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C

{ Csh Bsk
uSv & II
h mkU S x
Aih vzumhx.

wsh J a\
wsh J [S
wsh uzu \

u|mk
h PP
Pa \, \ 600 006

c u|k A_
u v & 2005
vzv v & 2007

Sz u

\x. Sn\P
h
xP Ba] C x
a\ P, \ 600 030.

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_. C\\

u { (C)
A_ PU P
|u, \ 600 035

xP mhu B] (C)
A_ {
PhUP, \ 600 024

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Q C

u { (C)
Co P (um])
\ 600 004

xP mhu B] (C)
A_ P {
A\U |P, \ 600 083

P. oP

. P|u

h (C)
Gzv P P
\ 600 008

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xP mhu B] (C)
A_ P {
va\[Pk
637 211
|UP mh

\[P

u { (C)
m] P P
PhUP, \ 600 024

G.

N.

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^ mU {
\
\ 600 073

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Ab Asn A_ PU P
.

C.

]P

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(C)
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\ 600 004

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Eu ] (C),
S.R.M. P
S.R.M. A
u~m {
({P{ PU PP)
Pmh[ Pzy 603 203

: .
h[P u : u|k A_UPP
UP CUPP, u|k
C 60 GSM u Aa]hmkx.

B\m Aa]mh:

ii

u BUP \u

. P\

_. C\\

u { (C)
Co P (um])
\ 600 004

xP mhu B]
(C)
A_ {
PhUP, \ 600 024

G. C[P

. P|u

xP mhu B]
(C)
A_ P {
zu|UP,
\ mh. 636 109

xP mhu B]
(C)
A_ P {
va\[Pk 637 211
|UP mh

. _o

xP mhu B]
(C)
Qn\u {,
_o |P,
\ & 636 005.

xP mhu B]
(C)
A_ P {
Bzy, \ mh & 636102.

u. Pnv _o

B. |uS

xP mhu B]
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v z {,
,
\ & 636 007.

xP mhu B]
(C)
u {
\ & 636 007.


UP P UQx vP Ax
{U PS. x Pzvmhzvx CUS |UQ
PzvmhzvS UTi Pmhzv {U P Ex.
Aih A uPUP AizuP C
hzu n n uukUQ. xU P
uP u Aih A Hkzu, sh
SP C h, v PzxPh Azxz
uP
Aihz
uPPh

\mk
iUPmkx.
J
h
AP

h
G
EUPmkx. Azx h[P u, u,
_UP UP[P PkUPmk. hzv Cv wUPmh
PnUSP u vmk UP PkUPmk.
h \uh PzxP x Pux P
UQuS. G, hzu P x Pa \x
n, n u[PP u[P Gsn[P UPna \x
A]Qx. C hzu Bh PS P Ch
UPh uhh kP PkUPmk.
B \ vP E|US vP n
nhzv UP UQzx AUPmkx. AP P
A[P \P zvS Eu G |Q.
Ch ]U TP.
N

v uPP PkUPmk.

h[P uP mk.

N n n Pn v US uzv
uvmk UP (vP mk) PkUPmk.

uS Bzu \ x. n n uvmk
Sv E UP / PnUSP mk, h /
hzvmhzvx PmPhUTi UP PnUSPUS
hUP BzukzvU P sk.
\x. Sn\P
Szu
iv

hUP
UP

6.

Aq C

7.

Pva_
Cmh s \ uzx

55

8.

AqUP C

82

9.

SUPhzv \u[P

10.

A kP

133

uP uh AP

206

249

hUP AmhnP

254

vi

6. Aq C
zuzv
P

Cu
UP
([P)
mhzvU Phzuu Av PhzvPS. UP Pmh
mh[P Psh xPP C CuSU PnS. ,
mh Psh xPP EUPmh, mhzv u
AvUS. Cu P , A (i) S
zu zv AvP zu k {ku
(ii) zv XPvPa \zxu BS.
[P US {P B, AqUP
Pmh UQU PzxPz uPU TQx. J.J.u\
G GUm, sm G X&PvP PskiUP
C{Pa] Eux.

6.1 Su Azuzv
GUmP Pski

[Ph

UP

&

[P m
+
ysk
_
h {Px BS
k G A UPU
C
A
S (discharge tube) BS. Cx
50 cm }, 4 cm mh Psh,
P
{mh, hmh, uizu
h 6.1 UPU S
PsniU SS. Cu C
P C, A G Csk P (h 6.1) zumk.
Cu UPU S P- hUS C (pump), Szu
A CnUPmk. Csk P vUP yska
_ xna _h CnUPmk 50000 V zu k
{k. ysk _ Gvh CnUPk ,
Pzuk (C) G, |h CnUPk , Bk (A)
G AUPk.
hUS C UPU S
Azu SUPmk, 110 mm u\ Azuzv CUS x
UP (US) {Pv. 100 mm u\ Azuzv ^ J
Ph, \h\h Jh US x[S. Azux 10 mm u\

AzuzvS SUPkx ^ JP }sk Bix


Pzuk Jzu u. Cx |u (Positive column)
Gk. Azuzv 0.01 mm u\ AzuzvSU SUS
x | u x, S x SU C
{k. C{ S _P a\ {zv J. Cv
{P UPU S u a\ { , Pzuix
PmPu JPU PvP EshQx. (Ch
Amh hzv Pmhmkx). CUPvP PzukU PvP
GUPmh. C , GUmP GU Pshmh.

6.1.1 PzukU PvP sP


(i) PzukU

PvP |UPmi \Q.


(ii) CUPvPUS Eu, B Esk.
(iii) P x x, zv EshUS.
(iv) PzukU PvP P P, iP[P, EPx
x Ju {Pzx.
(v) PzukU PvP, AvP { Gs Psh Px
xx X&PvP EshUS.
(vi) PzukU PvP, UP AUS.
(vii) PzukU PvP Phz uPkP vUS.
(viii) , Puzu PzukU PvP UPk, ,
UPk v\x, CzxPP Gvmh Psh G
A iQx.
(ix) PzukU PvP, J v\Pzv (1/10) [S
v\Pzxh C[S.
(x) PzukU PvP G AqUP Ch Aihz
xPP GUmP BS.

6.1.2 | PvP Ax UPvP


1986 a \u C Ab E. Pkj G
UPU SU Psk BP Psh x, S,
xPh PzuiS Pa \ xP PU Psk
izu (h 6.2). Cu UPU S, Bk (A), xhmh
Pzuk (K) Jv (S) BQU Pshx. 1 mm u\
Azuzv PzuiS P, PzukU PvPUS Gv v\
UP xPP C[Sx Pshmhx. CzxPP Pzui
xP \ |Pmi u C UPvP
2

Gmh.
C +A
K
S
PzukU
PvPUS
Gv v\ C[S.
, Pu zu
Hk PU Psk
h 6.2 UPvP EshUSu
C
|
mh
Psh G A
mhx. xP U PvP | PvP GUPk.

U PvP sP
USU S | AP U
PvPS. J A { zv () Aq
{US Hzu \.
(i)

, Puzu UPvP UPk. C


P PzukU PvP PUS Gv v\ Ex.
(ii)

UPvP |UPmi \Q.

(iii)

UPvP PzukU PvP hU Su v\Pzv

(iv)

\.
(v)

UPvP Phz uPkP vUS.

(vi)

UPvP Ju EshUS.

(vii)

C UP AUS.

6.1.3 GUm mh {z uP (e/m) Pn & u\

1887& J.J. u\ G GUm mh {z uP


(e/m) PnUQmh. KS {UP mh, mh {zuP
Gk.
GUm
(e/m)
v
zv
Ax
P \vv G u\ Pshu.

uzx
PzukU PvP (GUmP) zu, Puzu
Pha \ uzx C kQx.
BU P A:
E hUPmh UPU S (h 6.3) PuiS
D1 D2 G BkPUS Ch PukU PvP (GUmP)
HkQ. Bkz umkP E F]z x[P ,
PP PukU PvP, P1 P2 G J
Cn EPz umkPUQh \, S Pz umix
3

kQ. Pz umi x
J \mkx.
D1 D2
G, Q G
P
J HkQx. P1
K
1
Q
P
uPkPUQh zu
2
P2
Q1 k (V) \kzui,
GUm Px Q1 G
h 6.3 u\ \u
US UPhQx. J
\i Pa _PU Psk,
P 1 &US P 2 &US Chmh Sv u uzvS |SzuP,
|UQ ^ Pu \kzukQx.
UP:
1. v&I PnUQku
P1, P2 uPkPUQh, Smh (E) Ex, Puz
ysh (B) v \\mk, GUm P uhUP{
Q & Ah \kQx. Aux, zv Hk
R|UQ \ (Ee), Puz ysh Hk \ (Bev) \P
E. (e Gx PukU Pv xP _ v Gx xP
v\P).
Ee = Bev
E
B

v =

...(1)

2. e/m&I PnUQku
ux, Puzysh {zukQx. zv mk Hk
UP QQ1= y AhkQx. PukU PvP, P1US P2US Ch
~ Pnzv,
Au R|UQ uhUP v\P, u = 0
R|UQ kUP, a =

Ee
,
m

(m Gx PukU Pv xP {)
l Gx uPkP } G, zuU PhUP GUmUS BS

P, t =

l
v

R|UQ v\ PukU PvP Ahu UP,


2

y1 =

1 Ee l

.... (2)
2 m v

\k (1), \k (2) vhh,


1 Ee l 2 2
1 e l 2B2
B
=

y1 = 2 m E2
2m E

h 6.4 Pmhmh, Pz v J Ahu


UP,
y = K y1

C[S K Gx UPU S
i S.
y1&v vh,
y = K

y1
P2

1 e l 2B2
...(3)
2m E

e
2yE
=
m
Kl 2 B 2

P1
y

h 6.4 zv
GUm CUP
...(4)

Amh vP vh, e/m vU PnUQh.


Ca\u GUm (e/m) v 1.7592 1011 C kg-1 GU
PnUQhmhx.
S: ^ Puzu, GUm PUS \[SzuP
\kzxu P, GUm e/m&I vU PnUQh.

6.1.4 GUm mh Pn & UP Gsnz


x B
UP \u GUm mhzvU PnUQh Eu.

uzx
D \ uP Q mhz xP
CUPzv, ^ zv mh xP CUPzv
Bu C uzxS. ^ zvz uSu
\\u Gsnz x |UQ Ax
R|UQ CUP Ax }sh| {P {Pa \x, Pm]
vPa \.

D
C
AT
H

A
S

X-Pv
B

~snUQ u

h 6.5 UP B

BP A
B Ax 22 cm mh 16 mm Chz u
Psh A, B G Csk Qhmh EPz uPkPU Pshx (h 6.5).
uPmi zv H G x Ex. Csk uPkP Psni
Ax Gm uskP JUP CnP CUS
UPmiUS.
uPkPa _ u { Psh }a _ (D), EP
Psh C G Th PnkQx. uPkP, 10,000V zu
k u Ph CnUPmk.

Pzv UP
Q\ AvP S{ Gs Psh Gsn, ~so
vPP, Gsnz u AT uPmi H G x
Sv uUPku, A A, BUQh E Ch
~. CzvP US L Jx J
JmhkQ. PsnS A Umh AP
zumh ~snUQ vP |UPkQ. D
PnP R|UQ C[S x, J v ~snUQ
|UPkQx. Czv x \k, P S{ \
AvPu ^ z v\Pzv (v) AhQx, Cu
~snUQ AUP.

(i) \ CUP

Gsnz v x \k R|UQ D \

4
a3 g. Cv a Gx Gsnz x B,
3
Gsn Ahzv, g Gx D kUP BS.

mg =

Gx

k P Gsnz v x \k
|UQ \[Szx \

4
a3 g, C[S &Gx P Ahzv.
3

Gsnz vx \k R|UQ {P \

= v Gh & |UQ \[Szx \


=

4 3
4
a g a 3 g
3
3

4 3
a ( )g
3

(1)

Gsnz vxv G v\Pzv u,


Au x \k R|UQ {P \x v CUPzvS
GvP \k S{ \USa \.
hU vi, v x \k S{ \ 6av.
C[S Gx P S{ Gs
4
a 3 ( )g = 6 av
3

(2)
1
2

9v
v B a =

2( )g
(ii)

(3)

zu CUP

uPkPUQh E P, X-PvP AUPkQx.


vP, J Ax AuS mh GUmP, AUP
\mh Px U P.
|UPkQ v x mh q CuPU P.
A B uPkPUQh E AUPku vx v1
G v\Pzv |UQ |PQx. v1& v
~snUQ PnUQhkQx.
zu v x \k \ Eq.
v\P ^P Cu
Eq =

4 3
a
3

( )g

+ 6 av1

Eq

4 3
a ( ) g = 6 av1
3

(4)

\k (2), (4)IU Tmh


Eq = 6 a(v + v1 )

(5)

\k (3)x a& v Ax, \k (5)& vh


1

Eq = 6

3/2

9v

2
(v + v1 )

2 ( ) g

(6)

A B&UQh zu k V G, Chmh

u d G Cu, E =

V
d

\k (6)&I kzv AvP GsoUP Gsnz


vP u mh v (q) UP Pshu. Cx
US v Gs h[PP CuU Psh. Cu
US v GUm mhzvU (e) SUS.
GUm mh v 1.602 10-19 C GU PnUQhmhx.

6.2 Aq vP
P Azx, AqUP Gk a] xPP
B G 1803&B Bsk hmh G B[Q |mk B]
T. Azxz u[P m AqUP B G m
(1815) T. G ] u[P Aq Gh m Aq
Gh

h[SPP
C
CUPzx
HU
Ph. PvUP GUm PskiUS
Aq Pmh Bv Cu FUP AvPzux.
Aqv i[P P[P GkzxUPmh.

6.2.1 u\ Aq v
UP US
G \ux, Aqx |
Gv mh[PU Pshx
G Amhx. J.J. u\ Aq
|, Gv mh[P AUP
mk uzu UP ]zu.
u\ Ti Aqx 10-10m
A
B
Psh
|
8

| mhU P

GUm

h 6.6 u\ Aq v

mhU PS. CUPzv GUmP hzv (h 6.6)


E vUPmk. Aq zu |mh,
GUmP Gv mhzvSa \P Cu, J
Aq |k{zu x.
u\ PPi m , J GUm mk
Psh Aq GUmx, |mhU Pzv zv
CUS. Csk GUmP () Psh Aq, Pzv C
r
u GUmP ^P AvUP
2

UP[P Bzv v

sk. GUmP, Psh Aq, GUmP Pzv


\a^P Pzv Bzv UPPU Psh \UP UPnzv
P A. xP, Aq E GUmP, Pnzv
zu |UP \a^ i vUPmk CUS.
Pzv E GUmP A \{ zx
C ^\ CUPzv Au { P uQ
GU Tmhx. , CUPPi Aq {zu
(stability) |P UPmhx.

SkP
PuU PPi Av GUm k
Pva] Avs, hk { AvsoSa
\P CUP sk. u\ PPi m u {
A} 1300 . B, m, P Psh
Ix { \P (series) kx \uP P
Amhx.
(ii) xPP AvP Pnzv ]uiUPkuP UP
uh.
(i)

6.2.2 ui ]u \u
uk Ax S, Aq A B,
xPP u[Pzu (gold foil) ]uiUPa \u. xP Gx
Aq {U Pshx. GUm C h[S
|mh Pshx. PvUPz u[P xP
k. ]uP Aq A
uPP mh.

B A
SQ v Psh J P mi UPmk i
Ax h PvUPz u xPP EQx. xPx Azx
9

ZnS

Pmi

D1 D2

M
~snUQ

u[Pzu
&xP
-

h 6.7 ui ]u \u

v\P k (h 6.7). B P mix J SQ


P mk . Gg] xPP P EmPxk. D1,
D2 G Chz vP xPP PP J
u[Pzu x \k. xPP AzxU Pn[P
]uiUPkQ. ]uiUPmh xPP xzu|P \k (ZnS)
\mh v v, JP EshUSQ. CU Su
v Psh ~snUQ B.

Pm] vP, iP
(i) xPP u[Pzu Fka \Q Ax Su
Pn[P ]uUPkQ. Cvx,
Aq E AvP
h (Ju) PnkQx G AkQx (h 6.8).
(ii) ] xPP, u[P u u va \S
] u h Q .
C{Pa], Aq |
mh
x
14
10
m SUP Psh
ro
Pa
]
Sv
xPP
AqUP
mk
\vUP
kP
i G uk
PoUP Eux. Ca]
Sv AqUP (nucleus) Gmhx. J ]
xPP
AqUP
h 6.8 &xPP ]u
|UQa \ P AvP
Pn[P ]uiUPmh.

10

AqS a] u (distance of closest approach)


AqUP zv |UQa \ xP hzv
(h 6.8) ro u |[Qa \. C[S, xP CUP B
{zu BP CUS. CuS xP ux uz
va \. Cx AqS a] u (ro) Gk.
AqUP |UQa \ xP { m v\P v
GP. xP CUP B
1
2
Ek = mv
2

(1)

xP mh 2e AqUP mh Ze G
AqUP zvx ro u {zu B
1

Ep =

(2e )(Ze )
ro

(2)
4 o
C[S Z Gx Aq Gs o Gx hzv kv,

AqS a] u Ahx,

Ep = E k
1
4 o

(2e )(Ze ) 1
= mv 2
ro
2

Ax ro =

4Ze 2

4o mv 2

...(3)

6.2.3 uk Aq v
]u \u mh iPx, uk, Aq

A PzxPU T.
(i) Aq Gx10-10m mh Psh PS. B, Aq
zu {, | mh[P Azx _ 1014 m mh Eh
Pa ] Sv AqUP (nucleus)
\xx (h 6.9a).
GUm

(ii) GUmP, AqUPa _


Ph[P US. GUmP K
+
+ +
{u, A AqUP Pmk
+ +

|k{UPk.
Cuz
uUP
GUmP, AqUP PU Psk
mh u _Q. Cu PnP
h 6.9 a uk |US \x GUmUS AqUPS
Ch E { Pa] \
Aq v
HkQx G uk T.
AqUP

11

(iii) AqUP zu |mh GUm


mhzvSa \P Eu, Aq |k{x.

Gv

SkP
uk Aq v Aq {zu Szx
smh PzxP Gu. Cv Csk SkP :
(i)
mh
u
C[S GUm kUP
Qx. PuU PP
i,
kUSUPmh
uh
AqUP
mh, Pu AP
{
P B Pv\ sk.
CP
kUSUPmh
GUm B Cx, _
u
(spiral)
\
h 6.9 b GUm \
AqUP x k
_u
(h 6.9b). Cu Aqx
{zuh CUP ix. B, Gsn AqUP
{zuh [SQ.
(ii) sh PuU PPi, kUSUPmh GUm,
Au Pnzv\ PzvS |zuP A Avsqh
B Pv _Qx. G, GUmx _ u AqUP
|UQa \P, Au Pnzv\P D v
Qx. Cu B Avsq D v
Qx. Cu P Aqx Azx A}[P
Psh uh { hsk. B, Aqx, J
] Smh { A}[P Eh {P
kQ G BP kzxQ.

6.2.4 Aq v
1913 } G Ab, Aq {zu {
P Eu BQ UP, uk v zx
Csk GkPPU T.
1. J GUm AqUPa _ Azxa _ uP
_ ix. GUmP, AvUPmh _uP
mk AqUPa _ i. Ax GUm Pn
Eu

h
h[SPP CUP sk. (Cv h = 6.626 10-34 Js,
2

12

[U ) Cu uP {zu uP Ax Pv\
uP Gk. Cu C[S GUmP B
Pv_v.
AvUPmh, r Bh u \ GUm { m,
v\P v G Au Pn Eu, mvr =

nh
. Cv n Gx u
2

Ssh Gs. Cx 1, 2, 3... vP . Cx


(SshUP) zu {u BS. (Bohrs quantization
condition).
(ii) AvP B Psh Pv\ ux, Su B

Psh Pv\ uUS GUm ux mk Aqx


B Pva\ k. E2 B Psh ux E1 B
Psh uUS, GUm u x, h = E2 E1 B Psh
Lmh Ek. Cx Avs {u (frequency
condition) Gk.
n&Bx _u B (rn )
Ze |mh Psh J AqUPU Px. Cv Z
Gx Aq Gs (mhP GsoUP), e Gx GUm
mh. Cx Gsn mh mh BS. J
GUm rn B Psh n Bx _u C[SuPU
P.

T vi, AqUPS, GUmUS Ch E


{ Pa] \
1 (Ze )(e )
= 4 . r 2
o
n

...(1)

o Gx hzv kv.

mvn 2
GUm u |US \
= mrnn2
rn

...(2)

Cv m Gx GUm { n Bx _ u E
GUm |UPmkz v\P vn, Au Pn v\P n BS.
u |US \x { Pa] \
PkUPk. \{US, \kP (1) (2)x
1

Ze 2

4o rn 2

mvn 2
rn

(3)
13

Ze 2

= mrnn2

4 o rn 2

\k (4)x n2 =

...(4)
Ze 2
4o mrn 3

(5)

n&Bx u GUm Pn Eu
L = mvnrn = mrn2n

(6)

u GkPi, GUm Pn Eu
L =

nh
2

...(7)

C[S n Gx u Ssh Gs
\k (6), (7)x
mrn2n =

Ax n =

nh
2

nh
2 mrn 2

C Cikzu
n2 =

n 2h 2

4 2m 2rn 4
\k (5) (8) \kzuh,
Ze 2
4o mrn 3

Ax rn =

...(8)

n 2h 2
4 2m 2rn 4

n 2h 2o
mZe 2

...(9)

\k (9)x, nBx mh u Bx u
Ssh Gso CiUS |Quzv CUS G AkQx.
G _uP B[P 1 : 4 : 9 ... G Quzv CUS.
mUS Z = 1
\k (9)x
rn =

n 2h 2o

...(10)

me 2
14

vn

Au vP vmh,
rn = n2 0.53

Ze

n = 1 G r1 = 0.53

rn

e-

Cx B (Bohr radius) Gk.


nBx

_
B (En)

GUm

h 6.10
GUm zu B Gx { GUm B
CUP B C TkuS.
n Bx u GUm {

(Ze )(e ) Ze 2
=
4orn
4orn

Ep =

(11)

GUm CUP B
1
mvn 2
2

Ek =

(12)

\k (3)x
1
4o

Ze 2
= mvn 2
rn

(13)

\k (13) I (12) vh
1 1
Ze 2
Ze 2
=

Ek = 2
4o rn 8orn

(14)

n Bx _ u GUm zu B
En

Ze 2
Ze 2
+
= Ep + Ek =
4orn 8orn

En

Ze 2
8orn

(15)

\k (10)x rn v \k (15) vh
En

Z 2me 4

(16)

8o 2n 2h 2

mUS Z = 1
15

me 4
En =
8 o 2n 2h 2

P Au v vmk GUm mi (eV)


PnUQmh
En =

13.6

... (17) [1 eV = 1.602 1019 J ]

eV

n2
\k (17) GvUS u _ u GUm
B, nI zx AvPUS Gx Qx.

{ P Avs
Csh GkPi, Ssh Gs n2 Psh
mh ux Ssh Gs n1 Psh E mhuUS
GUm u x, Lmh Avs,
=

En 2 En1
h

\k (16)I kzu,
=

1
Z 2me 4 1
2
2 3 n 2
n
8 o h 1
2

...(18)

KS }zv E AP GsoUP, AGs Gk.


Cx A}zv uRUSa \.
Aux =

[ c = ]

C[S c Gx J v\P.
\k (18)x
=

1
Z 2me 4 1
2
2
3 n 2
n2
8o ch 1

(19)

mUS, Z = 1
=

me 4

1
1
1
1
2 2=R 2 2
n2
n2
8o ch n1
n1
2

16

(20)

R Gx mU Gk.
me 4

R =
8 o 2ch 3

(21)

P Au vP vh
R = 1.094 107m-1

6.2.5 m { \P
m Aq, GUmx E B mhzvx
Su B mhzvSz ux, B hx Smh
A} Psh Pv\P k. Cx { Gk.
{ A}x GUm u uP B
{P zx Au { P u.
A}[P, Aq u zx J \
(series) Hkzx. m { \PS.
\

Ls

m
\

AqUP
n=1
n=2
n=3
n=4
n=5

n=6

h 6.11 m Aq { \P
17

(i)

\ (Lyman series)

Gu Emh ux u mh uUS
GUm ux { P Ek. \
GUPk C, { Fu SvUS (UV) EuP
E (h 6.11).
Cv n1 = 1, n2 = 2,3,4
\UP AGs

= R 1

n 22

(ii) \ (Balmer series)


Gu Emh ux Cshx mh uUS
GUm ux { P Ek. \
GUPk C, { PmS (visible)SvUS EuP
E.
C[S n1=2, n2 = 3,4,5
\UP A Gs
1
1
1
1
2=R 2
2
4
n2
n2
2

=R

C\, u (n2 = 3) Gx H G Csh


(n2=4), H G AUPk.
(iii)

\ (Paschen series)

Emh uPx uUS GUm u x


u G P Cv Ah[S. C[S n1 = 3, n2 = 4,5,6 C
APa] Sv CUS. C\ A Gs
1
1
1
1
2=R 2
2
9
n2
n2
3

=R

(iv) UPm \ (Brackett series)


n2 = 5, 6... G Emh uPx n1 = 4 G uUS

GUmP ux, UPm \


A}[P APa] Sv CUS.
1
1
1
1
2=R
2
2
16
4
n
n
2
2

A Gs, = R

18

u.

C\

(v) Lsm \ (Pfund series)


n2 = 6, 7... G Emh uPx n1=5 G uUS
GUmP ux, Lsm \ u. C\
A}[P APa] Sv CUS.
1

A Gs, = R 5 2 n 2 = R 25 n 2
2
2

6.2.6 B mh h
m Aq n Bx u GUm B
En =

13.6
eV
n2

m u mh u B
E1 =

13.6
= 13.6 eV
12

Cx m Ai { B BS.
GUm Csh u B,
E2 =

13.6
= 3.4 eV
22
n=

0eV

n=5
-0.85eV

n=4

-1.51eV

n=3

-3.4eV

n=2

-13.6eV

n=1

h 6.12 m B mh[PU Pmk h


19

Cx m u Qa] { B BS. Csh, ,


|P ... Qa] {P B E3 = 1.51 eV, E4 = 0.85 eV,
E5 = 0.54eV.

n = , G, E =

13.6
=0
2

J mhzxh uhh Bx GvS v


Sx, JUP |[Q, n = G { v
Qx Gx Psh PnURkPx AkQx.
Cu B vP, |US AP Szx,
k QhUPkP m Aq B mh[PU
SUS (h 6.12). Chzu B mhh G.

6.2.7 \i u\ {
\i B US, xP BPzv J{ JP
kQx. u\ B, \i B USP Su \ \
UP Jz uu uUSPP kQ. u\ B
A}[PU Psh J E. CP A}
Amhn 6.1 PkUPmkx. C USP `hmh
Pzuk | u \kQ. \i, u\ AqUP
B {u C { k. \i B
US 5896 , 5890 A} Psh D1, D2 G P E.
Amhn 6.1 u\ E { P A}[P
(uUS Eu)
A} (nm)

{
Fu I

398

Fu II

403

436

} a\ I

492

} a\ II

496

a\

546

g\ I

577

g\ II

579

Bg_

609

625
20

6.2.8 Aq Qa]UP zu AUP zu


PPi, GUmP AvUPmh ] uP
_ x B Pva\ Ev. Aq B PU
SP E x Ai B { Ex G. Cu Aq,
{ k Av GUm AvP B uUS
Ezuh sk. C{Pa] Aq Qa]UP (excitation)
Gk. C {x Aq Qa] {USU Psk \z
u B Qa]UP zu B (excitation potential
energy) Gk. GkzxUPmhP, m Ai B {x
GUm u Qa] {USU Psk \z u
B = (13.6-3.4) = 10.2eV. Csh Qa] {USU Psk \z
u B = (13.6 1.51) = 12.09 eV. Cu BPUS
zu[P Qa]UP zu[P Gk.
Aq Jx GUm , Aux Au
AUP \, Aux x GUm B xuP
CUS, kUP \ zu
AUP zu
Gk. m Aq, u mhux E
mhuUS (n = ) GUm Gkzxa \z u B = 13.60=13.6eV. Cx m AUP zu BS. 13.6V
Gx m AUP zuS.
Qa]UP zu AUP zu BQ
Aq { zu (critical potential) G. ua\
|k{ E Aq J, Ai B {x E mh
{US Ga]a \uSz u ] zu Aq
{ zu BS.

6.2.9 PP SkP
\uP iP, m Aq {
P (Bohr) PP HPzuUP A UQx.
C, RUPsh PzxP UP.
(i) m Aqh ]UP AqUP { PUS
UP u i.
(ii) Aq J GUmP Q Ax
uuh PzxP CUPP UP.
(iii)
{ \ Hk zvP UP
uh.

21

(iv) Sv (high resolving power) Psh {U

Psk {U Pq x, J P
Bx Gz uQx. Cu ~s A (fine structure) G.
PP CuS UP u.
(v) Aqx Ax Puzv \zxx
{ P PP . zv hU
(stark effect) G Puzv ^ (Zeeman effect)
G AUPk. PP hU , ^
BQS UP u i.

6.2.10 \k Aqv
{
~sP
UP
\k G v Csk
[Pa \u.
(i) \k vi, AqUPa

_ GUm u, AqUP
J SPU Psh } mhS.

GUm

h 6.13 \k
Aqv

(ii) }mh u \ GUm v\P, _


u SvP kQx. Cu k, |P
GUm {, \ zx Hk mhz uUS.

}mh u C[SuPU Psh, Csk k


vP A sk. (i) AqUPa \x GUm
k u (r). (ii) AqU Pa \x GUm Pn {
(angular position) () (h 6.13).
Cu k vP A Csk Ssh GsP
APkzukQ.
(i) PP u Ssh Gs (n) GUm
BU SkQx (ii) _u Ax Pn Eu Ssh Gs l

Gx _u Pn Euzv ]U SUQx. Aux,


GUm _u Pn EuzvU PkUS. Cx _ u
(n-1) vP .
CUPU Ti }mh uPU Pn _u Ssh Gs
Eu.
b l +1
=
Gui }mh uP AQ.
a
n

22

n=1

n=2

n=3
2s
2p

3d

3p

3s

1s
(a)

(b)

(c)

h 6.14 GUm xnUTkP


Cv a, b G }mhzv A |mha_ (semi-major axes)
A ]a_ (semi-minor axes) BS.
\k vi, J Smh u Ssh GsoS
(n) \ GsoUP Psh (n) xnU TkP Ax xnuP
CUS. Cu n xnU TkP J mk mhuS. Gg]
(n1) } mh i CUS.

Cuz xnU TkP GUm \ { ku B


miUS.
n=1 G u B mhzuU Px. n = 1 G l = 0. Cu
B mhzv GUhUS J J _u Ax xnUTk
mk CUS. a = b G }mhzv C Aa_P \S.
Cu n=1 G u mhS. Cx s xnUTk Gk. Cu
xnUTk n = 1 US Eu, Cu 1 s G (h 6.14a)

Cu , Csh B mhzvS n = 2. C[S Csk


AvUPmh xnUTkP CUS. n = 2 G l Bx 0, 1G
Csk vP .
n = 2, l = 0. G
b 0 +1 1
=
=
a
2
2

Ax b =

a
2

l = 0 UP xnUTk } mhP CUS. Cx 2s Gk.


n = 2, l = 1 G
b 1+1 2
=
= =1 Ax b = a
a
2
2

l = 1UP xnUTk mh i BS. Cx 2p

(h 6.14b).
23

Gk

n = 3 US l Bx 0, 1, 2 G vP .
n = 3, l = 0 G

b 0 +1 1
a
=
=
Ax b =
a
3
3
3
n = 3, l = 1 G

b 1+1 2
2a
=
=
Ax b =
a
3
3
3
n = 3, l = 2 G

b 2 +1 3
=
=
Ax
a
3
3

b=a

l = 0, 1, 2 UPz xnUTkP 3s, 3p, 3d Gk.


mhu 3d G SUPkQx. Csk }mh uS
(h 6.14c).

|h l vP C Sh.
_u Ssh Gs :

GUm {

G l = 0, 1, 2, 3 {P GUmP s, p, d, f
{P Ex G.

{ ~sP
\k Aqv Aih }mh u GUm
zu B v C Gu.
me 4 Z 2
En =
8 o 2h 2n 2

Cv v mh v BS. G }mh
u APkzvu v B mh[P, v uP
Hh. C ~sPUS PkUPmh UP
uQmhx. v\Pzv zu, GUm {
Hk uU Psk ~sP \u UPzv
\k Pkzu.
\k Ti, }mh u \ GUm
AqUP AP x z v\Pzxh, u E
x ]z v\Pzxh C[S. Cvx GUm {x,
u SvP vP G.
24

\U PPi, v\Pzua \x
GUm { k G PzvQn[P,
\k ux UPzu zu.
Aux, GUm u J G
}mh,
B,
(rosette)
izv Au U Psh
}mh uP CUS GU T (h
6.15).

AqUP

CUPzv
Aih,
m
h 6.15 GUm
Aq { P ~s A
i u
\k UQ.

SkP
(i)m Aq { Pnk ~so PUS,

\k \u uP v UPzvU Pkzu v,
Pnmh ~so P GsoUP PnUQhh.
(ii) AqJ GUmP Q Ax u
uh UP PkUPh.
(iii) \i, mh] P EP[P {

\k UP.
(iv) hU, ^ P UPh.
(v) Cv { \ P \zuh.

6.3 X & PvP


1895 sm G A,
UP US B x X & PvPU
Pskizu.
BPUS, x \ GUm P, J EP
CUQ (Target) x x x X & PvP uQ GU
Pskizu. CUPvP u uu C X &
PvP G.
X & PvP 0.5 u 10 Su A} Psh
Pu APS. X & PvP PskizuuPP 1901 smUS
| _ [Pmhx.

6.3.1 X & PvP EshUSu & | Tm S


x \ GUmP uSu EPzvx xx
X & PvP u. X & PvP EshUP AihP (i) GUm
25

+
V

X-PvP
LT Bt

h 6.16 Tm S
(ii) GUmP kUS A (iii) AvP Aq Gs Psh
EP CUS BQ u.
Tm izu X & Pv S hzv Pmhmkx (h
6.16). Cx Pzuk CUPPa \k Bk Psh hU
SS. S Azu 106 mm u\ A CUS. Pzuk F
J h[h S. Cx Su zu P
`hk. A h Pzuk GUmP
k. a `x i EUS (G) Gv
zu PkUPmkx. G x Ek
GUmP PPU SUPk.
uz usi ] A h[h Ax i
zumk CUPP (T) \kQx. Bk sPU
PsiUS.
1. AvP Aq Gh & X PvP EshUP
2. AvP ES { & GUmP PP xu Hk AvP
zv EPUP
3. AvP [ Phzx v & EshS B Gkzxa
\.
u Bi , x GUm Ph 45o Pnzv
A. u |Phzv, BP EshS B Bia
`x } Smhk AS Gkzxa \k.
US, BiS Ch 20 kV zu \kzu
kQx. Cu P Eu zuzv GUmP kUPmk,
CUQ v, CUP B Cx, X PvP ES.
26

XPvP

\x
CUQ
x
GUmP
GsoUPa \ux. (Aux , GUmP E u).
Cu mhzv Pmkkzu.

6.3.2 X PvP X PvP


XPvP Csk Pk. (i) X &PvP (ii)
X &PvP
(i)

X PvP
4 Ax Auh AvP A} Psh X PvP Avs

S. G B S. C Fk v S Gu
C X-PvP GQ. C K Su zuzv
uUPk.
(ii) X PvP
1 A} Psh X &PvP Avs AvP, B
AvP. C Fk v AvP Gu X&PvP GQ.
C K Eu zu k PnPz uUPkQ.

US, CUQS E zu mi zx
GUmP CUP B k. Cv zx
X&PvP A} A.

6.3.3 X PvP sP
(i) X PvP PU Su A} Psh Pu APS.
PsqUS hu CUPvP |UPmi, J v\Pzv
\Q.
(ii) CUPvP vzu, P, SURmk , ,

u {Pa]PUS EmkQ.
(iii)
mh Gu , Pu C
UPhx.
(iv) UP AUSQ.
(v) Phz uPkP vUQ.
(vi) J Fk Cu P CUPvP Fk
(GkzxU Pmk: , \u, uizu PQu, EPz uPk).
(vii) ] EP[P x X PvP kx, A GUmP
Q (J ).

27

(viii) X PvP E v_UP AUP. u Eh


XPvP u u ]x k, P[P Hkzx, Czu
AqUP AUS.
(ix) EP (D) G Fkv.
CzuP P X Pv u zu { Hk.

6.3.4 XPvPU Psknu


XPvPU Pskn k sP (i) Phz uPmiU
PUSu (ii) Ax B AP EshUSu.
AUS sU Psk \k AUS Th (ionisation
chamber) G P XPvPU Psknx, \ AUP.

6.3.5 XPvP EmPu


XPvP P \zxx Au J Sv
EmPkQx. dx } , I \h XPv P
\ x, Au \ dI A S. Gu US
EmPmh XPv \ Idx BS. Cv Gx EmP SnP
Gk. Aux dI = Idx.

6.3.6 XPvP
XPvP PskiUPmhh Ph G XPvP, Psq
J h PU Su A} Psh Pu AP GU
T. U RoU Psk XPv A} Pn
] \mhx. B, i. XPvP a] A}
PnP, A Ro Ah C.
Hkzu, Ro UPkPUQh E
u, A}zvSa \P CUP sk. G XPvP
Smkzu XPv A}zvSa \ Ch
Ro PkP CUP sk. CzuP ~so A
EUP Cx.
iP[P AqUP, UTP n J[PP
AUPmiUS. J[P \ AU Psh ux
AoUPz u Ax u Gk. AqUP Ch
E u 1010 m G A CUS. Cv X Pv
A}zxh JhU TiuP CUS. iP[P u[P
Au AqUP Ax UTP, X PvP US
EmkzuUTi uSu RoP \k. J Ro
Cnhx. iP n RoPa \k.

28

6.3.7 B (Laue experiment)


1913 G iP J, X Pv PUS n
RoP \k G. X Pv S Emkzx
BP A hzv (h 6.17a) Pmhmkx. XPv
Sx P S1, S2 G Csk P SUPmk
xzu|P \h B (ZnS) iP \zukQx.
PvP Phz uPk, P& x a \kQ.
Phzv zv P Aua _
\ J[P izv P u (h 6.17b).
x |iU P, Aua `x P, iPzv

AqUP
XPv

Smmhu
uS. CP P (Laue Spots) Gk. Cu
B Csk PzxP zvx. A
S1

S2

X- PvP

O
ZnS
P

h 6.17 (a) \u A

h 6.17 (b)

(i) XPvP PU Su A} Psh Pu AP.


(ii) iPzv AqUP, J[P n AoUP
AvUS.

6.3.8 XPv P U v (Braggs Law)


W.L.

U W.H. U GP XPv
BP \u, Cx iPzvU (Rock salt) Psk, X
Pv A }zvU PnUQmh.
J A} () Psh XPvP iPzv x \Pnzv
(glancing angle) \kQ. AB DE G kPvP Y,
Z u[P vzx (h 6.18) BC, EF uP \Q.
AoUPz u[PUQh E u d G. DE
EF &US BP BQ G \[SzxU PkP
29

Y
d

h 6.18 U v
kQ. ABC, DEF BQ C PvPUS Ch u
k PE + EQ BS.
PBE sin =

PE
Ax PE = BE sin = d sin
BE

EQ
Ax EQ = BE sin = d sin
BE
u k = PE + EQ = d sin + d sin = 2d sin

QBE sin =

Cu u k 2d sin v XPv A}zv


Gs h[SPP Cu, BUPU SURk Hmk a \ EshS.

2d sin = n

C[S n = 1, 2, 3

Cx U v BS.

