffi-

A.

form of E.

The form hds
blBe, blithe i).

but probably stands for

'^hds-si,

which again stands

for

''hdt-ti^Q.l bliss,
is

A.S.

bliss, blicfs,

from

The word

certainly formed,

haitan, to

command.

the sb.
Idedan

is haiti,

by mutation, from the verb hdtan, Goth. Curiously enough, the Goth, form of which presents no difficulty. E. lead, v., A. S.
'E. lode.

{=i* Idd-iati) < ..lad, a course,
IcBfan, to

E.

leave,

v.,

A.S.

leave behind

<

..la/,

a heritage, that which
shortened vowel,
E. stair, A.S.

remains.

E.

lend,

with excrescent
..Idn,

d and
E. loan.
t.

M. E.

lenen,

A.S. ldnan<
..

stdg-er (^^"^ stcBg-ir ?)<

stdh, stdg, pt.

of stig-an, to climb.
..

E. sweat,
swat,
s.,

v.,

M. E.

sweten,

K.^. swdtan [^"^ swat-tan) <

sweat.

E. thread, A. ^.
twist.

prdd
its

(for '^J^rd-di)< ..prd-

w-an, to throw, to

The word

to throw formerly

had
;

precisely the sense 'to twist,' like
cf.

Lat. equivalent torquere
'

throwster in Halliwell, explained, as
silk

one who throws or
from drehen,

winds
to.

or thread.'

Cf. also G. Draht, thread,

turn, twist.
fillet

E. wreath, A. S.
..
||

wrdd

{^'^wradi), a twisted

band,

<

wrdd,

pt.

t.

of wrid-an, to writhe, twist.

Wrest and wrestle are
root.
^

similar formations

from the same

See Bahder, Die Verbalabstracta, 1880,

p. 65.

;

§ 196.]

EXAMPLES.
..

207

6 > E. Fifth z-mutation. We have already noted the plurals feet, geese teeth, 5. from foot, goose, tooth. A fourth such word is A. S. brd^or,
§

196.

(a).

^

brother, which

The

Icel.

hrodir
ce
0.

made the pi. made the
Hence
the

hrodru, but the dat. sing. breSer.
pi.

broe^r,

now
S.
/,

written broB^r,

where the
mutation of

answers precisely to A.
pi.

being the

z-

brether

was introduced
dialect,

into

Northern English and even into the Midland
finally,

and,

with the addition of the characteristic

pi. suffix -en,
;

into the Southern dialect.
brether,

We
tr.

find brethre,

Ormulum, 8269
;

Rob. of Brunne,
i.

of Langtoft, p. 5 1

brether-en,

Layamon,
(/3).

90.
five

In the

following examples, the Gothic form shews
orig.

clearly

what was the
from A.
S.

A.

S. form.

E. deem, A.

S. de'm-an

(^=*d6m-ian), Goth, domjan, to deem,

judge
doom.

;

dom, Goth, dom-s, judgment, opinion, E.

E.feed, A. ^.fidan {=.*f6d-ian)^ Go\h. fodjan, to feed;

from A. S.fod-a, Y^.food.

E. meet, A.

S.

m/t-an {=*mdt-ian),
;

Goth, motjan, in the comp. ga-motjan, to meet
moot point,'
seek,

from A.

S.
'

m6t, ge-m6t, a meeting, assembly, preserved in the E. phr.
i.

a

e. a/

point for discussion in an assembly.

E.

A.

S. s^can

{=.^ soc-iari), Goth, sokjan, to seek
t.

<
;

||

A. S.

56c (Goth, sok), pt.

of sacan, to contend, dispute

whence

also sake
lan),

and

soke or soken.
;

E. weep, A. S. wip-an {=.w6p'
S.

Goth, wopjan

from the A.

sb.

w6p, a clamour,

outcry.
(y). 'E. beech,

K.S.b/ce; beechen,:i6).,A.S. b/c-en{=:*b/c-in)
It

<
for

..bSc,

a beech-tree.
b6c,

thus appears that the true

word

'beech' was
adj.

now
A.
S.

only used in the sense of book)
as
(

hence the
bice,

bic-en,
bleed,

beechen,

well

as a

new form
from
bl6d,

beech.

E.

S. blid-an
bl/tsian,

= *bl6d-tan),
blood.

blood.

E.
S.

bless^

A.

Northern

form

bloedsia
suffix
is

(=A.
the

*bl/d-sian)\

also

from

blSd,

The

same

as in cleanse, A. S. cldn-sian, from cldm-e, clean
orig. sense

and the

of bless was to purify a sacred place

2o8
or
(

VOWEL-MUTATION.
with sprinkled bloods

[Chap. XI.

altar

E.

breeds

A.

S.

br/d-an

= '^br6d-tan\
S.

from

brSd,

E. brood.

E. glede, a

live coal,

A.

gl/d {=*g/d-di, see Sievers, O.E. Gram. § 269); from

glS-wan, E. glow; where the

w

is

lost,

as in thread from

throw in

§

195.

E. green, A.
iii.

S. gr6i-e^

O. H. G. gruoni,
S.

Teut. GRONjo (Fick,
allied to Icel. grS-a,

112); derived from A.

grd-wan,

E.

^roze;.

Gr^^w

is

the colour of

growj-/^/^

ing herbs.
cel-an

E.

keel,

to cool, as used in Shakespeare, A. S.

{=^c6l-ian);
iii.

from
355),

c6l,

cool.
;

E. speed,
S.

A.

S.

(z=zsp6-di, Fick,

success

from A.

spo-wan, to

succeed, prosper.

Cf

the remarkable cognate Skt. sphitt,

prosperity, sphdti, increase,

from sphdy, to enlarge.
stallion,

E.

steed,

A.

S.

ste'da

{=z*st6d-jo}), a stud-horse,

war-horse;
stud.

from A.

S. stdd,

M. E.
..

stood,

now

spelt

and pronounced as

§ 197. IF
(a).

>

"Y.

Sixth 2-mutation.
is

An

excellent example

seen in the E. h/de, a skin,

A.

S. hjd.

This
(stem
louse,

hj/d clearly stands for ^htidz,

because

it

is,

by Grimm's and Verner's Laws, the precise equivalent of
Lat.
cuti'-s

cuti-),

a hide.

The

plurals mice,

lice,

ki-ne,

from mouse,
(/3).

cow, have been discussed above; see § 188.

The
iii.

E.

de-file is

a strange

compound

with a F. prefix

;

the

true old
i.

Macb.
form

word is simply file, as used' by Shakespeare, The A. S. 65, and by Spenser, F. Q. iii. i. 62.

is

Jyl-an {=^/iil-ian)

<

..fill,

foul; so that //<?

= to
to

make
ftclida)

foul.

So

also the
Y..

sb. filth,

A.
S.

S. fylcf (cf

O. H. G.

<

../HI,

foul.

E.

dive,

A.

dyf-an {=*dii/-ian).
dHf-an,
dive
is

a w^eak verb derived from
dive;

the

strong verb
Properly,

whence

also

dii/-a,

E.

dove.

a

causal form.

E.

kith,

A.

S.

cyB,

knowledge, acquaintance,

relationship {=.^'cun-di);

cf Goth, kunthi, knowledge;
kith, the i
priit,

<

..

A.

S.

cHd
A.

{;=.^cun'^,

known; with which cf Goth,
from
E. proud.

kunths, pp.

known.
pride,

In the mod. E.
S.

has been shortened.
E. wish,
v.,

E.

pryt-e

;

A.

S.

^

This etymology

is

due to

Mh

Sweet (Anglia,

iii.

i.

156.).

§ 199.]

MUTATION OF EA TO

V.

209
;

wyscan {=*wiisc-tan)
that the

<

..

wiisc,

a wish,

s.

it

is

obvious

mod. E. has
s.

really preserved the

form of the verb

only,

though wuss,

Scotch both as

on the contrary, occurs in Lowland and v. To the above examples we may

add the prov. E. rimer,

common

as the

name

of a tool for
It

enlarging screw-holes in

metal (see Halliwell).

simply

means 'roomer/ being derived from h.^.rym-an i^-=^rumian), to enlarge,

from the
..Y;
ea

adj. rilm, large, room-y.

§198.
be the
early

EA >

EO >
>y,
/a
te.

..Y.

This
eo

is

true,
/o

whatever

length',

i.e.

>y',

>y, and
all

>y.

In

MSS., the

y

is

written

We
<

take
in

these together,
are rare.
S.

as the seventh /-mutation.
(a).

Examples

mod. E.
E.

The mod.

E.

eider, eldest,

correspond to A.
..

yldra
sb.

{=*yld-t'ra), yldest {=*y/dts/a),

ea/d,

old.

The
..

eld=A. S.y/d-u, old age.
(0).

E. work,
s.

v.,

A. S. wyrcan [•=.^weorc-mn)
the eo

<

weorc,

%. worky
fairly
(y).

Mod. E. confuses

and j/, so

that this cannot

be instanced. In the same way, E.
;

steeple,

a high tower,
is

is

from

steep,

high

but the A. S.

form

stypel

formed by z-mutation
temen,
is

from

st/ap, steep.

/So E.
a family

teem, v.,
;

M. E.

from team,
tym-ian
is

M.

E. tem, teem,

but

the A. S. verb

formed by /-mutation from the
(d).

sb. tiam.
^

We may
<

instance also Icel. dypd, depth

<

..

Icel.

dji4pr=.K. S. d/op, deep.

Modern English
So
also the/t

imitates this in
thief',

forming depth from
piefde,
theft
.

deep.

from

A. S.
is

a thief » p^of,

The

clearest

example

E.

stirk,

a bullock, A. S. styr-ic, formed with suffix -c and
S. st/or,

vowel-mutation from A.
§ 199.

an ox, a

steer.

Mutation in Modern English.
I

By way

of re-

capitulation,

here

collect

those

instances in

which the

vowel-mutation has been clearly preserved even in
English.

modem

The

explanations of the words have been already

given abover
'

For
I.

*dJilp-i(to\ cf. Teut.

langitho,
P

length, at p. 201.

VOL.

!^ 1

FO WEL'MUTA TION.
1.

[Chap.

X I.

{a)

man,

pi.

men

;

compare bank, bench; saw
{b)
(c)

(a cutter),

compared with
jectives, as:

sedge.

Substantives derived from adAdjectives

long, length] strong, strength'^,

from
Wales,
as
:

substantives,

as:

Angle, English',

Frank, French)
adjectives,
tale,
tell.

Welsh.

(d)

Verbs from substantives or
let

band, bend;

late,

(to hinder)

;

sale,

sell;

Here we may

insert the cases in

which the substantive

lies

nearer in form to the root, as: qual-m, quell; song, singe;

wand, wend; wrack (sea-weed), wretch and wreck.
these

With
kempt

we may
ie)
t.

rank

:

comb,

unkempt,

considering

as a pp.
the pt.

Weak

verbs from the base parallel with that of
:

of strong verbs, as
its

can, ken (for can

is

an old past
lay

tense as regards
(A. S.
Iceg),
;

form);

drank, drench; fall, fell;

lay (A. S. lecgan),

which are distinguished by
stank, stench,

usage
is

sat, set.

Similarly

we have

though stench

a sb.
2.

{f) Adjective from a verb: fare, fresh.

(a) bor-n, birth

and burden;

corn, kernel; drop, drip;

fore, first; fox, vixen; gold, gild; knot, knit; mon-ey, mint;

monastery, minster,
lift,

(c)

Similarly

{b) Of Scand. we have bow, sb.
v.

origin

:

foal, filly
||

;

loft,

(A. S. bog-a
\\

bog-en, pp.

of bUgan), bight; borrow,
beorgan), bury, v.
dreosan), drizzle.
3.
;

(A. S. borg-ian
\\

borg-en, pp. of

dross (A. S. dros

dror-en-='^ dros-en, pp. of

dung,

dingy; full, fill;

lust,

list;

pound, pind-ar;

stunt-ed, stint; through, thrill;
4.

won, pp., win-some.
hot,
t.

broad,
len-d;

breadth; foe, feud;
one,

heat;
rise),

load, lead, v.;

loan,

any; rose

(pt.

of

rear;
adj.

throw,
(A. S.

thread; whole, heal.

So

also

compare wroth,
tooth,
teeth.

wrd^
5.

II

zvrdcf, pt.

t.

of wricfan), with the sb. wreath.
Cf.
;

(a) foot, feet; goose, geese;
(b)

brother,

brethr-en.

book, beech

;

blood,

bleed

and

bless

boot (ad-

vantage), beet (to profit,

kindk^ brood,

breed; doom, deem;

* Here belongs A. S. streng-e, now spelt string, from the adj. strong So also the fish called a ling was formerly called lenge (Havelok, 832) and simply means the long fish,' from its shape.
*

§200.]

EXAMPLES.
cool, keel

^11
(to

food, feed \ glow, glede (live coal); grow, green)
cool)
6.
;

moot, meet

;

soke, seek
;

;

stud, steed.
;

(a) cow, ki-ne

louse, lice

mouse, mice.

(3) dove, dive

;

foul, de-file 2.nd filth; un-couth, kith; proud, pride; room,^YO\.

E. rimer (a tool)
7.

;

Lowland
<?/(/,

Sc.

ze;aj-j,

s.

(a wish), wish, v.
S.

{a)

A.
;

S.

ea:

eld-er.

(5)

A.

ea:
stir-k

<r>^^^/»,

keep;

steep, steeple

team, teem

;

where mod. E. shews no difference
A. S. eo
:

in the vowel-sounds,

{c)

steer,

;

also deep,

depth
It

;

thief, theft.

thus appears that clear examples of mutation can be
!

traced in nearly eighty instances even in

modern English some importance, such as should not be passed over in our dictionaries and grammars as if it were beneath investigation. When we find that Webster's
Surely this
is

a point of

Dictionary,

for

example, explains food as being the A. S.

foda

\sic

\

no

accent],

hovafedan

[sic;

no accent], /
is

to feed,

how
this

are

we

to trust

an etymologist who does not even kn6w
S.

elementary lesson, that the A.
6,
?

a mutation of

a preexistent

and who thus ignorantly reverses the true
that, in

order of things
§

200.

It

remains to be observed

many

instances,

the original vowel of the root has suffered both mutation

and

gradation^ so that the results of the present chapter

may

often

have to be taken in combination with those of the preceding
chapter before the form of the root can be clearly seen.

Thus
fSda.

the verb iofeed

is

But the 6
to

in

fSda

formed by mutation from food, A. S. is a strengthened form of a, so that

the Teutonic base takes the form fad, answering by

Grimm's
I eat.

Law

an Aryan eat, appearing in the Gk. Trar-eo/iat, This Aryan pat is an extension of the root pa, to
(pt.
t.

feed,

appearing in the Skt. pd, to feed, Lat. pa-sc-ere
to feed,

pd-ui\
see

&c.

For

further information

on

this subject,

Chapter XIII (below), where the method of discovering

Aryan

roots

is

more

particularly discussed.
in a position to explain

We

are also

now

words similar to

p 2

313

VOWEL-MUTATION,
;

those mentioned in §§ 47, 162

as e.g. nyd, need, hryd, bride,
fist.

gelyfan, to believe, y^^/, hide, fyst,

Of
time,

swers to Goth, nauths (stem nauthi-), so that the y

mutation of au (A.

S. /a).

At the same

«y^ an is an /the G. Noth is
these,

cognate with Goth, nauths^ the G. long
Goth. au.

being equivalent to

Hence we conclude

that E. need

and G. Noth
is

have related vowel-sounds.

Similarly, E. bride, A. S. bryd,

cognate with Goth, bruihs (stem brutht-), and therefore with

O. H. G.
liaf-ian,

brilt,

whence G. Braut.

Gelyfan, to believe =*^^-

from ge-Uafa,

belief; and, as A. S.

/(2=Goth. au=.
E. hide^

G. a«,
A.

this is precisely the

G. Glaube

{

= *ge-laube).
iii.

S. hyd,

answers to Teut. hudi (Fick,

78), cognate with

Lat. cutis] the O.
Similarly, A. S.

H. G. form

is

hiit,

^st

answers to O. H. G.
suffice
;

Faust.

These examples may

whence G. Haut. ficst, whence G. there are many more

of a similar character.

CHAPTER

XII.

y<JLAU-

Prefixes and Substantival Suffixes.

§ 201. Prefixes.

A

considerable

number of

the prefixes

in English are of Latin origin,

and due

to prepositions, such

as ab, ad, ante, &c.

very numerous.

The prefixes of English origin They are given in the Appendix
;

are not
to

my

Etym.

Diet., in
list

both editions

but

it

may
Cf.

be useful to give

here a brief
iii.

of the chief of them.
S.

Koch, Eng. Gram,

112; Sweet, A.

Reader,

p. Ixxix.

A-, from various sources.
noticed here.)
1.

(Only the Teutonic sources are

A. A.

S. o/'y as in S. ow S.
;

-dune, E. a-down. of

2.

as'

in

M. E. on fate, E.
;

a-fooL

3.

A.

and-,

against, opposite

as

in A. S. and-lang,

E. a-long.
4.

See An-,

Un-

(2).

A.

S. d-, intensive prefix to

verbs

;

as in A. S. d-risan,
ir-,

E. a-rise.

This A.
er-),

S. d- is

cognate with O. H. G. ar-,

ur-

(mod. G.

Goth,
'

us-, ur-.

The

Goth, us

is

also used as

a

prep.,

signifying

away

from.'

The

chief verbs with this

prefix are a-hide, ac-curse (written for a-curse

by confusion

with the F. and L. ac-

= ad), af-fright (similarly, for a-fright\
;

al-lay (similarly, for a-lay), a-maze, a-rise, a-rouse

we have

also the past participles a-ghast, a-go.

Among
S.

these words,

ac-curse

and a-rouse seem to have been formed by analogy;

they

have no representatives in A.

The

pp.

dmasod^

amazed, occurs
1.

in Wulfstan's Homilies, ed. Napier, p. 137,
p. a 16.

23.

See Or- below,

214
5.

ENGLISH PREFIXES,
^'

[Chap. XII.

in a-do

is

short for

a/,

which was used in the North

as the sign of the infinitive.
io-do
is

The

prov. E.
'

'

Here's a pretty
i.

equivalent to the old phrase
to do.

Much

a-do'
'

e.

'

much

at

do/ much

There was an old phrase out

at

doors/

besides the
a-doors,
6.

more usual 'out of doors'; hence

the phr. out

which

may

represent either of the older forms.
S. prefix ge-^ later
2-,
;

In some words, the A.
a-.

y-, was

turned into
ge-ford-ian
""a-ford).

Thus A. S. ge-wcer is our a-ware and A. S. produced M.E. a-forihen, mod. E. af-ford (for
also notice a-ughi, A. S. dwiht,
aye, ever,

See E-, Y-.

We may
prefix

where dwhich
is

is

a

meaning 'ever/ cognate with
;

Norse.

After-

A. S. cB/kr,

after,

prep, used in composition.
s.,

An-,

in

answer, A.
is

S.

and-swaru,

an answer,
ont-,
'

reply.

Here
avri,

the A. S. and-

cognate with Du.
;

G.

eni-,

Gk.
'

Skt. anti, over against

the sense

is

against,' or

in

reply.'

in

The same prefix appears un-bind. See A- (3), Un- (2).
the prefix
is

as a- in a-long, and un-

Ann-,

in anneal, A. S. an-celan, to set
really the

on

fire,

burn, bake.

Thus

common
prep,
at,

prep. on.

In some

senses, the

word may be of French
is

origin.

At-, in at-one,

the

common

A.
bi,

S.

cei.

Be-.
C-.
is

This
In

is

A.

S. he-, bi-, the

same
to

as

prep, by; E. by.
S. ge-.

c-lutch, the prefix

seems

be the A.

This

somewhat

doubtful.

E-, in e-nough.

Goth, ga-nohs, enough.

Enough is M. E. i-noh, A. S. ge-nSh Hence the prefix is the A. S.
In
this
;

;

cf.

ge-,

Goth. ga-.

Edd-,
be A.
it-,

in edd-y.

obscure word, the prefix seems to

S. ed-,

back, again
id-,

cognate with

Icel.

i^-,

O. H. G.

ita-,

Goth,

back.

The

Icel.

ida,

an eddy, corre-

sponds to the Lowland Scotch j/^, an eddy, which occurs We in the Boke of the Houlate (ab. 1453), st. 64, I. 827.
find the

O. Sax. prefix idug-, back, in idug-lonon, to repay.
in emb-er days.

Emb-,

From A.

S.

ymb-ryne, a

circuit.

§ 201.]

ENGLISH PREFIXES.
is

215

The

prefix

A.

S.

ymh-^ about,

cognate with G. um-^

O. H. G. umbi, Lat. ambi-.

Perpounds

(i),
2.'s,

E. and A. S. for, prep.
,

Used

in

such com-

for -as-much, for -ever &c.
A.
S. for-, prefix,

For-

(2),

as in for-gifan^ to for-give.
ver-,

Cf. lce\. for-, fyrir- J

Dsm.for-, Swed./or-, Du. and G.

Goth, /ra-, fair-, Skt. para-.

The

Skt.

para

is

an old instru*

mental case of para,
Allied to 'E.far.

far

;

hence the

orig. sense is

away/
chief

The

prefix has
'

something of an intensive
'

force, or gives the sense of

away,' or

from.'

The

derivatives are for-bear, for-hid,

forfend^ for-go (miswritten

fore-go), for-gei, for-give, for -lorn, forsake, forswear.

Fore-, in front

;

A. ^.fore, before, prep, and adv.

Cognate

with Du. voor, Icel. fyn'r, Dan. for, Swed. for, G. vor, Goth.

faura, Lat. pro, Gk.
allied to

Trpd,

Skt. pra.

Orig. sense 'beyond';

E.far, and
see above.
vor/,

to the prefixy^r- (2).

Forth-, forward.
before
for/,
;

A.

S.

for^, adv.

;

extended from fore,
voor/,

Cognate with Du.
from
vor.

from voor

;

G.

M. H. G.

Cf. also

Gk.

npori (usually

npos), towards, Skt. pra/i, towards.

Fro-, as in fro-ward,
prefix/r^?-.

i.

e.

turned from, perverse.

The

Northern E.fra-, seems to be the Icel./r^, from,

closely allied to Icel. fram, forward,

and to 'E.from.
S.

Gain-, against

;

M. E.

gei'n,

A.

gegn, against.

Hence

gain-say, gains/and.

Im-, as

in im-bed, im-park, is the

form which the prep, in
See

assumes before a following b or p.
In-, A. S.
in, prep., in
;

often used in composition.

above.

L-, in
a/,

l-one,
a//.

which

is

short for al-one

;

where al

=

M. E.

mod. E.
Mid-,

in the

word

mid-ivife^

is
;

nothing but the A.
cf.

S. prep.

mid, with,

now
a
'

otherwise obsolete

G.

mi/, with, mil-helfen,

to help with, assist.
is, literally,

So

also the Span, comadrey a midwife,

co-mother.*

2l6

ENGLISH PREFIXES,
A.

[Chap. XII.

Mis-, wrongly, as in mis-deed, mis-take.
amiss
;

S. inis-^

wrongly,
Dan.,

allied to the

verb

to

miss.

Also found as

Icel.,

and Du.

mis-^

Swed. miss-, Goth, missa-.
n- in E. words arises from a misdivision
It

N-

(i).

A prefixed

of consecutive words in a phrase.

most often

results

from

the use of the indefinite article an.

Thus an ewt became
iftgot

a newt, an eke-name became a nick-name, an

became

a ningof (whence probably a niggot, used by North, and

mod. E. a
nauger
ouch
;

nugget).

On
;

the other hand,
;

we must remember

that a nadder

became an adder
a norange

a napron

>
;

an apron
a nouch

;

a

>

an auger

>
:

an orange

>

an

a numpire

>

an umpire

hence the curious forms

adder, apron, auger, orange, ouch^

and umpire
is

\

all

of which

have

lost

an

initial n.

Nletter

(2).

In the case of nuncle, the n
first

due

to the final

of the

possessive

pronoun

;

so that

my

nuncle

<

myn

uncle,

mine

uncle.

We

even find the form naunt, from

mine aunt.

N- (3).
/or
for

In the word n-once, which only occurs in the phrase

the nonce,

we have
S.

the

then ones, for the once.

M. E. for the nones, miswritten for Here then is the dat. case of the
forms ^an, than,
A.
then.
S. n-, prefix, short for ne, not.
;

def. article,

A.

^dm,

later

NIt

(4),

negative prefix.

Cf. Goth, ni, Russ. ne, Irish ni, Lat. ne, not

Skt. na, not.

occurs in n-aught, n-ay, n-either, n-ever, n-ill (for ne will),

n-o, n-one, n-or, n-ot (short for n-aught).

See

Un- (i)

;

p. 2

1 7.

Of-, Off-.

The

prep. 0/

is

invariably written off in

comoff

position, except in the case of of-fall,

where the use of

would have brought threey's

together.
;

On-

;

A.

S. on, prep.,

E. on

in composition.

Or-, in or-deal^ or-ts.

The

prefix
us-.

is

A.
is

S. or-,

cognate

with Du. oor-, G. ur-, Goth, ur- or

It

therefore only
is

another form of
nate with Du.

A-

(4).

Or-deal, A. S. ordel, orddl,
urtheil,

cog-

oordeel,

G.

judgment
*

;

-deal

is

the
is

same
dealt

as E. deal, a portion.

The word meant

that

which

7;

§201.]

ENGLISH PREFIXES,
Orts
is

21
ort^
left

out/ hence, a decision.

pi.

of

cognate with
uneaten, from

or borrowed from Mid. Du.

oor-ete,

a piece

Du.

el-en, to eat.

Out-, A.

S. at

;

the prep, out in cpmposition.
;

Over-, A.
short for

S. o/er

the prep, over in composition.

T-, in t-wii, A. S. cBUwilan, to twit, reproach.
«/-,

Thus
Atin

/- is

which

is

the

same

as

at,

prep.

;

see

Mur-

ray's Dictionary.

Thorough-, in thorough-fare the same as To- (i), in to-day, to-morrow, merely the
;

through.
prep,
to,

A.

S.

t6, to,

as to, for.
(2), intensive

Tobrake,

prefix

;

obsolete, except in the pt.
apart, asunder,

t.

to-

Judges

ix.

53.

A.

S. to-,

in twain

cognate with O. Fries,
the sense of 'asunder
zi-r-,
';

to-, te-,

O. H. G.

za-, ze-, zt'^ all with

closely related to O.

H. G.

za-r-, ze-r-,

G.

ze-r-, prefix

;

cf.

also Goth, twis-, as in twis-standan,

to separate oneself from.

Twi-, as
'

in

twi-light,

A.

S.

twi-,

lit.

'

double,'

hence

doubtful,' allied to E. two.
allied,

Cognate with

Icel. tvi-,

Du. twee-, Du.

G. zwie-, which are
twee,

respectively, to Icel. tveir,

and G.
(i),

zwei/\.\so.
;

Un-

negative prefix
Cf.

A.S. un-, from Aryan n- (sonant),

negative prefix.

Du.

on-, Icel. 6-, H-,

Dan.
av-,
a,

u-,

Swed.

0-,

Goth, un-, G. un-,
Pers. nd-, Skt. an-.

W.

an-, Lat. in-,

Gk.

Zend, ana-,

See

N;

(4); p. 216.
S. un-, also on-, short
ent-,

Un-

(2), verbal prefix
;

A.

forond-

=

A. S. and-

cf.

Du.

ont-,

G.
in

Gk.

avri.

It

is

therefore

ultimately the

same as anun-to.

answer, and a-

in a-long.

See

An- above; p. 214. Un- (3), in un-til,
O.
to,

The
to,

prefix

is

equivalent to the

Fries,

and O. Sax. wid, up

as far as to, Goth, und,
is 6^.

up

unto.

The
;

A. S. (Wessex) spelling of this prefix

Under-

the prep, wider in composition.

Up-

;

the prep, up in composition.
in tuan-ion
;

Wan-,

see

Wanton

in

my

Dictionary.

8

21

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.
With.-, against
;

[Chap. XII.

the prep, with in composition.
'

The

A.

S.

wid commonly means
phrase
'

against

'

;

this

sense

is

retained in the

to fight with
;

one/
A.

Hence withstand.
words
;

Y-, prefix
certainly.

as in the archaic
i;

y-clept,

named, y-wis,

M. E. j/-,

S. ge-

cognate with Du. ge-, G.

ge-, Goth. ga-.
little

This

prefix,
;

once very common, made very

difference to the sense
It

sometimes

it

has a collective

force.

was,

perhaps, originally emphatic.

See A- (6)

and E-.
§

202. Substantival Suffixes.

The

substantival suffixes

of E. origin are of three kinds,

viz. (i)

those like -dom, -ship,

where the A.

S. suffix

was also an
;

intelligible

word

;

(2) suffixes

expressive of diminution

and

{3) suffixes consisting of
-th in leng-th
;

only

one or two

letters,

such as -m in doo-m,

some

of these being double or compound.
(i) In the first class

we have

only the following: -dopi,
-red,
-ric,

-hood (also -head), -lock (also
-scape,

-ledge)'^,

-ship (also
iii.

which

is

Dutch).

See Koch, Eng. Gram.

102

;

Sweet, A. S. Reader, p. Ixxxi.

To

these should be added
m. priest-craft,

A.

S. lad; see

under -hood below. The -craft
suffix.

&c.,

can hardly be regarded as a mere
A.
S. -dSm,

-dom.
E. doom.

the
Icel.

Cognate with

same as A. S. dom, judgment, -domr, Dan. and Swed. -dom, as
heilig-dom,

in lct\.JjrcBl-d6mr, Dan. trcel-dom, Swed. trdl-dom, thraldom;

Du. -dom, G. -thum, as
sanctuary,
relic.

in

Du.

G. Heilig-thum,

It

occurs {a) in pure E. words, as birth-dom,

earl-dom, free-dom, heathen-dom, king-dom, sheriff-dom, wis-

dom

:

(p) in

words of Scand.
in

origin, as hali-dom, thral-dom

:

(c) in

words

which the
words,

first

element

is

foreign, as

:

Christen-

dom, duke-dom, martyr-dom, peer-dom, pope-dom, prince-dom,
-dom. serf

New

2JS>

flunkey-dom, can be coined.
-he'd\
cf. §

-hood, -head.
A.
S.

A.

S. -had, Friesic

42.

