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CHAPTER 5

5.2 Polygon of forces

Case 1: A particle in equilibrium as a result of two forces acting on it as shown in Figure 5.3.

r F2

r F1

Figure 5.3

They are equal in magnitude but opposite in the direction, thus Case 2: A particle in equilibrium as a result of three forces acting on it as shown in Figure 5.4.

∑F = F

1

− F2 = 0

i.e.

∑F

x

= 0 OR

∑F

y

=0

r F3

Figure 5.4

r F1

r F2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

1

thus r r F2 i.e.e. thus r F1 r F4 r F3 ∑ i. ∑ r r r r F = F1 + F2 + F3 = 0 ∑F x = 0 and ∑ Fy = 0 r F3 r F2 Case 3: A particle in equilibrium as a result of r four forces acting on it as shown in F4 Figure 5.PHYSICS F1 r F3 CHAPTER 5 They are form a closed triangle of forces. r r r r r F = F1 + F2 + F3 + F4 = 0 r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 F2 14 13 ∑F x = 0 and ∑F y =0 2 . Figure 5.5.5 r F1 They will form a closed polygon of forces.

The load is pulled by a horizontal force such that the cable makes a 30° angle to the vertical plane. the magnitude of the horizontal force. b.81 m s−2) Solution : m = 250 kg Free body diagram of the load : r T Ty 30o 30o r F 60 o r F Tx r mg 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 3 . If the load is in the equilibrium. calculate a. the magnitude of the tension in the cable.PHYSICS Example 1 : CHAPTER 5 A load of 250 kg is hung by a crane’s cable. (Given g =9.

therefore 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 (2) F − (2833 )cos 60 o = 0 F = 1417 N 4 .81) = −2453 0 T sin 60o Since the load is in the r equilibrium. Force x-component (N) y-component (N) r mg r F r T 0 F − T cos 60o − mg = −(250 )(9. (1). By substituting eq. then Thus ∑ ∑F ∑F =0 Fx = 0 y F − T cos 60 o = 0 (1) =0 T sin 60 o − 2453 = 0 T = 2833 N b.PHYSICS CHAPTER 5 Solution : m = 250 kg 1st method : a. (2) into eq.

mg = cos 30o T (250 )(9. then a closed triangle of forces can be sketched as shown below.81) = cos 30 o T T = 2833 N F = sin 30o T F = sin 30o 2833 F = 1417 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 5 . r mg 30 o r T From the closed triangle of forces. hence r F b.PHYSICS CHAPTER 5 Solution : m = 250 kg 2nd method : a. Since the load is in the equilibrium.

0 o A F3 = 30 N Figure 5.0 o 55.6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 6 .PHYSICS Example 2 : CHAPTER 5 F2 = 20 N F1 = 12 N o 30.6 Calculate the magnitude and direction of a force that balance the three forces acted at point A as shown in Figure 5.0 45.

2 Fy To find a force to balance the three forces means the system must be in equilibrium hence ∑F x =0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 6.0o = 9.0o = −21.0o = 10.88 − 17.3 − 30 cos 45.2 Fx 12 sin 55.88 − 20 cos 30.3 − 21.PHYSICS Solution : Force CHAPTER 5 F1 = 12 N. F3 = 30 N x-component (N) y-component (N) r F1 r F2 r F3 r F 12 cos 55.83 20 sin 30.0o = −17. F2 = 20 N.0o = −21.0 − 30 sin 45.2 + Fx = 0 Fx = 31.6 N 7 .0o = 6.

6 θ = 2.48o from the +x-axis anticlockwise 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 8 .2 + Fy = 0 Fy = 1. F= and its direction.0 − 21. (Fx )2 + (Fy )2 −1 = (31.37 )2 F = 31.PHYSICS Solution : CHAPTER 5 =0 9.6)2 + (1.6 N Fy θ = tan F x −1 1.83 + 10.37 θ = tan 31.37 N y ∑F The magnitude of the force.

b. The brush weighs 10.PHYSICS Example 3 : CHAPTER 5 r F 50. the normal force exerted by the window on the brush. the magnitude of the force F .7.0 N and the coefficient of kinetic friction is µk= 0.7 A window washer pushes his scrub brush up a vertical window at constant speed by applying a force F as shown in Figure 5. Calculate a.125.0o Figure 5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 9 .

125 N = 10.125 N The brush moves up at r constant speed (a=0) so that ∑ Thus ∑ ∑F Fx = 0 y N = F cos 50.0o CHAPTER 5 Solution : W = 10.0 o − 0.0 N. The free body diagram of the brush : Force constant speed r N r W r fk r F r W r N r fk x-component (N) y-component (N) F cos 50.0o 0 −N 0 r F = ma = 0 − 10.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .0o (1) (2) 10 =0 F sin 50.PHYSICS r F 50.125 a.0o F sin 50.0 0 − µk N = −0. µk = 0.

thus F sin 50. By substituting eq. (2).PHYSICS CHAPTER 5 Solution : a.6 N b.0o N = 9.125 F cos 50.6)cos 50.0o − 0.0o N = (14.0 F = 14.0o = 10. (1) into eq.39 N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 11 . Therefore the normal force exerted by the window on the brush is given by ( ) N = F cos 50.

28 N. 1. CHAPTER 5 g = 9.8 is in equilibrium. the tensions T1. : 49 N. b. the angle θ. with the string at the centre exactly horizontal. 29° 29° 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 12 .PHYSICS Exercise 5. Calculate a. T2 and T3.8 The system in Figure 5.1 : Use gravitational acceleration. ANS.81 m s−2 Figure 5. 57 N.

300 N 13 . CHAPTER 5 Figure 5. Rope B pulls downward and to the side on the ball.9 A 20 kg ball is supported from the ceiling by a rope A. If the angle of A to the vertical is 20° and if B makes an angle of 50° to the vertical as shown in Figure 5.PHYSICS Exercise 5. : 134 N. ANS.9. Determine the tension in ropes A and B.1 : 2.

The coefficient of static friction between the block and the wall is 0. CHAPTER 5 Figure 5. 48.10. : 31.8 N.PHYSICS Exercise 5. Determine the possible values for the magnitude of P that allow the block to remain stationary. ANS.6 N 14 .00 kg is pushed up against a wall by a force P that makes a 50.1 : 3.10 A block of mass 3.250.0 ° angle with the horizontal as show in Figure 5.

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