6.3.9
U
{

X-Pv

S1

S2

X-rays from

U
{
X&Pv
X-ray tube
hzv
(h
6.19)
Pmhmkx. XPv
A }zvU PnUQh
Eu
Cu
A
J {
x.
XPv
Sx
XPvP S1, S2 G
P

C
S

S3
S4
Ionisation

AUPU
chamber
Th

h 6.19 U {
30

Amk PUPkQ. CUP, {


h x C G iPzv x (xP \i Sk)
\kQx. Cu hx \[Szx Aa] zx
_. _] mh AP AUP. vUPmh X
Pv P S3, S4 G P \, AUPU Thzv
(ionisation chamber) ~. XPvP, Thzv E
AUS. Cu PUQh EshS mhzv
Pmh (G) AUP. AUP mhx, iPzu
vUPmh XPv \ zx A.

Ionisation
AUP
current
mh

angle ( ()
)
Glancing
\Pn

h 6.20 \Pn & AUP mh h


\Pn[P () AUP mh AUPmk,
CvP hzv (h 6.20) SUPkQ. Smh ]
\Pn[PUS AUP mh vj E. u
v u \ G, Cshx v, Csh
\ SUQ. \PUP \Pn[P
AUP. uu \Pn AoUP Ch d
vPU Psk X- Pv A}zvU PnUQh.

6.3.10 XPv { & uh ] XPv {


XPv Sx u { Csk mh SvPU

Pshx.
(i) uh XPv {
Psq J uh{ , XPv {
] A} u v Azx A}[P CUS.
31

Fast
AvP
moving
electron
GUm

Continuos X-rays
uh

XPvP

AqUP
nucleus

h 6.21 uh X Pv u

uh XPv { u
AvP v\Pzv \ GUm P, AvP Aq Gs Psh
CUS x v, X- PvP EshUS. X-.PvP
EUS x, GUm B Sv CUS
kzxu nQx.
x \ GUm, CUS E Aq
ESvUS \u, Ax AqUP Pk. C\
GUm ux ux S. Cu GUm Gv kUP
u, Au B uhx S. Gv kUPzv Hk
B C, uhx Q A} Psh X-PvPP
k. Avs () Ax ] A} (])
uha] AvsP X&PvP US. C
uh X-PvP Gk. X-Pv ] A}x Bk
zuzua \ux. BiS, PzuiS Ch
zu k V G,
eV = h =

hc

[ =

hk Pva] ] A}
] =

hc
eV

C[S h Gx [U , c Gx J v\P e
Gx GUm mh. C vP vh

32

] =

6.626 1034 3 108


1.6 10

19

12400

Smh zuzvS, G EP[PUS ] A}


\P CUS.
(ii) ] X Pv {
Cv, Smh UPmh A}[P uh {h
v . CP xP ] uSvP CUS, CUS
zx CP A.

] X- Pv { u
x \ GUmP ], _P J v\Pzv
(1/10)h[S Pzv \, CUS Fk,
CUPP nUPmh, P Eh[Q Tmi (K, L TkP)

GUmPU Th . h 6.22a- x \ GUm


K Tmi GUm }USQx. Cu Hk Ph, Akzx L
Tmi GUm {kQx. GUm Ch
PnP Hk B hx ] A} X-PvP
hkQx. Cu K G. Cu Avs (1)vx
EK EL = h1G uh SUPk. M TmixK TmiS
GUm Ch u ux K BS. M Tmix L
TmiS GUm Ch u L EshUS. Cu L
Tmi Ph N Tmi GUm {mh L
EshUS (h 6.22b). Pva] Avs, CUQ u
zux. CUS uU SUPU Ti Smh A}
Psh Cu { ] X-Pv { Gk.
J {
O
M

X- Pv

L
K

(a)

N
M

AqUP

h 6.22 ] X Pv {
33

(b)

6.3.11 v (Moseleys law)


G CUS P k
Pva] P Bu. Cu BPx, ] X-Pv
{ u { Avs, E uzv Aq
Gso (Z) CiUS |QuzvUS GU T. Cx v
Gk.
Aux Z2 (Ax)
= a (Z b )
C[S a, b G Smh { UP P BS.

v kP
(i) u \ Amhn skP vU
Psk }UP. u \ Amhn u[P A Aq
GhPU Psk A A Aq GsP AihPU
Psk \kzu sk.
(ii) vU Psk (hafnium) (72), hUmi
(technetium) (43), (rhenium) (75) v u[P
PskiUPmh.
(iii) CvU Psk Pshhuz u[P (rare
earths) Aq GsnU PnUQmk, u \ Amhn A
{P i \.

6.3.12 XPv P
XPv P ] R PkUPmk.

zx P
(i) XPvP G , PmiP, u Eh xUQ

Ssk u P Cx BQ Psh
EuQ.
(ii) XPvP P\|U Psh, ]}P, zu
E P C A Eu.
(iii) u u |P, EUS Bzx US ^s,
| PmiP BQ uSu uu, XPvP
Pmkh A x a \x, Snkzu.
(iv) Eh EmSv CUPUTi PmiP

XPvPU

Psk AUP.

ux P
(i) P EmSv E SP, iP BQ
A.
34

(ii) P (welding), P a_P u C

\u \ Eu.
(iii) EPU P P P A A
Eu.
(iv) , \, iU C A
B Eu.

A Ba]
(i) iPz vs[P EPU PP A B

EuQ.
(ii) v u[PU Psh, A Aq GsPU
PnUQh Eu.
(iii) ]UP UT A X-Pv
A.

6.4 \ (Laser)
\un J J k J Kx, H
AqUP Pmh[P J E. SURmk
S K [P P A]. Csk umh [P K
[PPa \hx. \uPUS J J zvx Csk
K [P . \ PP K sU
Psh [P EshUPmh. C \ Gk. LASER Gx
(Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) G B[Qa
\h _UPS. \un JUS, \ (LASER) JUS E
k hzv Pmhmkx. (h 6.23)

(a) \un J

(b) J { J

(c) \ J

h 6.23 A i[P

6.4.1 \ ]P
\ P Gx (i) J { JU Pshx (ii) K
uhx. G AP J Pmhzv CUS. (iii) x
\x (iv) AvPa \ Pshx.
35

6.4.2 ua\ E ysk E


J Aq E1, E2 G Csk B
mh[PUS
Ch
Ch

sk E2 E1 = h B Psh
Lmh E sk Ax
EmP sk.

E2

N2
N1>N2

E1

N1

h 6.24 C{
AqzuP

a\{
Ai{
(N1)
Qa]
{
AqUP
AqUP
GsoUP
GsoUPh (N2) AvPP CUS. Cx C { AqzuP
Gk (h 6.24). Pmh AqUP Psh vU Px. Cv
] AqUP E1 Bh Ai{, ] E2 Bh Qa]
{ CuPU P. h = E2-E1 B Psh Lmh
Ai{ AqUPh v, Ai{ AqUP Qa]
{USa \. Cx ysk EmPu Gk (h 6.25).
Ai{
E
E
h
AqUP,
Lmh
photon
Qa] {US
E
E
Gkzxa \
(a)
(b)
{Pa] u
(
pumping)
h 6.25 ysk EmPu
Gk.
2

AqUP J E B E
N
mh[PUS Gkzxa \mh, J
N >N
u (optical pumping) Gk. z E
N
ysku Ai{x AqUP
Qa] {USa \, Qa] { h 6.26 Aqz uP
H
AqUP GsoUP (N2)
Ai {
AqUP GsoUP (N1) h AvPS. C{Pa] AqzuP
H (population inversion) Gk (h 6.26).
2

Qa] { AqUP B xP 10-8s BS. ] Qa]


{P BmP 10-3s G A AvPP CUS. CzuP {
Ch{ (meta stable state) Gk. Qa] {x \un
{P Cu Qa] AqUP Eu Ai{ Ax
umh { Ah. C{P x. E2-E1 = h B Psh
Lmh Ek (h 6.27). Cx ua\ E Gk.

36

E2

E2

E1

E1

Lmh
photon
h

(a)

(b)

h 6.27 ua\ E

Qa] {x Ch{P Cu AqUP C{ \


AvP | CUS. E2 E1 = h B Psh LmhP,
Ch{ AqUP x ua \x A Ai{USU
Psk . C{ E2 E1 = h Bh Lmh
Ek. Cx ysk E (Induced emission) Gk (h 6.28).
E2

E2

ysk
Lmh
Stimulating
photon (h )

h
h
E1

E1

(a)

(b)
h 6.28 ysk Eu

k Lmh Bx ysk Lmh Ax Csh {


Lmh Gk. Csh { Lmh Gx yskUS
Lmhh Jzu Pmhzv CUS. Cu LmhP sk
Lmh Euz yskzx J uh EshUS. Cx
\ \k (Laser action) Gk. EUPk LmhP
Azx J Pmh { CUS. G ]u J{,
K, \UP J \ EshUS.

\ \ si {uP
(i) AqzuP H CUP sk. Aux Ai{ h
Qa] { AvP AqUP CUP sk.
(ii) Qa] { Ch{P CUP sk.
(iii) mhP, LmhP uz

ysh sk. Cu, GvUS PsniP Csk P


UPku .

37

6.4.3 \ (Ruby laser)


T. (T.Maiman) G 1960 \ iUP
mhx. Cx 10 cm }, 0.8 cm mh Psh iPz usiU

Pshx. Gx A BUh (Al2O3) Bx. Cv ]


A AqUP, S AP (Cr3+) Ch
Ruby
rod
usk

100%
100%
reflecting
Gv
mirror
Bi

Laser
\

Partially

Sv
Gv
mirror Bi
reflecting

Xenon
flash lamp
\
uU
S

h 6.29 \
\kQ. usi P JUP CnP,
umhP CUS. J x a_ PkUPmk
BiP, Sv a_ (Semi silvered) PkUPmk
Sv Fk BiP \k. z usia _ _ i
\ (Zenon) uU S Ex. Cvx J S
AqUP Eu {US Gkzxa \ (h 6.29). \
Sx J Jz u iPUS
}izvUS. J u ] B P B EhuP
CUS.
S B {
E
h
6.30
Pva\*
2

\ E
Ch{
S
AqUP 5500
E
Qa] u
6943
1
6943
Ai{
B
3
6943
mh[P
Pmh
\
mk. \un
E
Ai{
{

S
h 6.30 \ B mh h
AqUP Ai{
3

*C{ k Pv\, A `h Eu. G, Cu


Ax Pv\ x.
38

E1& CUS. Jz uU S Jmhk x 5500

A } Psh (a\ { J) Lmh P S AP


EmP u, A Qa] { E3US \Q . Cu Qa] AP,
B J Sv iPz v AoUPUSU Pkzxmk Pv\
h Ch{ (E2) Ah. E2 { BmP (103 s)
AvP. G Ch{ AqUP GsoUP uhx E.
C E1, E2 {PUQh AqzuP H HkQx.
Ch{ E2 E Qa] A, ua\Pz Ai{ E1US \
x 6943 A} Psh Lmh k. Cu Lmh
z usi \, BiP vzx, Qa]
APz ysi v LmhP Au Pmh { EshUS.
C vP ysk E {Pa] TkuP EshUS.
Cuz ysk Eu \ {P BS. CvP 6943 A}
Psh ] { Jz xiP, Sv a_ iPzv
.

6.4.4 & { \
uha], \ UP \ P \P
. & { \ UQ SvP hzv (h 6.31)
Pmhmk.
Power supply
v
He Ne \
Sm
S
Jx. Cu 1 mm
u\ Azuzv 1 : 4
Laser
\
U
He-Ne P
gas mixture
G Quzv &
beam
P
{ UP E.
S J
x vUPUTi
Discharge
tube S
Partially
USU
Sv
a_
silvered
Bi
zumiU
mirrorBi
Eh
S. , J
Sv J mk
h 6.31 & { \
vUS,
Sv
a_ Eh Bi CUS.
UQ {Pzu J vUP i Avs
kQx. Cu AqUP Eu {US
Qa]h.
h 6.32 He Ne AqUP B mh[P Pmhmk.
US {Px, S GUmP ,
39

u
Collision
Meta stable state
Ch{

20.61eV

20.66eV
6328
18.70eV

6328

\
Laser

transition

ua\

Spontaneous transition

E
Excitation by
collision with
electrons
GUmPh

Pva\

Radiation less

transition

u Hmk
Qu
0 eV

Aq
Helium atom

Ai{
Ground
state

{
Neon Aq
atom

h 6.32 He Ne \ A B mhzvU
SUS h
{ AqUPh u A Ai{x 20.61 eV
20.66 eV B Psh Ch{PUS Ezx. Qa] ]
AqUP u B Qa]u { AqUPUS
PkUS. C { AqUP AqzuP HzvS
AqUP EuQ. { Aq 20.66 eV B Psh Qa]
{x 18.70 eV B Psh Su B mhzvS
ua\Pa \ x 6328
A} Psh Psq
Sv LmhP E. Cu Lmh vUS
Gv Aha \mk, U P
\. Ax, Qa] { Aq yshmk,
vuP 6328 A} Lmh Emk, ysk mhh
\x J Pmhzv . 20.66 eV x 18.70 eV US Hk
yshmh , \ {P BS. \ Px, Sv
a_ PkUPmh . { AqUP
18.70 eV {x E B Psh Su {USz ua\Pz
u K J E. Cu B mh E x, Ne AqUP,
uP S _P u Ai{ AhQ.
CvP Hk {P Pva\x.

6.4.5 \ P
Eu K s, AvPa \ PnP \ Px
A xP kQx.
40

ux P
(i) \ P kzv Pi, uizu uPk

P ~so xPh.
(ii)
Pi EP[P uizu uPkP mh,
uS kQ.
(iii) q _P, SUPhzv _P u
P BUP kQx.
(iv) P uzv \vUP Eu.

zx P
(i)
PU SQ SUPku, P ~so A
]Qa\US kQx.
(ii) ]}PU P, PmiP BQ AP, A ]Qa\,
Ps zv }USu ~so CzuU SP mh,
Jmh kQx.
(iii) En u E|UQP (endoscopy) kQx.
(iv) u P | ]Qa\ kQx.

A P
(i)

\ P Avs {P Cu, Au
s \x i, uUPm], u]P \vP
J |zv A.
(ii) J C (Optical Fiber Communication) \vz uh
SUPhzv \ kQx.
(iii)SQ u, U A \vz uh \

J ]u PP kQx. z xnUPP UPm


xP uh P \ kQx. CUS (target) E
uz xPU Pshv \ kQx.
(iv) US, {S Ch E uU PnUQh.
(v) C { kQx.
(vi)

Q G nU P kQx
(_P kzu n {h EUSu).
(vii) \U Psk, h E u,

v\P, A v\ BQ Gvzu \PU Psk


xP A.

41

Q
J P Ph GkUSx n C
n QhUS. nz uzv
Q . \un Phzv J A a_
Pha _ v. Q J a_, Pmh {
BQ Csk ha _ vUPk. C k h ()
Q (Hologram) Gk.

6.4.6 \ (Maser)
MASER Gx Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of
Radiation G B[Qa \h _UP. \ \k \

u. \ uzx AqzuP H Auz uhx ysk


Eu BS. \ A, Ch{x {P x
Emh Lmh, ~sn (microwave) Avso A.
Pu AP \ P kQ. |h A
iPzv S Ax Ph (gadolinium) AP _
P \UPk. A \ P k.
UT {, \ J ShzuUP PPa \kQx.

42

wUPmh PnUSP
6.1

107

ms1

4
G ^ Pzv \ GUm P J
3
B = 1 10 Wb/m2 Psh PuzvSa \[Szu v\

\zukQx. Puzv P \ u G?
uP : v = 4 107 ms1
B = 1 103 Wb/m2

GUm u, r = ?
w : PuzvSa \[SzuP
GUmP mhu \.
Bev =

r =

\zuku

mv
mv 2
Ax r =
Be
r

9.1 1031 4 107


1 103 1.6 1019

r = 0.2275 m.

6.2

e
PnUQk u\ B \k
m

GUm

E = 105 V/m Pu B = 102 tesla. Csi

GUm P UPhv. kUSUPk zu


e
vU Pski.
m

k 285 volt. GUm

uP : E = 105 Vm1, B = 102 tesla, V = 285 volt,

e
= ?
m

w : GUm B = eV
GUm CUP B =

eV =

1
mv2
2

1
mv2
2

e
v2
=
m 2V

(Ax)

, Pu JUP \[SzuP \ku


Bev = Ee (Ax) v =

43

E
B

e
E2
(105 )2
=
m =
2B 2V 2 (102 )2 285
e
= 1.754 1011 C kg1
m

6.3

UP B 4.9 1014 kg { Gsnz v


J 2 kV zu mi u[PkQx. Csk
Phzx uPkPUQh E u 8 mm G, Au
v E Aih mh[P GsoUP x?
(g = 10 ms2 GP)
uP : m = 4.9 1014 kg; V = 2 kV = 2 103 V;
d = 8 mm = 8 103 m; g = 10 ms2;
n = v x Aih mh[P GsoUP?

w : Eq = mg Ax q =
B
q =

E =

mg
E

V
d

mg
mgd 4.9 1014 10 8 103
=
=
(V /d )
V
2 103

q = 1.96 1018 C

B
n =

6.4

q = ne
q 1.96 1018
=
= 12.25 12
e
1.6 1019

B xP J 4 MeV Bh u[P AqUP J |UQ


\zukQx. xP Ah a] uU PnUQk.
u[Pzv Aq Gs = 79, xP Aq Gs = 2.
uP : xP B = 4 MeV = 4 106 eV
= 4 106 1.6 1019 J
EK = 6.4 1013 J.
Z = 79, ro = ?

44

w : ro =

2Ze 2
2 79 (1.6 1019 )2 9 109
=
4o E K
6.4 1013

ro = 5.688 1014 m.

6.5

\ u A} 6563. Csh
A}zvU PnUQk.
uP : u US n1 = 2, n2 = 3, 1 =6563
Csh US, n1 = 2, n2 = 4, 2 = ?
w : u US
1
1
1
1 = = R n 2 n 2
2
1
1
1

1
1
5
=R 2 2 =R
36
3
2

(1)

Csh US
2 =

1 3
1
R
=R 2 2 =
4 16
2

(2)

\ (1)I \k (2) B SUP,


2 R (5/36) 5 16 20
=
=

=
1 R (3/16) 36 3 27
20
20
= 4861
= 6563
27
27

(Ax) 2 = 1 .
6.6

PP Aih, m P EmP
E (n=1) mh u E GUm v\Pzv,
_U Pzv PnUQk. B (r1) = 0.53.
uP : n = 1, r1 = 0.53 = 0.53 1010 m
v = ?, T = ?

Ze 2
1
2
w : GUm CUP B = mvn =
8o rn
2
1
mvn2 =
2

Ze 2
n 2h 2 o
8o

mZe 2
45

n 2h 2 o
rn =

mZe 2

(Ax) vn =

Ze 2
2onh

mUS Z = 1 n = 1,
e2
(1.6 1019 )2
=
v1 =
2oh 2 8.854 1012 6.626 1034
= 2.1818 106 ms1
(S : v\Pzu, u GkP kzv
PnUQh)

_UP T =

T =

2 r1
v1

2 3.142 0.53 10 10
2.1818 10

P = v \ P

T = 1.5265 1016 s

6.7

m mU 1.097 107ms1. \
] A} GPU PnUQk.
uP : R = 1.097 107 m1
\ Su A}zvS
n1 = 1, n2 = , s = ?

\ A}zvS
n1 = 1, n2 = 2, l = ?

w : \UP A Gs
1
1
2
2
n2
n1

=R

Su A} Gx
s =

1
1
=R 2
=R
( )2
s
1
1

(Ax) s =

1
1
=
= 911.6
R 1.097 107

46

A}zvS,

l =

1 1 3
=R 2 2 = R
l
2 4
1

l =

4
4
=
3R 3 1.097 107

l = 1215

6.8

U {, u \ zvP \Pn 8o
BS. d v 2.82 1010 m G X&Pv A}zv
v G? Cshx \ \Pnzv v
G?
uP : n = 1US 1 = 8o; d = 2.82 1010 m; = ?
n = 2 US 2 = ?

w :

n = 1 G 2d sin 1 = (1)

(Ax) = 2 2.82 1010 sin 8o = 0.7849


n = 2 US
sin2 =

2d sin 2 = (2)

0.7849 10 10
2.82 10 10

= 0.2783

2 = sin1 (0.2783) = 16o9

6.9

Cx iPzv AoUP Ch d = 2.82. C


iPzvU Psk u \ PnUQhk
A}zuU PnUQk.
uP : d = 2.82 = 2.82 1010 m ; n = 1 ; = ?
w : A}zvS (sin ) = 1
2d (sin ) =

(Ax) =

2 2.82 1010 1
1

= 5.64 1010 m

47

6.10 1 A} Eh J A} X- Pv J iPzv x
x 30 o , 45 o Pn[P Akzukzu vP
HkzxQx G AoUP ChU Pski.
1 = 30o;

uP :

2 = 45o;

= 1;

n = 2d sin 1

(1)

(n+1) = 2d sin 2

(2)

w :

d = ?

\k (2) \k (1)
= 2d (sin 2 sin 1)

1 10 10

d = 2(sin sin ) =
2(sin 45o sin 30o )
2
1

1 10 10 1 10 10
1 10 10
=
=
0.414
1
2 1
1

2
2
2

d = 2.415

6.11 Ai{ m Aqx 970.6 A} Psh


J A}U Pva] Qa]mhkQx. Ek
{ Gzu uP (P) Hk?
C A}zv v G? (Ai{ m
AUP B 13.6 eV h = 6.6 1034 Js)
uP : kPv A} = 970.6 =970.61010 m
Ai B { m Aq AUP B
= 13.6 eV
(i) Hk uP GsoUP = ?
(ii) Ek A } = ?

w : Qa] { B
E =

hc

6.6 1034 3 108


970.6 10 10 1.6 10 19

En = 13.6 + 12.75 = -0.85 eV


En =

13.6
n2

48

= 12.75 eV

13.6 13.6
=
= 16
En
0.85

Ax

n2 =

Ax

n = 4

|Px ux B mh[PUS u
P 6. Aux u AvsP GsoUP
B BS. (hzv Pmhmkx)
Su B miS A} u.
(Aux 4 x ux 3x uUS u x)
E3 = 13.6 = 1.51 eV
32
hc

= E4 E3

Ax =

n
4
3

6.6 1034 3 108


(1.51 0.85) 1.6 1019

= 18.75 10-7 m

= 18750

49

u vk
(Cu u vmk Sv, PkUPmk UP
PnUSP vP. C, h Sv Gu J
Ax PnUQ iUP. n, n u vmk
Svx mk, h x iUPhU Ti
UPUS PnUSPUS hUP Bzu \x P sk)

6.1

6.2

PzukU PvP G
(a) GUm P

(b) | A P

(c) mh xP P

(d) U PvP

E = 3 104 V/m vh , B = 2103 Wb/m2.

vh Pu JUP \[SzuP \k
Sv GUm P P Ah \Qx. GUm
P CUP, Pu, BQ JUP
\[SzuP Cu, GUm P.

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

(a) 60 ms1

(b) 10.3 107 ms1

(c) 1.5 107 ms1

(d) 0.67 107 ms1

PPi, Smh uzu vP


A
(a) CUP B

(b) { B

(c) Pn Eu

(d) Eu

Aq u mh uP B[P Qu
(a) 1 : 1/2 : 1/3

(b) 1 : 2 : 3

(c) 1 : 4 : 9

(d) 1 : 8 : 27

m Aq Ai {x Qa]UPz u
Sum\ B (Ax) u Qa]UP zu B
(a) 13.6 eV

(b) 10.2eV

(c) 3.4 eV

(d) 1.89 eV

u Lk Aq vi, Aq J {
(a) {
(b) uh {
(c) uh EmP {
(d) mh {

50

6.7

J Smh Aq B mh[P A, B, C B vP
H \ E. Aux EA < EB < EC. C x B US, B
x A US C x A US ux u
A}[P 1 , 2, 3 G Gx
\x?
C
(a) 3 = 1 + 2

12
(b) 3 = +
1
2

(c) 1 = 2 + 3 = 0
(d)

6.8

6.9

23

Aq GUmP }mh u PzvU T


(a) J.J. u\

(b)

(c) \k

(d) i

XPv Gx
(a) CUP B Pv\P {Pa]
(b) Eu ku
(c) B & {P hu
(d) mh Az uzx

6.10 X-Pv

S
AvPUP?

XPvP

(a) mhzv AvPu


(b) mhzvU Su
(c) CUQ zuzv AvPu
(d) CUQ zuzvU Su

6.11 Tm S u ] X-Pv Lmh B G


kQx?
(a) CUQ Pmh GUmP CUP Bx
(b) CUQ AP CUP Bx
(c) x GUmP CUP Bx
(d) CUQ Aq ux

51

6.12 Tm S J 24800 V zuzv \kQx. u


X-PvP Avs
(a) 6 1018 Hz

(b) 3 1018 Hz

(c) 6 108 Hz

(d) 3 108 Hz

6.13 m Aq P Gv A}
u?
(a) 2 1

(b) 4 1

(c) 6 5

(d) 5 2

6.14 m Aq GUmP u x, Gv
A} Psh Pva_ u?
(a) 2 1

(b) 6 2

(c) 4 3

(d) 5 2

6.15 \ u {Pa]US
(a) Qa] { AqUP GsoUPh Ai{ AqUP

GsoUP AvP
(b) Ai{ AqUP GsoUPh Qa] {

AqUP GsoUP AvP


(c) Ai{ Qa] { AqUP GsoUP \
(d) Q { AqUP CUPx.

6.16 usi E S AP
(a) ] J EmP

(b) a\ J EmP

(c) } J EmP

(d) a\ J E

6.17 PzukU PvP G G?


6.18 PzukU PvP sPU TP?
6.19 GUmP mh {z uP Pq J.J u\ \u
.
6.20 GUm mh Pq UP Gsnz x B
?
6.21 uk &]u \u iP .
6.22 uk Aq v SPU TP.
6.23 Aqv GkPPU TP.
6.24 PP Aih n&Bx mhu BzvP
P P.
52

6.25 m Aq n&Bx mh u E GUm B


me 4
En =
GU PmkP.
8 o 2n 2h 2

6.26
6.27
6.28
6.29
6.30
6.31
6.32
6.33
6.34
6.35
6.36
6.37
6.38
6.39
6.40
6.41
6.42
6.43
6.44

m { \P .
B mh h Gx G?
\k v SPU TP.
Qa]UP zu B, AUP zu B &
.
X&PvP G G?
X&PvP, X&PvP G G?
X&PvP sP GxP.
X&PvP USmkzu \un \u Fk Ro
kv & H?
U vU T, P.
U { kzv X&Pv A}zu G
PnUQh?
] X&PvP uzv .
vU TP.
ua\ E, ysk E & kzxP.
C { AqzuP G G?
\ ]PU TP.
\un Jx \ J G kQx?
\ \mi u hzxh .
B mh hzxh He-Ne \ \mi .
zxz x \ PU TP.

PnUSP
6.45 3.4 104 V/m , 2 103 tesla Pu J |zv
JUP \[SzuPa \k Sv GUm P
Qx. GUm P u u, GUmP
PzvU PnUQk. }UPmh, GUm \
u B G?
6.46 UP B 0.9 gm/cm3 Ahzv Psh Gsnz
v mh 104 cm. Csk uPkPUS Ch E
53

u 2 cm. AQh zu k 72 V {
mk vx |P {zv UPkQx. Auz
v mh[P GsoUP G?
6.47 5 MeV B Psh xPP uz uPmh
]uiUPkQx. B xPP u AqUP |UQ
|[S a] uU PnUQk. (uzv Aq Gs
Z = 29).

6.48 \, u A}zv, \
G PnUQk. (mU 1.094 x 107m1)
6.49 J iPzv XPv S Emkx 6o27
Pnzv P |UP uQx. XPv A}
0.58
G, Csk u[PUS Ch E
uU PnUQk.
6.50 Pzuix GUmP CUQ v 1
A} Psh XPv EshUP sk, XPv
SUS PkUPk zu G?
6.51 uu mh {z uP mh vPx
GUm {U PnUQkP.
6.52 1000 kV zuzv XPv Sx u XPvP
] A}zvU PnUQk.

hP
6.1

(a)

6.2

(c)

6.3

(c)

6.4

(c)

6.5

(b)

6.6

(b)

6.7

(b)

6.8

(c)

6.9

(a)

6.10 (a)

6.11 (d)

6.12 (a)

6.13 (c)

6.14 (a)

6.15 (b)

6.16 (b)

6.45

v = 1.7 107 ms1;

r = 4.834 102 m

6.46

n = 8

6.48

1 = 18752 ; = 8204 6.49 d = 2.581

6.50

V = 12.4 kV

6.52

] = 0.0124

6.47 ro = 1.670 1014 m


6.51 m = 9.11 10-31 kg

54

7. Pva_ Cmh s
\ uzx
J C Es { Ax PiS. Jx
SURmk {Pa]P A Ex G
\uP UQ. P Jx B Eu
Psh Lmh G xP sU Pshx G J
SkQx. G Jx, A&xP Cmhs x.
i G, A&xP Cmh s
APP xPPUS kzv. xPP AP G Ax
Pzv UP, xPP Ssh Gv (quantum
mechanics) G C v EPU Pn.

7.1 J (Photo electric effect)


] EP P x &PvP, X&PvP, FuU PvP
PmS J k x GUmP Ek
{P J Eu Gk. C 1887B Bsk U
m (Heinrich Hertz) G, Jzv\ _P uh
BP x Pskizu. J hzvS U, Gh
Pmh GP G \uP J B
\u.

7.1.1 U \u
J B Eu \u A, h 7.1
Pmhmkx. hUPmh Sm Sm
S J Pzuk C Bk A G S
G
Csk xzu|Pz uPkP E. uPkP,
A
P EnUP P mhh
C
CnUPmk. uPkP x GuuU
- +
Pva_
ux
_
Gu
Bt
mh {P. G, P
h 7.1 J
mh UP Hh. B FuU
Pv PuU Pva_, P Gv h CnUPmk
Pzuk x x mh {Px, P mh (G) UP
HkQx. B FuU Pva_ uPk A- x x P
55

mh UP Hkv. Ca\u J PnP,


uPk E xPP, Gv mh Psh GUmP GU
Pshmhx. Cu GUmP Hk mh,
Jmh Gk.
U \uUS J.J. u\, k, a\h
BQ AP J \uPz uhx
Psh. AP, Jmh, kPv \, J
GUmP v\P CUP B BQQh
uh, A Pva] A}zva \x ku A
uha] BP Psh.
BkUS,
PzukUS
Ch E zu k
kPva]
Avs C
{PU Psk, kPva] \
, AS J mh
P mhx AukQx.

J mh

7.1.2 J mhzv x kPva] \

kPv \ AvPUP, J
mh |Pmk SvP
AvPUQx. (h 7.2) J mh
\
x, J i Ek
h 7.2 kPv \a
GUmP GsoUPUS |zuP
\x mh ku
Cu, J i Ek
GUmP GsoUPx kPv \S |zuP CUS.

7.1.3 Jmhzv x zu mi
Smh J EP S (C) kPva] Avsn,
\ (I1) {PU Psk uPkPUSU PkUPk zu
mia (V) \x Jmhzv Hk u h 7.3
x A iQx. A |zu AvPUSx J
mh AvPUQx. G C x Azx
GUmP HS P | zuzu AvPzu,
mh AvPzx umk mh (Saturation current) G
^ v Ah. AUS AUPk zuzv GvS
v \u, J mh EhiP _ v
Ahv. B |zu Pkzu x C[Q v\
GUmP C[S. Cx C uPmix GUmP Smh
56

J mh

I3
I2
I1
{zx
zu

-V0

GvUS zu

Bk zu

h 7.3 zu mia \x J mh u
v\Pzv Q GuU PmkQx. Gvzu
AvPUPmh Jmh Sx Smh J Gv
zuzvS mh _S. J mh _S
BiSU PkUPk Cua ] Gv zu, mk zu
Ax {zx zu Vo Gk.
m

{h J&GUm v G v\Pzv
1
,Au CUP B mv2 .
2

{zx zu V o Bx, AvP GUm uPk A


Ah ukzx {zx.
G, AvPP GUmP Av {US Pska
\k B = AvP GUm CUP B
eVo =

1
mv 2
2

Psh \mix {zx zux AvP


GUm v\Pzva \ux G.
kPv Au AvsoS, \P I 2 , I 3 G AvP
APUS , \u sk \kQx. umk
mh[P, Pva] \PUS |zuP Ex Gu
h PmkQx. B {zx zu, Azx \PUS J
u vS. BP, kPv Smh AvsoS, {zx
zux \a \uu.

7.1.4 {zx zuzv u kPva] Avs


J En uPmh (C) kPv \ {PU Psk,
{zx zuzv u kPv Avso
57

AkQx. AvsPUS PkUPmh


V zu mh zx, J mh ku
h 7.4 PmkQx. kPv Avs AvP G, {zx zuzv
V o v AvP G hzvx A iQx. AvsP
3 > 2 > 1 G AS {zx zu[P Au \i
Aux (Vo )3 > (Vo )2 > (Vo )1 G A.
J mh
umk mh
3
2
1

-V

(-V0)3 (-V0)2 (-V0)1

+V

GvUS zu

Bk zu

h 7.4 PkUPmh zu mh zx
AvsPUP Jmhzv k
J GUmP CUP Bx, AvsoS
|zuP CUS. B \a \uu G hzvx
A.
kPv AvsoS,
AuS {zx zuzvS
Ch J h u,
|UPk ES (h 7.5). o
G AvsoS {zx
zu _ BS. Cu
Avs, EPzv
uhUP Avs Gk. Cu
AvsqUS J
{P, Cu Av
sqUSU R J
|hx.
J
\
G AvPP Cu, Gu
AvsoSU R J

{zu
zu
( V0 )

Avs ()

h 7.5 kPv a]
Avsn zx {zx
zuzv k
58

Eu { kQu, Aua ] Avs, uhUP


Avs G \kQx. EP[PUS
uhUP Avs v .

7.1.5 J Eu vP
J \uP iP, J E
Aih vPPz uSUPmk.
(i) Smh J Env UP S, J \ G

AvP C, Gu AvsoSU R J Eu
{Pu, kPv Aua ] Avs uhUP Avs
Gk.
(ii) Smh J Env UP S, kPva] Avs
Bx uhUP Avsnh AvPP CUSx, J
mhx kPv \S |zuP CUS.
(iii) J E J Ehi {PS. Aux Pva_ kuS

J GUmP EkuS Ch P h CUPx.


(iv) J GUmP CUP B, kPv AvsoS
|zuP CUS, B \a \uu.

7.1.6 J AP LmhP
U Szu PuU PP J UP
i. B U [Q Ssh PP, J
PP USQx. [Q Ssh PPi, Jx,
uzu ] ] B mhP[PP EkQx. J
mhP Ssh Ax Lmh Gk. h Gx [U
G J Lmh B E = h.
mh Gx xP A; A A. SURmk ,
, u {PP Lmh K AP,
Eu, EmPu, h \ P (J
) Lmhx xPP \kQx. G, J Lmh,
Cmh s x.

7.1.7 J P Ij \k
1905 Bm Ij PP Ssh PP
J S kzv.
Ij Ti, kPva] J LmhUS, EPzv
E J GUmUS Ch {P a \
(interaction) J GUmP EkQ. h B Psh J
59

Lmh, EPzv xx, Au B C P


kQx.
(i) GUmP AqUPh nUPmku, kQ
Lmh B J Sv, GUm EPzv x
kQx. GUm z u Cu B
EPzv J B Gk (photo electric work
function), J B Gx EPzv x J
GUm z u ] B GuS.
(ii) B Gg] Sv GUmUS CUP BPU
PkUPk.

GUm { m G, v\P v G Psh


kQ Lmh B = B +
GUm CUP B
h = W +

1
mv2
2

...(1)

GUmP, EPzv x x Hk AP
uP B CUPh Cu, (h W) G B
GUm CUP BPz u. G (hW) Gx k
GUm CUP BU PkUS. v Gx GUm
z v\P G
h = W +

1
mv2
2

(2)

Ca\k Ij J P \k BS.
kQ Pva] Avsnx () EPzv uhUP
AvsoSa (o) \P Cu, GUm CUP B _S.
\k (2) I C Gu.
ho = W

(3)

W v \k (2) vh
1
h - h o =
mv2 Ax h(
2

- o ) =

1
2

mv2

Cx Ij J \mi i BS.

7.1.8 Ij J a \mi B
\zu
Ij J a \k
1
mv2 = h( o )
2

(1)
60

{zx zu V o G, GUm mh e G
Psh
1
mv2 = eVo
2

(2)

\k (1) (2)x
eVo = h ( o)

Ax Vo =

h

e

e o

(3)

Cx |UPmi \hS. UP, \k (3)I \u


\zx, Pnmh EsPh Ehk Cuu Au.

7.2. JPP A P
JP Gx J P PS. Cx
Pk.
(i) J E P (Photo emissive cell)
(ii) J mh P (Photo voltaic cell)
(iii) J Phzx P (Photo conductive cell)
CSv JEP U Ps. Cx hUPmh
Psni Ax Sm SU Pskx.
PzuhPa \k J A E iz
uPk (C), J P Gv h
CnUPmiUS. AvP GsoUP J
C
GUmP uPP, Su
B Psh ^] BUk a_ CzuPmiSU
A
PkUPmiUS. A G miU
B
P, P |h CnUP
mk, C G EPz uPmi Aa] A
UPmiUS. Cx BhPa \k
(h 7.6).
uSu A} Psh J, Pzuk x
x, J GUmP Emk
Bh Pmk Hk mh J
U Amh AUPkQx.
Smh Avso CP PP
u mh J \S
|zuP CUS.
61

+
Bt

h 7.6 J E
P

J PP P
(i) vhz x, J PP J sk Hkzu

kQ.
(ii) EP {PU Pmkkzu kQ.
(iii) uUSPz uP CUP EuQ.
(iv) { B, sP {P A

JPP kQ.
(v) s nzv x, ` Jx
uS kQ.
(vi) J z u Ak PP C

kQ.
(vii) PuPz uP vUP, h k AP
JPP kQ.
(viii) vh A o, w A o JPP

kQ. vh A o, UPmh J
Pzvx FuU PvP uhx \miUS.
A \ | JPzv x PvP ukUPk. J
mhzv Hk Cu vj u, J \o, J
Ga \. w A o, Pmihzv uSu Ch[P
JPP zumiUS. w Hk x EshS JUPvP
Cu J&Pzv x . Cx \o Ax \[S (siren) Jh
CnUPmh _ zv \x Ga\UP \P Hkzx.

7.3 AP
Pva_ B, A xP BQ Cmh s
x. Pva_ BUS Cmh s Eu, US
H Cu s CUPU Thx G uP G. 1924 g_
C i G, uSu ` C[S xP J
A sPUP sk GU Pzvz xoPU
T. CPx (matter), B (energy) BQ
CPx. CP \a^ u, , B
BQ CsiS \a^ s CUP sk G PnzvU
T. Pva_ BUS Cs Eu US Cu
Cmh s CUP sk.
62

7.3.1 i A}
BUP [Q \mh
\mi (xP), i \kzv.

(A),

Ij

[U \mi i, Avs Psh Lmh US


B
E = h

(1)

C[S h Gx [U
Ij { & B \mii, m {USa \ B
E = mc2

...(2)

C[S c Gx J v\P
h = mc2 G
hc

= mc2 Ax =

h
mc

...(3)

( =

v v\Pzv C[S xPUS c = v G, \k (3)x


=

h
h
=
p
mv

(4)

C[S p = mv, xP EuS. Cu AP, P


\z xPPUS mk Po\ A}zvU PsiUS.

7.3.2 GUm i A}
m { e mh Psh J GUm V zu
mi kUPmh Ax, B eV BS. Cv

GUm CUP BUSa \.


1
mv2 = eV Ax v =
2

2eV
m

i A}x
=

h
mv

63

...(1)

v v vh
=

2eV
m
m

(2)

2meV

P uu vP \k (2) vh
=

12.27
V

V = 100 volts G = 1.227 . Aux, 100 volts zuzv


kUPmh GUm A} 1.227 BS.
E = eV

Gx GUm CUP B Gu, (2)&x

\mii
=

2mE

7.3.3 Aq A Gv Pzx
i Ti, m {US v v\Pzv C[S GUm
A}
=

h
mv

(1)

C[S h Gx [U
i T Aih,
Aqv J Tmkx.
v Tmh {zuh
uP Ai HU P
mh. B, uP
\ GUmP, AP
C[S GU Pumhx (h 7.7).

