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Dept. of Basic Science
and Humanities
Engineering Physics Lab Manual
VIGNAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE
2
Instructions to Students
1. A prior study about the experiment is essential for good performance in the
class. Read the instruction manual carefully before coming to the lab class. If you
come unprepared to the lab; your performance would be accordingly affected.
2. You are expected to perform the experiment, complete the calculations and data
analysis, and submit the report of every experiment on the same day within the
laboratory slot assigned for it.
3. You must bring with you the following material to the lab report sheets (A4 size
paper), pen, pencil, small scale, this instruction manual, graph sheets, calculator
and a file cover and any other stationary item required.
4. At least one set of observation should be signed by the instructor.
5. It is important to estimate the maximum possible error of the results using the
given apparatus/data.
6. Each graph should be well documented; abscissa and ordinate along with the
units should be mentioned clearly. The title of the graph should be stated on the
top of each graph paper.
3
INDEX
S.No Name of the experiment Page. No
1. Dispersive power of the material of a prism Spectrometer 5
2. Determination of wavelength of a source  Diffraction Grating 11
3. Newton's Rings  Radius of curvature of Plano convex lens 15
4. Single slit diffraction using laser 19
5. Rigidity Modulus: Torsional pendulum 22
6. Melde's Experiment  Transverse and Longitudinal modes 27
7. Time constant of an RC circuit 32
8. LCR circuit 38
9. Magnetic field along the axis of a current carrying coil 48
(Stewart and Gee's method)
10. Energy gap of a material of p_n junction 53
11. Evaluation of Numerical Aperture of a given Optical fiber 57
12. Bending losses of Optical fiber 60
13. Characteristics of LED And LASER 62
4
Particulars of the experiments performed
S.No Date Name of the Experiment Page No
Roll number Date:
5
1. Spectrometer: Dispersive power of a prism
Aim: To determine the dispersive power of the prism.
Apparatus: Spectrometer, prism, magnifying lens, mercury vapour lamp, spirit
level, reading lens.
Formula: 
Refractive index is
sin
2
sin
2
A D
A
µ
+  

\ .
=
 

\ .
Where A = angle of the prism
D = Angle of the minimum deviation
The dispersive power of the material of the given prism
1
b g
µ µ
e
µ
÷
=
÷
Where
b
µ and
g
µ are the refractive indices of two colours and
2
b g
µ µ
µ
+
=
.
Where
b
µ is the refractive index of the blue colour
g
µ is the refractive index of the green colour
Description: The spectrometer mainly consists of
a) a collimator
a) a telescope
b) a prism table
c) a circular scale and the vernier
a) The collimator:
Consists of a convergent lens fitted to the inner end of a hollow tube, fixed to the
instrument. Another hollow tube , which exactly fits into the fixed tube and can
be moved in or out by working pinion, carries at its outer end a slit of adjustable
width. The axis of the collimator is set perpendicular to the axis of the rotation
of the prism table. The collimator is fixed to the instrument and cannot be
rotated. The collimator is used to obtain a parallel beam of light from a given
source.
Roll number Date:
6
The telescope: 
This is an astronomical telescope whose objective is fitted to the inner end of a
hollow tube. Exactly fitting into this tube there is another tube which can be
moved in or out by working a pinion. At the outer end, the tube carries the
Ramsden’s eye piece with cross wires. The cross wires consists, generally of the
fibers from a spider’s web, fixed across the tube one vertically and another
horizontally in front of the eyepiece towards the objective side. The distance of
the crosswires from the eyepiece can be altered by pushing in or drawing out
the eyepiece. The axis of the telescope is perpendicular to the axis of rotation of
the prism table. The telescope can be turned about an axis coinciding with the
axis of rotation of the prism table and can be clamped on any position by the
screw
1
S . The angle of rotation can be measured, on a circular scale which is fixed
to the telescope and moved along with it. By means of the tangent screw the
telescope, after it is clamped, can be turned through very small angles and thus
fine adjustments can be made. The telescope is used to receive the parallel beam
of light from collimator.
b) The prism table:
It is a small circular table provided with three leveling screw and is used for
keeping the prism on it. The prism table can be raised or lowered and clamped in
any position by a screw. By means of another screw it can be fixed to the vernier
table and the two will then turn together. The vernier is provided with a clamped
screw and a tangent screw for fine adjustment. The prism table can be rotated
about a vertical axis passing through its centre.
c) The circular scale:
This is a circular metal plate attached to the telescope and rotated with it.
Usually graduated into half degree and the reading can be noted on two vernier
which are fixed diametrically opposite to each other.
Adjustments: Before the instrument is used for measurement purpose, the
following adjustments are made.
A. Eyepiece:  The telescope is turned towards a white surface say a wall and
the eyepiece is moved in or out until the crosswires are seen clearly.
B. Telescope:  The telescope is directed towards a distant object, say a telegraph
post or a tree and by working the pinion, the telescope is adjusted until the
image of the object is formed in the plane of the crosswires with no parallax
Roll number Date:
7
between the image and the crosswires. Now the telescope is ready to receive
a parallel beam of light.
C. Collimator:  The slit of the collimator is illuminated with sodium light. The
telescope is brought in line with the collimator and the distance of the slit
from the collimating lens is adjusted until a clear image of the slit with well
defined edges is formed in the plane of the cross wires without any parallax
error and also the slit is adjusted to be vertical and narrow.
D. Prism table:  A spirit level is kept on the prism table parallel to the line
joining to the leveling screws. The two screws are adjusted until the air
bubbles of the spirit level comes to the centre. Then the spirit level is turned
on the table perpendicular to this position and the third screw is adjusted
until the air bubble comes to the centre. Now the surface of the prism table
will be horizontal. After making the adjustments of the spectrometer, the
least count of the vernier is found by the relation
. . .
.
l m s d
LC
N
= where ‘N’ is
the number of divisions on the vernier scale.
Determination of angle of the prism (A):
Procedure: The primary adjustments of spectrometer are to be done as explained.
Then the prism is placed at the centre of prism table such that both refracting
edges of the prism are facing the collimator symmetrically as shown in Fig.
Then the prism is fixed. The telescope is released and rotated to observe reflected
image of the slit from one face say ‘AB’. The tangent screw of the telescope is
worked until the reflected image coincides with vertical cross wire. The readings
of the two verniers are noted. The telescope is rotated such that the reflected
image of the slit from second face ‘AC’ is focused. Then readings of both verniers
Roll number Date:
8
are noted. Then difference between the respective readings of the vernier gives
the value ‘2A’, from which the refracting angle can be determined.
Determination of angle of minimum deviation (D):
Procedure:  The vernier table is clamped and the prism table is released. The
prism clamped centrally on the prism table such that the surface of the ground
glass is almost parallel to the axis of the collimator and the light from collimator
incident on the polished surface of the prism emerges out from the other polished
surface as shown in fig.
The telescope is turned to observe the refracted image of the slit. Looking at the
image the prism table is slowly turned such that the image moves towards the
direct position. The telescope is also moved so as to keep the image of the slit in
the field of view. At certain stage it will be found that the image changes its
direction of motion even through the prism is continued to move in the same
direction.
The position of the prism is fixed when refracted image of the slit just retraces its
path, which is the minimum position of deviation. The telescope is focused such
that the image coincides with the vertical crosswire. The readings of two verniers
are noted. Then prism is removed and the telescope rotated such that the direct
image of the slit coincides with the vertical crosswire. Then the reading of two
verniers gives the angle of minimum deviation of the prism (D). Then refractive
index of the prism is found by the formula
sin
2
sin
2
A D
A
µ
+  

