REVIVAL OF GURMUKHI
Reading and Writing
Research Study, May 2010- November 2011
Name of Applicant:
Harleen Singh Bachelor of Technology Fashion Communication (2008-2011) Ms. Dimple Bahl Assistant Professor Department of Fashion Communication National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi Ms. Rupinder Kaur Assistant Professor Department of Fashion Communication National Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi
This document is a property of National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT). Copyright 2011
This project began as a seminar paper during my four year undergraduate degree progam at the Naion Institute of Fashion Technology . Since then, it has matured into its current form. There are a number of people who deserve recognition for their unwavering support and guidance throughout this project. I would like to take this opportunity to thank them. First and foremost, I want to thank my thesis advisor, Ms Rupinder Kaur for her support and constructive criticism. This project could have not been completed without her enthusiasm and direction. I also want to thank Ms. Pika Gupta for pushing me to understanding a thesis process and encouraging my independence; Ms. Anupreet Duggal, for expanding my understanding of cultural intiatives & programs and her constant mentorship. Also, a special thank you to Ms. Suruchi Mittar for uncovering my passion for Gurmukhi and beginning this project with me. Finally, I want to thank my family. My parents, especially, have been a source of strength and support for me. They continually push me to think critically and never settle for anything less than my best. They kept me focused, on track and helped me gather more information in the final stretch of my project. For their continual support, I am forever grateful.
As a part of the four year undergraduate degree course, students at the National Institute of Fashion Technology are asked to choose an area of communication that they would like to study and write a seminar paper on the same. The research process is carried forward in 3 semesters dring which students undertake various forms of secondary and primary research to find relevant information, facts and figures to support their study. The topic of research for this seminar paper was Gurmukhi. Gurmukhi is the script for Punjabi language. It was formulated by the Sikh Gurus to spread the teachings of the Gurus to all people of the community without discrimination on the basis of caste, color or creed. The script, Gurmukhi, is of great importance and relevance to the people of the Sikh community. However, due to changes in lifestyle, culture and generation gap, people of the Sikh community are no longer encouraging the use of Gurmukhi. There is fair amount of decrease in the number of people speaking, reading or writing the script. This is the main concern for this research paper. Since the script is loosing its identity in the community and moreover in the society, this issue comes in the boundaries of language extinction as there are no new speakers, reader or writiers of the script. To justify and support the issue, various forms of secondary anf primary data have been collected, compiled and analyzed to provide concrete facts on the current status and future scope of Gurmukhi. On the basis of the primary and secondary research, a formal conclusion was made. On the basis of the conclusions, several types of ideas, concepts and design interventions were explored. Various forms of suggestions were made to help the respective problem/issue. This document is a compliation of all the related processes undertaken during three semesters of research on the “Revival of Gurmukhi: Reading and Writing”.
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Overview Statement of the problem and identification of study variables Significance of the problem Research hypotheses Definitions Assumptions and limitations of the research Research/project justification Organization of the thesis/report Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction Framework for literature review Gurmukhi: Introduction History and evolution Association with other scripts Anatomy of letterforms Similar case studies and related articles Chapter 3: METHODS Determination of research design Research design Data collection Chapter 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS Demographics of the population Testing of hypotheses Validity within the study Chapter 5: SUMMARY. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Conclusions Recommendations REFERENCES 09 12 13 14 15
16 18 19 20 22 24 28 42 43 43 44 45 46 47 48 52 57 57 58 59 67
not only among people of the same ocmmunity but also among people from different communities. However. It is time that we realize the need for getting back to our roots and givning it due importance. Language determines the way people express themselves and. new policy initiatives and new materials to enhance the vitality of these languages. who have no land and no clear defining characteristics. present or future tenses. cultural teachings and values. such as crime. the definition of “Basque” is “those who speak in the Basque tongue”. The diversity of languages is endlessly fascinating. This document cum mini-thesis is a compilation of research on the need of promotion and revival of one such language. the Roman. It acts as a binding force and marker of group identities. The existence of a variety of languages results in varying modes of expression and is consequently a stimulus to creativity. Language diversity is essential to the human heritage. There is a value to language that cannot be reduced to the utilitarian ability to communicate with those around you. There is a pressing need to build support for language communities in their efforts to establish meaningful new roles for their endangered languages. the way they think. This in turn has been linked with reducing feelings of social dislocation and related problems. The same is true of the Orang Asli in Malaysia.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Language is a tool of communication. There is an imperative need for language documentation. The loss of any language is thus a loss for all humanity. arguably. Language is a central component of cultural identity. For example. Likewise. rely on their Romany language to maintain a cultural identity.
. it seems that we are becoming slaves of the internationlly accepted norms and forgetting our roots. Each and every language embodies the unique cultural wisdom of a people. A shared language aids social cohesion by providing its speakers with a ready-made support network. The cooperative efforts of language communities. many are under threat. language professionals. It is a tool of expression. This is of benefit to a nation as a whole. but also contains a whole set of allusions and definitions which are bearers of knowledge. Although approximately 6. NGOs and governments will be indispensable in countering this threat. By helping to forge these communities language contributes to social stability. Chinese and Japanese have no past. Gurmukhi. For example.000 languages still exist.
It is time for the people of the world to pool their resources and to build on the strengths of their linguistic and cultural diversity. The world faces new challenges in keeping its languages alive and meaningful. cultural or educational subjugation or it may be caused by internal forces. and cease to pass it on from one generation to the next. such as a community’s negative attitude towards its own language. use it in an increasingly reduced number of communicative domains. there are no new speakers. culture. implementation and evaluation. most second generation young Punjabis cannot speak fluent Panjabi. have come to believe that their languages are not worth retaining. either adults or children. Internal pressures often have their source in external ones. language specialists should make their skills available to these communities in terms of planning. governmental and
institutional organizations. local speech community.A language is endangered when it is on the path towards extinction. This entails sharing resources at all levels: individual language specialists. That is. and enhance social mobility. NGOs. On the other hand. If we look at third generation Pakistani children. and religion. When speech communities request support to reinforce their threatened languages. religious. and both halt the intergenerational transmission of linguistic and cultural traditions. associating their disadvantaged social position with their culture. The Sikh Gurus formulated the Gurmukhi lipi (script) to make the teachings of the Gurus available to everyone without discrimination of caste or creed and the Punjabi language is the language of the Sikh Nation. or to assimilate to the global marketplace. to secure a livelihood. Many indigenous peoples. This is a result of economic. All Gursikhs should be able to speak Panjabi. If it had not been for the
. they can speak fluent Urdu/Panjabi. Language specialists can identify what is required and provide support for language communities to maintain and enhance their languages. This is very worrying. considering the Panjabi language and Gurmukhi script is an integral part of Sikh heritage. They abandon their languages and cultures in hopes of overcoming discrimination. A language is in danger when its speakers cease to use it. Both speech community and language specialists should be involved at all points in the language vitalization process and national and international organizations should provide continuous support to these activities.
the question here is. They were deprived of their mother tongue. When they would speak their native language they would be beaten. Many people from the Sikh community have settled abroad in various countries. the available sources for teaching children is not so impressive. Gurmukhi is the script that is used for writing Punjabi. facts and figures supporting this topic of concern. This is because life is too busy today. history. most Sikhs who have settled abroad have lost their roots to the western culture. Parents today want their children to learn salsa or join swimming. Today. This is causing endangerment to Punjabi and moreover Gurmukhi. The best example is the Africans who were made into slaves. we are becoming more and more busy by the day. there would be no Punjab. readers and writers of gurmukhi. there is a decrease in the number of existing and new speakers. They have become one of them and so have their children. who do we blame for this? Is it because of cultural influences and lifestyle changes? Or is it because today’s generation is too busy becoming slaves of the western culture that pressurizes them to only speak or write in an internationally acknowledged language ? Maybe it’s just that we have given to the peer pressure that asks us to be “one of them”. read and write in English.