6-&x
_u

|UPmh u

mh u _ (2r),
h 7.7 Aq A
i A}zv h[SPP
Gv Pzx
Cu Ax {zu u
BS. Aux, GUm { u, APU
PsiUS.
64

G 2r = n

(2)

C[S n = 1, 2, 3 r Gx mh u B
\k (1)I (2) vh
h

2r = n
mv

Ax mv r =

nh
2

(3)

\k (3)x, C[S GUm zu Pn Eux


h
h[SPP CUS. BP, i Pzx GkP
2

Evkzvx.

7.4 GUm ~snUQ (Electron microscope)


GUm ~snUQ Gx \un J ~snUQ
] P EUQU Pmh Ba]U Th[P kQx.
Cx C[S GUm As AihPU Psk
\kQx. J ~snUQ Sv (resolving power) Gx Csk
Pz uzu zx UPU Ti Pa] u BS.
Sv, Pva] A}zva \x A. J
~snUQ x Psq J JmhkQx. ]u
J ~snUQPU Psk _ 2000 h[S
EUPzv . Psq APhU Su A}
Psh X-PvP kzv, X-Pv ~snUQ J EUP.
G, X- PvP _P SUP Cx. u P
X-Pv i A} Psh GUm P,
Pu [PU Psk Sa \. GUmPU Psk
E Sv Psh ~snUQ iUP.
_ 60,000 volts zu mi GUm kUPkx,
Au A} _ 5 10-12 m. Cv Psq J A}zu
h 105 h[S S. G, J GUm ~snUQ Sv,
J ~snUQ Sv h 1,00,000 h[S AvP.

A \k
GUm ~snUQ h 7.8 Pmhmk. GUh
~snUQ uzx J ~snUQ u. |
65

GUm

(A)
SUS
Pu
_

(B)
S
Pu
_

(C)
zx
Pu
_

Cv

h 7.8 GUm ~snUQ


GUm ~snUQ Gx GUm EmS Pa \ux. Cv,
Su Sz u Psh Pu _P E EUPzv
EuQ. J k GUmP, E zu
k Psh GUm xUQ G A kUPkQ.
Cu P, i Pu A (SUS Pu _)
\zukQx. GUmP CnU PP, EUP
si x x. GUm P, Ah Su
SvP AvP A, Ah Su SvP S A .
G, Fk GUm P, uPU
PsiUS. Cshx Pu _ (B) (Pu S _),
GUm P UPP EUPmh
zv EshUS. Pu (C) (zx _), EUPmh
zv J Sv, J v x SUPa \xh AvP
EUPzv Hkzx. Jv u J P
Hk zv |iPU Pn. Cu Phz uPkPU
Psk { vP . Pu zv \ \x GUm
Pz xPU SUP. GUm P hzv mk
\siu, CUPx x hUPmh
Thzv CUS.
66

P
(i) u\P, P A, EP P, sn

a]P BUPU TP P Ax P kQx.


(ii) zx E, Uj

Ax P kQx.
(iii) C, Aq A iP AP UPP
Ax P kQx.

P
GUm ~snUQx E hzv \ku
A{ BPU Ti ]uxPU Ti E P
A Cu ~snUQ kzu Cx.

7.5 \ (Relativity)
{mh Gv (Newtonian mechanics) {, P, }
(space) BQ \PU Pmh. Gu
SPU P CuuPU Pumhx. ,
\uP, K { EuP GkzxU Pmhx.
J AU PPi, Du G FhP
CuP, Ax Ashzv x uP
PukQx. B UP\ \ui, Du G
Pzx \ Gx AzuuQ. Ij |UQ,
\ Gx C. G CUP[P \h. P,
{, } BQ J \u. A \
A. 1905 B Bsk, Ij, ] \ PP mh.
P uSvP, Hu J a \x u
Pzxh C[PU Tiu Ax K { Cu, ]a \
PP USQx.

7.5.1 (i) Pzx


sh Gv (Classical mechanics), \ CUP
Gx C uzuUP iPz uQx.
(i) Ashzv, Gu { Ax CUPzu {
SzuU Psk (frame of reference) Ah.

] \ PP JUP PP BQ, Ij,


1905 B Bsi mh. Au Bsk AUS, CUS P
uP Aux.
67

(ii) J i Ax, Au { Ax

CUP { Ax B zx A.
(ii)

P Pzx
sh Gvi,
(i) C {PPUS Chmh P Ch, BP

CUPzua \ Azx BPUS J AP A.


(ii) B JUS, C {PP J Pzv {PuPU

Psh, BP { Ax CUP GP Cu,


Azx BPUS Au {PP J Pzv {P. Aux, J
P {P \x.
(iii)

{ Pzx

sh Gv, { \uP, P CUS.


Cx CUPzu zux A.

7.5.2 S (Frame of reference)


C n Ax n xP {
US Bzu Aa_P uS S Gk.
Pmj] Bzu Aa_P uS P G
SS. Cv x, y z G Bz uP xP {U
SkQ. Ashzv i S[P E. |x J
SS. S[P (i) {U S (ii) {
S G C Pk.
(i)

{ Ax kUPhu S[P

Szv E P {mh { v
Gv vPUS Emk, Ax {U S Gk.
CUSzv, \ \hu K {
Ax uha] CUP { A.

(ii) { Ax kUPmh S[P


S J, \ \huv
kUPhu, Ax { S Gk. CUSzv,
{mh vP xv.

7.6 ] \ PP
CUPP {, } P BQ uP
v EsP |i k BS. \
CUP G Pzv CUPP {PUQx. ]a \ PP
68

Gx, J \x ^ v\Pzv C[S P


Ax BP U Tx BS.
] \ PP C Aih GkPP .
(i) C vP, Azx {U S[PUS J

vP A.
(ii) AzxU S[P, hzv J v\P
S.

7.6.1 }U SUP (Length contraction)


uhUPzv K { E S S G C S[PU
Px. S Szv usk J UPmkx. S Szv
E B O (h 7.9), usi }zu lo G AkQ.
K S'

CUPzv S'

lo

O
K S

K S

(a)

(b)

h 7.9 }U SUP
S S, |S X- Aa] v\ v G v\Pzxh
C[Sx, S& E B usi } l G AhkQx.

Cx l = lo 1

v2
c2

Aux l < lo
G, K { E
B
zx
v
v\Pzv C[S usi
}, CUP v\ 1

K { BUS
ux

CUP { BUS
ux

h 7.10
A
SUPh.
Cx
m&mk (Lorentz Fitzgerald) SUP Gk.
c2

69

GkzxUPmk : P PP |P BUS mh i
J }mhPz u (h 7.10).

7.6.2 P }mi (Time dilation)


S S G C S[P, S S SI zx, v

G v\Pzxh |v\ X &Aa] C[SuPU P. S


Szv E J PiP t o P Ch \PP
kuPU Px.
S Szv E B CuU P ChU

PnUQmh, A PnUQhk P Ch t G
t =

to
1-

v2
c2

Aux t > to
S Szv K { E BUS, P Ch
1
1-

v2

G AS }sk Pnk. Aux, K { E

c2

BUS, CUP { E PiP S |zuU PmkuPz


u. Aux,. xPa \uPz u. Cx P }mi Gk.
GkzxUPmk : C[S sU Pzv E PiP, E
PiP[P h xPa \uPz u.

7.6.3 v\Pzu zx { k
{mh Gvi v\Pzu zx
{ hx. B Ij Pzxi, {x
v\Pzu zx k. K { Ex
{US (mo ), v v\Pzxh C[Sx {US (m) E
uh
m =

mo
1-

v2
c2

GkzxUPmk: \Um xP kUQP GUmP,


P AvP v\PzvS kUPk x, T \mi i
A { AvPUQx.
70

7.7 Ij { & B Cna \k


K { m o Psh x F G \ X v\
\kuPU Px. {mh Csh vi, \x Eu
mk uzvSa \.
Aux F =

d
(mv)
dt

(1)

\ PPi, { v\P PS. G


F = m

dv
dt

+ v

dm
dt

...(2)

F G \ Ahu Cha] dx G,
CUP B Hk AvP,
dEk

= Fdx
= (m

dv
dm
+ v
) dx
dt
dt

= mdv

dx
dt

+ vdm

dx
dt

dEk = mv dv + v2dm

...(3)

Ij \ PPi
m =

m2

mo
1 v 2 /c 2

mo 2c 2

c2 v2

m2c2 m2v2 = mo2c2

PUP Pn,
c2 2m dm v2 2m dm m2 2v dv = 0.
c2dm = mv dv + v2 dm

...(4)

\kP (3) (4)I Jh,


dEk = c2dm

...(5)

G, CUP B Hk k dEk, { miS (dm)


|zuP A.
K { Ex, v\P _. m = m o
71

v\P v Gx Au { m BS. G \k (5)I


uPh,
Ek

dE
0

m
k

=c

dm

mo

Ek = c 2 (mmo) = mc 2 moc 2

Cx CUP BUP \ \k BS. mo Gx K{


moc 2 Gx AP B. (K {UP B Ax K B)
zu B = C[S CUP B + K {UP

B
E = Ek + m oc 2
= mc 2 m o c 2 + m o c 2
E = mc 2

Cx Ij { & B Cna \k BS.

{US BUS Ch Cnzv Em


GUm, mh, {m xPPUS { Esk.
{ Eh xP, K B m o c 2 &I US. B CUP
B, { BP AzxPUS CUP Ax
CUP. J xP LmhS { _, B B
Esk.
uz uSv E {h xPP, { S
Hk Ax { _S i. Cu {
xP {h xPP i. Aux, K B P
BP ({ BP u) P B K
BP (B {P u) . G, {&B
Cn G T EsQx. uz uSv zu B
x.
GkzxUPmk : GUm J Au GvxP ]mh x
x, Csk AUPmk C LmhP ES. zu B
Gx ux Gu, GUm&]m \ih uhh
zu B (CUP B + K B) K B (_ {)
LmhPUS kQx. Cu , BUP Lmh J
(_{) GUm&]m \i ({h xPP) EUP
C.
AqUP AqUP Cn GkzxUPmkP,
Akzu h AqUP C Ps.
72

wUPmh PnUSP
7.1

xzu|Pzv B 6.8 1019 J. xzu|Pzvx


GUm z u uhUP Avs x?
uP

: W = 6.8 1019 J

: B, W = h

= ?

h = 6.8 1019
=

6.81019
6.6261034

= 1.026 1015 Hz.

7.2

EP J 3333 A} J Jmhkx,
Ax 0.6 eV B Psh GUmP kQx.
EPzv BU PnUQkP.
uP : = 3333 , C.B. = 0.6 eV ; W = ?
w : B, W = h CUP B
Ax W =

hc

CUP B

6.626 10 34 3 108
(0.6 1.6 1019)

3333 10 10

7.3

= (5.96 1019) (0.96 1019)


= 5 1019 J

= 3.125 eV.

5 10 19
1.6 10 19

eV

zvzv B 2.3 eV. Au x 4.8 107 m


A} J x EPzvx k GUm
CUP BU PnUQkP. J GUmP kzx
J A} x?
(h = 6.626 1034 Js ; e = 1.6 1019 C GU PkUPmkx).

uP : W = 2.3 eV ; h = 6.626 1034 Js ; e = 1.6 1019 C.


CUP B = ? ; A} = ?
w : k GUmP CUP B = h W

73

B h

hc

6.626 10 34 3 108
4.8 10 7

joule

6.626 10 34 3 108

= 2.588 eV

4.8 107 1.6 1019

k GUmP CUP B
= 2.588 2.3

CUP B = 0.288 eV
hc

B W = h =
o

hc
W

uhUP A} ( A})
o =

6.626 10 34 3 108
2.3 1.6 10 19

o = 5.40 107 m.

7.4

105 ms1

P Psh GUm j A}zuU


PnUQkP. (m = 9.1 1031 kg; h = 6.626 1034 Js GU
PkUPmkx)
uP : m = 9.1 1031 kg ; v = 105 ms1 ;
h = 6.626 1034 Js ; = ?

w : A} =
=

7.5

h
mv

6.626 1034
9.1 1031 105

= 72.81

120 eV CUP B Psh GUm j A} x?

uP : CUP B= 120 eV = 120 1.6 1019 J ; = ?


w :

h
2mE

74

6.626 1034

2 9.1 1031 120 1.6 1019

= 1.121 1010 m.

7.6

Aqvi, mi Aq (i) n = 1 (ii) n = 4


BQ mh[P GUm i A} x? J
{P i A}zu mh u _h
JkP.
uP : n = 1, n = 4, = ?
w : u GkPi GUm Pn Eu =
mvr =

nh
2

2 r
h
=
n
mv

...(1)

h
mv

...(2)

B, =

nh
2

(j A})

\kP (1), (2) Cx


=
(i)

2 r
n

...(3)

n = 1, r = r1 = 0.53

1 = 2r1= 2 (0.53) = 3.328 .

\k (3) Cx
n = 1, G,

2 r

2 r

1
,
n

= 1, Aux = 2r

u mhu, GUm j A}
mhu _Sa \.
(ii)

n = 4, r4 = 42r1.

\k (3) Cx 4 =

2 r4
2 (4 2 r1 )
=
4
4

75

Aux 4 = 2 4 (0.53)
4 =13.313
4 =

2 r4
Cx, |Px mhu GUm j
4

A}, mhu _ |Q J [QSa \.


7.7

GUm j A} 1 G, Ax kUPh si
zuzuU PnUQkP.
uP : = 1 ;
w : =

V =

12.27
V

V = ?
.

12.27 1010

12.27 10 10
1 10 10

V = (12.27)2 = 150.55 V

7.8

xP J { Au K { h[S G,
xP C[S v\P x?
uP : m = 3 mo ; v = ?
w :

mo

m =

3mo =

v2
c2
mo

v2
c2

v = 0.943 c
= 0.943 3 108
v = 2.829 108 ms1

76

7.9

UPm J }, K { E }zv 99% BP A,


B J zx UPm G Pzv \
sk?
l

99

uP : l = 99% =
;
100
o
w : l = lo 1
l =

v = ?

v2
c2

99
l
100 o

l
99
=
lo 100

99
v2
= 1
100
c2

v = 0.141 c
v = 0.141 3 108
v = 0.423 108 ms1

77

u vk
(Cu u vmk Sv, PkUPmk UP
PnUSP vP. C, h Sv Gu J
Ax PnUQ iUP. n, n u vmk
Svx mk, h x iUPhU Ti
UPUS PnUSPUS hUP Bzu \x P sk)

7.1

Avs Psh Lmh, uhUP Avs

Psh EPzvx kQx. hk GUm CUP


B

7.2

7.3

(a) h ( )

(b) h

(c) h

(d) h ( + )

J J B 3.3 eV G,
uhUP Avs
(a) 8 1014 Hz

(b) 8 1010 Hz

(c) 5 1020 Hz

(d) 4 1014 Hz.

EP J {zx zu Gua \vx?


(a) k Pva] Avs
(b) k Pva] \
(c) EP u
(d) k GUmP v\P

7.4

7.5

uhUP Avso, GUmP v\P


(a) _

(b)

(c) ]

(d) i

J Gu Aih UP i?
(a) J ~sxP PP
(b) J AU PP
(c) J PuU PP
(d) J Ssh PP

7.6

A} Gua \uu?
(a) {

(b) v\P

(c) Eu

(d) mh
78

7.7

C[S J CUP B E G Au j
A}
(a) =

h
2mE

(c) = h 2mE

7.8

(b) =
(d) =

2mE
h
h
E 2m

2 A} Psh GUm Eu
(a) 3.3 1024 kg m s1
(b) 6.6 1024 kg m s1
(c) 3.3 1024 kg m s1
(d) 6.6 1024 kg m s1

7.9

\i, CUPzv usi }


(a) {P Ex Cu }zvSa \
(b) {P Ex Cu }zuh AvPP A
(c) {P Ex Cu }zuh SP A
(d) usi Pzu zx, {P Ex Cu
}zuh AvPP Ax SP Ax \P
A.

7.10 1 kg { xP BP kx
ES B

7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19

(a) 9 1016 J

(b) 9 1024 J

(c) 1 J

(d) 3 10

J G G?
{zx zuzu .
uhUP Avsn .
B & .
\zuk zuzu zx Jmh k
uzv USP.
J P vPU TP.
J P Ij PP USP.
JP[P G G?
J P[P kP ?
79

7.20 AP G G?
7.21 AP i A}zvP P
P.
7.22 GUm ~snUQ u hzu P. Au
\mh USP.
7.23 GUm ~snUQ kPU TP.
7.24 S Gu .
7.25 ] \ PP GkPPU TP.
7.26 , P { PzxP USP.
7.27 }U SUPzu .
7.28 P }mi .
7.29 P {a \kP P.
7.30 Ij { & B Cna \mh .

PnUSP
7.31 EP J J P uhUP A}
5000 . (i) B GUm i (eV)
(ii) 4000 A} J k GUm CUP B
GUm i (eV) PnUQkP.
7.32 Smh EP Jx 670 nm A} Psh ]
J
kzx
GUmPUSz
uk
{zx
zu 0.5 V. EPzv B
uhUP A} x?
7.33 CUS B 1.24 eV k Pva]
A} 4.36 107 m G, JGUm v\PzuU
PnUQkP.
7.34 GUm K { 9.11031 kg. J v\Pzv(4/5) [S
v\Pzv C[S x Au { x?
7.35 (i) ^] (ii) {UP P Cx J GUmP
LmhP uhUP AvsnU
PnUQkP. (^]zv B 1.8 eV {UP
B 5.9 eV).
7.36 J GUmP v\P 104 ms1 G mh]
EPzv x Pva] AvsnU PnUQkP.
mh]zv B 2.3 eV.
80

7.37 (source) Jx k 2271 A} Psh


FuU Pv, i EPzu EUPmh JPzv
x Q. {zx zu 1.3 V G, EPzv
BU PnUQkP. He Ne \x k
\ UP (105 Wm2) 6328 A} Psh ] J
x G {P?
7.38 C B 4.7 eV. CuP mk Avs
AuS mk A} BQU PnUQkP.
7.39 36 106 Kmph G v\Pzv C[SuPU Puk
B zu J usi } 1 m G, K {
E B zx Azusi }zuU PsP.
7.40 K { E B PnUQhk P Ch
2.5 108s. v = 0.73 c G v\Pzv C[S B
PnUQhk P Ch x?
7.41 GUm K B MeV PnUQkP. (GUm {
9.11 1031 kg).

7.42 J v\Pzv 0.900 [S Pzv \ mh


J CUP B joule MeV& PnUQkP.

hP
7.1 (a)

7.2 (a)

7.3 (b)

7.4 (a)

7.5 (d)

7.6 (d)

7.7 (a)

7.8 (c)

7.9 (c)

7.10 (a)

7.31 2.475 eV, 0.62 eV

7.32 1.354 eV, 917.2 nm

7.33 7.52 105 ms1

7.34 15.16 1031 kg

7.35 4.34 1014 Hz; 1.42 1015 Hz


7.36 0.56 1015 Hz
7.37 4.166 eV, o > , Gu GUmP Ehmhx.
7.38 1.1 1015 Hz ; 2.64 102 nm 7.39 1.0006 m
7.40 3.658 108 s
7.42 1.955

1010

7.41 0.512 MeV

J ; 1221.8 MeV
81

8. AqUP C
1911B Bsk Gm uLk (Earnest Rutherford)
AqUPU Pshu. uLi xP \u Cx,
Aq { |mh Au zv E J ] Sv
\vUS G {UPmhx. CSv AqUP (nucleus) Gk.
Aq zu Ak Jk x, AqUP A Pa ]uP
Ex. AqUPx _u C[S GUmP
`mkx.

8.1 AqUP
AqUP, Aihz xPP mhP, {mP
Pskx. CzxPP AqUPz xPP (Nucleons) Gk.
mh, GUm mhzvSa \ | mhzu,
GUm { HUS 1836 h[S { Pshx.
HUS mh {U Psh {m J |k{z xP
BS. AqUP E AqUPz xPP AqUP \ G
Pa] \ nUPmk.
J uzv AqUP ZXA G SUPkQx. Cv X Gx
uzv vU Sk. Z Gx Aq Gs. Cx mhP
GsoUPUSa \. A Gx { Gs. Cx mhP
{mP zu GsoUPUSa \. {mP GsoUP N
Gx A-Z USa \. GkzxUPmhP, S AqUP, 17 Cl 35 GU
SUPk. Cv 17 mhP, 18 {mP Ah[Q.

8.1.1 AqUPUP Pk
(i) I\hP (Isotopes)
\ Aq Gsn (Z) mh { Gsn (A) Psh
J uzv AqUP I\hP Gk. 1H1, 1H2 1H3G
AqUPUP m I\hP BS. Aux, J uzv
I\hP \ GsoUP mhP, mh
GsoUP {mP PsiUS GU T.
I\hP AqUP GUm A J vP
Au A Jzu v sP US. G, A
u \ Amhn J Chzv A.
82

(ii) I\P (Isobars)


I\P G \ { Gsn (A) mh Aq
Gsn (Z) Psh u[P AqUP BS. 8O16
16 AqUPUP C I\PU SUS. I\P
7N
uzv AqUP, Bu, A C v sP
mk A.
(iii) I\hP (Isotones)
\ GsoUP Au {mPU Psk
u[P AqUP I\hP Gk. 6C14 8O16 G
I\hPUP ] GkzxUPmkP BS.

8.1.2 AqUP x sP
AqUP A (Nuclear size)
uLi xP ]u \ui, xP AqUP
AqS a] u AqUP BPU Pumhx. Cx _P
1015m BS. AqUPU PPU Pv, AqUP B R
{ Gs A & C uhkzx J Gsa \k (empirical
relation) zuP AQx. Aa\k AQx.
R A1/3
R = roA1/3

C[S ro Gx Qu. Cu v 1.3 F


(1 , F = 1015 m)

AqUP Ahzv (Nuclear density)


AqUP { AU Psk AqUP Ahzv N
PnUQhkQx.
N =

AqUP {
AqUP

AqUP { = AmN
C[S A = { Gs
mN = AqUPzxP {. Cu v uP 1.67 1027 kg.

AqUP =

4
4
R3 = (ro A1/3)3
3
3

83

N =

mN
A mN
=
4
4
1/3 3
(ro A )
ro 3
3
3

uu

vP
vmk,
AqUP
Ahzv
3
1.816
kg m GU PnUQhkQx. Cv AqUP
A zv, HUS Azx AqUPUPUS S.
1017

AqUP Ahzv E v, AqUP P


AvP A voUPmh { CUQx GuU PmkQx.

AqUP mh
AqUP mhzvSU Pn Av E mhP BS.
J mh 1.6 1019 C A mhzuU Pskx.
AqUP mh = Ze, Z Gx Aq Gs.

Aq { AS (Atomic mass unit)


{ AS kg. G, AqUP { Aq { AQ
(amu) Skx HhuP A. J Aq { AS Gx P
12 Aq { (1/12) [QSa \. Aq Gs 6 { Gs 12
6C
Psh P { 12 amu USa \.
1 amu = 1.66 1027 kg

mh {, mp = 1.007276 amu
Cx, m Aq {US (1.007825 amu) GUm
{US E miSa \.
{m {, mn = 1.008665 amu
1 amu US \ B GUm mi (eV) PnUQh.

Ii { B Cna \k E = mc2 BS.


C[S m = 1 amu = 1.66 1027 kg
c = 3 108 ms1

E = 1.66 1027 (3 108)2 J

GUm m (eV) Gkx, J m zu mh


GUm B BS.
1 eV = 1.6 1019 C 1 V
1 eV = 1.6 1019 J
84

G E =
=

1.66 10 27 (3 108 )2
1.6 10 19

eV = 931 106 eV

931 GUm m

= 931 MeV

BP, 1 amuUS \ B = 931 MeV

AqUP {
AqUPx mhP, {mP Psiu,
AqUP {, Av Ah[Q xPP {USa \PU
PukQx.
AqUP Pumh { = ZmP + Nmn,
C[S mp mn mh {m { BS.
G { {P Pshmh {zu Eh
AqUP {x (m) Au AqUPz xPP zu {hU
SP Cx Pshmhx.
Aux, AqUP { m < (Zmp + Nmn)
Zmp + NmN m = m
m Gx { (mass defect) BS. G, AqUP E
AqUPz xPP zu {US, AqUP Es {US
Ch E k { Gk.

S : { {U Psk, Z GUmP {
\u Aq { mk PnUQh C. M Gx Aq {
G, { Sh.
m

= ZmP + Nmn + Zme M

= ZmH + Nmn M
mH Gx m Aq {U SUS.

n B (Binding energy)
mhP, {mP \x AqUP ESx
{ ({ m) AuSa \ BP kQx. Cu
B (mc2) AqUP n B Gk.
n B

= [ZmP + Nmn m] c2
= m c2
85

9
8

BE/A (MeV )

AqUP
n B Gx
Ax
]uh
AuP {z
uU SUS.
Aux n B
AvP G AqUP
{k UPuP,
n B S
G AqUP {
k
SuuP
A GU T.

7
6
5
4
3
2

4 8 12 16 20 24

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

{ Gs (A)

h 8.1 n B h
J
AqUPz
xPUP n B
AqUP n B
BE
=
AqUPz xPP zu GsoUP
A
J AqUPz xPUP n B uzvS u
k. AqUP { Gs A XAa], AqUPz xP J
n B YAa] Psk h kQx (h 8.1).

n B PmiP UP
(i) { Gs A = 20 , AqUPz xP J n Bx
{ Gsn zx PP A = 20 US S xP
AvPUQx. A<20 G x, { Gs |Q h[SPP A

AqUPUP hzv sk sk PkP AQ. C


mhP {mP \ GsoUP Auk,
Cmhh GsoUP AQ. GkzxUPmk : 2He4, 4Be8, 6C12,
16
20
8O , 10Ne . 40 120US Chmh { GsP Pk
HUS QhmhP AQx. A=120US v 120&I h AvPS
x AqU PzxP J n B xPU SQx.
(ii) A = 56 BP Ex, J AqUPz xPUP n
Bx v 8.8 MeV&I AhQx. Cx C 26Fe56 AqUP
BS. G C Azxz u[Ph AvP {k EhuP
A.
(iii) { Gs 40 120US Chmh AqUPUP J AqU
PzxPUP \\ n B _ 8.5 MeV BP CUS. CzuP
u[P {zu AvPuP CUS. C PvUPzvS
Emhx.
86

(iv) { Gs AvPP Ex, n B Sx Psh

Qx. zv J AqUPz xPUP n B _


7.6 MeV BS. G Czu[P {h. C

PvUPzvS Emk.
(v) C\ P AqUPUP S n B,
AqUP Cn AqUP {PP USQx.
C\ AqUPUP Cnx P AqUPP ESx
(AqUP Cn), P AqUP, \ AqUPUPP
x (AqUP ) H B k.

8.2 m { { & I\hP


{PU Pn (Bainbridge mass spectrometer)
{ { Gx I\hP Aq {Pz
xP Au J A BS. m { {
h 8.2 Pmhmkx.
J Ax AuS mh GUhP }UPmh AqUP, {P
|mhzu | APQ. UPU Sx
k | AU P S1,
S 2 G SQ P
S1
\zumk PP
S2
Qx. CUP v\Pz
v\Pz uuk
uuk (velocity selector)
B
G A \zu
+
E
kQx. C \k
P1 P2
Pu[P P, Pu
Smh
v\P
Psh
AP mk C mk
JhzuPk
. v\Pz uuk
S3
, JUP CnP E
P1 P2 uPkPU Psk E G
D
^ Pu
B
G
^
J
B E|UQ
Pu EUPkQ.
C [P JUP
\[SzuP

AU
h 8.2 m
P v\US \[Szu
{ {
A.
87

Puzva \ \x, J ,
C \ AUP sk. E B G
a \ Puz ysh G q-Gx | AP
mh G Px. AP x x Eq G
\, Pux Bqv G \ \kzx (v Gx
AP v\P). C \P \S x v\Pz
uuk AP UPh \.
Bqv = qE
v = E/B
v G Cu v\P Psh AP mk v\Pz
uuk Cx mk, S 3 U Phx D G

hUPmh Pzv ~Q. \ v\P Psh Cu


| AP, u uzvSa \[SzuP E|UQ \kQ B
G Puz yshUS EmkQ.
Cu AP Puzu UPhx R B
mhu \ Jhz uPmh AhQ. Puzv
ES Bqv G \, |US \z uQx.
Bqv =

mv 2
R

m =

B qR
v

v = E/B G vh
m =

BB qR
E

{PU Psh AP, B[P Psh


A mh uP \ Jhz uPmi PU PkP
EshUSQ. Pzv vS (opening) , PU PmiS
Chmhz u, mh 2R USa \. Cvx R PnUQhkQx.
q, B, B, E R vP uu | AP
{PU PnUQh. CP I\hP {PU
PnUQh.

88

8.3 AqUP \
AqUP |mh Psh mhP, mh
{mP E. mhP P |UPP Axu, T
vi, mhPUS Ch UP mk \ Czu
sk. Cu PnP, AqUPx ] ] xskPP
sk. B A {Pv. Cvx, |mh Psh
mhPUS Ch \k mk \ h
\ AqUP \h sk G, A\
AqUP mhP, {mP nUQx G
A. C\ AqUP \ Gk.
(i) AqUP \ mha \x. C\ (nn), (pp)
(np). G \i AqUPz xPPUS Ch \P A.

Cvx, AqUP \ Gx { \ G A.
(ii) Cx Pshmh \P AqUP \ P AvP
Pshx.
(iii) AqUP \ D \ (gravitational force) A. AqUP
\, D \ h 1040 h[S x.
(iv) AqUP \ SQ |kUP Pshx. 10 15 mhUSU

S u A. C AqUPz xPPUS Ch C\
P uP A. Cuh AvP uP AqUP
\ UPoUPzuUPuS. P, {, Pu D
\P AvP |kUP Psh, Gv EnU Ti \P BS.
C AqUPz xPPUS Ch \ (Meson) G xP uhx
\ku AqUP \ uQx G P
(Yukawa) Gkzxzu. Pu Cha \
\k LmhP \P
\kQ.
G, uu Pzxi, mhP,
{mP nUS AqUP \x J Aih \ A.
Ax J Csh { \ BS.

8.4 PvUP
1896B Bsk UP (Henri Becquerel) PvUP G
{PU Pskizu. Pz u _ UPmh Jhz uPk,
E E Fk v UP Pva_P vhuu
UP Pshu. Ex k Pva_P
89

UP AUS u Psh Gu, uLk


{zu. AP ES mh, Aua \zv Pva_
\mi APU Pmhx.
] BskPUS, Q A, Ax Pn
Q AvPU PvUP Psh u[P i
BQU Pskizu. , , G u
Pva_P uzv PvUPa \kPUSU PnS.
Aq Gs 82I h AvP Aq Gs Eh P u[P
ua\P , , PvP k {P PvUP Gk.
CzuP Pua_P k u[P PvUPz u[P Gk.
PvUP {P, ua\x. Cx {, Azu,
Pu [P U PoP vUPhx.

8.4.1 BL, mh PU PvP


, PvP G u Pva_P
Cu \u GuP A. hzv
UPmk PU Pmi J Chmh ] x AiSv
]u i (R) UPmkx (h 8.3).

PU PmiUS ]x
Jhz uPk
u
JhzuPk
hUQ
UPmkx.
u P
uzvSa \[SzuP, E|UQ,
J Pu
E
\zukQx.
Jhz
uPmi
u
|UQ B
_kPU Pn. Chx
PU
PU Pnk _k |
Pmi
mhz
xPP
R
HkQx. C xPP
Gmh. xP E
h 8. 3 PvUP
_k Gv mhz xPP
HkQx. C xPP Gmh. UPhu _k, |k{
Psh Pva\ HkQx. CUPvP PvP Gmh.
\zu kx, PvP Gv uPmh |UQ, PvP |
uPmh |UQ UPh. PvP UP Ahv.

90

PvP sP
(i) xP C mhP C {mP Psh

AqUPS. Cx, C AS |mh Pshx.


(ii) C P AvP v\Pzxh |UPmi \Q.
(iii) C Pu [P UPhQ.
(iv) C UP \x, UP Su A
AUP \Q. C AUS v -PvP h 100
h[S AvP, PvPh 10,000 h[S AvP.
(v) C Jhz uPkP vUS.
(vi) C u[P P u[P ]uiUPk.
(vii) C xzu|P \Lk, mi \k

P x x Ju Hkzx.

PvP sP
(i) xPP KS Gvmh, GUm {

Psh. G, C GUmPS.
(ii) (Source) Jx k xPP 0.3 c u
0.99 c v\P[P US. c Gx J v\P.
(iii) C Pu[P UPhQ.
(iv) C Su AUS v Psh.
(v) C Jhz uPkP vUS.
(vi) C EPz uPkP Fka \U Ti.
C Fk v PvP h AvP.
(vii) C mi \k P x

x Ju Hkzx.

PvP sP
(i) C PU Su A} Psh Pu AP.
(ii) C Pu[P UPhv.
(iii) C J v\Pzv \.
(iv) C AUS v PU S
91

(v) C Jhz uPkP vUS.


(vi) C -PvPh P AvP Fk v Psh.
(vii) C Ju Hkzx.
(viii) C X PvP iP[P US

Emk.

8.5 PvUP Cha] v


PvUPa ]u x, ]uUS Emk AqUP uqUP
(Parent) G ]uUS ES AqUP \qUP (daughter)
G Tk. 1913 \i (Soddy) L (Fajan) BQ PvUPa
]u vU T.

-]u
J PvUP AqUP, -xP mk ]uh x, Au
Aq Gs Csk, { Gs |S S. - ]u
A

zX

z2Y

A4

+ 2He4 GU Sh.

GkzxUPmk : i (88Ra226) ]u hP (86Rn222)


AhQx.
88Ra

226

86Rn

222

+ 2He4

]u

J PvUP AqUP, xP mk ]uhx, Au


Aq Gs J AvPUS. { Gs hx. ]u
A

zX

A
Z+1Y

1e

GU Sh.

GkzxUPmk:
u ( 90 Th 234 ) ]u mh BUiP ( 91 Pa 234 )
hQx.
90Th

234

91Pa

234

0
1e

J |zv Hu J xP mk (Ax xP) Ek.


J ]u x xPP Csk \x kv.
]u

J PvUP AqUP PvP k x, AqUP


B mh k. Aq Gs { Gs hx.
92

Ax

226

88

Ra

] u x
ES \qUP
Qa]
{ A.
Ax Pv
mk Ai {USz
v.

& Pv
86

Rn222
& Pv (0.187 MeV)

GkzxUPmk :
222
i
( 88 Ra 226 ) 86Rn
hP ( 86 Rn 222 )
h 8.4 Pa ]u

PvUPa
]u h Qa] { Cx Ai{USz vx,
0.187 MeV B Psh Pv k (h 8.4).

PvUPa ]u v (Radioactive law of disintegration)


uLk, \i Pzxi PvUPz u ]u u Au
C v uPa \ux A. KS |zv
]uh AqUP GsoUP (]u u) A|zv Azuzv
E AqUP GsoUPUS |zuP A. Cx PvUPa ]u
v Gk.
uhUPzv PvUPz u J E AqUP GsoUP N0
G t G Pzv Av AqUP GsoUP N G Px.
dt G ] P Ch ]u AqUP GsoUP dN
G, ]u u

dN
N
dt
dN
= N
dt

...(1)

Gx . Cx ]u Gk. GvUSx P
AvPUS x N SuU SUS.

\k (1) I
dN
N

= dt G Gu.

uPh, loge N = t + C

...(2)

C Gx uP.
93

t = 0 G x N = N0

loge No = C

C& va \k (2) vh,


loge N = t + loge N0
N
loge
= t
No
N
No

= et

= N0 et

...(3)

PvUPz uzv AqUP, P AvPUSx, AkUSUS


i (exponential) Sua \k (3) PmkQx (h 8.5).
N0

N
N 0/2

N0/4
N0/8
N 0/16

2T

3T

4T

5T

h 8.5 PvUPa ]u v

6T
t

uhUPzv P PP |h ]u, P AvPUSx,


AkUSUS i N xPU SQx. PP A, Azx
AqUP ]uh i (infinite) P BS.

A BmP (Half life period)


Azx PvUPz u[P Bm P[P iP
Au u[P PvUPa \kP kzv A A
BmP, \\ BmP BQ kzukQ.
J PvUPz uzv A BmP Gkx Av
AqUP v AqUP ]uh BS P BS.

94

PvUPa ]u vi,
N = Noet

A BmP T GP. Cx, t = T G x


N =

N0
2
N0
= NoeT
2

log e 2 = T
T

log e 2

log10 2 2.3026

0.6931

A BmP, ]u US GvzuP A. A
BmP Pzu h 8.5 Cx x P.
PvUPz u J, T P i 50% u ]uh
CUS. 2T P i 25% u ]uh CUS. 3T P
i 12.5% u ]uh CUS. Cu uhx
|h.

\\ BmP (Mean life)


PvUPz u ]uhx, u ]uh Aq
BmP _ BS. Ph]P ]uh Aq BmP i
BS. J Aq BmP _ u i A.
PvUPz uzv Bzv E Azx AqUP zu
BmPzvS Av zu AqUP GsoUPUS E Qu
\\ BmP Gk.
\\ BmP =

Azx AqUP Bm P[P Tku


zu AqUP GsoUP

]u kzv \\ Bm PzuU PnUQh.


\\ BmP ]u US GvzuP A GU Pmh.
n

S : PvUPz u J Gg]US Sv
n

Gx A BmP[P GsoUP n =
95

N
1
=
No
2

zu P
A Bm P

A BmP \\ BmP C
T =

0.6931

= 0.6931 G uhkzu.

PvUPa \k (Activity)
PvUPz u J AqUP ]uh u Au PvUPa
\k Gk. t G Pzv uzv N AqUP CuPU
Psh, Au PvUPa \mh
R=

dN
G Gu.
dt

PvUPa \mi AS UP. Cx UP G


Ab x mhx.

1 UP = 1 ]u / i

PvUPz uzv PvUPa \k xP Q G


AP ShkQx. J iUS 3.7 10 10 ]uPz
(3.7 1010 UP) u PvUPz uzv A Q Gk. Cx
1 Q izv PvUPa \miSa \.

8.6 {m Pski
1930B Bsk a \u CP (Physicists)
zu (Bothe) UP (Becker) GP uzu
- xPPU Psk uUSx Su Fkv Psh Pva_
kuU Psh. CUPva_ ui UP PU Pmi Fka
\U TiuP, Pu[P UPh Cux.
Ax, AuU Pva_ - PvP GU Pumhx.
I Q (Irene Curie) F. m (F. Joliot) BQ C,
1932, CuU Pva_P L S m {u
P Pa \ x mhP kzxuU
Psh. Au hzv \mU (Chadwick) G, k Pva]
mh, HUS mh {USa \ { Psh
xPP Ah[Q GU Pskizu. CzxPP {mP G
Azu. T AqUP UP \k
o

9
4
12 + n1
4Be + 2He 6C
0
n1 Gx {mU SUS.

96

8.6.1 {mP sP
(i) mz u Azx AqUPUP {mP

Ah[Q.
(ii) {mP, mhPh \ { AvP, _

mh Psh |k{z xPP. G C


Pu[P UPhx.
(iii) AqUP {mP {k Eh. B

AqUPS A {h. uzx hmh {m,


mh, GUm, Bsmi {mPa ]uh. Cu A
BmP 13 {h[P.
0n

1 H1 +

1e

(iv) {mP |k{z xPP. Bu, A GuP

AqUPUP Fka \.
(v) {mP A CUP B Aih(a) SP
{mP (b) P {mP G Pkzu. C Csk

AqUP Fka \ \Pz u zu Hkzx.


0 u 1000 eV B Psh SP {mP
Gk. a \{, \\ CUP B 0.025 eV A E
{mP {mP Gk.
0.5 MeV u 10 MeV B Psh P {mP
Gk. AqUP EP, uoP kzv P
{mP, SP {mPP kQ.

