Over view of cloud computing

A TECHNICAL SEMINAR REPORT ON

OVER VIEW OF CLOUD COMPUTING
Submitted to the Dept. of Information Technology, MXIT In the partial fulfillment of the academic requirements for the award of B. Tech (IT) under JNTUH

Bachelor of Technology IN Information technology

Submitted By MOHAN RAO JEJJI 08RM1A1217 Under the guidance of Mrs. Deepthi

DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Matrix Institute of Technology
Cheekatimamidi, Bomalaramaram Mandal, Nalgonda Dist., 508 116. Affiliated to Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad Hyderabad-500 08

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Over view of cloud computing

MATRIX INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
(Accredited by AICTE, Recognized by Govt. Of A.P. and Affiliated to JNTUH) Chikatimamidi, Bommalaramaram, Nalgonda Dist.

DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that technical seminar report is bonafide work of (MOHAN RAO JEJJI) bearing Regd.No, 08RM1A1217, who carried out the seminar, entitled ³OVER VIEW OF CLOUD COMPUTING´ under our supervision in February 2012 in matrix institute of technology department of information technology.

Principal Mr. K Anandh Kumar

Head of the Department Ms. T Divya kumari.

Submitted for viva voice examination held on««««««««««..

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

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Over view of cloud computing

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My Sincere thanks to our beloved principal prof. K.ANAND KUMAR for his encouraging support and guidance in carrying out the project, in spite of his busy schedule. My heartful thanks to my PARENTS for being source of inspiration, for giving their valuable suggestions and constant encouragement which helped me in completing this project successfully. I am indeed indebt to our Head of the Department Ms. T. DIVYA KUMARI for giving her valuable suggestions and constant encouragement which helped us in completing this project successfully. Finally, I would like to thank the other staff members of the Department of INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY and our friends who have directly or indirectly helped us on sustaining this Endeavour.

MOHAN RAO JEJJI 08RM1A1217

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08RM1A1217 hereby declare that the technical seminar report entitled OVER VIEW OF CLOUD COMPUTING done by me is submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of bachelor of technology in department of information technology in matrix institute of technology is our original work. Recognized by Govt. Nalgonda Dist. Of A. DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DECLARATION I MOHAN RAO JEJJI with Regd.Over view of cloud computing MATRIX INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (Approved by AICTE. and Affiliated to JNTUH) Cheekatimamidi. DATE PLACE: Mohan rao Jejji 08RM1A1217 Page | 4 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) .P. Bommalaramaram.

Over view of cloud computing Abstract Page | 5 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) .

but also load-balancing of data throughput. elasticity includes both up. Clouds as we understand them in the context of this document are primarily Platforms that allow execution in various forms (see below) across multiple resources (and potentially across enterprise boundaries. Platform or Software / Application. In cloud environments. Cloud providers typically centre on one type of cloud functionality provisioning: Infrastructure. a cloud is a platform or infrastructure that enables execution of code (services. Page | 6 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . whereas ³managed´ means that reliability According to pre-defined quality parameters is automatically ensured and ³elastic´ implies that the resources are put to use according to actual current requirements observing overarching Requirement definitions ± implicitly. To be more specific. individual roles can be identified similar to the typical role distribution in Service Oriented Architectures and in particular in (business oriented) Virtual Organizations.Over view of cloud computing OVER VIEW OF CLOUD COMPUTING ABSTRACT: A 'cloud' is an elastic execution environment of resources involving multiple Stakeholders and providing a metered service at multiple granularities for a Specified level of quality (of service).and downward scalability of Resources and data.). in a managed and elastic fashion. As the roles relate strongly to the individual business models it is imperative to have a clear definition of the types of roles involved in order to ensure common understanding. Applications etc.

1. 5. 3. Cloud stacks 3.2.Over view of cloud computing CONTENTS S. 5. 5.5 Private clouds public clouds Hybrid clouds Community clouds special purpose clouds 5.2. 4. 2.4.NO 1. 2.4.2 4.1.2.1. Cloud environment roles 5.1.4. 3.3. 3. IaaS PaaS SaaS Cloud computing architecture What things will be needed to cloud computing? PAGE NO 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 19 19 19 19 20 Deployment types of clouds 4. 4. CONTENT NAME Introduction What is cloud computing? 2. 4. Cloud providers Resellers and aggregators Adaptors Cloud consumers and users Page | 7 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . 4.3.