. many people can speak in Punjabi because it is easy to speak and learn. Also. Hence. and religion and become slaves of western culture and adopted the names of the White masters. Due to this. But. Situation there is that they have to adapt to the culture abroad. Eventually they lost all culture. our priorities have changed. there is a need for revival of the same. However.Guru Sahibs and Sikhs. which asks them to speak. Since it is a religious language. most people cannot read and write Punjabi. visually appealing and interactive that it would hold a child’s attention for long. But no one encourages their children to join language courses during the summer vacations or otherwise. A nation without its mother tongue is doomed. Today. Parents do not force or encourage their children to learn their own mother tongue because the main language they would be using in the future would most probably be English or Hindi and not Punjabi. Due to this. the reputation and name of the school is more important than the subjects it offers.
With the changing times. The proceeding chapetrs will give the details.
Unfortunately.102. According to the 2008 Census of Pakistan. not only religion is classified as part of Hinduism. Unfortunately for Sikhs. an issue like this cannot be ruled out. for the Sikhs.literally means “from Guru’s mouth” which means that all words written in Guru Grant Sahib constitute Gurmukhi language. grammar and lastly vocabulary. readers or writers are getting added. What makes a language distinct.477 Punjabi speakers in India. Thus no one will argue that Hindi is a language with its Hindi script. Since there is so much relevance o Gurmukhi in the Sikh religion. grammar and vocabulary. Gurus also developed distinct grammer for the language. concept of Shahmukhi and Devnagri script was engrained in so much that Sikhs themselves started to think that Gurmukhi is a mere script. To consolidate this thinking. However.Since it is the 4th most spoken language in India. one needs to reach out to the people it matters the most. it was found that the number is now stagnant and that no more speakers. by forgetting that in that case. the gursikhs. Gurmukhi language was shown to be not Gurmukhi language but merely as a script which can be used to write Punjabi. which makes it approximately the 10th most widely spoken language in the world. Gurmukhi . For this. there are 88 million native speakers of the Punjabi language. there are 29. One has to find out the reasons why people are no longer interested in learning their mother tongue. Gurmukhi becomes the only script which is not an integral part of language .. According to the Ethnologue 2005 estimate. there are 76. in the order of importance. is its script. but their language (Gurmukhi with its script. There is a need for revival of gurmukhi in terms of reading and writing. according to recent studies.335.
.unlike Devnagri has Hindi and Shahmukhi as Urdu language.INTRODUCTION
Statement of the problem and identification of study variables
Punjabi language as a misnomer for Gurmukhi language. it needs to match up in terms of reading and writing as well.300 native Punjabi speakers in Pakistan and according to the 2001 Census of India. grammar and vocabulary) is propagated to be Punjabi language.
378. Sood and Tarkhan. there has been a slight decrease in the number of speakers of Punjabi.193.583. It is of great importance to Sikh community as it was designed by their Gurus for them. Some major subgroups of Punjabis in India include Ahirs.652 665. Kambojs. no new readers or writers of gurmukhi were seen. Lobanas. Chamar.
Also. This means that there is a gradual decrease in the popularity of gurmukhi.610.477 33.85% of Indians. There is an urgent need to revive the script before it gets extinct.83% 2. Delhi and Chandigarh) left for West Punjab in 1947.280 Percentage 2. Most of East Punjab’s Muslims (in today’s states of Punjab. Brahmin. Kalals/Ahluwalias. However.95% 2.73%
. social groups (caste) and economic groups. Gujjar.199 23. it looks like they have forgotten their roots and become slaves of the western culture by becoming one of them.038.422 Punjabi Speakers in India 14.
Census History of Punjabi Speakers In India
Year 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011 Population of India 548.328 1. tribal groups.210. Bhatia. Punjabi is the official language of the Indian state of Punjab.744 29. Rajputs.79% 2. Haryana. Khatris. However. Himachal Pradesh.028. Most of these groups can be further sub-divided into clans and family groups. Arora.INTRODUCTION:
Significance of the problem
Punjabi is spoken as a native language by over 2. The script was formulated by the Gurus of Sikhism to promote teachings of Gurus among people who followed Sikhism.102.108. it is important to note that with the decrease in number of speakers. The Punjabis found in India are composed of various ethnic groups.287. Saini. Jats.443 19. Bania.611.159.988 1.57% 2. seeing the cureent trends.849 838. People are not learning the script that forms the basis of their religion.
A topic such as language revival involves a lot of in depth research and collection of data on the basis of facts and figures. To check the validity and need for the revival of Gurmukhi and intiate a primary research through various media like online and personal surveys. interviews of various religious and community heads. websites. It is of great importance and sentimental value to them. The objectives of the research were decided on the basis of secondary research and collection of current information available on various platforms of information exchange like online portals. Provide suggestions for revival of Gurmukhi. article resourses etc. Gurmukhi is the script of the gursikhs that follow Sikhism as their religion. The objectives for the research for the whole project were laid down as follows: 1. Collection of primary data and analyzing the data to come to conclusions and results 8. services. blogs. the current need and status of Gurmukhi was understood. Identify target groups for collection of primary data and prepare for primary research 5. To understand the current status of the script among the Sikh community on the basis of ready information through secondary sources. blogs. books etc. 2. questionnaires. 3. magazines. Analyze secondary data to idenitfy the need for revival and promotion of the script. scholars and writers. Study the conclusions and inferences fro mthe primary data to identify areas for design intervention 9.
4. 6. On the basis of intial secondary research. OBJECTIVES FOR PRIMARY RESEARCH: • To check the percentage of people who can read and write gurmukhi • To check If they feel they are/ are not religious if they can/cannot read and write gurmukhi • To check If they would like to learn gurmukh If given options and means to do so and what kinds and types of means they would like to use for learning gurmukhi and how 7. communities. community feedback. communities. Collection of secondary data and information through various media such as online portals.
Assumptions and limitations of the research
Any kind of research that involves religious and sentimental issues is often subjective to the sources used for the research. Gurmukhi is the language of the Sikhs developed and formalised by second Guru of the Sikhs. Gurmukhi also had a system where two modifiers were used to modify the sound which once again is slowly losing its value due to negligence. During this research. Gurmukhi holds sentimental and religious value to gursikhs 3. The study and research was performed in New Delhi and does not contain facts and figures for the whole country. These limitations were: 1. So is the case with this project. they do not qualify as limitations. 2. Gurmukhi was adopted to express exactly the tonal sound as to capture the sound of Dhur ki banni” as received by Gurus from God.
. Most gursikhs knew or had heard about gurmukhi 4. The research was conducted among 200 people 3. Guru Angad Dev Ji. There were some limitations during this research as well. These assumptions are: 1. there were some assumptions that were made. Some primary research containg interviews of scholars was collected through mails Although there were other difficulties faced during the research. Gurmukhi is in a constant threat from internationally acknowledged languages like English and National languages like Hindi. Gurmukhi is a religious language 2. Mother tongue is not being passed on from one generation to another 5.