8.7 \PU PvUP


\P Ax yshmh PvUP, 1934B Bsk, I Q
m BQP PskiUPmhx. Cx u
EUPk PvUP Gk. PvUP \ u[P
\P Ax yshmh P PvUPz u[PP
{P \PU PvUP Gk.
Q m BQ , A \z
u[P xPPU Psk uUQ. xPP {zv ,
A uhx Pva_P kuU Psh. KS |
mh, GUm { Psh xP J Pva]
kx Pshmhx. AzxP ]m Gmhx. CuP
AqUP
97

5B

10

+ 2He4 7N13* + 0n1

Cv |m Aq, PvUP Ehx. Au A BmP


10.1 {h[P. Cx ]m mk { P I\hP
.
7N

13*

6C13 + 1e0

AzuU Pxx,
13Al

27

+ 2He4

15P

30*

+ 0n1

PvUP& ]m mk { ]P
I\hP . PvUP& A BmP 3 {h[P.
15P

30*

14Si

30

+ 1e0

\PU PvUP CP PvUP vPUS Emk. \P


PuUPz u[P GUm, ]m, {m PvP
k.

\PU PvUP & I\hP EUSu


(i) Su A {mPU Psk AqUP E
CUS (target) u[P zx \PU PvUP&I\hP
kQ.
(1)

15P

31

+ 0n1

15P

32*

+ , (2)

11Na

23

+ 0n1

11Na

24*

(ii) \Um xP kUQP Cx


k xPPU Psk CUSz u[Pz uUQ \PU
PvUPz u[P kQ.
11Na

23

+ 1 H2

11Na

24*

+ 1 H1

8.7.1 PvUP&I\hP kP
zx, \, u\ Ba] PvUP&
I\hP Su mhU Psk. J Smh Ah
PvUP&I\h \UPmk, I\h u Bmk Au
A Ax P i.
(i)

zx k

zxz x, |U Pskn, |US ]Qa\ AUP


PvUP&I\hP kQ. PvP k Pm
(Co60) | ]Qa\US kQx. PvP | \P
AUP.
98

PvUP&\i (Na 24 ) Czu |[P E AhPU


Psh, Eh SvPUS Czuzu \zv Czu Kmhzu
{{zx Cuzv \mh A kQx.
PvUP&Ai (I 131 ) uk _ uU Psh,
]Qa\UPP kQx. PvUP&Ai U PP (brain
tumours) Ch kQx.
PvUP&C (Fe59) Czua \PU Psh kQx.
\un | h, Czu \P | Czuzv C
AvP | u[Q CUS.
PvUP& (P32) u |P ]Qa\US kQx.
(ii)

\zv, P a\ AvPkzu PvUP&


I\hP kQ. Lm Ezxh PvUP& (P32)
\UPmk EP ChkQx. u s BQ Smh
|zvS J \uhkQ. u ux a]UPP
zu GkzxU PQx. PvUP& Au a\
AvPkzxuPU Pshmhx.
[P, EUQ[S, PP P ] A
Pva_US Emkzv A ku, Pmk u
ukUP. ] Ax PU Ti u PP Pva_US Emkzv
A \un B h AvP |PUS vuP CUSia
\.
(iii) u\
u\, PvUP&I\hP Pu E GsnP
kzv Gv[P u[P A.
(iv)

UT E (molecular biology)

UT E, x uzu A ]Qa\ PP
~sq QP AUP PvUP I\hP kQ.

(v) PvUP&P xU PnURk


shzv Sv, PU PvP ES
{mP N14 uUPmk, uhx C14 uUPkQx.
7N

14

+ 0n1 6C14* + 1H1.

C14 PvUPhx. Cu A BmP 5570 BskP.


99

shzv C 14 EUP ]u BQ J
\{ Axx. shzv E C14 C12 AqUP
Qu 1 : 106 BS. G shzv E P h BUi
J Sv C14 IU PsiUS.
E[P, EmP Enx, _]US Px
C14 I GkzxU PQ. B C Hkx C14 GkzxU Px
{zumk Av HP E C14 ]uhz uh[SQx. G
Cu E P & 14 AU Pshx, Ax Cu Pzu
Aux, Au uU PnUQh. Cx PvUP&P xU PnURk
Gk. Cu U Psk a\P, u BhP, Gsn
Kzv k UP, EnUP Eh (mummies) P
uU PnUQh.

8.7.2 E Pva_P w P
-Pv Ax AvP B Psh AqUPz xP u Eh

\x, Ax E A zu \mh vUS. Cx


Eh Ax vP A.
PvUPU Pva] ES E P
PP UP.
(i) U Ti SQ P P
(ii) iu }sh P P
(iii) P
u Eh J A[P Gu A vUPk Gx (i) Pva]
A Pva_ k u (ii) Pva_US Emk Eh Sv
BQa \x A.
] A Pva_PUS Emk x u vP
i Evu SQ P P Hk.
Pva] A 100 R* AUS CUSx, UP (leukemia)
G Czu AqUP AvP (Czua ] AqUP A)
Ax |z uUS. 600 R A Pva_ Eh x
x nzu Hkzx. zvS 250 mR Gx J UTi
Pva] xP A BS.
Pva_ Hkzx v P \x. Pva_P
CUPa \P E AqUP vUS. Cu Hk
P J \uv Cx \uvUS PhzukQx.
* Pva] A sm (R) G AP AhkQx. J Q
P 1.6 10 12 \i AP EUS Pva_ J sm
Gk.
100

Pva_ BP[P oP u[P xPzxU P


a\UP |hiUPP .
1. Pva_ P uizu _ Psh P PPzv
UPh sk.
2. v Hk Ch[P oP P BhP
PP kzu sk.
3. Azx PvUP vP uU Pmkmk (remote control)
Pku sk.
4. J Pa] Jhz uPk Psh Amh (microfilm
badge) J Aox P sk. Au AiUPi \vzx Au
| Pva] A Ax P.

8.7.3 \Pz u
\P P J uzu uP u
\Pz u Gk. uLk u uP \Pz u
zu PP {PzvU Pmi. |m Aqx uSu B
Psh xP Psk uUPkx BU I\h (8O17)
mh u.
7N

14

+ 2He4 8O17 + 1H1

Cu {P AqUP Gk.
AqUP uhUP AqGsP Tku
(mh[P) Cv AqGsP Tku \P AQ. Aux
mh A vUS EmkQx. Cu AqUPz
xPP A vUS EmkQx. B, uhUP K {
Cv K { \Px. uhUP Cv K {P
miP B, AqUP BUSa (Q) \. AqUP
Sh.
A + a B + b + Q

C[S A Gx CUS AqUP a Gx AqUPz uUS


xP. B b G AqUP xP.

8.7.4 xP kUQP (Particle accelerators)


xP kUQ Gx, \Pz u zu EUP kQ,
mhz xPP kUP k A BS. G, xP kUQ
Gx E B xP C (high energy particle physics)
AihU PS.
xP kUQP C PP UP.
101

(i)

{ kUQ u Pa \ux. Cv u
zu mhU Psk xPP kUPkQ. xP
Cv B zu mh wUPkQx. PUQLm
& h (Cockcroft Walton) i QL (Van de Graaff)
P CPa \u. CzxPkUQPU Psk
xPP B J ] GUm &m AP Ezu
i.
(ii) _ P (A) Jzv\z xPkUQ Gx Cshx
PS. CP xPP {P kUPkQ. J
{ ] B uhx AUPmk, xPP kUPhQ.
GkzxUPmk : |US kUQ, \Um, mhm, ]U
\Um ]Um. CPU Psk xPP B
109 eV (GeV) AvPUP. G J Px
BUS K G Esk.
u h[P i QL \Um
BQ \kP UPmk.

8.8 PP & Gso (Geiger Muller counter)


PvUPU Pva_P \ Ah PP & Gso
kQx. AqUP Pva_P, UP \x
UP AUP \Q. Cx Cu A uzxS.

A :

PP & Gso
Psni `mh EPU E
S
(C)
PuhPa
\kQx. S Aa]
Ax J
h[h P (W) BhPa
\kQx. Sx
Bk
P
Cx
Phmkx.

UQUS

+
H.T.

S,
Su
h 8.6 PP& Gso
Azuzv BP
u {mkx. S J UPz uPmh
hm kx. Cx Pva_P S \uP BS. 1000 V
A zu k, 100 mega ohm Psh Euh K
P, BiS PuiS Ch \zukQx.
102

\k
AUS Pva_P, Gso (counter) ~x
ES u AUPzv J ] AP uQ. Cu
AP E zu mh P AvP Bh kUPmk
A AUP \. uP P Cu
AP GsoUP AvPUS. G J ] P Ch
H GUmP EUPkQ. Cu GUmP Bh
Ahx J mhz xi EUS. Cx uh R
x ES zu k GUm _P
UPmk GUm Gso \ha \Q. GUm
Gso Sk GsoUP Pva] \S |zuP CUS.
UP AUP, k Pva] P zux A.
G G.M. GsoU Psk Pva] PU Psh ix.
\ Q P Gx P xP En PS.
P \ mhz xPP u |iPU
Pqi CUP u uP v \mhx.

8.9 AqUP (Nuclear fission)


1939, |mha \u Bmh F. m
BQ AqUPx {m Psk uUPkx, Ax
JhU Ti {P Psh C AqUPUPP Ehxh B
kuU Pskizu.
P uzv AqUP C xskPP Ehxh P AvP
B k {P AqUP Gk. x
{mP kQ. 92 U 235 AqUP UP
P Sh.
92U

235

+ 0n1

56Ba

92U

235

+ 0n1

54Xe

141

36Kr

92

+ 3 0n1 + Q

...(1)

140

38Sr

94

+ 2 0n1 + Q

...(2)

Pq GkzxUPmkP, AqUP x
|hx Csk {mP kQ. \\P
J x 2.5 {mP k.
92 U

235

AqUP P, \k 1
Shmk P \uP S.

103

AqUP k B
{m 92U235 Hk x k BU
PnUQk. AqUP UP \k
235 + n1
141 +
92 + 3 n1 + Q BS.
92U
0
56Ba
36Kr
0
235

92U
1
0n

& {
& {
k P zu {
141& {
56Ba

235.045733 amu

1.008665 amu

236.054398 amu

140.9177

amu

91.8854

amu

3 {mP {

3.025995 amu

P zu { =

235.829095 amu

36Kr

92

(3 1.008665)

{ = 236.054398 235.829095 = 0.225303 amu


1 amu = 931 MeV, BP J k B =
0.225303 931
200 MeV

} A. (John A. Wheeler) GP
AqUP vz x v Aih AqUP UP UP
zu. C\ PnP vzx P izv AQx.
vz x x \ \k x, P i }mh
iP kQx. \ AvPUSx }mhzv
Sv x h G Eh]U P (dumb-bell)
izu AhQx. Cu u Sv Cx C SvPP .
P iU
Tmhq

}mh

h
i

{
+

AqUPUP u

+
{mP

h 8.7 AqUP UP & UP


Cu, P AqUP {m EmPx J
TmhqP . Cx Qa] { A. Cu Qa] B,
Pi AqUP P Aa \Qx. Cu, Tmk
AqUP Pizv Cx mk h izu AhQx.
h A C P | mhzu US. G
104

CQh E mk \ Hmk z xskP


uQ (h 8.7).

8.9.1 uh (Chain reaction)


J {m, AqUPz uUQ, ES
u {mPU Px. Cu {mP,
AqUPUP a \x Jx {mPz uUQ.
Cu Jx {mP 27 {mP ES. Cx uhx
|h. uh Gx uP {P BS. C{P
{mP GsoUP P PP UPh. Cu UP
USz uh A. uh CPP A.
Pmkh uh {mP GsoUP G AS
UPhxh PUSu Pzv (J iUS S) zu
B k. Cu P uh AqSskP Hk.
Pmkh uh, Hkzx {mP
GsoUP P Ai \kQx. Cx Gx 1 G
A. Cu , Pmkh uhx |h (h 8.8).
Pmkh AqUP AqUP EP Hk.
{m
U

235

P
{m

uo
{m

Jzuv
EmPu

238

ua \

239

Np BP
239
Pu BP

uo
{m

239

]uu

235

P
{m

238

Jzuv
EmPu

ua
\

h 8.8 Pmkh uh
105

235

&
Hh

U235 AqUP {m uUPkx, Ax C z

xskPP {mPP EhQx (h 8.8). C J


{m ua \. J {m U238 B EmPh. Ax Np239
BP ]u Pu239BP ]u. uh HkzxuS
J {m QhUQx. EUPk {mP GsoUPh
CUPk {mP GsoUP SP Cu mk
uh |h.

{ (Critical size)
J US S Sux J {mx Akzu
Hkzx P A ,
{ Gk. { Psh US Emk
{, { { Gk. , { hU
SP Cu uh Hhx.

8.9.2 AqSsk (Atom bomb)


AqSsk Pmkh uh AihPU Pshx.
CP QhUS zv 99.28% A U238, 0.72% A U235
Ah[Q. U 238 , P {mP mk . G,
AqSsi Gu B Psh {mP U Ti U235
Ax Pu239 kzuku sk.
AqSsi { hU S PshU235 B
(Ax 94Pu239) B C AUP[P ]x Ch mk zx
UPmk (h 8.9).
AqSsh iUPa \ x, { { hU S
{ Psh U 235 B B ( Ax 94 Pu 239 ), x E
AUP[PUS Ch E Ch \P xi
\zukQx. Cx, C AUP[P J \UQx. Cx
zu {, { { h AvPP Au Pmkh
uh Hmk [PP izxa ]uQx.
uU Pmkmk
v izu
C[S E U

235

{ {hU
S

h 8.9 AqSsk
106

AqSsk izxa ]ux H B , J


Pva\P hkQx. iQ \
{ sh Azu ES. CP iP
Ava] APz uUS. iUS x k AP
PvUP PvP, {mP PvUP P _zv ,
Eh|U Pmh US w P EUS. CzuP Aq
Ssk Csh EP (Hiroshima) |P\Q
(Nagasaki) |P[P iUPmhx. Au Hmh AP w
P | |S Auu.

8.9.3 AqUP E (Nuclear reactor)


AqUP E Gx Pmkmhk, u\h
AqUP |h A BS. ux AqUP E
USA E ]PP (Chicago) Ghzv 1942 {mhx.
AqUP EP A kzuk uP zx,
Ba] EP, Ezv EP v EP G Pkzu.
Ba] EP UQP, Ba]USz uk {mP,
PvUP I\hP EUP kQ. Ezv EP,
US Emhu AvPPU QhUS P US Emk
PP Q. v EP, AqUP ES
B P Q. kzuk uo
Pmkkzx
uskP

xPa _
_

C
C

S v

h 8.10 AqUP E
107

S C Aih v EP, Pv}


AqUP E, E Azu } AqUP E, E Azu P } AqUP
E P AqUP D (Ezv) G Pkzu.
EP v Pn[PUPP AP
AqUP EP AUPmk. B A x
sPU Psk. AqUP E AU Pmk
UPh h 8.10 Pmhmkx.
(i)

US Emk (Ax) G
92 U

235 ,

US Emk Ax GP (Fuel)
xP kzukQx. B CP QhUS zv
Cx Pa ]u (0.7%) Ex. CP QhUS
\mhmk, 92U235 AvP A (24%) CUS \mk, J ]
AqUP EP GP kzukQx. U 235 Iz u
US EmhU Ti PU239 U233 I\hP J ] EP
GP kzukQ.
| |mi iUPmk E Azu P} AqUP EP
(PHWR) BUk GP kzukQx. ]
EPP (Pellets) GkzxU Pmh BUk, ]P
G (Zirconium) EPU P B SP

AhUPkQ. Cx US Emk usk BS. Cx 19


uskP JP CnUPmk G P EUPkQx.
Psm (Calandria) G AqUP Pzv 300 SP E.
CUSP G PP UPkQ. G
uskPU Psh AqUP E Sv AqUP E (reactor
core) Gk.
E Azu } AqUP EP (PWR) SP \mhmh
kQx. PUPzv P Ezv \u AqUP
E (FBTR) PkP mh Pu P
GP kzukQx. PUPzv Pmkzv E P
Ezv AqUP E (PFBR) mh BU\kP
Pu P GP kzuh CUQx. P Ezv
EP, AvP zuz u[PU Ti P uP iUPmh
xiUPu C B SP G ] EPP
AhUPkQx. EQ, P [Kalpakkam mini reactor] Ju
233 &I GPU Psk \kQx. Cv
92 U
AU P GP, uPkP izv E.
108

(ii)

uo (Moderator)

AqUP x kQ \\P 2 MeV BU


Psk P {mP 0.025 eV \\ B Psh
{mPP z uu uo oS. Cu
{mP uoh a \{ A. \un }
P } G, xP kzuk uoPS. {mP
EmPu, m] u PnP, A Pzu mkkzuU
Ti | uoPS. \P AUPmk G
uskPUS Ch uo A. ] |kP QLm
uoP kzukQx.
P Ezv EP AqUP uh P {mP
{ {zuku AP uoP u.
(iii)

{m (Neutron source)

AqUP uh u P uh[Q UP
{m uk. mh Ax i Ax
zxh Pu P xP {m P
kQx.
(iv) Pmkkzx uskP (Control rods)
uhU Pmkkzu, Pmkkzx uskP kQ.
C {mP AvP A EmPU Ti. xP
Ax Pm u[P Pmkkzx uskP
kzukQ. Pmkkzx uskP G PP
uoUS Chmh ChP \ AqUP
E zv \Pmk. C E|UQ u Ax
Czu uzuU Pmkkzu. | |mi E Azx
v AqUP EP ssh (ceramic material)
Pk (B4C), Pmkkzx ushP kzukQx.
(v) SUS A (The cooling system)
AqUP E ES zu }UP SUS A
kQx. \un }, P} v \i xP
kzuk SP BS. | S Gx E u
Hz v, AvP Pv{ zu sk.
S, G P UPmk Chzv \
SP \, G uskP Cx zu GkzxU
Psk, (heat exchanger) , } Ezv {zvSa
109

\Qx. Cu }U Psk hP (turbines) _a \x


Ezv \kQx.
PHWR PWR P AqUP EP J v
S uo kQx. P Ezv EP v
\i SP kQx. P Ezv E zv
P AvP { EUPkQx. v \i EPP
Au Ax zu Gv Phzx. Au Pv{ 1000oC
BP Au, P AvP { vP A.
(vi) {m GvP (Neutron reflectors)
C {mP Gvzx sk AqUP EUS \zv
{m C ukUQ. E Azu P} AqUP
E uo GvP kQx.
P Ezv EP, AqUP zua _ E
(0.7%US S 92U235&IU Psk ) Ax u
(90Th232) {m GvP kQx. AqUP zu
mk ua\ {mP, zu uzu
Pu239 Ax U233 BP Q.
(vii) xP A (Shielding)
w[S US Pva_P Cx xPUS mk AqUP
Ex _ 2 u 2.5 m ui Psh PQm _P
`mkx.

Ezv E
238

90Th232 AvP A Qhzu A


US Emhx. {mP EmPa \u C
239
233 G US Emk PP .
94Pu
92U
AqUP E \k x US Emhu P
{mP EmPia \x US Emk PP
EUS Ezv \u Gk. P AqUP E J
|u Ezv EPa \ki iUP.
92U

AqUP EP P
1. AqUP PnP P AvP B
ku, AqUP EP v EzvUS
kQ.

110

2. AqUP EP PvUP I\hP EUP


kQ.
3. AqUP EP {m [PP Au, A A
Ba]US kQ.

Cv Aq vmh
1948B Bsk Dr. J. u Aq B {
{mhx. Aq B xx Ba] EP mh
i v Ezv EP izxx.
xPUP Aih mk BP Ezv
EP PQ. Cv, Pmi {zv i
Ghzv E Aq Ba] {zv (BARC) A\, \,
x, o Ba] EP E. u|mi, PUP G
Chzv E CvPv Aq Ba] {zv (IGCAR) P G
Ba] E Ex. Cu EP, {mPU Psk
Pk BPUPP, zx, \, u\,
En ukzxu Sz u PvUP & I\hP
EUP kQ. AvPa \u Dq (FBTR) G Ezv
E PUPzv AUPmkx. \i u ~mzvPP,
G AvP EP kzuk Pa
\vUP C kQx.
Smkzumh Cv AqUP B PP (NPCIL) G
xzx {, Cv AqUP B {[P izx,
\h UQx. 2020 B BsiS 20,000 MW \ Ezv \,
NPCIL { vmhmkx.
Cv AqUP B vmhzv, ux 14 AqUP EP
\kQ. 12 Azumh P} EP (PHWR) Csk Pv}
EP (BWR) 2770 MW \zu Ezv \x PsiUQ.
ux \mkU PsiUS AqUP v EP Amhn
8.1 Pmkzv E AUP v EP Amhn 8.2
PkUPmk.

111

Amhn 8.1 \mi E AqUP v EP


(uUS Eu)
Ch

u, Pmi
Pmh, u

BWR
PHWR

PUP, u|k

PHWR

|, Ezvu\
PU, Sz
PP, P|hP

PHWR
PHWR
PHWR

160
100
200
220
170
220
220
220
220

GsoUP
MW
MW
MW
MW
MW
MW
MW
MW
MW

2
1
1
2
1
1
2
2
2

Amhn 8.2 Pmkzv E AqUP v EP


(uUS Eu)
Ch

GsoUP

GvUPk
\mk uv
E 3 - July 2006
E 4 - Dec.2004

u, Pmi
(3 4)

PHWR

540 MW

PP, P|hP
(3 4)

PHWR

220 MW

E 3 - Dec. 2006
E 4 - June 2007

u
(5 6)

PHWR

220 MW

E 5 - May 2007
E 6 - Nov. 2007

Th[S, u|k
(1 2)

PWR

1000 MW

E 1 - 2007
E 2 - 2008

PUP, u|k
(3)

PFBR

500 MW

E 3 - 2010

8.10 AqUP Cn
Csk Ax AuS mh C\ AqUPUP Cnx J
P AqUP EUS {P AqUP Cn Gk.
ES AqUP {, Ax EPU Pn \
AqUPUP zu {hU SP A. Cu {
k BP kQx. AqUP Cn {Px 10 7 K
A P Eu { mk |h.H Cu
A E { mk AqUPUP u[PUQh E
mk \ \UP i. G, AqUP CnS C\
AqUPUP { iQUS Ezu sk.
AqUP Cn P AqUP P Gk.
112

8.10.1 m Ssk
AqUP Cnz uzx m Ssi kzukQx.
C\ AqUPUP Cn H B kzx
iUS A m Ssk BS. AqUP CnSz u
{ AqUP P kQx. u
AqSsk J iUPa \x { 50 iQUS
EzukQx. AqSsk iUS AQ uSu A im,
imh UPmiUS. \uP {, Pmkh AqUP
Cn {P uUQx. Cu PnP H B
k.
mi Ssi ES AqUP ,
3
2
4
1
1H + 1H 2He + 0n + B.

8.10.2 s B
C\ AqUPUP Cnx P AqUP EUS AqUP
Cn {P Hku s BS. ` EmSv
{ 1.4 107 K A sP { 108 K
A E. ` hk zu Bx 3.81026 J/s
GU PnUQhmkx. v P Ax D
CzuP BUSU Pn A. `, sP, mhP
Cnx P AqUP Cn B kuPU
PukQx. CzuP E {P m,
Gk P AvP A AUPmh { A.
AqUP Cn u B ` sP
{ {{zxuS, uhx B JP,
P kuS kQx.
mh & mh _ P&|m _ G
` sP |h UQ CP AqUP
Cn {PP BS.

mh & mh _
1H

1
1H

22

+ 1H1 1H2 +1e0 + (]m {m ku)


+ 1H2 2He3 +

He3

He4

+ 21

(PU Pv ku)

H1

Cua _ Sh.
41H1 2He4 + 21e0 + 2 + B (26.7 MeV)
|S mhP Cnx P AvP B, J
& xP, C ]mP EUSQ.
113

P&|m _
P&|m _ |h P .
CP P Q FUQPa \kQx.
1
12 N13* + (PU Pv ku)
1H + 6C
7
13* C13 + e0 + (]m {m ku)
N
7
6
1
1
13 N14 + (PU Pv ku)
1H + 6C
7
1
14 015* + (PU Pv ku)
1H + 7N
8
15*
15 + e0 + (]m {m ku)
0

N
8
7
1
1H

+ 7N15 6C12 + 2He4

Cua _ zu Sh.
4 1H1 2 He4 + 21e0 + 2 + B (26.7 MeV)

8.11 PU PvP
u[P C Pmi G PU Psk PU Pv BP
uh[Pmh. P P \mh mh u[P C
Pmi uP UPkx Av mh ]x ]uP
P]. Cx {, _[P Ph Azx Ch[P |h.
x (space) AUS Pva_P Cu P]SU
PnS. -PvP h h[S AUS v Psh P
Gk Azxz v\P Cx Ah
Pva_P PU PvP Gk. PU PvP G UP
G [Pmhx.
PU PvP u PU PvP, xn PU PvP G C
PP PkzukQ. u PU PvP G
US A x shzv
hzv ~ Pva_ BS. u PU Pv,
90% mhP, 9% AqUPUP P
AqUPUP Pskx. uU PU PvP B
108 MeV A A.
u PU PvP shzv
UPh u xn PU PvP EQ. A
&xPP, mhP, GUmP, ]mP, \P,
LmhP P Qu[P PsiUS.

SUSUPmk (latitude effect)


SUSU Pmh () zx PU PvP \ (I) mh
A, \mh \uPx, x SvP ( = 900) \
114

N
I
W
90

45

45

90

SUSUPk
Latitude

h 8.11 SUSUPmk
P, |kU Pmk Sv ( = 0) ]P, 420US
90 0 US Chmh SvP \ P Ax
PskiUPmhx. SUSU Pmh zx PU PvP \
ku SUSU Pmk Gk. Cx h 8.11
Pmhmkx.
|kU Pmk Sv PU PvP \ SuSU
Pn, Pu G UPmkx. x[P
|[SQ mh xPP, Pu \U PkPUS Hzu
CnP u A x Gu \ \kv.
BP A GuP AhQ. G \ P
AQx. B |kU Pmi |[SQ mh
xPP Puzv v\USa \[SzuP u UPhx
Qa \Q. E Bh
|[SQ xPP mk
|kU Pmi Ah C.
51N
xP |[SQ xPP UP
38N
hx shzvSz vkQ.
I
G, |kU Pmk Sv
\ ]P AQx.
3N

Szx
Szxzu (h) zx PU
PvP \ (I) Hk k
Szx Gk. Cx h 8.12
115

8
16
24
Szx h (Km)
Altitude

32

h 8.12 Szx

SUPmkx. PU PvP \, E AvPUS x


AvPzxU Psh \ Hzu 20 km Ezv zu AhQx.
AuS \ S. Azx SvP \u i
J vP AQx.

PU Pv P (Cosmic ray showers)


Psh P JU Psk PU Pv \
Akx Pn |zvS, \x C {a \h
h[S AvPx uQx. Aux, AUPnzv Pva_
PmkUPh[PuuP Ex. Cx Pva_ vj AvPuU SUS.
PU Pv UP AU PPi (cascade theory)
P, Pva_ u \i Eu G C Pn[P
EQ. PU Pv B Su GUm Ax ]m
shzv UP AqUPUP x u B
CUQ. Cu B C E B Psh LmhP
kQx. Cu Lmh AqUPh x GUm &
]m \i EUSQx. C EshUPmh GUm&
]m \i, AqUPh u, i LmhP
EUSQx. CzuP LmhP AvP \iP
EUSQ. CP LmhP,
GUmP, ]mP P AvP GsoUP EshQ.
Electron
GUm
(e+ or e- )

Photon
Lmh
e-

e+
AqUP
Nucleus

e-

e-

e+

ee+

Photon
Lmh

e+
e+

e-

e+

e-

ee+

h 8.13 PU Pv
116

Cx PU Pv Gk. uhUP B, SvPP


UPmk, J xP B { BhU SP
CUS , Lmh Eu \i Eu uhx |h
UP Hk. { v h B SP C,
Psk Gu {P |hx.

\i Eu Au
AvP B Psh LmhP AqUPa _
zxh u GUm & ]m \i
EQx. Cx \i Eu Gk.
\i EuUS uP GUm, ]m Cnx
Lmh EQx. Cx Au Gk.

8.12 Aihz xPP


Aq A BP Cx, GUm, mh,
{m G Aihz xPP Aq EUSQ GU
Pshmhx. B PU PvP Bx \
H AqUPz xPP Cx PskiUPmhx.
CzxPP LmhP, hP, \P P G
|S PP UP.

Lmh
Cx mh, { B Gkzxa \ PuU Pv
a] Ssh BS. Lmh J v\Pzv \.

h
GUm {h 207 h[S Ax AuSU S {
Psh \ xPP hP BS. {m Bsmi
{m BQ vUPS. CzuSv GUm, ]m,
{m, Bsmi {m, | Gv P xPP
Ah[Q. GUm, ]m GvzxPPS (Anti-particles).
{m
Gv{m
xP
kzuh
uhh. {m, Gv{m {, mh
B, u_] Psk. PU Pv BP Cx
P PskiUPmh.

\P
GUm mh {PUS (m e , m p ) Chmh
{ KS mhzu Psk Aihz xPP \P
Gk. 1935 P G \ G hmhx. \P
117

(i) -\ () (ii) K \ (P) (iii) - \ G

Pk. \P, AqUPzxPPUS Ch Cha \


HkzxQ. \P, 250 me 1000 meUS Chmh K {
Psh.

P
P xPP uSv P BS. mhP
{mP {UP GkQ. Gg] P xPP
P Gk. h () ]U (), \ (xi) JP G
P |S PP. mh {mP {x
GUm { _ 1836 h[S BS. P {
2180 me 3275 me US Ch A. Aihz xPP
Pk, Amhn 8.3& PkUPmkx.

Amhn 8.3 Aihz xPP Pk


(uUS Eu)

LmhP

LmhP

hP

{m
GUm

+, o
P
Dmh&\
mh
{m
h
]U
\ (Xi)
JP

\P

118

Sk

GUm
K { (me)
Aih {

,
e+
+
273
K+, Ko
o
p+
n
o
+,
,

0
1
207
851
1072
1836
1840
2180
2340
2583
3272

wUPmh PnUSP
8.1

Fe56

AqUP n B AqUPzxP
JP n B BQU PnUQkP.

26

26Fe

56

55.9349 amu

1 mh {

1.007825 amu

1 {m {

1.008665 amu

AqUP {

uP :

26Fe

56

AqUP {

55.9349 amu

mh {

1.007825 amu

{m {

1.008665 amu

mhP GsoUP A = 26
{mP GsoUP N = 30
n B
AqUPzxP JP n B = ?
w : 26 mhP {

= 26 1.007825
= 26.20345 amu
= 30 1.008665

30 {mP {

= 30.25995 amu

AqUPz xPP
= 26.20345 + 30.25995

zu {

= 56.46340 amu
26Fe

56

AqUP Es { = 55.9349 amu

= 56.4634 55.9349
= 0.5285 amu

B 1 amu

= 931 MeV

n B

= 0.5285 931 = 492.0335 MeV

J AqUPz xPUP n B=

492.0335
MeV
56

= 8.786 MeV

8.2

12
6C

C13

6
AqUPUP J AqUPz xPUP
n BP 7.68 MeV 7.47 MeV G
AQ. 6C13 AqUP Cx J {m z
u BU PnUQkP.
119

uP : 6C13 AqUP J AqUPz xPUP n


B = 7.47 MeV
6C

12

AqUP J AqUPz xPUP n B

= 7.68 MeV

{m n B = ?
w : AqUP Gu.

MeV
MeV

13 C12 + n1
6C
6
0
C13 & zu n

6C

12

= 7.47 x 13 = 97.11

& zu n B

= 7.68 12 = 92.16

k P zu n B =
P zu n B
97.11 MeV = 92.16 MeV + {m n B
{m n B

= 97.11 92.16
= 4.95 MeV

8.3

U235

AqUP J x k B 200 MeV


GU Psk, 1 watt v EUP J i Hhsi
P GsoUPU PnUQkP.
92

uP : J UP B = 200 MeV
uk v = 1 Watt = 1 J/s
J i Hk P GsoUP = ?
w :
PkUPmk C BP ASP
Eu, A J APP sk.

1 x k B = 200 MeV.
= 200 106 eV
= 200 106 1.6 1019 J

[ 1eV = 1.6 1019 J]

= 320 1013 joules

1 watt v EUP, J i Hk P
GsoUP N GP.

120

J UP B N = J i k zu
B
320 1013 N = 1 J/s.
N

1
320 1013

= 3.125 1010 P

1 watt v EUP, J i Hk P
GsoUP 3.125 1010 BS.
8.4

5 milli curie PvUPa \mh EUS, xPP


P A, u Po210 AU PnUQkP.
zv T = 138 |P.
uP : zv T = 138 |P
dN
dt

= 5 milli curie = 5 3.7 1010 103 ]uP / i

zv A = ?
w : =
=

0.6931
/ |
138
0.6931
/i
138 24 60 60

PvUPa \k

dN
= 5 milli curie
dt

= 5 103 3.7 1010


= 5 3.7 107 ]uP / i

PvUPa ]u vi,
dN
dt

= N
=
=

dN 1
.
dt

5 3.7 107 24 60 60 138


0.6931

= 3.1825 1015 AqUP

121

APm PPi,
6.023 1023 AqUP = 210 g
3.1825 1015 AqUP =

210 3.1825 1015


6.023 1023

= 1.11 106 g

uk zv A 1.11 106 g BS.

8.5

] A h u 60% ]uh BS PzuU


PnUQkP. h T = 3.8 |P
uP : h A BmP (T) = 3.8 |P
]uh A = 60%
GkzxU P P = ?
w : =

0.6931
/ |
3.8

]uh A = 60%
Gg]US A = 40%
uhUPzv E A No GP. PvUPa ]u vi,
N = Noet
N = No& 40% G
40
No
100

= Noet

et

= t

loge2.5
t =

8.6

13Al

27

10
4

3.8
log10 2.5 2.3026 = 5.022 |P
0.6931

1H

25

12Mg

2He

BU PnUQkP.
PkUPmh : 13Al27 {
1H
12

Mg25

4
2He

G k
= 26.981535 amu
= 2.014102 amu

{ = 24.98584 amu

{
122

= 4.002604 amu

uP :

13Al
2
1H

27

= 26.981535 amu

= 2.014102 amu

25

= 24.98584 amu

12Mg
4
2He

= 4.002604 amu
= ?

k B

w : k P {

= 26.981535 + 2.014102
= 28.995637 amu
= 24.98584 + 4.002604

P {

= 28.988444 amu
u { k

= 28.995637 28.988444
= 0.007193 amu

1 amu = 931 MeV


k B

= 0.007193 931
= 6.697 MeV

8.7

U235

1 kg

A 92
x k BU
PnUQkP. J UP B 200 MeV GU PP. APm
Gs = 6.023 1023 . Ex h Q m o
(kilowatt hour) uP.
uP :

235
92U
235
92U

J UP B = 200 MeV
A

APm Gs

= 1 kg
= 6.023 x 1023

k B = ?
w : J x k B = 200 MeV
APm PPi,
235 g zv E AqUP GsoUP
= 6.023 1023

1 kg (1000 g) zv E AqUP GsoUP


=

6.023 1026
235

1 kg x k B
6.023 1026
E =
200 MeV
235
123

= 5.126 1026 MeV


= 5.126 1026 106 eV
= 5.126 1032 1.6 1019 J [ 1 eV=1.6 1019 J]
1 Qm o = 3.6 106 joule
E =

5.126 1032 1.6 10 19


3.6 106

kWh

= 2.2782 107 kWh

8.8

xP J mk 88Ra224 BP AhQx.
k xP CUP BU PnUQkP. ]u

90Th

228

SUPkQx.
90Th

228

88Ra

224*

88Ra

224*

88Ra

PkUPmh :

224

+ (217 keV)
228

{ = 228.028726 amu

Ra224

{ = 224.020196 amu

90Th
88

2He

uP :

= 4.002604 amu

90

Th228

= 228.028726 amu

88

Ra224

= 224.020196 amu

4
2He

Pv B

= 4.002604 amu
= 217 keV

xP B= ?

w :
uzv ]u hzv Pmi Sh.
P { = 224.020196 + 4.002604

90

Th228
- ray
0.217 MeV
- ray

0 eV

Ra224

88

124

= 228.022800 amu
{

= 228.028726

228.022800

= 0.005926 amu
1 amu = 931 MeV
xP B
= 0.005926 931
= 5.517 MeV

C{P, k xP B =
xP B Pv B
= 5.517 0.217
xP B = 5.300 MeV

8.9

1 kg A U235 x k BUSa \

B uk {UP {U PnUQkP.
PkUPmh : {UP Gu = 33.6 106 J/kg,
1 h = 1000 kg. U235 J UP B = 200 MeV.
1eV = 1.6 1019 J. APm Gs N = 6.023 1023.
uP : J UP B = 200 MeV;
1 eV = 1.6 1019 J

APm Gs N = 6.023 1023


{UP Gu = 33.6 106 J/kg
{UP { = ?
w : U235 J UP B = 200 MeV
= 200 106 eV
= 200 106 1.6 1019 J
235 g U235 E AqUP GsoUP = 6.023 1023
1 kg (1000 g) U235 E AqUP GsoUP
=

6.023
1023 1000
235

6.023 1026
235

1 kg A U235 x k B
=

6.023 1026
200 x 106 x 1.6 x 1019 J
235

125

= 8.2016 1013 J

{UP Gu = 33.6 106 J /kg


1 kg A U235 kzx BUSa \ Bz
u {UP { M GP.
33.6 106 M = 8.2016 1013 J
M =

8.2016 1013
33.6 106

= 0.2441 107 kg
= 2.441 106 kg
1000 kg = 1 h
2.441 106 kg = 2441 103 kg
= 2441 h
1 kg A U235 x k BUSa
\ B 2441h {UP ukQx.

8.10 u Thzv Cx mh J Gzxsk


{hzvS 15 ]uPz uQx. Au v G
J {hzvS 19 ]uPz uQx. v (sample)
uU PnUQkP. T = 5570 BskP.

uP : v v ]u u, No = 19 ]uP /{h
Gz xsi ]u u N = 15 ]uP /{h
w :

T = 5570 BskP; v x, t = ?
N
= N0et
0.6931
5570

15

= 19 et Ax et

log e
t

19
15

19
19
1
= t Ax t = log e

15
15

19
5570
2.3026 log10
0.6931
15

5570
2.3026 0.1026
0.6931

= 1899 BskP
126

u vk
(Cu u vmk Sv, PkUPmk UP
PnUSP vP. C, h Sv Gu J
Ax PnUQ iUP. n, n u vmk
Svx mk, h x iUPhU Ti
UPUS PnUSPUS hUP Bzu \x P sk)

8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

8.5

8.6

8.7

8.8

4Be

AqUP B

(a) 1.3 1015 m

(b) 2.6 1015 m

(c) 1.3 10 13 m

(d) 2.6 1013 m

13Al

27

A?

14Si

28

G AqUPUP GuS GkzxUPmhP

(a) I\h (isotope)

(b) I\ (isobar)

(c) I\h (isotone)

(d) I\ (isomer)

AqUP J { 0.03 amu G, Au n B


(a) 27.93 eV

(b) 27.93 KeV

(c) 27.93 MeV

(d) 27.93 GeV

AqUP USx
(a) Tk v

(b) vz xv

(c) SU v

(d) Aq v

AqUP E AqUPz xPP Gu PkQ?