Business scenarios in cloud computing 9. Web management services eScience/eENGINEERING Real time services 10.2.1.2. 8.4.2.3.3. 7.1. Non functional aspects Economic aspects Technical aspects PAGE NO 21 21 22 24 26 26 26 26 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 31 32 35 36 37 Related areas in cloud computing 7.1. 6.4.1. 7. 7. 12. High performance computing Business process management 9. Internet of services Internet of things The grid Service oriented architecture 8.Over view of cloud computing S. 11.2. 13. 6. 7. 9. Key Advantages That Cloud Computing Delivers to IT Signification of cloud computing Conclusion References Page | 8 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . 9.NO 6. Other developments in cloud computing 8. CONTENT NAME Special characteristics and capabilities of cloud computing 6.

Over view of cloud computing Over view of cloud computing Page | 9 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) .

Fortunately. vendors are rising to this challenge. we¶d have many fewer applications today. one that will run within an organization). the rise of hardware and software virtualization. Page | 10 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . and the push to make IT costs variable and transparent. By deploying IT infrastructure and services over the network. as well as the infrastructure on which they operate. One of the most important parts of that shift is the advent of cloud platforms. this kind of platform lets developers write applications that run in the cloud. maturing standards. Whatever it¶s called. and a number of cloud platform technologies are available today. an organization can purchase these resources on an as-needed basis and avoid the capital costs of software and hardware. INTRODUCTION 1. interacting with storage. As its name suggests. Those resources can include applications and services.e. Similarly. or use services provided from the cloud. while other computers in the environment offer services such as remote storage. as opposed to hosting and operating those resources locally. much of what that application needs already exists. When a development team creates an on-premises application (i. managed services have long been a part of the IT landscape. Introduction: The coming shift to cloud computing is a major change in our industry. An operating system provides basic support for executing the application. While remotely hosted. To see why. we won¶t see many cloud applications. With cloud computing. If the creators of every on-premises application first had to build all of these basics. Its broadest usage. this new way of supporting applications has great potential. a heightened interest in cloud computing is being fueled by ubiquitous networks. Different names are used for this kind of platform today. IT capacity can be adjusted quickly and easily to accommodate changes in demand.Over view of cloud computing 1. including on-demand platform and platform as a service (PaaS). if every development team that wishes to create a cloud application must first build its own cloud platform. or both. such as on a college or university network. The goal of this overview is to categorize and briefly describe those technologies as they¶re seen by someone who creates enterprises.. and more. the term cloud computing refers to the Delivery of scalable IT resources over the Internet. think about how application platforms are used today.

consumers of cloud services may see increased reliability. and failover functions. Cloud computing presents IT organizations with a fundamentally different model of operation. one that takes advantage of the maturity of web applications and networks and the rising interoperability of computing systems to provide IT services. and cloud computing affords access to these providers of ³green IT. particularly for research projects that require vast amounts of storage or processing capacity for a limited time. As a result. Cloud providers specialize in particular applications and services. cloud computing allows college and university IT providers to make IT costs transparent and thus match consumption of IT services to those who pay for such services. disaster recovery. and this expertise allows them to efficiently manage upgrades and maintenance. organizations can monitor current needs and make on-the-fy adjustments to increase or decrease capacity. Aside from the potential to lower costs. Some companies have built data centers near sources of renew-able energy. Cloud computing encourages IT organizations and providers to increase standardization of protocols and processes so that the many pieces of the cloud computing model can interoperate properly and efficiently. backups. In other words. colleges and universities gain the flexibility of being able to respond quickly to requests for new services by purchasing them from the cloud. even as costs decline due to economies of scale and other production factors.Over view of cloud computing 2. clouds as we understand them in the context of this document are primarily platforms that allow execution in various forms across multiple resources and potentially across enterprise boundaries.´ Finally. accommodating spikes in demand without paying for unused capacity during slower times. Page | 11 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . Cloud computing scalability is another key benefit to higher education. What is cloud computing? A 'cloud' is an elastic execution environment of resources involving multiple stakeholders and providing a metered service at multiple granularities for a specified level of quality of service). With cloud computing. such as wind farms and hydroelectric facilities.

1Cloud computing system architecture: Figure 1: Non-Exhaustive view on the main aspects forming a cloud system.Over view of cloud computing 2. Page | 12 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) .