The

had meant
form; so

sex, degree, rank,

order, condition, state,

nature,
^

that

man-hood means 'man's estate'; &c,
does not belong to this
class.

The

suffix -ness {^—-n-ess)

See

§ 232.

§ 202.]

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.
-held,

219
-het,

Cognate with Du.

Dan.

-hed^

Swed.

G.

-heit^

appearing respectively in Du.
fri-hetj
if it

vrijheid,

Dan. fri-hed, Swed.

G. Frei-heit, freedom

;

where the Swed. form looks as
manner, way; further
is

were merely borrowed from German, as perhaps the Dan.
also.

form was

Cf. also Goth, haidus,

related to Skt. ketu, a sign
kttj

by which a thing

known, from

to perceive,

know.

It

occurs {a) in pure E. words, as

brolher-hood, child-hood, knight-hood, likeli-hood, maiden-hood,

man-hood, neighbour-hood, sister-hood, widow-hood, wife-hood^

woman-hood, and
{d) in

is

spelt -head in
first

God-head, maiden-head
is

\

words in which the

element

foreign, as \n falseis

hood^ priest-hood.

In hoy -hood, the word hoy

Friesian;
;

it

is

not found in A. S.
'li-hood has
is

The form
for

live-li-hood is corrupt

here

been substituted
as

M. E.

-lode,

and the

real suffix
S.

A.
is

S. -Idd, as in lif-ldd, provisions to live by.

This A.

Idd

the

same

mod. E.
Only
Idc,

lode

;

see Lode in

my
;

Etym.

Diet.

-lock, -ledge.

in wed-lock, know-ledge

the former

of which has the pure E. suffix, from

M.E.

-lok,

shortened from

M. E.
in the

lok

= A. S.

whilst the latter exhibits the cognate

Scand. form,

Icel. -leikr.

The A.

S. lac is
it

probably preserved
'play, contest,

mod. E. slang term

lark, sport^;

meant

gift, offering,'

but was also used to form abstract nouns, as in
accusation, wed-ldc, later wedstate.

r/af-ldCf robbery, wroht-ldc,
lac,

matrimony, the wedded
lek,

The cognate

Icel. leikr,

Swed.

play,

is

also freely used as a suffix, as in Icel.

karleikr,

Swed.

kdrlek, love.

There was

also a corresponding

A. S. verbal

suffix -IcBcan {^-^^-Idcian), as in

A.

S. n/ah-lcccan,
it

M. E.

neh-lechen^ to

draw

nigh,

approach

;

and

is

not un-

likely that the

form of the

suffix -leche in

M.
A.

E. know-leche,

knowledge, was
It

really influenced

by

this

S. verbal form.

makes no great
-red
(i),

difference.

A. S. -rdden; only in hat-red^ kin-d-red.
is

In the

latter
*

word the middle d

excrescent, the
;

M. E. form being
the

It

em

laik,

should rather have given us a mod. E. loke a sport, is from the Icel. leikr.

common North-

'

220

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES,

[Chap. XII.

km-rede, answering to an A. S. '^cyn-rdden^ not found.
also hat-red,

So

M. E.

hat-reden, answers to A. S. "^hete-rdden^

also

not found.

We

find,

however, A. S. fr^ond-rdden^
*

friendship,

shewing that the

suffix, like -ship, signifies

state

or 'condition,' originally 'readiness.'
separate word,

It
'

even occurs as a
;

meaning

'

condition, rule
rule,

and

is

allied to

Goth, ga-ratd-eins, an ordinance,

G.

be-reit,

ready,

and

.

E. ready.
not, as

Curiously enough,
at first

it is

related to the verb to ride,
to the verb to read,

might
(2), in

be supposed,

-red
red, is

hund-red.

The

suffix in hundred,
It

A.

S.

hundIcel.

not the same as the above.

appears also in

hund-rdS, O. Sax. hunde-rod, O. H. G. hunde-rit, G. hund£-rt.

In

this

case the suffix -red
'

means

tale,

number, or more

literally,

reckoning

'

;

so that hund-red

means

'

a hundred

by reckoning,' the A. S. hund (cognate with Lat. cent-um) meaning a hundred, even when used without the suffix. Cf.
Goth, ga-rath-jan, to reckon, to number.
-ric, in bishop-ric.
allied to Lat.

From A.S. ric-e, Goth, reik-i, dominion;
originally 'shape, form, mode,'

reg-num, kingdom.
-scipe,

-ship, A. S.
scepp-an
-skapr,
(

from
Icel.

= ^ scap-ian),
-skab^

to shape,
-skap,

make.

Cognate with
G.

Dan.

Swed.

Du.

-schap,

-schaft, as

seen in A. ^./r^ond-scipe, Ddin./rcBnd-skab, ^VfQd../rdnd-skap^

Du. vriend-schap, G./reund-scha/t,
the Icel.
ii.

i.

e. friendship

;

for

which

word

is

vin-skapr.

See Weigand, Etym. G. Diet.,
(^2)
:

540.

The

suffix is

used

in pure English words,

some

of which are in early use, as friend-ship, hard-ship, lordship, town-ship,

worship {^worth-ship)', others
(b)

in later use,

as

:

horsemanship, kingship, ladyship, sheriffship, sonship,
with Scand. words,
:

stewardship, wardship:
ship
:

2iS

fellow-

(c)

with French words, as

clerkship, court-ship, &c.

The word
§

landscape, originally also land-skip, was borrowed
in the
1

from Du. landschap
203.
(2).

7th century.

Suffixes expressive of diminution.
-c,
-el,

The
which

chief

diminutive A. S. suffixes are

-en,

-ing,

may

§ 203.]

DIMINUTIVE SUFFIXES.

%%\
-k-in,

be combined, giving the secondary forms, such as
'l-ing.

-c (probably from Teut. -ko).

The word
Icel.
bolt,

bull does not
;

appear in A.

S.,

though we find

a bull

but

we

find A. S. bull-u-c ^ E. bull-o-ck.
suffix -ock as indivisible,

It is usual to

regard the

but I would rather regard the suffix compound, and due to some such form as a as double or
suffix

Teut. double

-wo-ko ;

or otherwise, the

-o- (A. S. -«-)

may

have arisen
^.

from the ending of a stem in some word of
to

this class

This -o-ck no doubt came to be regarded as

indivisible,

and was used
;

form diminutives ; hence Ml-ock,

a~small
little

hill

humm-ock, a small
;

hump
is

or heap

;

rudd-ock, the

red bird, the redbreast

laver-ock, little lark,

from A.

S.

Idwerce, Idferce, a lark.

There

an equivalent diminutive
Cf. A. S.

suffix in Irish, spelt -og (also

perhaps for -o-g\ whence our
trefoil.

shamr-ock, Irish seamr-og, dimin. of seamar,
matt-tic, mett-uc,

W.

mat-og, a matt-ock, where the

W. word

may be of A. S. origin. The origin of hadd-ock is doubtful. The word hammock is W. Indian, so that it is of entirely different formation. Originally hamaca, it came to be spelt as now
is

by association with words ending in -ock. Padd-ock, a toad, a dimin. formation from Icel. padda, a toad. It is some-

times said to

mean
is

*

a large toad,' but

this is
is

a mere matter

of usage.

Padd-ockf a small enclosure,
curiously proved
far

a corruption of

parr-ock, as

by the

fact that

Paddock
Hasted's

Wood, in Kent, not

from Tonbridge, was formerly called
Cantiana,
xiii.

Par rocks
Kent,
V.

(see Archaeologia

128;

286).

This

is

the k.^. pear rue ^ a paddock; from
s),

sparr-an, later parr-en (with loss of

to enclose.
It is the
stirk.

In the word sltr-k

we have
;

the simple suffix -k.
S. styri-c,

dimin. of steer ^ A. S. st/or

whence A.

a

^ Not bulluca, as nsnally given ; the dat. case bulluce occttis in the liber Scintillaram, sect. 54. " Cf. O. Sax. -eh'U, a horse, stem eh-wo, oognate with Lat. tq-uuSt

stem eq-wo-.

222
-el,

DIMINUTIVE SUFFIXES.
or rather
-e-l,

[Chap. XII.

where the

-/

answers to the Aryan
(with excrescent
S.

suffix -LO.

See

§ 218.
is

Thus E. bramble
s.v.

b\

A.

S.

brem-el,

formed (with z-mutation) from A.
Brom-beere)]
Gr.
§

brSm,

broom (Kluge,
Sievers,
is

giving brim-el
Similarly,

<
E.

*brSmt-l (see
kov-el

O. E.

265).

a dimin. of A. S. a dimin. of A.
is

/lof,

a house.

E. kern-el, A. S. E. nav-el,

cyrn-el, is

S. corn,

a corn, a grain.

A. S. nqfe-la,

a dimin. of E. nave, A. S. na/a, the boss of
little

a wheel.
dimin.

E. padd-le, a

spade, formerly spaddle,
rivulet,
II

is

a
a

of spade.

E. runn-el, a

A.

S.

ryn-el,

is

diminutive of ryne, a course
run.

<

.

.

ronn-en, pp. of rinnan, to
ax-le^

Other diminutive forms are
spang -le^ spark-le.
is

bund-le,

nipp-le^

nozz-le, pimp-le,

In the word

cock-er-el,

a

little

cock, the suffix

the

pik-er-el,

a young pike
S.

;

mong-r-el, a

Aryan -ro-lo. So also in puppy of mixed breed,
In the word maid~en,

from A.

mang .{ge-mang), a mixture \
?).

-en, or rather -e-n (Teut. -ya-na

diminutive oimaid, the cognate O. H. G. magat-in or meged-in,
dimin. of O.

answers to a Teut.

H. G. magad^ a maid, shews that the suffix -in^ which Schleicher (Compend. § 223)
suffix.

shews to be a compound
also diminutival

A

similar suffix

is

used to
It is

form Gothic feminines ending

in -etn-s (stem -ei-ni).

on which see the note in In E. kitt-en, the Supplement to my Dictionary, 2nd ed. M. E. kit-oun, the suffix was originally French, and therefore this word does not exhibit the A. S. -en, but the Angloin E. chick-en,

French -oun (Lat.
-ing, i.e.

ace. -onem)

;

the change from -oun to -en

being, however, due to association with diminutives in -en.
-z'-n-g,
is

due to a Teutonic compound
used in A.
S. to

suffix;

see § 241.

It

was

chiefly

form patronycspele,

mics, as in (Bpel-ing,

son of a noble, from

noble.

1

Kett-le, scutt-le, are also diminutives, but are

both borrowed from

Latin, viz. from cat-illus, dimin. of catinus, a bowl,

and scut-ella, dimin.

of scutra, a tray.

§ 203.]

DIMINUTIVE SUFFIXES,
now used
See below.
the suffixes -/

22^

It

does not seem to be

as a

mere diminutive,

except

when
is

-/-

precedes.

-1-ing,

compounded of
to

was early used
goose,

form diminutives.
A.

{-e/) and -I'ng, and Examples are cod:

ling, duck-ling, gos-ling, star-ling, as diminutives of cod, duck,

and of prov. E.
strip-ling,

stare,

S. steer,

a starling.
:

Many

of

these forms acquired a depreciatory sense, as
ling,

fop-ling, lord-

wit-ling, world-ling.
indirectly, as
:

Some
;

are related to

the primary

words
a
;

nest-ling,

a small bird in
strip-ling,

a nest

;

sap-ling,

young

tree full of sap

a lad

as thin as a strip
are

year-ling, a creature a year old.

Some
foundsee

from

adjectives, as: dar-ling

{= dear -ling), fat-ling, firstsuck-ling,
;

ling, young- ling.

Some from
is

verbs, as: change-ling,

ling,

hire-ling, nurs-ling,

shave-ling, starve-ling,

yean-ling.

Ster-ling

a Latinised form of Easter-ling

my

Dictionary.

Scant-ling does not properly belong here,

being of F. origin (F. eschantillon).
-kin,
i.

e.

-k-in or -k-i-n,

seems
-chin,

to

be a
in

treble suffix.

The

cognate O. H. G.
dimin. of wih, a

-kin or

as

wibe-kin, wihe-chin,

woman, shews

that the /

was once long;
as said above,

moreover,

-in

appears to be a double

suffix,

in discussing -en.

The

suffix -kin is not

found in A.
it

S.,

nor

is

it,

in

general,

old;

in

many words

is

due to
Perlittle

the borrowing of Middle

Du. words ending
in

in

-ken.
i.e.

haps

it

first

appears
i.

names, as
;

Mal-kin,

Maid
with
sense)
pipe),

or
the

Maud, e. Matilda whence E. gri-malkin, a cat, word gray (or perhaps F. gris, with the same

prefixed.

The words
(a

lamb-kin, pip-kin (dimin. of

thumb-kin

thumb-screw) are probably of native
Norsej from

formation.

Gris-kin originally meant, not the spine of a
little

hog, but a

pig; the base

is

Icel. griss,
[

a

pig.

E.

sis-kin,

a song-bird,
;

is

from Dan.
sis-a,

sis-gcn

= * sis-

ken), a

little

chirper

cf.

Swed.

dial,

to

make

a noise

like

a wood-grouse.

In nap-kin, the E.

suffix is

added to

the F. nappCf O. F. nape, a cloth, from Lat. mappa, a cloth.

224 The

DIMINUTIVE SUFFIXES.
following words are
suffix 'ken^
all

probably Dutch, although the
in the

Mid. Du.

once common, has been replaced,
~je

modern Du. language, by
which
is

or

-tje

or

-etje

or -pje (after w),

now

widely used.

Bump-kin, Mid. Du. boom-ken^ a
Bus-kin

little tree,

thick piece of wood, heiKe a block-head, dimin. of
(for

loom^ a tree, cognate with E. beam.

Hrus-kin or

*burs-kin\ Mid. Du. broosken, a buskin, perhaps the same as

Mid. Du. borseken,

a,

little

purse, dimin. of O. F. borse, a purse.

Cana-kin (Shak.), Mid. Du. kanne-ken, explained by
as
'

Hexham
Mid. Du.

a small Canne, Pot, or Cruse/ dimin. of Du. kanne, a can.
tail,

Cat-kin, a spike of flowers resembling a cat's
katte-ken,
solete),

a

kitten, dimin.

of Du.

kaite,

a

cat.

Dodkin (obFir-kin, the
Jer-kin, dimin.
*,

a

little doit,

dimin. of Du. duit, a doit.
;

fourth part of a barrel

from Du.

vier, four.

of 'Dn.jurk, a frock (Sewel).

Kilder-kin, formerly kinder-kin

from Mid. Du. kinde-kin, a
a
vat,

little

child, also, the eighth part of
;

because

it

is

a small part of the vat

dimin. of Du.
little

kind, a child.

Manni-kin, Mid. Du. manne-ken^ a

man,

dimin. of Du. man, a man.

Mini-kin, a term of endearment,

Mid. Du. minne-ken,
the above

my

love, dimin. of

Du. minne,

love.

To

words in -kin we may add prov. E.
bull,

bul-chin,

a bull-calf, dimin. of E.
^

and equivalent to

bull-ock.

Spelt kinderkind (with excrescent
I, ed.

d

at the end) in Peele's play of

Edward

Dyce, 1883,

P* S^S* note.

CHAPTER

XIII.

I^XjuiAy^

-Substantival Suffixes {continued).

§

204.

(3).

Excluding the

suffixes

already explained in

the last Chapter, the principal substantival suffixes are due
to certain original

Aryan
-NI,

suffixes

which

may be

arranged

in

the following order,

viz. -0, -a, -i, -u, -10, -ia,

-wo, -wa, -mo,

-MON, -RO, -LO, -NO.

-NU, -TO, -TI, -TU, -TER (or -TOR),

-TRO, -ont, -es (or -os),
these.

-Ko;

or else, to combinations of
delight in the

The Aryan languages
suffixes,
still

use of comtreble,

pound
Aryan

sometimes double, sometimes

and

occasionally even

more complex.

I shall

consider these

suffixes in ^he

above order, and discuss compound

suffixes (such as Teut. -ma-n)

under the

first

element (such

as -mo).
different

These Aryan

suffixes
;

often appear in a slightly

form in Teutonic

thus -to becomes -tho or -tha

(by Grimm's Law), or even -do or -da (by Verner's Law).
§

205.

disappears in
length,

suflflx -O fem. -A. This suffix invariably modern English, and need not be discussed at though a large number of sbs. originally belonged to
;

Aryan

this class.

It

occurs as -a (fem.

-6) in
it

Gothic, in the stems of
called; see

Goth. sbs. of the A-declension, as
of
St.

is

my

Gospel
-o- in

Mark

in Gothic, p. xxxvii.

It

answers to the Gk.
-0-^ in

(y^-6-v^

a yoke, and to the Lat. -«- (formerly
its

iug-u-m.

Thus

E. fish, Goth, fisk-s^ has for

stem fiska, appearing

in the dat. pi. fiska-m.

E. half, Goth, halba^ has the stem

HALBo, dat.
VOL.
I.

pi. halbo-viy

where
Q

-6

is

a long vowel, and an-

226

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.
-a.

[Chap. XIII.

swers to Aryan
SKiPA
;

E.

ship,

Goth,

skip,

has

the

stem

dat. pi. sh'pa-m.
is

Of

these words, both in A. S.
is

and
is

Gothic, fish
neuter.

masculine, half

feminine, and
all

ship

Modern English has given up
this

idea of distinis

guishing genders in
list

way\

The

following
class.

a brief

of some of the substantives of this
§§ 239, 251.
:

Cf. Sievers,

O. E. Gr.
{a).

Masculine

E.

day,

A.

S.

dcrg,

Goth.

dags.

E.

dough, A. S. ddh, Goth, daigs.

E. hound, A.
hlaibs.

S.

^.fish, A. S.fisc, Goth, fisks. hund, Goth, hunds. E. loaf, A. S. hldf, Goth.

E. oath, A. S. dp, Goth, aiths.
j-^<7;^j.

E. shoe, A. S. scoh,
sleps.

Goth.

E.

sleep,

A.

S.

j/^?!),

Goth,

E.

zf/^y/,

A. S.

weg, Goth.
(^).

z£;z^j'.
:

E. zf;o^ A. S. wulf, Goth.
</^^r,

ze^wZ/y.
fi^/'wj".

Neuter

E.

A.

S.

de'or,

Goth,

E. grass,
E., A. S.,

A.

S. ^r^j-,

Goth. gras.
E.
.r^?^,

E.,

A.

S., holt,

a wood.
j'/^?}^.

Goth. land. A.
S. j^r,

A. S.

scip,

Goth.
A.
S.

E.

sore,

s.,

Goth. sair.

Y^.year,

^/<2r,

Goth.yVr.

E.

yoke,

A.S.geoc, Goth. j'uk.

(c).

Feminine
E.

:

E.

care,

A.

S. caru,

Goth. kara.

E. half,

A.

S.

>^m^, Goth, halda (side).
rz/«^,
S.

E. herd, A. S. heard, Goth.

hairda.

A.

S.

hrung, Goth, hrugga

(=

hrungd).

E. womb, A.
§

wamh, Goth, wamha.

suffix is comweak nouns, but does not appear in modern English. Thus E. tongue, A. S. iung-e, f., makes the ^&Y\. tung-an] the Gothic tugg-o {=tu7tg-6) makes the

206. Teutonic -an; fem. -on (= an). This
in

mon

many

cases of A. S.

gen. tugg-on
cf.

{

= tung-6n)',

the Teut. form being tong-an;
this suffix are bear

§ 205.

Other nouns which had
(for shooting)
;

(an

animal),

bow

bourn (brook), cove, drop, gall,
all

shank, smoke, spark, stake, 2vit {wise man),
the fem. sbs. crow, ear,
eye, fly, heart,

masculine.

Also
pi.

week ;

and the fem.

ashes, A. S. CEsc-an, Goth, azg-on.
^ Modem E. gender is (mainly) logical, i.e. it depends on distinctions of sex. The A. S. gender is grammatical, i.e. it depends on the form of the name itself, which is quite a different thing.

;

§ 209.]

ARYAN SUFFIX
Aryan
causing
stifB.x
-I.

-10.
suffix
It is

II^J

§

207.

This

disappears

in

modern English,
only by
It
its

like the preceding.
'

commonly known
;

mutation

'

of the root-vowel of the stem.
as

occurs in the stems of Goth. sbs. of the z-declension

in arms^

an arm,

dat. pi. armi-vi.
It

There are no neuter

sbs. of this form.
t\~i-^.

occurs also in Skt. ah-i, a snake, Gk.

Lat. angu-i-s, &c.

Examples
A. S. hype^
Goth, mats
allied
cwe'n,
;

are:

{a)

Masculine:

E.

hip (of the

thigh),
viete,

Goth, hups,
Teut. mati.
strong.

stem hupi.

E.

meal,

A. S.

E. strings A. S. streng {^"^ strangi),
{p\ Feminine
:

to

strange

E. queen,
i.e.

A. S.

Goth, kwens;

Teut. kweni.

E. weird,

fate;

A.S.

wyj'd

<

..

II

word-en, pp. of iveorpan, to happen.
Sievers,

For further examples see
§

O. E. Gr.
suffix

§

263.
dis-

208. Aryan

su£3.x
It

-U.

This

likewise

appears in mod. E.
the 2^-declension
dg-u, quickly,
;

occurs in the stems of Goth. sbs. of
It

as in handu-s, a hand.
wK-v-ff, swift,

occurs in Skt.

Gk.

Lat. ac-u-s, a needle, &c.
:

Examples
Icel. v'6nd-r

are {a) Masculine

E. wand, of Scand. origin

= Goth,
:

wand-us

;

where o

is

the w-mutation

of

a,

(d)

Feminine

E. chin, A. S. a'nn, Goth, h'tmus, Gk.
{c)

yeuvs.

E. hand, A. S. hand, Goth, handus.

Neuter

:

E.

/ee, A.S./eoh, Golh./aihu.
§

209.

Aryan
This

writers).
pi.

suffix

sufllx -10 (written -JO by some German appears as -j'a^ in Goth, haird-ja-m, dat.
;

of haird-eis, masc, a shepherd
n.,

and

in kun-ja, dat. sing.

of kun-i,

kin.

It

is

represented accordingly, by Goth,

masc.

sbs.

ending in
St.

-eis,

and Goth.

neut. sbs. in -/;
It is

see

my
in

Gospel of
Latin as
this
suffix

Mark

in Gothic, p. xxxvii.

common

-lo-,

as in od-io-, stem of odium, hatred.
-e,

In A. S.

became simply
Similar words

as in

Goth,
end,

and-eis,

A. S.
suffix

end-e,

M.

E. end-e, in Chaucer,

mod. E.

where the

disappears.

arc:

E. herd, in the

sense of

^

The Gotb.y

is

pronounced as 'E.y,

228

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.
hat'rd-eis,
leech,

[Chap. XI It
(as

shepherd, A. S. hird-e, m., Goth,

m.

above),

Teut. HERD-YA (Fick,
lek-ets,

iii.

80).

E.

A. S.

IcBc-e,
-I'o-

Goth.
suffix

a physician, Teut. lek-ya.
-e)

In other words the

(A. S.

has sometimes caused a doubling of the

last letter in
it

the A. S. form,
often
left its

and has afterwards
the

fallen

away, though
A.

has

mark upon

word by producing an z-mutation
din,
S.

of the preceding vowel.
dynn),
is

Thus E.

dyn (put for

also found in the fuller A. S.

form dyn-e (=dun-ya).
coil-is,

E.

hill,

A. S. hyll (=hul-ya), cognate with Lat.

E.

ridge,

A.

S.

hrycg

(=

hrygg

=

hrug-ya).

E. wedge, A. S.
§ 247.

wecg

(= wegg
S.,
it

= wag-ya).
dedd,

See Sievers, O. Eng. Gr.
-i

In A.
before

the

neuter Teut. suffix

drops

off,

but not

has caused z-mutation.

Good examples
E.
h'n,

are seen in

E.

ded,

A.

S.

Goth. dadi.

A. S. cynn, Goth.
s.

kuni.
lele),

E.

nel,

A.

S. ne/l,

Goth.

nali.

E. wed,

(a pledge, o5so-

A.

S.

wedd, Goth. wadi.
S., viz.

Other examples, mostly neuter,
(cf.

occur in A.
Tenne,

E. den, A. S. denn

O. H. G.

lenni,

G.

a

floor).

E. errand, A. S. cerend-e,

Icel. eyrend-i^,

E. hue, A. S. hiw, Goth, hiw-i.
rippi).

E.

rib,

A.
S.

S. ribb

(O. H. G.

E. web, A.

S. webb,

where the A.

double b stands,

as usual, for double /, so that webb

=

'^waf-ja

<

.

.

||

A. S.
E.

wcBfiioY ^^waf),

pt.

t.

of wef-an, to weave.
S.

E. wit, A. S. wit,
to
It

Goth,
work,

wit-i,
s.,

from A.
S.

and Goth,

wit-an,

know.
should

A.

weorc,

Goth, ga-ivaurk-i.

be
in

particularly noticed that all the
this section (except leech

mod. E. words quoted

and hue^ are pronounced with a
being due to the

short vowel, this

effect

mode

of their

formation.

Aryan

-lA.

This

is

the corresponding feminine suffix,

appearing in Gothic as ^/b in the dat. pi.
sb. wrak-ja,

wrak-jo-m of the

vengeance.

The

Goth.

sbs.

commonly end
drops
the
suffix

in -ja

in

the

nominative, but the A. S.
its

altogether,
^

though

original presence

is

marked, as before,
;

In this word the

suffix is

obviously double

thus A. S. Jsr-cnd-c =

Teut. air-and-ya.

Cf. Goth, air-us, a messenger.

;

§2 10.]

TEUTONIC SUFIIX

-VAJV,

229

by the doubling of the final consonant (unless there are two consonants already) and by z-mutation of the preceding As before, the vowel in mod. E. is usually s/ior/. vowel.

Examples
crib^

:

E. dn'dge^
f.

A.

S.

drycg,

f.

(Icel.

brygg-ja),
S. ecg,

E.
f.

A.

S. crzbb,

(O. Sax. kribb-ia),

E. edge, A.
hell-e,

(Du. egg-e).
gen. hal-jo-s.

E.

hell,

A.

S. hel,

f.,

gen.

Goth, hal-ja,

E. hen, A.

S. henn,

formed with z-mutation from
(lit.

A.

S.

masc. han-a, a cock.
a sword

E. sedge

sword-grass), A. S.

secg,

(= *sag-ja,
2i

i.e. cutt-er),

from Teut. base sag=
E.
shell,

Aryan root sek
Goth,
E.
sill

(Lat. sec-are, to cut).
tile,

A.

S. scell,

skal-ja,

allied to

E.

scale,

A.

S. scal-e,

a husk, pod.

(of a door), A. S.
*synd),

sj/ll,

a base, support.
sund-ia,

E.

sin,

A. S.

synn (for

O.

Sax.

G. Siinde,

O. H. G.

jww/-^^
§
sbs.

Cf. Sievers, O. E. Gr. § 258.
-

210. Teutonic yan,
of the

-in.
^.

weak declension
s.,

These suffixes appear in some Examples are (a) mascu:

line:
wfr^,

E.

ebb,

A. S. ebb-a, gen. ^(5^-«« {=*a/-jan)'\
gen. hnecc-an

E.
Z£;^//

A.

S.

hnecc-a,

{=

* hnak-jan).

E.

(spring of water), A. S. well-a, gen. well-an

(=

^wal-jan), from

the base

wal

(A. S. weall-an), to boil, boil up.
ze'z7'3;'<2

E.

z£;///, s.,

A. S.

will-a, gen. will-ati, Goth.

(stem wil-jan).
*wrak-jan), from

E. wretch,
the

A. S. wrecc-a, gen. wrecc-an

(=

base

WRAK
exile).

(A. S.

z£;rfl?r,

pt.

t.

of wrec-a?i, to drive

away, hence to

(3)
ield-u,
eld-i,

Feminine
O. H. G.
*eald-in.

:

E.

^/^,

s.,

old age (obsolete), A. S. yld-u,

derived by /-mutation from eald, old, answers to O. Sax.
elt-i,

old age, and therefore had originally the
also E. heat, A. S. hcct-u,

stem

So

from

hdt, hot

hdt-u had originally a stem *hdt-in.

The Gothic weak

fem.

sbs. of this class exhibit the sufTix -em, as in 7nanag-ein, dat.
'

Also suntea

;

see Schade.
'

'

The weak
'

declension

is

the

name given

to that of stems ending in
§ ai.

«

;

see Sievers,

O. E. Gr.

§ 276,

and

my

Gothic Gr.

The term

is

not a happy one. The A. S. bb stands for ff<fi. Cf. Goth, af, E. of, i.e. from. ebb, from '^af-jan, means * the receding ' of the sea (Schade.)
=>

Hence

330

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.
;

[Chap. XIII.

of manag-ei^ multitude

and
:

Sievers well remarks (§279)

—'As
in

this -ein

answers to a Teut.

-!n.

respects their origin [i.e.
-«,
-<?,

etymologically],

the

abstracts

such as hrdd-u,

breadth, hcel-u^ salvation, meng-u, menig-o, multitude, stre7ig-u,
strength, ield-u, age, belong to the

they correspond to Goth,

weak weak nouns in

declension, since
-ei.

They

have,

however, taken the nom. sing, ending froni the ^-declension,

and thus rid themselves entirely of the old inflectional Here likewise belongs E. fill, s., A. S. Jyll-o, fem. <
adj. full
;

forms.'
.
.

full,

orig. -1-NA.

stem

'^full-in

;

cf Goth,

us-full-ei'n-s, fulness.

Teut.

Corresponding to

this is the

A. S.

suffix -en,

as already noticed in § 203.

The words

maid-en, chick-en,
:

have been already cited as diminutives.
(perhaps) E. mai-n,
s.,

Other examples are

strength, A. S. mceg-en, neut., cognate

with Icel. meg-in, strength, O. Sax. meg-in, O. H. G. mek-in.

E. swine, A. S. sw-in, neut., cognate with
sw-ein (stem sw-eind).
orig. adjectival, as

Icel. sv-in,

Goth.

In the

latter

case, the

suffix

was

seen in Lat. su-inus (Varro), relating to
cf.

sows, from su-, crude form of sus, a sow;
sugu, sH.

E. sow, A. S.

E. brack-en, A. S. bracc-an,
pi.

is

really a plural form,

being the

of A. S. bracc-e, of the

weak

declension.

Other

words

in -en will

be discussed hereafter.
suffix

§ 211.