\ .
=
 

\ .
Roll number Date:
9
Table 1: Angle of prism
Angle of prism (A) =
S.no
Readings of reflected image
Difference in vernier
Readings (2A)
A Left
Right
Ver I
Ver II
Ver I
Ver II
Ver I
Ver II
Roll number Date:
10
Table 2: Angle of minimum deviation
The refractive index of the blue colour
sin
2
sin
2
b
b
A D
A
µ
+  

\ .
= =
 

\ .
The refractive index of the green colour
sin
2
sin
2
g
g
A D
A
µ
+  

\ .
= =
 

\ .
Dispersive power
1
b g
µ µ
e
µ
÷
= =
÷
Result: Dispersive power of the given prism is e =
Eye piece at
1
T
Deviated ray
Eye piece at
2
T
Deviated ray
Difference in reading (D)
sin
2
sin
2
A D
A
µ
+  

\ .
=
 

\ .
Colour
1
V
2
V
1
V
2
V
1 1
V V
2 2
V V
Mean
D
Blue
Green
Roll number Date:
11
2. Diffraction grating: Wave length of source
Aim: To determine the wavelength of a given source of light by using the diffraction
grating in the normal incidence position
Apparatus: Plane diffraction grating, spectrometer, spirit level, reading lens, sodium
vapour lamp.
Description: a plane diffraction grating consists of a parallel sided glass plate with
equidistant fine parallel lines drawn very closely upon it by means of a diamond point.
The number of lines drawn is about 15,000 per inch.
Theory: When light of wavelength ì is incident normally on a diffraction grating having
N lines per cm and if θ is the angle of diffraction in the
th
n order spectrum, then
sin nNì u =
Normal incidence method
0
sin
A
Nn
u
ì =
Minimum deviation method
0
2sin
2
A
D
nN
ì
 