(a) D \

(b) { \

(c) AqUP \

(d) Pu \

AUS v
(a) {mP

(b) xPP

(c) PvP

(d) xPP

]u 0.0693 / | Psh PvUPz u J A


BmP
(a) 10 |P

(b) 14 |P

(c) 140 |P

(d) 1.4 |P

\zv kzuk PvUP I\h


31

(a)

15P

(c)

11Na

(b)15P32

23

(d)
127

11Na

24

8.9

AqUP J k \\ B
(a) 200 eV

(b) 200 MeV

(c) 200 meV

(d) 200 GeV

8.10 AqSsk izu k uzx


(a) Pmkh AqUP
(b) Pmkh AqUP
(c) AqUP Cn
(d) AqUP
8.11 Czua \PU Psh kx
(a)

15P

31

59
26Fe
Hg198 +

(b)15P32

(c)

8.12

80

(d)
X

79Au

198

11Na

24

+ 1H1, G AqUP X Gx

GuU SUS?
(a) mh
(b) GUm
(c) {m
(d) im
8.13 ]ux
(a) Aq Gs J S
(b) { Gs J S
(c) mh GsoUP hx
(d) {m GsoUP J S
8.14 I\hP G
(a) J { Gsn mh Aq Gsn Psh.
(b) \ mh {m GsoUPU Psh.
(c) \
mh
GsoUP
mh
{m
GsoUP Psh.
(d) \
{m
GsoUP
mh
mh
GsoUP Psh
8.15 PvUPz u J uhUP A 1/e h[PPU S
GkzxU P P
(a) A Bm Pzv v
(b) \\ BmP
(c) A BmPzv v
(d) \\ BmPzv Ch[S

128

8.16 N13 A BmP 10.1 {h[P. Au BmP


(a) 5.05 {h[P
(b) 20.2 {h[P
(c)

10.1
{h[P
0.6931

(d) i

8.17 J uzv | PvP, m { C


mh _kPz uUQ. Cu | AP
(a) J { mh v\Pzu PsiUS
(b) J { v\PzuU PsiUS
(c) mh { J v\PzuU PsiUS
(d) mh { v\PzuU PsiUS
8.18

26Fe

56

AqUP n B

(a) 8.8 MeV

(b) 88 MeV

(c) 493 MeV

(d) 41.3 MeV

8.19 AqUP AhzvUS, u\zv AhzvUS E Qu


_P
(a) 1.3 1010
(c) 1.3

1013

(b) 1.3
(d) 1.3 104

8.20 mh {m GsoUP Aih AqUPUP


Pkzuku GkzxUPmkPh USP.
8.21 { n B BQ USP.
8.22 Aq { AQSa \ BU PnUQkP.
8.23 Azx AqUPUPUS AqUP Ahzv HUS P
A GU PmkP.
8.24 { Gsn zx n B k uzv
hzxh USP. Au ]P USP.
8.25 m { uzx AuU Psk
I\hP {PU Pq BQ .
8.26 AqUP \P sP USP.
8.27 PvUPzv .
8.28 \i L BQ PvUPa ]u vPU T USP.
8.29 PvUPz u J Gu |zv E uzv
AU PshuP P P.
8.30 A BmP ]u CPUS Chmh
129

uh P.
8.31 J Q & .
8.32 \P PvUP G G?
8.33 PvUP I\hP P ?
8.34 PP & Gso A, \mh USP.
8.35 CUP B Aih {mP G Pkzu?
8.36 \Pz u G G?
8.37 AqUP vz x AU Psk AqUP
G UP?
8.38 u hzxh, AqUP E \mh USP.
8.39 Ezv E Gx x?
8.40 AqUP P G ?
8.41 s B EUPzu P & |m _ G
UP?
8.42 PU PvP G G?
8.43 PU PvP SUSUPmk USP.
8.44 PU PvP \ G Szxzu zx kQx
Gu USP.
8.45 PU Pv u .
8.46 Aihz xPP |S PPP G Pkzu?

PnUSP
8.47

84 Po

8.48

13Al

218

A BmP 3 {h[P. 15 {h[P, Ax


]uhu UPk G?
27

AqUP BzuU PnUQkP.

8.49 C 1H2 AqUPUP Cnx 2He4 AqUP ESx


k BU PnUQkP. 1H2 2He4 BQ J
AqUPzxPUP n BP 1.1 MeV
7.0 MeV BS.
8.50

20Ca

40

AqUP n B J AqUPz
xPUP n B BQU PnUQkP. PkUP
mk : J mh { = 1.007825 amu ; {m
{ = 1.008665 amu ; 20Ca40 AqUP { = 39.96259 amu
130

8.51 R k BU PnUQkP.

6
1
4
3
3Li + 0n 2He + 1H
6
3Li AqUP { = 6.015126 amu
3
1H AqUP { = 3.016049 amu
4
2He AqUP { = 4.002604 amu
1
0n { = 1.008665 amu GU PkUPmkx.

8.52 iizv A BmP 12.5 BskP. 25 BskPUS S


Au G Sv Gg]US?
8.53 PvUPa \k 1 curie GUS izv (88Ra226) {
HUS 1 g GU PmkP. T = 1600 BskP.
(1 curie = 3.7 1010 ]uP / i)
8.54 PvUPz u J ]u 0.00231 /|. Au A
BmP \\ BmP BQU PnUQkP.
8.55 J AqUP E 32 MW G uzv B Ezv \Qx
G, J i 92U235 Gzu P Hh sk
GuU PnUQkP. J UP B 200 MeV GU PxP.
8.56 SP J PshkUPmh P Ah[Q C14 A,
E J Eu 1/8 [S Ex. A
u vU PnUQkP. (6C14 T = 5560 BskP)
214

PvUP I\h Akzukzx C ]uP, C


-]uP Hkzxx ES I\h Aq Gs
{ GsnU PnUQkP.
8.58 h A BmP 3.8 |P. Au \\ Bm PzuU
PnUQkP.
8.59 PvUP v J 5 |P 50% ]uhu,
20 |PUS S uhUP v G Gg]US?
8.57

84Po

238

I\h, Akzukzx - Csk -]uP


Ahu S ES I\h x?
8.61 m { J v\Pz uuk
\k Pu[P 30 kV/m
0.1 tesla BS. Cu J AUPmh U]
AqUP \x, { Gs 24, 25 26 Psh
I\hP uP B[PU PnUQkP. AP
UPha \ 0.5 tesla Puz ysh kQx. J
AqUPz xP { = 1.67 1027 kg ; A mh,

8.60

92U

e = 1.6 1019 C.
131

hP
8.1

(b)

8.2

(c)

8.3

(c)

8.4

(b)

8.5

(c)

8.6

(b)

8.7

(a)

8.8

(b)

8.9

(b)

8.10 (a)

8.11 (c)

8.12 (c)

8.13 (d)

8.14 (c)

8.15 (b)

8.16 (d)

8.17 (c)

8.18 (c)

8.19 (c)

8.47 96.875 %
8.48 3.9 1015 m
8.49 23.6 MeV
8.50 341.8725 MeV; 8.5468 MeV
8.51 4.783 MeV
8.52 1/4
8.53 1.0107 g
8.54 T = 300 |P;

= 432.9 |P

8.55 1 1018 P / i
8.56 16681 BskP
8.57 Aq Gs 82 { Gs 206
8.58 5.482 |P
8.59 6.25%
8.60

88Ra

226

8.61 R1 = 0.1503 m ; R2 = 0.1565 m ; R3 = 0.1628 m.

132

9. SUPhzv \u[P
A kP
Csh EP US u BskP, \P EUP,
UP, u {PP hU SP mk u.
1944 i]h Pshmh S, Auz uhx, i]h
vs {U PP Hmh a], x
kP
hU
SP,
vs
{U
PP
UPmk. vs { GUm PP, UQP
SUPhzv PU Psk. Ch , ] SU
Phzva \u[P A kP UPmk.

9.1 SU PhzvP
, ]UP ] P uh Gs, u
|PhzvPUS, Psni PPUS Chmh
vS. CP P SUPhzvP GUPkQ.
PhzvPUS, PPUS Ch uh Gsn
SUPhzv Gk. A { SUPhzv J
uh Gso v Hzu 102 US 10-4 m-&US Ch A.
Smh { a]S SUPhzv uhx, {
AvPUSx SQx. Czux EPU Phzv J
{ AvPUP, uh AvPUS G sS , shP
AQx.
Ge, Si, In SUPhzvPP Pkzumh u[P

BS.
kzukQ.

]UP

SUPhzvPP

9.1.1 vs[P B mhP


ukzumh J Aq, uzu B
mh[P E. vs[P AqUPx AoUPz uzv
J[P AUPmk, J Aq Ash AqUP
uUPzvS Emmk E. AqUP |UPx, Ash AqUP
GUmP EmP (Intermixing) UQ. Cu
AvUPmh B mh[P GsoUP AvPUQx. G,
vs[P umh Aqh uhh, uzu B mhzvS
133

vP
B
mh[P
mhP
Ch
Q.
|UPP
Au
CzuP
B
mh[P
uS
B mh GUPkQx.
B
mh[P
mhP
G uzu AqP,
vs US x
uS.

GUm mh
x B mh
(Sv {mhx)
Cshx B mh

B mhP
u B mh
Pzv, hzvx GuP
x P (h 9.1a & b).
]UP uzu J Aq
B mh[P h 9.1a-& h 9.1a uzu J Aq
B mh[P
Pmhmk.
J
]UP Aq 14 GUm
P x. Cu GUmP K Tmi 2&, L Tmi 8& M
Tmi 4&P E. 3s EmTmi 2&, 3p EmTmi 2&P, M Tmi
|S GUmP QuUPmk. zu 6 GUmP
UTi 3p EmTk SvP (partially) {mkx. xP
GUmP {mh mh[P EP mh[P (core levels) G
C { GUmP EP
GUmP G AUPkQ.
U Tmi E GUmP
Cnv GUmP G, SvP
P mh
{mh mh, Cnv
mh G, PP AvUP
mh mh[P Phzx mh[P G
3&x mh
AUPkQ.
2&x mh

u mh

h 9.1b vszv B
mhP

vs J, JUP P
|UPP Au AvP GsoUP
AqUP E. s Ax p mh[P
B eV A Eu, A P
|UPP Ax. u Tmi
E GUmP EUS B
mh,
u
B
mh
G
AUPkQx. Cx Cshx
134

Tmi E GUmP EUSx Cshx B mh,


AuS mhP Eu h 9.1b& Pmh &mkx.

9.1.2 Cnv mh, Phzx mh UPmh


B Ch
vszv AqUP, J[P, vz v , i
A A US. Aq E GUmP,
AvUPmh B mh[P, AqUPa _ Q. EmU
TkP E GUmP AqUPh n E.
Cnv GUmP {mk mh Ax E B
mh, Cnv mh (h 9.2) G UPkQx.
Cnv
mh
SvP
Ax
P
{miUP. B
J x PP (empty)
Phzx mh
P Ax
Cx.
Sv { mh

]
P,
Cnv mh Ax
Cnv
GUmP
Sv { mh
AqUPh
u
n Eu, A
{
{
]
mh
GUmP
Cnv
mh
mk
h 9.2 Cnv mh
Q.
Cu
Phzx mh
GUmP
Pmk
GUmP GUPkQ. C, J Phzv mhU
PhzuUSU Pnu, A Phzx GUmP G, Cu
GUmP
{mk
mh
Phzx
mh
G
AUPkQx. Cu mh P mhP Ax Sv
{mh mhP A.
Cnv mhUS, Phzx mhUS Ch Ch,
UPmh B Ch Gk. Cnv mhx
Phzx mhUS J GUm h sk, UPmh
B ChUSa \, B ukQx.

9.1.3 PP, SUPhzvP PhzvP


PP
P UPmh B Ch P AvPP
CUS (h 9.3a). xP, PP UPmh B
135

Ch 3eVUS AvPP CUS. PhzxuS, GUmP CUPx.


G, Cnv mhx Phzx mhUS GUmP \
sk P AvP A B uh six. Psni
P 0 K { Cnv mh
{x. Cn v mhUS, Phzx mhUS Ch
B Ch 10eV A Eu, E PkUPmh
v Cnv mhx Phzx mhUS GUmP |P
iv. GUmUS P AvPP B PkUPi, UPmh
Ch Ax PhUS. { Ezxx ] GUmP
Phzx mhUS |PQ. A { PPP E ]
P, E { PhzvPP uS Cx PnS.
PP uh Gs v Hzu 1011x 1016 m-
CUS.

SUPhzvP
SUPhzvP (h 9.3b) UPmh Ch P S
BS. , ]UP SUPhzvPUS ]u GkzxUPmkPS.
zv UPmh Ch B 0.7eV A, Si-US
1.1 eV BP Ex. 0K Phzx mh x PP,
Cnv mh P {mk CUS. ] A B
AUPmhh, GUmP Cnv mhx Phzx
mhUS GuPz uQ. GkzxUPmhP, { AvPzu,
UPmh Ch Sx, ] GUmP Phzx mhUS
kUPkQ. SUPhzv Phzx v 102 mho m-1 A
Ex.

PhzvP
PhzvP UPmh B Ch Cv. Cnv
Phzx mhP Jh v (h 9.3c).
Phzx mh

Cnv mh

(a) PP

UPmh Ch

Phzx mh

Cnv mh

(b) SUPhzvP

h 9.3 vs[P B mhP


136

Cnv mh

(c) PhzvP

Cnv mhx, Phzx mhUS GUmP uh


~Q. Cnv mh Phzx mh Jh
xu, PU S zu hx, uha]
mh CUPzu HkzxQx.

9.1.4 SUPhzvP GUmP xP


J Eu SUPhzv (y SUPhzv) J B mh
h 9.3b PmkQx. h 9.4a h 9.4 b- ua_
A {P mh FvP { Sh mkx.
AvP {, Phzx mhUSa \ Eu
SUPhzv GUmP-, Eu FvP (Intrinsic carriers)
GUPkQ. Cnv mhx, Phzx mhUS
GUm \, GUm Cu Chzv EUPk Ph
x GUPkQx. h 9.4c x Eu
xP Eu. y iPzuU Px Ax
Ax Cnv Tmi 4 GUmP x. Cu
GUmP Cnv GUmP Gk. C AqUP
APP Psk mh, AqUPUQh \P n EQx.
TkuP ]x B x \P n GUmP
n zxU Psk iPzv AoU PP |P HxQx.
nx GUm x, Au Chzv x J

Phzx mh

Phzx mh

Cnv mh

Cnv mh

(a)

(b)

Ge

Ge

Ge

Ge

Ge

Ge

Ge

Ge

Ge

(c)

h 9.4 a&b SUPhzvP


GUmP xP

h 9.4c x
Eu

EUPkQx. Cx vu mhzu SUPkQx. AQ


Aq GUm, \P n zxU Psk, Czx {
137

x Chzv x EUPkQx. GUm, KS Gv


mhzu u, xx KS | mhzxh
J[QnQx.
x
UQzx
u
Pmk
GUmP , xP Gv v\ mh
FvPPa \kQ.

9.1.5 Eu SUPhzv

Energy
B

J y, \, SU
Phzv Eu SUPhzv
Gk. Eu SU
Phzxmh
conduction band
Phzv, Pmk GUmP

xP
GsoUP
\S.
y
]UP
Eu SUPhzvPUS
Valence mh
band
Cnv
x
GkzxUPmk
PS. C UPmh
B
Ch
PU
h 9.5 Eu SUPhzvP&
SP Cu, A
B mh
{Th, Ch
U Phx Phzxmh AhuS x B
GUmP C E. A { J
Eu SUPhzv B mh h 9.5 Shmkx.

9.1.6 SUPhzv `mh


B Ax JU Psk, J SUPhzv
iPzv GUmP xP EUPkQ. C
Phzx v P SP Ex. C EUSuP
]u Gu u, uukUPmh Pa]
A _UP iPzv \uS. \x 100 ppm (parts per
million) G A \UPh sk. Eu SUPhzv Pa
] A _a \UP {P `mh (doping) Gk. Cu _
AqUP `miP (dopants) GUPkQ. _ AqUP
SUPhzv, y Ax `mhmh Ax
SUPhzv GUPk.
SUPhzv J `mkuS P
E. (i) SUPhzv EQ {, Auh _ AqUPa
\zu. (ii) _ AqUP AP SUPhzv ua
138

\u. (iii) _ AqUPU Psk SUPhzv iP


kzukx, _ AqUP iPzv u.
UPP, `mk Ix Cnv AqUPP (z,
Bio, , B\U) Ax Cnv AqUPP
(A, P, Csi, ) CUS. y SUPhzv
Phzx mhUS J GUm Au Ix Cnv Psh _
Aq, Ph Aq (donar atom) G, y SUPhzv Aqx J
GUm HU Pu Cnv Psh _ Aq, H
Aq (acceptor atom) G AUPkQx.

9.1.7 SUPhzv
J SUPhzv Phzx v AvPUPa \ mk,
Auh, SUPhzv Cnvh AvP Ax S
Cnv _ AqUP \UPmk k SUPhzv
SUPhzv Gk.
SUPhzv, Auh \UPk _ AqUP
zx N P P P G PkzukQx.
(a) N- P SUPhzv
B\U Ix Cnv Psh ] A ],
y SUPhzv iPzxh \UP, QhUP iP NP SUPhzv GUPkQx.
y iPzxh, Ix Cnv Psh B\U
_a \u QhUP iPzv i h 9.6a
PmkQx. B\U Aq |S Cnv GUmP, AQ E
|S

AqUP
GUmPh
\Pn
EUSQ. B\U Aq Iux GUm u n
Ex. Cu GUm, J Phzv \ GUm , Gv
Pmk
GUm

Ge

Ix
Cnv
Pentavalent
impurity atom
_ Aq

Ge

Ge

Ge

Free electron

As

Energy
B

Phzx mh
Conduction
band
Ge

donor
level
Ph

mh
Cnv
mh
Valence band

Ge

Ge

Ge

h 9.6a N& P SUPhzv

h 9.6b N-P SUPhzv


B mh
139

|Pu Cx mh FvPa \kQx. B mh hzv,


Iux Cnv GUm B mh, UPmh B
Ch, Phzx mhUSa \ R Axx (h 9.6b).
Cmh Ph Aq B mh (donar level) Gk.
Cu
Iux
Cnv
GUm
PhzxmhUS
kx, B\U Aq CUP | AP Qx.
J _ Aq, K GUmU SUPhzvS AUQx.
CP _ AqUP Ph AqUP Gk.
Eu SUPhzv E mh FvP GsoUPh
Jh, N&P SUPhzv GUmP GsoUP AvPUQx,
H, QhUP AvPi GUmP, GUmP
xP CnQ Pzu AvPkzxQ. G, N&P
SUPhzv mh FvP Pmk GUmPP,
] mh FvP xPP E.

(b) P - P SUPhzv
Cnv Psh ] A ] (Csi,
Ax P ) y SUPhzv iPzxh \u
QhUP iP P& P SUPhzv GUPkQx.
y iPzxh, Cnv Psh
_a \US x QhUP iP A h 9.7a
PmkQx. Cnv GUmP AQ
AqUP Cnv GUmPh \Pn
EUSQ. |Px \Pn Aq J J
GUm mk [PQx. , J GUm USP
Ex. GUm uk Chzu xP GQ. G,
J

Aq
\UPkx
J
x

Ge

Ge

Ge

Ge

Ge

x
hole

Ge

Ge

Phzxmh
Conduction
band
B
Energy

Ge

trivalent
impurity
Cnv
atom
_

h 9.7a P-PU
SUPhzv

H
mh
acceptor
level
Cnv
mh
Valence band

h 9.7b P-PU
SUPhzv B mh
140

EUPkQx. xP Azx AQ GUmP


HSu, C_ H Aq GQ. Czxx Ash
AqUP GUm {mk, GUm Ch u Chzv
xP EUPkQ. C{P uhx,
PnP, xP ua\ UQ |PQ.
xx, J {x {US |P |
mhzu
u,
Cx
P&
P
SUPhzv
GUPkQx. P& P SUPhzv H \x, Cn v
mhUSa \ B mhzu EUSQx (h 9.7b).
H Aq B mhzvS, Cnv mhUS Ch
E B k PUSP Cu, U Qa],
Cnv mhx GUmP H {US P GuPz
uQ.
P&P

SUPhzvP xP, mh
FvPP Pmk GUmP, ] mh FvPP
E.

9.2 PN \v hk
y SUPhzv JiP J (Ge or Si)
J H _ AqUP Ph _ AqUP
`mhku PN \v EQx (h 9.8). PSv AvP
NSv
AvP
GsoUP
GsoUP
xP,
GUmP .
\v EUPmhh, {Pu, xP, Pmk
GUmP \vU PhUQ. C{P x N&Svx
PSvUSa \vU Phx \ GUmP \vUS AQ P&Sv
E xPh JnQ. Cx xP \v
P&Svx N&SvUSa \ \vUS AQ N&Sv E
G U m P h
JnQ. Cu

+ Ph Aq
\vUS C CUP
+
mh[P
Sv
H Aq
EUPkQx.
xP
CSv CUPPu
Sv (depletion region)
GUmP
N
P
GUPkQx.
h 9.8 PN \v hk
BP, \vUS Chx
141

E H AqUP Gv APP, x E Ph
AqUP | APP Q (h 9.8).
CUPu Sv, Ph H APUQh J
EUPkQx. N&Sv zu, P&Sv
zuzuh AvP. G, GUmP N&Svx, Su
zu E P&SvUSa \x ukUPkQx. Cu PSv
xP Su zuzv Au, N&SvUSa \x
ukUPkQx. BP mh[P CUPzu GvUS
J uh, \v EQx. uh J UPzvS UPzvS
Ch zu k "zu As' (potential barrier)
GUPkQx. ]UP PN \vUS zu As Hzu 0.7 V
BP, PN \vUS 0.3 V BP AQx. uh J
Svx SvUS E u zu Ao AP
GUPkQx. Cx ua \uQx.

9.2.1 USa \ PN
\v hk
J Pzv | P
Svh, Gv N
Svh,
Au
zu
k, zu AqUS Gv
v\ \k CnUP
kx, PN \v hk,
USa \ Ex G.
PN

P
+

h 9.9 USa \ PN
\v hk

\v hkUS
USa \UPkx (h 9.9) \kzuk | zu
P Sv E xP GvUQx. Gv zu N Sv E
GUmP GvUQx. G, mh[P \v |UQ |PQ.
\kzuk zu k zu An h AvP
] GUmP, xP CUP SvUS ~Q.
G, zu Aq, CUPu Sv ui
SUPkQ. CUP Sv, | Ph AP,
Gv H AP GUmP, xP
sk Q. Cu P zu Aq, CUP
Sv Q. US zu mi \mh
mh FvP, \v , Gv v\ CUP
USz v\ mhzu EUSQ.
142

9.2.2 USa \ PN \v hk
J Pzv |

N&Svh
Gv

P&Svh,
AUPk
zu
k zu Ao
v\
A
CnUPmh
\vx
USa \ Ex
G.

PN

\v USa
h 9.10 USa \ PN
\ E x (h 9.10)
\v hk
N&Sv GUmP,
P&Sv E xP \v mk PkQ.
Cu P&Sv E Gv AP N&Sv E |
AP GsoUP AvPUQx. G CUPu Sv
hQx. zu Aq AvPUQx.
CUP
Sv

mh
FvP
Cu Cx J P \kQx. G a_
mh v. B |h ] U B
A Pa ] A mh Gvzv\ Qx. Cx,
] mh FvP, Gvzv\ C[Su QhUP
Qx. Cu Gvzv\ mh Su AS. H, C
UP[P E ] mh FvP GsoUP P
S. zv \P nP ] FvPUS
UQ P (source) Au, Gvzv\ mh \v
{ mk \vUQx.

9.2.3 SUPhzv
Sk

hi

hi Sk h 9.11&
Pmhmkx. P-P NP SvP P
N
G
SUPmk.
hi E AUS
mhzv v\U SUQx.
143

P end

N end

h 9.11 SU
Phzv hi _
Sk

IIff
(mA)

+
Vf

If

VV
f f (volt)
(a) hk&_

(b) \

h 9.12 hi USa \

9.2.4

USa

characteristics)

(Forward

bias

PN \v hk J USa \ BUP
_ h 9.12a Pmhmkx. P& NPU

Qh zuzua _x uSu A iiP AvPzx,


AuP mh[P SUPkQ. h 9.12b hi,
USa \ ] PmhU PmkQx. zu
\ P Cu X Aa], mh \ P
Cu Y Aa] SUPmk. ] Pmix RPq
iP PkQ. (i) USa \ J |UPk
A, G uP V/I A. Aux hk K vUS
Emkv G, Cvx SUPhzv hhx |UP
mhU PhzvS G A iQx. (ii) Pmix,
xUPzv mh SP Cu A. CuSU Pn
zu, zu An h (]UP hkUS 0.7 V)
AvPS x mk, hk Phzu x[SQx. zu 0.7
V&US AvPUS x, AvP A Pmk GUmP,
xP \vU PhUPz x[SQ. 0.7 V--US , mh, P
P AvPUQx. Gu zuzv mh P P
AvPUPz uh[SQu Azu Emk zu Ax
zu (Cut in voltage (or) Knee voltage) Gk.

9.2.5

USa

characteristics)

(Reverse

bias

PN \v hk J USa \ BUP
_ h 9.13a- Pmhmkx. zu uSu A,
144

Vr (volt)
+
+

Vr

(a) hk & _

Ir (A)

Ir

(b) USa \

h 9.13 hi USa \
_x iiP AvPUPkQx. J zuzvS
mh vP SzxU PkQ. PkUPmh hi
USa \ Pk h 9.13b- Pmhmkx. Ca]
Pmix, zu _x AvPUSx, Gvzv\
mh (U B A) AvPzx, Pa ] v
zuzv (Reverse voltage) v AhQx. zu,
AvPUS x, Smh { v AhQ ,
mh, v zuzua \vu JS. Cu Gvzv\
mh "v umk mh' Ax P] mh
(Reverse saturation current or leakage current) GUPkQx. C
mh ] mh FvP HkQx. Cx, \v
{a \uQx.

9.3 PN \v hk vzvPa \h
v\ zu Ax v\ mhzu |v\
zu Ax |v\ mhP {P "vzxu'
(rectification) G, C{PUS k \u vzv G
AUPk. \v hhx, USa \ Su uh
Azx mhzu u \ AvUS s x.
Cs vzxu {P kzukQx.

9.3.1 A Az vzv
a.c A A Sv, vzu Eu _ A Az

vzv Gk. A Az vzuUP _ h 9.14


PmkQx. vzuh si a.c zu (VS) xna
_ P S1-US S2-US Ch kQx. hk D-
145

P x,
xna _ S1 Eh,
N xna _ S2

CUS
S1

P1

Eh k
uh RL P (load
resistance)
CnUP
mkx.
vzumh
zu Vdc k
uh RL-US SUPP
kQx.

RL

Vs

AC

Vdc

P2
S2

h 9.14 A Az vzv

Ek a.c zuzv (VS) | Aa _ x S1 Bx


|zu x, hk USa \ AQx.
G, hk PhzxQx. Cu _ mh x
RL-&USU SUPP zu CUP HkQx. Cx h 9.15
Pmhmkx mk zuzuz uQx.

Vs

Vdc

(a) Ek
input

(b) k
output

h 9.15 A Az vzv \PP


Ek a.c zuzv (VS) Gv Aa_x S1 Bx
Gvzu x, hk USa \ AQx.
G, hk Phzxv. Cu _ mh
v. k uh RL&USU SUPP zu
CUP _Qx. G, mk zu kv.
BP, v\ Emka \PPUS J v\ xi Psh
(uni-directional pulsating) mka \P kQx.
vzv J d.c mkz vUS, a.c Emkz vUS
Ch uP, vzv v Gk. A Az
vzv v, Hzu 40.6% BS.
146

9.3.2 \_ Azvzv (Bridge rectifier)


J \ _ Azvzv h 9.16 Pmhmkx. Ca_
kzuk |S hkP D1, D2, D3 D4-.B
(network) A EUS CnUPmk.
Emk P A C-x xna _
P S1 S2&Eh mk P B Dx
k uh RL&Eh CnUPmk.
Step down

CUS
transformer S1

P1

D4

Line

AC
voltage
zu
from an

VS

AC power

P2

D1
B

D3

V dc
RL

D2

S2

h 9.16 \_ Azvzv
a.c Ek zuzv | Aa _ x
C- zx A-Bx | zuzu Qx. G
hkP D1 D3 USa \ Ax, PhzxQ. B
hkP D2 D4 USa \ Au Phzu
{Pv. BP mhx, S1ABDCS2 RL
Qx. Gv Aa _ x, A-& zx C | zu
Qx. G hkP D2 D4 USa \ Ax,
PhzxQ. B hkP D1 D3 USa \

Vs

Vdc

t
(a) Ek
input

t
(b) k
output

h 9.17 \_ Azvzv & \PP


147

Au, Phzxv. BP mh S2CBDAS1 RL


Qx. Akzukzu Aa _PUS Cu {P vkQx. a.c
Emka \PP C Aa _P x, mhx RL
P J v\ u hzv Pn iQx. PkUPmh
Emka \PPUP mka \PP i h 9.17
Pmhmkx. J \_ Azvzv v Hzu
81.2% .BS.

9.3.3 i _P v [Q ^US
sP
A Az vzv, Azvzv BQ Csi, RL
SUP k zux 0-x v
hQx. RL- SUP Jv\ mhx QhUP
x, k zuzv Hz u EQx. y d.c
zu uk x, mk zuzv Hk Cu
Hzu zuUPu. G, A }UPh sk. Ax
\kzuh sk. Cx, uUQ i, ysi i
iP GUPk uSu a _PU Psk
kQx. G Qmhzumh ^ d.c zu QhUQx. B
RUPsh Pn[P, Azvzvx k Cu {
d.c k zux P Av.
(i) mk mh u d.c mk zu

P CUPx. Aux, vzvx k mh


AvPzu, k zu SQx. Gv {P (vice-versa)
Hk. d.c mk zuzv u k d.c mk
mhzv \P A.
^UP UPk =

Vuh Vuh
Vuh

100 BS.

(ii) d.c k zux, AzvzvUS PkUPk a . c


Ek zuzvS H hQx. a.c zvx
Cn zu (line voltage) 220V G P A
200 V u 240 V h. G, d.c k zu
k. Cu ChkP Gv P \ (zener) hkP vzv
i _Ph \zx ^PP kzu. C
^UPmh v [QP GUPkQ.

148

9.4 UP Gv {PP (Breakdown mechanisms)


USa \ {u R, PN \v {P C
Gv {PP HkQx. AP (i) \ (Avalanche
Breakdown) (ii) \ (Zener Breakdown).

(i) \
PN \v C Su A `mhk x,

CUPu Sv ui AvPu \ HkQx. Cv


CUP Sv SUP E EhuP CUPx.
zu kUQhmh ] FvP iPzv E
SUPhzv AqUPh xQ. Cnv GUmPh
HkQ Cu u PnP, \P nP UPmk, GUm &
x \iP EUPkQ. C EUPmh Cu mh
FvP PkUPmh zuzvx B AuS DhP
mh FvP EUSQ. Cuz uhTmka \
(cumulative process) \ UP (avalanche multplication) G,
Au \ G AUPkQ.
(ii) \
PN \v C AvP A `mhku CUP
Sv Ch SQuQx. Cx SP \v,
\ HkQx. PU S A USa
\UPkx, CUPu Sv SUP J
Su EUPkQx. C \P nP zx P
AvP GsoUP, GUmP xP EUSu
USz umi mhzu (\ mh) EUSQx.
\ mhx AUPmh zuzua \vx.

9.5 \ hk (zener diode)


\ hk Gx, Sv
mk
\hUTi
USa
\u, AvP A `mhmh
SUPhzv (]UP Ax ) PN
\v hk BS.

h 9.18 \
hk Sk

\ hi Sk h 9.18 Pmhmkx.
Sv \ hi C \miS, hi
\ mhx a_ PmkkzukQx. G,
\v SUP B Cx, Au v, Bz vUS
149

(Power-handling

Forward

capacity)

Emmk
CUS.
Cu
a\UP
Psknh
AvP
mh, hh kzv
k.

USa
characteristic
curve
\
If
Vr

\ hi V-I ]
Vf
V
Pk h 9.19 Pmhmkx. Z
hzvx PN \vUS AUP
Ir
k v zu, AvPUP
Reverse
USa
k x J Smh z
characteristic
\
uzv, mhx, Au C
curve
mk
vx,
P h 9.19 \ hi V-I
AvPUQx
GuU
Pn.
]
Czu \ zu
Ax zu (VZ) GUPkQx.

9.6 \ hk & zua ^ (Zener diode as

voltage regulator)

RS

I
Ek zu
Ax k
IL
IZ
uh m
h
x,
V
R L V0
dc
uh SUP
zuzu {{zu
zua
^
\hsk.
h 9.20 \ hk zua
^
uh R - SUP,
+

u zuzu {{zu \ hk
V z kzuk _ h
9.20 Pmhmkx. USa \ { E \ hhx
RL-Eh UP Cn CnUPmkx. Vdc Gx ^UPhu d.c
zu VZ Gx \ zu (^UPmh mk
zu) GP. RS Gx mhzuU Pmkkzx uh.
hhx Sv \k, RS uukUPkQx.
uh mh Ax Ek zuzv
Cu x, \ hk RL& SUP zuzu
{ {zxQx. _ \k R PkUPmkx
UPkQx.
150

(i) Ek zu , uh mh
i Au
uh mh AvPuPU Px
\ mh SQx. uh RS&
mh S. k zu Vz = Vdc IRS, zu
mh I P Cu k zu P
CUS.
(ii) Ek zu x
Ek zu Vdc AvPuPU Px. Cx \
hk mh AvPUQx. , uh
zu u P RS- SUP zu CUP AvPUQx.
CP \ hk zua ^Pa \kQx.

9.7 J E hk [Light Emitting Diode - (LED)]


J E hk Gx, B Fmhk x Psq J
EUTi, USa \u J PN \v hk BS.
\v hhx USa \ Ax N Sv E
GUmP P Sv E xP CUP Sv |UQ
|Px sk Jnu {PQx. Phzx mh E
GUmx, Cnv mh xh Jnu B
kQx. P B\k (GaAs) P k (GaP)
P B\k k (GaAsP) SUPhzx P
AvP UPk B, JP hkQx. SUPhzv
x J P] G, Jx hkQx. ,
\vx J P Qx. LED &US USa \USx
CUS { (ON), USa
\USx v {
(OFF) AhQx. .Ek J
{,
kzuk

ua \ux. P B\m
h 9.21 LED Sk
m P m
kzv ], a\,
g\ Bg_ { J E LED-P iUP. LED&
Sk h 9.21& Pmhmkx. PP Pm]P (instrument
displays), PnUQk PP (calculators) CUP PiP[P
(digital watches) LED&P kzukQ.
151

9.8 \v i]h
\v i]h Gx J vs{U PS. Cx ]UP
Ax iPzv Csk PN \vPU Pshx. Cu
SvP Ai (Base), E (Emitter) H (Collector)
BQQh Csk PN \vP EUPmk.
(i) Ai Sv (B) : Cx P SvS. Cu ui

25 UP. Cx, i]h SvS.


(ii) E (E) H (C) SvP : B Sv C
UP[P, Ax SvP E H SvPS.
C Csk J P SUPhzv.

C J KU uh (Ohmic
contact)
Cnx. E Ai SvPUQh \v,
E \v G, H AiUS Chmh \v, H
\v G AUPkQx.
J i]h AvP _ Pu Sv ES. H
E, FvP AiUS AUP six.
Ai, _ P S SvS. H, _ P S
SvS. mh FvP HP siu Ax
CP A uP CUS. G E H,
_n UPU Thx.
base
Ai
P
emitter
E

Ai
base
P

N P

collector
H

E
emitter

h 9.22a PNP i]h

H
collector

h 9.22b NPN i]h

PNP

NPN
i]hP
h[P 9.22a 9.22b Pmhmk.

AP

i]h, E \h \
zu PkUPh sk.
(i) E & Ai \vUS USa \ AUPkQx.
G,

mh
FvP
E
mk
mhkQ. \vx, mhzvS PU Su uhz
HkzxQx.
152

(ii) H & Ai \vUS USa \UPkQx. G,

mh FvP Cx PQx.
mhzvS E uh HkzxQx.

Cua

\v,

9.9 i]h _U SkP


PNP

NPN
C
C
H
H
collector
collector
i]hP
_
SkP h 9.23 Pmh
B
B
mk. E u Ai
Ai
base
base
AUS, Ai |UQ
E
E
A
Ax
PNP
E
E
emitter
emitter
i]hU SUS. J
i]h
E
(a) PNP
(b) NPN
Ai \vUS USa
h 9.23 i]hP Sk
\ AUPmh,
mhzv v\, Ex Ai |UQ AQx.
i]h E u AUS Ai mk
|UQ A Ax NPN i]hS. NPN i]h
E & Ai \vUS USa \UPmh
mhzv v\ Aix E |UQ A.

9.9.1 PNP i]h J \k


J PNP i]h Gx Aih Ai CnUPmh C PN \v
hkP uS. \v J E CUP Sv,
zu An EUSQx. \vPUSz u a \,
P[P VEE VCC AUPku h 9.24 PmkQx.
E & Ai \v, USa \, H Ai \v,
USa \ E.
B
C
E
E & Ai \v
P N P
I
IC
E
USa \ Eu AvP
GsoUP
xP V
VCC
EE
IB
\vU
Phx
AiUS
~Q. Au |zv PU
S
GUmP
h 9.24 PNP i]h
Aix
EUSa
\k
\Q.
Cu
GUmP
E
Ahuh
E
E,
AuSa
\
GsoUP xPh JnQ.
153

E, xP zu GsoUP Hk C,
Ex
Pzv
|USa
\
\
GsoUP GUmP HkzukQx.
Ex AiUSa \ xP E
mh IE EUSQ. E IE &Bx xP
EUPkQx. B a_ mh Ex VEE
Pzv |USa \ GUmP HkQx.
xP, Ai a \Q. xP CSvU
Phx CUPu SvUSa \ PU S Pzu GkzxU
PQ. CuU Pzv Pa ] GsoUP xP,
Ai
AuSa
\
GsoUP,
GUmPh
JnQ. Ai, P SP `mhku, P
uP Eu, Cu GsoUP P SP Ex. J
|i Hk zu GUmP C, \ GsoUP
GUmP, P VEE& Gvx AiUSa \u \
\kQx. Cu GUmP CUP, Ai mh IB
EUSQx.
Ai, JnUS Emh Gg]US xP
H AhQ. C VCC Pzv Gv x H
Ah, \ GsoUP GUmP \\kQ. Au
|zv, \ A GUmP VEE& Gv x VCC&
| uhQ. KS Pzv Aix H
Ah xP ES H mh IC, Aix
HUS Qx. a _ VCC& Gvx HUS
GUmP mh HkQx.
Ca_, Qa\L mh vi, E mh,
H Ai m
B
C
h[P TkuUSa \S.
E
N
N
P
IE
IC
Aux, IE = IB + IC
Ca\k
i]h V EE
VCC
IB
J mh[PU Qh

Aihz
uhS.
Ca\k
i]h
h 9.25 NPN i]h
P Ax _ Pa
\k
\ux A.
NPN i]h J \k (h 9.25) PNP i]h
\k uS.
154

9.9.2

i]h

_P

(Transistor

circuit

configuration)
i]h Ja \kzu P _nP
(_P Ax _ {P G T) E. AP.
(i) x Ai _ (CB) (ii) x E _ (CE) (iii) x
H _ (CC).
"x' G \ Ek k _US x
CnU SUS. J NPN i]h _ {P
h 9.26 Pmhmk.
E

C
B

B
-

VEE

VCC

B
E

VCC

VBB

(a)

VCC

VEE

(b)

(c)

h 9.26 i]h P _P
Cu PNP i]hUS P _P .

9.9.3 mh UP GsP , AQh


uh
J i]h mh UP Gs Ax mh
UP Gx, mk mhzvS Emk mhz
vS uP BS. x Ai _ i]h CnUPk
IC

x, mh UP = I , x E _
E

IE
VEE

B
N

C
P

IB

IC

IC

IB
VCC

VBB

C
B
E

P
N

IE
h 9.27 NPN i]h CB CE _P
155

VCC

IC

mh UP = I

BS. J NPN i]h, x Ai

x E _P h 9.27 PmkQx. \zumh


GUmP 95% Ax Ha \hu, H
mhx Hzu E mhzvSa \S.
, Azx P i]hPUS v 0.95 x 0.99
A.