Aryan
who
Gk.

-WO
(=

(written

-VO by German
It

editors,

write v for w, needlessly).
linvo-s

occurs in Skt.
;

ag-va, a horse,

^iK-fo-s), Lat. eq-uu-s

Skt. e-va,
pi.

a course, Lat. cB-uu-m, a
aiws, an age.
sing.j
It
is

life-time,

Goth, ai-wa-m, dat.

of

not observable in A. S. in the nom.
pi. and Examples

but appears in other cases (except in the nom.
;

ace. pi. of neuters)

see Sievers, O. E. Gr. § 249.

of neuter sbs. are
beal-we-s,
cf.

:

E.

bale,

s.,

harm,
s.
f.,

evil,

A. S.

beal-u, gen.

Goth, bal-wa-wesei,

wickedness.

E. cud,

also quid, A. S. cud-u, cwud-u, cwid-u, gen. cwid-we-s, Teut.

KwiD-WA (see Supp. to my Etym. Diet., 2nd ed.). E. meal, ground corn, A. S. meol-u, gen. meol-wes or meol-o-wes (where
the
inserted -0is

euphonic), Teut. mil-wa.

E.

tar,

A. S.

1

§212.]
teor-u,

ARYAN SUFFIX
gen.
the
'

-WA.

23
ter-wa, for

teor-we-s,

stem
a

tir-wa

= Teut.
origin,
tree

tre-wa;
originally

word

is

of adjectival
tree
'

belonging to
:

;

cf.

and denoted Other below.

neuters of this class are

Y..glee,

A. ^.glig,gleo, gen. gli-we-s,

Teut. GLi-wA.

E. knee, A. S. cneo, cneow, gen, cneo-zve-s, cog-

nate with Goth. km'-Uf gen. km'-wi-s, Teut.
to Lat. gen-u,
tr/o-we-s,

kne-wa,
A.
S. tr/o,

allied

Gk.

y6v-v,

Skt jdn-u.

E.

tree,

gen.

Goth,

/r/-//,

gen. tn'-wi-s,

Teut.

tre-wa,

cog8pv-s,

nate with Russ. dre-vo, a tree,

W.

der-u,
-zv

an oak, Gk.

an oak.
A.

The

suffix

appears as

in

mod. E. stra-w,

S. strea-w, as

seen in streaw-ben'ge, a strawberry, Wright's
col.

Vocab. ed. Wulcker,

298,

1.

ii
;

;

cognate with G. Stroh,

O. H. stem would be *stra-wa (Kluge, s.v. Stroh). E. lee, i.e. shelter, a Scand. form, from Icel. hie, lee, is cognate with A. S. G. stro, strau, gen. straw-es
hl/Oy hleow,

the corresponding Goth,

gen. hleo-we-s, a shelter, preserved in prov. E.
lew-th, shelter.
:

lew,

warm,

Masculine
with G.
hill,

E. de-w, A. S. dea-w, gen. dea-we-s, cognate
iii.

Thau, Teut. da-wa (Fick,
S.

146).

E. lo-w, a

mound, grave, A.

hld-w, hlce-w, dat. hld-we, hlde-we^

cognate with Goth, hlai-w, a grave, from the Teut. base hli

= Aryan
A.
S.

root krei (klei)

;

cf Lat.

cli-uu-s,

a

hill.

E. sno-w,

snd-w, Goth, snai-w-s (stem snai-wd).

§ 212.

Aryan -WA,

fem. form of the preceding.
sbs.
:

Examples

occur in the following fem.

E.

cla-zv,

M.

E. cla-w, A. S.

cld-wu, pi. cld-we, cognate with G. Klaue, O.
(see Schade).

H. G. chla-wa
iii.

Fick gives the Teut. form as kla-wa,
better to

52.

Perhaps

it

is

suppose the

Teut.
is

form
a
*

to

be

kla-wa, resulting from klau-^, where klau

graded'
to

form of the Teut. base kleu
together
;

= Lat. ^/w- m glti-ere,
chlawa.

draw

see

Schade,
pi.

s. v.

Also

:

E. gear, A. S.

gear-we, fem.

equipments, formed from the adj. gear-u,
adj.,

(nom.
(Fick,

pi.
iii.

gear-we), ready, yare, Teut. gar-wa,
102).

ready,

E. mead, also mead-ow, A. S. nukd, dat.
is

mdd-we, stem mao-wX, so that mead

from the nom. case.

23^

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.
the dative or the stem;
-t;

[Chap. XIII.

and mead-ow from
-Dis

moreover, the
E. -th actually
is

for

-TH-

= Aryan
mow.

in fact,

the

occurs in the forms after-math, latter-math, and the root
the Aryan mad, to
Similarly, the double

forms in E.
E.
430.

shade and E. shad-ow are explicable by help of the A. S. fem.
sb. scead-u,

of which the ace.

pi. is

scead-wa (Grein).
seon-we, Grein,
;

stn-ew, A. S. stn-u, seon-u,

nom.

pi.

ii.

E. sto-w, a place, A. S. sto-w, gen. sto-we
root STA, to stand, remain.
is

from the Aryan

The word
is
s.

mall-ow, A. S. mal-we,

a mere borrowing from the Lat. mal-ua.
§ 213.

Teutonic -wan. There
S.

an instance of

this in

E. swall-ow (bird), A.

sweal-we,

fem., gen. sweal-wan,
:

Teut. swal-wan. Other examples are (probably)

E. arr-ow,
to

A.

S.

ar-e-we

(gen.

arewan),

a

late

form,
a

pointing

earlier

*ar-we, gen. ^ar-wan, answering to

Goth. fem.

stem *arh-w6n, as shewn by the closely
wa-zna,

allied

Goth, arh"

an arrow;

Teut.

stem arh-wan, also found in

whence Icel. or (gen. or-va-r), an = Aryan arq-wa, whence Lat. arqu-u-s, more commonly arc-u-s, a bow, weapon of defence, from the root arq, to defend (Lat. arc-ere); see Fick, iii. 24. E. barrow (in wheel-barrow), M. E. barowe, barwe, answering to A. S. bear-we, gen. bear-wan, as seen in the comp.
the shorter form arh-wa,

arrow.

The

Teut. arh-wa

meox-bearwe, a barrow for dung.
we, gen.

E. sparr-ow, A.
(milfoil),

S. spear-

spear-wan.

E. yarr-ow

A.

S.

gear-we,

gen. gear-wan.
-u-we,
is

The word

wid-ow, A.

S.

wid-we, weod-

cognate with
to

Goth, wid-u-wo,

gen. wid-u-won,
final

which seems
widow.

have an additional prefix before the
not Teutonic

-wan, answering perhaps to the -a- in Skt. vidh-a-vd, a

The

E. pill-ow

is

;

it

occurs as

M. E.
S.

pil-we, A. S. pyl-e.

But there must have been a longer A.

form
all

'^pyl-we,

cognate with O.H.G. phidwi, phulwo (Schade);
a

the forms are merely borrowed from Lat. puluinus,

bolster, cushion.

Such words

as bill-ow, /urr-ow, marr-ow,

will-ow, do not belong here.

§214.]
§ 214.

ARYAN SUFFIX
Aryan -MO.
appears as
All the extant

'MO,

233
in

This

is

well

marked

Mod.

E., in

which

it

final -m,

or as -om (in bos-om, hott-om^
this prefix are (I think)
is

fath-oni) \

words with

of the masculine gender, except foam, which

neuter.

It

should also be particularly noted
the words in
all
-o??i,

that,

with the exception of

all

these
that

words are now monosyllabic, and
is

contain a vowel
for,

long,

either
is

essentially

or by
long,
S.

position;

except

when

the vowel

essentially

words of

this class

end

in a double consonant.
-?nu-s,

The A.
Gk.

suffix is -m,
{-fir}),

answering to Goth, -ma, Lat.

-^lo-s

as in Lat. cul-mus, a stalk, Gk. KoKa-fio^, a reed [KaXd-fn]^
is

a stalk), which

cognate with E. hal-m, haul-m, a

stalk,

and

Russ. solo-ma^ straw.

Examples
allied

:

E. bea-?n (of timber), A. S. bea-m, Du. boo-m,

a tree (E. boom, borrowed from Dutch), G. Bau-m, perhaps
to

Gk.

(fiv-fia,

a growth.

[But the Goth, form

is

bag-ms (stem bag-ma), which points to an Aryan root bhagh,
as in Skt. bah-u, large;
see

Bough

in

my
and
set

Etym.
to

Diet.]

E. bos-om, A. S. bSs-m, G. Bus-en.

E. boit-om, A.

S. bot-m,

G. Bod-en, prob.
budh-na, depth.
/

allied to

Gk.
that

Trvd-nrjv,

Vedic Skt.

E. doo-m, A. S. dd-m, Goth, do-m-s, stem
6i-iiis,

Do-MA, allied to Gk.

which

is

or established,

from the root dha, to put, place, whence E.

do.

E. drea-m,

A. S. dria-m, meaning (i) noise, rejoicing, (2) joy, (3) vision, Teut. DRAU-MA (Fick, iii. 152), prob. allied to Gk. Q^ooi,
noise, tumult.

E. faih-om, A. S. faid-m, the space reached

by outstretched arms, from the root pat, to extend. E. fil-m, A. S. *fil-m, only found in the dimin. form film-en,

membrane,
neut., prob.

allied to
allied

E.

fell,

skin

'^.

E. foa-m, A. S.

/dm,
E.

to

Lat. spu-ma,

Skt. phe-na, foam.

*

The

in this final

-om was formerly not written
*

;

cf.

A. S. bSsm,

botm,firCm. And, in fact, the final -/// is here vocalic. ' Wright's Vocab., ed. Wulcker, col. 203, has: Centipillium, t. omentum, film.' The meaning of the curl is uncertain. In the same, col. 446,
the gen. ^X.filmena occurs.

;

234

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.

[Chap. XIII.

glea-m, A. S. glci-m, stem g/(s-ma=iGLAi-MA, from a base gli,
to shine, as

seen in gli-nt^ gli-mmer,
a faint
light,

gli-tter, glister.

E.

gloo-m, A. S. gl6-m,

from glo-wan^ to glow.
iii.

E. haul-nu hal-m, A.

S. heal-m,

Teut. hal-ma (Fick,
(as

70),

allied to Lat. cul-mu-s,

Gk.

KaXd-firj

above).

E.

/ie/-m,

a helmet, A.

S. /lel-m, that

which covers or protects, a helmet,
iii.

Goth, hil-m-s (stem hil-ma), Teut. hel-ma (Fick,

6g),
islet

from the root of A.

S. hel-an, to cover.
'

E. hol-m, an

in a river, A. S. hol-m, orig.

a mound,' allied to Lat. cul-men, a
hill.

a mountain-top, and to
Teut. LAI-MA, closely
LI-MA (Fick,
iii.

col-lis,

E. loa-m, A. A.
S.

S. Id-m,

allied

to E.

It-me,

li-m,

Teut.

268).

In
(cf.

fact, lime

and loam only

differ in
t.

their vowel-gradation

A.

S. drif-an, to drive, pt.

drd/^

and are
cweal-m
to die.

allied to Lat. h'-nere, to
(for

smear, daub. E. qual-m, A. S.
t.

*cwal-m)

<

||

cwcel (=:*cwal), pt.

of cwel-an,

E. sea-m, A.

S. sea-m,

G. Sau-m, Teut. sau-ma, from
E. sli-me, A. S.
j^z7-^, spittle,
j//-/;?,

the root su, to sew (Lat. su-ere).
to Russ. sli-na, saliva, Lithuan.
saliva,

allied
sail-e^

O. Irish

and Lat.

sal-i-ua.

E. stea-m, A.

S. stea-m,

Teut. stauiii.

ma.

E. stor-m, A.

S. stor-m,

Teut. stor-ma (Fick,

346).

E. slrea-m, A. S. strea-m, allied to G. Stro-m, Teut. strauma, from the Teut. streu, to flow
flow,

= Aryan root streu, sreu, to
the Strymon, a river-name,
S.

whence

also

Gk.

^Tpv-ficov,

pev-fxa, flow, flood,

Lithuan. sro-we, a stream, O. Irish sru-

aim^ a stream.
orig.

E. swar-m, A.

swear-m, Teut. swar-ma,

'a buzzing,' from Aryan root swar, to hum, buzz.

E. iea-m, a row of horses,

A.

S.

tea-m, a family, a

line,

cognate with G. Zau-m^ a

bridle,

Teut. tau-ma, a

set, line,

row, bridle, put for *tauh-ma,
to
lead,

derived

from

Teut. teuh,

Goth, tiuh-an (Lat. duc-eref.

To

these

we may
adj.,

add E. roo-m^ though the A. S. ru-m was orig. an meaning large, spacious cf. Goth, rums, adj., spacious,
;

also

rums,

s.,

to Lat.
^

room; Teut. ru-ma (i) spacious, (2) space; allied ru-s, open country. The word hoo-m also belongs
;

So Kluge

this is better than to connect

it

with the verb to taw.

;

§ 2 17.]

A/?VAJV SUFFIX -RO,
is

235
a.

here, but

mere Dutch, from Du.
tree.

booju^

tree,
;

a boom,
E. horn-

cognate with E. deam (of timber), given above

cf.

beam as the name of a
a
suffix,

In broom, harvi^ the

m

is

not

but radical.

§ 215.

Aryan
cf.

-MI,
:

allied to

-MO. The examples
A.

are but

few.

We may

cite

E.

arm

(of the body),

S. ear-m,
;

stem
allied

AR-Mo ; but
to

Goth, arms, gen. ar-mz-s, stem ar-mi

to Lat. ar-mu-s, shoulder,
fit.

Gk.

ctp-yio-s,

joint,

from the root ar,

E. ho-me, A. S. hd-m, Goth, hai-ni-s^ gen. hai-mi-s \ perhaps cognate with Gk. kco'/zt;, a village, Lithuan. ke-ma-s,

a

village.

E. wor-m, A. S.
in

wyr-m {=.*wur-mi), Teut. wur-mi
This

;

see
§

Worm
216.

my Etym. Diet. Aryan -MON (-MEN).
is

suffix (occurring

in Latin as -mon-, -men, -min-)

seen in the borrowed words
bitu-men,
sbs.,

abdo-men,
speci-men.

acu-vien,
It

albu-men,

o-men,
:

regi-men,

occurs in A. S. weak

as follows

E. bar-m,

yeast, A. S. beor-ma, gen. bear-man, probably cognate with

Lat. fer-men-tum,

whence E. ferment.

E.

bes-om,

A. S.

bes-ma,
Bes-e-n,

gen. bes-man, cognate

with O. H. G.

bes-a-mo,

G.

Du.

bez-e-m.

E. bloo-m, a Scand. word,

Icel. bl6-m,

Goth,

blo-via,

st^m blo-man, from the verb bid-wan,
;

to

blow
A. S.
A.

(as a flower)

allied to Lat.y/^-j-, a flower.

E. 7ia-me,

na-ma,

gen.

na-man,

Goth,

na-mo,

stem

na-man,
E. ti-me,

cognate with Lat. no-men, Skt. nd-man, a name.
S. ti-ma, gen. ti-man,
ii-d,

Teut. ti-man (Fick,

iii.

114), allied

to E. ti-de, A. S.
bloss-om,
really

Teut. ti-di.

Here
;

also belongs E.
suffix
is

A.

S.

bl6st-ma,

gen. bl6st-man

but the

triple,

the
;

stem being bl6-s-t-man, from bid-wan,
cf. bla-s-t,

to blow, flourish

from bid-wan,

to

blow

(as wind)
suffixes
is

and

see

bloo-m above.
in the

Such a conjunction of

common
§
tive

Aryan languages. 217. Aryan -RO. Some have supposed that the primiAryan language contained no /, and that / was merely
this

developed out of r ; but
'

view

is

hardly tenable.

I shall

But the Goth.

pi. is also

haim-os (stem hai-md).

236

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES,

[Chap. XIII.

here consider the suffixes -ro and -lo separately, and shall
take -RO
letters
first.

It

may, however, be remarked here

that the

r and

/ are

frequendy interchanged in various Aryan

languages.

Aryan
letter

-ro;

Goth. -ra.

It

must be observed
slip in

that the

r easily allows a vowel to

before
the

it,

the vowel
Ka7r-/>oj

thus
is

introduced being unoriginal.

Thus

Gk.

certainly cognate with the Lat. cap-er, a goat.
is

In

fact,

cap-er

merely the peculiar form of the nominative; the
Again,
cec-er.

stem
the

is

capro-, as seen in the old ace. sing, capro-m.

word which
all

we now
in

spell

acre

is

the

A.

S.

In

such w^ords the true
-e-

suffix is -ra,

and we must not

look upon the

the A. S. nominative cBc-e-r, a field
-e-

(Goth, ak-r-s^ stem ak-ra), or the

in Lat. ag-e-r (stem
It will

AG-Ro), as being an original vowel.

be found,
is

for

instance, that the -er in liv-e-r, a part of the body,
totally different origin
lives.

of

from that of the
here

-er in Itv-er,
;

one who

The former word belongs
{a) Masculine.

the latter does not.

(See § 239.)

Examples,
ak-r-s,

E.

ac-re,

A.

S.

cBc-er,

Goth.

stem ak-ra, cognate with Lat. ag-er, Skt. aj-ra ; from

a/ag, to drive (cattle) ^

So

also heav-er, A. S. hef-er, Teut.

BEB-RA (Fick,

iii.

211).

E. fing-er,

A.

S. fing-er,

Goth.

figg-r-s, Teut. fing-ra.

E. floo-r, A. S. flo-r, Teut. fl6-ra
S.

(Fick,
ot-er^

iii.

180).

E. hamm-er^ A.
iii.

ham-or.

E.

oit-er,

Teut. ut-ra (Fick,

33), allied to

Gk.

vS-pa,

A. S. whence
Teut.
326).
n.,

E. hyd-ra.

E.
iii.

stee-r (bull),

A.

S. ste'o-r,

Goth,
S.

stiu-r-s,
(id.

STEU-RA (F.

342).
tea-r,

E. summ-er, A.

sum-or

E. ka-r, A. S.

also teag-or (Grein), Goth, tag-r^

Teut. tag-ra, allied to Gk. duK-pv. Teut. THON-RA
these
(F.
iii.

E. thun-d-er, A. ^.pun-or,
to Lat. ton-i-tru.

130),

allied

To
Icel.

may

be added ang-er^ of Scand. origin;
iii.

from
A.

ang-r, stem ang-ra (F.

12).

{b)
fly.
*

Feminine.
E.
liv-er^
root.'

'E./eath-er^
S.
lif-er^

A.

S. fed-er^

from
^

V'pet,

to

The symbol V

signifies

Aryan

;

§2i8.]

ARYAN SUFFIX
iii.

'LO.

237
S.

Teut. LiB-RA (F.

271).

E.

tind-er,

A.
to

tynd-er, Teut.
(id.

TOND-RA, from the
{c)

Teut. base tand,
S. bu-r.
;

kindle
lai-r,

117).
leg-er,

Neuter.
h'g-r-s,

E. bow-er, A.

E.
cf.

A. S.

Goth,

a couch, stem lig-ra
S.

A.

S. licg-an, to lie.
iii.

E. leaih-er, A.
iim-b-er,

M-er, Teut. leth-ra (F.
E.
udd-er,

278).

E.

A.
(id.

S.

tim-b-er

(Goth, tim-r-jan, to build),

Teut.
i)d-ra

tem-ra
(id.
cf.

117).

A.

S.

iid-er,

Teut.
(id.

33).

E. wat-er, A. S. wcet-er, Teut. wat-ra

284)

Gk.

av-v8-pos, waterless.

E. wond-er, A.

S.

wund-or, Teut.

woND-RA

(306).

We may
<
..
||

add

s/ai'-r,

A.
t.

S. stdg-er (of

un-

certain gender)

stag {stdh), pt.
;

of stig-an, to climb.

We

also find the

form -ru

as in E. hung-er, A. S. hung-er,

m., Goth, huh-ru-s (for ""hunh-ru-s),
m., Goth, wini-ru-s.
§ 218.

E. and A. S. wini-er,

Suffix

-LO.
-/;

This

suffix is well

marked
-le

in

modern
-^/,

English, being frequently represented by final
in

or

or,

a few words, by
a vocalic
/.

all

of which are alike pronounced
are

with
as
to

Some

of obvious
byt-el,

verbal origin,

beet-le^

a heavy mallet, A. S.

a beater

<

..

beat-an,
to

beat.

So

also bund-le

<

||

bund-en,

pp. of bind- an,
gird-le,

bind;

cripp-U, formerly creep-k,

from creep]

from

gird', lad-le,

from lade;
;

prick-le,

from prick;
;

sadd-le, seit-ky

both
A.

allied to sit

shov-el
;

S. spin- 1

<

spin

spitt-le
:

< shove < spit

shutt-le
;

teas-el

< <

shoot ; spin-d-ie,
tease.

Other examples are

ang-le ^

s.,

A.

S. ang-el,

a fish-hook,

whence
steep-le,

ang-le,

v.,

to fish; app-le, bram-b-ky brid-le, brist-le,

gird-le, hand-le, haz-el, hurd-le^ icic-le (A. S. is-gic-et), stap-le,
stick-le,

a spine (as in stickle-back)^ swiv-el^

thist-le^

wait-le,

wrink-le.

The
G.

following

are

now
;

monosyllabic:

fow-ly K.S. fug-el] hai-ly A. S. hcsg-el] nai-l^ A. S. nccg-el\
rai-l,

a bar,

Low

reg-el,

not found in A. S.
sai-ly

rai-l,

a night-

dress (obsolete), A. S. hrcBg-l;

A. S. seg-el]

snai-ly

A.S.

>

*

187.

Goldsmith, With patient angle trolls the finny deep The A. S -el = Goth, -/-/a, with / preceding; -la.
'

;

Traveller,

238
sncFg-l]
sou-l,

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.
A.S.- sdw-el;
;

[Chap. XIII.

sti-le,

A.

S.

stig-el

<\\sttg-en,
tag).

pp. of slzg-an, to climb

taz-l,
;

A.

S. icEg-l (cf.

E.

Here

belong E.

sioo-l,

A.

S. sto-l

E. whi-le, A. S.

hiJUt-l.

This

suffix

has been already mentioned as having been

used to form diminutives; see § 203. Here also belong stck-le, A. S. si'c-ol, borrowed from Lat. sec-u-la, from sec-are,
to cut
;

and

H-le,

A.

S. tig-el,

borrowed from Lat.
s.,

ieg-u-la,

from

teg-ere, to cover.

Mang-le,

a machine for smooth-

ing linen, is borrowed (through the Dutch) from Low Lat. manganum, Latinised from Gk. \kayyavov, axis of a pulley the
;

familiar suffix
§

-le

being substituted for the unfamiliar -an.

219. Teutonic suflBLxes -ra-na, -ar-na.

These appear
is

in at least

two words,

viz. acorn, iron.
if it

Ac-or-n

a later spellis

ing (by confusion with corn, as

were oak-corn, which

impossible) of A. S. cec-er-n, an acorn, corresponding exactly
to Goth, ak-ra-n, fruit (stem ak-ra-na-, as in the

compound
ak-r-s,

akrana-laus, fruitless, unfruitful)

;

from ak-ra-, stem of

a

field,

E. acre.

The
or
;
*

original sense

was

'

fruit

of the un-

enclosed land/
acorns, mast, &c.

natural fruits of the

forest,'

such as

afterwards used in a
is

more
It
;

restricted sense.

Iron, A. S. ir-en, older form is-en,

also found in the fuller

form seen

in A. S. is-er-n, Goth, eis-ar-n.
S.
is,

would seem

to
its

be closely connected with A.
glancing hard black surface.
question.
§

ice

perhaps from

But

this

still

remains an open

220. Teutonic suffix -lan.
A.S.
gen. prost-lan.

E. hee-l (of the foot), A. S.
gen. net-e-lan] throst-le,

he-la, gen. he-lan\ neit-le,

net-e-le,

A.

S. prost-le,

But

fidd-le,

A.

S. fid-e-le,

is

merely borrowed from Lat.

uit-u-la,

a

viol.

Strictly speaking,

the dimin. nav-el, already mentioned in § 203, exhibits this
suffix
;

A. S. na/e-la, gen. naf-e-lan.

in

Teutonic suffix -il-sa. This remarkable form occurs huri-al, M.E. huri-el^ hiri-el, biri-el-s, A.S. hyrg-el-s^
and
ridd-le,

a tomb;
el-se,

an enigma,

Vi.Y.. red-el-s,

A.S. rdd-

from rdd-an, to read, explain.

See further in § 231.

§221.]

ARYAN SUFFIX
latter case,

-NO.
really

239
exhibits

In the

the gen. rdd-el-san

the

longer suffix -il-san.

So

also shutt-le\

see § 231 below.
;

E. ank-le appears to have been taken from Norse
anc-l-iow
is difficult

the A. S.

of explanation, though -eow appears as

a formative suffix in Idr-eow, a teacher.
§ 221.

Aryan -NO
is

(answering to Goth. -no).
;

An
it

un-

original vowel

often inserted before the suffix
(-e-ii)

hence
A.

often

appears in Mod. E. as -en

or -on (-o-n)
are
:

;

but in
S.

some
of-n,

words as -n
Teut.

only.

Examples
iii.

deac-on,

6eac-en,

BAUK-NA (Fickj
A,

197).

Ou-en,

A.

S.

of-en,

Goth, auh-n-s (stem auh-na), Teut. uh-na?
(bird),
/dc-n,
S.

(id.

32).

Rav-en
A. S.

hrccf-n^

Teut. hrab-na (83). Weap-on, A.
S.

Tok-en,

Teut. taik-na (114).
pi.,

wdp-en, Goth.

wep-na,

Teut. wep-na (288).
bat'r-n,

The

following words are

now

monosyllabic:

A.

S. bear-n,

Teut. bar-na (202).
Cor-n, A. S.

Blai-n, A. S.
cor-n^

ble'g-en.

Brai-n, A. S. brag-en.

cognate with Lat. gra-num (for *gar-num).
Teut. hor-na (67)
;

Hor-n,
Rai-n,

A.

S. hor-n,

cf Lat. cor-nu.

Loa-n, A. S.

Id-n (for *ldh-n)

<

\\

Idh, pt.

t.

of lih-an, to lend.
stat-n-s,

A.

S. reg-n.

S/o-ne, A. S.

s/d-n, Goth,

stem stai-na.
Far-n, A.
S.

Tha-ne, A. S. peg-en.

Wai-n, A. S. wcrg-n.

In a few words the suffix has disappeared altogear-n. gether, as in game^ A. S. gam-en, and in the Scand. word
roe (of a fish), Icel. hrog-n (G. Rog-enf.

Suflax -NI.

The

Goth, stem of token

is

taik-ni, but
I

Fick gives taik-na as the

common

Teut. form.

know

of

no sure examples except

the law-term soken, A. S.
;

s6c-n,

answering to Goth, sok-ns (stem sok-ni)

and the
Icel.

interesting

M. E.

er-n^

an

eagle, A. S. ear-n, allied to
Sp-pt-s,

or-n

(pi.

ar-ni'-r),

stem ar-nt, and to Gk.

a

bird.

Suffix -NU.

Examples

are

:

E. quer-n (hand-mill), A. S.

Mor-n, A.S. morg-ettf Goth, maurc^-in-s (stem ffiaurg-ina), TtvX. (Fick, iii. 24.^') seems to exhibit the suffix -ina. Vix-m, A.S. *fyx-cn . .fox^ M. H. G. viihs-in-ne, has a fern, suffix -INt.
*

MORGINA

<


240

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.
E. so-n, A.
is

[Chap. XIIT.

cweor-n, Goth, kwai'r-nu-s.
Skt. sii-nu.

S. su-nu,

allied

to

E. thor-n, A. S. por-n^

given by Fick under

THOR-NA, though the Gothic has thaur-nu-s.
§

222. Teut. -nan
substantives.

;

A. S.

-nan.
:

This occurs

in

some
E.

weak

Examples

hav-en, A. S. hcef-e-ne^ gen.

hcEf-e-nan.

E. sun, A. S. sun-ne, fem., gen. sun-nan.

/^^« (vexation),

A.

S. ieo-na, gen. ieo-nan.
iris,

The word
glced-e-nan)
is

glad-en, a kind of

A.

S. glced-e-ne

(gen.

merely borrowed from Lat. gladiolus.
is

ktkh-en, A. S. cyc-e-ne (gen. cyc-e-nan)
coqm'na, with mutation of
§
<?

So also borrowed from Lat.
suffix,

toj'.

223.

Aryan

suflSx -TO.
the

This highly important
participle

usually

the

mark of

past

passive,

as

in

E.

stree-ty

borrowed from the Lat. strata

(i.e. strata uia,

paved way), appears under various forms in the Teutonic
languages.

We may

especially note

it

in

the suffix -th-s

(stem -tha) of the past participles of Gothic weak verbs, as
in lag-i-th-s, E. lai-d, pp. of lag-j-an, to lay.
It
is

remarkable that

Home

Tooke,
'

in

his

celebrated

derivation of truth from troweth (as being

that

which a

man

troweth') should have overlooked the Gothic pp. form in
-th-s.

Derivation from
is

the

third

person singular of the
In the suffixes of E.
-th,
-/,

present tense
sbs.
will
it

extremely clumsy.
viz.

occurs in three forms,

and

-d.

These
:

be considered separately.

(a)

E. sufax

-th.

Some words
ear,

are of verbal origin, as
S.

bir-th'^

from bear] hro-th from hrew (A.
;

breow-an, pp.
;

brow-en)
steal-th]

ear-th
til-th;
is

from
tro-th'^

to

till

(obsolete)

grow-th

;

from trow.
Icel.

Ru-th, allied to the

verb rue,

a Scand. form;
Weal-th
is

hrygg-d.

Mon-th

is

from
wele,

the sb. moon.
^

a mere extension from

M. E.

Usually gebyrd in A. S. The form beor^ is extremely rare, but we find, Puerperium, hyse-beorS'; Wright's Vocab., ed. Wiilcker, col. 528,
''

1.

7,
^

where hyse — hoy, and hyse-beorQ — hoy-hxtCix, child-birth. Some regard iro-th as a mere variant of tru-th, from
1.

true, adj.

But see trowzvpe in the Ormulum,

1350.

§223.]