\ .
=
Where ì = wavelength of a given spectrum
From which ì can be determined.
Procedure: The usual initial adjustments of the spectrometer are done. The least count
of the vernier of the spectrometer is found.
1. Normal incidence:
The slit of the spectrometer is illuminated with sodium vapour lamp. The telescope is
placed in line with the axis of the collimator and the direct image of the slit is observed.
The slit is narrowed and the vertical crosswire is made to coincide with the centre of the
image of the slit (
1
T in fig). The reading of one of the vernier is noted. The prism table is
clamped firmly and the telescope turned through exactly
0
92 and fixed in position (
2
T in
fig).
Roll number Date:
12
The grating is held with the rulings vertical and mounted in its holder on the prism
table such that the plane of the grating passes through the centre of the table and the
ruled surface towards the collimator. The prism table is released and rotated until the
image of the slit is seen in the telescope by reflection on the ruled side of the grating.
The prism table is fixed after adjusting the point of intersection of the crosswires is on
the image of the slit. Then the vernier table is released and rotated trough exactly
0
45 from this position so that the ruled side of the grating faces the collimator. The
vernier table is fixed in this position and the telescope is brought back to the direct
reading position. Now the light from the collimator strikes the grating normally.
2. Measurement of ì :
The telescope is rotated so as to catch the first order diffracted image on one side, say on
the left. With sodium light two images of slit very close to each other, can be seen. They
are called
1
D and
2
D lines. The point of intersection of the cross wire is set on the
1
D line
and its reading is noted on the both vernier. Similarly the reading corresponding to the
2
D line is noted.
Roll number Date:
13
Then telescope is turned to the other side i.e. right side and similarly the readings
corresponding to
1
D and
2
D lines of the first order spectrum are noted. Half the
difference in the readings corresponding to any one line gives the angle of diffraction (θ)
for those lines in the first order spectrum. The experiment is repeated for the second
spectrum. The number of lines per cm of the grating (N) is noted and the wavelength
ì of the spectral line is found by the relation.
sin
Nn
u
ì =
Observations:
Number of lines (as marked on the grating) per inch = 15,000
Number of lines per cm =
15, 000
2.54
=5906 lines/cm
Roll number Date:
14
Precautions:
1. Always the grating should be held by the edges. The ruled surface should not be
touched.
2. Light from the collimator should be uniformly incident on the entire surface of
the gratin
Result: Mean value of ì for
1
D lines = cm.
=
0
A .
Mean value of ì for
2
D lines = cm.
=
0
A .
Order of
Spectrum
(n)
Line
Reading of spectrometer
2θ
sin
Nn
u
ì =
Vernier I
Vernier II
Vernier
I
Vernier
II
Mean
Left
Right
Left
Right
Roll number Date:
15
3. Newton’s rings
Aim: To determine the radius of curvature of the Plano convex lens by forming Newton’s
rings.
Apparatus: A convex lens is of focal length about 100cm, two optically plane glass plates,
travelling microscope, condensing lens and a sodium vapour lamp.
Formula:
The radius of curvature of given Plano convex lens is given by
2 2
4 ( )
m n
D D
R cm
m n ì
÷
=
÷
Whrere ì =
8
5893 10 cm
÷
×
Description: The convex lens is placed on the optically plane glass plate P which is on
the platform of the travelling microscope. A black paper is placed under the glass plate.
The condensing lens C is placed at a distance equal to focal length of the lens from the
sodium vapour lamp. The emergent parallel beam of light is directed towards the glass
plate G kept directly above the centre of the lens and inclined
0
45 to the vertical. The
beam of light is reflected from the lower surface the lens and the top surface of the glass
plate P, Newton’s rings with alternate bright and dark rings are formed having a black
centre. These can be focused by microscope (It may happen that the centre of the ring
system is bright. This is due to the presence of dust particle between the lens and thick
glass plate. In such a case the surfaces of the lens and the glass place have to be
cleaned.)
Roll number Date:
16
Procedure: The microscope is focused at the centre of the ring system. The microscope is
moved so that the cross wires pass over 16 or 17 dark rings. Then the microscope is
moved back until the vertical cross wire is set at end of the 16
th
dark ring. The reading
of the main scale and the number of vernier coincidence are noted from which the
reading of the microscope can be determined. The microscope is moved so that the
vertical crosswire is set at the end of the 14
th
dark ring. The reading of the microscope
is noted. Similarly the readings of the microscope with crosswire set successively at the
end of the 12
th
, 10
th
, 8
th
… 2
nd
dark ring. The microscope corresponding to 2
nd
, 4
th
, 8
th
, 10
th
… 16
th
dark ring on the other side of the centre are noted. From these observations, the
diameter of the 2
nd
, 4
th
, 6th …..16
th
dark rings can be found.
The convex lens L is removed and its radius of the curvature R is determined either by a
spherometer or by Boy’s method. A graph is drawn with the number of dark rings on the
xaxis and the square of the diameter of the ring
2
( ) D on the yaxis. The graph is a
straight line passing through the origin. From the graph, the values
2
n
D and
2
m
D corresponding to n
th
and m
th
are found.
Or taking the standard wavelength of sodium light, the radius of curvature of the lens
can be calculated. The value of radius of curvature of the lens is verified using
spherometer.
Precautions:
1. While taking the observations the microscope should be moved only in one
direction to avoid the error due to backlash.
2. The lens L and the glass plate p, should be perfectly clean.
3. The slow motion tangent screw alone should be moved in taking observations.
4. The reading of the central rings up to 5 need not be considered as they will be
hazy and indistinct.
5.
Roll number Date:
17
Observations
S.No
No. of dark
Rings
Microscope reading
Diameter
D = b  a
2
D
Left (a) Right (b)
1
2
2 4
3 6
4 8
5 10
6 12
7 14
8 16
Roll number Date:
18
A graph is drawn with the number of dark rings on the xaxis and the square of the
diameter of the ring
2
( ) D on the yaxis. The graph is a straight line passing through the
origin. From the graph, the values
2
n
D and
2
m
D corresponding to n
th
and m
th
are found.
APPLICATIONS
1. Newton’s rings are employed to detect and measure small changes in radii of
curvature and in the length of bodies.
2. These kinds of observations have been used for determining elastic constants of
materials.
3. The flatness of glass surface can be tested by making use of Newton’s rings.
4. The thickness of a thin object like a micasheet can be determined.
5. The refractive index of a liquid like water or oil can be determined.
Result: The radius of curvature of given Plano convex lens is R = cm (Exp)
The radius of curvature of given Plano convex lens is R = cm (Graph)
Roll number Date:
19
4. Single Slit Diffraction Using Laser
AIM
To determine the wave length of the given laser source using a single using a single slit
and by diffraction pattern.
APPARATUS
Diode laser with round base, Single Slit, Travelling Microscope
FORMULA:
0
sin a
A
n
u
ì =
Where a is the width of the slit
u is the angle of diffraction
n is the order of diffraction
THEORY
When diffraction of light occurs as it passes through a slit, the angle to the minima in
the
Diffraction pattern is given by a sin θ = nλ ; (n= 1,2,3,...)
Where a is the slit width, θ is the angle from the center of the pattern to the m th
minimum, λ is the wavelength of the light, and m is the order of the minimum (1 for the
first minimum, 2 for the second minimum, counting from the center out). See Figure 1.1.
Roll number Date:
20
Since the angles are usually small, it can be assumed that
sin θ ≈ tan θ
From trigonometry,
tan θ = y / L
where y is the distance on the screen from the center of the pattern to the mth minimum
and D is the distance from the slit to the screen as shown in Figure 1.1. The diffraction
equation can thus be solved for the slit width:
PROCEDURE
1. Place the single slit parallel to the laser source such that the rays are incident on
the slit width.
2. Adjust the slit width such that we see clear diffraction pattern of the slit on
screen or wall.
3. Determine the distance L from the slit to the screen and distance between the
maxima is Y.
4. Take the readings on left and right side.
5. Vary the slit distance from the screen i.e. take the readings at different L.
6. The corresponding Y is measured.
7. Measure the slit width (a) by microscope.
Roll number Date:
21
OBSERVATION TABLE
Slit width(a) =  cm
Order of the
maxima
L cm
Y Cm
sin
Y
L
u =
sin a
n
u
ì =
left
Right Mean
PRECAUTIONS
1. The laser beam should not penetrate into e yes as this may damages the eyes
permanently
2. The laser should be operated at a constant voltage 220V obtained from a stabilizer.
This avoids the flickering of the laser beam.
REASULT
The wavelength of the given LASER is =.......................
Roll number Date:
22
5.Rigidity Modulus: Torsional pendulum
Aim:  To determine the rigidity modulus of the material of the given wire by dynamical
method using torsional pendulum.
Apparatus:  Torsional pendulum, stop watch, a vertical pointer, screw gauge and
vernier calipers.
Formula:  The rigidity modulus of the given wire is
2
4 2 2
4
MR l dynes
a T cm
t
q
 