IC
Ic
= I = I +I
E
B
C
1

=
1

( IE = IB + IC)

I B + IC
I
= B +1
IC
IC
1 =

UPP v 50 US 300 US Ch A. ]
i]hP v 1000 A CUS.

9.9.4 x E _ NPN i]h ] P


J i]h Gu Pa _ UQ ] P
Esk. AP (i) Eka ] P (ii) mka ] P
(iii) ] P

IC
IB
VBB

C
B

+
mA

VCC

VBE

V CE

h 9.28 CE i]h _
x E _ AUPmk NPN i]h J
] P BUP _h 9.28 Pmhmkx.
156

(i) Eka ] P

VCE

HUS
EUS
Ch zuzu (VCE), J
IB
Smh v P Azx,
A
Ai mhzvS (IB), Ai
IB
& E zuzvS (VBE)
VBE
Ch
Eka
]
P
kQ. VBE-z uSu \
VBE(volt)
iP AvPzx, AuP Ai
mh SUPkQx. VCE&
h 9.29 Eka ]
vPUS Ca\
sk \kQx. VCE& vUS, VBE IB vPU
Psk k Eka ] h 9.29 Pmhmkx.
J i]h Ek v Gx, PkUPmh
VCEUS Ai E z uzv ] zvS, Au
Hk Ai mh miS E uP G
UPkQx.
VBE

Ek Gv, ri = I B
V
CE _, i]h J Ek v AvP.
CE

(ii) ka ] P

umi Sv

Ai
mh
IB,
Smh v P E
IC
x, IC-US VCE-US Ch (mA)
mka ] P
kQ.

IB=100 A
A

IB=80 A
VCE

IB=60 A
IB=40 A

Ai & E z
IB=20 A
IB=0 A
u VBEa \\x Ai
mk Sv
mh IB, v
O
V CE (volts)
UPkQx. VCE vz
uSu \ iP AvPUPa \x, h 9.30 ka ] P
AP H mh[P SUPkQ. Ca\
IB vPUS va \kQx. ux IB
vPUS, IC&US VCEUS PkP kQ. C
k mka ] P h 9.30 Sh mk.
] SvP UPkQ.
157

umi Sv
Pmi uhUP Sv, OA G KU Sv umi Sv
Gk. Aux, BvUS, US (knee) Chmh
SvS. AvPzx ICv, u vP AUTi
uhUP , GkQx.

mk Sv
Ai mh _P (IB = 0) Cux Pa ] A
H mh i]h CUS. mka ]
IB = 0UP Pmi R E Sv, mkSv GUPkQx.
i]h, CSvUSU R \hx.

\mk Sv
Pmi Sv \mk Sv Gk. CSv
PkP ^P AQ. CSv E-B \v USa \,
C-B \v USa \ AQ. i]h ]
\mk Sv, u Ai mhzv, H & E
zu miS, AuP H mh miS E
uP k v G UPkQx.

V
k v ro = CE
I C I B
CE _ i]h k v SuS.

(iii) a ] P
VCE Smh v P
zx ICUS IBUS Ch a

] kQx. Ai
mh IB uSu iP AvPUPa
\x, J IB vUS IC v
SUPkQx.

VCE
IC
(mA)

IC
IB
I

( A)

B
a ] Pk
h 9.31 a ]
h 9.31 Pmhmkx. VCE P
P
Ex, H mhzv Hk
] zvS, AuP Ai mh zvS E uP,
mh UP G UPkQx.

IC

mh UP, = I B
V
158

CE

x E _, x Ai _ h AvP Ek
v, Su k v AvP mh
UPzu x.

9.10 i]h J \P \h (Transistor as a switch)


i]hP

+V CC
(switch)
\kP
_ma
kQ. h 9.32 x
RC
E Cn E NPN
i]h Aih uh
C
RB, Hh k
RB
B
uh
RC &
uhn 5V
CnUPmk. i]hUS
E
EhP xi P A i
AUPkQx. Emi A
AvPS x, E Ai
h 9.32 NPN i]h J
\v, USa \ Ax
\P \h
mh, RB P AiUSa
\Qx. Ai P mh, i]h umi
{US Psk \uS H RB RC vP u
\kQ. i]h, umi { Ah x Ax
CUS (ON) { ( mh {) EuP TkQx.
Ek SP, Aux 0V& Ex, Ai E \v
USa \ Av. G Ai mh
v. BP, i]h v (OFF) { EuPU
TkQx.

9.11 i]h UQ (Transistor amplifier)


i]h J UQa \k Au UP (amplification)
BS. Su \PP a] AvPUPa \ J _
UQ GUPk. UQ UQ sP, Ek
v, k v, mh UP,
zu UP S. | AUPmh
UQa _ Ek v AvPP, k v
PU SP, mh UP AvPP Czu sk.

9.11.1 \mk (Operating point)


J i]h ka ] , PkUPmh
mk uh RC AUPk zu VCE
159

vPUS C P
B
V
A(VCC, 0) B (0, VCC/RC)
0, CC
IB=100 A
R
C

VCE

IC
IB=80 A
Aa_P
x
u
Q
\kQ (h 9.33). A I (mA) IC (Q)
IB=60 A (I (Q))
C

Cnzx
IB=40 A
AB
mkU
Pk
IB=20 A
IB=0 A
kQx.
mka
A
] \mk
V CE (Q)
(V CC, 0)
Sv,
uSu
Ai
VCE (volt)
0
mh IB&UP
h 9.33 mkU Pk
Pmh,
mk

\mk
zu \a^P CUSi
mkU Pk mk Q, UQ \ mk
(operating point or quiescent point) Gk. \mk IB(Q)
Gx Ek Ai mhS. VCE(Q) IC(Q) G
\mk H E zu H
mh BS.
B

9.11.2 \k
J NPN i]h x E UQ Ai ha _
h 9.34& Pmhmkx. P VBB& kzv E&
Ai \vUS USa \UPmkx. UPh si a.c
Ek \P, i]h
AiUS
EUS
RC
Ch u kQx. RC Gx
k uh.
i]h
J
US \ RPsh
a.c
\P
UPkQx.
\zuh Ex Au
Su U B A
Ai mh OP
G, AuP B
A H mh
PQ G (Q&\mk )
SUPmk.
a.c
\P
zu
ukx,

C
B

VCC
E

+ V BB
h 9.34 i]h UQ
160

Ai EUS
A1
Ch

zu
k
uhu
Q
IC
Qx. Cu
(mA)
Ai mh (IB), OP
B1
x OA&US AvPzx
OA x OP US
SQx
(Ek
a.c
zuzv | Aa
O
_x).
Au
S
B P A
IB ( A)
PB&US SQx. sk OB
x OP US (Ek a.c
zuzv Gv Aa
_x)
AvPUQx.
C{P
Ek
\P
zuzv
J
_US
|hQx.
h 9.35 Ek mhzua
mhzv
\x k mh u Ai
Hk Cu H
mhzv kx h 9.35& Pmhmkx. H
mh IC & x PQ& x AA1US AvPzx, AA1& Cx
BB1-US Sx, sk BB1& Cx PQ US AvPUQx. BP, Ai
mhuv U B Hk Cu k, H
mhzv

B
AuQn
zuz
uUQx. Cx uh RCUS Ch zu mh
EUSQx. RCUS Ch zu mi AvP, mk
zuzv S HkzxQx. G, CE UQ J Ek
k zu[P Gx 180o Pmh mi
A.

9.12 i]h \P (Transistor biasing)


J i]h kzv, Ek \P USuS,
\mk Sv E, Q Gk \mk
Ek \P uh sk. \mk J
{nUPmh, Au { Gx hU Thx. \mk
, mka ] P umi PmiS AQ Ax
mk SvUS AQ Ch u, UPzvS \P
EUSUPk.
161

J i]h \mk a \P uukx,


\P Ak x, \ E zuzu {
{zxx, i]h \zu Gk.
i]h \zu k P.
(i) Ai \ (ii) E mh Ai \ (iii) H
mh Ai \ (iv) zu S \.
Cu Azx P Emkzuk uzx, _ \P
{uPR, \mk US zu Ai
mh kuS.
zu S \z uzx, Azxa \a
_P H mh, i]h mh UPzua
() \uQx. B, &Bx i]h { [PUS
~sqn EhuS. CuPP, \a _ \k, & \vu
sn x zuUPuS. zu S \a _
Czu zvQx.

9.12.1 zu S \ (Voltage divider bias)


Cx i]hUS \UP, {kzxuS
A kzuk J S. C R1 R2
uhP, zu zvS SUPP CnUPmk u (h
9.36) \UQ. E uh
+ VCC
RE {kzuz uQx. R2&USU
SUP Hk zu CUP,
Ai E \vUS USa
RC
R1
\UQx. Cx _ \P {P,
IC
Ai mhzu zx,
Au H mh Qx
RE&

AUPk {
kzu

UP.
V BE
x { [PUS P
~sqn
Ehu,
{
RE
Ex
H
mh R2
AvPUQx.
Cu
P,
IE
AvPUQx. Cx RE& SUP Hk
zu mh AvPUS. R2&
SUP Hk zu k, VBE
h 9.36 zu
VR & TkuUSa \. R2 u
S \
E
162

zu IC&a \uu, G VBE SQx. Cx IB& SUQx.


IB& SUPmh v, IC&, sk Au Es
vUSU Psk HxQx. G - Hk Gu J ,
\mk Gu Hkzxv.

9.13 J Pmh CE UQ (Single stage CE amplifier)


J Pmh CE UQ h 9.37 PmkQx. Cu _a
\u[P A \kP UPkQx.
(i) \a _ : uhP R1, R2 RE , \US
{kzxu _ EUSQ.
(ii) Ek uUQ (CE) : Cx \P i]h Aih
nUP kzukQx. Cx CnUPhmh, \P zv
uh, R2& US CnP (parallel) Ax \ zx k.
uUQ CE, a.c \P mk \ AvUS.
(iii) E uUQ (CE) : Cx UPmh a.c
\PUS, Su u EUP, RE-US CnP
CnUPmkx. Cx kzu, UPmh a.c.
\P, RE \x zu CUPzu Hkzv, k
zuzu .
(iv) n uUQ (C) : UPmh \P mka
\uzxh nuS Cx kzukQx. CuUQ a.c
\P mk \ AvUQx.

R1

RC

Vout

Cin

S
Vin
AC
weak
Eka
AC input
\P
signal

R2
RE

CE

h 9.37 J Pmh CE UQ
163

+
- VCC

\k
Su a.c Ek \P, i]h AiUS
AUPkx, ] A Ai mh Qx.
i]h \mi, AvP A a.c mh H
mk uh RC u RCUS SUP AvP
zu EQx. G, mi zu AvPQx.
BP AiUS AUPmh Su \P, H _
UPmh izv uQx.
UQ J zu UP Gx, Au UPmh
mk zuzvS, Emk zuzvS uP BS.

Avs Env mh AP
UQ J zu UP (AV) Ek
AvsPUS PshkQx. Avs X & Aa],
zu UP AV& Y Aa] Psk Pk kQx.
k Avs Env Pk h 9.38 E izv
A. Cvx PUSu P AvP AvsP
UP Su |kzu Avs Sv }sh |kUPzvS
UP Cu Pn.
Su Avs |kUPzv UQ UP, |kzu
Avs

UPzu

(AM),

1
2

h[PP

AUTi

Avs u mk Avs (fL) G, AvP Avs |kUPzv


UQ UP |kzu Avs UPzu (AM),
Su
Low
Gain frequency
Avs
UP
region
|kUP
AM
AM

|kzu
Avs
Mid frequency
region
|kUP

High frequency
AvP
region
Avs

|kUP

mh
BW
AP
fL

Frequency

fU

Avs

h 9.38 Avs Env Pk


164

1
2

h[PP AUTi Avs E mk Avs (fU) G


UPkQx.
mh AP (bandwidth) Gx, u mk E mk
AvsPUS Chmh Avs Ch G UP
kQx.

BW = fU fL

9.14 Pmh UQP (Multistage amplifiers)


J UQ \PUP, |h
xuP CUPx. G x A UPmh \PP
, Csk Ax AuS mh UQP uhn
kzukQ. u Pmhzv k Akzu PmhzvS EhP
A UQP nUPkQ. CP UQP
CnUPku, Pmh[P uhn (cascading) G.
UQP uh \ CnUPkx AzuS
zu
UPx,
uzu
UQP,
zu
UP[P UPz uPUSa \S.
J Pmhzv (stage) mk P, Akzu Pmhzv
Emkh, xP |iP CnUPkv. C Pmh[P
CnUP, zu na _ ukQx. Cu
n _ J Pmhzv mi E d.c. TP Akzu
Pmhzv EmiS \ AvUPU Thx. C Csh
Pmhzv \ { (Biasing) vUPmkk. , J Pmhzvx
Akzu PmhzvS \P \x Hk zu C SP
CUP sk. xP, kzuk P Cn
\u[P.
(i) uh & uUQ (RC) n
(ii) n (transformer coupling)
(iii) |n (direct compliling)
RC n A, J uh uUQ C, UP uh
R&U Pskx. uUQ C, d.c \PPUS vu _
\k , a.c \PPUS J SUSzuhP (short circuit)
\kQx. n A, x, a.c \PP
mkUS ku Ev \Q Au |zv d.c
\PPx PUQx. d.c \PP UPh, ]u

G n |n BS.
165

9.15 UQP mh
J UQ ]P, AUQa _, i]h
sP, mh UP, Ek v, k
v x \vUQx. CsP
i]h u zx h. EUPk uzu
zx J P i]hP sP kQ.
i]hP \mi u, zuPu
P (Gvh) GvPuPP mh kzukQx.
J UQ mix J Sv Gkzx Au Emkh
\zxu mh Gk. mhzv Ek \P A
S, Amh GvS Ax GvUP mh G,
mhzv Ek \P A AvPUS Amh
|US Ax |UP mh G AUPk.

9.15.1 mh UQ uzx
\un UQ J, Aux mh UQ J
k Ek zu[P Vo Vi GP.
UQ zu UP A G
A=

Vo
Vi

UP A Gx vu UP G Tk.
mhzv x PP Pmhhzv Euh
USu h 9.39 PmkQx. mh UQx UQ
mha _ G C PU Pshx. mha _
\v EPU (uhUQ, ysi, uUQ)
Pskx. mk zuzv J ] Svx, ( GP)

Vi

Vi

Vo

Feedback
mha
_
network

h 9.39 mh UQ
166

V o

mha _ P EmiS \zukQx. mh


AUPkx
mk
zu
V0
GP.
G,
mhzvS Ek zu Vi Bx
Vi = Vi + V0

...(1)

|mhzvS, |USP,
GvUSP GkzxU PkQx.

GvmhzvS

|mhzvS Ek zu (Vi+ V0) GS.


A h[S
UPkx,
Czu,
UQ
mhzvS mk zux A (Vi + V0) GQx.

V = A (Vi + V )

...(2)

V (1 A) = AVi

...(3)

mh Ex,UQ zu UP
Af =

V o
A
=
Vi
1 A

...(4)

|1 A| < 1, Af > A . Gu, |mh, UQ


UPzu AvPUPa \Qx.
Gv mhzvS, mh BS.

Af =

A
A
=
1 ( A )
1 + A

|1+ A| > 1, Af < A Gu Gvmh, UQ


UPzuU SUQx.
A Gu UP G, & mhz uP G
AUP.

9.15.2 Gv mhzv |P
RPsh Gv mhzv |P BS.
1. E { {zumh UP
2. Ca\ A S
3. AvPUPmh mh AP
4. AvPUPmh Ek v, SUPmh k
v
5. Su S

167

9.16 i]h AP
A Gx d.c zvx B Smh
Pzv Q hP J GUm _S. k
zuzu zx AP, \ i AP, \
i AP G CPP UPkQ. J
A k zu, Pzua \x \ Aa \P
A Ax, \ i A Gk. A J
\x, \P \ i Aizu uUS,
Ax \ i A Gk. GkzxUPmk & v (multi
vibrator). AP Avs |kUPzu zx \n
Avs (AF) i Avs (RF) AP G
CPP UPkQ.
\ i AP, RUPsh PP Hu JP
CUP.
(i) LC AP (LC oscillators)
(ii) RC AP (RC oscillators)
(iii) iP AP (Crystal oscillators)

9.16.1 A JP P\ {u (Barkhausen
condition)

|UP mh Psh UQ UP
Af =

A
, Cv A Gx mh Cux UQ
1 A

UP Gs, Gx mhz uP A Gx UP (loop


gain) BS.
A = 1 G x Af BS. Cu , Ek zu
_ {, k zu kQx. Aux UQ
AP Qx. A { {zxuS u UQ
{u A = 1 BS. Cu {u x, (i) UP
A = 1 (ii) mh a _ zu Pmh a] 0o Ax
2- h[SPS.

CP APUP P\ {uP BS.

9.16.2 C\ LC _ \ AP EUP
(Generation of sinusoidal waves by tuned LC circuit)

\ i AP, Avs wUS ,


{{zx G C UQ PU Psk. J C\
168

LC

_, Avs wUS kzukQx.


zu zxh Ti J i]h UQ AP
{{zu kQx. Cu UQx Avs wUS
C Dk \ x A UP Gs PsiUP
sk. , |mhzvS u Pmh zu EUP
sk.
uUS v C Psh uUQ, ysh Gs L Psh
ysi Csk UP Cn CnUPk Aa_ A
_U SUQx.
h 9.40a- Pmhmkx , P mh
uUQ C-x ysi L-h CnUPmkuPU Px.
Ahu uUQ { L-h CnUPkx
UP \x mhzu L - \zxQx.
yshmh Pu, h 9.40b Pmhmkx AQx.
BP uUQ uUPmh {, ysih
uhh Pu BP kQx.
uUQ x UP \mhh, yshmh
Pu ]uz uh[Q mhzu Au v\ AQx.
uUQ ux Gv h (Opposite polarity) hQx
(h 9.40c). C{P Puzxh uhh Bx,
{P kQx. Cu B uUQ \UPkQx.
uUQ P Ahuh, Ax Gv v\
UP \z x[Q, L x Gv v\ sk Puzu
EUSQx. (h 9.40d) sk Pu ]u uUQ
Aha \x, _ u uhUP {USz vQx.
(h 9.40e) Cu UP {PP, A
mhzu Au Hk P LC _
uUQ. J LC _ B \USx Ax "umia _'

+ +

C- -

(a)

- C

(b)

+ +

(c)

h 9.40 C\ LC _
169

(d)

+ +

- -

(e)

GUPk. AP Avs
f =

1
2 LC BS.

LC _, Gu J B C C AP P
uhQ. |h K uhx Gx LC
_h uh Psk Cu, J Aa _ x,
]u B C HkQx. G AP a_ iiP
Sz uh[Q Azx B CUPmk _Qx. G, _
uh AP EUPkQ. (h 9.41a) I Gx _
mhzuU SUS.
I

I
+ I
max

+ I
max

- I
max
- I
max

(b) uh AP

(a) uh AP

h 9.41 AP
uh AP EUP, B CUPk uzv,
_US B uh sk. uk B LC _ Hkzuk
APh Jzu Pmhzv A sk. AUPk B
Avsnx, umia _ AP AvsqUSa \P
A sk. Cu {uP zv \mh, Ca_ uhx
uh AP EUS (h 9.41b).

9.16.3 J LC A Cu SvP
.J A Pmh hzu h 9.42 PmkQx. Au
Cu SvP (i) umia _ (ii) .UQ (iii) mha _
(i) umia _ : Cx uUQ Ch UP Cn Cnx
J ysia _ LU Pskx. Ca_ AP Avs,
170

ysi ysh Gsn,


uUQ uUSz v
\ux.

Amplifier
UQ

k
Output

(ii)

UQ : i]h
UQ,
Pzvx
d.c
v , umia _US
AuPP
a.c
vP
Qx.

mha
Feedback
_
network

h 9.42 A
Pmh h

(iii) mha _ : Cx |
mhzu AUQx. Aux, Cua _, mk B J
Sv uSu Pmhzv LC _US Azx, APz {{zxQx.

9.16.4 LC A
J i]h, Auh, umi mha _P P
CnUPmh, u Avso, uh APz
uzx LC AP \k. GUm _P
kzuhUTi LC AP E. C Pm
A \k uzx CSv PkUPmkx.

Pm A

+V CC

(Colpitts Oscillator)

Pm A
_ h h 9.43
Pmhmkx.
uh
R1,R2
RE G
_US x \
(bias) AUQ. Avs
nz wUS _x,
uUQP C1, C2
ysi L&IU Psk Cn
(UP) Jzv\a _S. C1
C2&UQh \v,
uh CnUPmkx.
C4 G uUQ d.c&
ukzx, Hx umia
_US a.c u Hkzx
Qx. uh AP
Hkzuz u |UP

RC

R1

C4

C3

R2
RE
1

C1

CE

C2

h 9.43 Pm A
171

mhzu, C1 US SUP zu AUQx.

\k
H zuzv \ CnUPmhh umia _
{
mh
EQ,
uh
^\
AP
EUPkQ. C1-US SUP AP, Ai E
\vUS AUPmk, H _ UPmh iPz uQ.
Gu J Pnzv, 1&Bx, 3&a \x, |zuzv
Au, 2&Bx, 3&a \x, Gv zuzv
AQx. H 3&Bx uh CnUPmkx. G
P 1&, 2& 180o Pmh mi AQ. , UQ 180o
Pmh zu EUSu, zu Pmh 360o BS. Aux,
umia _US AUPk B , APh Jzu Pmhzv
A = 1G Au _ AP uhx { {zukQ.
_ AP Avs, f =

1
2 LC

C1C 2

Cv C = C + C BS.
1
2

1
f = 2

(C1 + C2 )
LC1C 2

9.17 uSa _ (Integrated circuit)


uSa _ Gx (IC) J ]UP iP hzv x
\v (hk i]h) \v
(uhUQ, uUQ) EP, A CnP
PshuS. uzu GUm PPU Psk Hkzuk
_UPU Pmi uSa _US RUPsh |P Esk.
(i) PPa ] E A
(ii) Su v ~P
(iii) |Pz u
(iv)
(v) PPa ] Gh
(vi) Gv \v (replacement)

172

uSa _P PP kQ. Cu C
P CUP uSa _ (Digital IC) |US uSa _*
(Linear IC) BS. C IC u ~m[P J iPz
uSa _ (monolithic IC) CUP (Hybrid) uSa _ G
UPkQx.
JiP uSa _ \v UP PP, \ v
EP AQh E CnP Ja ]UP
izv AUPmk. J v mh[P AvP
A x, Cu J iPa _P kQ. Cu
\ Sxh |Pzu UPuP AQx. CU Pa
(Hybrid) _ [P Aizuzv uzu EP UPmk
AQh CnP EP CnPP Ax
PPP AUPmiUS.
]P (chips) A 40 40 mils (J mil Gx 0.001 inch)
u 300 3000 mils _ Piz u zx A. J
] EPx BUPnUP EP G
sk J ] EUP i. uSa _P Cmh E
Pmh (Dual in line package, DIP) QhUQ.

9.18 CUP GUm (Digital electronics)


PoP (computers) CUP[PU (digits) Psk
PnURkP \ imh (digital) G \
Ex. u .CUP GUm, PoPUS mk
kzumhx. B, ux CUP ~mx u] ,
h zxU PP, P BP [P |hzxu
(Navigation) q AP xP kQx.
CUP GUm C {P mk Psh _P,
AP Pshx. C zu mh[P SUPkQ.
mh mh[P, vx (A) k (CUS) \ AP
_UP Cu C {PU SkQ.

uh \PP (Analog signal)


\P mh Ax zuzv i uha]P,
Pzu zx Q zu mhP (\
CUP ICs : CUP \PPa \kzx uSa _P CUP ICs
Gk.
|US ICs : uh \PPa \kzx uSa _P |US
ICs Gk.
173

A) Ex. Cua \PP uha]


Ax uh \PP GQ. h
9.44
uh
\P
v
PkUPmkx.

V
t

CUPa \P U mh[P
(Digital signal and logic levels)

h 9.44 uh
h 9.45 J CUPa \P (xi)
\P
Pmhmkx. Cx E (High)
u (Low) G C mh[PU Pskx. Gx
AvP |zu Pshu Au
5V
High (E) G Pv U 1 G
SkQ. u (Low)
G Pumk
U 0 G
0V
ShkQx.
C
AvP
h 9.45 CUPa \P
|zu zu { U 1
G kzx |US U A BS. hzv zu
5V U 1&, 0V U 0& SUQx.
Gv U A, C mh mh[P Gx AvP Gvu
Pshu Au U 1 G U 0 G T. |
Gv U Csk CUP A kQ. B U
PmkP | U AvP kQx. G | | P U
mk U PmkP UP kQ.

9.18.1 U PmkP (Logic gates)


CUPa \PP \kuS k _P U PmkP
Gk. C C C{ (Binary) Psh. Pm Gx
J Ax AuS mh EkPUS J J k Psh
CUPa _S. J ] Smh EkPUS mk k
QhUSiP U PmkP AQ. C AihPU
Psk CUPa _ AP EUPkQ. 0 1 G
GsP J U _ Csk {P GkzxUPmk. C {P
CUS (on) {zx (off) Ax E (High) u (Low)
Ax \ (true) u (false) G Sh.

9.18.2 mh P[PU Psh Aih U PmkP (The


basic logic gates using discrete components)
CUP A EUS Aih EP OR, AND
NOT PmkP BS. C Aih U PmkP G
174

AUPkQ. U _ G P EkP
kP J Amhn (table) PmhkQ. Cx Es
Amhn Gk (Truth table). Aih PmkP \kP,
_h[Ph Es Amhnh R UPkQ.
(i) OR Pm
OR Pm Gx Csk Ax AuS mh EkP J
mh Pshx. Cu EkP Hu J Ax Azx
EkP E (High) { Cu mk k E
(High) { A. G Cx OR Pm G AUPkQx. C
EkP Psh OR Pmi U Sk h 9.46a
PkUPmkx.
OR Pmi \k y = A+B (+ S OR G iUP

sk).
A
A

EkP
Inputs

Output
k
Y= A+B

+
-

Output
k

(a) U Sk

(b) _

h 9.46 OR Pm
_Pa \k OR Pm h 9.46b PkUPmkx.
C[S
\P
Csk
JUP
CnP
(Parallel)
AUPmk. Csk \P hk x Ax Hu
J hkx US G.

hk OR Pm
h 9.47& hkPU Psk EUPmh C Ek
Psh OR Pmi G _ PkUPmkx. Cua _ \k
R UPmkx.
| (i) A = 0 B = 0
A B _{ Au k zu SP
(u) (low) A. H hkP PhzvPa \h.

| (ii) A = 0, B = 1
175

Amhn 9.1
OR PmiP Es Amhn

D1
+
A -

Y=A+B

RL
+
B -

D2

h 9.47 hkP
kzumh OR Pm

EkP
Inputs

k
Output

Y=A+B

A S (low) B E (high) G {, hk D2 USa


\ Au RL mh , k E
(High) G A.

| (iii) A = 1 B = 0.
A E (High) B S (Low) G {, hk D1 PhzvPa
\k. G k E (High) G A.

| (iv) A = 1, B = 1
A B Csk E (High) G {, hkP D1, D2
Csk PhzvP, k E (High) BP A. G Y
E (High) BP A. OR Pmi \ J Es Amhn
(Amhn 9.1) Pmhmkx.

(ii) AND Pm
AND Pm Gx Csk Ax AuS mh EkP J
mh Pshx BS. G EkP E (High) G
{ mk k E (High) BP A. CuU Pnzu
A
A

EkP
Inputs

Output
k
Y= AB

B
+
-

(a) U Sk

L
Output
k

(b) _

h 9.48 AND Pm
176

Cx AND Pm G AUPkQx. C Ek AND Pmi U Sk


h 9.48a& Pmhmkx.
AND Pmi \k y = A.B

(. Gu AND G iUP sk)

_Pa
\k
AND
Pmi
h
9.48b-
PkUPmkx. C[S \P Csk uh Cn (series)
E. A B Csk hmh mk US G.
k E (High) BP A.

hk AND Pm
h 9.49& hk Psk EUPmh C Ek Psh
AND Pmi G _ PkUPmkx. Cua _ \k R
UPkQx.
| (i) A = 0, B = 0
A B Csk _ { Cu Csk hkP
USa \ A PhzvP \k. BP
k _ v . H, PkUPk zu VCC
Bx RL &US Ch u. G Y = 0

| (ii) A = 0 B = 1
A = 0 B E (High) G { hk D1 USa
\, hk D2 USa \ A. hk D1
USa \ PnP PhzvPa \k. G k, Y=0.

| (iii) A = 1, B = 0
Cu { hk D2 PhzvPa \k. G k _
v . G Y = 0.
V CC
+5V

D1
A

Amhn 9.2 AND PmiP


Es Amhn
EkP
Inputs

RL
Y=A.B

B
D2

h 9.49 hkP
kzumh AND Pm
177

k
Output

Y=AB

| (iv) A = 1 B = 1
Cu { Csk hkP Phzux. D1 D2 Csk
v (OFF) { Eu RL mh x. k,
PkUPmh zuzvSa \P A. G Y = 1.
EkP A B AvPP Ex mk k AvPP
Cu A. AND Pm \kP uS Amhn 9.2
Pmhmkx.
(iii) NOT Pm (mi) (Inverter)
NOT PmiS J Ek J k mk Esk. Cx

A AUPh Pn, Cu k Emi {


(complement) BS. Cu mi G T. h 9.50a NOT
Pmi Sk PkUPmkx.

_
Y= A

Ek
Input

+
-

k
Output

L
A

Output
k

NOT Pmi \k Y = A

(a) U Sk

(b) _

h 9.50 NOT Pm
_Pa \k NOT Pmi h 9.50b PkUPmkx.
\ A hkx Ek EP (High) A. US Gx.
Aux k S (low) G A. Ek S G, k
E G A.
h 9.51 Pmhmk CE { i]h C[S NOT PmhP
kQx. Ek A, E (High) { E x i]h
umk { Ah. G k Y SP A. Ek A,
S (low) { E x i]h \hx. G k
Y, E (high) { Ah. Ek EP Ex k
SP A. NOT PmiP \
Amhn 9.3 PkUPmkx.

178

Amhn 9.3
RC

_
Y=A

RB

NOT PmiP Es

Amhn
Ek
k
Input
Output

+
- VCC

Y=A

h 9.51 NOT PmhP k


i]h

9.18.3 uzu OR Pm (EXOR Pm)


uzu OR Pmi U Sk h 9.52a& Pmhmkx.
A
S
A

Inputs
EkP
B

Output
k
Y= A
_ +_B
= AB+AB

+
-

L
Output
k

(b) _
(a) U Sk
h 9.52 uzu OR Pm
EXOR PmiP \k
Y = A B = AB+A B

EkP,
J
{P
(complement) A x
mk OR Pmi k 1 G A.
CuSa
\
\a_
h 9.52b& PkUPmkx.

Amhn 9.4
EXOR Pmi Es
Amhn
Inputs
EkP

k
Output

Y=AB

\P A B uP UP
Ga \ B A B Csk
\x Ga \x.

EXOR Pmi \ Amhn

9.4 PkUPmkx.
179

9.18.4 NAND Pm
Cx J NOT-AND Pm BS. J AND Pmi mi J NOT
Pmh Cnu NAND Pm EshS (h 9.53a).
NAND Pmi U Sk h 9.53--b Pmhmkx.
NAND Pmi \miP \k Y = AB
A

A
k

EkP

Y = AB

__
Y=AB

EkP

(a) AND Pmhz uhx NOT Pm

(b) U Sk

h 9.53 NAND Pm
NAND Pmi \k AND

Pmi \mi vu
BS. Csk EkP 1 G
{ Cvu mk
NAND Pmi k QhUS.
Aux A Ax B Hu
J Ax Csk 0 G
Au mk k 1
QhUS. NAND Pmi \k
Amhn
9.5&
PkUP
mkx.

9.18.5 NOR Pm

Amhn 9.5 NAND


PmiP Es
Amhn
EkP
A

k
Output
Y = AB

Cx NOT-OR Pm BS. J OR Pmkh mi mi


Cnu. NOR Pm kQx (h 9.54a).
NOR Pmi U Sk h 9.54b PkUPmkx.
A

EkP
B

Y
k

Y = A+B

___
Y=A+B

EkP
B

(a) OR Iz uhx NOT Pm

k
(b) U Sk

h. 9.54 NOR Pm
NOR Pmi \k y = A + B
NOR Pmi \k OR Pmi \mi vu BS. J
NOR Pmi k, Au EkP 0 G Cu mk Hk.
180

Aux J NOR Pmi Azx


EkP SP (Low) Cu
mk k E (High) G
A. NOR PmiP \
Amhn 9.6 Pmhmkx.

Amhn 9.6 NOR


Pmi Es
Amhn
Output
k
EkP
A

Y = A+B

Morgans Theorems)

j&P Csk u[P


NOR NAND PmkP \k
P UP P UQuP
AQ. NOR Pmi

9.18.6 j&P u[P (De-

\kQ A + B {P A . B {P Sa \. NAND Pm
\kQ A.B {P A + B US \ G u[P A.

u u
Tku { (complement) {P UPUSa \P
A. A B G EkP G A + B = A . B

Csh u
UP {x (complement) {P TkuUSa
\S. A B Gx EkP G A . B = A + B .
Csk PU Psk u[P {UPkQ. Au
iP Es Amhn 9.7 PkUPmk.

Amhn 9.7 j&P u[P {US Amhn


A

A.B

A +B

A+B

A B

181

9.18.7 x PmkPP NAND NOR PmkP (NAND and

NOR as universal gates)

Amhn 9.8 NAND / NOR PmkP kzxu


U
\

Sk

NOT

OR

AND

A
B

_
Y=A

NAND PmkP mk

NOR PmkP mk

kzx _P

kzx _P

_
Y=A

A
Y=A+B

Y=AB

_
Y=A

A
Y=A+B

Y=A+B

A
B

Y=A B

Y=A B
B

NAND NOR PmkP x PmkP G AUPhU Pn,


C Aih U \kP \U Ti. NAND
NOR PmkP kzv Aih U PmkP B NOT, OR
AND AUPku Amhn 9.8 A.

9.18.8 A (Boolean Algebra)


uUP CPouzu (algebra of logic) (George Boole)
G EUQu, A A G
[PkQx.
Cx,
PoU
PPa
\kzu
kzukQx.
Cu
A
vP
G.
P Pa \. ]UP U \kP
G wUP Cu A kQx.

A vP u[P
Aih A vPU Psk u
\kP i.

Aih vP.
vP (Commutative laws)
A + B = B + A
AB = BA
182

\ vP (Associative laws)
A + (B + C) = (A + B) + C
A (BC) = (AB) C

[Rmk v (Distributive law)


A (B+C) = AB + AC

v \kP

]z u[P (Special theorems)

A + 0 = A

A + AB = A

A + 1 = 1

(A + B) (A + C) = A + BC

A.0 = 0

A (A + B) = A

A.1 = A

A + AB = A + B

A + A = A

A ( A + B) = AB

A + A = 1
A.A = A

(A + B) ( A + C) = AC + A B

A .A = 0

AB + A C = (A + C) ( A + B)

A = A

J PU (variables) Psh u[P {USx


Au PUS EPu G vP Pu sk. GkzxUPmhP
A + 0 = A G uzu GkzxUP.
A = 0 G 0 + 0 = 0 = A

A = 1 G 1 + 0 = 1 = A
G, u {UPmhx.
JUS mh P (variable) Psh u[P {US
x AuP Es Amhn (Truth table) Guh sk.
GkzxUPmhP A + AB = A G uzv {US Es Amhn
Amhn 9.9 PkUPmkx.

Amhn 9.9 A + AB = A G uzu {US


Es Amhn
A

AB

A + AB

183

Amhn 9.9 A B G Csk PUS 4 P


TmhP CuU Pn. J Tmh A
v A+AB v J vP AQx. Cu u
{UPkQx.

9.18.9 \mi GUP


v u[PU Psk \mh
US x, PU S PmkPU Psk UTi
G \mi i.
A \mhU Psk J CUPa _ G
GUPkQx Gu J GkzxUPmi R Pn.
h 9.55i PkUPmh _ E C OR PmkP
kP A + B A + B. C AND PmiS EhP
AUPkQ. _ k Y = ( A + B) (A + B).
A

_
A

_
A+B

_
Y=(A+B)(A+B)
A+B

h 9.55 \mi GUP


Cx [Rmk v C kzv Gu.
( A + B) (A + B) = A A + A B + BA + BB
= A B + AB + B

( A A = 0 BB = B)

= B ( A +A+1) = B

( A +A+1 = 1)

_ k B Gu |US U _ uhx.

9.19 \mk UQ (Operational amplifier OP-AMP)


|USz uSa _P GUm \kP
kQ. C \vz uh, zx GUm, PUPU
Pmkk xP kQ. P UQ |US
IC P J \mk UQ (OP-AMP) BS.
OP-AMP Gx dc ac EkP En UP Ti
J vs {U (solid state) PS. OP-AMP C EkP
(k EkP) J J h Eh UQS. OP-AMP
184

Gx 20
i]hP
11
uhUQP
J
uUQ Pshx. CuS | Gv v (Cmh
v) Cn u. Cu PnP, k zux
u zx | Gv G A.
OP-AMP P UQ sP (i) Ek v P AvP
Ax iPU Th A. Ei PU Su
mh ES. (ii) UP P AvP (Gain) (iii) k
v PU S Ax _. Cu UQx, PPh
CnUPkP, Gv xu Hku, UQ
k vhx.
OP-AMP G AUPku Pn, uh Po
Tmh, Pzu, UP, Szu, uPP, PP
PnURkPa \uPP AUPmh AS. Cx, OP-AMP
uh Po \kP A P[Pz
uUPUTi AiUQ _P (timing circuits)
kQx.

9.19.1 \mk UQ _U Sk F]
(PIN) k A
h 9.56 OP-AMP UP UPnU Sk Pmhmkx. Cx
C Ek P J k Pshx. Gv S
Psh mk Ek (Inverting input) G |S Psh
mh Ek (non-inverting input) G ShkQ. Cu
Ek P UPnzv Ai Sv E. k
UPnzv Sv Pmhmkx.
positive voltage
supply terminal
|zu
\zx

Inverting
mk
input

Ek

k
terminal
Output

Non-Inverting
mh
input

+
negative \zx
voltage supply
Gv zu

Ek

terminal

_{ \ P

h 9.56 OP-AMP Sk
185

AvP k P IC 741, DIP A QhUQx.


Cmh E Pmh E (dual-in-package) IC 741& F] (PIN)
A z u h 9.57 PkUPmkx.
mkU

Notch
S

mkU
S
Notch

zw
vie

p
Tou

8&F]
8-pin DIP
PIN

_{

Offset
Null
Inverting
input
mk
Ek

Top
z
View
u

mh
Non-inverting
input
Ek
-VCC

Cn
No connection
C
VCC

k
Output
_{
Offset Null

h 9.57 OP-AMP k A
mkUSUS (Notch) Chxzv Ex F] Gs 1 BS.
Gs 2 Pshx Jzu Pmhzv mk Ek Gs 3 Gx
mh Ek . F] Gs 6 Gx k . mk EiS
AUPk dc zu Ax a.c \P 180o Pmh mkh
hP A. mh EiS AUPk dc zu
Ax ac \P, i Jzu Pmhzv A. F] GsP 7 4
v Cn P. 1 5 _{ \\
AP BS. Ek P \ \ { uPP
\ zu PkUPkx k zuzu _P
AUP Cua _{ AP \kQ. F] Gs 8 US Gu
Cn C.
9.19.2 Aih OP-AMP _P
Cu Sv Aih OP-AMP _P Aux, (i) mk
(ii) mh UQP PPP USuP AQx.
(i) mk UQ (The inverting amplifier)
Aih OP-AMP&I kzv AUPk mk UQ
h 9.58 Pmhmkx.
Ek zu VE, Ek uhUQ RE P mk
EkUSU PkUPkQx. mh Ek un x.
mh uhUQ Rf , miS mk EiS Ch
CnUPmkx.
186

virtual

Rf

zu
ground

If

RE
in
Vin
E

IE
in

V out

h 9.58 mk UQ
OP-AMP- Ek v P AvP Gku, Ek

E|UQ Ax |UQ mh \ Cx.