It does not concern us here whether the script was foreign or local. One may find these sound used in Thai language. According to an opinion. However the word Gurmukhi has been correctly used and understood for the ‘holy utterances’ from the Guru Granth Sahib. Gurus also developed distinct grammer for the language. use of vowelsymbols was made obligatory. but the origin of the script is attributed to Guru Angad Dev Ji . Brahmi is an Aryan script which was developed by the Aryans and adapted to local needs. There was some rearrangement of the letters also such as sassa and hahaa were shifted to the first line and oorha was given the first place in the new alphabet.
. but it has now been established. So much emphasis was placed on sound that some alphabets of Gurmukhi were exceptional in sound. He fixed one letter for each of the Punjabi phonemes. He not only modified and rearranged certain letters but also shaped them into a script. jnjnya etc that even now they are not used at all in India today.literally means “from Guru’s mouth” which means that all words written in Guru Grant Sahib constitute Gurmukhi language. in the Sindhi language. mouth or lips) of the (Sikh) Gurus. Punjabi language as a misnomer for Gurmukhi language Gurmukhi is the language of the Sikhs developed and formalised by second Guru of the Sikhs. He gave new shape and new order to the alphabet and made it precise and accurate. the letters meant for conjuncts were not adopted and only those letters were retained which depicted sounds of the then spoken language. The word gurmukhi seems to have gained currency from the use of these letters to record the sayings coming from the mukh (lit. secondarily. Gurmukhi . like ngngnaa. The word Gurmukhi is the compound form of Guru and Mukh. The letters no doubt existed before the time of Guru Angad Dev Ji (even of Guru Nanak) as they had their origin in the Brahmi. that whatever be its name. on the basis of internal evidence. Century BC. Gurmukhi also had a system where two modifiers were used to modify the sound which once again is slowly losing its value due to negligence. It is commonly accepted that Gurmukhi is a member of the Brahmi family.CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Gurmukhi is the name of the script used in writing primarily Punjabi and. the Brahmi script was introduced between the 8th and the 6th. the Aryans did have a system of writing which must have been borrowed freely from local scripts. Guru Angad Dev Ji.
the last Guru of the Sikhs composed Chandi di Var in Punjabi. is its script. grammar and vocabulary) is propagated to be Punjabi language. Gurmukhi becomes the only script which is not an integral part of language . The early Punjabi literature was principally spiritual in nature and has had a very rich oral tradition. not only religion is classified as part of Hinduism. but their language (Gurmukhi with its script.What makes a language distinct.
. Modern Punjabi is not the predominant language of the Sikh scriptures (which though in Gurmukhi script are written in several languages). The first traces of Punjabi can be found in the works of the Nath yogis Gorakshanath and Charpatnath in the 9th and 10th century. Unfortunately for Sikhs. by forgetting that in that case. but the book is interspersed with several other languages including Brajbhasha. grammar and lastly vocabulary. in the order of importance. It is a descendant of the Shauraseni language. The poetry written by Sufi saints has been the folklore of the Punjab and is still sung with great love in any part of Punjab. grammar and vocabulary. many ancient Sufi Muslim and later Guru Nanak Dev. Thus no one will argue that Hindi is a language with its Hindi script. Khariboli. The Punjabi literary tradition is popularly seen to commence with Fariduddin Ganjshakar (Baba Farid) (1173– 1266). To consolidate this thinking.. A few portions of Guru Granth Sahib use the Punjabi dialects. Punjabi emerged as an independent language in the 11th
century. concept of Shahmukhi and Devnagri script was engrained in so much that Sikhs themselves started to think that Gurmukhi is a mere script. Looking at English same can be said as the alphabets are the distinguishing features. no one would argue that Norwegian and English are the same language.unlike Devnagri has Hindi and Shahmukhi as Urdu language. Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language like many other modern languages of South Asia. which was the chief language of medieval northern India. Guru Gobind Singh. Sanskrit and Persian. Though Norwegian shares most of its alphabets with English. the first Guru of Sikhism. although most of his works are composed in other languages like Braj bhasha and Persian.
Anatomy of the script 7. This was done in order to make the review of literature easy and process based. Similar case studies. Purpose of the script 6. interviews and articles
.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Framework for literature review
During the research process. Association with other scripts 4. History and evolution of Gurmukhi 3. a framework for literature review was defined. Views from scholars 5. The framework was: 1. Gurmukhi: An introduction 2.
Takri. but it has now been established. According to an opinion.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Gurmukhi: An introduction
Gurmukhi is the name of the script used in writing primarily Punjabi and. Jammu and the national capital of Delhi. with Punjabi being one of the official language in these states. The letters no doubt existed before the time of Guru Angad Dev Ji (even of Guru Nanak) as they had their origin in the Brahmi. It is commonly accepted that Gurmukhi is a member of the Brahmi family. which helped in the growth of Kharosthi largely used in the Punjab. Sindhi language. Gurmukhi characters are even older than Devanagari. It is commonly accepted that Gurmukhi is a member of the Brahmi family. It is used in the Sikh scripture and in contemporary India. The Iranians ruled in the Punjab in the 3rd and 4th centuries BC. They brought with them Arabic script. Mahajani etc. The word Gurmukhi seems to have gained currency from the use of these letters to record the sayings coming from the mukh (literally mouth or lips) of the (Sikh) Gurus. Gurmukhi is primarily used in the Punjab state of India where it is the sole official script for all official and judicial purpose. Gandhar and Sindhi between 300 BC and 3rd century AD.
. It is an evolute from the old Brahmi script like Devanagari and other scripts of the area like Sharda. The script is also widely used in the indian states of Haryana. but the origin of the script is attributed to Guru Angad Dev Ji. on the basis of internal evidence. Himachal Pradesh. the Brahmi script was introduced between the 8th and the 6th centuries BC. that whatever be its name. The letters no doubt existed before the time of Guru Angad Dev(even of Guru Nanak) as they had their origin in the Brahmi. secondarily. However the word Gurmukhi has been correctly used and understood for the ‘holy utterances’ from the Guru Granth Sahib. Brahmi is an Aryan script which was developed by the Aryans and adapted to local needs. but the origin of the script is attributed to Guru Angad Dev. the Aryans did have a system of writing which must have been borrowed freely from local scripts. Brahmi is an Aryan script which was developed by the Aryans and adapted to local needs. The word Gurmukhi is the compound form of Guru and Mukh. It does not concern us here whether the script was foreign or local.