=

\ .
Where M = mass of the disc (grams)
R = radius of the disc (cm)
l = is the length of the wire between two chucks (cm)
T = is the time period of the pendulum (sec)
a = radius of the wire (cm)
Description:  Tensional pendulum consists of a uniform metal disc suspended by a wire
whose rigidity modulus to be determined. The lower end of the wire is gripped in a
chuck fixed at the centre of the disc and the upper end is gripped in another chuck fixed
to a wall bracket as in fig.
Roll number Date:
23
Theory: when the disc is turned through a small angle in the horizontal oscillations
about the axis of the wire. The time period of oscillations given by
2  (1)
I
T
C
t =
Where I is the moment of inertia of the disc about the axis of rotation and C is the
couple per unit twist of the wire.
But  (2)
2
n
C
l
t o
=
Where A is the radius of the wire l is its length and n is the rigidity module.
From equation (1) and (2) we have
4 2
8
 (3)
I l
n
a T
t
=
In the case of a circular disc whose geometric axis coincide with the axis of rotation, the
moment of inertia I is given by
2
2
MR
I =
Where M is the mass of the disc and R is the radius. On substituting values of I in
equation (3), we get
2
4 2
8
 (4)
2
MR l
n
a T
t
=
Procedure: A meter wire whose ‘n’ is to be determined is taken. The disc is suspended
from one end of the wire. The other end of the wire is passed through the chuck fixed to
the wall bracket and is rigidly fixed. The length ‘l’ of the wire between the chucks is
adjusted to a convenient value (50 cm). A pin is fixed vertically on the edge of disc and a
vertical pointer is placed in front of the disc against the pin to serve as a reference to
count the oscillations.
The disc is turned in the horizontal plane through a small angle, so as to twist the wire
and released. There should not be any up and down and lateral movements of the disc.
Roll number Date:
24
When it is executing torsional oscillations, time for 20 oscillations is noted twice and
mean is taken. The time period (T) is then calculated.
2
l
T
Value is calculated.
The experiment is repeated for different values of ‘l’ and in each case the time period is
determined. The value
2
l
T
is calculated for each length. The observations are tabulated.
From the observations mean
2
l
T
value is calculated.
The mass ‘M’ of the disc is measured with a rough balance and its radius ‘R’ is
calculated with vernier calipers. The radius of the wire ‘a’ is determined very accurately
with screw gauge, at three of four different places and means value is taken since it
occurs in fourth power.Substituting these values in equation (4) ‘n’ is calculated.
A graph is drawn taking the value of ‘l’ on the Xaxis and the corresponding values of
2
T on the Yaxis. It is a straight line graph passing through origin. From the graph
2
l
T
is
calculated.
Substituting this value of
2
l
T
also ‘n’ is calculated.
Precautions:
1. The wire should not be free from kings.
2. The disc should not wobble.
Observations:
Least count of screw gauge (L.C) = ……………. Cm
Average radius of the wire (a) = ………….. cm
Mass of the disc (M) = ………………… cm
Mean radius of the disc (R) = …………. cm
Roll number Date:
25
TABULAR FORMS
i) Radius of the Wire (by Screw gauge)
S. No. PSR HSR L.C PSR + (HSR × LC)
Diameter
(cm)
Radius,
a(cm)
ii) To find l/T
2
:
S.no
Length
( l )
Time period for 20 oscillations
Period
T
2
T
2
l
T
Trial I
Trial II
Mean
Mean
2
l
T
=
Roll number Date:
26
The rigidity modulus of the given wire is
2
4 2
4
=
MR l
a T
t
q
 
=

\ .
EXPECTED GRAPHS
A graph is drawn between “l’ on xaxis and T
2
and yaxis which is expected to be as
below:
The rigidity modulus of the given wire is
2
4 2
4
=
MR l
a T
t
q
 
=

\ .
Result: Rigidity modulus (n) of the wire ……………dynes/
2
cm
(Expt)
Rigidity modulus (n) of the wire ……………dynes/
2
cm
(Graph)
Roll number Date:
27
6. Melde’s Experiment
Aim: To determine the frequency of an electrically driven tuning fork.
Apparatus: An electrically maintained tuning fork, a light smooth pulley fixed to a
stand, a light scale pan, thread, a storage cell, rheostat, plug key and connecting wires.
Description: A fork can be maintained in the state of continuous vibration electrically.
one terminal of the coil of an electromagnet is connected to the make and break
arrangement and the other end of the coil to the cell, rheostat and plug key connected in
series. In the normal position when the circuit is closed, the electromagnet attracts the
prong of the fork towards it. This breaks electrical circuit and the prong moves back
closing the circuit. The electromagnet again attracts the prong towards it. This is
repeated again and again and the fork is maintained in a state of continuous vibration.
One end of the thread of length about 3 meters is joined to a screw attached to one prong
of the fork and the other end is passed over a smooth pulley and light pan is fixed at the
other end of the thread. When the fork is vibrated electrically, stationary waves of well
defined loops are formed.
Meld’s apparatus can be arranged in two modes of vibration
a) When the direction of motion of the prong is at right angles to the length of the
string, the vibrations of the thread represent the transverse mode of vibration.
b) When the direction of motion of the prong is along the length of the thread, the
vibrations of the thread represent longitudinal mode of vibration.
Procedure:
1. The apparatus is arranged in transverse mode of vibration of the thread. A
suitable load is placed in the pan. The tuning fork is excited electrically. The
length of thread is adjusted by moving the pulley until well defined loops are
formed in it. The distance between a definite number of well defined loops is
measured with a meter scale from which the average length l of a single loop is
determined.
d
l cm
x
 