G, mh IE, uh Rf sk. Cu mh
mh If G ShkQx. RE Rf uhn
Au IE = If BP A. mk mh EkUS
Ch zu 0V&USa \P si A] HkQx. G,
mk Ek 0 volt BP A. CUPnzu mk Ek,
zu (virtual ground) AhuuPU PukQx. k
zu V Bx Rf P QhUQx.
Au RUPsh Sh.
V
If = R
f
IE = If

Gu,

VE
V
=
RE
Rf
\mh AUSx
Rf
V
=
GU QhUS.
VE
RE
mk UQ zu UP

Av =

R f
RE

Rf REUS Ch uP, UQ UPS.


CvP, PnUQhk k zu
187

V =

R f
RE

VE

k zu Ek zuzxh Pmh mi
AQx.

(ii) mh UQ (The non-inverting amplifier)


Aih OP-AMP&I kzv AUPk mh UQ,
h 9.59Pmhmkx. Ek \P VE, mh Ek US
AUPkQx. mk Ekh CnUPmk uhUQ RE
una \mkx. mh uhUQ Rf iS,
mk EiS Ch CnUPmkx.
Rf

If

Rin
E

Ii

V
out

VinE
h 9.59 mh UQ
mk EiSz u mh zuzu (VA)
EUSuPP uhUQP Rf RE& J uhz uP
HkzxQ. mh zu (VA) uhUQ
RE US SUP EQx. mk Ei zu mh
Ei zu \P Au (zu UPzvP)
VE = VA.
VA = VE, Gu UQ UP

Av =

V
VA

B VA v, RE Rf US Ch E uhz uP
zx Qhu
VA =

(Ax)

RE
V
R f + RE

V R f + RE
=
VA
RE
188

Rf
V
=1+
VA
RE
Av = 1 +

Rf
RE
V

CvP k zu

Rf

1 +
RE

VE

PnUQhkQx. Ek k zu[P J Pmhzv


AuU Pn.

9.19.3 Tmk UQ (Summing amplifier)


Tmk UQ k zu, Ek zu[P
S Tmkz uPUSa \S.
Csk Ek zu[PU TmkuS k mk
UQ h 9.60 Pmhmkx.

i1

R1

i2

R2

Rf

v1
v2

If

V
0ut

h 9.60 Tmk UQ
v1 v2 G C Ek zu[P, uhUQP R1
R2 UQ Tmk \vUS (P) AUPkQ. Rf Gx
mh uhUQ BS. P G .
i1 + i2 = if
P G zu 0 Gu

v
v1 v 2
+
=
R1 R2
Rf

BP, k zu
189

v =

Rf
Rf

v1 +
v2

R2
R1

R1 = R2 = Rf = R, G v = (v1 + v2)

G, k zu, Ek zu[P TkuUSa


\S. Cua _ Tmk UQPa \kQx. Gv
Sx OP-AMP mk kzukQx GuU
SUQx.

9.19.4 mk UQ (Difference amplifier)


R4
R3
v2

V
V

v1

R1

v0

R2

h 9.61 mk UQ
mk UQ h 9.61 Pmhmkx. xu
uzxzu kzv k kQx. v1 PnP mk Hk
k zu v01 PnUQhh, v2 uhmhuPU Px.
R2
V+ = R + R v1
1
2
R3 + R4 R2
R + R v1
= R
3
2

1
Cx v1 uhmhuPU Px. v2 mk Hk
k zu V02

v01=

vO2 =

R3 + R 4 +
V
R3

R4
v2
R3

G, C EkP E x, k
vo = v01 + v02
R 3 + R4 R2
R4
R + R v1 R v 2
= R
3
3
2

190

R1 = R2 = R3 = R4 = R G
vo = v1 v2 BS.

Azx uhUQP \P Ax, zu


mk UQ, zuU PPa (Voltage subtractor)
\k.
9.20 GUm Ak PP (Electronic measuring
instruments)
J GUm _ \v UP EP
\v EP \P, |Pz uh E G
\u \u S CnP PkUPh nk. GUm
_P \v \uhkx A]Qx. GUm
Ak PP CuS kQ. mh, uh,
zu, uUSzv Aku \vzx
AkQx. ] GUm Ak PP PzukU Pv
A|UQ, mh (multimeter) A
\ u C Sv vUPkQ.
9.20.1 PzukU Pv A|UQ (Cathode Ray oscilloscope CRO)
Cx P GUm PS. Gu J GUm
_ E zu Avs AP
|iP UPU Ti J AS. PzukU PvP zu
Puzu Ph G s Aih C \k
Q. , JzuP Jv HkzxQ (h 9.62).
Fluorescent
Jv
screen

Y2
X2

K G

A1

A2
Y1

X1

h 9.62 PzukU Pv A|UQ


191

CRO PU Pshx. (i) GUm xUQ (Electron


Gun) (ii) US A (iii) J v (Fluorescent screen) C,

x hUPmk PsniU S UPmk.

(i) GUm xUQ


Cu GUm xUQ J Pzuk K, .J Pmkkzx Qk
(grid) G A1, A2 G C BkPU Pskx. |iP
kzuhu Pzuk K& Cx GUmP E i
Qk G- E x P Bh |UQ Q.
Pzuh zx G- Gv zu PkUPmku
GUmP PzuP (Bunch) Cnx, GUm PP G
. Cu GUm PP BkP A1, A2- kUPmk
J v Q.
(ii) US A (Deflection system)
C \iz uPkP X1, X2 Y1, Y2 Euh v |UQa
\ PsiUS GUm PP Pha \ i.
Cuz uPkP Bk A2S Akzx AUPmk. Y1, Y2 uPkP
Y-uPkP G X1, X2 uPkP X-uPkP G AUQ. GUm
PP \Q v\US QhzuP Y-uPkP \[SzuP XuPkP AUPmk.
J DC zuzu Y-uPkPUS Au GUm
PP \[Szxz v\ v i. Au zuzu
X-uPkPUS Au GUm PP Qhzu v\
v.
(iii) Jv (Fluorescent screen)
PsniU Sx J a_ Psh \mkx.
Px v x kx J EuU Pn.
v x GUmP, PsniU S Em \mk
Qm P sk vzu (Power supply) uhQ.
Cua_ JP P Bk A2 Eh CnUPmkx.

P
d.c zu[P Au C R O kQx.
(ii) v\ zu[P A i[P A C R O
kQx.
(iii) a.c. zuzv AvsnU PnUQh C R O kQx.
(i) a.c

(iv) Cu (cardiology) zxzv Cuzv xi A


CRO

kQx.
192

9.20.2 mh (Multi meter)


mh Gx zu. mh, uh
AUP Eu J GUm PS. Cu AVO mh
(ampere, voltage, ohm) G T. mh E _ h
9.63& Pmhmkx. Cx J C[S _ PmhU
Pskx. uSu _P Pmhh Cnu
zu, mh uh AUP i. P
mh uh, G (= 100 ) Gx 1 mA mhzvS
A P UPzuU PmkuPU P.
R1

R3

R 4/
10A
R3

1A
R2

S1
100mA

300V
30V
10V
100mV

R 1/
10mA

1K
10K

R5
R6

Bt
Bt

D
DC

AC

S2

h 9.63 mh
+

a. m mhP kzxu
uSu v Psh Euh uhn
Cnu C[S _ P mh, m mhP Qx
Gu A. P mhh 900 uh uhn
Cnu m mh a_ 103 1000 = 1 V BQx. 9900
uh uhn Cnu Au m mhU
Psk 10 V zuzu AUP i. CP
a_P Ah, vP Psh E uhP
\ P mhh CnUPkQ.

b. AmhP kzxu
uSu vh S uhP CnzuhP (shunt)
Cnzu P mh AmhP Qx Gu A.
193

GkzxUPmhP, 100/999 Ax HUS 0.1 uh


CnzuhP Au P mh 0.1 A a] AUPU Ti
AmhP, 100/9999 Ax HUS 0.01 uh
CnzuhP Au 10A a_ AUPU Ti
AmhP . C a_ Amh AUP.

c. K mhP kzxu
uSu uh J Pzxh uhn Cnu
P mh K mhP AUP i
(h 9.64) 1V Pzuz uhn Cnzx, Pmh
uh \zx _ zu uh 1000 G,
Pmh AP UPzuU Pmk.

uh Ah
uh
AP
1mA
mhzvS |P 0 G Ak
SUPmiUS.

T1

T2

T1 T2 PUQh

uu uh CnUPk x,
Pmh

G
Bt
mh 0.5 mA BPU Su
uu uh 1000 BS. G h 9.64 uh Ah
0.5 mA AkUS |P 1 k G SUPmiUS. Cu T1
T2-US Ch uu uh CnUPmh P
mh mh 0.25 mA G, Au uh 3000 BS. G 0.25
mA AkUS |P 3 k G ShmiUS.
UPP, \ \hUTi S v Psh uh
J uhn CnUPmiUS. CUPnzu Pzv
US\ \ Su, _ AmiSa \ \ i.
J vzv uhn Cnzx \ ac-US v
Azu, ac zuzu mhzu Ah i.
\ CUQ dc A zu vzv A UPmk dc
mhzu zuzu Ah i.

194

wUPmh PnUSP
9.1

hzv Pmhmk _ kzumk J ]UP


i]h mh UP = 50. (i) IB (ii) IE (iii) IC
(iv) V CE vPU PnUQkP. (]UP zu
As = 0.69 V)
uP : VBB = 2 V, VCC = 10 V; = 50; RB = 10 k ; RC = 1 k
]UP zu As = 0.69 V

1k

w : VBB = IBRB + VBE

10k
IB

VBB VBE 2 0.69


=
=
RB
10 103

VBB = 2V

- 10V
VCE

= 131 A
IC

mh UP, = I
B
IC = IB = 131 106 50 = 6.5 mA

E mh IE = IC + IB
= 6.5 mA + 131 A
= 6.5 mA + 0.131 mA
= 6.631 mA
VCC = VCE + ICRC
VCE = VCC ICRC
= 10 (6.5 103 1 103)
= 3.5 V

9.2

CE _ CnUPmk J i]h mh UP
= 0.97 BS. 3 k k uhUS (RC) Ch E
zuU S 6V. _ Ai mhzuU PnUQkP.

uP : H uhUS (RC) Ch zu = 6 V;
= 0.97; RC = 3 k ; IB =

w : H uhUS (RC) Ch zu = ICRC = 6V


6
6
=
IC =
= 2mA
RC 3 103
195

mh UP, =
IB =

9.3

IC

2 103
= 61.86 A
32.33

0.97
=32.33
1 0.97

J UQUS Gv mh PkUPk x Au UP
Gs 50&x 25 GU SQx. Au mhz uPU PsP.

uP : A = 50 ;

Af = 25

w : mhzvS S zu UP.
A
Af = 1 + A
50
25 = 1 + 50

G, mhz uP = 0.02
9.4

\mh {P: (A+B) (A+C) = A+BC


w : [Rmk v Chx \mi kzu
(A+B) (A+C) = AA + AC + BA + BC
= A+ AC + AB + BC = A(1+C+B) + BC = A + BC
[ 1 + C + B = 1]
Chx = x. G \k {UPmhx.

9.5

C NOT PmkP kP hzv Pmhmkx NOR


Pmkh CnUPmk. CuSa \ Tmh G?
_
A

A
Y
B

_
B

w : U _i k y = A + B
jP u vi
y = A i B = A B GU QhUS

G, PkUPmh U _ AND Pmi \mhU


SUQx.

196

9.6

NAND PmkP mk kzv Y = A + BC G \miS

U _ P.
w : \mi J ES E AihPmkP
NAND PmkP kQ. G Y = A + BC G
\miS NAND PmiU Psk EUPmh U _

RPsh CUS.
_
A

___
BC

BC

_____
Y = ABC
_ ___
= A + BC

A = A, PkUPmh U _ _UPmh {
A

_____
Y = ABC
_ ___
= A + BC

___
BC

B
C

9.7

BC

R PkUPmk _ A B Ek A i
Pmhmkx. Cua _UP k A i PsP.
A

A
B

w
output
k

9.8

_
_
Y = AB + AB
Y

J Cm] \mk UQ h R PkUPmkx.


AuSU PkUPk J Ek \PUS QhUS k
PsP.
39 k

a) Vin = 120 mv dc

15 k

b) Vin = 0.5 sin t

Vin

c) Vin = 2.5 V dc
d) Vin = 4 sin t.V
e) Vin = 0.8 sin (t + 75o) V

197

V0

uP : Rf = 39 k ; R1 = 15 k
w :
UQ UP Av =

Rf
Rin

39 103

= 2.6

15 103

a) \mk UQ k (Vo) =
b)
c)
d)
e)

9.9

Vo
Vo
Vo
Vo

=
=
=
=

2.6
2.6
2.6
2.6

Rf
Rin

Vin

= 2.6 120 103 = 0.312V


(0.5 sin t) = 1.3 sin t ac
(2.5 V) = + 6.5 V d.c.
(4 sin t .V) = 10.4 + 2.6 sin t V
[(0.8 sin (t + 75o)V] = 2.08 sin (t + 75o)V

RPsha _ k Ps.
740 k
10 k

Vin

650 k
100 k

V0

uP : Rf = 740 k ; Rf = 650 k ; R1 = 10 k ;
R1 = 100 k

w :
VI Gx u UQ k zu, G
Rf

V1 = 1 +
Vin
R1

= 1 +

740 103
Vin = 75 Vin
10 103

Rf
650 103
V1 =
75 Vin= 487.5 Vin
100 103
Rin

Vo =

198

u vk
(Cu u vmk Sv, PkUPmk UP
PnUSP vP. C, h Sv Gu J
Ax PnUQ iUP. n, n u vmk
Svx mk, h x iUPhU Ti
UPUS PnUSPUS hUP Bzu \x P sk)

9.1

9.2

J uzv v sPUSU Pn Az uzv


Aq GUmP G?
(a) Cnv GUmP

(b) _ GUmP

(c) AvPi GUmP

(d) \v GUmP

N-P SPhzv E
(a) CUP Gv AP
(b) ] FvP A
(c) CUP | AP
(d) xP FvP

9.3

PN \v hi ES va \ umk mhzvSU

PnP Ax

9.4

9.5

9.6

(a) FvP

(b) ] FvP

(c) H AP

(d) Ph AP

USa \ ] hk \kx
(a) J E uhP

(b) J uUQP

(c) J {zx (OFF) _m\P

(d) J CUS (ON) _m\P

\ (avalanche breakdown) uP \x {P
(a) u

(b) AUP

(c) `mh

(d) Jn

J E hi Ek J { Gua \ux?
(a) Au USa \
(b) US mh A
(c) Au USa \
(d) SUPhzv P

199

9.7

9.8

J i]h E Ai \vUS USa \


H Ai \vUS USa \ PkUPmkx.
Ai mh AvPUQx G, Au
(a) VCE AvPUS

(b) IC S

(c) IC AvPUS

(d) VCC AvPUS

i]hUS E \ zu PkUPhu
{
(a) E AvP mh HkQx.
(b) k \P EUS (distortion) HkQx.
(c) H AvP hQx.
(d) mkU Pk (load line) u { AQx.

9.9

J A Gx
(a) mh E J UQ
(b) ac dc BP A
(c) A, UQ BS
(d) mh Cu J UQ

9.10 Pm Aa _
(a) uUQ mh kzukQx
(b) _ (tapped coil) kzukQx
(c) C\ LC _ kzuh
(d) uUQ kzuh

9.11 Cm] \mk UQ Ek v iux.


BP,
(a) Au Ek mh _
(b) Au k uh AvP.
(c) Au mk zu mk uh \v

CUS
(d) Ax, mhU Pmkmka \uP .

9.12 PkUPmh A U \mkUS Pm


(a) AND

(b) OR

(c) NAND

(d) EXOR

200

9.13 PkUPmh _ k (Y) v 1 G Au EkP ABC


A
B
C

(a) 0

(b) 1 0 0

(c) 1

(d) 1 1 0

9.14 A vPi (A + AB) G \k GuSa \?

9.15

(a) A

(b) AB

(c) B

(d) A

ABC G \mi GUP

(a) AB + C

(b) A . B . C

(c) AB + BC + CA

(d) A + B + C

9.16 Cnv mh, Phzx mh UPmh B Ch


BQ B mh hzv Euh .
9.17 B mh AU Psk PP, S PhzvP
PhzvP USP.
9.18. Eu SUPhzvP } Au ?
9.19 vzxu (Rectification) G G?
9.20 J hk A AzvzvP \k uzv USP.
9.21 \a _z vzv (Bridge Rectifier) \ku .
9.22 \ { G G?
9.23 \ hi A .
9.24 uSu _hzxh \ hk zua ^P
G kQx G .
9.25 PNP NPN i]hP \kP USP.
9.26 i]h &S &S E uh {P.
9.27 CE AUPmh i]h {a ] P
Psh B . i]h sP (Parameters)
G PshkQ G USP.
9.28 J i]h, mh UPU P G AUPhU
Pn G?
201

9.29 i]h US \mi,


A AvPP kzxu?

CB

Ah

CE

9.30 i]h J UQP \ku USP.


9.31 UQ mh AP G G?
9.32 mh G G? Au C PP ?
9.33 Gv
mh
PkUPmh
UPzvP P P.

UQ

zu

9.34 Gvmhzu |P ?
9.35 AUP P\ (Barkhausen Criteria) {uPU
TP.
9.36 Pm A _h x Ax \ku ?
9.37 OR NAND PmkP \kP GxP.
9.38

x Pm G G? H A AUPkQ?

9.39 EXOR Pm Gu? Cu \mhz uP.


9.40 j&P u[PU T {P.
9.41 uSa _ G G?
9.42 uh (Analog) CUP \PP x
SkP.
(i) \x A (ii) \ A (sine wave)

9.43 |USz uSa _ CUP uSa _ & kzxP.


9.44 \mk UQ (operational amplifier) . Ax (i) mk
\mk UQP (ii) mh \mk UQP
G \kQx?
9.45 J \mk UQ (OP. AMP) zu (virtual ground)
Gx USP.
9.46 \mk UQ UQ sPU TP.
9.47 \mk UQ, Tmh UQP G kQx?
9.48 J \mk UQ
\kQx Gu .

mk

UQP

9.49 mh (multimeter) G K mhP \kQx


Gu USP.

202

PnUSP
9.50 J i]h Ai mh 50 A H
mh 25 mA. vP PnUQkP.
+ 5V

9.51 hzv B G zuzvU PnUQkP.


(]UP hk kzumkx)

B
1K

9.52 mh
PkUPhu
{
UQ
zu UP 100. k zuzvx
5% Gv mhP EmiS Azu, QhUS zu
UP G?
9.53 Pm A C1 = 0.01 F, C2 = 0.03 F L = 100 mH.
AP AvsnU PnUQkP.
9.54 hzv Pmix Csk A i[P OR PmiS
EhP AUPkQ. hPU QhUS A i
Gi A?
A

9.55 hzv Pmhmk U _P \k x? A= 1,


B= 1 C = 1 GU Psk mhU PnUQkP.
A
B
C

9.56 PkUPmk U _ k F-IU PsP.


A
B
F

A
C

203

9.57 PkUPmk U hzv \mhz uP.


A
B
R

C
D

9.58 A vP, u[P kzv


U \mh {P.
ABC + A B C + AB C = A (B+C)

9.59
A
vP
u[P
PkUPmh U \mh GkzxP.
Y = A. B + AB + BC + CA

9.60 PkUPmh _ k G?
5K
10K
V1
V2

10K

204

V0

kzv

hP
9.1 (a)

9.2 (c)

9.3 (b)

9.4 (d)

9.5 (a)

9.6 (d)

9.7 (c)

9.8 (b)

9.9 (a)

9.10 (a)

9.11 (a)

9.12 (a)

9.13 (c)

9.14 (a)

9.15 (d)

9.50 500 ; 0.998

9.51 + 4.31 V

9.52 16.66

9.53 5815 Hz

9.54

9.55 AB + C ; 1

A
B
Y

9.56 F = A + (B.C)
9.57 R = AB ( C + D )
9.59 A + BC

9.60 Vo =

1
2

(V1 + V2)

205

10. uP uh AP
{PQ \Pu, \v uP uh J m]
Hkzv \PuS. GUm uP uh Gx q
uPP Au, u \ uPP
\vPP Eu \[S Aha \uU SUS.
1840P uP uhx uv A uh[Qx. ]
zuskPUS S u] Psk mhx. Auz
uhx Cu si GUm P (hU
SP) Pski i uP uh Hkzu Cx.
Au i]hP, uSa _P SU Phzv
\u[P Pski mi PnP i uP
uh AvP A kzumhxh ]u vzv
AUPmhx.
P \ Pzv \PU PP J C (fiber optics)
BQ kzxu uP uhx Poo Cu
u uP uhUS (Data communication) Av UQzx Azx
kzumkx. h (Radar), i u A (Telemetry)
\PU P CnP (Satellite links) , Phn
(Navigation), xP (Defence) A Ba]
xP P UQ [S QUQ. uP uh |UPzvPP
Pu { E i AP U AP
mk kzumk Q.

10.1 Pu AP
Pu AP ux, AP uP
BQa \xx. Au
`{ (Environment)
sh CUS, i AP, \unP
|UPmi mk n \. uP uhUS k Pu
{ |kUP[P (Ranges) Amhn 10.1 PkUPmk.
AP AvsP zx snU
Px (antenna - Bsh) H snU PUS i
AP P AkQ. A :
(i) u () A . (Ground or surface wave propagation)
206

(ii) (space) A . (Space wave propagation)


(iii) A Ax A sh A . (Sky wave or ionospheric propagation)

Amhn 10.1 uP uhUS k Pu


AP |kUP[P (uUS Eu)

Avs

A}

PPz uu AvsP (ELF) 30-300 Hz

107 106 m

S (Voice) AvsP (VF)

300-3000 Hz

106 105 m

Pz uu AvsP (VLF)

3-30 kHz

105 104 m

uu AvsP (LF)

30-300 kHz

104 103 m

|kzu AvsP (MF)

300 kHz 3 MHz

103 102 m

E AvsP (HF)

3 30 MHz

102 10 m

E AvsP (VHF)

30 300 MHz

10 1 m

E AvsP (UHF)

300 MHz 3 GHz 1 10-1 m

E AvsP(SHF)

3 30 GHz

10-1 10-2 m

Ea\ E AvsP(EHF)

30 300 GHz

10-2 10-3 m

10.1.1 u () A
u Ax AP G h 10.1 Pmi
n \ i AP BS. (Transmitting) HS (receiving) snU PP uUS P AQ
Ex u A |h. |kzu }sh A \PP
u x mk u A u UQzx
Qx. Pv HPk Azx |kzu Avs \PP
u A kzxQ.
snU
P
Bsh

h 10.1 snU Px u Ax
A u
207

10.1.2 A
Ai shzv (troposphere) k
i AP AP (space waves) GkQ. Ai
sh Gx x 15 km E sh
SvS. AP, UPP, h 10.2 C Pmi
Csk Eh[Q SvPU Psk.

|h A

zu

v
G
x

h 10.2 A
(i) x |iP H Ah Sv.
(ii) GvUPmk H Ah Sv.

SP, 30 MHz US AvP AvsP Psh AP


uS "" A'' zuuP Ex.

10.1.3 A Ax A sh A
shzv Sv A sh Ex. `x
FuU PvP, PU PvP Pva_, B AvP
A
EmPx
Pu
CSv
kzumk
AUPhQx. AUPmh CSv Pmh GUmP, |
Gv AP BQU Pskx.
snU Px uh AvP Pnzv k
] \ E i AP, shzv Fh \
sh Sv AUPmh Svh GvkQx
(encounters). EPu `{, i AP AUPmh
Svh Ch[P P Ahu A R|UQ
UPmk u E Chzu AhQ. Cx
i A "" A'' GUPkQx. Cu A ""
A '' Ax ""A sh A '' GkQx. A
P }sh u i uP uh Hkzu CQx.

208

A shzu Pu AP GvUPku
Ashzv ~ Pu AP A shzu
GvUPkQ. Es, Cv |h \ P (refraction) BS. A shzv HkP JP GsP
P Cv. Cx, GUm Ahzv kQ A
Avs BQ zx kQx. AUP Ahzv
AvPu, Smh AkUQ, Smhu Pnzv A
|[Sx, AkUQ JP Gs SQx. G h 10.3
Pmi Ax iiP SzxU Pmix
x Qa \Qx. GUm Ahzv AvPP Ex P
Ah Pn 90o BP . Au S Ax |UQa
\.
2

90

A sh

PM

P2

P1
Phu A

Gvzu A

h 10.3 Ashzv i A P

u u (Skip distance) u sh (Skip zone)


A v, J Smh AvsqUS
x HS (surface) E Sum\z
u, u u(skip distance) Gk.
h 10.4 Pmi R1 G Pv kPn AvPP
CUS u |UQ A, x AvP
u E Ah. kPnzv v ]x ]uPU
SUPk uUSz v AP US APP E
P Ah. C R2 R3 G PvP hzv
Pmhmk. kPnzv v ShzuUP A, R3 G
Pv kPnzu h SP CUS \u US v
Ah si A SzxUPmkUS P |UPP A.
kPnzv v SUPk, R4 R5 G
PvP Pmhmk, i AP A sh AkUP
Fka \ k.
209

R5

uUS
PvP

R4

Ash AkUS

u Pv
R1
R3

R6

u u

h 10.4 kPn[P i AP
J Smh kPnzvS x HS
E u PU SP CUS. R3 G PvUS Cx
US, Pv uz uk US Ch E ]z u
"u u' GkQx.
x Qa \a \ u A UQzx
S. J Smh u A H (reception) CUPx. Cu u uS Hu J Chzv
CUS. u A H Cu US, A uuP Gu
HPkQu Au US Chmh Sv ""u sh''
(Skip zone) Gk. Cu u shzv A H CUPx.
10.2 s (Modulation)
i J C\, a_ \n Avs
\PP J {[Px }sh uP E i
HPUS A six. ~sn [Q (microphone
UL) Eu, C\, a_ \n \PPP
kQ. A B, Avsn zx AvPUS.
G \n Avs (20 - 20000 Hz) AP AvP B
x C. BP, C }sh uPUS A
Cx. 20 kHz I h AvP Avs Psh Pv a\
mk AvP uS Ax |ha \zvS. Su
vU Psk AvP Avs Psh \PP BUPnUP Q
mh uUS A C.
210

G, \n Avs \PP \P sk
A ""Fv AP'' G AUPk E Avs i
AP x _zu sk. Cu QhUS uS A"s
A' G, Ca\ "s' (modulation) G
AUPkQx. s E Avs AP (i
AP), snU P US (space) AkQ.
H smh APx sUP (demodulation) \n Avs AP zukUPkQ.
\n Avs AP UPmk J (speaker)
Jm \kQx.
\n \PPa _x \ AvP Avs Psh i
AP kzukQ. \n \PP Fv APx
_zxu Fv A a_, Avs Ax Pmh BQ Hux J
], \n \P \US H kQx. Fv
A a_ Ax Avs Ax Pmh, \n \P
\US H k \ As G
AUPkQx. A s P (i) a_ s (AM)
(ii) Avs s (FM) (iii) Pmh s (PM) BQ R
UPmk.

10.2.1 a_ s

eS
Es

E Avs Psh
Fv AP a_, \P
\US H k
\ a_ s
Gk.
eC
a_ szv Fv
A
a_
mk
kQx. Fv A
Avs Pmh
CUS. h 10.5 a_
szv
AihU e
PP PmkQx.

\P
Signal

t
(a)

Ec

Fv
Carrier

(b)
ES
t

fs G Avs Psh

\n Avs \P
A i h 10.5a
Pmhmkx. h 10.5b

AM Wave

(c)

h 10.5 a_ s
211

a_ u fc G E
Avs Eh Fv
A
izuU
PmkQx. h 10.5c a_ (a)
s A
izuU PmkQx. Cv
Fv A |
Gv A P[P a_P
\P zx
mk. G a_
s
Ax (b)
\n \P A
AvsnU Psk
x G AQ.

s Gs
a_ szv
s Gs UQ [S
QUQx. Gu AUS
Fv A Aa_, (c)
t
\n
\P
kQx
Gu
s Gs PmkQx.
szvS Fv
h 10.6 s GsP
A a] Hmh
a_ s AP
zvS szvS
Fv A a_US E uP s Gs G
UPkQx.
s Gs,
m=

AszvS Fv A a_
A szvS Fv AA a_
m=

\P A a_
Fv A a_

k s \mh A Au
u BQ s Gs {nUQx. As Gs m < 1
G Cu Fv A a] k SP CUS. Cu
212

P h 10.6a E k \P UPuP
CUPx. s Gs m > 1G Cu h 10.6b Pmi
k A EUS Hk. G, \P A
P v ix. B UP s {P, s
u 100%US Gx CUPU Thx.

Aa_ szv S
Fv A Sh.
ec = Ec cos ct

... (1)

Cv ec , Ec c G Gu J Pnzv Fv
A zu, a_ Pn Avs BQU SUS.
a_ szv Fv A a\ Ec, \ \P
\US H h 10.5 Pmi kQx. s
\P RUPsh Sh.
es = Es cosst

... (2)

Cv es, Es s G Gu Pnzv \P
A zu, a_ Pn AvsnU SUS.
\k (1) E Ec v \P a_ Es US H u
a_ s A . G a_ s A
Gu.
e = (Ec + Es cosst ) cosct
Es

e = Ec 1 + E cos s t cosct = Ec [1 + m cos st ] cosct


c

Cv m Gx s Gs BS. Cx

Es
USa \S.
Ec

e = Eccos ct + mEccos ct . cosst

...(3)

= Ec cos ct +

mEc
[2cos c t cos st ]
2

= Ec cos ct +

mEc
[cos (c + s) t + cos (c s) t ]
2

= Ec cos ct +

mEc
mEc
cos (c + s) t +
cos (c s) t ...(4)
2
2

Ca\k, s
PskuU PmkQx.

213

Ax

TPU

(i) Ec cos ct : CuU T Fv A uS.


(ii)

mEc
cos (c + s)t : Cx Fv A AvsnU Pmi
2

AvP Avs Pshx. Cx UP mh (Upper Side Band - USB)


GkQx.
(iii)

mEc
cos (c s)t : Cx Fv A AvsnU Pmi
2

Su Avs Pshx. Cx RUP mh (Lower Side Band - LSB)


GkQx.

Avs { (Frequency spectrum)


RUPmh UP mh BQ Csk Avs
{ Fv A Avso C[Q s G
Avs mi h 10.7 Pmi Ax.
RUP mhP a_P Gs vP Fv A a] Ec
m

v
h[PP CUS. s Gs m v J G
2
CUS J UP mh a_ Fv A a]
vP CUS.

a_

Fv

UP mh

RUP mh
EC

mEC
2

mEC
2
S

Pn Avs

h 10.7 Avs {
214

mh AP (Bandwidth)
a_ s A mh AP, (c s) u (c + s)
CUS. Aux \P A Avso C h[PP CUS.
E Sv s A J J Avs T mk
PsiUS G GkzxU Pmkx. Cu J
{zv, s A
CW
300 3000 Hz Avs
LSB
USB
|kUP Psh uU S
Ax C\S. Cu
c
AP
J ( )
c+(s)]
c+(s)
c
s c(s)]
AP
E
mhPU PsiUS.
h 10.8 A\ AP
Es
UP
mhx, \P TP Fv A Avso
Tku, RUP mhx, mh PsiUS
(h 10.8).
A\ AP,
PhUPi E AvsP
miSa \S. Aux UP mh
AvsoS, RUP mh ] AvsoS E
miSa \P CUS.
A\ AP (channel width) = 2 s \P
Avs
= 2 (f s)()

|P
(i) Gv HP C.
(ii) S mh AP xx
(iii) Su

P
(i) Ca\h Ti H : a_ s \mh A,
Fv A a_ P, \P Ex. |h CP,
uP Hkzuk Ca\P, a_ ChkPP E.
J i H, \P A, Ca\P uzx US
Au xP a_ s HPk {Pa]P
Ca\h TiuP CUS.
(ii) Su \v : a_ szv uU Ti v,
UP mhP mk Ex. H, UP mhP mk
215

\PP E. a_ s A UP mh B S.
G a_ s Su \v PshuP Ex.
(iii) Su \ u : a_ szv Su
\v PnP \k A P Su \k
u (small operating range) US. Aux \vP
}sh uPUS A Cx.

10.2.2 Avs s
Fv A Avs, \P \US Cn[P k
\ "Avs s' GkQx. Avs szv
Fv A a_ Pmh CUS. Fv A Avs
mk \P \US Cn[P kQx.
Fv A Avs
\P Pn |a\
\vUS. (h 10.9a). A, C,
E G G P
\P zuzv v
_P CUSx Fv
A
AvsP
kv.

(a) \P
(a) Signal

Carrier
(b)(b)Fv
\P, | Ea\ (positive
peak) vP B F&
|[S x Fv A
Avs vS
AvPUQx. Cx h 10.9c
(c) FM
(c) FM wave
|UPP
Au
A
A
_]PP (cycles)
Pmh
mkx. B \P A B C D E F G
Gv Ea\ (negative peak)
h 10.9 Avs s
vP x (D ) Fv
A Avs ]zvS SUPkQx. Cx h 10.9c AP
Chh Ti A _]PPU Pmhmkx. Ezu
\Px (louder signal) Fv A Avso AvP zu
Hkzx. Cx, Su \PPh Jmk USx AvPzu
PzxPP AvP A APP Pmhk.

Ek \P Cu { FM J Avs, K
{ Avs (resting frequency) Ax Avs (centre fre216

quency) f o GkQx. Cx Au JS JxUPmh Avs

BS. \P \zuk x Fv A Avs, K {


Avs fo x RP S.
K { AvsqUS Ax R Hk Avs
(shift) Avs UP f Gk. Sum\
Avsox AvPm\ Avs zu Avs
k, Fv A A (carrier swing - CS) GkQx.
Fv A Avs A = 2 Avs UP
= 2 f
FM J, Ja \PP, K Avso
C[P AvPm\ Avs UP 75 kHz BP PmkkzvU
Pu EP A JU Pmkx.

|P
(i) Ca\ J HU PkUS. Ca\ Gx a_ zu
Eshx. G FM H, Ca\ }UQk.
(ii) \k u P AvP.
(iii) J \v P AvP.

SkP
(i) Avs A szvS AP Avs mh
(A\ &channel) u.
(ii)

FM J A HS \u[P P

]UP.

10.2.3 Pmh s
Pmh szv, Fv A Pmh, s \P
a_US Cn[P kQx. Pmh u \P
Avsn zux. Pmh s A i FM
A u BS. FMI h Pmh szvS Su
Avs mh kzukQx. P T sk,
Pmh szv PkUPmh Avs mh AvP \vP
(information) A i. G, PkUPmh Avs mh
Pmh s, P Eu PzvS (transmission speed)
SUQx. Pmh szv Fv A Avso
Avs {PQx. Cu Avs (i) s \P
A a_ (ii) \P Avs BQa \xx. Pmh
szv P |, PM \Px EUPk FM
217

\P UP {zu (stable) Ehx GuS. ,


Avs Ax K { Avs P AvP {z u
Pshx.

10.3 snU PP (Antennas)


, uUPm], h \h] (mobile phones)
AP, Pu Ax x HUS, (space)
n \Qx. H Cnh (Space link)
nUP CP snU PP ukQ.
\ P }sh Phzv (P usk i)
snU P Gk. snU Px
\P Pu BP H U Px Pu
B \PP Q.
v\|kzx v (Directivity) Gx snU P P
UQ sS. Pu AP x, Smh
v\P Jkzv v Ax Smh v\P Cx
Pu AP mk A HS v, snU
P v\|kzx v BS.

10.4 i J H
10.4.1 i J
szvS
S
AP
G
AUPk
GUm _P Eu i AP }sh uPUS
kQ. P G i A, snU Ph
CnUPmh E Avs Psh AP EUS A
CU PsiUS.
C Sv a_ Avs smh A
P \k u[P A.

a_ s (AM) A
a_ s i A Pmh UPh
h 10.10 Pmhmk Ex. Cx Csk SvPU Pskx.
(i) \n Avs (AF) Sv (ii) i Avs (RF) Sv.
AF Sv
A AF Sv s \P AP EUSQx.
~sn[Q (microphone), J B P Qx.
~sn[Qx QhUS , PU SP
CUS. G u Dmhzv UQP Cu B
218


snU P
RF Sv

iP
A

u[Qa _
UQ

RF v
UQ

~sn
[Q

AF
UQ

AF v
UQ

AF Sv

h 10.10 a_ s i Pmh h
UPkQx. AF UQ k, AF v UQ Emi
EhP AUPkQx. v UQ, \n Avs
APUSz u v Hkzvz uQx. AF v UQ
k, sUSz ukQx. s Gx i]h
\v A EPU Psh szu \kzx
J GUm _ BS.
RF Sv
RF Sv iP A C P E Avs Psh

Fv AP Ezv \kQ. iP A C u
mi v, RF v UQ UPkQx. *u[Qa
_ (Buffer) RF v UQ A Cx UQx. Cu
A iP A C Avsn {kzxQx. Cu
s RF AP s AF \PP PUPmk a_
s A EUPkQx. CuSv k
PUPP snU PUS AUPkQx.

Avs s (FM) A
Avs s AP UPP 40 MHzI h
AvP Avso CUPkQ. Avs A s
*S : J GUm _ Csk {PUS (stages) Ch
Hkzu Eu GUm _ "u[Qa _'' GkQx. Cx Csk
{PUS Ch v zu ukUQx.
219

J P, uUPm] J Au, \h i (mobile


kzukQ. Pmh szu
radio)
kzx FM A \k uzu US Pmhh
h 10.11 Pmhmkx. Pmh sx Avs s
uP CUS.

snU P

iP
A

~sn
[Q

u[Qa
_ UQ

mi
A

Pmh
s

v
UQ

AF
UQ

h 10.11 Avs s
Cx Fv AP Ezv \ iP A CU
Pskx. Cu k Pmh A sUS AUPkQx.
u[Qa _ (buffer) Gx J u Avs UQS. Cx Pmh A
sx iP A C UQx.
s \P A ~sn[Q EUPmk,
mi (pre emphasis) AS Cu AF \P FmhkQx.
~sn[Q J AP AuS Cn PP
x Bx mh AvsPUS \P [Qhkv.
Cx s \PP Pmh s \k
Avs f \ Quzv CUPx. H f A
Ba \xx. Cu P s A
SURkP {P. Cuz uuPP u s A E
Azx AvsP \ B \ sk.
CuPP mi (Pre-emphasis) A kQx. mi
A k, UPmk Pmh szvPP
AkQx. smh k, v UQP v
UP \mk A snU PUS PUPP
AUPkQx.
220

10.4.2 i H (Radio reception)


J i Hx Azx \PPx u
\P zukzu, Au USu CvP uk
uzv Au Hkzxu BQ \kPU Pshx.
H snU P
Receiving
antenna

Loud

J
Speaker
RF
amplifier
UQ

sUQ
Detector

AF
amplifier
UQ

h 10.12 G i H Pmhh

J G (Ax) |i i H (A simple (or) straight


radio receiver)

J G i H \ku US Pmh UPh,


h 10.12 Pmhmkx. mh i J ()
{[Px i AP A[Q snU P
U PQx. C\ Cna _ kzx i
Avs UQ, u i A uukUQx. C\
\mh RF UQ uukUPmh i AP USQx.
UPmh i AP PN hk sUQa _US
ukQx. Cua _ i APx \n \PP
zukUQx. sUQ mi QhUS \n \Px
J Ax AuS mh AkUSPU Psh \n Avs
UQ UPkQx. UPmh \n \Px
JmUPP JUS (Loud speaker) PkUPkQx.

