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1, 2012

**Arnold Cat Map (ACM) for Secure Image Communication
**

Lokesh P Gagnani1 and Prof. Preeti Dave2

1

Department of Information Technology, Shantilal Shah Engineering College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India gagnani.lokesh@gmail.com

2

Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering, Shantilal Shah Engineering College, Gujarat, India preetidave@yahoo.com

Abstract

In this paper, I present the method of Arnold’s Cat Map which is a chaotic type method. This method does not directly deal with Encryption, however it makes the encryption of an image tough to decrypt. Here the image is scrambled using Arnold after which appropriate image encryption algorithm can be applied. For this Matlab R2010a is used for simulations & results.

**Keywords: Chaos, Arnold’s Cat Map, encryption of image, scrambling 1. Introduction
**

Huge amounts of digital data especially visual data are stored on different media and exchanged over various sorts of networks nowadays. Very often these visual information may be private or confidential or associated with financial interests. As a result, techniques are required to provide security functionalities like privacy, integrity, or authentication especially suited for the data type. Hence they need to be protected. The common method of protecting the digital documents is to scramble the content so that the true message of the documents is unknown. There are various techniques to achieve this for example compression, digital watermarking, steganography and cryptography. In this paper I focus on the security mechanism of Arnold’s Catmap which scrambles the data which can be further used in encryption algorithm for protecting sensitive documents/images. Arnold’s Cat map is a chaotic map method. Chaos theory is a scientific discipline that focuses on the study of nonlinear systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions that is similar to random behavior, and continuous system. The properties of chaotic systems are: (i) Deterministic, this means that they have some determining mathematical equations ruling their behavior. (ii) Unpredictable and non-linear, this means they are sensitive to initial conditions. Even a very slight change in the starting point can lead to significant different outcomes. (iii) Appear to be random and disorderly but in actual fact they are not. Beneath the random behavior there is a sense of order and pattern. The highly unpredictable and random–look nature of chaotic output is the most attractive feature of deterministic chaotic system that may lead to various novel applications.

2. Architecture

Here the Arnold Cat Map does not have any architecture since it is a mathematical concept. However we can described as follows. In the 1960s Vladimir Arnold discovered the ACM, and he used the image of a cat in his work. Before stating the definition of the ACM, there are a few words that need to be defined and they are torus and phase space. A torus is the surface of a revolving circle in three dimensional spaces, around a disconnected axis that is coplanar to the circle. A phase space is a space in which all possible states of a system are represented, where the different states are all represented by one unique point in that phase space.

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No.1, 2012

A chaotic map known as the ACM is a discrete system that stretches and folds the trajectories in phase space, which will be a torus. Mathematically the ACM is defined as the following: Let X= be the n ×n matrix, then the ACM transformation is,

x y

Г: →

x y

1 1 x mod n = 1 2 y

1 0 1 1 x 1 1 0 1 y modn

i.e.) Г: (x,y) → (x + y, x + 2y)mod n Note: mod is the remainder of

x y and n. x 2 y

We can also represent this as the system shown below, x2 = (2x1+y1)mod 1 y2=(x1 + y1) mod1 Arnold's Cat Map is a transformation that can be applied to an image. The pixels of the image appear to be randomly rearranged, but when the transformation is repeated enough times, the original image will reappear. The transformation is as follows: 1. 2. Shear the image in the both the x- and y-directions by a factor of 1. Wrap the image back onto itself i.e. treat it like a torus (doughnut shape). This is a way of treating a 2D grid like it has no edges.