=

\ .
Roll number Date:
28
2. The total load attached to the thread inclusive of the mass of the pan is noted. If
it is Mg, the tension applied on the string is T = Mg. where g is acceleration due
to gravity.
The mass of the thread is determined correct to a milligram. The mass per unit
length of the string is then determined. The frequency n of the tuning fork is
founded by the relation
1
Hz
2
T
n
l µ
=
The experiment repeated for various tensions and the observations are tabulated
in table.1 and n is calculated.
3. The apparatus is arranged in longitudinal mode of vibration of the thread. The
experiment is done in similar manner as in 1. The average length l of a loop, the
tension T applied to the thread and the mass per unit length of the thread are
found. the frequency of the tuning fork is found by the relation
1
Hz
T
n
l µ
=
The experiment is repeated with different tensions and the observations are
tabulated in table.2 and n is calculated.
Roll number Date:
29
Precautions:
1. A thin and inelastic thread should be used.
2. The loops should be well defined and confined to single plane.
The mean of the two average frequencies in the transverse and longitudinal modes gives
the correct frequency of the tuning fork.
OBSERVATIONS
1. Mass of the string (thread) = w = ………….. gm (correct to a mg)
2. Length of the string (thread) = y = ………….. cm
3. Linear density of the thread = µ =(w/y) = ……………… gm / cm
4. Mass of the pan = m = ………….. gm (correct to a mg)
Mass per unit length of the thread (m) = ……… grams
Table.1 Transverse Mode
S.no
T = Mg
Length of
P loops = L
Length of
Each loop
T
l
Roll number Date:
30
Average
T
l
=
Then
1
2
T
n
l µ
= =
Table.2 Longitudinal Mode
S.no
T = Mg
Length of
P loops = L
Length of
Each loop
T
l
Average
T
l
=
Then
1 T
n
l µ
= =
Roll number Date:
31
APPLICATIONS
1. Vibrations of bars or rods, vibrations of metallic plates, vibrations of belts,
vibrations of diaphragm, forced vibrations of a sound box in a gramophone or a
loud speaker in a radio etc.
2. In the case of a rectangular bar the frequency of vibrations is proportional to the
length of its side in the plane of vibration, and inversely proportional to the
breadth in that plane. The frequency is independent of the thickness at right
angles to the plane of vibrations.
3. The vibrations produced in bridges of road ways and railways can be experienced
while standing on it when a heavy vehicle or a train passes over it.
Result: The frequency of the tuning fork n = Hz (Longitudinal Mode)
The frequency of the tuning fork n = Hz(Transverse)
Roll number Date:
32
7. Time Constant of RCcircuit
Aim:
1. To study the charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistance by
plotting a graph
2. To determine the time constant of C.R. circuit
Apparatus:
Battery eliminator, resistors, capacitors, galvanometer, stop clock, tap key, connecting
wires.
Formula:
Capacitive time constant of the CR circuit is t RC =
Where C = capacitance of the condenser
R = resistance
Procedure:
1. To study the charging of a condenser:
The experimental arrangement for the study of the charging and discharging of a
condenser through a resistance is shown in fig.
Roll number Date:
33
A condenser C, resistance R, a tap key K are to be connected to a battery B. connect a
volt meter V parallel to the condenser, by means of which the potential difference across
the plates of the condenser can be measured. Adjust the voltmeter knob so that it reads
zero. Switch on the power supply press the tap key K and simultaneously start a stop
clock. When the tap key, K is pressed the current flows and the plates of the condenser
get charged. Note the voltmeter reading, V at suitable regular intervals of time (say 5
seconds) till the voltage reaches a maximum value
0
V i.e. the condenser gets fully
charged. Note the observations in table repeat the experiment for different sets R and C
values.
Graph:
Draw a graph with the time, t along the Xaxis and the voltage, V (across the condenser)
along the Yaxis. A curve shown in figure will be obtained. Draw a line parallel to Xaxis
at 0.63V0. This line cuts the curve at one point. The value of time on the xaxis
corresponding to V=0.63V0 gives the capacitive time constant of the CR circuit,
Calculate the theoretical value of the time constant CR using the formula and compare
it with that obtained from the graph.
Roll number Date:
34
2. To study the discharging of condenser:
Switch on the power supply, keeping the circuit elements as they were. Press the tap
key K. then the reading in the voltmeter gradually increases and reaches a constant
value
0
V after some time i.e. the condenser gets fully charged. Now release the tap key,
K and immediately start a stop clock. When the tap key is released the condenser starts
discharging through the resistance and in consequence the voltmeter reading gradually
decreases. Note the voltmeter reading at suitable regular intervals of time till the
voltage across the plates of the condenser reaches a minimum value. Note the
observations in table. Repeat the experiment for different sets of R and C values.
Graph:
Draw a graph with the time, t along the Xaxis and the voltage, V (across the condenser)
along the Yaxis. A curve shown in figure will be obtained. Draw a line parallel to Xaxis
at
0
0.36 V V = . This line cuts the curve at one point. From this point draw a line parallel
to yaxis which meets the xaxis at one point. The value of time on the xaxis
corresponding to
0
0.36 V V = gives the capacitive time constant of the CR circuit,
Calculate the theoretical value of the time constant CR using the formula and compareit
with that obtained from the graph.
Roll number Date:
35
OBSERVATION TABLE
Set: I
C = F µ
R = KO
CR = Sec
S.No
Time (t)
Sec
Voltmeter reading
Charging Discharging
Roll number Date:
36
Set: II
C = F µ
R = KO
CR = Sec
S.No
Time (t)
Sec
Voltmeter reading
Charging Discharging
Roll number Date:
37
Comparison table:
S.No
Time constant CR (sec)
Charging
Discharging
Theoretical Experimental
Theoretical Experimental
Set I
Set I
Calculations:
1. Charging of the condenser:
Set I Set II
C = F µ = farad C = F µ = farad
R = KO = ohm R = KO = ohm
CR = Sec CR = Sec
2. Discharging of the condenser:
Set I Set II
C = F µ = farad C = F µ = farad
R = KO = ohm R = KO = ohm
CR = Sec CR = Sec
Experimental values:
1. Charging of the condenser (from graph)
Capacitive time constant CR =
c
t = sec
2. discharging of the condenser (from graph)
Capacitive time constant CR =
c
t = sec
Roll number Date:
38
8. LCR CIRCUIT
Aim
To study the series and parallel resonance circuit find to and frequency and quality
factor.
Apparatus
Function generator, an inductance coil, three capacitors, a resistance box, a.c.
voltmeters, multimeter, one a.c. milliammeter, connecting wires.
Formula
Series resonant circuit:
Theoretical
The resonance frequency is
0
1
2
f
LC t
=
Quality factor =
1 L
Q
R C
=
Where
0
f is the resonance frequency
L is the inductance
C is the capacitance
R is the resistance and
Experimental (from graph)
The resonance frequency of the circuit
0
f = Hz
Band width of the resonant circuit
2 1
f f e = ÷ = Hz
Quality factor
0 0
2 1
f f
Q
f f e
= = =
÷
Parallel resonant circuit:
Theoretical
The resonance frequency is
2
0 2
1 1
Hz
2
R
f
LC L t
= ÷
Quality factor =
0 0
2 1
f f
Q
f f e
= =
÷
Where
0
f is the resonance frequency
Roll number Date:
39
L is the inductance
C is the capacitance
R is the resistance and
Experimental (from graph)
The resonance frequency of the circuit
0
f = Hz
Band width of the resonant circuit
2 1
f f e = ÷ = Hz
Quality factor
0 0
2 1
f f
Q
f f e
= = =
÷
2 1
f f e = ÷ is the band width and
1
f ,
2
f can be obtained for graph.
Theory:
Circuits containing an inductor L, a capacitor C, and a resistor R, have special
characteristics useful in many applications. Their frequency characteristics (impedance,
voltage, or current vs. frequency) have a sharp maximum or minimum at certain
frequencies. These circuits can hence be used for selecting or rejecting specific
frequencies and are also called tuning circuits. These circuits are therefore very
important in the operation of television receivers, radio receivers, and transmitters. In
this section, we will present two types of LCR circuits, viz., series and parallel, and also
discuss the formulae applicable for typical resonant circuits.
A series LCR circuit includes a series combination of an inductor, resistor and capacitor
whereas; a parallel LCR circuit contains a parallel combination of inductor and