SkP
G i H RUPsh SP Ehx.
(i) Su Env*
(ii) Su u v**
*Env : S \P US v
**u v : Smh, u \P mk u \u; uu
{Pzu.
221

PUQ US AM H (Superheterodyne AM receiver)


|i H E SkP, PUQ US i H
}UPkQ. | HP Azx PUQ US Ha _
kzxQ. PUQ US AM H A \ UP
Pmhh, h 10.13 Pmhmkx.
H snU P

J
RF
UQ

PUQ

IF
UQ

sUQ

AF
UQ

Eh
A

h 10.13 PUQ US AM H
(i) RF UQ
RF UQ C\ \mh Cna_ kzxQx.

i J {[Px i AP
A[Q snU P ChUPmk CSvh
CnUPkQ. CSv u i Az uukzx,
Au A z u AS EzxQx.
(ii) PUQ Eh A C
RF

UQ UPmh k, PUQ G SvUS


ukQx. A[S Eh A mkh PUPkQx.
Cu Csk AvsP Jh J Cnx
Ch{
Avsn
(IF)
EUSQ.
Ch{
Avsnx A Avs i A
Avs BQ hP CUS. Cu Sv k
Gx 455 kHz vh Ch{ AvsqUSa \P
CUS.
GkzxUPmhP 600 kHz J {zu C\ \
sk Eh AC 1055 kHz Avsn Ezv
\. Au P PUQ mk Avs 455 kHz BS.
Cu { Ch{ Avsn Ahu , Cx
HP E UQa _P, {z u, u v
Envh \ha \ i.
222

(iii) Ch{ Avs UQ (IF amplifier)


PUQa _ k, C\ \mh IF UQUS
AUPkQx. Cu UQ J J AvsqUS (Aux 455
KHz) C\ \kQx. Psh J J Avs Psh AP
mk Cv UPkQ.
(iv) sUQ
IF

UQ k, A sUQ Emkh
mix
CnUPkQx. \n \PP, IF
UPkQx. Su EUS (distortion) AvP \n
\ (fidelity) sP PnP hk sUQa _P
kzukQ. (\ Gx Eu E sk
Hkzxu BS)
(v) AF UQ
sUP \mh AF \P CP uP CUS.
G AF UQ Cx UPkQx. AF
UQ \P k JUS AUPkQx. J
{zvx Es JUS H J \n
\PP J APP Qx.

PUQ US FM H
AM H FM H, J PUQ US HS.
FM H \UP Pmhh, h 10.14 Pmhmkx.
RFSvx E Q smh AP Jz

uukzx USQx. UPmh A, PUQ


A \x Ax SvUSU PkUPkQx. C[S
s \P Avs Ch{ AvsnP
H
H Bsh
snU P

RF
Sv

PUQ
Eh
A

IF UQ

kzv

FM
sUQ

J
UQ

h 10.14 FM H
223

AF
UQ

kQx. FM HPUS Ch{ Avs 10.7 MHz BS.


Ch{ Avs AP IF UQ UPmk
kzx _ (limiter)* kzv Cu a_ P
CUS UPkQx. Cu Sv k, FM sUQUS
\zukQx. FM sUQ s A sUP
\Qx. FM sUQx AF \P UQ (de-emphasis)
A P Aku AvsP
u[PUS Es v [Rmh Q. Cx AF
UPzu CvP JUSz ukQx.

10.5 uUPm] (Television)


GUm hzx zuS \u[P uUPm]
J. ""uUPm]'' G \US \ ""ux
zu''. UQP, J u k Au uzx uUPm]
J kQx. J u J AP AUS
Cn PP ~sn[Q mk
smk kQ. h[P u JPm]
P P P U Psnmhhmk
(scanned)
AUS Cn PP kQ.
hzvS \PP smk kQ. H
hzvS \PP smh Ax UPkQ.
CP Es Pm] E P P
P, Pm]U S Gk Pzuk Pv S J
(fluorescent) v x Hkzx \kQ. uUPm]
H h J BQ Csh uUPm]
H m \, Pm]Ph uhh J J[P
AkQx. C[S h[P EUSx u Cv i
G uUPm] Gx Aih A\ h[P
EUS AP Ex. Pm]P C[Sx uzu
EUP J i |zv h[P J JP uh
\P, P PmhkQ. G uUPm]
A u u \un A\ h[P Ax
x BS. \unP J \PP Avs s

hzvP
\PP
a_
s

AkQ.
* kzx _ Gx, \P zuzu J Smh vU
Phx \ ukUS PS. FM HP k Cu kzv, \P
a] [P mkkzxQx.
224

10.5.1iP {hU P S (Vidicon camera tube)


iP Gx J B P UTi uUPm]
{hU S PS. CUS x J x Au
uh SQx G J Phzu uzxzv Aih iP
\kQx.
A:
iP Gx, J vP umhP CUS Pz umi
EhUQ Psni E Bx (h 10.15). Pz umi
Emzv, J Env Eh CUSz uPk CUQx. Cu CUPz uPk
C AkUSPU Pshx. Pz umi |UQ zv
BU\h B a_ Ex. Ca_, J Fk uhx,
B Phzx uU Pshx. CUSz uPmi zv, J
Env Eh, SUPhzv Bio&m \k \mh AkUS
Ex. BU\h AkUS 50 V [Qh
CnUPmkx.
Qk&1 Gx Puh Pmkkzx Qh EhUQ
GUm xUQS. Ek GUmP Qk&2 kUQ
kQx. kUPmh GUmP, J Phzx AkUQx Qk&3
SkzxQx. CUQ UPsnmh \ k GUm
P, Sa _ Qhzu \[Szx UPa _P
UPha \Q.
Qk 2 (kUQ)
Qk 1
CUS
J
Psni
Pz umk
Qk 3
(PU S)
50 V

uh

Qhzu
\[Szx
US _P

Pm]
k

h 10.15 iP {hU PU S
225

\k
Pm]x J, CUQ x SkzukQx. Pz
umk BU\i \ Jx J Phzx
AkUQ x kQx. Pm] E Ja\ miP, J
Phzx AkUQ uh Qx. Bsio&m&\ix
GUmP, |zu BU\h
AhQ. BP, J Phzx AkUQ E J
|mhzu Q. G, kQ, J zvS Dh
mh J EQx. GUm xUQx
GUm P mh zv x ku, zuU S
HkQx. Cu PnP, mh {PQx. Cu mh
{hU P S mk Pm] \P EUS.

10.5.2 UPsnmhku C\ \u
J A\ h Gx, Aih P (dark) J
(light) P J[P BS. J ] JSv Ax
Pa \ Sv (shade) hUT Gk. Pm] E Azx
hUTP US uPPU Psk. AP
mk, EsU Pm] E Au A J Ax Pa
\ SvP A \ {P sk uzu h
sk EUPk.
hzv E Azx hU TP Pm]US \PPP
, GUm PU Psk J \zv J hUT G
\P UPsnmhhkQx. Gumh J UPzu
iUSx, J E Azxa \P, J UPzv E
Azx P iu , UPsnmh
|hQx. G, GUm P , \P i
v |Px \ UPsnmh GkQx.
uUPm] {hU PU S Ax uUPm] H
hUS v Cu \P i , CUS P CUS.
Pm]x Qhzu \[Szxz v\P J \zv
P UPsnmhhkQx. Cx x GsoUP
h[P Ax \mh[P J i |zv Hkzvz u.
Au Pm]P uhx C[Sx J uzu EUS.
uUPm] AP \mh[P v EUPk
u (U Psnmh Avs) |iUS 25 BS.

226

V(H)
V(H)
max

Start
xUP
of line
Trace

End
i
of
line

ce P
tra
e

Retrace

Trace

1 Line
st

2 Line
nd

rd

3 Line

(a)

(b)

h 10.16 G UPsnmhku
hUTP UPsnmhh C zuzu
kzu. Ja \v i]h R-C A
kzv C zu EUPkQx. C
zu[P uUPm] {hU P Qhzu \[Szx
UPz uPkPUS PkUPkQ. C\ zuz xi G
AUPk C zu, Qhzu UPz uPkPUS
AUPkx zu OM PnP h 10.16a b
Pmi A G Chzv E GUm P AB G \U
Pmi |Px B G Ah. zu k MN
PnP Bx UPsnmhk BC P |P.
UPsnmhk v x (Aux, Qhzuzv
x x Akzu uhUP GUm P |P
x) Gu J hUT U PsnmhzvS EmhU Thx GuPP
"z xi' (blanking pulse) GkQ E Gv zu,
GUm xUQ Pmkkzx QkUS AUPkQx. Cx
GUm xUQx GUmP Ekuz ukUQx.
AuS GUm P Akzu UPsnmhhz x[S.
h
UPsnmhhk

Cua
\
vzv {P.
x UPzv E R Ahuh U Psnmhk
, UPzv E Chx Pa \h. CuPP
\mh C\ zuz xi G AUPk C zu
\[Szx UPz uPkPUS AUPkQx. G, hzu
UPsnmhh

C\
zuz
xiP
kzukQ. Cu C\ zuz xiP, uUPm]
227

{hU P mkh \x E Avs (ultra high


frequency) Fv A x s \mk kQx.
hzxh uh Psh J, Avs s \mk Au
snU P P kQx.

U Psnmh (Interlaced scanning)


Cv,
uUPm]P
\mh[P
vz
v
EUPk u |iUS 25 \mh[P G izuUPmkx
(Standardised). Cx, hUPm] uha]P C[Sx uzu
EUP xuS. B Akzukzu \mh[PUQh v
PUPkx, J h Ax \mhzv Akzu h Ax
\mhzv h PU PuS xuP C.
Cu v a\zv ]mh (flicker) u. v ,
P G z ux Ps Ga\ha \. Cua
]mhz uUP J \mh C UPsnmhhh
sk.
Cu P U Psnmhzv zu P [P
GUPk Csk SUPP UPkQ.
u zv J GsPP E P mk U
PsnmhhkQ. Csh zv Cmh GsPP E
nd

Beginning of 2 field

2& zv uhUP

Beginning
u of
1st field

zv
uhUP

P
Pmhh
Retrace lines
not shown

st

Endzv
of 1 field
u
i

End
of
2& zv
nd i
2 field

h 10.17 UPsnmhzv uzx


228

Azx P UPsnmhhk. u zv E P
UPsnmhkx AiSv Ph] zvx
\[Szx m]z xi, UPsnmhk P hzv SvUS
vU Psk \. AuS, CUP, u Cmh GsPP
E P UPsnmhk. CP U Psnmh
UPsnmh Gk.
625 PU Psh uUPm] A
U PsnmhzvS J \mh Ax hzv E 625
P 312.5 PU Psh C SUPP zx hzu
U Psnmhh J zu (S) U
Psnmhh sk. U Psnmh |h uzx
h 10.17 Pmhmkx.
BP, UPsnmhzv, UPsnmh Pzu
AvPUP, ]mh }UPkQx. G, mh APzv
A\ AvPkzu si A] C.

Qhzu \[Szx UPsnmh AvsP


GUh P CUP, Chx P v |Px
v Au v\ uh[Su Qhzu UPsnmh G
AUPkQx. Qhzu U Psnmh Avs Gx J
|i U Psnmhhk P GsoUPS. 625
PU Psh A J |i 25 \mh[P Aku
Qhzu UPsnmhzv Avs 625 25 = 15,625 Hz. Cu
PnP J U Psnmhh BS P

1
= 64 s.
15,625

\[Szx U Psnmh Gx GUm P


CUP \[Szx v\ Cx BS. J \mhzv Csk [P
E. Au J iUS 50 [P ES. \[Szx
UPsnmhh BS P

1
= 20 ms.
50

10.6 P hU S (Monochrome picture tube)


hU S Gx Pzuk Pv S J ] PS. CuU
S Pz umk, uUPm] H vP \kQx. hU
S P[P h 10.18 C Pmhmkx. Pzuk Pv
S (CRT)
o (bell) izv E J Psni E
UPmkx. GUmP E Pzuk J
229

230

GUm xu
{
Ju

U
(Pu UPa _P &
P UP)

h 10.18 P & hUS

AP EP a_

SQ GUm
P

GUm P

E zu

Psni Pzx
Sv

Pmkkzx Qk
P \
u
+ \ zu


Pzuh
kzu

Pzuk GUmP
Eu

GUm xUQ P
Skzu

U
(Pu UPa _P &
P UP)

`hkQx. GUm xUQ A E EPUS


USa \ zu uku Gv mh
GUmP Pmk kUP Q. GUm xUQ,
GUmP J SP PP SUQx.
Pzuh zx Gvzu Pmkkzx Qk,
GUm P \, Ax EUS
PmkkzxQx. AUShU (aquadag) GUPk AP EP
a_US P Eu zu \zuku, GUm P v
|UQ kUPhQx. hU S P Sv Emzv
{ (phosphor) a_ \mkx. GUm P
Cu a]x x x, Cx Jx EUS.
hU S Pzx Sva _ US U (deflecting
yoke) G AUPk PuUS Pa _P (magnetic coils)
\u A Ex. U Psnmh (sweep) C\ _P
EUS Qhzu \[Szx mh C AP, U
_US ukQ. Cx S Puzv EUQ GUm
P { PmkkzxQx (influence). GUmP |Px
mh Phzva _ Pu ES. CRT C
UQ E USa _P EUPk Puzu
GUm P |PzukQx Ax UPkQx. CP hU
S P GUm P A \kQx.
Pm]z uuPP, GUm P hU S P
Ax GUm P \, J (luminance) Ax Y
\P kQx. Y \Px Pzuk Ax Pmkkzx
QkUS (] PP) ukQx. Pmkkzx Qk Gx
Pzuh zx US \ zu ukQ, GUm
xUQ E J ES. Qk zuzu u
GUm P UPuP Ax SuuP
i. Au, GUm P { (phosphor) x
xu ES Ja \ i. sx P
Gu J \ \ (shade of grey) v EUP
C.

10.7 P& uUPm] J (Monochrome TV


transmission)

P Gkzumh P& uUPm] J


Pmh UPh 10.19 Pmhmkx. Pmhhx, a_ s
231

RF
UQ

iP
A

v
UQ

UPsnmh
C\
_P
J
uUPm]
P

snU P
AM
s
UQ

Pm]
UQ

CnUS
_

~sn[Q
\En
UQ

AM ha \P

FM s
UQ

FM J

FM Ja
\P

h 10.19 P& uUPm] J Pmhh


A Avs s A G C SvPP
UPmkx. a_ s x Pm]P s
\, Avs s x J szvS
kzukQ.
C\ U Psnmha _P, uUPm] \
\miSz u xiP Hkzvz uQ. Pzv
Aih Cu A (timing unit), A Ezv \ (wave
producing) A iUS (wave shaping) _PU
PsiUS. mh k xiz uhP vz v
{P u (repetition rate) Avs {kzumh u A
C PmkkzukQx.
uS Ah si zvS {hU P
k, Pm] UQ AkUSP UPkQx.
RF A\ (RF channel) EUPk RF Fv A
s \, C\z xiP z xiPh \zx,
zvS \PP, u mhzvS EzukQ.
JxUPmh h Fv A Avs, iPU Pmkmk A
C Ezv \kQx. v UQUS \zukuS
uha] A k AvP A UPkQx.
s Fv A a_, s UQx k
s AUS H kQx.
232

uUS Ah si hzxh uhh J,


~sn[Q uSu Quzv \PP Qx.
~sn[Qx
k
\n
\Px
JxUPmk
Fv
Avso
Avs
s
\kQx. FM J k, CvP AM Pm]
mkh _ Eu CnUPmk, Pu
Ai B Pva\ Hkzx mk J x
snU PUS \zukQx.

10.8 P& uUPm] H (Monochrome

TV

receiver)
Gkzumh P uUPm] H Pmh
UPh 10.20 C Pmhhkx. H snU P mh
RF \PP ChUQx. C\ (tuner), u A\
Avs mhz uukUQx. RF UQ SvUSz u
RF h J \PP snU P Hkzvz uQx.
RF UQ Svx Pa _ Eh A Ch
CnUPkQx. PUQ Eh A C Eu RF
\n Pm]US \PP Ch{ AvsnP
PUQkQx. RF UQ, PUQ Eh A C SvP
\u A RF C\ (tuner) G AUPkQx. C\
_ k J x IF UQ UPkQx. S
(detector) Pm]US TP JU TP, uzuP
UPkQ. FM APx Ja \PP sUP
\mk, UPmh Jm \uPP JUSz
ukQx.
ha \PP, C\ xiPx uS Pm] SvP,
u sUQUSa \zukQ. C\ xi \mh
C\ xiP, hU S Qhzu \[Szx UPz uPkPUS
ukQ. z xi GUm xUQ Pmkkzx
QkUSz ukQx. ha \PP hU S E GUm
xUQ US \zukQ.
hzv E ha \ (Potential) kPUS H
GUm xUQx GUmP EkQ. CP hU
S J v \, hzv E ha \ mh
zx A. G vx h m {PQx. Aux, h
uQx.
233

234

PUQ

C\

x IF
UQ

FM J
sUQ

Pm]
S

\n
UQ

UPsnmh
C\ \
_P

Pm]
UQ

h 10.20 P& uUPm] H & Pmhh

RF
UQ

H
snU P

IF J
UQ

hU S

10.9 h (RADAR)
RADAR

G \ RAdio Detection And Ranging G B[Q


\h _UP (acronym) BS. Cx u E J CUS
U Psh, Au { (Chzu) Ax P
i AP kzv \k J AS.

10.9.1 h uzx
"i Gv' G uzxzv Aih h
\kQx. h E A AvP v UP xiP
(space) Qx. Cu xiP u E ,
P, BP CUS P x v Azx
v\P ]uQ. snU P, ]uhu B J
Sv HU PQx. snU P H snU
PP \mk xiP HQx. xi, J
v\Pzv (3 108 ms1) \Qx. Aux Cu xiP,
J U i 300 mh uU PhUS. G
xiP CUP Ahx Ah BS Pzu GuPU
PnUQku CUS |kUP Ax uU
PnUQh. CUS v\ Psh J v\ |US
snUP (directional antenna) kQx.

10.9.2 h P H (Transmission and reception of


radar)

J G h A Pmh UPh h 10.21 C


Pmhmkx. Cu Pmhh, h A P
HUP AP CuU PmkQx.
A J A (Transmitter) xiUQ
(pulser) CUS. HS A J H, Pmi (indicator)
CUS. PP PUS, HUS J snU
P kzukQx. TR
(Transmitter Receiver Switch)\
A kzxu Cx \zvQx. Cua \ A C
a \ (duplexer) G AUPkQx. Cx, P x
snU P h, H x snU P
Hh CnUQx. Cua \ A, ~sqn Eh
H, AvPz vh HhU Ti |\US
x xPUP EuQx.
x AvPz vh xiP EUS Ev UP
Um A C BS. xiUQx xiU
235

xi
CUS
snU P

Gvz
xi

RF xi

T.R.
Ca\
R
T

(RF A)

PUQ US
H

CUPa
\ xi

Psknmh xi

xiUQ
(s)

Pmi

C\ \ xi
Pia
_
(C\ \)

C\ \ xi

h 10.21 h A Pmhh
Psk, Cu CUP (on) {zu (off) \. C,
x PU SQ Pzv ^ P Ch {P
xiP EUSQx. CuU SQ xiP snU PUS
\zukQ. snU P A US (space) Qx.
Cv kzuk snU P Ev\ A uS.
(highly directional).

mh xi, CUS h x Su
Gva \P, Au snU PUSz v .
B Cx TR \, snU P Hh CnUS.
Gv \P UPmk PUQ US H
sUPk. H Env P AvP. sUPmh k,
PmiUS (Indicator) PkUPkQx. Pmix J PzukU Pv
S BS. Amh xi Psknmh Gvz
xi CRT&x, J Qhmh Ai (baseline) Pmk.
Pia (Timer) _ EUPmh C\ xiP,
HS APUS ukQ. G, J \zv A
mh v xiP Pmix (indicator) v \.
236

v Gvz xi, Ak xi u Chzv


x Q A. Cu P A, CUQ |kUPzuU PkUS.

h P
(i) Ph n[P P xPuP

mk. EP US [P Ph E
PP A, uUP si P, P, BP, S[P,
PhPP [P h i.
(ii) BP [P xPP u[P h AP
EuQ.
P

uzu
Ahx
h
Ax \PP |hzukQP. G
Gi C, [P Kk u
x xPP u[P iQx.
(iii) z xP uSu h \PP GvUS. G
Ba]P P[P u Au Su
xz uh \ CQx.
(iv) h xiP kzxu EP[P, Gsn
ux P ux Ch[P A i.

10.10 uh \Pz uP uh CUP z uP


uh (Analog communication and digital communication)
k \PP Pa \x, uP uh
GUm (i) uh\Pz uP uh (ii) CUP z
uP uh G CPPP UPmk.

10.10.1 uh\Pz uP uh
uh\P
uP
uh,
uh
\PP
kzukQ.
uh\P
Gx
uha]P
U
PsiUS zu Ax mhS. UPP u]
i AP \v Gx S Ak uPP
U Pshx. S\P Gx J uh \PS. GkzxUPmhP
J u]a \u S \P Px Au zu 0
u 1 m GUPsh Gu J Pnzv Ak
zu[P 0.345 V, 0.1979 V G Gu J v i.
Cx uh\P uP G AUPkQx. H \Px
PkUPmk GUS Gu J v .

uh\Pz uP uh SkP
uh \Pz uP uh P u ~m Chk
(problem) Ca\ (noise) BS. s, , uP uh Cn,
237

H Ax sUQ A Gu J Svx Ca\


u. Ax \P u k. uh \Pz uP
uh A, mh (corrupted) \P Ah PsuP
PU Pkv.

10.10.2 CUP z uP uh (Digital Communication)


CUP uP uh A, uh \Pz uP
uh PkUP Cu |P,
USU
PkUQx. CUP z uP uh A, uh \Pz uP
uh E CnP PPP kzvU
P.
CUP A, xP J C Gs S. (Binary
system) C Gs Csk \P vP mk CUS. A
Ax 0 1 G AUPkQ. B C Smh
zu[P mk SUS.
u (data) G \, CUP z uP uh xP
k \ BS. u Gx Gu izv sk
CUPUTi uP BS. B A CUP US u
mk, CUPz uP uh kzu i. u m (bit) G
AhkQx (bit Gx binary digit Gu _UPS).
C Gs \PP GuP EUPkQ.
CUPa _P kzv A \kzu i.
Cu CUP a _P, uSa _P (IC) i QhUQ.
CUP a _P C Gs u (data) GuP,
AvP Pzv EUP \kzu i.

]P
(i) AP u EuP CUS. Cx A
HS PUS Ch E ua \vv.
(ii) AP A v AvPkzu i
(iii) J CP JUP U A Avso
\k AkzvP (wave guides) xP
P CUPz uP uh AvPP kQx.

SkP
(i) CUP US AP mh AP u.
(ii) uh \P x CUP US U Px PU

Pi.
238

10.10.3 h (Modem) Ax AvnUP }UQ


Modulator Demodulator Gu _UP Modem BS.

i
Ax
Poo
Ax
oP Gv

u]
PP

s sUP BQ Csk \P Cv |hQx


Gu Cu EnzxQx. }sh uS u]U
PP AuS HxP, CUP \PPz
uh \PPP h kQx.

Poo

h 10.22 h ku
A H uh\PP sUP \x
AUSa \ CUP \PPP sk Hkzu h
kQx. h 10.22 C Pmi uP uha _ C
P h CnUPkQx.

10.10.4 u |P Ax LU (Fax or Facsimile)


u |P Ax LU Gx u Ax Gzx uh
uPP P Ax i A J GUm A
BS. Aa\iUPmh \vP U Psnmhmk GUm
\PPP AuS Cx kQx. Cu GUm
\PP, s \mk, u]U PP P
AkQ. u|P Au s uh Ehu
i P Cu A.
u|P A EP h 10.23 Pmhmkx.
u|P, h[P AuS kzumh Cx J
LU Gv

h
Ah
si \v

u]U
PP

LU Gv

Eh

h 10.23 LU A
239

v mh
\v

uUPm] A. H Cx Ja \vP Ax |iU Pm]P

CUP

Ax
C.
Cu
uUPm] kzuk Au UPsnmh u
~m Cx kzvU PQx. J Aa\iUPmh Bn
Qhzu UPsnmh PP EhUPmk, mk
Au \P sk EUP U Psnmh
kzukQx.

10.10.5 P Ph (Wire and Cable)


FhP Gx uP uh A Cn (link) Ax
A\ (channel) Pu BUP Es u BS.
A uU (data) SUS B, FhPzv Pa \
H Ah i. Cu ux, P, h Ax J
C i[P CUP.
Gv PP UTi EP u BS.
Cx J | PhzvP Ex. uzu PP J
\UPmk, xP E AUPmh Pmk, Ph
(cable)
Gk.
CUP z uP uh kzuk PP P
h[P UQ PP
(i) UPmh Cn (Twisted pair)
(ii) Phzv umh P h (Multiconductor flat cable)
(iii) x Aa_U P h (Coaxial cable)

CP h 10.24 C Pmhmk. UPmh P h


Gx Gx x P hS. Cx

(a) UPmh Cn

(b) Phzv umh (c) x Aa_U


(ii) Multiconnector
(iii) Coaxial wire
P
h
Ph
flat
cable
h 10.24 uP uhUS k P
P h[P PP

(i) Twisted wire pairs

240

h 10.24a C Pmi Csk Phmh PP Jx


JP uha]P _mh A BS.
Ca\U SuPP PP UPkQ.
UPmh Cn, APzvS u]PUS Ch
kzukQx. \PP Khzvx ChzvS
Psk \uS Cu kzxx Pi.
Phzv umh izv CnU PP J x
iU E h 10.24b E UPmiUS.
CP P h 10 x 50 PPU PsiUS. AzxU
PP JP uSUPmk J J J Cn
Psk kzu i. UPmh CnU PP h umh
hzv AvP.
]P kP x Aa_ h[P kzu sk.
EP U Phzv J hL (teflon) iU
PP `miUS. PUS E Cshx
Phzvx S i P PP mh AP
CUS (tubular braid Ax shield). CUS iU P
mh S i P A xPUP P
\ EuQx. Cu AvP. Cu z u AvP
ui PnP Cu {x \ PiP CUS.

10.10.6 J Cz uP uh (Fiber optical communication)


K J AP, \ Ax J E hkP
EUPh. A Lmh hkP Pskn
kQ. J CP J AuS kzukQ.
J C Gx J Fk Psni Ax iUQ
P usk BS. Cu P J A i. Cuz
uskP P Ja \PP x HUS n \Q.
Cua \PP J C H GuP Enk. J
CP P Ja \PP A AP Gvz uzx
kQx.

|sP
(i) Ami x Hk C S
(ii) J C \x. Chzu AhzxU Pux. uU P

h[PUS Cnx.
241

(iii) J J C Jzu uU P h Pa \

\vP h AvP A \vP Cu Pa \.


(iv)
kP Ax
Au SURkP Hkv.

Ca\P

Ja\P

P
S, u]P, Pm]z u], \va \ uP
Cn J C \vz uh P kQx.

10.10.7 \PU P uP uh (Satellite communication)


u hUPmh mU G \PU P Hmh
1957B Bsix sz u~m zuS
a]hvUQx. u~mzv P UQ k uP
uh x CvUQx. JU mk AzxP
{Pa]P EP UP A xnUP Euh PsQP.
H |kP Cqzv uP uh HkzvU P
\PU PP kzv Q. P BP [P
|hk uP uha \u[P BQh Hkzx uP
uh Cv Ah[S. H \PU P |iz uUPm]
J AP kzumk Q.
Aih, \PU P uP uh Gx U A
Cn EUQ (microwaves link repeater) BS. J
\PUP u{zvx B Qx, USQx.
Au n (uplink) AvsqUS A E 2 GHz
Avso US AQx. CuPP k \PUP
{z xnUP BS. Cx U PmiS Gx
J Chzv {P Cx u. Es Cx
Au Pnzv\Pzxh C[SQx. Aux 24 o |zv
J _] iUS. G x J US |
\PUP {P Cx uQx. \PUP
x _ 36000 km u a _ x
zx {P Cx u.
h 10.25, \PUP uP uh x AU
PmkQx. E J \PUP u {[P
CnUQx. u {zxh u Cn A
CnUPkQ. u] { (switch) Ax u
{zvS G JxUPmh Cn BQ EhUQ
J[Qnu AP
(configurations)
AP
242

Rn

u {

u{

h 10.25 \PUP uP uh A
US.

EUPk \Px \[S


(processed) Ah \kQx.
u {zvx
\PU PUS AkQx. \PU Px
wUPmh n (uplink) Avso s
\mh RF AP A E {[Px
U PQx. Au AvsP UQ Rn (down
link) Avso uUSz v AQx. SURkPz uUP
Rn Avs n Avsox mk
CUS UPmiUS. u {zv U Pk
smh Fv AP Es (original) u As (base
band) \P uPP \[Pha \k (processed).
Cua \Px u APU Psk US
Ak.
WARC, (World Administrative Radio Conference) 1979 JxURmii
zuP uP uha \PUPP, nS 500 MHz mh
APzu 6 GHz AvsqUS AQ RnS 500 MHz mh
APzu 4 GHz AvsqUS AQ kzvU PQ.
|h nS 5.725 7.075 GHz Avs mh,
RnUS 3.4 4.8 GHz Avs mh kQx.

|P
(i) \PUP uP uh |hk uP uh

GuP Hkzu i.
243

(ii) }sh uPUS uP uh Hkzx x u z

uP uhU Pmi \PUP uP uh ]UPx.


(iii) J Cz uP uhh Jk x \PUP
uP uh ]uuP Ex. H, Ak \P u,
A HS {[P Ch BQ ua
\ux A.
(iv) USzx \v Su JxUS Cv hQUS
SvP, hU SvPUS \PU P uP uh P P
]UPuS.
(v) zv ]UQP muP uku Ph
nzvS \PU P uP uh Ph J
|USx P EuP, ]UPuP Ex.

SkP
(i) a_PUS (\P) Ch Hk P Ch Ga\ha

\uP Ex. CuU Puu \PU P \k v


SUQx.
(ii)
v (impedance) zu (match)
Gv EshUP. Cuz ukUP Gv JkUQ
kzu sk.
(iii) J Amh \PU P xzu
Gx Cu J.

244

wUPmh PnUSP
10.1 10 MHz Avsq, 10 mV a_ Psh \ i Fv A
J 5 KHz Avsq 6mV a_ Psh \ ia \P
A s \kQx. s A
E Avs TP A a] PsP.
uP : Fv A Avs = fc = 10 MHz
\P Avs = fs= 5 kHz = 0.005 MHz
Fv A a_ = Ec = 10 mV
\n \P a_ = Es = 6 mV
s A Avs TP = ?
s A a_ = ?
w : s Fv A RUPsh AvsPU
PsiUS.
(i)Es Fv A Avs = fc = 10 MHz
(ii) UP mh Avs, fc + f s = 10 + 0.005
= 10.005 MHz
(iii) R UP mh Avs f c f s

= 10 0.005
= 9.995 MHz

s
A s Gs m = E = 10 = 0.6
c

UP mh a_ = RUPmh a_
mEc 0.6 10
=
= 3mV
2
2
10.2 J FM \P K{ Avs 105 MHz Au
Eum\ Avs 105.03 MHz. Cx s \k x
(i) Avs UP (ii) Fv A A BQU

PnUQkP.
uP : K { Avs (f) = 105 MHz
s A Eum\ Avs(fm ) = 105.03 MHz
Avs UP f =? Fv Avs A = ?
w : Avs UP (f) = fm f
f = 105.03 105 = 0.03 MHz

Fv A A = 2 f = 2 0.03 = 0.06 MHz = 60 kHz


245

u vk
(Cu u vmk Sv, PkUPmk UP
PnUSP vP. C, h Sv Gu J
Ax PnUQ iUP. n, n u vmk
Svx mk, h x iUPhU Ti
UPUS PnUSPUS hUP Bzu \x P sk)

10.1 E Avs AP x
(a) u A
(b) U Pmi v\
(c) A sh
(d)

10.2 s \ku UQ |UP


(a) Avs Psh C AP CnUP
(b) Fv A A izu
(c) Su Avs Psh uP }sh uPUS vh

A
(d) UP mhP EUP

10.3 a_ szv
(a) Fv A a_ s A a_US H k.
(b) Fv A a_ CUS.
(c) Fv A a_ s A Avsn zx

(d) s Avs \n Avs, |kUPzv CUS

10.4 a_ szv, mh AP
(a) \P AvsqUSa \P CUS
(b) \P Avso C h[PP CUS
(c) \P Avso h[PP CUS
(d) \P Avso |S h[PP CUS
246

10.5 Pmh szv


(a) Fv A Phh mk
(b) Fv A Avs mk
(c) Fv A Pmh Avs
(d) Fv A Avs Pmh x

10.6 i E RF A\ EUSx ...


(a) \n \PP
(b) E Avs Fv AP
(c) \n \P E Avs Fv AP
(d) Su Avs Eh Fv AP

10.7 J \mhzu (hzu) Csk [PP zx J


\PskUS 50 Pm]P Au |UP
(a) hzv ]mhz uUP
(b) Eu AvsPU Px Gx Gu
(c) 50 Hz Gx Cv Au Avs

Gu
(d) \P E uu Ca\P }UP

10.8 u |P A si Aa\izu Bnzu


PP
(a) Gv

(b) UPsnmh

(c) s

(d) J k

10.9 i AP P ?
10.10 u A u USP.
10.11 A shzv A u USP.
10.12 u u G G?
10.13 szv A] x?
10.14 a_ szu USP.
10.15 s Gs G G?
10.16 mh AP Gu .
10.17 a_ szv P ?
10.18 Avs szu USP.
247

10.19 Pmh s G G?
10.20 snU P v\ |kzx v Gu .
10.21 AM i Pmhh P.
10.22 FM \mhz u h x USP.
10.23 UPsnmh G G?
10.24 U Psnmh G G?
10.25 iP {h P \mh .
10.26 P uUPm] SvP
\mh .
10.27 P uUPm] H \ Pmhh x
USP.
10.28 h uzxzu USP.
10.29 h kP ?
10.30 hzv uzxzu USP.
10.31 uz uP uh kzuk P P
h[P ?
10.32 J Cz uP uh |P ?
10.33 J J {zv 1000 kHz Fv A 1005000 Hz
Avs |kUP \n \P s
\kQx, G (i) UP mh ]
AvsP (ii) R UP mh ] AvsP
(iii) A\ AP BQU PnUQkP.

hP
10.1 (c)

10.2 (c)

10.3 (a)

10.4 (b)

10.5 (c)

10.6 (b)

10.7 (a)

10.8 (b)

10.33 1005 kHz 1000.1 kHz,


999.9 kHz 995 kHz, 10 kHz.

248

n
(uUS Eu)

Jmhku UP {P kP
Szu[P Hk UP, A u
x kQx. C UQx { BP
JP, JU PkUS J USPP
kuS. CSv \ UP Jz u |
USP (i) \i B US (ii) u\ B US
(iii) J US BQ A.

\i B US (Sodium Vapour lamp)


CUS `hmh Pzuk | u UPzv
Aih \kQx.

E1

E2

249

\i B US hzv Pmhmkx. UPU


Sx U i UPmk C P E1, E2 G
Csk P zumiUS. S EmSv
\izv xPP UPmiUS. S ]u {
10 mm u\ Azuzv {miUS. Cx UQ
xUP Eu. CUS AvP J E 300o C CUP
sk. Cz uUP UPU Sa _
Cmha _ Psh hU S Ex. UQ xUP
400V zu u, Cx, J P] k.
uhUPzv { US Hmk ] { J
u. UQ EshS \iz xPP
BUP xx. Cu P UP g\ { J
. C{ US \h 220V mk xx.
\i B US C BU Thzv J { J
Pa \kQx. , x Ch[P, PhP
kQx.
(ii) u\ B US (Mercury Vapour lamp)
u\ B US `hmh Pzuk _ 600oC
{ \k. Cu A \i B UQ
x.
EmP Ax S 10 mm u\ Azuzv
u\, BP ]u {miUS. S
P Csk UQ P zumiUS. xUQ
US G Esk (starting electrode).
Cu Ax h E `miUS. xUS ,
BP UQz xUS. ]x |zv
u\, BQ US Hmk J Hk.
250

CUS Su zuzv \k. Czu uSu


Aha _ (choke) PkUPk.
CUQx J AvP A FuUPvP, Fu,
}, a\ { JU PsiUS. u\ B USP
xP uUPP, C BU Thzv kQx.
(ii) J US (Fluorescent lamp)
J US Gx, US |h Pa
\uuS. Cu S US (tube light) G Txsk.
P hmh, US JP, J \i (pair) P
E PsniU S Ex. S ]x u\, BP
G u UPmiUS. Azu 1mm G
AP SP CUS. P h[h P
B. S EmSv { (phosphor)

251

xUQ
_m_

{
a_
F]P

m
u\

AC

[Q

BP

\miUS. C, FuU Pva\ Qa]ha \


x Psq J E.
_m\ CUQ, 220V zuzuU Pkzu,
PUS Ch E xUQ (starter) { UQS
zu zu \kzuk. { Gx P
kzxQx. P J DP (bimetallic)
S. DP hx, z uku
xUQ SUS _ (short - circuit) HkQx. Cu PnP,
P AvP mh Qx. PU SQ Pzv
P hQ. { US Sa]hQx.
DP _[Q, { UQ _ uh HkQx. m
(Ballast) Gk ysi Cu _, Pn |zvS
zu AvPQx. Cu PnP, S PUS
Ch E u\, BP P US |hQx. Cu
US {kzumhh, xUQ US Hhu
AS Au SUP zu k PU SP CUS.

252

S UP |hu, ES FuU
PvP, Ema _ E { EmPmk
Psq J EkQx.
m Gx 50 Hz Avso uSu v
Hkzv, Smh vS mhzuU SUS J
ysiS. S AUP \z u
zuzu Ax Cu ysiS.
xP, xzu|P \m Pm m
{ PP kzuku
EkQx. uSu { P kzv sn
J Ek.
\un UPh J UQ AvP.
G, kP C AvPP kzxQ. CUSP
PsP AvP Ta\UPa (glare) \x. AhUP
{ EUPx. CUSP \\ B P AvP.

| uUPm]z v
uUPm] H k hUSUS (CRT)
AvP mh AvP zu ukQx.
hUSx, UP Pu [P
EUSQx. u PuU Pva_P uU
PsP vha \Q. hUS AvP
Chzu AhzxU PQx. Cz uUP, uPzv,
&h PooP (lap-top) Eu umh
vP, hUSUS P kzukQ. Cuz
umhzv Pm] Hkzu J E hkP (LED)
Ax v iPU Pm] (LCD) uS
kzukQx. Gv P[P Pooz vP,
uUPm] hUS PukU
PvSUS vP L C D Pm] k.
253

254

255

256

257

258

259

260

261

262

263

Aih C P
uP
1. Aq { AS

amu

1.66 1027 kg

2. APm Gs

NA

6.02 1023 mol1

3. GUm {

me

9.11 1031 kg

4. GUm & m

eV

1.602 1019 J

5. Aih mh

1.602 1019 C

6. {m {

mn

1.67 1027 kg

7. hzv EmSv

4 107 H/m

8. hzv kv

8.854 1012 C2 N1 m2

9. [

6.626 1034 Js

10. mh {

mp

1.67 1027 kg

e/m

1.759 1011C/kg

12. B

r1

0.53

13. mU

1.094 107 m1

11. GUm mh

{z uP

14. 1 amu&UP B

931 MeV

15. m Ai { B

13.6 eV

16. hzv J P

3.00 108 m/s


264

P P

(Bibliography)

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Fundamental University Physics, M. Alonso & E.J. Finn,
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General Physics, Morton M. Sternheim and Joseph W. Kane, John
Wiley (1986).
Physics Foundations and Frontiers, G. Gamov and J.M.
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University Physics, H.D. Young, M.W. Zemansky and F.W. Sears,
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J.R. Albright.
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Publishing Company Ltd., New Delhi (1984).
Contd....,

265

Electronic Devices and Circuits, Theodore F-Bogart, Universal


Book Stall, New Delhi (1990).
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P. Leach, Third Edition, Tata Mcgraw Hill

Publishing Company

Ltd., New Delhi (1981)


Hand Book of Electronics, Gupta & Kumar - Pragati Prakashan,
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266