Abstraction: Your business should focus on your core competency & should not worry about security. you don¶t need to care for the OS. This is the concept which helps the cloud providers to attain optimum utilization of resources.2Cloud Computing is a style of computing which must cater to the following computing needs: 1. Dynamism: Your business is growing exponentially. updates and patches etc. Say. the plug-ins.2. Dynamism 2. web security or the software platform.3.21.Over view of cloud computing 2. Recession is back & your business is losing customers. software platform. sometimes seasonal traffic burst as well. a company dealing in gifts may require more server resources during festive season. A company dealing in Payroll management may require more resources during the end or beginning of the month. Everything should be in place without any worry. Leave these chores to your provider. 2. OS.2. From an end users perspective. Would you add servers & other hardware¶s to meet the new demand? Assume. The cloud architecture is implemented in such a way that it provides you the flexibility to share application as well as other network resources (hardware etc). Will you sale them? Demand keeps on changing based on world/regional economy. Your computing need & usage is getting bigger with every passing day. The servers & hardware¶s you added during last quarter¶s peak season is now idle. Resource Sharing 2. That¶s where Cloud Computing comes to your rescue! You just need to configure & your provider will take care of fluctuating demand. Abstraction 3. Page | 13 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . Resource Sharing: Resource Sharing is the beauty of Cloud Computing.3. 2.

Software as a Service (SaaS) Fig 2: cloud stacks Page | 14 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . Platform as a Service (PaaS) 3. Cloud Stacks Cloud Services can be dived into 3 stacks: 1. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 2.Over view of cloud computing 3.

Examples: Amazon EC2. so that they are typically exposed as part of a ³virtualized environment´ (not to be mixed with PaaS below).Over view of cloud computing 3. Compute Clouds provide access to computational resources. Examples: Force.2Platform as a Service (PaaS): PaaS Provide computational resources via a platform upon which applications and services can be developed and hosted. PaaS typically makes use of dedicated APIs to control the behavior of a server hosting engine which executes and replicates the execution according to user requests (e. Zimory. CPUs. Examples: Amazon S3. Elastichosts. weighing resource usage with access requirements and / or quality definition. i. So far. such lowlevel resources cannot really be exploited on their own. different resources may be provided via a service interface: Data & Storage Clouds deal with reliable access to data of potentially dynamic size. As each provider exposes his / her own API according to the respective key capabilities. Google App Engine. IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) offers additional capabilities over a simple compute service. applications developed for one specific cloud provider cannot be moved to another cloud host.e. in which to execute cloudified services and applications. SQL Azure.g. There are however attempts to extend generic programming models with cloud capabilities (such as MS Azure). Compute Cloud Providers therefore typically offer the capability to provide computing resources (i.e. Page | 15 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) .1 Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): IaaS also referred to as Resource Clouds. provide (managed and scalable) resources as services to the user ± in other words. raw access to resources unlike PaaS that offer full software stacks to develop and build applications). Accordingly. they basically provide enhanced virtualization capabilities.e.com. 3. hypervisors. access rate). typically virtualized. i. Windows Azure (Platform).

2.Over view of cloud computing PaaS cloud will have two different layers: 1. Cloud OS Cloud middleware Fig 3: PaaS cloud layered architecture Page | 16 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) .

they can afford best software solution for their business without investing anything at all on the infrastructure or development platform or skilled manpower. The only requirement for SaaS is a computer with browser.e. On-Premise apps also require a higher number of skilled developers to maintain the application. Now. which results in a high TCO (Total Cost of Ownership). On-Premise applications are quite expensive. SaaS (Software as a Service). affordable only to big enterprises.3 Software as a Service (SaaS): This is the Top most layer of the cloud computing stack . quite basic.directly consumed by end user ± i. Why? Cause On-Premise applications had a very high upfront Cap Ex(Capital Expenditure). In its current avatar SaaS is going to be the best bet for SMEs/SMBs (Small & Mid size businesses).Over view of cloud computing 3. Fig 4: cloud computing architecture wt SaaS Page | 17 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . SaaS is a recurring subscription based model delivered to customer on demand ± Pay as you use.

sensitive data by employing local private clouds. As noted in the context of cloud types. respectively offer their own services to users outside of the company. Functionalities are not directly exposed to the customer.3Hybrid Clouds: Though public clouds allow enterprises to outsource parts of their infrastructure to cloud providers. 4.2 Public Clouds: Enterprises may use cloud functionality from others. Google Apps. In some cases.Over view of cloud computing 4. Example: Amazon. Page | 18 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . Providing the user with the actual capability to exploit the cloud features for his / her own purposes also allows other enterprises to outsource their services to such cloud providers. Hybrid clouds consist of a mixed employment of private and public cloud infrastructures so as to achieve a maximum of cost reduction through outsourcing whilst maintaining the desired degree of control over e. Deployment types of cloud computing 4. the scope of functionalities thereby may differ. 4. though in some cases services with cloud enhanced features may be offered ± this is similar to (Cloud) Software as a Service from the customer point of view. Windows Azure. thus reducing costs and effort to build up their own infrastructure. Example: eBay. this is not desired by the respective enterprise.g.1 Private Clouds: Are typically owned by the respective enterprise and / or leased. they at the same time would lose control over the resources and the distribution / management of code and data.