capacitor with the resistance placed in series with the inductor. Both series and parallel
resonant circuits may be found in radio receivers and transmitters.
Series resonance circuit:
Roll number Date:
40
When an alternating e.m.f
0
sin t c c e = was applied to circuit having an inductance L,
capacitance C and resistance R in series as shown in fig. The current in the circuit at
any instant of time t is given by the following equation
Where it can also be proved that the maximum current io is
And from above equation the phase difference between the applied e.m.f and the
resultant current is given by
From equation (1) the impendence Z of the impedance of the circuit is given by
The L  C  R series circuit has a very large capacitive reactance (
1
C e
) at low
frequencies and a very large inductance reactance ( L e ) at high frequencies. So at a
particular frequency, the total reactance in the circuit is zero (
1
L
C
e
e
= ).Under this
situation, the resultant impedance of the circuit is minimum. The particular frequency
of A.C at which impedance of a series L  C  R circuit becomes minimum is called the
resonant frequency and the circuit is called as series resonant circuit.
At resonance frequency
Roll number Date:
41
Or
The resonant frequency fo of the series resonant circuit is given by
The above equaton shows that the resonant frequency depends on the product of L and
C and does not depend on R. The variation of the peak value of current with the
frequency of the applied e.m.f is shown in fig.
Let f1 and f2 be these limiting values of frequency. Then the width of the band is
The Quality factor is defined as
Qfactor is also defined in terms of reactance and resistance of the circuit at resonance,
Roll number Date:
42
Parallel resonant circuit:
A parallel resonant circuit is shown in fig. Here an inductance L and a resistance R are
connected in series in one branch and a condenser of capacity C in another branch. A
source of alternating e.m.f is connected to this circuit. From the above fig admittance (Y)
can be calculated as
Where Z is the impedance of the circuit. The admittance is minimum or impedance is
maximum at a particular frequency (f), which is given by
At this frequency admittance is minimum and hence the current is minimum. such a
The impedance (or) dynamic resistance of the circuit
The quality factor
Roll number Date:
43
Procedure:
Series resonant circuit:
1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
2. Apply input signal using signal generator.
3. Take the output across the resistor and feed it to Ammeter input sockets.
4. Vary the frequency till the Ammeter records a sharp rise and fall, adjust the
signal such that the Ammeter defection is the maximum possible. This is the
resonant frequency of the connected combination of the circuit.
5. Adjust the signal generator amplitude such that to get fullscale deflection. In
Ammeter now reduce the frequency till the deflection falls considerably. Then
increase the frequency in regular intervals & note down the Ammeter readings.
6. Plot a graph between the meter defection divisions and frequency.
7. Repeat the procedure using different combinations of L, C & R and study how Q
is affected. Also study how Resonant Frequency depends upon different
combinations of L.C.R.
Parallel resonant circuit:
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Apply input signal, from a reliable signal generator. The output should be 10V
only.
3. Take the output across the tank circuit and connect to Ammeter input sockets.
4. Vary the frequency till the Ammeter records sharp fall. Adjust the signal such
that the deflection falls down considerably. Then increase the frequency in
regular intervals and note down the deflection.
5. Adjust the signal generators amplitude such that, to get fullscale deflection.
Now reduce the frequency till the deflection falls down considerably. Then
increase the frequency in regular intervals & note down the deflection.
6. Plot graph between the meter deflection divisions and frequency.
7. Repeat the procedure for different values of R and study how Q is affected. Also
study how resonant frequency depends on different combinations of L.C.R.
Roll number Date:
44
Graph: 
1. For series resonant circuit
2. For Parallel resonant circuit
Roll number Date:
45
Observations:
Table:I For series resonant circuit:
S.No
Frequency
Current
Roll number Date:
46
Table:II for Parallel resonant circuit:
S.No
Frequency
Current
Roll number Date:
47
Result:
The theoretical and experimental values of the resonance frequency,
0
f and the
quality factor Q, are calculated and compared. They are found to be equal.
Series combination:
S.No Parameters Theoretical values
Experimental
values
1
Resonance frequency(
0
f )
2
Quality factor
Parallel combination:
S.No Parameters Theoretical values
Experimental
values
1
Resonance frequency(
0
f )
2
Quality factor
Roll number Date:
48
9. STUDY OF MAGNETIC FIELD ALONG THE AXIS OF A CIRCULAR COIL 
STEWART AND GEE’S APPARATUS
AIM
To study the variation of magnetic field along the axis of a circular coil carrying current.
EQUIPMENT & COMPONENTS
Stewart and Gees type of tangent galvanometer, Rheostat, Ammeter, deflection
magnetometer, Battery eliminator, 4way & 2 way key.
FORMULA
The magnetic field (B) at a point on the axis of a circular coil carrying current "i" is
given by the expression
( )
2
0
3 2
2 2
n i a
B Telsa
2 x +a
µ
=
Where 'n’ is the number of turns,
‘a’ the mean radius of the coil,
‘x’ is the distance of the point from the center of the coil along the axis, and
‘i’ is the current passing through the coil.
DIAGRAM OF EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Roll number Date:
49
DESCRIPTION
The apparatus consists of a circular frame "c" made up of nonmagnetic substance. An
insulated Copper wire is wounded on the frame. The ends of the wire are connected to
the other two terminals. By selecting a pair of terminals the number of turns used can
be changed. The frame is fixed to a long base B at the middle in a vertical plane along
the breadth side. The base has leveling screws. A rectangular nonmagnetic metal frame
is supported on the uprights. The plane of the frame contains the axis of the coil and
this frame passes through the circular coil. A magnetic compass like that one used in
deflection magnetometer is supported on a movable platform. This platform can be
moved on the frame along the axis of the coil. The compass is so arranged that the
center of the magnetic needle always lie on the axis of the coil.
The apparatus is arranged so that the plane of coil is in the magnetic meridian. The
frame with compass is kept at the center of the coil and the base is rotated so that the
plane of the coil is parallel to the magnetic needle in the compass. The compass is
rotated so that the aluminum pointer reads 0
0
0
0
. Now the rectangular frame is along
EastWest directions. When a current "i" flows through the coil the magnetic field
produced is in the perpendicular direction to the plane of the coil. The magnetic needle
in the compass is under the influence of two magnetic fields. "B" due to coil carrying
current and the earth's magnetic field "Be" which are mutually perpendicular. The
needle deflects through an angle 'θ' satisfying the tangent law.
PROCEDURE
With the help of the deflection magnetometer and a chalk, a long line of about one meter
is drawn on the working table, to represent the magnetic meridian. Another line
perpendicular to the line is also drawn. The Stewart and Gees galvanometer is set with
its coil in the magnetic meridian as shown in the fig. The external circuit is connected as
shown in the fig, keeping the ammeter, rheostat away from the deflection
magnetometer. This precaution is very much required because, the magnetic field
produced by the current passing through the rheostat and the permanent magnetic field
due to the magnet inside the ammeter affect the magnetometer reading, if they are close
to it.
Roll number Date:
50
The magnetometer is set at the center of the coil and rotated to make the aluminum
pointer reads (0
0
0
0
) in the magnetometer. The key K, is closed and the rheostat is
adjusted so as the deflection in the magnetometer is about 60°. The current in the
commutator is reversed and the deflection in the magnetometer is observed. The
deflection in the magnetometer before and after reversal of current should not differ
much. In case of sufficient difference say above 2° or 3°, necessary adjustments are to be