The traditional accounts. from 8th century onwards. It does not concern us here whether the script was foreign or local. the Brahmi script improved further and became more expansive and common. The Iranians ruled in the Punjab in the 3rd and 4th centuries BC. the Gurmukhi script is a descendant of the Brahmi script. However. Apparently. Gandhar and Sindhi between 300 BC and 3rd century AD.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
History and evolution of Gurmukhi
It is commonly accepted that Gurmukhi is a member of the Brahmi family. the Aryans did have a system of writing which must have been borrowed freely from local scripts. Like most of the North Indian writing systems. Guru Angad Dev. that whatever be its name. such as the references found in the Janamsakhi literature. Brahmi was. G. dated between the 10th and 14th centuries. With the growth of literary and cultural activity during the Gupta period (4th and 5th century AD). the first Sikh Guru. from 4th to 8th century.P. of course. it replaced Kharosthi and became the single script with composite features effected by various local and neighbourly influences. 1898) writes that at least 21 Gurmukhi characters are found in ancient manuscripts: 6 from 10th century. Singh (1950). Guru Nanak Dev also used the Gurmukhi script for his writings. was commonly used along with Kharosthi. but it has now been established. more popular on account of its simple curves alternated with straight strokes. According to an opinion. followed by the Sharada script. 12 from 3rd century BC and 3 from 5th century BC. which helped in the growth of Kharosthi largely used in the Punjab. while quoting Abu Raihan Al-Biruni’s Ta’rikh al-Hind (1030 AD). There are coins of the Bactrian kings and inscriptions of the Kushan rulers having both scripts on them.B. which in its development in the Punjab had undergone several changes. But even then Brahmi. Brahmi is an Aryan script which was developed by the Aryans and adapted to local needs. the Brahmi script was introduced between the 8th and the 6th centuries BC. and finally adapted their archaic form in the Devasesha stage of the Later Sharada script. They brought with them Arabic script. rather than invented. The Proto-Gurmukhi letters evolved through the Gupta script. Hence. on the basis of internal evidence. in due course. Newton (Panjabi Grammar. E. says that
. it would be correct to say that the script was standardised. There are two major theories on how the Proto-Gurmukhi script emerged in the 15th century. by the Sikh Gurus. say that the Gurmukhi script was invented by the second Sikh Guru.
The local Takri variants got the status
of official scripts in some of the Punjab Hill States. known as Shahmukhi is still in use. there were at least ten different scripts classified as Laā. because of the difficulties involved in pronouncing words without vowel signs. the local Takri variants were replaced by Devanagari. After 1948. including Sindh and western parts of the Punjab in the 10th century. the religious scriptures of the Sikhs.
. His argument is that from the 10th century. Gurmukhi became the prime script applied for literary writings of the Sikhs. the script was given the authority as the official script of the Eastern Punjabi language. in Western Punjab a form of the Urdu script. and Siddha Matrika or the Siddham script. The usage of Gurmukhi letters in Guru Granth Sahib meant that the script developed its own orthographical rules. and were used for both administrative and literary purposes until the 19th century. where it is known as Dogri. The La ā alphabets were used for house hold and trade purposes. where it is called Chambyali and in Jammu. In the following epochs. Tarlochan Singh Bedi (1999) writes that the Gurmukhi script developed in the 10-14th centuries from the Devasesha stage of the Sharada script. Meanwhile. Because of its connection with the Bhattis. used in Ujjain and Malwa. Meanwhile. Sikh Gurus favoured the use of Proto-Gurmukhi. applying that the script did not have vowel symbols. Later in the 20th century.the script evolved from Ardhanagari. In Punjab. Mahajani being the most popular. Other contemporary scripts used in the Punjab were Takri and the Lā alphabets. Compared to the La ā. the mercantile scripts of Punjab known as the Lā were normally not used for literary purposes. Bhatinda remained the capital of the kingdom of Bhatti Rajputs of the Pal clan. and is found mainly in the Hill States. a variant of the Sharada script used in Kashmir. Ardhanagari was a mixture of Nagari. such as Chamba. who ruled North India before the Muslims occupied the country. regional differences started to appear between the Sharada script used in Punjab. For some time. Landa means alphabet “without tail”. when Himachal Pradesh was established as an administrative unit. the Hill States (partly Himachal Pradesh) and Kashmir. Gurus adopted the Proto-Gurmukhi script to write the Guru Granth Sahib. the Ardhanagari script was also called Bhatachhari. According to Al-Biruni. Also Takri was a script that developed through the Devasesha stage of the Sharada script. AlBiruni writes that the Ardhanagari script was used in Bathinda.
to write the Punjabi language. Gurmukhi derives its letter shapes from Landa.formally declared as a script & was given this name by the second Sikh Guru. Guru Angad. Its characters were used for writing and transcribing the biography and hymns of Guru Nanak. Guru Angad Dev. But the modern as well as old forms of these letters are found in the orthography of the same writers in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Meanwhile. Later in the 20th century. The manuscripts belonging to the eighteenth century have slightly different forms of these letters. known as Shahmukhi is still in use. Lande.
.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Association with other scripts
Regionally and contemporarily compared. In the following epochs. Gurmukhi had undergone some minor orthographical changes before AD 1610. Guru Angad Dev. Stylistically. the script was given the authority as the official script of the Eastern Punjabi language. It was created in the 16th century CE by the second Sikh guru. in Western Punjab a form of the Urdu script. but they are not represented in the writing system except for sporadic use of the ha letter (reduced to a subscript) to indicate a high tone. Sharada script or (Sharda) and Takri: they are either exactly the same or essentially alike. It was consollidated. but considerable influence from Nagari is evident from the top horizontal bar present in most letters. Further changes came in the forms of H. Gurmukhi became the prime script applied for literary writings of the Sikhs. and 7 in the first half of the nineteenth century. T. The usage of Gurmukhi letters in Guru Granth Sahib meant that the script developed its own orthographical rules. Punjabi has three tones. as the words guru-mukhî literally mean “from the mouth of the guru”. Nagari. Internally. The Gurmukhi script is tightly associated with the Sikh religion. Gurmukhi characters have direct similarities with Gujarati script.
It is also known that the common people used a number of scripts for their temporal and commercial requirements. Siddhamatrika had a very wide use from Kashmir to Varanasi. The fact is that it is dervied from or at least allied to all these and others mentioned above in their historical perspective. From Kutil evolved the Siddhamatrika which had the widest use in northern India. Some scholars think that these two scripts existed simultaneously. regional scripts grew in number. Sharda (Kashmir) and Nagari (beyond Delhi) came into use. it developed. This is evident from the coins of the Ghaznavids and Ghoris minted at Lahore and Delhi. started their in roads into the land of the five rivers. It is on account of these currents that scholars have tried to establish relationships of Gurmukhi with Devanagri (G. and later both Sharda and Devanagari. This stage of Indian script was called Kutil. fine curves and embellished flourishes with a small headline over each letter. and became rather ornamental. especially in northern India. Singh). meaning curved.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Views from scholars
Immediately afer formation. an off short of Nagari. With the rise of regional languages taking the place of Sanskrit and Prakrit. Ardhanagari (west). a branch of Sharda used in Chamba and Karigra. From the sixth century to the ninth. Siddhamatrika (Pritam Singh). Ardhanagari (G.B. Some ascribe it to Lande and some others to Takri. Of these Lande and Takri characters were most prevalent.
. Ojha). Sharada script or (Sharda) (Diringer) and Brahmi (generally).H.
because before the advent of Guru Nanak. Up until that point in history. as well. people could not only learn to read and pronounce the songs written by Guru Nanak. And all that is required is your breath and voice imitating and repeating those sounds. Even Guru Nanak himself based one of his poems entitled ‘patti’ on its characters. even if those songs were in a completely different language. it is derived from Sanskrit. you begin to induce in yourself the same state of consciousness that they were in when they sang the songs.He not only modified and rearranged certain letters but also shaped them into a script. By learning to pronounce Gurmukhi. Through learning this very simple. There was no writing or reading based on the common language. precise method of pronunciation. It is a misnomer to call the Guru as the inventor of its characters. their usage had been prevalent according to in a tablet found at Athur in Ludhiana district. Written languages were reserved for the powerful. Gurmukhi can be learned easily and the language was the common tounge of the area. but to allow people to read and sing sacred songs in other languages. the wealthy and the high-castes. The invention of Gurmukhi was key to opening the doors of the Shabad Guru to all people. Gurmukhi was developed to be a very precise phonetic language. The purpose of Gurmukhi was not to simply represent the common language of the time. The Gurmukhi script accomplished something very special. so the Guru’s teachings could reach all who wanted them. It begins to create the same changes in the physiology. the dialect spoken by Guru Nanak and his contemporaries had no written equivalent.