i. Specialized functionalities are provided e. customer demand and available expertise. by the Google App Engine which provides specific capabilities dedicated to distributed document management. Page | 19 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . Community clouds can either aggregate public clouds or dedicated resource infrastructures. cross-boundary structures. use case specific methods. 4. PaaS clouds tend to provide functionalities more specialized to specific use cases.e.g. For example smaller organizations may come together only to pool their resources for building a private community cloud. As opposed to this. it can be expected that future systems will provide even more specialized capabilities to attract individual user areas.5 Special Purpose Clouds: In particular IaaS clouds originating from data centers have a ³general purpose´ appeal to them.4 Community Clouds: Typically cloud systems are restricted to the local infrastructure. as their according capabilities can be equally used for a wide scope of use cases and customer types. Similar to general service provisioning (web based or not). clouds do not aggregate infrastructures to build up larger. whilst proprietary data implies that structure of data and interface are specific to the provider. In particular smaller SMEs could profit from community clouds to which different entities contribute with their respective (smaller) infrastructure. due to competition. Though the provider could actually resell the infrastructure of another provider. resellers such as Zimory may pool cloud resources from different providers and resell them.Over view of cloud computing 4. which should not be confused with ³proprietariness´ of the platform: specialization implies providing additional. As opposed to this. providers of public clouds offer their own infrastructure to customers. We may thereby distinguish between private and public community clouds.

individual roles can be identified similar to the typical role distribution in Service Oriented Architectures and in particular in (business oriented) Virtual Organizations.g. Note that hosts of cloud enhanced services (SaaS) are typically referred to as Service Providers. enhanced offerings to local companies (especially SME¶s) and world-class applications in important European industry sectors. This enables them to e.2 Resellers or Aggregators: Resellers or Aggregators aggregate cloud platforms from cloud providers to either provide a larger resource infrastructure to their customers or to provide enhanced features. 5. though there may be ambiguity between the terms Service Provider and Cloud Provider. virtual machines and / or direct access to the resources (IaaS).Over view of cloud computing 5 CLOUD ENVIRONMENT ROLES In cloud environments.3 Adopters or (Software / Services): Vendors enhance their own services and capabilities by exploiting cloud platforms from cloud providers or cloud resellers. The cloud enhanced services thus effectively become software as a service. They will match the economic benefits of global cloud infrastructures with the understanding of local customer needs by providing highly customized. provide services that scale to dynamic demands ± in particular new business entries who cannot estimate the uptake / demand of their services as yet. As the roles relate strongly to the individual business models it is imperative to have a clear definition of the types of roles involved in order to ensure common understanding.1 Providers: Providers offer clouds to the customer ± either via dedicated APIs (PaaS). 5. 5. This relates to community clouds in so far as the cloud aggregators may expose a single interface to merged cloud infrastructure. Page | 20 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) .

but supporting tools such as programming environments. not to improve the services and capabilities they offer. Fig 5: cloud computing environment Page | 21 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) .4 Consumers or Users: Consumers are users make direct use of the cloud capabilities (cf. however.e. below) ± as opposed to cloud resellers and cloud adopters. but to make use of the direct results. 5. virtual machine management etc. Note that this involves in particular larger enterprises which outsource their in-house infrastructure to reduce cost and efforts (see also hybrid clouds). i.Over view of cloud computing 5. either to execute complex computations or to host a flexible data set.5 Tool Providers: Tool providers do not actually provide cloud capabilities. Note that future market developments will most likely enable the user to become provider and consumer at the same time.

Over view of cloud computing 6.1. no code reset during execution etc. 6. basic QoS metrics like response time. potentially non-functional requirements. Interestingly. Reliability is typically achieved through redundant resource utilization. Page | 22 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . 6.2 Reliability: Is essential for all cloud systems ± in order to support today¶s data centre-type applications in a cloud. so as to ensure that the quality guarantees of the cloud user are met. whereby horizontal scalability refers to the amount of instances to satisfy e.and downscaling. Reliability is a particular QoS aspect which forms a specific quality requirement.1 Elasticity: Is an essential core feature of cloud systems and circumscribes the capability of the underlying infrastructure to adapt to changing. In business cases. and does also allow the dynamic integration and extraction of physical resources to the infrastructure. changing amount of requests.3 Quality of Service: Support is a relevant capability that is essential in many use cases where specific requirements have to be met by the outsourced services and / or resources.1.1 NON-FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS: 6. Elasticity goes one step further. Cloud scalability involves both (rapid) up. many of the reliability aspects move from hardware to a software-based solution. One can distinguish between horizontal and vertical scalability. reliability is considered one of the main features to exploit cloud capabilities.e. tough. number of concurrent users etc. SPECIFIC CHARACTERISTICS / CAPABILITIES OF CLOUDS 6. Reliability denotes the capability to ensure constant operation of the system without disruption. and vertical scalability refers to the size of the instances themselves and thus implicit to the amount of resources required maintaining the size. i. throughput etc. no loss of data.1.g. for example amount and size of data supported by an application. must be guaranteed at least.