made.
The deflections before and after reversal of current are noted when d=0. The readings
are noted in Table. The magnetometer is moved towards East along the axis of the coil
in steps of 2cm at a time. At each position, the key is closed and the deflections before
and after reversal of current are noted. The mean deflection be denoted as uE. The
magnetometer is further moved towards east in steps of 2cm each time and the
deflections before and after reversal of current be noted, until the deflection falls to 30°.
The experiment is repeated by shifting the magnetometer towards West from the center
of the coil in steps of 2cm, each time and deflections are noted before and after the
reversal of current. The mean deflection is denoted as uw.
It will be found that for each distance (x) the value in the last two columns of the second
table are found to be equal verifying equation (1) & (2).
A graph is drawn between x [the distance of the deflection magnetometer from the
center of the coil along xaxis and the corresponding Tan ue and Tan uw along yaxis.
The shape of the curve is shown in the figure. The point A and B marked on the curve lie
at distance equal to half of radius of the coil (a/2) on either side of the coil.
OBSERVATIONS
Horizontal component of earth’s
magnetic field Be
= 0.38 × 10
–4
Tesla (or Wb.m
–2
)
Radius of a coil a = ………….. meter
(Diameter of coil / 2)
Current carrying in the ammeter = …………. Amps
µ0 = 4 t × 10
–7
Roll number Date:
51
TABULAR FORMS
Distance
from the
Center of
Coil x
Deflection in East
Direction
Mean
uE
Deflection in West
Direction
Mean
uW
2
E W
u u
u
+
=
Tan u
u1 u2 u3 u4 u1 u2 u3 u4
Distance in meter (x) Theoretical B Practical B
Roll number Date:
52
EXPECTED GRAPH
RESULT
Intensity of magnetic field of earth is calculated and verified for standard tables
Roll number Date:
53
1 10 0. . E EN NE ER RG GY Y G GA AP P O OF F M MA AT TE ER RI IA AL L O OF F P P N N J JU UN NC CT TI IO ON N
AIM:
To determine the energy band gap material given semiconductor diode.
EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS:
D.C Power Supply, Semiconductor diode (Germanium or Silicon), thermometer, heating
arrangement to heat the diode, Voltmeter, Microammeter and connecting wires.
FORMULA:
( )
4
1.9833 10
g
E slope eV
÷
= × ×
THEORY:
The Energy gap (Eg) of a material is defined as the minimum amount of energy required
for an electron to get excited from the top of the valance band to the bottom of the
conduction band. The energy gap for metals is zero since valance band and conduction
band overlap each other whereas the energy gap for the insulators is very high. The
energy gap for the semiconductors lies between the values for metals and the insulators.
The resistance of a semiconductor varies with the temperature as
0
(exp )
g
E
kT
R R =  (1)
Where is the resistance of the semiconductor at absolute zero.
K is the Boltzman constant and T is the temperature of the material.
By applying logarithms of both sides of the equitation (1), we get
)  (2)
This is a linear equation between
10
log
e
and
1
T
its slope is obtained from:
Slope = Eg
Roll number Date:
54
Eg = Slope
( )
4
1.9833 10
g
E slope eV
÷
= × ×
Circuit Diagram:
DESCRIPTION
The experimental arrangement comprises an oil bath which is provided with sockets at
its mouth. The sockets are used to insert the thermometer and the semiconductor diode
in the oil bath. A heating element is fixed inside the oil bath which used to raise the
temperature of the oil bath by connecting to the AC main supply. The reverse biasing
voltage can be adjusted by means of the voltmeter and the reverse saturation current
can be measured with the help of a microammeter.
Connecting the two terminals of the given semiconductor diode (Germanium or Silicon)
to the DC Power supply and microammeter in such a way that the diode is reverse
biased. Immerse the diode in the oil bath. Insert the thermometer in the oil bath at the
same level as that of the diode.
Switch on the DC Power supply and adjust the reverse bias voltage to 5 Volts. Switch on
the AC main supply, then the temperature of the oil bath gradually increase.
Consequently, the current through the diode also increases. Note the value of the
current of every 5ºc increase of the temperature, when the temperature of the oil bath
Roll number Date:
55
reaches to about 65ºc, and then switch off the AC supply. Stir the oil by means of a
stirrer. Then, the temperature of the oil bath will rise and stabilizes at about 70ºc. Note
the temperature of the oil bath and the current through the diode. After few minutes,
the temperature of the oil bath will begin to fall and the current through the diode
decreases. Note the value of the current of every 5ºc decrease of the temperature, till
the temperature of the oil bath falls to the room temperature.
Tabulate the values of current and temperature. Repeat the experiment for two or three
different voltages.
Graph: Draw the graph taking on the X – axis and
R
10
log on the Y –axis. One should
get a straight line which does not pass through the origin. Find the slope of the straight
line.
( )
4
1.9833 10
g
E slope eV
÷
= × ×
BC
slope
AC
=
Roll number Date:
56
OBSERVATIONS
RESULT
Energy gap of the given semiconductor = ______________ eV.
S.No
Temperature
(T)
Current (µA)
Mean
Curren
t
Resistance
ºc K
Increasing
temperature
Decreasing
temperature
(µA)
R= V/t in
x10⁶ohms
1
T
1
30
2 35
3 40
4 45
5 50
6 55
7 60
8 65
9 70
Roll number Date:
57
11. Numerical Aperture of Optical fiber
Aim:
To measure the Numerical aperture (NA) of the given fiber.
Apparatus:
Numerical aperture measurement Jig. Optical fiber cable with source. Numerical
aperture of any optical system is a measure of how much light can be collected by the
optical system.
Formula:
Numerical aperture
max
2 2
( ) sin
4
W
NA
L W
u = =
+
1
max
sin ( ) NA u
÷
=
max
2
c
u u =
Where L is the distance of the screen from the fiber end in meters. W is the diameter of
the spot in meter.
Principle:
Numerical aperture (NA) refers to maximum angle at which the light incident on the
fiber end is totally internally reflected and transmitted properly along the fiber. The
cone formed by the rotation of this angle along the axis of the fiber is the cone of
acceptance of the fiber. The light ray should strike the fiber end it will get refracted and
leave the fiber.
Setup for NA measurement
a. One end of the meter fiber cable is connected to the PO of the source and the
other end to NA JIG.
b. The Ac main is plugged light must appear at the end of the fiber on the NA Jig.
The set PO knob is tuned clock wise to set to a maximum Po. The light intensity
would increase.
Roll number Date:
58
c. The white screen with four concentric circles (10, 15, 20, and 25mm diameters) is
held vertically at a suitable distance to make the red spot from the emitting fiber
coincide with the 10 mm circle. The circumference of the spot must coincide with
the circle. The distance of the screen from the fiber end L is recorded and the
diameter of the spot 'W' is noted. The diameter of the circle can be accurately
measured with a scale.The numerical aperture is calculated from the
formula
max
2 2
( ) sin
4
W
NA
L W
u = =
+
d. The same procedure is repeated for 15mm, 20mm and 25mm diameters.
Table:
Circle
Distance between
source and screen
L (mm)
Diameter of the
spot W (mm)
2 2
4
W
NA
L W
=
+
u
(degrees)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Roll number Date:
59
Calculations:
Numerical aperture
max
2 2
( ) sin
4
W
NA
L W
u = =
+
1
max
sin ( ) NA u
÷
=
max
2
c
u u = (degrees)
Result:
The Numerical aperture is measured as ...................................
The acceptance angle is calculated as .................................... (degrees)
Roll number Date:
60
12. Bending Losses of Optical fiber
Aim:
To measure the bending losses in the optical fiber cable at different wave lengths and
also as a function of bend radius.
Apparatus:
Optical fiber cable of different lengths, digital multimeter, D.C power supply, mandrel,
fiber optic module.
Procedure:
The experimental method to determine the linear attenuation characteristics of a fiber
consists of injecting a fixed optical power at a constant wavelength into fiber with
varying lengths and then measuring the transmitted power in each case. A plot of the
relative transmitted power as a function of fiber length is used to calculate the linear
attenuation coefficient of the fiber in dB/m.
 