ARYAN SUFFIX
When
it

'TO.
adjectives,

24I

E. weal.
that

the

suffix

is

added to

we

find

an z-mutation of the preceding vowel takes place;
answers to the stem -i-tha of the Gothic
;

this is "because

past participles of the causal verbs in -jan of lag-j-an, to lay, cited above.

cf.

lag-ith-s, pp.

vowel-changes

in the following

Hence we can explain the forms, some of which are, howExamples
;
:

ever, not of early formation.
filth

hread-th

<

broad

'y

< foul
;

;

heal-ih

<

whole

leng-th

<

long

;

mir-ih

<

merr-y

streng-th

<

strong.

By

analogy with these, we have
;

warm-th from warm, without mutation

slo-th

<

slow

;

tru-ih

< <
A.

true; so also wt'd-th
deep
;

from wide, dear-th from

dear, dep-th

with an inevitable shortening of the vowel.

Ki-th,

S. cy-'Sde

<

,.

A.

S.

cii-3',

known, which
it is

is

for *cun-3^,

pp. of cunn-an, to know, with vowel-shortening.
you-th, the suffix has a different origin
;

In the word

discussed below,

on

p.
(d)

251.

E.

suflB.x

-/.

The

suffix

appears as -tzSx.ttf,gh, n,r,s;
are easier final sounds thany?^,

merely hecd.use /t,ght,
ghth, nth, rth, sth.

nt, rt, st
is

This

best seen in the words drough-t,

formerly
tan, to

M. E.
;

drouhthe, A. S. drug-a-de, drought, from drugheigh-t, formerly high-th
thief.
;

be dry

thef-t,

from

thef-th,

A.

^.

pief-de< ..p/o/, a

In some instances the original

Aryan -to remains as -/, after _/J gh, n, r, or s. Examples are: wef-t, Teut. wef-ta (Fick, iii. 289), from A. S. wef-an, to weave together with such formations as drif-t from drive (A. S. drif-an, pp. dnf-eii) shrif-i, from shrive rif-t, a word
;
;

;

of Scand. origin,

Icel. rip-t,

from rive

(Icel. rif-a, pp. rif-imi),
^

E.

ligh-t,

s.,

takes the mutated vowel

of the verb lyht-an, to

8hine=*//(?^/-zi7«;

from the

sb. Uoh-t,

which corresponds to

Goth, liuh-ath, neut. (stem liuh-a-tha), from the

Teut base
of obscure

LEUH = Aryan root
origin

REUQ,

to shine.

In the E. knigh-t, A.S.
is

cnih-t, the -/ is certainly a suffix,
;

but the word
it is

the

most

likely supposition is that
it,

a derivative of

* But a far simpler solution is to derive bnt from the O. Mnciau liht, (§ 33).

not from the A.S. form,

VOL.

I.

R

C542

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.

[Chap. XIII.

A. S. cyn, kin, with an adj. suffix -iht^, as seen in A. S. stdniht,

stony;

if so,

then cnihi (for *cyn-zht),

is

allied to cyn^

just as the

Gk.

yv-r)<no9, legitimate, is to yeV-oy, kin.
is

Cra/-f, A. S. crcBf-t, orig. 'power,'

from the Teut. base
also E. cra-m-p.
is

KRAP, to force together (Fick,

iii.

49),

whence

Haf-t, A. S.
held,

hcpf-t,

the handle

by which a thing
or
rod,

seized or

from A.
sceaf-t,

S. hcBb-han

{=

*/iaf-mn), to have, hold.

Shaf-t,

A. S.

a smoothed pole
Bough-i,
is
s.,

from scaf-an, pp.
bug-t, Icel. bug-^,

scaf-en^ to shave.

in the special sense of a fold
;

(also spelt boui),

of Scand. origin

Dan.

a bend,
bigh-t
is

coil

;

from the verb to bow (Goth, biug-an).
Though-t, A.
'^poh-tr),

Of
S.

this

a mere variant, answering in form to A.

byh-t

[=.*bug-tt),

from the same
p6t-tr
(i.

root.

S. p'oh-t, allied
is

to Icel.

/jot-tt,

e. '^pdh-ti,

thought,

derived

from penc-an, to think, pp. poh-t, ge-poh-t. Similarly we have draugh-t (also draf-t, a phonetic spelling)

from draw, A.
{leaving,

S.

drag-an

;

zveigb-f,

from weigh
for

;

hef-t,

3.

from heave; and several others,

which see sections
is
;

224, 225.
origin,

Brun-t

is

rather an obscure word, but

of Scand.
the -/
is

and

allied to

Dan. bryn-de,
is

heat, passion

a

suffix,

and the
S.

original verb

seen in Goth, brinn-an, to

burn

(pp. brunn-ans).
heor-o-t, is
iii.

E. har-t, A.

cognate with O. H. G. hir-u-z,

Teut. HER-u-TA (Fick,

67).

This form stands

for

her-

wo-TA, where her-woStag.
is

is
is

cognate with Lat. cer-uu-s, a hart,
really a double one,
cf.

Thus

the suffix

and the sense
Kip-as,

the 'horned' animal;

Gk.

K€p-a-os,

horned,

a

more obscure, are E. gann-e-f, A. S. gan-o-t, cognate with O. H. G. gan-a-zo, a gander, allied to gan-der and goose and E. horn-e-t, A. S. hyrn-e-t, cognate with O. H. G. horn-i-z, horn-u-z, named
horn, and E. hor-n.
similar formation, but
\

Of

from

its

humming

noise.

The

dimin. suffix -et

is

usually
e'as-t,

French, being rare in native English.

E. Eas-t, A. S.

the east, was evolved from the Teut. adv. aus-ta-na, from
*

A double suffix,

viz. -ih-t

\

cf.

Lat. um-ec-tus, moist, from um-ere.

§2 24-]
the east
suffix,
;

ARYAN SUFFIX
see Fick,
iii.

-TO.
Kluge.

JJ43

8,

and
is

osten in

Thus

-/ is

a

and the base aus-

the

same
;

as in Lat, aur-ora

<
to
||

*aus-osa,

dawn

;

cf.

Skt. usk-as,
S.

dawn

from Aryan

V US,
<

shine, burn.

E. fros-t^ A.

fros-t (usually spelt /orst)

A.

S. */ros-en, orig.
{c)

E. suflS-X

-d.

form oifror-en, pp. oifreos-an^ to freeze. The Aryan suffix -ta often appears as
h^as
-th'^.

-d in English, whilst the Gothic

Thus
-ti

E. gol-d

answers to Goth, gul-th

;

and E. hloo-d
the

to

Goth,

blo-ih.

The
-tu,

same remark
short
ce),

applies

to

Aryan
:

suffixes

and

discussed below.

Examples are

E. bla-de, A.

S. blcE-d

(with
iii.

cognate with

Icel. bla-^,

G. Bla-tt\ see Fick,
<5/^^-fi?(Goth.

219, and Blait in Kluge.

E. blood, A. S.
;

blo-ih\

from bl6-wan,

to

blow, flourish

blood being taken as the
life.

symbol of blooming or flourishing

E. bran-d, A.

S.

bran-d, Ht. a burning, hence (i) a fire-brand, (2) a bright

sword, from the Teut. stem brann, to burn.
hria-d^ cognate with Icel. brau-d, bread,
lit.

E. brea-d, A. S.
that
t.

which

is

brewed or fermented, from A.
brew.
2c&yell-(mj

S. breow-an, pt.

brea-w, to

E. gol-d, A. S. gol-d (Goth, gul-th), from the same root

and glo-w,

viz.

Aryan

GHAR,

to shine.

E. hea-d,

M.E.
(Fick,
after.

heued {=. heved), A. S. Maf-o-d, Goth, haub-i-th.
242), probably connected with

E.

moo-d, A. S. mS-d, Goth, viod-s (stem mo-da), Teut. m6-da
iii.

Gk.

fiai-oixai, I

seek

E. threa-d, A. S. prd-d, cognate with Icel. prd-dr, G.

drah-t, O.

H. G.

drd-t,

from the same base as A.
;

S.

pr6-w-an^
is

to throw, also to twist (Lat. iorqu-ere)

so that threa-d

that

which
hr6-d,

is

twisted.

Similarly

we may explain E.
;

broo-d, A. S.

from a Teut. base br6, to heat
scald.

cf.

G.

briih-en,

M. H. G.

brU-en, to

E. soun-d, A. S. sun-d, (i) a swimming,
;

power
(Fick,

to swim, (2) a strait of the sea
iii.

probably for *swom-da

swim.
defend.
§

*swom-a-na, pp. from the base swem, to War-d, A. S. wear-d, a guard ; from -/ WAR, to

362)

<

||

224.

Aryan
*

-TI.
Cf.

This

suffix
;

only appears in English
1

ycmer's

Law R 2

see f

39.

344
as -ih,
-/,

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.
and -d; but
-ih is exceptional.

[Chap. XIII.

See Sievers, O. E.
the usual A. S.

Gram.
{a)

Compare § 223. E. suflax -ih. As to the word
§ 269.

bi'r-ih,

form \%ge-byr-d= *ge-hor-di
bear; but see
p.

<

.

.

\\ge-bor-en, pp. of ber-an, to

240, note
is

i.

O. Friesic has both berihe
Icel. grS-^t;

and
is

berde.

Grow-ih

of Scand. origin, from
is

but the true stem of this word
-THA-N.
{b)

gro-than, so that the

suffix

E.

suffix

-/.

E. fligh-t,
.
.

A.S. flyh-t
t.

{=yuk-h\
flee,

allied to
fly.
iii.

G. Fluch-t
A.

<

\\flug-on, pt.
Icel.

pi.

oifleog-an, to

Gif-t,

S. gif-t,

gif-t,
pt.

Teut.
t.

gef-ti
(for

(Pick,

100),

from gief-an,
ges-t,

to

give,

geaf

^gaf).

Gues-t,

A. S.

gces-t,

Goth, gas-i-s

(stem

gasti),

a

stranger,

hence a guest;

cognate with Lat. hos-H-s,
S.
;«z>^/, ;7z^>^/,

an

enemy, a stranger.
mag-an.

Migh-t, A.

also meaht, Goth.

mah-t-s (stem mahti), from the verb seen in E. may^ Goth.
Nigh-t, A. S.
«z'>^/,

;2^y^/,

Goth, nah-t-s (stem nahti),
;

cognate with Lat. nox (stem

;20f //)
fail,

cf.

Skt. nak-ia, night

;

all

from the
light.

Aryan \/ NEK,

to

disappear ; from the failure of

Pligh-t^, obligation, A. S.plih-f, danger, risk, connected
pt.
t.

with the strong verb plion,

pleah, to risk.
(i.

Shif-t,

s.,

a change,

is

from the

Icel. skip-ti

e. *skif-ii),

a division, ex;

change; the A. S. has only the verb
skif-a, to divide, sUf-a,
s.,

scif-tan, to divide

cf

Icel.

a

slice,

prov.E. shive, a

slice.

Sigh-t,

A. S.

sih-t,

ge-sih-f,

more commonly

ge-sih-d^ ge-sieh-d\ cf,
e in j^^-^«

seg-en, pp. of seSn, to see.
'^ge-seh-d,

[Here the

produced
;

whence ge-sieh-d by
ge-sih-d, the

the breaking of e before h

and hence again
due
to
*

change from
cunning,

ie

to / being

palatal
§

'

mutation
loi.]

;

see this explained in Sievers,
is

O. E.

Gram.

Sleigh- f,

of

Scand.

origin; from Icel. slceg-d, cunning, a sb. formed from the
^

Only
to

in certain senses,
is

and nearly obsolete as a
Plight, condition,
is

sb.

;

the derived

verb

plight

common.

and should be

spelt plite, as in

M.

a totally different word, E., being really of F. origin, from

Lat. plicita, fern. pp. oiplic-arc, to fold.

§225.J
adj. slcEg-r^
cf.

ARYAN SUFFIX
whence E.
sly.

-TU.

245

Thzrs-t, A. ^.J>yrs-i

{=

'^purs-tt)

;

Goth. Jjaurs-ans, pp. of J?airs-an, to be dry.
3.

Wtgh-fj
S.

a creature, man, doublet of wht-t,
wi'/i-/,

thing, both

from A.

a wight, also a whit, Goth, waih-t-s (stem waih-ti),
iii.

Teut. WEH-Ti (Fick,
wyrh-t-a,
z£^r^-/
is

282).

Wrigh-t, a

workman, A.
293);
cf.

S.

a derivative of wyrh-f, ge-ivyrh-t, a deed; this

= Teut.

worh-ti, a deed (Fick,

iii.

Goth.

fra-waurh't-s (stem fra-waurh-ti),

evil-doing ;

from the

same root
{c)

as E. work.

E. suffix -d. Dee-d, A. S. dd-d^ Goth, de-d-s (stem dedt=. *dddt\ Teut. da-di (Fick, iii. 152); the verb being
A.
S. do-n,

E.

do.

Gle-de, a

glowing

coal,

A.

S. gle-d,

formed
A.
S.

with /-mutation

from gl6-w-an,

to

glow.

Afin-d,

ge-myn-dj formed with /-mutation from mun-an, to think,

ge-mun-an,
Nee-d, A. S.

to

remember;

cf.

Lat.

mens

(stem men-ti).
cf.

«/-</,

n^a-d^ Goth, nau-ths (stem nau-ihi)]

O. H. G. niu-wan, nH-an^ to crush. -S'^^-c?', A. S. j^-f/, Icel. scB-di\ cf. Goth, mana-seth-s (stem mana-se-di), the seed or
race of man, the world;

Teut. sa-di (Fick,

iii.

312); the
Ska-d, a
lit.

verb
haste

is
;

A.

S. sd-w-atij

E. sow.

Spee-d, A. S. spe-d^ success,

sp/-d

=

"^spd-di,

from sp6-w-an^ to succeed.

place, A. S. sie-de^ Goth, sta-th-s (stem sta-thi), a place,
*

standing,

'

from */

ST A,

to stand.

Stu-d^ A. S. st6-d^ orig.
iii.

a herd of horses, Teut. st6-di (Fick,
base STO, strengthened form of \/ A.
S. sti-d-a^
;

341); from Teut.
to stand.
Stee-dy

STA,

a stud-horse,
stida

is

derived from A. S. stdd by

mutation
§

i.

e.

=

*si6d-ja,

with suffix -ja
is

=

-to.

225.

Aryan -TU.

{a)

There

one clear example of

the suffix -th in English, from Teut. -thu.

This

is
;

E. dea-th^

A.

S. d^a-d^

Goth. dau-thu-Sy death (stem dau-thii)
iii.

from the

Teut. base dau, to die (Fick,
{b)

143).

E. suffix
*^o/t)y

-/.

Lof-i

is

of Scand. origin;

from
root

Icel.

lopi{=
A. S.
certain

the air; Goth. luf-tu-s\ root

unknown.

Lus-t^

lus-ty
;

pleasure;

Goth,

lus-iu-s,

pleasure;

un-

cf.

Skt. lashy to desire, /tw, to sport.

;

2,46
{c)

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.
E. suffix-^.

[Chap. XIII.

Floo-d,K.^.flo-d', Go\h.flo-du-s\ from
Shi'el-d,

fl6-w-an, to flow.

A.

S. scil-dy scel-d;

Goth, skil-du-s ;

root uncertain.

Wol-d, weal-d, A. S. weal-d^ O. Sax. wal-d,
vdllr

a wood;

cf. Icel.

(=

^wal-dus)^ a

field.

The

in the

form wold

is

due

to the influence of the preceding

w\

the

M.
§

E. forms are both wold and wald.

226.

The Aryan

suffixes -ta, -ti, discussed above,

can

be followed by other

suffixes; thus 'E./oo-d,
;

A. S./^-^^(stem
Goth, fo-dei-n-s

/6-da-n) had originally a suffixed -n

cf.

(stem fo-dei-ni), food, feeding ;
feed.

from the Aryan

V PA,

to

E. mai-d-en, A.

S.

mcEg-d-en^ cognate with O.

H. G.

mag-a-ti-n, answers to a Goth. *mag-a-dei-n, a dimin. form

from Goth, mag-a-th-s, fem. (stem mag-a-thi), a maiden,
allied to

Goth, mag-us (stem mag-u), a boy;
'

the sense of
7nay.
;

mag-US
the

is

growing
E. maid

lad,'
is

from the verb appearing in E.
'

The Mod.
M. E.
A.
S.
all

merely a contracted form of maiden

short form for

maiden
root.

'

is

may, A.

S.

mcBg ; whilst
is

the

form answering to Goth, magaths
from the same

mcegd or

mceged;

On

the other hand, the suffix
suffix -(i)s.
is

-TO occurs in combination with, and following, the

This double
below; see
§
§

suffix -(i)s-to

appears as E.

-st

;

and

discussed

233, p. 254.

227.

Aryan -TER (-TOR).
Skt.

This

suffix

is

found in

such words as Lat. /ra-ter,

bhrd-tar, brother;
-tar.

and
three

answers to Gothic -thar, -dar, and
Gothic forms, the change to -dar
whilst the preservation of the
is

Of
is

these

due to Verner's

Law

form -lar

due

to the oc-

currence of a foregoing h or
(a) Goth. -thar.

s.

Bro-iher, A. S. brS-hr, Goth, hro-thar,
iii.

Teut. br6-thar (Fick,

204);

usually referred to
bears,
i.

Aryan

>/

BHER,
{b)

to bear, as

meaning one who

e. carries,

aids, or supports the

younger children.

Goth. -dar.
if

Fa-iher,

M. E./a-der, A.
is

^./cE-der, Goth.

/a-dar, as

from a \/PA, but the sense

doubtful.

Mo-iher,
iii.

M. E.

mo-der^ A. S. md-dor, Teut. m6-dar (Fick,

242);

'

§228.] as
if

ARYAN SUFFIX
from an Aryan
is

'TRO.

2,47

VMA;

but here again the original

sense
{c)

uncertain.
S. doh-tor^
;

Daugh-ter, A.

Goth, dauh-tar^ cognate with
usually explained as
'

Gk.

Ovy-d-TT]p, Skt.
;

duh-i-tar

milker
this is

of the cows

cf.

Skt.

duh

(for *d/iug/i), to milk.

But

a mere guess.
tional
;

The word

sis-ter (really sis-t-er) is

excep-

it is

a Scand. form, from

Icel. sys-i-ir, allied to
is

A.

S.

sweos-t-or,

Goth, swis-t-ar;
/ is

the Teut. form

swes-t-ar

(F.

iii.

360), but the
it

a Teut. insertion, due to form-

association, as

does not appear in Skt. svas-x^ nor in Lat.

sor-or=^*sos-or.
§

228.

Aryan -TRO.

Upon

this

suffix,

which usually an

denotes an

agent or implement,

Sievers has written

excellent article in Paul

und Braune's Beitrage zur Geschichte der deutschen Sprache und Literatur, vol. v. p. 519. By Grimm's Law, the Aryan T is represented in Teutonic Hence Sievers discusses the following Teutonic by TH.
equivalent stem-suffixes,
/ is substituted for r.
viz. (i)

-thro-;
these

(2) -thlo-,

where

Each of
either

may
{a)

be further subas -J>ro- (with

divided.

Thus -THROox {b)

remains

p=ih
in

in ihin);

becomes

-^ro- (with
(c)

$=ih

in ihtnc^
-Iro-^

consequence of Verner's La\v) ; or
it

appears as

when
'iro-

follows such letters as/", h, s;

or {d) appears as
it.

when

the suffix -s- (Aryan -es{e)

?)

precedes
;

Again,
-tlo-

-THLO- appears
transposed form

as

-J^lo-

;

or {/) as -Slo-

or {g) as

after/'or j; or (h) especially in Anglo-Saxon, assumes the
-Id.

We

have thus eight cases to consider,

which

will

be taken separately.

{a) The form -J^ro-. The mod. E. rudder is M. E. rodir, more commonly rother^ A. S. r6-der^ orig. a paddle, an instrument to row with from r6-w-an, to row. La-iher answers
;

to A. S. Ua-dor^ lather,

soap\ cognate with

Icel. lau-dr,

foam,

soap; from Teut. base lau, to wash;
wash.
»
*

cf.

Lat. lau-are, to

Mur-der^ also written mur-ther^ A.
Nitrrnn, l/atSor'
;

S.

mor-Sor, Goth.
1.

Wright's Voc. ed. WUlcker, col. 456,

14.

24^

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.

[Chap. XIII.

maur-ihr (stem viaur-thrd), Teut. mor-thro (Sievers)

;

from

VMAR,
lea-ther,

to

grind,

kill,

die.
le-der,

Here

also probably

belongs
iii.

A.

S. le-^er,
is

G.

Teut. le-thra (Fick,

278);

but the root

unknown, so
-^ro-.

that the right division

may be

leth-ra.
{b)

The form
-dr-.

After an (originally) unaccented
/,

syllable

ending in a vowel or

this

becomes Goth,

-dr-,

A.

S.

E. bladder answers to A. S. bld-dre (Wright's
col.

Voc. ed. Wiilcker,
Icel. bla-dra
;

201,

1.

42, col. 160,

1.

3),

allied to
i.

from the root of A.

S. bid-wan, to blow,

e.

to

puff out.

Adder,

M.

E. nadder, A. S. nce-dre, Goth, nadrs
iii.

(stem na-drd), Teut. na-dra (Fick,
fS-dor, Teut. f6-dra,

156).

Fodder, K.S.

may

similarly be derived directly

from
sufifix

\/PA,

to feed;

but was rather perhaps formed with
root fod

-ra from

the Teutonic

(=fo-th) appearing
i.

in

Goth, fod-jan, to feed;
it

see Osthoff, Forschungen,

146;

makes
S.

little

ultimate difference.
cf.

Ladder,
lit.

M.E.

laddre,

from A.
also

hl&-der\

G.

lei-ter',

'that which leans';
to lean,

from Teut. base

hli, to lean,

Aryan \/KLI,

whence

Wea-ther, A. S. we-der^ Gk. kXI-ixu^, a ladder (Kluge). prob. from \/ WE, to blow; Teut. WE-DRA (Fick, iii. 307) Whether shoulder belongs here cf. Goth, wai-an, to blow.
;

is

doubtful

;

wonder

is

probably to be divided as wond-er, and
suffix.

has accordingly a different
{c)

See

§ 217.

The form

-tro-.

Hal-ter (for

""half-ter),
;

A.

S. hcclf-tre,

cognate with G. Half-ter, O. H. G. half-Ira
A.

which Kluge

rightly connects with E. helve, A. S. hielf, a handle.
ter,

LaughA.
S.

S. hleh-tor, hleah-lor;

from the verb

to laugh,

hlehh-an.

Slaugh-ler, a Scand. form, from Icel. sld-lr, con;

fused with A. S. sleah-l, with the same sense

the latter

is

derived from the base slah- of the contracted verb sledn, to
slay.

Fos-ler, verb, A. S./Sslri'an,
;

is

from the A.

S. sh./os-ter,

nourishment
/o-s-ler;
origin
;

the suffix

is

really a double one, as
feed.

/os-ier=

from

VPA,

to

Blus-kr, prob. of Scand.

cf. Icel. blds-tr,

a blast of wind, from blds-a, to blow.


§2 28.]
.

ARYAN SUFFIX

'TRO.

249
/
it

In the word Eas-t-er, A. S. eas-t-or^ Sievers regards the
inserted;
cf.

as
is

Lithuan. ausz-ra, dawn.

In any case,

closely related to eas-t, A. S. eas-t.
(d)

Double

suffix

-s-tro-.

Whether we should regard
or rather consider
it,

the -s- as due to the

Aryan

-es-,

with

Sievers ^ as an inserted
bol-s-ter,

letter, I

cannot say.

Examples

are:
;

A.

S.

bol-s-ter,

cognate with
hol-s-ter,
;

G. Pol-s-ter

and

hol-s-ter,

borrowed from Du.
hulj-an, to cover.
-J?lo-.

a pistol-case, cognate
cf.

with A. S. heol-s-lor, a hiding-place
veil,

Goth. huU-s-tr^ a

from

See

§ 238.
is

(e)

The form

Nee-dle

from A.

S. nd-dl^

cognate
the

with Goth, ne-lhla]

Teut. ne-thla (F.
;

iii.

156), from

V NE, to bind, sew
seems to be the

cf.

Lat. ne-re^ G. nah-en, to sew.

This

sole example.

{/) The form -^lo-. Spittle is a word which has been changed in form, owing to a connection with the secondary and late verb spit. The M.E. form was spo-til, answering
exactly to A. S. spd-tl

(= *spai-dlo-),

from spi-w-an,

pt.

t.

spd-w, to

spit,

mod. E. spew.
speten, spetten^

I'he secondary verb spd-t-an

became M.E.
which
is

and was confused with

spitleriy

a Mercian form, appearing as spittan in Matt, xxvii.

30- (§ 33-)

in

Of this there is no certain example {g) The form -tlo-. English ; brist-le is from A. S. lyrst^ a bristle. Thros-t-le
/,

a thrush, has an inserted

which we do not sound; the
obvious.

A.

S.

forms are both pros-le and pros-t-le ; the relation of the
is

former to thrush, A. S.prys-ce {=z*pros-c-ta)
{h)

The A.
is

S.

transposed form

-Id (for -dl).

This

transposition

precisely like that seen in the Shakespearian

form neeld

for needle^

a form which also occurs in P. Plowequally clear case
is

man, C. XX. 56.
bo-td,

An
1.

seen in the A. S.

spdldf spittle (Elene,

300)

;

usually spelt spdtt.
;

Hence A.
the

S.

a building, stands for bo-dl
to dwell, live, be.
refers to Osthoff, in

{=* bo-dlo-) from
sb. is obsolete,

Aryan
still

-v/BHU,
*

This

but

we

He

KUhn's

Zeitschrift, vol. xxiii. p. 313.

250

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.

[Chap. XTII.

use the derived verb hyld-an {=.* bold-tan)^ to build.

Curiously

enough, the A.

S. also

has

bo-tl^

a dwelling, a house, which

Sievers regards as a 'hardened' form of bo-dl] hence, prob-

Cumberland and Lancashire, and Bottle Field Another example, according to Sievers, is thresh-o-ld, which he refers to a form^ presk-o-dlo-^ whence A. S. ffresc-o-ld, Icel. presk-o-ldr and he regards all the other forms, such as A. S. cfresc-wald, mod. Icel. preskjoldr,J?repskjdldr, as due to popular etymology. Cf. O. H. G.
ably,
in

Booth

in Warwickshire.

;

drisc-u-fli,

a threshold (Schade).

Sievers adds that the E. adj.

level is

from the rare A.

S. Ice/elde, even, for *la/i-9lo-, allied

to Goth, lo/a, the

palm of the hand.
yet to find an

But

it

may

rather be
level

French

;

for

we have

example of M. E.

used as an adjective.
of Latin origin.
§

The

sb. level is certainly

French, and

229.
so

suffix

Aryan suffix -ONT (-ENT, -NT). common in present participles, as in
and

This

is

the

the Gk. ace.

T\mT-ovT-a,
ent'i

in the Lat. ani-ant-^ mon-ent-, reg-ent-, aud-ito love, mon-ere, to advise, reg-ere, to rule,

from am-are,

aud-ire^ to hear.

The Gothic

usually has -and-^ as in bair;

and-s, bearing (stem bair-and-a)

also -5ndcf. §

{

— ay-and-),

as

^/rij-ond-s, loving ; m^n./rijon
-end-e^ as in bind-end-e,

;

binding

;

Hence the A. S. Northern M. E. -and, Mid263.

land

M. E.

-end-e,

Southern M. E.

-ind-e, afterwards

corrupted

(about A.D. 1300) into -ing-e, mod. E. -ing.

Thus, in M. E.
several sbs.

we

get North, bind-and, Midland bind-ende, bind-end, Southern

bind-inde, bind-inge, bind-ing. in -end, -nd,

In A.

S.

we have

which were originally present

participles.

Only

a few are
to

now in use, viz., errand, fiend, friend, tidings, ivind; which we may add sooth, already explained in § 168 and
;

perhaps youth.
cer-end-e,
^

Err-and, M. E.

er-end-e,

A.

S. oBr-end-e,

or

a message (stem

* (kr-end-ja),

orig.

perhaps 'a

in

prescold (not J>erscold, as misprinted in my Dictionary) is the form Deut. vi. 9; in Exod. xii. 22, it '\% perxold, \.&. percsold. Wright's Vocabularies give the iorax% percswold, perscwald, preoxwold, prexwold.

;

§ 230.]

ARYAN SUFFIX
is

-ONT,
Fiend,

'i^\

going/ but the root

uncertain \

M.

E. fend, A. S.

fiond, an enemy, orig. the pres. part, of the contracted verb
fe'on, to hate
;

Goth, fij-and-s, an enemy, pres. part, oifi-j-an^
to hate.

to hate

;

from Aryan >/ PI,

Friend,

M. E.

frend,

A.

S.

fr/ond, a friend, orig. pres. part, of fre'on, to love
orig. pres. part, of fri-j-on, to love
;

Goth, frij-ond-s,

from

Aryan
from

V PRI, to

love.

Tid-ing-s, a pi. form due to

M. E.

(Southern)

tid-ind-e,

(Midland) tith-end-e\

a Scand. form,
of *li^-a, to

Icel. tid-ind-i, neut. pi., tidings, pres. part,

happen, cognate with A.

S. Hd-an, to

happen
E.
;

;

from the

sb.
S.

which appears
ing * ;

in Icel.

ticf,

A.

S.

iid,

tide.

Wind, A.
*

wi-nd, cognate with Lat. ue-nt-us, wind

orig. sense

blow-

from Aryan

V WE,

to

blow

;

cf.

Skt. vd, to blow,

Goth, wai-an, to blow, and Lithuan. we-jas, wind.

To

these

word you-th, A. S. geo-gud, originally ^^^^^^ with two suppressed «'s, and therefore for *geong-und, cognate with O. H. G. jug-und, jung-und, G. Koch also Jug-end (stem *jung-und-u, as Kluge has it). adds the sb. even or eve, in the sense of evening,' on the
adds, perhaps rightly, the
'

Koch

strength of the G. cognate form Ad-end; but the etymology

of the word
It is

is

very doubtful.
suffix in

perhaps worth while to note here that the

morn-ing, even-ing, has nothing to do with the present participle
§

of mcJd. E. verbs, but

is

discussed below, in § 241.

230.

Aryan

-OS, -ES.