require different types of resources.1. It includes on-time reaction to changes in the amount of requests and size of resources.5 Availability of services and data: It is an essential capability of cloud systems and was actually one of the core aspects to give rise to clouds in the first instance. etc. It lies in the ability to introduce redundancy for services and data so failures can be masked transparently. See also return of investment below.1. With increasing concurrent access.g.Over view of cloud computing 6. Fault tolerance also requires the ability to introduce new redundancy (e.4 Agility and adaptability: Are essential features of cloud systems that strongly relate to the elastic capabilities. different quality or different routes. 6.g. setting up a cloud system typically entails additional costs ± be it by adapting the business logic to the cloud host specific interfaces or by enhancing the local infrastructure to be ³cloud-ready´.2. Scalability and Pay per Use are essential aspects of this issue. but also adaptation to changes in the environmental conditions that e.2. Implicitly. This can be regarded as the original essence of scalability in cloud systems. ECONOMIC ASPECTS: 6. 6.1 Cost reduction: It is one of the first concerns to build up a cloud system that can adapt to changing consumer behavior and reduce cost for infrastructure maintenance and acquisition. availability is particularly achieved through replication of data / services and distributing them across different resources to achieve load-balancing. Page | 23 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . agility and adaptability require resources (or at least their management) to be autonomic and have to enable them to provide self-* capabilities. previously failed or fresh nodes) in an online manner nonintrusively (without a significant performance penalty). Notably.

Page | 24 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . cloud computing promises to enable especially SME¶s and entrepreneurs to accelerate the development and adoption of innovative solutions. 6. 6. in particular in a scope compatible and competitive with larger industries. where specific requirements to be met by the system and hence to be paid for can be specified. Outsourcing resources versus increasing the local infrastructure and employing (private) cloud technologies need therefore to be outweighed and critical cut-off points identified. One of the key economic drivers for the current level of interest in cloud computing is the structural change in this domain.2 Pay per use: The capability to build up cost according to the actual consumption of resources is a relevant feature of cloud systems.4 Return of investment (ROI): Is essential for all investors and cannot always be guaranteed ± in fact some cloud systems currently fail this aspect. potentially dedicated to specific use cases that take over essential capabilities to support easy provisioning and thus reduce time to market.2. Pay per use strongly relates to quality of service support.3 Improved time to market: It is essential in particular for small to medium enterprises that want to sell their services quickly and easily with little delays caused by acquiring and setting up the infra-structure. Employing a cloud system must ensure that the cost and effort vested into it is outweighed by its benefits to be commercially viable ± this may entail direct and indirect ROI. By moving from the usual capital upfront investment model to an operational expense.2. Clouds can support this by providing infrastructures.2. Larger enterprises need to be able to publish new capabilities with little overhead to remain competitive.Over view of cloud computing 6.

virtualization allows for higher interoperability by making the code platform independent.3. 6. etc. as well as reduces the overhead for controlling the system. routing and translation). Infrastructure independency: In principle.Over view of cloud computing 6. configuration etc.3 TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS The main technological challenges that can be identified and that are commonly associated with cloud systems are: 6. Flexibility and Adaptability: by exposing a virtual execution environment.3. This affects infrastructure resources as well as data / applications / services that are hosted on shared resources but need to be made available in multiple isolated instances Page | 25 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . Location independence: services can be accessed independent of the physical location of the user and the resource.1 Virtualization: It is an essential technological characteristic of clouds which hides the technological complexity from the user and enables enhanced flexibility (through aggregation.). the underlying infrastructure can change more flexible according to different conditions and requirements (assigning more resources. virtualization supports the following features: Ease of use: through hiding the complexity of the infrastructure (including management. More concretely.2 Multi-tenancy: It is a highly essential issue in cloud systems. where the location of code and / or data is principally unknown and the same resource may be assigned to multiple users.) virtualization can make it easier for the user to develop new applications.