. Like Hindi and Urdu. It allowed people to be able to read and pronounce the songs written by Guru Nanak.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Purpose of the script
The purpose for creating this script was to make the Adi Granth accessable to the general publicThe tradition system at the time was that a person had to study extensively to understand religious texts. they could also learn how to pronounce the songs that Guru Nanak had preserved during his life from other masters and sages. It opens the door to higher awareness. and by repeating the words of the sages.
The second letter is used without diacritics also. the placing of vowel symbols under and over the letters. This ‘a’ is not pronounced at the end of the syllable. Of all the vowel marks.. otherwise there is no Gurmukhi letter representing more than one phoneme. a. while B” represents only 1. Similarly. is nontraditional and appears to be so due to Us importance in the Sikh scriptures as IV. i and e. God is one. o. oW is kal. With diacritics a total of ten vowels are formed. au.e. They always have a diacritic attached to them. with the only exception of (the first letter of the alphabet) the top curve of which extends beyond the upper line. creates some problems in printing and typing. viz. though initially just a dot was used for it. too. called lagdnm Punjabi. i. From left to right. Other vowels after consonants are shown by vowel symbols which also happen to be the first three letters of the Gurmukhi alphabet. the nasalization sign is also used over a consonant though in fact it nasalizes the vowel. a is the oldest. Of these.
. o and au over a consonant. and e. a characteristic of all Indian scripts. No change is effected in the form of the letter when a vowel symbol or diacritic is attached to it. ‘i’ occurs before a consonant (although pronounced after it).REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Anatomy of the script
The Gurmukhi script is semi syllabic in the sense that ‘a’ is included in the consonant signs in some situations. i. the only exception being to which an additional curve is added which represents two syllables. uandu are written below. or in oTff (kal) represents k+a. All Gurmukhi letters have uniform height and can be written between two parallel horizontal lines. and there are no digraphs. u. that is. The vowel marks i and u are found in Asokan edicts and later inscriptions. This is the only example of a single graphic form representing multiple sounds (and this form has a theological background). the first and the third are not used independently. a. a and i after a consonant. u. only “H” (aim) and W (ghagghd) may be slightly longer than the rest. However. they have almost uniform length.i. Thus.The first letter in the Gurmukhi arrangement. and cTH is Ram. Of these vocalic diacritics. a. and in that case it is equivalent to ‘a’ as in English ‘about’. ai.
therefore. indeed. Only is tainha. The total number of letters is 35 (3 vowels.
. Sikhs have settled in all parts of the world and Gurmukhi has accompanied them everywhere. and f. The terms given to the consonants are their reduplicative phonetic values. thanks to Sanskrit and English influence and expansion of the range of the Punjabi language. z. 3 as the second member of the conjuncts may also be depicted under the first member just in the shape of a slanting comma. They are 52 in Devanagari. 41 each in Sharda and Takri. great need to adopt. Persian script was largely used for Punjabi and there was initially a considerable amount of writing in this script. A dot at the bottom of a number of consonants has been used to represent borrowed sounds such as s. adapt or invent them.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Anatomy of the script
After vowels come and A which are usually placed at the end of Indian syllabary. gh. Attempts have been made by some scholars but their acceptance is still limited. These have been lately introduced though not as a part of the original alphabet. There is paucity of conjunct consonants in the system. The syllabary ends with 3” rara. It is felt that conjunct consonants.
The Gurmukhi Alphabet is also called
‘Paintis Akhri’ because it contains thirty-five letters. Other consonantal symbols are in their traditional order. Only 3” . is vava. It has a brighter future. Geminate (double or long) consonants are indicated by an overhead crescent sign. termed as adhak and placed above the consonant preceding the affected one. and 30 consonants). but it is becoming dated now.S are combined as second members of the clusters and placed without the head line under the first members. 2 semivowels. The alphabet has also crossed the frontiers of its homeland. Thus oT is called kakka. kh. Till recently. are no longer foreign to Punjabi pronunciation. in and outside the land of its birth. There is.
oo. u. Till recently. jhajjha and nyanya. thattha. The alphabet has also crossed the frontiers of its homeland. and popularised by Guru Angad. The last five letters are consonants like mutes. but they are also called semi-vowels. dulaian. Sassa is sibilant. When used with consonants. There are three additional signs. bindi and adhik. rara. uankar. siari. Bindi is also nasal and is joined with kanna. indeed. hora and kanaura respectively. uankar and dulainkare. However. these signs represent the three vowels. in and outside the land of its birth. The name Gurmukhi means “from the mouth of the Guru”. biari. viz. Khakkha. ee. gagga. which include five Gutturals: kakka. The first three characters Ura. ghaggha and ngannga. kanna. which are known as laghan matran. five Cerebrals: tainka. that is. It was modelled on the Landa alphabet. It has a brighter future. hora and kanaura. at postgraduate level. These laghan matran are: mukta. the first three letters are made to represent ten vowel sounds with the aid of additional signs.
. The Gurmukhi alphabet was devised during the 16th century by Guru Nanak. biari. tippi. Persian script was largely used for Punjabi and there was initially a considerable amount of writing in this script. Sikhs have settled in all parts of the world and Gurmukhi has accompanied them everywhere. The vowels. but it is becoming dated now. o and au. aa. They are: yayya. dadda. Haha is aspirate. the second Sikh guru. wawa and rara . Adhik is placed between two letters. ai. These are the short a inherent in each consonant. in Persian script. the first Sikh guru. lan. Punjabi is still studied. i. chhachchha. indicating the reduplication of the second. Tippi is a nasal sound and is joined with mukta.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Anatomy of the script: Alphabets
The Gurmukhi Alphabet is also called ‘Paintis Akhri’ because it contains thirty-five letters.. Aim and Iri are vowels. ey. five Palatals: chachcha. dulainkare. jajja. chaddha and nana. in the Pakistan Punjab. lan. siari. There are twenty-five mutes. lalla. dulaian.
Alphabets and pronounciations in gurmukhi
Various symbols for sounds in gurmukhi
Matras in gurmukhi
The gurmukhi primer
. * When certain consonants occur together. bh. Real Gurmukhi shapes have to be learned although there are some similarities between Gurmukhi and Roman script such as: ‘B’. Panjabi or Punjabi. it is not as daunting as it at first sounds. * When they appear at the beginning of a syllable. ‘W’. which can appear above. below. Gurmukhi is written below the line. easily readable words.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Anatomy of the script: Alphabets
* This is a syllabic alphabet in which all consonants have an inherent vowel. etc) and the intervocal h. an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 60 million people in Pakistan and the Indian state of Panjab. Gurmukhi is quite attractive to look at and has even been imitated in some ASCII display fonts but using Roman characters for people who cannot read Gurmukhi. These are indicated in writing using the voiced aspirates consonants (gh. ‘K’. you will find it fairly easy. dh. Diacritics. are used to change the inherent vowel. special conjunct symbols are used which combine the essential parts of each letter.the latter having a sound that is cross between a ‘W’ and a ‘V’. The letters are structured so that they form neat. * Punjabi is a tonal language with three tones. Once you start writing it. In Pakistan Panjabi is written with a version of the Arabic script known as Shahmukhi Unlike Roman characters. before or after the consonant they belong to. vowels are written as independent letters. The Gurmukhi alphabet has 35 letters in it and whilst this might seem like a lot.