This appears in Skt. ap-as,

work, Lat. op-us {^.^op-os), gen. op-er-is {^z^op-es-is); Gk.
yiv-oi, gen. 7<i/-e(fr)-oy.

In Teutonic
thus, with

it

is

sometimes joined
it

with some other

suffix

;

added

-a,

produces -es-a,
In
or

weakened
English
{c) as r.
it

to -is-a, as in hat-is (stem hat-is-a), hate.

sometimes

{a) disappears, or {b)

appears as

-s,

'

Usually written <krendc, with long
first

a

;

so Sicvere and Grcin

;

llcync

gives the O. Sax, drundi, 0. 11. G. drunti.
•ider the

vowel as short.

But Fick and Schade conThe Icelandic forms are erendi, orendi,

eyrendi.

2^2,

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES,
Thus
hate,
s.

[Chap. XIII.

{a) It disappears.

M. E.

hat-e (dissyllabic),
;

keeps the vowel of the A.
het-e,

S. verb hat-i-an

the A. S. sb.

is

with

i-

mutation of

«, originally "^hat-iz (Sievers,

O. E.
is

Gram.

§ 263, note 4),
;

Goth, hat-is (stem hat-is-a).
Icel. ag-i,

Awe

of Scand. origin
originally
ag-is-a).

from

cognate with A.

S. eg-e,

*ag-tz

(Sievers,

as

above),

Goth, ag-ts (stem

The

simple suffix became -az in the Teut. lamb-

AZ,

and was
§ 290.

lost in the

A. S. lamb, E. lamb
also,

;

see Sievers, O. E.

Gr.

Here belong
-s,

according to Sievers, the words
Ad-ze, M. E. ad-se, ad-es-e, Ax, badly spelt axe, A. S.

bread, calf, share (in plough-share).
(b) It

appears as
;

-ze,

-x.

A.

S. ad-es-a

origin

unknown.
ac-es-a,
;

cex, eax,
ai-i-vT],

Northumbrian
6^-vs,

Goth, akw-iz-i,

allied to

Gk.
S.

an axe,
blid-s,

sharp

origin uncertain.

Bliss,
btz^,
is

A.

bli^-s,

and, by assimilation, bk's-s;
is
{
'

from
bud's

bl0-e,

blithe; so that bliss

blitheness.'

A.

S.
is

cognate

with O. Sax. blid-s-ea
classed with -jd-

= '^blid-s-jd),
suffix S.

and

therefore to be

stems, the

being double (Sievers,
fem. (gen.
hall, orig.
ef-es-e),

O. E. Gr.

§

258).

Eave-s,

A.

ef-es,

corresponds to Goth, ub-iz-wa, a porch,

a project-

ing shelter, from the Teut. prep, uf (Goth, uf, allied to

E.

uf)',

cf.

G. ob-dach, a

shelter, ob-en, above, E. {ab)-ove\

the suffix being double.
(r)

It

appears as -r in E. ea-r (of corn)

;

G. dh-re, Goth. A. S.

ah-s, Lat. ac-us, gen. ac-er-is.
cild; cf.

Also

in cild-r-u, pi. of

mod. E.

child-r-en] see Sievers, O. E. Gr. §§ 289, 290.

§ 231.

We

have thus already had examples of the double

suffixes -ES-o, -ES-iA, -ES-wo.

We

also find the suffixes -is

and -Lo

in combination, producing both -is-lo,
-l-s.

weakened

to

Teut. -s-LA, and -lo-s, weakened to Teut.
{a) -s-LA.
s-l

Hou-sel, A. S. hil-s-l (for *hun-s-t), Goth, hunrite.

(stem hun-s-la), a sacrifice, holy

Ou-sel, A. S. 6-s-le

(for ^am-s-le),

cognate with G. Am-se-l, O. H. G. am-sa-la;
ax-le {='^ac-sle),

root uncertain.

but the J

Koch also refers hither E. may be an extension of the root.


§ 232.]

ENGLISH SUFFIX
The remarkable words

-NESS,
burial^
riddle,

1^'^
shuttle

{d) -L-s.

(see § 219), have lost a final s\

they are, respectively, corit

ruptions of huriels^ riddles^ shuttles',
s

is

obvious that the

was mistaken

for the plural suffix,

and was accordingly
A.
S.

purposely dropped.
byrg-el-s, a

Burial,

M. E.

biriel^ buriel, buriels,

burying-place, from byrg-an, to bury.

Riddle,
;

M. E.

red-el-s,

A.

S. rced-el-se, rdd-el-s,
still

an ambiguous speech

from r&d-an, to explain; we
Shuttle,

say 'to read a

riddle.'

M.

E.

schitel,

A.

S.

scyt-el-s

<

. .

Ii

scot-en,

pp.

of

sciot-an, to

shoot.

Of

this

word

skittle

is

a mere variant,

being a Scand. form; but the

final -s

does not appear in
forth,

Dan.

skyttel,

a shutde,

Icel. skutill,

an implement shot

harpoon,

bolt.

Koch adds

three

more examples,
;

viz. bridle,
all

girdle, stickle (a spine, as in stickle-back^

but, as a fact,

of these have double forms in A.

S., viz.

A.

S. brid-el as well

as brid-el-s, gyrd-el as well as gyrd-el-s,

as stic-el-s)
here,
§

and stic-el as well no need to consider them and they have already been mentioned in § 217.
there
is

therefore

232. E. suf3.x

-ness.

This
to

is

not a simple

suffix, like

-hoody -ship, but a
-«- originally

compound,

be divided as

-n-es-s.

The

belonged to a substantival stem, so that the
rather -es-s, Gothic -as-su-, supposed to stand
cf.

true suffix
for -ES-TU-,

is

by assimilation;
*

§ 235.
'

In the Lord's prayer,
is,

the petition

Thy kingdom come
suffix
;

in

Gothic

kwimai
kingdom,
thiudin-=.

thiudinassus theins.
is

Here the word
-as-su-s
cf.

thiudinassus,

formed with the
\.

from the stem

ihiud-an-y

e.

king

thiudan-s, a king, thiudan-on, to rule,

ihiudan-gardiy kingdom.
otty

So
in

also leikin-assus^ healing, Icikin-

to heal;
find

drauhtin-assus,

warfare, drauhtin-ouy

to

war.
u/ar-

We

ass-jan,

no trace of n to abound; from
is

u/ar-assus,

superfluity,

ufar,
;

over, above.

The Goth.
mostly used

-n-assus^ -assus,

masculine

but the corresponding A. S.
It is

-n-is (also -n-ys, -n-es, -n-ess) is feminine.

for

forming abstract substantives, expressive of quality, from
;

adjectives

as hdlig-nis, holi-ness, from hdlig, holy.

Hence

254

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.

[Chap. XIII.

E. glad-ness, mad-ness, sad-ness,
similar substantives.
It

and a large number of
hence rigid-ness,

can be added to adjectives of French

and Latin origin with equal readiness;
sordid-ness, etc.

The whole number
-(i)s-to.

of derivatives contain-

ing this suffix considerably exceeds a thousand ^
§

233.

Aryan
(stem

This

is

common
L,at.
o-o(ji-69,

in E.

words of

Gk.

origin,

as in soph-tst, F. soph-iste,
*(To(ji-i(r-Ta),
it

soph-is-ta^

Gk.

a-ocfi-Kr-Tfjs

allied to

wise; and hence,
dent-ist^

in the

form

-zlr/,

can be used generally, as in
It

flor-ist, ivom.

the Lat. stems dent-, flor-.

appears as

-est

in the native

word

harv-est, A. S. hcBr/-esi,

from

V KARP, to

pluck; cf Lat. carp-ere.

So

also earn-est, orig. a sb., as in

the phrase 'in earnest'; A. S. eorn-ost, eorn-est, cognate with

G.

Ernst

\

from a base arn, extended from the a/AR, to

raise, excite.

Hence, probably, we may explain some words with the
suffix
-st

(=

-J-/),

as,

e. g.

twist.

Twist, A.

S.

twist, a

rope

;

from

tivi-,

double, as in twi-feald, twy-fold, two-fold,
cf.

aUied to
origin;
allied

twd, two;
traust,

Skt.

dvi, two.
cf.

Trust, of Scand.

Icel.

trust;

Goth, trau-an, to believe;
trist,
allied
Icel.
trust.
;

to

true,

trow.

Tryst,

to

trust-,
v.

probably due

to

the

mutated form in
upon, ixom traust,

ireysta,

(=
(iii.

^traust-jd), to rely

In some
thus Fick
last

other words, the origin of the s

may be
(stem

different

87) refers E.

las-t,

a burden, load, as
neut.
hlas-ta)

in 'a

of

herrings,'

A.

S.

hlces-t,

to

the

base
in

HLATH, to
pronounce.

lade,

whence A.

S. hlad-an,

Goth. hlatk-an\

which case A.

S. hlcEs-t

stands for ^hlced-t, as being easier to

Cf. A. S. bliss, hlids, as

forms of Uiss.

Similarly,

we may
put for

explain wris-t, A. S. wris-t, fem. (stem wris-td), as
"^wrid-t'y

from the base

wri'^-,

as seen in

wrid-en,
(stem

pp. of wrid-an, to writhe.
rus-td)
*
;

So also
|I

rus-t,
pi.

A.

S. rus-t

put for *rud-t

<
s.

rud-on, pt.

of re'od-an, to be
Etym. German

Compare

the article on the suffix -nis in Weigand's
v.

Dictionary ; and see Kluge,

dienen.

§ 2 37-]

TEUTONIC SUFFIX -SKA.
E. rudd-y, A.
S.

1^^
and see G.
is

red;

cf.

rud-u,

s.,

redness;

Rost

in Kluge.

Gris-t, A. S. gris-t,

corn to be ground,

clearly

connected with grind-an, to grind, and

may

stand

for *grid-t.
§

234. Teutonic
is

-s-ti.

Here we may place
to

fist^ h'st{en).

Fist

A. S./y-st

(=

""fusti), allied

G. Faust, which Fick

refers to Teut. fonsti,

Old Slavonic
has been lost;

p§sti,

fist,

and connects with Russ. piaste, fist, where the vowel § denotes that n
i.

see Schmidt, Vocalismus,
is

167, where
is

it

is

shewn

(i) that this

correct,

and

(2) that

it

an argument
^.

against connecting fist with Lat. pugnus^ as

is

usually done

The

verb

to

listen,

M. E.

lust-n-en, is
listen,
full).

derived

from M. E.
(cf.

lust-en,

A. S. hlyst-an, to

by the insertion of -nThis verb hlyst-an
is

Goth, full-n-an, to become
the
sb.
hlyst,

from

hearing
;

(=

*hlu-s-ti),
is

Teut. hlusti, hearing

*(Fick,

iii.

90)

which again

from Teut. hleu

= Aryan
Goth.

y KLEU,
§ 235.

to hear. -s-tu.

Teutonic
gloom,

This appears in E.
cognate
with G.

mt-st, vapour,

A.

S.

mi'-st,

fog

;

Mi-st,

viath-s-tu-s,

dung;

from Aryan

\/MEIGH,

to sprinkle,

whence
§

Lat. ming-ere.

236. Teut. suflx -s-t-man.

See also § 232. This appears in E. blossom,
;

A.

S. blS-s-t-ma

(stem bl6-s-t-man), a blossom
-s-t,

from blS-w-an,
Goth. bl6-ma

to blow.

Without the
Teut. -ska.
says,

we have

Icel. bl6-m,

(stem bid -man), a bloom; § 211.
§

237.

This appears in
This A.
S. tu-sc is

iu-sk,

A.

S. tu-sc,

or,

by metathesis, tux.
put

almost certainly,
originally

as Eitmtiller

for ^twi-sc,

and meant

double tooth, molar tooth, from A.

S. twi-, double.
;

Cf. A. S.

ge-twi'S-an, twins, Genesis xxxviii. 27

O. H. G. zwi-s, twice,
also
refer

zwi-sk,
hu-sk,

zwi-ski,

double.
it

I

would

hither
/,

E.

M. E.

hu-ske, as
cf.

has almost certainly lost an
S. hul-u,

and
a

stands for "hul-sk;
*

A.

a husk, prov. E.
;

hull,

This would require a Teut. form fuh-sti see Klnge, who takes the opposite view, connecting itwith/«^«j, but not with Kxxu.piaste.

256
husk or
mannic)
A.
shell
;

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES,

[Chap. XIII.

G. Hul-se, O. H. G. hul-sa, M. H. G. (Alea husk (Schade)
;

hul-s-che,

and
(d).

cf.

E. holl-ow

<

||

S. hol-en, pp.

of hel-an, to hide, cover.

§238. A.
A.
S. -es-tre,

S.

-es-tran;

cf.

§

228

This appears

in

a

common
;

fem.

suffix,

as in bcec-es-tre (stem
in in

b(Ec-es-tran),

a female baker,

the
the
still

name Baxter name Webster.

webb-es-ire,

M. E. bak-s-ier, preserved M. E. web-s-ter, preserved
gender ; the
lost,

Only one of these words,
feminine was early

viz. spin-s-ter,

retains the sense of the feminine
suffix to the

restriction

of the

so that songster,

for example, has

now

the precise sense of sing-er.
;

But the
in

A.

S. sang-er-e^

a singer, was masculine

whilst sang-es-tre,

a songster, was feminine.

There are numerous examples
coll.

Wright's Vocabularies, ed. Wiilcker,

308-312.
:

Thus
Fidicen,

we

find

'
:

Cantor, sangere
;

:

Cantrix, sangystre
fijjelestre
*
:

fidelere

[fiddler]
:

Fidicina,

[fiddlester]

:

Sartor,

s^amere
seamster

Sartrt'x, s^amestre
is

etc.

Hence our

sempster or

A.

S.

seam-es-tre,
is

from s/am, a seam, a sowing.

The

fem. sense

now

so far lost that the F. fem. suffix -ess

has been added to songster and seamster or sempster, pro-

ducing the forms song-str-ess, seam-str-ess, semp-str-ess.

In

M. E.
see

-ster

was

freely

added to bases not found

in

A.

S.

;

hence

huckster, properly the fem. of huck-er (now spelt hawker)',

Huckster in

suffix

my Etym. Diet. In Tudor-English the was rather widely used ; hence teamster, tapster, and
such as drugster, maltster, whipster,
it

obsolete words

etc.

In some words

expressed something of contempt, possibly

owing

to the influence of the Lat. poetaster;
;

hence Jibster,

gamester, punster, rhymester, trickster
Outlines of E. Accidence, p. 90 \
§

see Morris, Hist.

239. E. suffix

-er.

This very

fish-er,
*

usually expresses the agent,
suffix -ist-er, as in chor-ist-er, is

and

common suffix, as is much used
;

in in

The
in

of different origin

for here the

-er is additional.

Cotgrave explains F, choriste by *a Chorist, a singing
Cf. § 233.

man

a Queer.'

— —
§ 240.]

;

ARYAN SUFFIX
lit.
'

-KO.
A. S. form

257
is -er-e,

substantives derived from verbs.
in boc-er-e, a scribe,

The
'

as

book-er

;

the corresponding Gothic

word

is

bok-ar-ei-s {='^hok-ar-ji-s,

stem hok-ar-jd)\ see

St.

Mark
suiRx

in Gothic, ed. Skeat, Introd. § 16.
is

Thus

the Goth.
slightly

-ar-ja,

but the A.
is

S. suffix

different.
V. i);

Such

the view taken
S.

may have been by Ten Brink
-er-e (with
a)',

(Anglia,

he argues that the A.

form was

long

e),

answering to Teut. -dr-ja (with long

and

I

think his

arguments must be admitted.

E. -er has also been explained

by supposing that -ar

is

here a shortened form of -tar (see
p. 76);

Koch, E. Gram.
likely.

vol.

iii.

which does not seem

at all
suffix.

It is

needless to give examples of the use of this

§

240.

Aryan -KO.
-/co?,

This

is

very

common
;

in

Gk.

in the

nominative form

and

in Latin as -cus

as in Aoyi-xo?,

whence E.
a vowel

logi-c
it

;

pau-cus, cognate with Yu.few.

In Gothic
;

usually appears as -ha or -ga, but always after
is

the vowel

commonly due

to the

stem of the
staina-,

sb.,

as in siaina-ha-, stem of sfaina-h-s, stony,

from

stem

of siain-s^ a stone
clever, wise.
tives, the

;

handu-ga-, stem of handu-g-s, handy,
adjectives (see § 256); in substanrare,

These are
is

simple suffix

but occurs perhaps in

sii'r-k,

already discussed in § 203 above.

Other examples are the following
E.
-y, -ey
;

:

A.

S. -ig, -h.

Bod-y, A. S. bod-ig
;

;

cf.

O. H. G.
Iv-y,

pot-ah.

Hon-ey,

A.

S.

hun-ig

cf.

Icel.

hun-an-g,

A. S.

t/-tg.
cf.

Sall-y^ Sall-ow, a willow-tree, A. S. seal-h^

stem

* sal-go;

Lat. sal-i-x, gen. sal-t-ds^.
-y,

Here

also belongs

the diminutival suffix

as in Beli-y

;

and the
suffix
:

-ie in lass-ie.

We

also find

examples of a Teut.
Fol-k,

-ka, as already

noted in § 203.
E. -k
1
;

Such are the following
-c.

A.

S.

A.

S. fol-c, Teut.

fol-ka

(F.

iii.

89)
*

;

cf.

Lithuan. phl-ka-s, a crowd, Russ. pol-k\ an

army

An

^\g\ furr-oWy A.H. /ur/i; marr-ow, A.S. mearh. words the A.S. -h is radical, not a suffix.

E. -ow answers to A.S. nom. -h \nfarr-<nv, from \.^./earh^ a But in these three

VOL.

I.

S

258
root
uncertain.

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.
Haw-k, A.
;

[Chap. XIII.
Icel.

S.

haf-oc
' ;

;

cf.

hau-k-r^
to seize,

O. H. G. hab-uh
hold.

lit.

'

the seizer

from >/

KAP,
from

Wel-k, Wz7-k, a shell-fish, usually misspelt whelk, A. S.

wi'l-oc, later

wel-oc]

named from
Sil-k,

its

spiral shell;

\/WER,

to turn, wind.

Vol-k, Yel-k, A.

S

geol-ec-a, the yellow part,

from

geol-u, yellow.

A.

S. seol-c^ is
;

merely a borrowed
the Slavonic form
;

word, obtained from Slavonic traders

it is.

of the Lat. Seri-cum, the material obtained from the Seres
but the suffix
§
is

the

Aryan
-an-,

-kg.
is

241.

The
origin.

Teut. suffix -ga
or

common
is

in

combination

with a preceding
doubtful
viz. in

more

usually -in-, or -un-, of

Of -an-ga

there

but

one

example,

the Goth, bah-ag-ga
ix.

{= bah -an-ga),

a doubtful word

in

Mark

42

;

but the suffixes -in-ga and -un-ga (origin-

ally -in-g6,

-un-g6 in the case oi feminine substantives) are
in A. S. in the

very

common
A.

forms

-ing, -ung.

(a).

S. suflB.x -ing.

This was in
a
striking
iii.
'

common

use to form
in

patronymics, of which

example occurs

the

Northumbrian version of Luke

24-38, where 'the son of
the son of Zorobabel
'

Judah
tribal

'

is

expressed by ioda-ing,

by

sorobabel-ing, etc.

Hence were formed

a large

number of

names, such as Scyldingas, the Scyldings, Scylfingas,
both mentioned in the

the

Scylfings,

poem

of Beowulf.

Hence
in

also are derived

many
S.

place-names,

as, e.g.

Barking,
;

Essex, from the

tribe

of Barkings, A. S. Beorcingas

Buckingham, from the A.
Buckings, where -a
is

Buccinga-hdm,

i.e.

home
;

of the

the suffix of the genitive plural

Nott-

ingham, from the A.

S.

Snotinga-hdm,

i.e.

home
A.

of the Snot-

ings or sons of Snot, the 'wise'
snut-r-s, wise.

man

;

cf.

S. snot-or,

Goth.
-ling,

In composition with

-/-, it

appears as

already discussed as being a diminutival suffix in § 203.

With-

out the
ing,
lit.

-/-, it

has a diminutival or depreciatory force in lordlord.

a

little

Farth-ing, P^.^.feord-ing,ferd-ing, also
;

found as feord-l-ing, means a fourth part of a penny
feorp-a, orig. f/orp-a, fourth, from flower, four.

from

Herr-ing,


§ 241.]

' '

ANGLO-SAXON SUFFIX -UNG.
comes
host.
in shoals or armies,

1^^
from

A.

S. hcBr-z'ng, the fish that

her-e (stem har-ja),

an army,

K-ing^ short for kin-ing^
'

A.

S. cyn-ing,

sometimes explained as the
tribe,

son of the
of high

tribe,'

chosen of the
(Kluge)
;

otherwise

'

the

man

rank
S.

in either case, the derivation of cyn-ing

from A.

cyn, tribe, race, stock,

whence
fuller

also cyn-e, royal,
;

is

indubitable.

Penn-y, A. S. pen-ig,

form pen-ing

oldest A. S. form

pend-ing; formed by z-mutation from pand-, the same as Du. pand, G. F/and, a pledge.
Rid-ing, as the
is

name
from

of one of

the three divisions of Yorkshire,

for ^thrid-ing (i.e.
;

Northpridj-

riding for North-thriding)

;

of Scand. origin

Icel.

ung-r, the third part; ivom. pridi, third.

Shill-mg, A.S.sdl/Whit-ing, a fish

ing;

cf.

Goth, skill-igg-s

(=

sh7/-mg-s).

named from
lete

the whiteness of the flesh.

We may add the obsocEpele^

word

cethel-ing,

A. S. cepel-ing, a prince; from

noblein sbs.

(3)

A.

S. suflB^

-ung.

This

is

extremely

common

derived from verbs, as in clckns-ung, a cleans-ing, from cldnslan, to

cleanse

;

georn-ung^ a yearn -ing, from georn-i'an, to

yearn.
suffix

The
-an or
;

suffix
-I'an.

-ung simply takes the place of the

infinitive

Even

in A. S. this suffix frequently

appears
;

as -ing

as in leorn-ing^ learn-ing, also spelt leorn-ung

ing, a folio w-ing, 'Trom fylg-an, to follow.

fylgIn mod. E. the

spelling -i7ig for this suffix

is

universal,

and extremely comsentences are
is

mon.
difficult

Unfortunately,

it

has been confused with the ending

of the present participle, so that
to parse.
'

many
*

now

Thus
is

the phrase

he

gone hunting

was formerly
A. S. prep,
on,

he

gone a-hunting,' where a represents the
is

and huni-ing

for the

A.

S. huni-unge, dat. of

huniung, a substantive of verbal origin.

In -^Ifric's Colloquy,
is

we have

the Lat. heri fui in venaiione; above this
ic

the A. S.
I

gloss^gyrs/an dag
hunting'.'

wees on hunlunge^
in -ing are

'

yesterday

was

a-

These words
of,
ic

now used
sb. all the

with an

ellipsis

of a following
'

which gives the

appearance of
sb.

Or otherwise

was on

huntatie.

There was a

hufUaO, with

the same sense and force as huntung.

S 2

26o

SUBSTANTIVAL SUFFIXES.
itself.

[Chap. XIII.

being part of the verb
flies'
is

Thus

'

he was seen killing

to

be explained by comparison with 'he amused

himself by killing
really stands for

There

is

flies/ i.e. by the killing of flies; so that it he was seen in the {act of) killing of flies.' an instructive sentence in Bacon's third Essay
'

which should be particularly considered.

'Concerning the
beware, that in the

Meanes of procuring Unity
Dissolve and Deface the
Society.'

;

Men must

Procuring, or Muniting, of Religious Unity, they doe not

Lawes of
'

Charity,

Here

it

is

clear that

the as

Unity'

is

precisely the

same thing

and of humane Meanes of procuring 'the Meanes of the prois

curing of Religious Unity.'
as

Consequently, procuring

just

much

a substantive as the word procuration, which might
it,

be substituted for

in the fuller

form of the phrase, without
these words in -ing

making any

difference.

In

fact,

had pre-

cisely the force of Lat.

words in -atio, when formed from verbs.
'

Nowadays, the phrase
window' has become
'

he was punished for the breaking of a
breaking a window'
;

... for

whence, by
he was

the substitution of an active past participle for the supposed 2iCii\Q

present participle, has arisen the extraordinary phrase

'

punished for having 3r^^^« a window.' This phrase

is

now an ac-

cepted one, so that the grammarians, in despair, have invented
for

words thus used the
\

term, gerund,
is

under the impression that

to give a thing a

vague name

the

same thing

as clearly ex-

plaining

it

This term, however, should only be employed for
it

convenience, with the express understanding that

refers to a

modern usage which has
It is
suffix,

arisen from a succession of blunders.
this

unnecessary to give further examples of

common

which can be added, in modern English, to any verb

whatever.
1

Thus

I read in a recent book, that

'

the gerund in -ing must be disSec.

tinguished from the verbal noun in -ing,^
difference
is

The

fact is,
it

that the

purely one of

modem

usage

;

etymologically,

makes no
is

difference whatever.
*
'

Moreover, the so-called 'verbal noun'
;

only

verbal in the sense of being derivedfrom a verb

just as in the case of

steal-th

from

steal.

CHAPTER

XIV.

(XamM

Adjectival, Adverbial, and Verbal Suffixes.

§

242.

The

easiest adjectival suffixes are those

which can

be traced as having been independent words.
-fast^ -/old, -/ul, -less, -like

These are

or

-ly,

-some, -ivard, -wart, -wise.

-fast,

A.
It

S. fcEsi, the

same

as fast

dently.

occurs only in shame-fast,

when used indepenM. E. scham-fast, A. S.
and
in stead-

sceam-fcBst,

now

corrupted into shame-faced',
stede-fast,

fast, sted-fast,

M. E.

A. S.

stede-faist-e,

firm or fast

in

its

stead or place.

-fold, A. S. -feald', as in two-fold, three-fold, mani-fold.
-fill,

A.

S. -ful,

i.

e. full

;

as in dread-ful, heed-ful, need-ful,
sbs.

etc.

It is freely

added

to

of F. origin, as grace-ful,

grate-ful, &c.
-less,

M. E.

-lees,

A. S. -Uas

;

this,

the

commonest of

all

adjectival suffixes,

can be added to almost every
loose

sb. in the

language
lias

;

as cap-less, hat-less, coat-less, wig-less.

The
it

A. S.

properly

means
loose,

'

'

or

'

free

from

'

;

is

merely

another form of

which

is

the Scand. form, being bor-

rowed from
very

Icel. lauss, loose.

This
;

Icel.

word

is

likewise in

common

use as a suffix

as in Icel. vit-lauss, wit-less.

The

suffix -less

has no connection whatever with the comless.

parative adjective

-like or -ly.

The form
In

-like

only occurs in words of

modern formation,
be court-ly,

as court-like, saint-like, which
all

may

also'

saint-ly.

older

forms,

it

appears as

262
-ly,

ADJECTIVAL SUFFIXES.
a.

[Chap. XIV.

shortened form of

-like,

A.

S.

-/zV,

formerly

-ltc\

as

in gdst-b'c, ghost-ly, eorp-lic, earth-ly.
ly,
i.

Ghast-ly^

M. E.

gast-

e. terrible, is

formed from A.
S.

S. gdst-an, to terrify.

-some, M. E. -sum, -som, A.
Weigand's Etym. Germ.
A.
S.

-sum

;

cognate with

Icel.

-samr, G. -sam, and orig. the same word as E. same.
Diet., s.v.

See

-sam.
;

Hence win-some,
lis-som, short for

wyn-sum,

delightful,

from wyn, joy
sbs.

lithe-some, etc.

Added

to

of F. origin in mettle-some,

noisome, quarrel-some, toil-some.

In the word bux-om, M. E.

buh-sum, from A.
suffix
;

S. btcg-an, to

bow, bend, we have the same

the orig. sense

was

yielding, pliant, obedient, a sense

which occurs as

late as in Milton,
ii.

who

twice speaks of

'

the

buxom

air'; P. L.

842,
i.

v.
e.

270.

-ward, A.
Gothic form

S. -weard,

turned towards, inclined

;

ex-

pressive of the direction in which a thing tends to go.
is

The
from
is

-wairth-s] as in and-wairth-s, present;
to, to

wairth-an, to be turned
parallel to the pt.
t.

become ^.

The A.

S.

form

weard of the corresponding A. S. verb Thus to-war d is turned to' fro-war d is turned weord-an. from' way-ward \s short for away-ward, i. e. turned away';
' '

;

;

'

for-ward,
the
back.'
;

i.e.

'turned to the fore'; back-ward, 'turned to
'

clumsy
just as

Awk-ward is from M. E. auk,
is

turned aside,' hence perverse,

transverse, strange, a

form con-

tracted from Icel. afug-r,

ofug-r,

going the wrong way;

hawk

formed from A.

S. hafoc.

-wart.

Only
A.

in stal-wart, a corrupt

form of stal-worth.
see Stalwart in

The

suffix is

S. weorcf, worth,

worthy

;

my

Etym.

Diet.

-wise, A. S. wis.
as to the weather.
latter is obsolete
;

Occurs in weather-wise,
also

i.

e.

knowing
as

M. E.

had right-wis, wrong-wis. The
lit.

the former (A. S. riht-wis,

knowing

to right)
§
^

is

now

corrupted to righteous.
suffixes agree

243.

Other adjectival

more

or less with

Cognate with Lat.

uert-ere, to turn, ueri-i, to
is

be turned, to become.

So

also Lat. uers-us. towards,

allied to E. -ward.

§ 246.]

A/^VAJV SUFFIX

-10.

263
Such

the substantival suffixes explained in the last Chapter.
are the following.

Aryan
E.
dli'nd,

-O.
S.

Very common, but

lost in

mod. E.
cool,

Thus
deaf,

A.

5/md, answers to Goth, dimd-s, stem blind-a.
dark,

Koch
deep,

instances dlack, dkak, hlind^ broad,

dumb, full, glad, good, great, grim, high, hoar,

hot, lief,

loath, red, rough, short, sick, stiff, white, whole, wise,

worth,

young) and some others.
lauss,

stem laus-a.

Here belongs loose, from Icel. See Sievers, O. E. Gram. § 293. Few,
§ 248.

slow,
§

do not belong here; see

Examples are scarce. We may refer hither the following. Mean, in the sense of common or vile, A. S. ge-mcBn-e cognate with G. ge-mein, O. H. G. gi-mein-i, Goth, ga-main-s (stem ga-main-i). Whether this is related
244.