4 Data Management: It is an essential aspect in particular for storage clouds. Implicitly.Over view of cloud computing 6./ herself. the system always needs to be aware of the data location. whilst a cloud environment provides the features in a fashion that allows the user to leave such management to the system. As size of data may change at any time. Another crucial aspect of data management is the provided consistency guarantees. Taking latencies and particularly work-load into consideration. Privacy and Compliance: It is obviously essential in all systems dealing with potentially sensitive data and code. data consistency needs to be maintained over a wide distribution of replicated data sources.3. data management addresses both horizontal and vertical aspects of scalability.3 Security.5 APIs and / or Programming Enhancements: These are essential to exploit the cloud features: common programming models require that the developer takes care of the scalability and autonomic capabilities him. where data is flexibly distributed across multiple resources.3. Page | 26 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . 6.3. At the same time. 6.

Cloud systems are particularly concerned with providing an infrastructure on which any type of service can be executed with enhanced features.3 THE GRID There is an on-going confusion about the relationship between Grids and Clouds. RELATED AREAS OF CLOUD COMPUTING 7. specialized clouds may e. the Internet of Things may profit from cloud systems. Grid is primarily a concept rather than a technology thus leading to many potential misunderstandings between individual communities. there is an implicit assumption that resources in cloud computing are of a type that can host and / or process data ± in particular storage and processors that can form a computational unit. sometimes seeing Grids as ³on top of´ Clouds.g.1 INTERNET OF SERVICES: Service based application provisioning is part of the Future Internet as such and therefore a similar statement applies to cloud and Internet of Services as to cloud and Future Internet..Over view of cloud computing 7. Overall. vice versa or even identical. but there is no direct relationship between the two areas. its main focus does not primarily rest on service provisioning. even elaborate comparisons still have different views on what ³the Grid´ is in the first instance. 7. Page | 27 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . reliability and data management etc. 7. thus making the comparison cumbersome. However. More surprising.2 INTERNET OF THINGS: It is up to debate whether the Internet of Things is related to cloud systems at all: whilst the internet of things will certainly have to deal with issues related to elasticity. just like Clouds. integrate dedicated sensors to provide enhanced capabilities and the issues related to reliability of data streams etc. Whilst the cloud concept foresees essential support for service provisioning. Clouds can therefore be regarded as an enabler for enhanced features of large scale service provisioning.

Service Oriented Architecture however typically focuses predominantly on ways of developing. This arises mostly from the fact that both concepts tend to cover a comparatively wide scope of issues. or the one as building on top of the other. Fig 6: related areas in cloud computing services Page | 28 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) .e.4 SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURES There is a strong relationship between the ³Grid´ and Service Oriented Architectures. publishing and integrating application logic and / or resources as services.Over view of cloud computing 7. i. often leading to confusions where the two terms either are used indistinguishably. the term being used a bit ambiguously.

2 BUSINESS PROCESS MANAGEMENT (BPM) The role of Business Process Management (BPM) technology will increase significantly with the omnipresence of clouds. Though clouds and HPC act on different levels (HPC nodes being more tightly coupled than resources in the cloud).1 HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING (HPC) HPC has been dealing with resource pooling and code distribution. and integrating HPC resources into clouds may not be sensible. This relates in particular to aspects on scheduling. there is still a strong overlap between capabilities and boundary conditions that have been investigated in HPC for decades now. the ubiquitous access to application functionality will result in the formation of networks between partners to create competitive advantage by establishing cross-partner business processes. the huge number of services available in the cloud will enable a fast and easy creation of new higher-level services by composing the available services.Over view of cloud computing 8. virtual (and dynamic) resource platforms as exposed by the cloud. reliable execution etc. Secondly. First of all. code & data distribution and communication. OTHER DEVELOPMENTS IN CLOUD COMPUTING SYSTEM 8. as well as reliable execution ± all issues particularly relevant for distributed. 8. Page | 29 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . for a long time now.

1 WEB MEGASERVICES: Megaservices act on top of existing services and platforms. combining and extending them so as to provide new. BUSINESS SCENARIOS IN CLOUD COMPUTING Cloud systems find a wide range of application in varying scenarios for future application of cloud technologies and thus implicitly as a reference for how the technological gaps may be employed in real business cases.). In both cases. 9. Cloud infrastructures thereby play a secondary. do not execute parallelized tasks.Over view of cloud computing 9. focused in particular on the large scale of such services with respect to the amount of underlying instances and resources it has to handle (related to vertical scale).).e. Nonetheless. MS Bing etc. i.2 eSCIENCE/eENGINEERING: Traditionally a High Performance Computing (HPC) domain. StudyVZ etc. 9. eScience and eENGINEERING have high computational demands in order to execute their calculations. supporting role. development of the according applications that allow for distributed (optimally parallel or coupled) execution is typically more complex than an eScientist and / or an eEingineer wants or should have to deal with. Examples of existing megaservices are on the one hand large search engines acting across a large amount of resources (Google Search. and social network sites integrating media and different service types (Facebook. Page | 30 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . but ³only´ multiple tasks in parallel and are therefore closer to P2P computing (such as BOINC) than HPC and are most often developed on Grid platforms. as well as the potential number of concurrent accesses and usages. most applications actually do not require full HPC support. enhanced capabilities.