it has been confronting problems in using it mainly in education. Radio Nepal has started to broadcast news in Limbu language for 5 minutes every day through its Regional Broadcasting Centre. All public notice of government offices are broadcasted and published in Nepali language which has never provided clear message to the Limbu language speakers. these provision and the rights have not yet been properly implemented resulting in deprivation of indigenous peoples to get quality education. Of them. The proposed project will address all these problems to introduce Limbu language in local government offices as an official language. Some basic works has been done in the field of education and communication but nothing has been worked with the use of Limbu language in official work. Limbu indigenous peoples are the one who have their own distinct language having a long written tradition. Later it has started to broadcast educational program for 30 minutes in Limbu language once in a week. multilingual. There is lack of basic requirements to be used for using of Limbu language in official work. Dhankuta since 2051. communication and official work. Limbu language along with other mother tongues has been included in primary school curriculum. Nepal’s constitution 1991 had a provision that each community can impart education in their own mother tongue up to primary level. There are 59 indigenous peoples in Nepal.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Similar case studies. multi-religious and multi-cultural country. This has provided some rooms in government offices to the use of mother tongue. are the Limbu language speakers. However. Despite the long written tradition of the Limbu language. It would be relevant to discuss each of them in brief. The government office staffs are still reluctant and hesitate towards internalizing the use of mother tongue in office. interviews and articles
Nepal is a multi-ethnic.
. The Nepal’s Interim Constitution 2006 has also made similar but clearer provision than that of the Constitution 1991. There is lack of Limbu language speaker staffs. This is a pity state of Limbu language use in electronic media owned by the government where most of the listeners of the regional broadcasting centre. The government of Nepal also includes policy regarding the use of mother tongue in local government and offices in its annual policy and programs of this year. Even Limbu language speakers are not aware that their language can be used in office in addition to Nepali Language as official language because they have not allowed doing so for years.
Immediately later. But even then. Brahmi. that whatever be its name. He gave new shape and new order to the alphabet and made it precise and accurate. Brahmi was. but it has now been established. fine curves and embellished flourishes with a small headline over each letter. the Aryans did have a system of writing which must have been borrowed freely from local scripts. on the basis of internal evidence. were shifted to the first line. especially in northern India. It is commonly accepted that Gurmukhi is a member of the Brahmi family. With the growth of literary and cultural activity during the Gupta period (4th and 5th century AD). There was some rearrangement of the letters also. the Brahmi script improved further and became more expansive and common. the Brahmi script was introduced between the 8th and the 6th centuries BC. more popular on account of its simple curves alternated with straight strokes. H and T which were in the last line of the existing alphabets. Brahmi is an Aryan script which was developed by
Similar case studies. secondarily. The word ‘gurmukhi’ seems to have gained currency from the use of these letters to record the sayings coming from the mukh (lit. mouth or lips) of the (Sikh) Gurus.
. use of vowel symbols was made obligatory. Again. but the origin of the script is attributed to Guru Angad. meaning curved. which in its development in the Punjab had undergone several changes. V was given the first place in the new alphabet. This stage of Indian script was called Kutil. the letters meant for conjuncts were not adopted and only those letters were retained which depicted sounds of the then spoken language. He fixed one letter for each of the Punjabi phonemes. it replaced Kharosthi and became the single script with composite features effected by various local and neighbourly influences. was commonly used along with Kharosthi. in due course. Sindhi language. interviews and articles
the Aryans and adapted to local needs. According to an opinion. It does not concern us here whether the script was foreign or local. and became rather ornamental. of course. There are coins of the Bactrian kings and inscriptions of the Kushan rulers having both scripts on them. it developed. Hence. He not only modified and rearranged certain letters but also shaped them into a script. The letters no doubt existed before the time of Guru Angad (even of Guru Nanak) as they had their origin in the Brahmi.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The Story of Gurmukhi by HARDEV BAHRI Gurmukhi is the name of the script used in writing primarily Punjabi and.
Siddhamatrika (Pritam Singh). Ojha). Singh). while B” represents only 1. or in oTff (kal) represents k+a.
Similar case studies. Regionally and contemporarily compared. It is also known that the common (nonBrahman and non-official) people used a number of scripts for their temporal and commercial requirements. Sharda (Diringer) and Brahmi (generally). and in that case it is equivalent to ‘a’ as in English ‘about’. Ardhanagari (G. Internally. The Gurmukhi script is semi syllabic in the sense that ‘a’ is included in the consonant signs in some situations. and V in the first half of the nineteenth century. This ‘a’ is not pronounced at the end of the syllable.H. oW is kal. Lande and Takri characters were most prevalent. Gurmukhi characters have direct similarities with Gujrati. T.
. Gurmukhi had undergone some minor orthographical changes before AD 1610. Other vowels after consonants are shown by vowel symbols which also happen to be the first three letters of the Gurmukhi alphabet.B. Some scholars think that these two scripts existed simultaneously. It is on account of these currents that scholars have tried to establish relationships of Gurmukhi with Devanagri (G. Another reform carried out is the separation of lexical units of the sentence which previously formed one jumbled unit. They always have a diacritic attached to them. interviews and articles
The manuscripts belonging to the eighteenth century have slightly different forms of these letters. Some ascribe it to Lande and some others to Takri. and cTH is Ram. Sharda and Takri: they are either exactly the same or essentially alike. The fact is that it is dervied from or at least allied to all these and others mentioned above in their historical perspective.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
From Kutil evolved the Siddhamatrika which had the widest use in northern India. Of these. But the modern as well as old forms of these letters are found in the orthography of the same writers in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Of these. The second letter is used without diacritics also. Thus. lately punctuation marks borrowed from English have been incorporated besides the full stop (‘ll’) which existed traditionally. Lande. the first and the third are not used independently. Further changes came in the forms of H. a branch of Sharda used in Chamba and Karigra. Nagari. that is.
in Persian script. The alphabet has also crossed the frontiers of its homeland. and 30 consonants). Now it is used in all spheres of culture. There is. indeed. v is vava. For centuries it has been the main medium of literacy in the Punjab and its adjoining areas where the earliest schools were attached to gurdwaras. are no longer foreign to Punjabi pronunciation. therefore. kh. adapt or invent them. interviews and articles
Gurmukhi has played a significant role in Sikh faith and tradition. education and administration. It has a brighter future. Till recently. Thus k is called kakka. It was originally employed for the Sikh scriptures. 2 semivowels. and f. They are 52 in Devanagari. but it is becoming dated now. Sikhs have settled in all parts of the world and Gurmukhi has accompanied them everywhere. The script spread widely under Maharaja Ranjit Singh and after him under the Punjab Sikh chiefs. It played a great part in consolidating and standardizing the Punjabi language. Attempts have been made by some scholars but their acceptance is still limited. The syllabary ends with 3” rara. 41 each in Sharda and Takri. After vowels come and A which are usually placed at the end of Indian syllabary. It is felt that conjunct consonants. The total number of letters is 35 (3 vowels.