Aryan
;

-I.

to Lat. com-mun-i-s,

common,
real.

is

still

disputed; but the re-

lationship
§

is

probably
-U.

245.

Aryan
;

The

chief

examples are

quick, A. S.

cwic-u,

cwic

and hard, A.
-10.
Cf.

S. heard,

cognate with Goth.

hard-u-s, and allied to Gk. Kpar-v-s, strong.
§

246.

Aryan

Gk.

ay-io-s, holy.

Lost in mod.
in

E., but

sometimes appears as

-e in

A.

S.

and even

M. E.
S.

This
vowel.
de'or-e

suffix

sometimes causes z-mutation of the preceding
Dear, A.

Without mutation are the following.
;

cf.
iii.

O. H. G.
146).

tiur-i,

whence G.
*

theuer

;

Teut. deur-ya
(stem

(Fick,
fri-ja)

Free,
'

A.S. fr/o, frio;

G oih. frei-s
to love.

;

originally

at liberty,'

acting at pleasure,' and allied
;

to ^Vx.pri-ya, beloved, agreeable

from v/PRI,

Mid,'

A. S. mid, Goth, midjis

;

Teut. med-ya.
;

New, A.

S. niw-e,

Goth, niu-ji-s (stem niu-ja)

derived from Goth, nu, A. S. nH,

E. now.

Wild, A. S. wild, Goth, wilth-ei-s (stem wilth-ja)^

The

following exhibit mutation.

Keen, A.

S.

cen-e{

= *c6nsw/t-e

jo-\ cognate with G. kuhn, O. H. G. chuon-i^, Teut. kon-ya
(Fick,
*

iii.

41); perhaps allied to can.

Sweet,

A.
;

S.

in

Hence O. H. G. Chuott'rdt, Kuon-rdt, keen English as Conrad.

(in) counsel

appearing

;

264
{^.'^swol-jo-)',

ADJECTIVAL SUFFIXES.
Teut. swoT-YA (Fick,

[Chap. XIV.

to be a later formation

iii. 361); this appears from an older sw6tu, cognate with

Lat. suduis (for *swad-uis\ Gk. ^S-w-s, Skt. svdd-u, sweet

so that

it

was

originally a «-stem.

Cf. Goth, hard-ja-na as

the ace. masc. of hard-u-s^ hard.
§
in

247. Teutonic -i-na.
sihibr-ei-na-,
;

This answers
This

to Goth, -ei-na, as

stem of

silubr-ei-n-s,

silyer-n,

from

silubr,

silver

and
bec-ett,

to A. S. -en, E. -en, -n.

suffix

sometimes

causes z-mutation of the preceding vowel, as seen in beech-en,

A.

S.

from

boc,

a beech-tree

;

and

in A. S. gyld-cn,

The latter has been displaced by gold-en and the suffix is much commoner in Early English than in A. S. Hence we commonly find no mutation of the ash-en^ made of ash birch-en vowel. Examples are hemp-en lead-en braz-en, made of brass flax-en gold-en
golden, from gold, gold.
;
: ;
;

;

;

;

;

;

oak-en

;

oat-en

;

silk-en

;

wax-en

;

wheat-en', wood-en', wool-l-en.
is

So

also leather-n, silver-n, the latter of which

almost ob-

solete.

Asp-en (properly an adjective, as when we speak of
')

the aspen-tree

is
'

now
asp,'

practically

used as a
it is

sb.

;

the old

sb. cBsp

or

CBps,

an

from which

derived, being

now

almost forgotten.
only,

Lin-en was also originally an adjective
lin,

from A.

S.

flax

;

not a native word, but merely
Tre-en or treen was once used
of 'wooden^.'

borrowed from Lat. lin-um.
as

an

adj.

from
is still

tree,

chiefly with the sense

Glas-en,

made

of glass, has long been out of use.
in use in our dialects.

Elm-en,
ev-en,

from

elm,

The words
With

heath-en, do not belong here; see § 252.
Lat. -inus, as in can-inus, E. can-ine.
§

this suffix cf.

248.

Aryan -WO.

answers to E. -ow in mead-ow, shad-ow.
feal-u (stem feal-wo-

In § 212 we have seen that -wa Similarly we can
;

explain call-ow, A. S. cal-u (stem cal-wo-)

fall-ow, A. S.
r,

<

/al-wo-)
,

;

mell-ow, with / for
;

O.

Mercian mer-we, tender
near-u
^
;

Matt. xxiv. 32
;

narr-ow,

A. S.

sall-ow, A. S. sal-u

yell-ow, A. S. geol-u.
i.e.

See Sievers,
i.

Spenser has 'treen mould,'

shape of trees; F. Q.

7. 26.

§251/]

ARYAN SUFFIX
§

-RO,

265
Few^

O. E. Gram.
A.
S. pi.

300.

Here

also belong the following.

fea-we.

Nigh, M. E. neh, A.

S. neh, neah, allied to

Goth, neh-wa, adv., nigh.
Slow, A. S. slaw,
\VA (F.
iii.

Raw, A.

S.

hriaw,

pi.

hrea-we.

pi. sld-we.

True, A. S. ireo-we, Teut. tre-

124).

Fare, ready, used by Shakespeare, A. S.

gear-u (stem gear-wo-

< gar-wo-)

;

whence probably the
dressing
Its Lat.
'

sb.

yarr-ow,

milfoil,

with the sense of

'

for

wounds,

for

which

it

was a famous remedy.
it

because Achilles healed with

the

name is Achillea^ wound of Telephos;
this

Cockayne, A.
§

S.

Leechdoms,

i.

195.

249.

Aryan -MO.
S.

A

clear

example of

occurs in

E. war-m, A.

wear-m, Teut. war-ma (F.

iii.

292); prob-

ably from a root war, to boil, and not allied to Gk. 6ep-n6s.

Cf
§

Russ. var-ite, to

boil.

The w
This
is

is

a

suffix in

A.

S. rii-m,

spacious,

whence E. roomy.
only found in old super/or-vian),
first,

250. Teutonic -ma-n.
such as A.
S.

latives,

for-ma (stem
;

the sufirst.

perlative ,from for-e, fore

cognate with Lat. pri-mu-s,

To

this superlative

-ma

it

was not uncommon
^
;

to

add the
suffix

additional suffix -est (Goth, -ist-s^
-m-est,

this

produced the

which was afterwards supposed
re-spelt.

to stand for 7}wst,

and
with

was accordingly so
m-ost,

This

is

the history of our /ore-

A.

S. for-m-est,

also

more

correctly fyr-m-est,

z-mutation of
in-m-ost,

\oy. So

also hind-m-ost, Goth. hindu-vi-ist-s\

from A.
the

S. inne-m-est,

most inward

;

out-m-ost,

from

A.

S. Hie-m-est,

most outward.

With

the suffix -er for -w/,

we

get

curious

word /or-m-er, where the -m- marks
There are not many
example
is

a superlative, and the -er a comparative form.
§ 251.

Aryan -RO and -LO.
The
clearest
||

traces of the former.
bii-er,

biti-er,

M. E.
;

A.

S. bit-er, bit-or

<

bt'l-en,

pp. of btl-any to bite

cf.

Goth, bait-r-s (stem bait-ra),
heit-an, to bite.
*

bitter

<

||

bait, pt.
;

t.

of Goth.

Fai-r, A. S. fcBg-r, fccg-er

Goth, fag-r-s

Aryan
is

suffix -is-TO,

YONS

the (Aryan) comparative suffix

weakened form of -vos-TO, -YONS-TO, where Gk. -loro-i.
;

;

166
(stem
fag-ra),
is

ADJECTIVAL SUFFIXES:
fit,

[Chap.-

XIV.
fit.

suitable;

from \/PAK, to
-y to

fasten,

Slipp-er-y

formed by adding
to slip.

A.

S. slip-or^ slippery

from the verb

-LO.

There was a
-el,

rather

numerous
from

class of A. S. adjec-

tives in -oly

of which few survive.
het-ol, violent,

Sweet, in his A. S.
hate;
"d^x^

Reader, instances

hef-e,

panc-ol,

thoughtful, from pane, thought. Britt-le,
brut-el

M. E.

brti-el, brot-el,

<

II

broi-en, pp. of
iv.

A.

S. breot-an, to break.

Spenser
S.

uses brick-le, F. Q.
brec-an,
to

lo. 39, with a like sense;

from A.

break.

Uv-il, A. S. y/-el;
Fick-le,

Goth, ub-i-l-s (stem
S. fic-ol,
Id-le,

ub-i-la);

root
s.,
;

unknown.
fraud;
cf.

A.

deceitful;
S.
id-el,

from

fie,

fdc-n,
vain.

deceit.
Litt-le,

A.

empty, vain
nected with

cf G.

eit-el,

A.

S.

lyt-el,

conis

lyt,

adv., little; here lyt^^'^luti-,

and there
iii.

a

connection with Goth. Huts, deceitful; see Fick,
Mick-le,
to
great. A, S. mye-el,
/zey-a-Xo-,
is

276.
allied

mie-el;

Goth,

viik-i-l-s,

Gk. base

great.

But the most extraordinary
rak-el, rash, wild, a

word with
from

this suffix

the

M. E.

word

of Scand. origin, answering to
reik-a,

Icel. reik-all, adj.,

vagabond,

to

wander about.

This word was strangely
politely shortened so as to
i.

transformed into rake-hell in the i6th century (see Trench

and Nares), and has since been
produce the mod. E.
verb to
ail,

sb.

a rake,

e.

a dissolute man.

The
from from

A.

S. eg-l-an, to trouble, to pain, is derived allied

A.

S.
;

eg-le,

troublesome,

to

Goth, ag-lu-s,

difficult,
;

hard

so that the final /
to choke, pain.

is really

an

adjectival suffix

VAGH,
§

So

also in the case oi fou-l, A. S.

/«-/; from \/ PU, to stink.

252.

Aryan -NO.
tawny
Fai-n,
^ ;

E. brow-n, A. S. brii-n

;

cognate

with G. brau-n, Lithuanian bru-na-s, brown; and allied to
Skt. ba-bhru,

see Fick,
;

iii.

218.

Ev-en, A.

S. ef-n,

Goth, ib-n-s (stem ib-na)

probably related to Goth, ib-uks,
;

backwards.
^

A.

S. fceg-en

cf.

Icel.

feg-inn,

glad,
Die-

Not

to be connected with the verb to burn, as suggested in

my

tionary.

;

§253.]
joyful.
suffix

ARYAN SUFFIX
We may

-TO.
Icel. -inn is

267
the usual

here notice that the

of the pp. of strong verbs, as in gef-inn, E. giv-en^
;

Goth, gib-an-s (stem gzb-a-na-)

so that the adj. suffix

is

here of the same form as that of the strong pp.

The

Teut.

form oi fain is fag-i-na (Fick, iii. 169), as if it were a pp. from the Teut. base FAH, to fit, suit ; \/PAK, to fit. The

rott-en,

same pp. suffix occurs in op-en^ A, S. op-en, Icel. op-inn and in borrowed from the Icel. rot-inn, the pp. of a lost verb.
;

Cf. § 260.

Heath-en, orig. one

who

dwelt

on a

heath, but ex-

tended (Hke the Lat. paganus, a
to denote

villager, afterwards

a pagan)

one who

is

uninstructed in the Christian religion

A. S. hced-en, from hdd, a heath. Cf. Goth, haith-no, a heathen

woman;

haith-i, heath.

Gree-n,

A.

S. gre-n-e (^ziz'^grd-ti-jo-),

cognate with
iii.

Icel.

groenn, G. griin, answers to Teut. gr6-n-ya (Fick,

112);

so that the suffix

is

really double.

It is closely allied to the

verb io grow.
slender, frail
;

Lea-n, slender, A. S. hld-ne {=i^hld-n-jo)^
orig.
'

leaning,' as

if

wanting support

;

allied to

hldnan, to lean.

Ster-n, severe, A. S. styr-ne {=*stur7t-jo?).
to

With regard
south-em,
norda-rdni,

the

words

east-ern,

west-ern,

north-ern^

we must compare
north-em.

the

O. H. G. forms, such as

O. H. G.
ern

suffix -r6ni is

Fick (iii. 251) supposes that the a derivative from rann, the 2nd stem of
(pt.
t.

G. renn-en, Goth, rinn-an
north, said

rami), to run.

If so, north-

means 'running from
of the wind.
it

the north,' i.e.

coming from
should have

the
to
still

Otherwise,

we

suppose that

is

a

compound
This
is

suffix.

This

point

remains unsettled.
§

253.

Aryan -TO.
it

the usual suffix of the Lat.

pp., as in strd-tus, pp.

of ster-n-ere, to lay; and, as already
lai-d, pp.

said in § 223,

occurs as -d in E.

of lay, and as
It is

-M-

in Goth, lag-i-ih-s, laid, pp. of lag-j-an, to lay.

very familiar in

the

form

-ed,

used

as

the
;

pp. suffix
-/,

of

numerous weak

verbs, as lov-ed, pp. of love
It

also as

as in

burn-ty pp. of burn.

deserves to be particularly noticed

268

V

ADJECTIVAL SUFFIXES.
is

[Chap. XIV.
really due, for

that the presence of the -e- in -ed {^=-e-d)

the most part,

to

the causal verb-suffix which appears in
in

Gothic as
inf.

-j-^

and occasionally
Goth,
hat-i-th-s.

A.
;

S. as -i-

;

thus E. hate,

= A. S.

hai-i-an,

Goth, hat-j-an

and the pp. hat-e-d

=

A.

S. hai-o-d,

It will

thus be seen that the
;

pp. suffix

(when written

-ed)

is

properly -^only

the preced-i-

ing

-e

belongs to the verbal stem, just Hke the
tac-i-t,

in the

case of E.

borrowed from Lat.

iac-t-tus, pp.

of tac-e-re.

The Aryan -TO appears in E. as -ih, -t, and (a). The form -/h. This is rare, but occurs
orig.
th-s,

-d.

in un-cou-ih,

unknown, strange; from A.
pp. of kunn-an, to

S. cH-d^
is

known, Goth, kun-

know.

Bo-ih

a Scand. form, from

Icel. bd-dtr,

both

;

the A. S. form drops the suffix, appearing

as bd in the feminine and neuter, but as beg-en in the masculine.

Gothic has both
;

bai, the shorter
bei-de.

form, and baj-o-th-s,

the longer one
allied to

cf.

G.

Nor-th^ A. S. nor-$,

may

be

Gk.

vep-re-pos,

lower, as suggested
ner-fro,

by Kluge, who

also cites the

Umbrian

on

the

left

hand.

The con'on the

nection, in the latter case at least,

is

the

more probable,

because the Skt. dakskma means 'on the
south,' to a
'^sun-d)
;

right,' also

man

looking eastward.

Sou-lh, A. S. sH-^

(=

cf.

O. H. G. sun-d^ south ;

allied to

E. sun^ as being

the

sunny

quarter.

The
A.
X.

suffix -th also

occurs in most of the mod. E. ordinal
fi/-th, six-ik, seven-th,
-/ is

numbers, as Jbur-th,
S.fi/-ta, six-la,

&c.

;

but note

where the
-A

due to the preceding/" or
cf.

Hence
{b).

the Lowl. Scji/K, sixt\

Lat. sex-tu-s.

The form
(from

We may particularly
;

note. this in past
/,

participles, chiefly
cle/-t

when preceded by /, gh,
wrough-i;
fel-t,

n,p,s;

as in

cleave\ ref-t (from reave)

bough-t,
burn-t,
wis-t.

brough-t,

sough-t,
pen-t',

iaugh-i,

spil-i)

mean-t,

kep-t, slep-t, swep-i,
/

wep-i\

bles-t,

los-t,

When

the verb ends in

or in

d preceded by another consonant,
as in
set,

the pp.

is

often contracted;

hurt, cast, built (for
it

builded), lent, sent, spent.

In adjectives,

appears after/",

§253.1

ARYAN SUFFIX
r,

-TO,
de/-i,
fitting,

269
becom-

gh,

I (in salt),

and

s.

De/-t,

M. E.

ing, mild, da/-t, innocent
allied to

(whence prov. E.

da/-t, foolish);

A.

S. ge-daf-en,

fit,

ge-def-e, suitable, Goth, ga-dof-s,
befit.

ga-dob-Sy

fitting,

ga-dab-an, to happen,
le/-i,

Le/-i,

with

reference to the hand, A. S.

as a gloss to Lat.

mams

(Mone, Quellen,
so that

i.

443)

;

the

same MS. has
Mid. Du.

senne for syn?ie,
/«/-/,

left is for */^/?

(=

*lup-ti),

from the
A.S.

\/RUP,
s6/-te,

to break,
;

whence
allied to

also E. lop

and

Itb'^.

Soft,

adv., softly

G.

san/-t, soft,

O. H. G. samf-to,

adv., softly.

Sivif-t,

A.

S. swif-f, orig.

turning quickly, allied

to E. swiv-el.

Brigh-t, A. S. beorh-t, Goth, bairh-t-s (Teut.

berh-ta),

Ht.

lighted

up

;

from

\/BHARK,

to shine.

Lt'gh-t,

as opposed to heavy, O. Mercian lih-t {see § 33), A. S. leok-t;
allied to

Gk.

e-\ax-vs, Skt. lagh-u, light.

Righ-t, A. S. rih-t,
iii.

Goth, raih-t-s (stem raih-ta-), Teut. reh-ta (F.

248);
S.,

cognate with Lat.
of Frisian origin
;

rec-tu-s.

Sh'gh-t, not

found in A.
slich-t,

but
flat,

O.

Fris. sliuch-t.
;

Mid. Du.

even,

Du.

slech-t,

slight,

simple, vile

Teut. sleh-ta, which perslay,

haps originally meant 'smitten,' from slah, to
(F.
iii.

smite

358); but

this is doubtful.

Strat'gh-t,

A.

S. streh-t,

stretched tight, pp. of strecc-an, to stretch.
ihite

Tigh-t, prov. E.

(more

correctl^'),

M. E.

tiyt, also thyh-t

(more correctly)

;

of Scand. origin, from Icel. pitt-r
allied to

(=

*p^ht-r), water-tight;
tec-tus,

G. dich-t\ perhaps also to Lat.
lit.

covered.

Sal-t, A. S. seal-t,
salt.

salted

;

cf.

Lat. sal-su-s, salted, from sal,

Swar-i, A.
;

S. swear-t, black,
' ;

Goth, swar-t-s (stem swarto glow.

ta)

orig.

*

burnt

from \/

SWER,
t.

Tar-t, acrid,
tear.

A.S.
A.S,

tear-t\

perhaps

<

||

icBr, pt.

o{ ter-an, to

Eas-t,

ias-t\ cf. Lat. aur-ora

(=

*aus'0sd), Skt. ush-as,

dawn.

Wes-t,
in

A.S. wes-t]
Dictionary.

cf.

Lat. ues-per, evening.

See also won-i

my

The word
'

waste, A.S. w/s-te

(

= *wdS't-ja),
who

exhibits the

This etymology was discovered by Mr. Sweet,
iii.

published

it

in

Anglia,

155 (1880).

; '

270
double
suffix

ADJECTIVAL SUFFIXES.
-t-ya
;

[Chap. XIV.

it

is

related to Lat. Jias-ius, vast, but

is

not borrowed from
{c).

it.

The form-^.

We
ball-ed,

have already noticed the -e-d of
bal-d, of

the pp.
the
(cf.

A

remarkable example appears in E.
lit.
'

which

M. E. form was
pie-bald^

white streak
(paX-aKpos,

marked with a white patch skew-bald); the Welsh bal means 'having a on the forehead/ said of a horse, and cf. Gk.
(f)ak-ap6s,
cf.

bald-headed,

having a spot of white.

Bol-d, K.^. bal-d, beal-d;
Col-d, O.

Goth. adv. bal-iha-ba, boldly.
A. S. ceal-d;
cSl,
cf.

Mercian cal-d

(§ 33),

Lat. gel-i-dus,
cool.

cold

;

the -d does not appear in A. S.

E.

Dea-d,

M. E. dee-d^ A. S. dea-d; Goth, dau-th-s (stem dau-tha), a weak pp. form due to the strong verb diw-an (pt. t. dau), to
die.

(The verb

die is of
S.

Scand. origin, not A.

S.

;

from

Icel.

dey-ja.)

Lou-d, A.

hlu-d ; cognate with Gk. kXv-t6-s, re-

nowned, famed,

Skt. gru-ta, heard, pp. of gru, to hear.

The

word nak-ed
if

still

preserves the

full

pp. form
;

;

A.

S. nac-od, as

from a verb ^nac-ian^ to make bare
;

Goth, nakw-a-th-s,

naked

the Icelandic has not only nak-t-r^ naked, but also a

form nak-inn, with the characteristic pp. suffix of a strong verb
cf also Lat. nu-dus
§

254.

(= ^nug-dus), Aryan -TER. This

Skt. nag-na, bare.

occurs in E. o-ther^ A.
It is

S.

6-der,

Goth,

an-tkar.^ Lat. al-ter, Skt. an-tar-a.

a com-

parative suffix, occurring also in whe-ther^ which of two,

Goth, hwa-ikar, Gk.
in
its

Ko-rep-os, no-rep-os,

Skt. ka-tar-a

;

and
S.

derivatives ei-thers n-ei-ther.

§

255.

Aryan -ONT, -ENT. Aryan -KO.
staina-,

This

suffix

occurs in A.

present participles, as already explained in § 229, which see.
§

256.

As

already explained in § 240, this

suffix

occurs as Goth, -ha in staina-ha, stem of staina-h-s,

stony,

from So

stem of stains, a stone

;

also as -ga in

handu-ga-, stem of handu-g-s, wise, a word of doubtful ety-

mology.

also Goth, mahtei-g-s, mighty, answering to A. S.

meahti-g, mighty.

In A.

S. the suffix is practically

from the frequent use of

-KO

with z-stems.

=-I-KO, Hence the

1; ;

§ 2 57-]

ARYAN SUFFIX
is

-SKO.

27

invariable suffix

-ig,

which

is

invariably reduced to -y in

modern

English.

Thus Goth, mana-g-s
;

(with ^-stem)

is

A.

S.

mcen-ig^ E.

man-y

Goth, mahtei-g-s (with /-stem)

is

A.

S.

meaht-ig, E. mt'ght-y;
signifies
ful.
'

and Goth, handu-g-s (with «-stem)
connection with E. hand-y
is

wise/ but

its

doubt-

In .modern E. these adjectives in -y are very numerous
fact,

in

substantives
sky.'

can be added to a large number of we can say a hors-y gent/ or an ink-y Amongst A. S. adjectives of this class we may enuthis
suffix
; '

*

merate

bys-ig^
;

bus-y

;

crceft-ig^

craft-y (orig.

experienced)
avail,

dys-ig^ dizz-y

dyh-t-ig, E. dought-y
it

<

. .

dug~an, to
'

be
')

worth, mod. E. do (as
dyst-ig,

occurs in the phrase
;

that will do

dust-y

;

fdm-ig, foam-y
;

hef-ig^

E. heav-y

<

hebb-an

(=
A.

*ha/-ian), to heave

we'r-ig, wear-y, &c.
;

So

also an-y,

sill-y,

from d?t, one The word cf Lat. un-icus. M. E. sel-i, A S. sdl-ig, has remarkably changed its meaning it is derived from A. S. seel, season, and orig. meant timely then lucky, happy, blessed, innocent and
S.

dn-ig,

;

;

;

lastly, simple, foolish.

In the expression

'

silly

sheep,'

it

is

used with a
*

less

contemptuous sense than when we speak of
or

a

silly

man.'

§

257.
to

Aryan ^ISKO
(gen.
7rnt8-o'y),

-SKO.
It

This

suffix is

used in

Greek
from

form diminutives, as in
a son.

TraiS-iWor, a

young boy,

TToii

occurs with an adjectival
Cf. Lith. iewa-s,

use in Lithuanian, Slavonic, and Teutonic.
father,

whence iew-iszk-as, fatherly; O. Slav, ^ena, Russ. j'ena, a woman, whence O. Slav. iSen-is/iu, Russ. jen-sl:-ji, womanly, feminine. So also Goth, manna, a man, mann-isk-s, human
A.
S.

;

menn-isc (with /-mutation), human, also used as a

sb.,

meaning 'man'; G. Men-sch, orig. an adj., but now always used as a sb. This word is still preserved in Lowl. Sc. mense,
but the sense has

and thence
is

to

still further changed to that of manliness,' Meat good manners, propriety of behaviour.
' *

good, but mense

is

better'

is

a Scottish proverb.
freely

The

A. S.

'isc is the

mod

E.

-ish,

which can be very

added to

:

272

ADJECTIVAL SUFFIXES.

[Chap. XIV.

substantives, to denote similarity.

Other examples occur in
Ht-lend-isc
,

A.

S. hcEcfen-isc,

E. heathen-ish

;

E. out-land-ish,

&c.
tribe
;

It is particularly

used to signify relation to a country or

as in E. Engl-uh, A. S. Engl-isc, formed with z'-muta-

tion

from Angel,

i.e.

Angeln

in

Denmark,
pi.,

situate

in

the

country between Flensburg in Sleswig and the Eyder.
Dan-tsh, A.
S. Den-tsc,

E.

from Den-e,
pi.

the

Danes
pi.,

;

cf. Icel.

Dan-skr, Danish, from Dan-ir^
A.
E.
S. Frenc-isc,

the Danes.

E. Fren-ch,
the Franks.

Frank-ish, from Franc-an,
S.

Welsh, A.

Wcsl-tsc,

from

Weal-as,

pi.

of wealh,

a

foreigner.

The words

French, Welsh have already been in;

stanced as exhibiting examples of concealed mutation
192, 202.

pp.

Add

to these Brit-ish, A.S. Britt-isc,
;

from

Briit-as,

nom.
is

pi.,

the Britons

cf.

Brit-en, Britt-en, Lat. Britannia, the
it

land of the Britons. E. Scott-ish, Scot-ish, Scot-ch, Scots (for
written
all

four ways^), A. S. Scytt-isc, formed by z-mutation

from

Scott-as,

nom. pi., Lat.

Scoti, the Scots, orig. the Irish.
it

Of

common

adjectives ending in -ish

may

suffice to

mention
(also

churl-ish, A. S. cyrl-isc, cierl-isc,
spelt ceorl-isc, without mutation)

formed by z-mutation
from
ceorl,

a husbandman,
adjectives

a churl, a freeman of the lowest
are of quite
origin,

class.

Some such

modern
it

formation, from substantives of French

as agu-ish, mod-ish, prud-ish, rogu-ish.
is

We

have
;

already seen that

shortened to -ch in Fren-ch, Scot-ch

and
Y..

to

sh

in

Welsh.

fresh, A. '^.fersc
;

To these we may add the following {= ^/ar-isc), i.e. moving, ixoxn far-an^

to

by constant motion.
orig.

go fresh water being that which is kept from stagnation E. marsh, s., A. S. mersc [=*mer-isc)^
an
adj.;
lit.

'mere-ish,'

i.

e.

adjoining a mere or lake; from

mer-e, a lake. E. rash, of Scand. origin;

from Dan. and Swed.
In
this

rask, quick, brisk, Icel. rosk-r, ripe, mature.

word, as

Kluge suggests, a
as
^

th

may have been
i.e.

lost

;

it

would then stand,

it

were, for *rath-^k,

quickly turning, from the Teut.

lish)

Scots is short for the older Scottis ( = Scottish, like Inglis for Engxi. 90. J. A. H. Murray, in N. and Q. 6 S.
;

§ 258.]

ADVERBIAL SUFFIXES,
;

2^^
cf.

RATH-A, a wheel, preserved in G. jRad, a wheel
rd/as, a wheel, Lat. ro^a, Skt. rafka
^.

Lith.

Perhaps

it

is is

hardly

necessary to add that this E. adjectival suffix
distinct

-I'sh

wholly

from the verbal

suffix

of

Romance

origin which

appears in flour-ish, pol-ish, pun-ish, &c.

Aryan -IS-TO,
-est

for

-YONS-TO.
and needs no

The

superlative suffix

answers to Gk.

-io--ro-,

illustration.

See § 250.

Adverbial Suffixes.
§

258.

Some

of the adverbial suffixes can be recognised

as having been independent words.

Such are
-lie,

-ly,

-meal,

-wardj -wards, -way, -way-s, -wise.
-ly,

A.

S.

-Ii'c-e,

adverbial form from A. S.
in A. S. to

adj. suffix.

See § 242.
adjectives
heorht,

It

was common
Cf.

form adverbs from
from

by the addition of

-e; as beorht-e, brightly,

bright.

Goth, sama-leik-o, adv., equally, from
;

sama-leik-s, adj., alike

uhteig-o, seasonably,

from

uhteig-s,

seasonable.

-meal.

Thus the corresponding Goth, suffix is -leik-o. Only now used in piece-meal, a hybrid compound.
2\s>o flok-mel,

M. E. had

by compd.mes, pound-mele, by pounds

at a time, stund-mele,

by hours, &c. Of ihesQ Jlok-mel answers

to A. S. floc-mal-ujn, adv.,

by companies,

in flocks

;

where

mdtl-um

is

the dat. or instrumental plural of mdl, a time, also

a time for food, mod. E. meal, a repast.

-ward, -ward-s. As
find the

in hither-ward, hack-ward, back-wards.
suffix in § 242.

See -ward as an adjectival

It is

common
'

to

same form of a word used both adjectivally and as a bright sun,' the sun adverbially in modern English This is because the A. S. adverbial form was shines bright! and the loss of the -e reduced heorht-e, as explained above The -s in the adverb to the same form as the adjective.
*

;

;

-ward-s

is

an old genitive; see further below,
S. in al-way, al-way-s.

§

259.

-way, -way-s. A.

Al-way-s is a geni-

* Schade hag a very different solution. He supposes that an initial has been lost, and connects rash (for * wrash) with Goth, ga-ivriskwapt, to produce fruit, to bring fruit to perfection (Luke viii. X4)-

w

VOL.

I.

T

;

:Z74
tival

ADVERBIAL SUFFIXES.

[Chap. XIV.

form, in later use, due to form-association with adverbs

in
lit.

-J.

A /-way is
As
Cf.

an accusative form, as

in

A.

'all

way,' often used with the sense of
in no-wise, like-wise.

S. ea/ne weg (ace), mod. E. always.

-wise.