3 TRADITIONAL IT REPLACEMENT The concept of thin clients found a growing popularity in the 1990s as a means to replace expensive local desktop computers with high power servers and multiple access terminals that were comparatively cheap and incorporated little performance capabilities. Environments which have to fulfill real-time requirements often pose specific privacy and regulatory requirements towards the infrastructure. Web based applications follow the same principle and obviously cloud infrastructures offer the possibility of easy cloud outsourcing. 9. Page | 31 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) .4 REAL-TIME SERVICES Business environments which depend on real time service provisioning / computation could benefit greatly from the dynamic distribution and location control possible in globally distributed cloud infrastructures. latency and availability / accessibility play major role in fulfilling real time requirements and accordingly need to be respected both by the service itself.e. cloud based IT outsourcing covers the whole range from resource infrastructure to complex services / applications hosted on remote machines. Implicitly. as well as the hosting infrastructure (i.Over view of cloud computing 9. even though the point at which outsourcing becomes economically beneficial may not always be known. as well as data management and federation issues. Along the same line. most infrastructures will tend to be private or have to observe special purpose regulations. Notably. An immense business value can (only) be realized if the service is used. due to the competitive nature in this space. it covers the full range of security and privacy concerns. In such environments. Alternatively the business may decide to use Cloud services to provide business continuity /disaster recovery. the cloud system).

Key Advantages That Cloud Computing Delivers to IT Fig 7: cloud advantages Often resource constrained. organizations can leverage the benefits of a shared IT infrastructure without having to implement and administer it directly. Cloud computing can help take pressure off IT staff while also helping deliver measurable business benefits. in part. For instance. the battle has already been won. cloud computing is experiencing a much shorter ramp-up period for acceptance. since organizations rely heavily on virtualization. IT departments in companies and government organizations are immersed in workday responsibilities needed to support the business. Page | 32 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . With cloud computing. While it took virtualization many years to be widely accepted by businesses.Over view of cloud computing 10. with cloud computing.

an organization can quickly and easily right-size its environment if necessary. it can¶t scale back. Enterprise Grade Services and Management Typically. if a company over-provisions. Page | 33 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . This focus has driven IT organizations to reassess the costs of procurement and maintenance of infrastructure and non-core applications. In a cloud. Cloud computing provides a rapid deployment model that enables applications to grow quickly to match increasing usage requirements. Right-Size to Address Business Changes: Clouds are elastic. Cloud computing allows companies to better control the caplex and opex associated with noncore activities. Faster Provisioning of Systems and Applications: Traditional methods to buy and configure hardware and software are time consuming. They can contract if necessary to meet changing business needs. Cloud computing offloads this burden from the shoulders of companies. It can accommodate ³peak times´ where a company needs to scale up dramatically.Over view of cloud computing Cloud Advantages Simplified Cost and Consumption Model: Prioritizing activities that align with core business needs and drive tangible business value and top-line revenue are top IT concerns. With an in-house datacenter. 70 to 80 percent of IT budgets are devoted to maintenance of existing infrastructure ± a massive overhead. freeing core IT resources to focus on initiatives that drive revenue growth. such as a holiday season or special event.

compute/store/network). Highly Secure Infrastructure: By taking a system-based ± not point-based ± approach.Over view of cloud computing Ease of Integration: An increasing number of enterprise applications require integration with third-party applications that are often hosted outside the enterprise firewall. Compliance standards cut horizontally ± like Sarbanes-Oxley ± and vertically. The cloud with its configuration flexibility. such as PCI DSS and HIPAA. This will safely support highly mobile users that need a variety of connection options ± coming into the cloud from secure and non-secure networks. Cloud facilities and processes that address both areas can help companies address regulatory and compliance processes. Page | 34 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . Managing business continuity and recovery internally requires a dedicated focus so companies typically concentrate only on the most critical applications. integrated security. Flexible and Resilient with Business Continuity/Disaster Recovery. Utilizing cloud environments allows organizations to safeguard their full IT infrastructure because the cloud¶s inherent scalability integrates disaster recovery capabilities. Compliant Facilities and Processes: Many midsize companies don¶t have the resources needed to manage audit and certification processes for internal datacenters. operating system. cloud environments can perform security at all levels (applications. middleware. and choice of access mechanisms has a natural advantage to serving as a core platform and integration fabric for these emerging applications.