0
( ) exp . P L P L o = ÷
0
( ) . ( ) LogP L LogP Log e o = ÷
0
( ) 0.434 . LogP L LogP L o = ÷
The white nylon mandrel allows a precise bend radius to be set. Start with one
particular length of optical fiber. Connect the fiber to the source and to the power meter,
make sure that the power meter is set to dB/m and for a particular wavelength. Try to
ensure that there are as few bends as possible in the fiber at this point. Record the
power measured on the power meter as the reference power level. Now starting with the
particular diameter mandrel wrap the fiber once around the mandrel. Try to keep the
fiber in place on the mandrel without too much stress and also within region try to
ensure that there is exactly one turn of fiber on the mandrel. Record the power level in
dB and note the difference in dB with respect to the no bend reference power level. Now
move on to the next smallest mandrel diameter and repeat the measurement. As you
approach the smallest mandrel diameter to careful not to damage the fiber.
Roll number Date:
61
Table:
Wavelength =
Length of the cable =
S.No
Mandrel
Diameter
mandrel
radius
0
P
L
P
Roll number Date:
62
13. Characteristics of LED And LASER
Aim
To study the voltAmpere characteristics of LED and a LASER source
Apparatus
Millivoltmeter, microammeter, light emitting diode and low intensity laser, power
supply, connecting wires.
Theory
In LED or LASER, the input supply is electrical energy and the output from these is
light energy. That is, LED and LASER convert the electrical energy into light energy. A
laser beam is highly coherent, monochromatic and intense and hence should not be seen
directly with eye. The light coming out of an LED is not highly intense and highly
monochromatic and hence it can be seen directly with our eye. The volt ampere
characteristics of these two devices are studied here and comparison is made between
these devices.
Procedure
The circuit diagram id connected as shown in the figure. 1.0 to 10 v D.C power supply is
connected to a LED and a micro ammeter in series as shown in figure.
A Millivoltmeter is connected across the terminals of the LED. The power is switched
ON, and varied slowly. The reading in the microammeter and the reading in the miili
voltmeter is noted. The procedure is repeated by slowly varying the power supply and at
Roll number Date:
63
each step the reading of the microammeter and Millivoltmeter are recorded. The
readings are tabulated in TableI and a graph is drawn between voltage and current.
The LED is now disconnected from the circuit and a low power LASER diode is
connected in its place. The micro ammeter is replaced with a milli ammeter and the
milli voltmeter is replaced by voltmeter since the firing voltage of a LASER and LED are
different.
Observations
TableI
S.No Reading in the Milliammeter Voltage across LED
Roll number Date:
64
TableII
S.No Reading in the Microammeter Voltage across LASER
Model Graph
VI characteristics of LED PI characteristics of LASER
Roll number Date:
65
Least count of the travelling microscope:
Least count of the spectrometer:
of 1 MSD
count =
. of vernier scale divisions
value
Least
No
Value of the one main scale division =
0
'
1
30
2
= =
Number of vernier scale divisions = 30
'
'
of 1 MSD 30
count = 1
. of vernier scale divisions 30
value
Least
No
= =
L.C 1minute =
Screw guage
of 1 MSD
count =
. of vernier scale divisions
value
Least
No
Value of the one main scale division = 0.1cm
Number of vernier scale divisions = 100
of 1 MSD 0.1
count = 0.001
. of vernier scale divisions 100
value
Least cm
No
= =
L.C 0.001cm =
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