The
;

suffix is the ace.

case of the
wis-an.

common
A.
S.

E. sb. wise, manner

A.

S. wis-e, ace.

on cenig-e wis-an (ace), on any wise; onj^d

ylcan wis-an (ace), in the same way.

The
due

ace. wis-an be-

came M. E.
§ 259.

wis-e,

and

finally wise.

Other adverbial

suffixes are
;

to case-endings,
;

as in

-J, -se, -ce,

old genitives

-er,

old dat. fem. or accusative

-om, old dat. plural.
-l-ing, -l-ong.
-s,

To these we may add the compound suffix
p. 194.
suffix
-es
is

See further in Morris, Hist. Outlines,

-se, -ee.

The

the characteristic ending

of the genitive case
substantives;
genitive

of A. S. strong masculine and neuter
find

and we
is

several instances in

which the

case

used

adverbially;

as in dcBg-es,

by

day.

By
by
is

association with this usage
night,

we

find the adverb nihl-es,

though niht
niht-e.

is xt2i\\y feminine,

and

its

genitive case
else,

properly

Similarly

we can explain E.
genitive
is

A.

S.

ell-es,

cognate with

Goth,

alj-is,

of

aljis,

other,

another.

The A.
ne'd-e,

S.

nM, nyd, need,
which
is

feminine, and has

the gen.
xxiii.

nyd-e,

used adverbially in Luke
adverbially;
ned-es, preserved in
on-ce,

17.

Hence

the

M.

E. ned-e, also used

but the more

common M.

E. form

is

mod. E. needs.
A. A.
S. S.

the gen. of dn, one.

The A. S. dn-es, E. By association
thri-es,
is

was originally
this

with

word, the

twi-wa was altered to M. E.

twi-es,

E. iwi-ce ; and the

pri-wa to M. E.
that of

E. ihri-ce.

The

final -ce,

so

noticeable in these words,

intended to shew that the final
is

sound
cf.

is

s,

not of

z,

and

imitated

from the French
the suffix of the

preien-ce, violen-ce.
-er.

In E.

ev-er,

A. S.

(Ef-re,

the -re

is

dat. or gen. fem.,

as in A. S. god-re, dat. (and gen.) fem.
also in nev-er, A. S. ndf-re.

of g6d, good.

So

But

in

yest-er-day, the suffix is the ace. masculine, A.S. geost-ran-dcBg.

;

§

26o.]

VERBAL SUFFIXES.
In whtl-om, the suffix denotes the dat.
pi.

275
pi.
;

-om.
time.

A.

S.

hwil-um, at times, once on a time, dat.

of hwil^ while,

E. seld-om answers to A.

S. seld-um, dat. pi., or seld-an,

dat. sing, (both are used) of seld, rare.

-1-ing, -1-ong.

The

gen.

pi.

of A.S. sbs. in -ung (later -ing)

could be used adverbially, as dn-ung-a, dn-ing-a, altogether,
gen.
pi. of.

dn-ung^ sb. formed from an, one.
eall, ail.

So

also eall-

ung-a, later eall-ing-a, wholly, from

Similarly,

M. E.

adverbs were formed ending in -l-hig, as hed-l-ing, headforemost, afterwards altered to head-long, probably
fusion with long.

by conflat-ling

So
;

also dark-ling,

i.e.

in the dark

;

OT flat-long,

flat

side-ling or side-long, sideways.

Verbal
§

Suffixes.
still

260.

The

only verbal suffixes which
are -en (-«), -k,

appear in
cf.

modern English
-en, -n.

-le (-/), -er, -se]

Morris,

Hist. Outlines, p. 221.

This
It

of meaning.
passive sense,

remarkable for its complete change was formerly the mark of a reflexive or but it now makes a verb active or causal. The
suffix is
full,

Gothic full-j-an, to make
or to become
is

from full-s,

full,

but the Goth, fullr-n-an, from the same
filled,
full.

adj.,

was causal meant to be
the sign

There

is

no doubt
is,

that the -n- here

inserted

the

same
'

as the -n in bor-n,

tor-71, i.e. is

of the pp. passive;

so that /ull-nfilled,'

in fact,

*

filled
full.

V

and
This

full-n-an means

to be

use
is
*

is still

common
*

in the
Icel.

become Scand. tongues. Thus
hence, to

Icel.

sof-na

to fall asleep
'

;

vak-na, Dan. vaag-ne, Swed. vack-na,

is
*

to

become awake I'
-n- in full-nis, in fact,

So
the

also

A.

S.

dwa^c-n-an
(§ 252)
;

was
Lat.

The
The

Aryan

suffix

-NO

cf.

pU-nus, Skt. ptir-na,
*

full.

is controverted in an by A. E. Egge, on Inchoative or «-verbs in Gothic, &c.,' in the American Journal of Philology, vii. 38. The author says these verbs are inchoative, and he may be right, practically. Hut it makes no difference in the development of the forms. The suffix -no was originally adjectival, and the derived verb could easily take either an

passive use of the Goth, suffix -nan
*

excellent paper

inchoative ur a passive sense.

T

2

;

276
intransitive,

VERBAL SUFFIXES,
though
see
it

[Chap. XIV.

was used both with strong and weak
1

past tenses
is

;

but after
still
;

500,

it

was often used
in

transitively,

and

so used

Awaken

Murray's Dictionary.

old causal verbs in -ian ceased to have any distinctive

The mark
by

and

this loss

was supplied
suffix

in a

most curious way,
not early,
is
'

viz.

using the old

-n-

with

a causal sense, as being so
is

frequently required.

This usage, which
;

is

now
fat
'

thoroughly established
length-en
is
'

so that to fatt-en
'

to

make

;

to

increase in length,' to

make
:

longer,' &c.

Most of
en^

these are formed from adjectives, as
cheap-en,

black-en, bright-

broad-en,

dark-en^
lik-en,

deaf-en^

deep-en,

fresh-en,
op-en,

gladd-en,

hard-en,

less-en,

madd-en,

moist-en,

quick-en, redd-en, rip-en, rough-en, sadd-en, sharp-en, short-en,
sick-en, slack-en, soft-en, stiff-en^ straight-en, sweet-en, thick-en^

tight-en, tough-en^ weak-en^ whit-en

;

some of which
;

are used
is,
;

indifferently as transitive or intransitive
all,

so that there

after

no

sure rule.

Very few are formed from

sbs.

as

fright-en, heart-en, height-en, length-en, strength-en.

The most

important, philologically, are those which are found most
early; these are, I ihi'nk, fast-en, glist-en, lik-en, list-en, op-en,

wak-en.

Perhaps

glist-en,

A.

S. glis-n-ian,

and

list-en,

a later

formation from A.
the
true sense,

S. hlyst-an, are the

only ones which retain

and can never be

(correctly) used except

intransitively.

The word
S.

op-en

is

very remarkable.

As

a

verb,

it

answers to A.
;

open-ian, causal verb
op-en,

from

op-en,

adjective

whilst the adj.

cognate with
strong
;

Icel. op-inn,

exhibits

the characteristic ending of a

pp.

This
is,

pp. as

is
it

probably formed from the prep, up
'

so that op-en
lifting

were,

upped,'

i.

e. lifted,

with reference to the

of

the lid of a

box or the curtain forming the door of a

tent.

Shakespeare has dup
-n.
lear-n,

{=

do up) in the sense *to open.'

The same
ow-n
;

suffix

appears as -n in daw-n, drow-n,faw-n,
of which the true pp. origin of the

in

some

suffix can be clearly traced.

E. daw-n

is

M.

E. daw-n-en, to

become

day, formed with inserted -n- from daw-en, to be-

§

26 1.]

VERBAL SUFFIXES,
day, A. S. dag-ian
is
;

I^JJ

come
n-en,

from dccg (stem dag-a), day.

E.

drow-n
A.
S.

A.

S. drunc-n-ian,

whence M. E.

drunc-n-ien^ drunk-

and (by

loss of k) drou-n-en, drow-n-e, drow-n.
is

The
is

drunc-n-ian

'to

become drunken/

to be drenched,

from A.
E. /at-n,

S. drunc-en, pp.

of drinc-an^ to drink.

E.

faw-n

K.^.fcBg-n-ian}^ to rejoice, be pleased, from the adj.yfe^-w,
i.

e.

pleased

;

cf.

Icel feg-inn, fain, with the suffix

-inn characteristic of a pp. of a strong verb.
leor-n-ian, to learn, i.e. to
to a Goth,

E. lear-n, A. S.

be taught, to experience, answers
"^Its-an-s,
t.

form *ltz-n-an, formed from
E. ow-7t, to possess, A.
adj.,

pp. of the

defective verb appearing in the Goth. pt.

lais, I

have expossess
;

perienced.

S. dg-n-ian, to

formed from dg-en,

one's own, orig. pp. of the strong

verb dg-an, to possess, which produced the verb owe, in the

same

sense, as used

by Shakespeare, Temp.
;

i.

2.

407, &c.
Diet.

Perhaps mour-n also belongs here
§ 261. -k.

see

my

Etym.

This

suffix,

of obscure origin, appears to give

a verb a frequentative force.

The

clearest

example occurs

in

har-k, hear-k-en, A.S. heor-c-n-ian, her-c-n-ian, evidently allied
to hyr-an

(= *Mar-ian,

*h/az-ian), Goth, haus-jan, to hear.
cf.

E.

lur-k, of Scand. origin;

Dan.

lur-e, to

listen, lie
;

in wait,
skul-k-e,

G. lauer-n. E.
to sculk
;

scut-k^ skul-k, of

Scand. origin

Dan.

cf.

Icel. skoll-a,
;

to sculk away.

E. smt'r-k, A. S.

smer-c-ian, to smile

the shorter form appears in

M. H. G.
smt'lcy

schmter-euj also schmtel-en, to smile, cognate with E.

of

Scand. origin.
sb.,

E.

stal-k,

A.

S. steal-c-ian

2,

allied to

E.

stal-k,
stele,

A.

S. steal-c^ adj., lofty,

and

to A. S.

steel,

prov. E.

a

handle.

E. wal-k, A.S. weal-c-ian, orig. to
;

roll

about, go from
as in Russ.

side to side

allied to

val-iate, to roll, Skt. val, to

Aryan \/ WAL, to move to and fro;

roll,

cf. Fick,'iii.

298*.

explain the vowel-sound from \c(i\.fagna, instead of from A..S./agnian\ so this verb may be Scandinavian, though the adj.
It is easier to

fain
'^

is

not so.

In the
E, talk

compound
is
;

be-stealcian, in Sweet's
to.

A. S. Primer,

vi.

37.

'

often referred

here,

doubt the connection the and edition.

see Talk in

and compared with E. tell. But I my Etym. Diet, and in the Supp. to

278
§

VERBAL SUFFIXES.
262. -le
(-1),

[Chap. XIV.

-er.

These are equivalent

suffixes,

the

letters /

and r being interchangeable.

They

are used to ex-

press iteration,

and so

to

form frequentative verbs.

They

are especially noticeable in words of imitative origin, such as
babb-le,

rumh-le^

warb-le, cack-le, crack-le, gagg-le, gigg-le,
tink-le,

gugg-le,

chuck-le, jing-le, jang-le,
;

rust-le,

whist-le,

ratt-le, pratt-le, tatt-le

and jabb-er,

gibb-er, chatt-er, clatt^er,

patt-er, tttt-er, twitt-er, mutt-er^ whisp-er.

Similarly dragg-le,
;

to

keep on dragging,

is
;

the frequentative of drag
hobb-le^ of

dazz-le, of

daze ; dribb-le, of drip

hop

;

hurt-le, to clash,
;

of
of

hurt (F. heurt-er, O. F. hurt-er, to push)
joust; jogg-le, ofJog
;

jusi-le, jost-le,

m'bb-Ie, of nip

;

snuff-le,

oi snuff ; tramp-le,

of tramp
wrest.

;

wadd-le^ of

wade

;

wagg-le, of

wag

;

wrest-/e, of

Similarly,

we have

draw-l, from

mew; wau-l
like

(as in cater-waut)

draw ; mew-l, from from M.E. waw-en, to cry
be considered as a
fre-

a cat^

So

also

glimm-er

may

quentative of gleam; flutt-er, A. ^.flot-er-ian, to fluctuate, of

A.

S. flot-ian, io float; glitt-er, is

from the base

gk't-,

seen in
to

Goth. gk't-mun-Jan, to shine;
wallow,
in
roll

welt-er, formerly walt-er,

about, from A. S. wealt-an, to turn about.
the
frequentative

But
con-

many

cases
is

sense

is

not

apparent^

and the verb

sometimes
is

intransitive,
;

or expresses

tinuance, or else

causal
sb.
;

as in crumb-le, to reduce to

crumbs, from crumby

curd-le,

from curd,

sb.

;

spark-le,

from spark,
extends the

sb.

Or word without making much
Cf. knee-l,

from

knee.

the suffix merely
difference,

as in

tumb-le, with the

same sense

as A. S. tumb-ian, to turn heels

over head, to dance violently; dwin-d-le, formed (with excrescent d) from A. S. dwin-an, to pine away.
the suffix
sider
-le

Verbs with
to

and

-er are

numerous, and

it

is

needless to con-

them

further.

We
is

must remember, however, not
due to the Scand. form

^

The

-er in cat-er-wau-l

;

cf. Icel. kott-r,

a cat, gen. katt-av, whence the compounds kattar-auga, cat's eye, Similarly the M. E. nighterforget-me-not kattar-skinn, a cat-skin. tale (Chaucer) corresponds to Icel. ndttartal.
;

§

263.]

VERBAL SUFFIX
merely due to the

-SE.

279

confuse the verbal suffixes with substantival ones; thus the

verb

to

gird-le

is

^h. gird-le,

from

gi'rd; so

that gird-le is not a frequentative of the verb to gird.
larly,

Simi-

the verb to fett-er

is

merely due to the

sh./ett-er^

A.

S.

fet-or, allied to

Lat. ped-ica.

And

it

may be

taken as a

general rule that, before any sound etymology of a pair of
related substantives

ascertain, historically,

the verb,

and verbs can be attempted, we must whether it is the sb. that is derived from or conversely the verb from the sb.
This
suffix is

§ 263. -se.

remarkably clear in the verb
clean,

cUan-se, A. S. cldn-s-ian, to

make

from the

adj. clean^

A.

S. clcen-e.
is

Also in E.
its

rin-se,

borrowed from F.
from Scandinavian
Dan.
;

rin-se-r,
cf. Icel.

which
reen

borrowed, in
cleanse,

turn,

hrein-sa, to
;

from

hrein, clean;
It also
;

ren-se,

from

Swed. ren-sa, from

ren.

occurs in clasp, grasp,
actually find

put, respectively, for clap-s, *grap-s

we

M. E.

clap-s-en (Chaucer, C.

T. 275), and *grap-s can be inferred from comparison with grap-ple. Dr. Morris instances lisp ;
but nothing
is

known

of this verb beyond the fact that
'

it

is

derived from an adjective signifying

imperfect of utterance,'

which

is

spelt indifferently wlips

and

wlisp.

We find

:

*

balbus,

uulispl

and 'balbutus, stom-wlisp'
p. 45);

in the

Corpus Glossary
in Wright's Glos-

(O.E. Texts,
saries, ed.

and 'balbus, wlips'
col. 192.

Wulcker,

As

to the origin of this suffix,
-izon,

we

find that the A. S. -sian

answers to Goth, -ison or
wallow, hat-izon, to
viously formed from

as seen in walw-ison^ to

feel hate, to

be angry.

Hat-iz-on
;

is

ob-

hat-is,

hate (stem hat-is-a)
suffix

and -dn

answers to A.

S. -lan,

a causal

which

is

to

be compared

with the Skt. -aya, as in bodh-aya, to cause to know, inform,

from budh, to understand.
a compound
bination.
suffix arising

Hence

the E. -se corresponds to
suffixes

from these

used

in

com-

Cf. § 230(a), p. 252.

CHAPTER

XV.

ihAMp

Derivation from Roots.

§

264.

The

root of a given

word

in

any Aryan language

may be
remains

defined as the original monosyllabic element which
after the

word has been stripped of everything of and formative suffixes. For a general discussion of roots, I beg leave to refer the reader to Whitney's Language and the Study of Language, 2nd ed., Whitney takes the case of the word 1868, pp. 254-276. irrevocable, and shews that tr- {=in, not), and re-, again, are prefixes, whilst -able (Lat. -a-bi-li-s) is made up of formathe nature of prefixes
tive suffixes;

so that the root of the word,
uoc-'^.

in

its

Latin

form,

is

voc- or

It is

found that

all

words of Aryan

origin which admit of a complete analysis can be reduced
to ultimate monosyllabic elements of this character,

and a
All

comparison of
at

diff'erent

languages enables us to determine,

any

rate approximately, the

Aryan form of

the root.

such roots are either of a verbal or a pronominal character.
§

265.

The
:

importance
syllable,

— Elements
'

following passage from
like voc,

Whitney

is

of special

each composing a single

and containing no traceable sign of a formative
all

element, resisting

our attempts at reduction to a simpler
arrive at

form, are what
analysis of the
*

we

as

the final

results

of our

Indo-European vocabulary;
ti

every word, of

Latin words are better spelt with
V,

student that the pronunciation of the consonant

E.

but rather like the E. w.

The

because this reminds the was not like that of the Aryan root is weq (Gk. fen).
v,

than

'

§266.]

ARYAN
this is

ROOTS.
is

281
obscure,

which

made

up— save

those whose history
its

and cannot be
ficant portion,

read far

back toward

beginning

is

found to contain a monosyllabic root as

its

central signi-

along with certain other accessory portions,
syllables,

syllables or

remnants of

whose

office

it is to,

define

and

direct the radical idea.

The
;

roots are never found in

practical use in their

naked form

they are (or, as has been

repeatedly explained, have once been) always clothed with
suffixes,

or with suffixes and prefixes

;

yet they are

no mere

abstractions, dissected out

by the grammarian's knife from
of gradual

the midst of organisms of which they were ultimate and
integral

portions;

they are rather the nuclei

accretions, parts about

which other parts gathered to com;

pose orderly and membered wholes

germs,

we may

call

them, out of which has developed the intricate structure of
later speech.

And

the recognition of

them

is

an acknowits

ledgment that Indo-European language, with

all

fulness

and

inflective

suppleness,
that

is

descended from an original
of prime

monosyllabic tongue;

our ancestors talked with one

another in single

syllables, indicative of the ideas
all

importance, but wanting

designation of their relations;
differing in "nature

and

that out of tHese,

by processes not
still

from those which are

in operation in our

own

tongue,
all

was elaborated the marvellous and varied Indo-European dialects.'
§

structure of

the

266. Analysis further teaches us that

many

prefixes

and

suffixes

were likewise once independent words, or made up

of several such words compounded together ; and
resist the
affixes.

we cannot

conclusion that the same must be true of all such

Hence we conclude

that

all affixes

arose from roots

similar to the primary ones, though they are often so

worn

down

that neither their original forms nor

senses can be

discovered. The Aryan polysyllabic word was simply compounded of various roots strung together. The oldest and commonest of these sank first to the condition of obsolete
'

;

282
roots,

ARYAN
and secondly

ROOTS.
mere
'

[Chap.

XV.

to the condition of

suffixes

;

whilst

others retained sufficient form
recognisable,

and sense to remain
efficient
'

distinctly

and are

still

regarded as

roots, posis

sessing a special interest from the fact that their value

known.
as are

The words
still

'efficient'

and 'obsolete'
'efficient' I

are

here

used merely for convenience.

By
an

mean such

used in the root-syllable; and by 'obsolete'

such as are
of an
affix.

now only used The form and

as

affix
'

or as forming part
'

sense of

efficient

roots can be

determined by analysis;
quite uncertain.
§

those of the 'obsolete' roots are

267.

A

list

of

known Aryan

roots

is

given
;

in

my
in
in-

Etymological Dictionary, with numerous examples

and
list

my

Concise Dictionary, without examples.
all

This

cludes nearly

that are of importance to the student of

English, Latin, and Greek.
these

A

few of the most useful of
(It

may be

here mentioned.

must, however, be

first

explained that the roots, as cited in

my

Dictionary from

Vanicek and Fick, are there given
which
oldest.
is

in the Sanskrit form,

no

longer, as formerly, supposed to be always the

Thus the root signifying 'eat' is there given as AD, but should rather be ED. The Sanskrit form, indeed, is ad, but it is not the general form; on the contrary, we
find

Gk.

eS-eii/,

Lat. ed-ere,
eat.

A.

S.

et-an,

to

eat,

and the

Lithuan. ed-mi, I

The

vDwels

E

and

O

can no longer
I therefore

be regarded, as formerly, as being unoriginal.

now
as

substitute
in

E

and O, where
list

requisite, for the
,

vowel given

A

my

former

of Roots.)

The
ing;

following roots, then, are
;

common.

AG
;
;

conveyed

the idea of driving

AN,

breathing or blowing

AR, plough-

ED, eating; ES, breathing (hence, being) EI, going or moving; EUS, burning; KAP, seizing or holding; QER, making ; KEL, covering QI (rather than KI) ^, lying down
;

^

The forms thus

noticed within a parenthesis are those given in

my

Dictionary.

;

§ 268.]

LIST OF FIFTY ROOTS.
;

283

KLI, leaning against KLEU, hearing GwEM (rather than GA), going; GEN (rather than GAN), producing; GER, grinding; GEUS (rather than GUS), tasting, choosing;
;

GHER,
pouring
;

glowing,

shining;
;

GHEU

(rather

than

GHU),

TEN, stretching TEU, swelling, growing strong DO, giving; DEK, taking; DEIK (rather than DIK), pointing out DHE, putting, placing DHEIGH, smearing,
; ;

moulding with the fingers;

DHU,

shaking; PA, feeding;
flowing,
floating;

PET,

flying;

PED, walking; PLEU,
^
;

BHA,

speaking;
;

measuring
joining;

BHER, carrying; BHEU, growing; ME, MER, dying MU, muttering YEUG,
;

RUP,
calling;

breaking,

spoiling;

WEQ

(rather

than

WAK),

WES,

dwelling, staying;

WEID

(rather

than WID), observing, knowing;

SED, sitting; SAR or SAL, hurrying, springing; SERP, gliding; SEK, cutting; SKID, cleaving STA, standing STER, spreading SREU, or STREU, flowing. The number of words that can be
;
; ;

formed from these
§

fifty

roots

is

very large.

now take the case of a common English word, and shew how the form of its root may be discovered.
268.
I shall
this, we shall often have to take into account Grimm's and Verner's Laws, and to use the hints concerning gradation, vowel-mutation and affixes, which have been given in preceding chapters. The word selected shafl be the verb to listen. We must begin by tracing it in Middle English and Anglo-Saxon. The Middle English has the forms lustn-en, listn-en, and the shorter forms lust-en, list-en,

In doing

in all of

which the

final -en is

merely the
the -«is

infinitival suffix.

In the forms lust-n-en,
sertion or addition,
(§ 260).

list-n-en,

plainly

an

in-

and has already been discussed above
list-.

We
is

thus get a base lust- or

The

variation

of the vowel

due to the

difficulty
U).

of representing the A. S.

y

(which had the sound of G.
»

Hence

the A. S. base

See a full discussion of the root MAR, Lectures on the Science of Language, 2nd Series,

to grind, in
lect. vii.

Max

Miiller,

'

284

ARYAN
be expected to be
;

ROOTS.
There
is,

[Chap.

XV.

may
word
h
;

lyst-.

however, no such

the fact

being that there has been a loss of a prefixed
S. hlyst-an^

this

we

at

once perceive by comparing the A.
hearken to
;

to

list, listen,

a weak verb formed from the

sb.

hlystj expressive

of the sense of hearing.

But

-st is

a sub-

stantival suffix; see §

as hly-st.

Moreover,
;

234; so that we may divide the word y is an unoriginal vowel, due to i'^hlu-st-i

mutation of «
(§ 185).

so that hly-st presupposes a form
resort to

We now

comparison with other languages,

and we

find Icel. hlu-st-a, to listen,

from Must, the ear ; and

the shorter form (without si) in the Goth, hliu-ma, hearing,

where -ma
of the base

is

a mere

suffix

;

see § 214.

The Gothic form

is hltu-,

answering to Teut. hleu ; which again,
to

by Grimm's Law, answers
the idea of 'hearing.'

an Aryan
is

KLEU,
/),

denoting

This root

clearly
for

vouched for
to hear;

by the
Kkv-eiv,

Skt. gru (with g for k,

and r

Gk.

O. Lat. du-ere, to hear;

Welsh

clu-si,

hearing, &c.
processes, to

We
the
§

have thus traced the E.

h's/en,

by known

Aryan root
269.
It
is

KLEU

or

KLU.
what other English
evident that one
this root.
It is

interesting to enquire

words can be derived from
derivative
fru-/a,
is

the Gk. kXv-t6s, renowned, cognate with Skt.

heard

253^).

The

idea of 'renowned'
of,

comes
lai/er
'

from that of being much heard

or loudly spoken about.

By

Verner's Law, the Gk. kXv-t6s, accented on the

syllable,

answers

^

to A. S. Mii-d (not hlu-d),

meaning loud

(§ 129); and this A. S. word became M. E. lud or loud (pronounced with ou as in souf), and finally mod. E. loud, by the common change of A. S. u to mod. E. ou (§ 46). Hence we

see that E. loud

is

another derivative from the above root.

We may

certainly also refer hither, not only the Goth, hliu-

ma, hearing (as above), but the Swed. dialectal words Iju-mm,

a noise, Iju-mma, to resound, lom-ra, to resound (frequentative);
^

common) may perhaps be due

Except in the length of the vowel. This variation (which to a difference in stress.

is

;

§ 27o.]

THE ROOT KLEU OR KLU.
This Swed.
dial,

285

see Rietz, p. 410.

lom-ra

is

evidently the E.

lum-b-er, in the sense of

making a

noise, as in
st.

'The lumbering
;

of the wheels

'

in

Cowper's John Gilpin,
Dictionary.
pres. pt. clu-ens, later

6 from the end

see

Lumber
to hear,

(2) in

my

Moreover, the O. Lat.

clu-ere,

had the

form

cH-ens,

one

who
ace.

hears,

one

who

obeys,
the

a dependant;

and from the
which
is

cU-ent-em

came

F. cli-ent

and E.

di-eni,

thus

seen to

be not a native word, but borrowed from Latin
Similarly, E. glory
is is

through the French.

borrowed from

the O. F. glorie, Lat. glo-ria, which

certainly a

weakened
renowned

form of an older
glory,

"^clo-ria, allied

to
;

Gk.
cf.

kXc-os (for "^Kkef-os),
kKv-tos,

from the same root

KLEU

Gk.

(above) \

A

still

more extraordinary

result is that the very

the F. esclave

same root has yielded the mod. E. slave, derived, through and G. sklave, M. H. G. slave, from the O.
Russ. Slovene, the Slavonians
;

for the orig. sense of slave

was a captive
literal

Slave,

or one
'

of the

Slavonic
'

race.

The
;

sense of Slovene was

the intelligible

people
'

for,

like other races, they

regarded their neighbours as
;

dumb/
Slav.

or speaking unintelligibly

so that Slovene

is

a derivative

from the Old Slavonic
slu-lif to

slo-vo,

a word;

allied to

Old

be named, to be

illustrious.
is

This verb

slu-tt, like

the Russ. slu-sh-ate, to hear,
as before.

from the same root
initial

KLEU

The
;

peculiarity

by which the
in

k has been

changed into

s is

found not only

Slavonic, but in the

Skt. gru, to hear
is

where the symbol g denotes a sound that pronounced nearly as s, though etymologically derived
k.

from an original
cent-um,
(aia,

In precisely the same way, the Lat.
in hund-red) answers to Skt^

Welsh cant (our hundPers. sad, and Russ. sto.
Aryan root

§

270. Summing up the

results of the §§ 268, 269,

we

find

that the
^
*

KLEU,

to hear,

is

the root of the

mod. E.

KXiot (pour *K\ifoi), &c.
Br^al, Diet. Etym. Latin.

Gloria vient d'un ancien substantif neutre *clovoSi * clous, *cl5s~Cf. le rapport de gracilis et de aacem *

a86
native words
listen,

ARYAN
loud,

ROOTS.
(to

[Chap.

XV.

and lumber

make a

noise),
loud-ly,
client,

with their derivatives, such as
loud-ness, lumber-ing
;

listen-er,

listen-ing,

as well as of the
their
,

borrowed words
such
as
in-glori-ous
slav-ish,

glory,

slave,

with

derivatives,

client-ship,
,

glori-ous,
ous-ly,

glori-ous-ly

glori-ous-ness,

in-glori-

in-glor-ious-ness,

vain-glory,

slav-ish-ly,

thus obtain two important results. The Aryan roots can be exceedingly fertile, since' from the single root KLEU we have obtained more than a score of modern English words, without counting the numerous
slav-ish-ness.
first is,

We

that the

derivatives in other languages, such as kKv-^iv, k\v-t6s, kK4-os
in

Greek,

cli-ens,

in-cli-tus,

glo-ria
is

in

Latin,

«&c.

The
at first

other result, not less important,
larly

that

an analysis thus regu-

conducted enables us to associate words which

sight are so utterly dissimilar as loud, listen, glory, client,
slave, in

and

which the sole
to
all
is l.

letter

of the root that

still

remains

common

A

moment's
effect

reflection will
is

shew how
the

utterly unlike

modern

scientific

etymology

to

old

system of guesswork, the

of which was, on the one
fact

hand, to associate words which were in
nected,
whilst,

wholly unconperceive

on

the other,

it

wholly failed to

innumerable real connections.
.

§

271.

By way

of further illustiation, I will consider the
to pour,

interesting root
fuller

GHEU,
X^f~^\

which also appears

in the

forms

GHEUD
(for

and
f^t-

GHEUS.
From

This root appears

in

Gk. x^~^

x^^~^^j perf. pass. Ke-xv-fiai, to

pour,

x^-H-os, xv-Xos, juice.

these sbs. the words chyme

and
root

chyle have
is

been imported into mod. English.

The same

most hkely the source of al-che-my, of which Dr.
says, in the

Murray

New

E. Diet., that

it

is

'

adopted from

the O. Fr. alquimie, alquemie, alkemie, an adaptation of Mid.

Latin alchimia (Prov. alkimia, Span, alquimia,

Ital.

alchimia),

adopted from the Arab, al-kimtd,
ently adopted

i.e.

a/, the,

kimid, appar(circa

from the Gk.

x'/f*'"?