. The terms given to the consonants are their reduplicative phonetic values. Other consonantal symbols are in their traditional order. Only is tainha. in and outside the land of its birth. Punjabi is still studied. in the Pakistan Punjab. gh. z. It is the state script of the Punjab and as such its common and secular character has been firmly established. for administrative purposes. Persian script was largely used for Punjabi and there was initially a considerable amount of writing in this script. 3 as the second member of the conjuncts may also be depicted under the first member just in the shape of a slanting comma. However.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The first letter in the Gurmukhi arrangement is nontraditional and appears to be so due to U’s importance in the Sikh scriptures as IV. at post graduate level. thanks to Sanskrit and English influence and expansion of the range of the Punjabi language.e. great need to adopt. arts. God is one. A dot at the bottom of a number of consonants has been used to represent borrowed sounds such as s.
Similar case studies. i.
Muslims had been ruling Punjab for nearly 500 years and half the population had embraced Islam. contains a line or couplet for each of the 35 letters of the Gurmukhi alphabet. 10 vowel marks and 3 other sound marks. Nanak started compiling this revealed bani in a very concise and complete scientific script for the Punjabi language. FRCS Guru Nanak was born with the mandate of revealing a new religious thought and to build up a new nation on the basis of Truth. called Mahaani or Takri. The Brahmins. or the written alphabet. the people of Punjab had been
Similar case studies. The bani in Raag Aasa over which Guru Arjun. His mission was revealed when he was taken to the teacher for imparting teaching in the crude local Lande or Mahajani alphabet with which the Khatris maintained accounts. The maulvis in the mosques taught not only Arabic to Muslim children but also instructed the Muslims in observation of Muslim customs. observation of specific rituals was regarded as religion by both Muslims and Hindus. Indeed. or divine revelation. Guru Nanak explained that it stood for the Sole Creator of the universe who is the one Lord of all of us. written in Arabic script. “Sasai soye srishat jin saaji. record of family events and sending messages. bhaiyaa” (Guru Granth Sahib. the compiler of Guru Granth Sahib has given the heading Patti Likhi. By regarding the whole line they could make out or guess the meaning. Akal Purakh. Fristly. but there was no script of the language. The teacher said it meant the letter ‘S’ nothing more. without vowel letters or mattras was used by people to note down accounts.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Gurmukhi: The Unique Invention of Guru Nanak Dr. sabhna sahib ek. A crude script of 27 letters. The official or court language was Persian.000 years. Nanak asked as to what did that letter mean. interviews and articles
speaking Punjabi for over 1. 432). explained the rituals to Hindus on specific family or festival days.
. the one ever-existing Lord. similarly. Guru Nanak appeared for his sojourn on this earth in 1469.Kuldip Singh. and build a new nation shorn of all hypocrisy and mythology. comprising 35 letters. in the Punjabi language. When the teacher wanted the seven year old Nanak to learn the letter “S” or “sassa”. decided to have a complete break when Nanak started reciting bani. The Primal Lord wanted Nanak to project a humanitarian and scientific religion.
the Sikhs. Guru Nanak kept on recording his bani. interviews and articles
of Akal Purkh .Gokul Chand Narang. teachings or bani of other saints or Bhagats. He made the Sikhs learn the script and not only memorise the bani but also write it. The Second Step: During his long travels across the country and beyond. Mardana playing on Rebec in various musical measures or Ragas. whom he either met during his travels or learnt it from their disciples.
. Booklets or Gutkas as we. Gurmukhi knowing and Gurbani writing Sikhs .@ There are hundreds of other scripts all over the world but there is no single inventor of any one or them. “It was adoption of the Gurmukhi characters which reminded those who employed them of their duty towards their Guru and constantly kept alive in their minds the consciousness that they were something distinct from the common mass of Hindus. or divine revelation.the seekers. decided to have a complete break when Nanak started reciting bani. The bani of only those Bhagats was included who believed in one Lord. the one ever-existing Lord. and without any fear of contradiction. we can state without the slightest hesitation. is indeed the foundation of Sikhi. Charnamrit was the baptismal water prepared by dipping the Guru’s cleaned and washed big toe of right foot in clean water kept in a vessel. 10 vowel marks and 3 other sound marks.” . The Third Step: The identity of Sikhs centered on their knowing Gurmukhi. Indeed. that Guru Nanak is the inventor of the Gurmukhi alphabet.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Akal Purakh. sought entry into the Sikh fold by partaking Charnamrit from the Guru. as gurdwaras were then called. which he used to recite and sing with his companion. in the Punjabi language. Guru Nanak recorded the sayings. Their bani was recorded by Guru Nanak not only in the Gurmukhi script but also in the language of Guru Granth. the Bhagats having predeceased Guru Nanak. comprising 35 letters. Guru Angad (Nanak. Nanak started compiling this revealed bani in a very concise and complete scientific script for the Punjabi language. Thus Sikhism starts with Gurmukhi. no text had ever been written on walls. spread over 28 years. call them containing bani written in Gurmukhi script were the centre of reverence in the Dharamsals.the ever existing Lord taking birth as devta or incarnation of Lord in human form. Any individual who feels proud to call himself a Sikh must know the Gurmukhi script. Not only this. stones or paper in the now known Punjabi or Gurmukhi alphabet. It is an historical fact that prior to Guru Nanak’s writing Gurbani. were against caste system and ideologically held similar views to that of Nanak specially denying the possibility
Similar case studies. the Second) established the alphabetical order of the Gurmukhi letters and took active part in teaching the script and popularising it.
For example. a particular mark preceding a consonant duplicates its sound much the way we would write a double letter in the English language. pronunciation. The top row. but differs in that it is a poetic rather spoken language. A vowel holder is used where there is no consonant between vowel sounds. The fourth horizontal row are
Similar case studies. double consonants or the absence of a vowel. He developed a phonetic script. into Gurmukhi. while the fourth vertical row are aspirated. Gurmukhi Consonants The Gurmukhi script alphabet has 35 main characters grouped alphabetically to form a grid. Guru Nanak. or their respective vowel holders. derived from a 16th century script. Gurmukhi is similar to Punjabi. below. The remaining 30 consonants are arranged so that the second through sixth rows have both horizontal and vertical significance to their pronunciation. Gurumukhi Auxiliary Symbols Auxiliary Gurmukhi symbols indicate punctuation. has three vowel holders followed by two consonants. or to either side of consonants. one of which is understood rather than written. and pronounced with a puff of air. and so on. Guru Angad transcribed the compositions of his predecessor. Angad Dev. emphasized reading scripture daily. and has no symbol.” A mukta is pronounced between each and every consonant wherever no other vowel is present unless otherwise indicated.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The Gurmukhi Script By Sukhmandir Khalsa Gurmukhi is the Sikh language of prayer in which the Guru Granth Sahib is written. It is known as “mukta. The word “gurmukhi” means “guru’s mouth. Gurmukhi Vowels Gurmukhi has ten vowels.
. The vowel symbols are noted above. interviews and articles
all palatal and are pronounced with the tongue touching the roof of the mouth just behind the ridge in back of the teeth. Where a second consonant follows the first. The Punjabi alphabet also has additional modern day characters which are not found in the scriptural verses of the Guru Granth Sahib. which could be easily learned by the common person.” The second Sikh guru. a miniature symbol indicated at the base of the first represents the second consonant.” and means “liberation. For example the last vertical row of letters all have a nasal inflection. with no mukta or other vowel between the two.