disaster recovery. particularly for research projects that require vast amounts of storage or processing capacity for a limited time. and this expertise allows them to efficiently manage upgrades and maintenance. accommodating spikes in demand without paying for unused capacity during slower times. colleges and universities gain the flexibility of being able to respond quickly to requests for new services by purchasing them from the cloud. one that takes advantage of the maturity of web applications and networks and the rising interoperability of computing systems to provide IT services. As a result. cloud computing allows college and university IT providers to make IT costs transparent and thus match consumption of IT services to those who pay for such services.´ Finally. With cloud computing. consumers of cloud services may see increased reliability. organizations can monitor current needs and make on-the-fy adjustments to increase or decrease capacity. such as wind farms and hydroelectric facilities. Page | 35 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . Significant of cloud computing Cloud computing presents IT organizations with a fund-mentally different model of operation. Aside from the potential to lower costs. and cloud computing affords access to these providers of ³green IT. Cloud providers specialize in particular applications and services. Some companies have built data centers near sources of renew-able energy. Cloud computing encourages IT organizations and providers to increase standardization of protocols and processes so that the many pieces of the cloud computing model can interoperate properly and efficiently. and failover functions.Over view of cloud computing 11. backups. Cloud computing scalability is another key benefit to higher education. even as costs decline due to economies of scale and other production factors.

CONCLUSION Clouds offer the opportunity to build data observatories with data. climate change. However. software and expertise together to solve problems such as those associated with economic modeling. However.Over view of cloud computing 12. this can only be achieved with (a) further technical R&D building upon the success-base from previous framework programmers and national programmers in GRIDs. Success will come by intersecting the R&D results with the emerging market opportunities beyond today¶s Clouds. the provision of an open market in clouds for Europe requires further R&D building upon this substructure. to the media industry. Development of Cloud computing in Europe will contribute to reduction in carbon emissions and assist in achieving European targets. Page | 36 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . It has been claimed ± and indeed demonstrated ± that Cloud computing is a green option. to other industry and commerce. Investment in R&D on Clouds brings benefits to the ICT industry. It also offers a greener option for ICT. (b) further R&D on legalistic and business models to find means to lower the threshold barrier for marketplace entry especially or SMEs. healthcare and epidemics etc. to government and to the citizen. SOA and other technologies. terrorism. Clouds could assist greatly in the e-government agenda by providing information in one place to the citizen. Europe is well-placed to embrace these opportunities due to the excellent background research and development in many of the key technologies such as those associated with GRIDs and SOA (Service Oriented Architecture). together with software to manipulate the data.

I & Zaharia. µCloud. µA break in the clouds: towards a cloud definition¶. 50--55.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/2009/EECS-2009-28. & Lindner. Fox. (2008).available at http://stage. Foster. Burkhard Neidecker-Lutz [SAP Research] Page | 37 Information Technology (08RM1A1217) . Konwinski. µCloud Computing¶ .Over view of cloud computing 13. µAbove the Clouds: A Berkeley View of Cloud Computing¶. Vaquero..available at http://en.eecs.berkeley.evolution or revolution.wikipedia.com/ 925013 4. M (2009). what's in a name?¶ available at http://ianfoster. SIGCOMM Compute.org/wiki/Cloud_computing 2. Public Version 1. Stoica.. RH. Rabkin. A. Katz. 39(1). AD. DA. (2009). Griffith. Joseph. M. Technical Report No.com/archives/684 7. ³Open Cloud Manifesto´ .vambenepe. J.ch/document.org/Open%20 Cloud%20Manifesto. G. A. Enabling Grids for E-sciencE Project¶ . L. Technical report. Wikipedia. Armbrust.cern. Commune.available at http://www. L.com/blog/2008/08/cloud-grid 3. M. ³Reality check on Cloud portability´ .html 8. W (2009). I. Patterson. UCB/EECS-2009-28 ± available at http://www. µan egee comparative study: Grids and clouds .0 Reporter for this Report: Lutz Schubert [USTUTT-HLRS]Editors: Keith Jef ery [ERCIM].opencloudmanifesto. Grid.available at https://edms. REFERENCES 1. Rev. Lee. A. Caceres. M. Vambenepe.pdf 6. R. Members of EGEE-II (2008). Rodero-Merino. 5.typepad.

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