XVh^^^^

found

300) in

the Decree of Diocletian against " the old writings of the

§ 271.]

THE ROOT GHEU.
x'/f '"

287

Egyptians, which treat of the
silver"; hence the
art/'

(transmutation) of gold and

word

is

explained by most as ''Egyptian

and

identified with xw^^^

Gk. form

(in Plutarch)

of the

native

name

of Egypt (land of

Khem

or Khanie, hieroglyphic
If so,
like-

Khmi, " black earth," in contrast to the desert sand). it was afterwards etymologically confused with the
sounding Gk.
x^f^^^^}

pouring, infusion,
(cf. x'^"M^f>
;

from

x^-, perfect

stem of
to

x^~^^^: to
its

pour

juice, sap),

which seemed

explain

meaning
after

hence the

Renascence spelling

alchymia and chymistry.

Mahn

(Etymol. Untersuchungen, 69)

however concludes,
xv\i.da

an elaborate investigation, that Gk.
being
first

was probably the

original,

applied to pharma-

ceutical chemistry,

which was
;

chiefly

concerned with juices

or infusions of plants

that the pursuits of the Alexandrian

alchemists were a subsequent development of chemical study,

and

that the notoriety of these

may

have caused the

the art to be popularly associated with the ancient

Egypt ^, and

spelt XVM^'V' XW^^i

^-s

in Diocletian's

name of name of decree. From

the Alexandrians the art

and name were adopted by the Arabs,

whence they returned
then

we

assign alchemy to this root,

refer hither the

Europe by the way of Spain.' If we must of course also words alchemist, alchymtst, chemist, and chymtst.
to

In Latin we have the extended root
fundere, to pour,
pt. t./ud-i,

GHEUD

in the verb
;

y^./u-sum

(for */ud-sum)

hence

numerous borrowed E. words, such as fuse,
the supine)

con-fuse, diffuse,

effuse, infuse, refuse, fus-ion, suffus-ion, transfuse (from
;

confound, refund (from the
(cf.

infinitive)

;

fut-ile,

confute, refute

the O. Lat. pp. fu-tus

=

*fud-tus as well

2isfu-sus); q\so fusil, in the sense of easily
plenty, O. F. foison,

mohen

;

foison,

abundance, from Lat. ace. fusionem,
See Concise Etym. Diet.
p.

pouring out, profusion.

166,

' I have little doubt that Mahn is right. Medieval etymologists delighted in startling and far-fetched associations, which had all the air of profound learning. The derivation from Gk. was too simple to please

them

;

but the association of the word with Egypt was just what they

desired.

1Z88
col. 2.

AR VAN ROOTS.
The
'L^it /under e
'

[Chap.

XV.

also appears as Y./ondre,

whence
sb.

'E. found,

in the sense

to cast metals/

and the derived
2iS

font, fount, an assortment of types, as well

found-ry.

This

Lat. root

GHEUD

answers to Teut.

GEUT,

appearing in

Goth, giut-an, A.

S. giot-an,

to pour, a verb of the choose-

conjugation, with the 3rd stem gut- and the 4th stem got-.

A

derivative

of the 3rd stem

is

gut,

and of the 4th stem
root

in-got, as already

shewn
its

(§ 177).

The

GHEUS
the

occurs'
its

in the Icel. gjos-a, to pour, having for

its

2nd stem gaus,

3rd stem gus-, and

4th gos-.

From
Icel.

2nd stem
ey,

is

formed, by the usual z-mutation of
verb geys-a, to gush, and the
spring.

au to
'

the

weak

sb. geys-ir, a
is

gusher,' a hot

From

the 3rd stem

formed the

Icel.

weak verb
It

gus-a, to gush, borrowed by us in the form gush.
serves to be

de-

added that the A.

S. geot-an, to pour,
;

became

M. 'E.yet-en,
A. V.
\NOxdi
\\2i&

to pour, to fuse metals

whence the
vi.

sb. yet-ere,

a fuser of metals, used by Wyclif in Jerem.

29,
'

where the

founder (actually from the same

root).

From
i.e.

this
bell-

yeter was formed the

compound

helle-yeter,

lorum, written

word duly recorded in the Promptorium Parvua. d. 1440, and edited by Mr. Way for the Camden Society. At p. 538 of this edition, Mr. Way has
founder, a
still

duly noted that the term belle-yeter

survives in Billiter

Lane, London, as being the locality where foundries were
anciently established.

In

this case the

ye has become
is

i,

and

we

note, as a final result, that nothing

short vowel i of the root

GHEU

now left but this from which we started \' If
see that the root

we now

collect all the results,
us,

we

GHEU
and

has given

through the Greek, the words chyme,

chyle,

probably alchemy, chemist or chymist, chemistry, and chemical]
that the root

GHEUD

has given

us,

through the Latin and

* On the Study of Anglo-Saxon, by W. W. Skeat; in Macmillan's Magazine, Feb. 1879, P- 3°^- Stowe derives Billiter from a Mr. Bellzetar, who once resided there. It comes to the same thing, as he was named from his trade zetar - )etar, founder.
;

;

§ 272.]

THE ROOT
its

SEK.
also

289
its

¥renc\i,/use with
tives
;

derivatives

;

found with

deriva-

confound, refund, futile, confute,

refute, fusil,

foison

;

that the Teut. root

GEUT
in

has given us E. gut and ingot,

and even the

-it-er

Billiter

Lane;

and

that the root

GHEUS
As
variation

has given us the Scand. words gush and geysir.

before,

we should
in

particularly notice

the extraordinary

form in the case of such words as chyme, though the student who knows Grimm's
once
see
that

fuse,

and
can 272.

gut,
at

Law
§

they

begin with

equivalent

letters.

Cf. § 105, p. 123.

The above examples must
in
I shall

suffice

to exemplify
to roots, or

the

manner

which words can be traced back
conclude
this

derived from them.

chapter with

remarks on the
the

prolific root

SEK,
to

to cut, as well as

some upon

several other roots
viz.

which seem

have a similar meaning,

SKAD, SKID, SKAP, SKER, SKARP, SKALP, SKUR, and SKRU. The root SEK, to cut, is
roots
sickle,

well seen in the Lat. sec -are, to cut, sec-uris, an axe, sec-ula,

a

seg-mentum

(for *sec-nientum), a
(if

segment, a piece cut
"^sec-era),

off;

perhaps also ser-ra, a saw
this root.

put for

may be
sec-ant,
;

from

The
root',

following words of Latin origin, and

containing this

have been imported into English:

co-sec-ant, sec-tor, seg-ment, bisect, dissect, intersect, trisect

and, through the
slip

medium

of French, insect, sci-on (a cutting,

of a plant), sect-ion.

The word
421.

sickle,

though found in
;

A.

S. as sic-ol, is

merely borrowed from the Lat sec-ula

see

Concise Etym.
serra)

Diet., p.

may

also belong here.
(cf.

sum) as a sharp stone

A.

The word serrated (from Lat. Some explain sax-um (=* sacS. seax, a knife) if so, we may
;

add the words saxifrage^ a French form, and sass-afras, which is Spanish. The root SEK is not confined to Latin
it

occurs also in Russ. siek-ira, an axe, Lith. syk-is, a blow
it

;

whilst in Teutonic

takes the form

SEG, whence O. H. G.

seg-ansa,

M. H.G.

seg-mse,

now
u

contracted to G. Sense^ a

scythe
VOL.

;

as well as the following (which are of especial interest),
I.

,

290
viz.

ARYAN
A.
S. sag-u, E.

ROOTS.
older form

[Chap.

XV.

saw

;

A.

S. si^e,

si'g-^e

*,

a sithe,

now

absurdly spelt scythe ; and A.
sedge.

S. secg

{=*sag-jd), a sword,

hence sword-grass, E.
§ 273.

The
slit,

root

SKAD, to cut, cleave, scatter (Teut. SKAT)
o-zca^fti/ {

appears in Skt. skkad (for *skad), to cut, Gk.
yetv),

= *aKdda
slice,
its

to

cut

open, or lance

a

vein;

a-xf^-v,

hence a

tablet,

whence was borrowed

Lat. sched-a, with
;

dimin. sched-ula, O. F. schedule, cedule, E. schedule

also Lat.

scand-ula (with inserted

ii),

a thin piece of wood, afterwards

weakened to scindula, and borrowed by E. in the corrupt form shingle, meaning a wooden tile. The Teut. SKAT
appears in the E. frequentative verb
its

scatt-er, to disperse,

with

variant shatt-er.
§

274.

The

root

SKID,

to cut, divide, occurs in the
;

Gk.
Lat.

vxi^^iv

(=

*o-;(t5yfii'),

Lat. scind-ere

whence (from Greek)
zest, zeste

the borrowed words schism, schist, zest (F.
schistus),

=

squill (Gk. o-KiWa, Lat. scilla, squilla, F. squille);

and (from Latin)
sheath, sheathe,

ab-scind, rescind, abscissa.

In close con-

nection with these

we have

the native E. words shed, shide,
skid',

and the Scand. word

but

it

is

difficult

to

tell

whether we are to refer these to an Aryan base

SKIDH (Fick, i. 815) or to an Aryan SKIT, which may be regarded as a variant of SKID (see Kluge). Either
from
of

SKID
^

or
;

SKIDH we

have Lat cad-ere, to

cut, with loss

initial s

cces-ura, circum-cise,

and (through the French) and the
suffix -cide

de-cide, con-cise, in-cise, pre-cise, ex-cis-ion,

in homi-cide, parri-cide, &c.
cis-ors,

;

also chis-el

and

sciss-ors (for

M. E.

cis-oures), the last

word being misspelt owing

to

a false etymology from Lat. scindere.
§
*

275.

The
is

root

SKAP,

shortened in Greek to

KAP

or

is vouched for by the still earlier spelling sigdii^ = found in the Epinal Gloss, ed. Sweet, p. 9, col. 29, where the Lat. fakes {sic) is glossed by tiudubil, sigdi, riftr, i.e. a

The form
which

sigQe

sigSi),

wood-bill, scythe, or sickle.
^

and

Latin and Greek often drop an initial sp, whereas Teutonic commonly retains

s in
it.

such compounds as sk

1

§ 2 78.]

THE ROOTS SKER AND SKARP,
to cut,

29

KOP,
cap-on.

appears in Gk.
apo-cope, syn-cope,
S.

kott-thv, to

cut,

whence

the

Greek words

comma, and (through Latin)
sceap-an, scap-an, E. shape,
p, if

Also perhaps in A.

which seems to keep the Aryan
sible.

such a result be posb),

Also (with irregular weakening of p to Teut.

E. shave, shaf-i, scab, shabb-y.
loss

And
split

lastly,

perhaps (with
chip,

of

J-),

E. chop,

chap (to

open),

and the
appears

Scand. chump.
§

276.

The

root
t.

SKER,
sccer),

to

cut,

shear,

clip,

in A. S. scer-an (pt.

E. shear, with the allied words
score,

share, shire, shore, shor-t, shir-t, shar-d, sher-d,

and

the Scand. words scar or scaur, skerry, skir-t.

The

phrase

sheer off

is

borrowed from Dutch
is

;

cf.

E.

'

cut away/

Our

scarify (F. scarifier)
is

from the Lat.

scarificare;

but this

only a loan-word from Gk. aKap-Kpaofiai,
possible that character (from

I scarify, scratch.

It is also

Gk.

xap-ao-o""",

to

furrow, scratch)

O. F. cuirace.
ium,
cf.

may be from this root; perhaps also cuir-ass, Low Lat. coraiia, from Lat. cor-ium (for "^skor;

Lith. skur-a, hide, skin, leather)

as well as scourge.

§ 277.

The

root

SKER

appears also as
of r to l;
cf.

SKEL,

to cleave,
to

with the

common change
skil-ja^,

Lith. sM-li,

cleave, Icel.

to divide.

Hence

the native E.

words

scale, shell, the

Scand. words

scall, skull, skill,

and the mod.
husk, hence a

E. shale, borrowed from G. Schale, a
thin stratum.
§

shell,

278.

The

root

SKARP

also

seems to have borne the

sense of to cut, or pierce.
the Gk.
o-Kopn-ios,

Hence we may perhaps derive a scorpion, stinging insect, whence E.
;

scorp-ion (through

French and Latin)
counter-scarp,
origin.

also the A. S. scearp,

E. sharp.

Scarp,

words of Teutonic
scarf and Scand.

and e-scarp-ment are F. From the same root are E.
E. scrape^

skarf-,

also, with shifting of r,

and

the Scand. scrap, a small portion,
initial

and

scrip,

a wallet.
pluck, Lith.

The
kerp-u,

s

is

lost

in

Lat.

carp-ere,

to

I

shear

(infm.

kirp-ti)\

hence E. ex-cerp-t, and

V

3

;

292

ARYAN
from the
S.

ROOTS,

[Chap.

XV.

(through the French) s-car-ce.
results

The

root

loss of s) appears as

KARP (which thus HARF in. Teutonic
which
is

whence A.
cropped.
§

hcerf-est,

E. harv-esi,

that

cut or

279.

The

root
l,

SKARP

also appears as

SKALP,
is

with

change of r to
sculp-ere,

as in Lat. scalp-ere, to cut,
scalp-el;

whence the
the

borrowed Lat. word

closely

allied

Lat.

whence (through French) E.sculp-ture^. Moreover, just as from the root SKEL, in the sense to divide, to split, we have the words shell and skull, so from SKALP we have the words scallop and scalp.
to carve, cut out,

The

spelling scallop

is

due to the O. F.

escalope,

a F. adaptshelf,

ation of Middle Du. schelpe, a shell.

The

E.

a thin

board, also belongs here.
§

280.

Another root with a

like

sense appears in the

form

SKUR,

as seen in Skt. kshur (for *skur), to cut,

Gk.

(TKvp-ov,

chippings of stone, $vp-6v, a razor;
'^skur-tusT),

here perhaps
short,

belongs Lat. cur-ius (for
E. curt.

cut

whence
form

We

also

find

a root

which

takes

the

SKRU,

as in Lat. scru-pulus, a small sharp stone,
;

whence

(through the French) the E. scru-ple
pL, broken pieces,
if

also in Lat. scru-ta,

whence
pieces),

scrut-ari, to search

minutely (as
root

amongst broken

and E.

scru-iiny.

The same
finally,

SKRU,
strip,
scro-ll,

to cut, has given us the E.

words shrou-d,

orig. a

shred of cloth, shre-d, scree-d;
signifying
'

and

the

word

small shred,' a French diminutive from

the Middle
§ 281.

Dutch

spelling of shred.

A

review of the preceding sections (272-280) will
prolific in

shew how
nification.

derivatives has

been the root SEK,

to cut, with the

somewhat
fully

similar roots bearing a like sig-

Further

information

concerning such of the
is

words as are not

explained here
I

given in

my Etymo-

logical Dictionary.
^

hope

that sufficient

examples have

The Gk.

yXvcp-civ, to cut, is generally

supposed to be cognate with

Lat. sculp-ere.

Hence E.

hiero-glyph-ic.

§ 28t.]

ARYAN
illustrate the

roots,
tracing

^93
modern E.
be described
spelling;

been given to
words
as follows:

method of
to

to their roots.

The
the

general process
its

may

— Trace

word back
it

oldest
;

strip off the affixes,

whether prefixed or suffixed

examine

the vowel-sound

and see whether

has been, or could be,

affected
parallel

by mutation or gradation or both;

compare the

forms in other Teutonic languages, which should

also be stripped of affixes.

Hence

the Teutonic base or

root-form can usually be
assistance of

at

once perceived, and by the

Grimm's Law (and of Verner's Law, if neAryan root-form can be inferred, and should be compared with the known Aryan roots as given in the Supplement to my Dictionary, or by Fick, VaniCek, and others; though it must be remembered that
cessary) the corresponding
the

vowel-sounds in these

lists

are

frequently incorrectly

given,

and should be corrected by comparison with such
latest

works as Brugmann's Grundriss der vergleichenden Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, in which the
results

of a closer investigation

of the

vowel-sounds are

accurately given.

A

complete

list

of the Roots and Verb-

forms of the Sanskrit Language, by Professor Whitney, has
lately

been published.

KjlolJ

-^ Z^^

CHAPTER
Modern English

XVI.
Spelling.

282. The subject of modern English spelling has been some extent considered in Lect. VIII. of Archbishop Trench's well-known and, in the main, excellent work entitled 'English Past and Present.' But a perusal of that chapter will shew that it merely discusses certain spellings from a supposed etymological point of view, and does not
§

to

'

'

at

all

attempt
viz.

to

deal
is

with
the

the

only question

of

real

importance,

what
to

true history of our spelling,

and how came we
it

spell

words as we do.

I

make
that
it

particular reference to this chapter, because I believe

has unfortunately done more harm than good, as

is

altogether founded

on a

false principle,

such as no

scientific

etymologist

would endorse,
This

in

the
is,

present state

of

our

knowledge.
to

false principle

that our spelling ought

be such as to guide the ordinary reader to the etymology
is
'

of the word, because there

a multitude of persons, neither
side,

accomplished scholars on the one
out the knowledge of
other
;

nor yet wholly with-

all

languages save their

own ^ on

the
all

and

it

is

of great value that these should have

helps enabling them to recognise the words which they are
using,

whence they came,

to

what words in other languages
is

they are
^

nearly related, and what

their

properest and
they

But

this is just

what Englishmen comnaonly do not know
it.

;

know

the original forms of the foreign elements of English far better

than they

know

those of the native core of

\

MODERN ENGLISH
Strictest

SPELLING,

^95

meaning.'
will

This specious argument has imposed

upon many, and
if it

no doubt long continue
it

to

do so

;

but

be at

all

carefully examined,
this, that

will

be found to amount

to

no more than

we ought

to spell

words derived
like the

from Latin and Greek as nearly as possible

Latin

and Greek words from which they are borrowed; and it will be found that most of the examples of the words discussed are taken from those languages. No doubt Latin and Greek form
language;
the

an important element in

the

English

but

it

may be

replied that these are

commonly

words which are
least affected

least

altered

would be

by phonetic

spelling.

by pronunciation, and However, the

real point is this, that the

most important elements of our
elements

language are neither Latin nor Greek, but English, Scandinavian, and French.

The English and Scandinavian
and the French element

are very carefully kept out of sight by Trench, except in

a very few instances;

is

treated

very briefly and unsatisfactorily; indeed, a careful treatment of
it

would

are to spell
derivation
spell

have told the other way. Now, if we modern English words so as to insinuate their from Latin and Greek, much more ought we to
^to

them so as

point out their

descent from

native

English, Scandinavian, and Old French.
quite ignored
that they are

Yet

this is

a matter

by the general

public, for the simple reason

commonly very

ignorant of Early

English,

Icelandic,

and Anglo-French, and so care absolutely nothing
far as these

about the matter so

languages are concerned.

Even Latin and Greek they know only by sight, not by sound and there are probably many worthy people who believe that the modern English pronunciation of Latin accurately reproduces the sounds used by Vergil and Horace.

Yet

if

the
all,

argument
it

for

'

etymological

'

spelling

is

to be

used at

must apply with

far greater force

to

the

words which
vocabulary.

form the backbone of the language than to such as have
merely been borrowed in order to augment
its

'

2g6
§

MODERN ENGLISH
283. But the truth
is,

SPELLING.

[Chap. XVI. in

that

no one can possibly be
Greek and Latin

a

position to judge as to the extent to which our spelling ought
to be
this is

conformed

(if at all)

to that of

for

what the supporters of the

(so-called) etymological^
first

spelling really

mean

until

he has

made

himself ac-

quainted with the history of our spelling and of our language.

The plain question we do, and how is
spoken word
considered,
it
?

is
it

simply this

— how came we

to spell as

that the written

symbol so frequently
sound of the

gives a totally false impression of the true

Until this question has been
is

more or

less

impossible to concede that a student can
talking about, or can have any right to be

know what he
heard.

is

It is surely

a national disgrace to us, to find that the

wildest arguments concerning English spelling

and etymology

are

constantly being used even by well-educated persons,

whose ignorance of Early English pronunciation and of

modern English phonetics
ludicrous utterances.

is

so complete, that they have

no
is

suspicion whatever of the amazing

worthlessness

of their

If a slight popula r account, such as

here

offered,

may

tend to modify some of the

common
I

current errors, this chapter will serve a useful purpose.

cannot find that any writers have handled
generally, excepting
cellent as their

this

question

Mr.
are,

Ellis

and Mr. Sweet 2; and exfor

books

they are intended rather for the
the

more advanced student than
subject,

beginner.

For

this

reason, I here attempt to give a general idea of this difficult

though conscious that the

details are so
'

nifmerous

1 It is really a gross misnomer to call that spelling etymological Every student which merely imitates the spelling of a dead language. spelling is one is (or should be) aware that the only true ' etymological which is phonetic. It is the sound of the spoken word which has to be accounted for and all symbols which disguise this sound are faulty and worthless. If our old writers had not used a phonetic system, we should have no true data to go by. ^ On Early English Pronunciation, by A. Triibner and Co. J. Ellis The History of English Sounds, by H. Sweet; Triibner and Co. A Handbook of Phonetics, by H. Sweet Clarendon Press.
'
;

;

;

§ 284.]

ANGLO-SAXON ALPHABET,
that

297
less

and important
a
failure.

any mere sketch must be more or
that, as
'

It will,

however, be easy to shew

a matter
is

of history, the notion of so-called

etymological ' spelling

a purely modern one, a thing never dreamt of in the earlier
periods, but the fond invention

of meddling pedants

who

frequently
§

made

ludicrous mistakes in their needless zeal.

284.

To

understand our modern spelling, we must begin

at the very beginning,

and

shortly consider the history of the

symbols which have been used in English from time to time.

The

characters employed by the ancient Britons were those

of the

Roman

alphabet.

There may have been more than
at least of the British scribes

one school of
their

writing,

and some

modified a few of the

Roman

characters in a

way

peculiarly

in

These modified characters have continued in use, writing and printing Irish, to the present day; such books
own.

as O'Reilly's Irish Dictionary or any
will

modern
is

Irish

Grammar

shew what

this

modified alphabet

like.

When
may

the

English conquerors of Britain took to writing, they naturally
adopted, in the main, the same alphabet, which
scribed as a

be de-

Roman

alphabet with certain Celtic and English

modifications.

In the time of Elizabeth, an Anglo-Saxon
'^i^^as

sermon by ^Ifric

printed by John

Daye

in 1567, in types

Anglo-Saxon MSS., and I here give the modern Irish alphabet and the Anglo-Saxon alphabet
imitating the characters used in
as usually represented by such printed types
;

they are near

enough
Irish

to the manuscript forms to give a sufficient notion of

the mariner in which the

Roman

alphabet was treated.

printed alphabet.

— A bC6C]p5^^-^^^^
A'

Op.RSCU...Abc6e'p5bi.lTnTiop.|t'|*cu...
Anglo-Saxon alphabet.

0P.R8TUXYZ
nop p
.

BEDeFI^lpIKLClDN
abcbepxhiklm
t5
f>

{also)

pDp^.

f {also

writkn

f)

t u x y z {also)

p

ae.
:

The only
absence of

noticeable points in the Irish alphabet are

the

q^ w^ x, y, and «; the peculiar forms of the capitals, especially G and T; and the peculiar forms of the small
^,

298
letters d^f, g,

MODERN ENGLISH
and
especially r,
s,

SPELLING,
/.

[Chap. XVI.

and

The Roman r
In the A.

is

exaggerated, and the s
the capitals

much

disguised^

S. alphabet,

C

and

G

are squared; and the peculiar Celtic

modifications of the small letters are clearly seen.
are also three additional consonantal symbols, viz.
(J?

There

p and

D
*

and

"5),

both used to denote
letter f,
is

th

;

and P
its

(p),

used to denote

w"^.

The

as

shewn by

ruder form on Runic
with the straight sideIt

monuments,

merely a

Roman D

stroke prolonged

both upwards and downwards.
initial

was

formerly called thorn, by association with the
that word,

sound of

and
('5),

is

still

conveniently called
eth, is

'

the thorn-letter.'
'a crossed D,*^

The letter D
i.

sometimes named

merely

e.

a modification of

D made
it

by adding a cross-stroke.
//^

The
th in

MSS.
gain

use these symbols for the sounds of

in thin

and

thine indifferently,
if

though

would have been a considerable

they had been used regularly.
in

The symbol

M

(ae)

was used
the

Anglo-Saxon

to denote the peculiar
It

sound of a
the other

as heard in the
z"

mod. E.

cat, apple.

may be
;

observed that

was not dotted
is

in either alphabet

but,

on

hand, a dot

commonly added over

the A. S. y.

The

numerous vowel-sounds in A. S. were provided for by the use of accents for marking long vowels^, and by combining vowelsymbols to represent diphthongs. In most modern editions of A.S. MSS., the old modified forms of the Roman letters are very sensibly replaced by the Roman letters themselves, as we are thus enabled to print represented by modern types Anglo-Saxon in the ordinary type, by merely adding to
;

^ Nine additional symbols in the Irish alphabet are gained by placing a dot over each of the characters for b, c, d,f, g, m, p, s, t. ^ I identify this letter, as every one else does, with the Runic letter I further identify it, as some do, called wen, which also denoted w.

with the Gothic letter for w. And I believe, as perhaps no one else does, that it is merely a form of the Greek T (capital v). ^ In A. S. MSS. the accents are freely omitted wherever the length of the vowel is obvious to a person well acquainted with the language, which

was the case with those for whom the early scribes wrote. MSS. insert them more frequently, to prevent ambiguity.

The

later

!

§ 285.]

ANGLO-SAXON SOUNDS.
consonantal symbols

299
t5^.

the

alphabet the

f and

Some

editors retain the A. S. p in place of w, a practice altogether

condemned. It only makes the words harder to read, and introduces innumerable misprints of p for \ or />, and of German for p or /, without any advantage whatever. J? editors replace w by v, 3. practice which no Englishman
to be

can well approve.
§

285.

The

values of the A. S. symbols

may be
m,
n,
/>, /,

briefly-

stated thus.

The consonants
in

5, d,

h,

P,

/,

w, x,

had

their

present values, and are, in

fact,

the only really

stable

symbols

English spelling, excepting such groups
cl,

of symbols as
like,

bl, br,

cr, dr, fl,

fr, gl, gr, pi, pr, and the

which denote combinations of sounds such as cannot
alter.

easily

C
to

was hard
followed

(like

k)

in all

positions,

but

was

liable
e
;

be

by an

intrusive
(for

short

vowel,

written
scdn),
*skone.

hence such forms as ccaf
chaff,

*ca/), scedn (for

producing the mod. E.
Cf.

shone, instead of *kaff,

Du. kaf, G. Kaff, chaff; Icel. skein, shone. Similarly, g was properly hard, but was also liable to be followed by the same intrusive sound, likewise written e ; the
resulting ge, at

old-fashioned

first sounded nearly as gy London usage of gyarden
cf.

in the occasional

for garden,
Icel.

soon

passed m\.o
Y..

y)

A.

S.

geard,

Y..
2^

yard',

gardr, pro v.

garth. In

some words,

as geoc,

yoke, \ki^ge seems to have
first.

been sounded as

y

from the very

F

is

assumed by
still is)

Mr. Sweet (A.

S.

Reader,

p. xxviii) to

have been uniformly
it

sounded as v

^.

This

may have been

true (as

of the

*

We

also require the long vowels, viz. d,

i, i,

6,

ti,

y,

<Sb.

Many

printing-presses pretend to be able to print Anglo-Saxon, because they

have such useless types as the old-fashioned forms of r, s, /, &c. ; but they lack such indispensable letters as y and <h, and print y and a
instead, as if
it

made no
;

sort of difference

A'is not After date.
'

common
1

yet

it is

100

it is

common enough
it

found occasionally in MSS. of very early in certain words. The sound is

always hard, as now.

At

p. xiv

we

are told

was/ before

hard consonants, as

in 0//.

300

MODERN ENGLISH

SPELLING.

[Chap. XVI.

Wessex dialect commonly called Anglo-Saxon, but cannot have been universally the case in Mercian and Anglian, as
numerous English words
initially; yet there
still

have the sound oif^ especially
that there

can be no doubt that the sound of v

was common

in all

Old English, and

was only
v.

the one symbol/* to represent the sounds of both/* and
i^ between two vowels

Mercian
on

;

cf.

A. S.

was probably sounded as v, even in (and Mercian) /^with E. life, and A. S. dat.

life) with E. a-live. The sound now denoted by qu was written cw, as in cwin, a queen. differed very greatly from the mod. E. r in being fully trilled, not only

life (lit.

in

R

in

such words as nearu, E. narrow
it is still

;

from, E. from ;
other cases.

riht,

E. right, where

trilled,

but in

all

In

many

words,

such as bern, a barn, earm, an arm, the
trilled

modem
that they

English has utterly lost the true
strange to say, there are thousands

sound; though,

who imagine

pronounce

this

r

when they only

give the sound of the aa in
is

baa to the preceding vowel, which

a very different matter*.

assumed by Mr. Sweet (A. S. Reader, p. xv) to have had the sound of z, except in words like sirafig, strong, fcBsl, fast;
here again
I

S is

suppose that

this

statement refers only to the

Wessex dialect (in which it is z still), and not to the Mercian and Anglian dialects, in which initial s was one of the commonest of sounds yet even in these it must often have passed into the sound of z between two vowels and finally cf A. S. fr/osan with mod. 'E. freeze, and A. S. is with mod. E. iz (as
;
;

it is

invariably pronounced).
S.) is
is

On

the other hand, the Mercian

(and A.

the

mod. E.
dialect.
I

ice,

believe that, in this word, the j

and I find it difficult to was ever pronounced like z
suppose that the sound of z

even in the Wessex

was common
'

in all

Old English, although there was, prac-

An Englishman associates the sound of darn with the written appearance of the word, and calls it ' pronouncing the r when he pronounces the word like the German Bahn. He should ask an Italian to pronounce the word, if he wants to hear the trill.
'

§ 286.1

ANGLO-SAXON SPELLING,
but one symbol
{s) to
still

3OI
z^.

tically,

denote both s and
;

This

is

in

some measure
in twice)

the case

for,

though we find that

ce (as

and

c (as in city) are
is itself still

used to denote the true sound
used with a double meaning

of

J,

the symbol s

(as in sin, rise).

Unfortunately, the admission of z into our
;

writing has been very grudgingly allowed
is

so that whilst z

one of the
* </