This transformation demonstrates some of the principles of chaos i.e. underlying order to an apparently random evolution of a system. This transformation is shown in Figure 1 as below:

Shearing

Mod

Figure 1. Image Subjected to ACM Matrix

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No.1, 2012 Procedure: The first step in applying the ACM is to represent the image as an n ×n matrix that is made

up of the pixels values for that particular image; therefore each entry will be a numerical representation of the corresponding pixel color. The next step is to apply the ACM to this matrix. The first part of the map, shears the image so that the end result is a picture that looks similar to the original image but stretched. The next step is to evaluate the mod; this splits the image up and then reassembles it into another image that restores the original n ×n dimension. The definition means the ACM is continuously applying its map to a given input and each of the iterations moves the pixel values to a unique corresponding point along the same torus. In other words, the ACM is iterating the picture in the given torus, and each iteration will provide us with a new image that has the same dimensions. As stated before eventually the iterated images will return to the original image.

3. Experimental Results

The Results were experimented using the Matlab 2010a on an earth.bmp image. The original image is iterated 30 times to get the original image. Image size is 101x101. The Results are depicted below in Figure 2:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

Figure 2. ACM applied to Earth Image (a) Original Image (b) Iteration 1 (c) Iteration 2 (d) Iteration 5 (e) Iteration 25 (f) Iteration 28 (g) Iteration 29 (h) Iteration 30 As illustrated the original image is obtained after 30 iterations. Thus from any one iteration of image except the 1 & 30 can be used in encryption process which makes security tough to crack. According to the Poincare Recurrence Theorem, after a set number of iterations of the ACM the original image will return . The random relationship between the size of the image and how many iterations it takes to return to the original image is depicted in the table1:

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International Journal of Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No.1, 2012

**Table 1. Relationship between Dimension of an image and Iteration of ACM Dimension of Image nxn matrix
**

300x300 257x257 183x183 157x157 150x150 100x100

**Number of Iterations to return to original Image
**

300 258 60 157 30 100

4. Conclusion

We conclude that the scrambled image is not easier to recognize hence can be used for secure communication along with the encryption & decryption process. Also the ACM can be further proposed for video files. However it works with the JPEG files.

5. Acknowledgement

Here I would thank Prof Preeti Dave working as Asst Prof at SSEC for guiding in my work. Also would like to thank Prof. Mehul Parikh for helping me to complete this work. At last thankful to Prof. Parmar sir & Prof V G Patel without whom I could take this initiative.

6. References

[1] Yuanmei Wang and Tao Li, "Study on Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Arnold Transformation and Chaotic System", IEEE Transcations on, pp. 449-451,2010. [2] Ma Ding, Fan Jing, "Digital Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Improved Arnold Transform", IEEE Transactions on, pp. 174-176, 2010. [3] Dr. D. M. Shah, IMAGE ENCRYPTION & DECRYPTION MODEL. [4] Anil K. Jain: "Fundamentals Of Digital Image Processing", PHI, 1997. [5] ZHANG Yun-peng, ZHAI Zheng-jun, LIU Wei, "Digital Image Encryption Algorithm Based on Chaosan & Improved DES", IEEE Transactions on, pp. 474-479, 2009. [6] Li Cao, Lequan Min, Hongyan Zang, "A Chaos-Based Pseudorandom Number Generator and Performance Analysis", pp. 494 – 498, Dec 2009, IEEE. [7] Sudhir Keshari,,Dr. S. G. Modani, "Image Encryption Algorithm based on Chaotic Map Lattice and Arnold cat map for Secure Transmission", IJCST Vol. 2, Iss ue 1, March 2011. [8] Mao-Yu Huang, Yueh-Min Huang, Ming-Shi Wang, "Image encryption algorithm based on chaotic maps", pp. 154 – 158, Dec2010, IEEE. [9] Keyvanpour, M.R, Farnoosh, M, "A new encryption method for secure embedding in image watermarking", pp. V2-403 - V2-407, Aug 2010, IEEE.

Authors Profile

Mr. Lokesh Gagnani is pursuing Masters in Information Technology field from Gujarat Technology University. He completed Bachelors in IT from CCET, Wadhwan in 2007. He was a student at GFSU, Gandhinagar. His interests include Image Processing, Mobile Communication, Cryptography & Network Security, Web Services, Database Systems. He has done various projects on Android, Oracle, Dot net.

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