Framework The number of people learning German worldwide is on the decline (down from
Similar case studies.612 million) and France (approx. Russia (approx.000 people took German language courses at the Goethe Institut branches worldwide. Current figures German is the most widely spoken language in Europe. with 100 million native speakers. In 2008/2009 some 186.8 million). the increasing engagement of individual countries. primarily at German Schools abroad. and demographic factors. approx. 0. 14.
. 1. Thanks to their multi faceted engagement these institutions and their international partners help to ensure the development and expansion of German language skills abroad.35 million). 1. German is learnt mainly within Europe. the Educational Exchange Service (PAD). interviews and articles
17 million in 2005 to 14. such as Spain and China. In regional terms. According to the most recent survey of German learners (2010). universities and in adult education.2 million). universities (approx. The reasons for this trend can be found in the increasing focus in many education systems on just one foreign language (English). 12. Cooperation partners for language promotion are the Goethe-Institut (GI).REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Promotion of German as a foreign language Within the scope of its cultural relations and education policy. the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).45 million) and adult education courses (approx. The majority of German learners are in Poland (approx. Over 300 million euro is currently being made available for the promotion of the German language abroad. 2.45 million in 2009/2010). and some 30% from Eastern Europe. 1.45 million people worldwide speak or are learning German as a foreign language. the Federal Office of Administration – Central Agency for Schools Abroad (ZfA). mostly in schools (approx.037 million). the Institute for Foreign Cultural Relations (ifa) and Deutsche Welle (DW). in language policy. the clear majority of people learning German come from the EU countries (about 47%). the Federal Foreign Office coordinates the many different promotion programmes and individual measures carried out by various intermediary organizations worldwide but supported with Federal funds.
1. The “German – Language of Ideas” campaign This campaign is a key focus of cultural relations and education policy since 2010. Major language promotion campaigns and promotion programmes concentrate on countries with large numbers of German learners – hence the “Deutschmobile” tour in Poland www. commerce and the media at home and abroad to support the promotion of German as a foreign language worldwide. The Federal Government has set itself the goal of strengthening the German language
. A total of 1420 partner schools have joined the initiative to date. economics and culture. Deutsche Welle. 18 MB) 2. The Federal Foreign Office aims.deutsch-wagen-tour. 4. Institute for Foreign Cultural Relations and Educational Exchange Service). Brochure: German Language of Ideas Promotion of German as part of cultural relations and education policy (PDF. German Academic Exchange Service. The various initiatives and measures within the scope of cultural relations and education policy underpin this approach. the Middle East and the CIS states.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Measures The fact that the number of people learning German abroad is falling poses major challenges for the promotion of the German language. 3. Central Agency for Schools Abroad. particularly in the growth economies of Asia. The German language in the European institutions. interviews and articles
cycle of measures and events both in Germany and abroad. education.Language projects span generations and need continuous long term investment. to • Get young people abroad interested in the German language and open doors for them to German science. The “Schools: Partners for the Future” initiative One of the aims of the “Schools: Partners for the Future” initiative launched by the Federal Foreign Office in 2008 is to expand the teaching of German. • Encourage decision makers in politics. The campaign will help build global education partnerships through a
Similar case studies.pl and Franceas part of a comprehensive effort by each partner to promote the other’s language. along with its partners (Goethe-Institut.
Increase in 2010: € 21.438 participants.5 million. Budget € 3.Almost 2000 educational cooperation programmes for German reaching around 6. Players and instruments promoting German around the world 1. Its language policy engagement focuses on developing and extending worldwide international education networks and seeking to establish two foreign languages on the curriculum in schools in Europe and elsewhere. The Central Agency for Schools Abroad (ZfA) promotes 135 German Schools abroad as well as 825 language diploma schools in 95 countries by
. engages in international cultural cooperation and seeks to provide a wide ranging view of Germany and German culture. has since 1994 been running language courses in the EU capitals under the “Europanetzwerk Deutsch” programme for senior EU officials and ministerial officials from EU and other partner states. A few figures (2009): 135 branches in 91 countries. on behalf of the Federal Foreign Office.14. the Goethe-Institut.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
in the EU institutions. 3. The Goethe-Institut promotes the German language abroad through language and further training courses. a network of 905 contact points in 128 countries. Total budget € 20.5 million. To this end. A few figures: 543 lecturers teaching at universities abroad for between 2 and 5 years. Furthermore.5 million people.
Similar case studies. The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) promotes the German language at the interface with Germany as a study location: DAAD lecturers teach German language. literature. the DAAD arranges and supports study and research scholarships at German universities and offers language courses for students about to embark on studies in Germany.1500 scholarships for language courses in Germany (2009).5 million (2009). interviews and articles
2.584 language courses abroad with 184. culture and other subjects with a German connection at universities abroad. Language courses abroad: funding totalling € 3 million for 2000 people receiving assistance (2009).
Its work focuses on German minorities in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Students who help in class in a school over the course of a school year. television and internet. The Institute for Foreign Cultural Relations (ifa) promotes German language and culture abroad through German-language media. secondments or a one year further training programme. news texts and commentaries. • German teachers looking for further training courses. audiovisual material.
. up to 150 German courses and other activities. 4. Deutsche Welle attaches great importance to developing modern. The German language courses for beginners and advanced students take a multimedia approach. 5. Education experts from Europe wanting to arrange study visits. Interactive German courses. It seeks globally recognized qualifications in line with international standards and promotes quality oriented schools development. 6. Multimedia company and virtual classroom in one – that’s what’s special about Deutsche Welle. contemporary formats. Its programmes are directed at: • Schools which run school partnerships. Deutsche Welle offers Germanlanguage radio. Special material for teachers provides inspiration for how to apply this in language lessons. who are invited for a stay in Germany. • Pupils with an excellent knowledge of German. as well as language courses based on these programmes. exchange
Similar case studies.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
seconding some 2000 German teachers abroad and providing them with support on pedagogical matters. interviews and articles
programmes. The Educational Exchange Service (PAD) promotes exchanges and cooperation between German schools and schools abroad.
the way of thinking and living had changed gradually among all. Since many people from the cummunity were immigrating to western countries. The gurmukhi script is an evolute of ancient indian scripts and is a blend of indian and persian scripts. Due to this.REVIEW OF LITERATURE
On the basis of the secondary research and studies. blogs. lifestyle and views of the people from the sikh community. gurmukhi and religious value among gursikhs. There are many online web-based communities that are involved in the spreadig of awareness of gurmukhi and sikh culture. This makes it a unique script. the perception. There are many scholars and researchers who are involved in the compilation and promotion of the sikh culture through books. Over the years. culture and religion across the world. letterforms and shapes to increase readability. Some of these communities offer memberships and platforms where people can blog. Gurmukhi is the religious language script for Sikh religion. the script underwent few changes in the stroke styles. write articles and share views on the current status of sikhism. Hence. magazine and web portals.
. articles. reader and writers of gurmukhi. lifestyle and way of living for many of them had changed due to cultural changes. This was causing the decrease in the popularity and awareness of sikhism. It was formulated by the Sikh gurus to spread the teachings among common people without discrimination. These people are in constant touch with the religious heads of the sikh community who hlp them validate their thoughts and ideas. It was also found that there had been a slow but considerable amount of change in the perception. it was concluded that there was a gradual decrease in the number of speakers.
The compilation from this primary collection of data would enable the author to support certain assumptions or observations with facts and figures. feedbacks etc. It holds a special sentimental and emotional value in the hearts of the gursikhs because it was formulated by the Gurus themselves for spreading the teachings to all people. that give first hand response from the prospective consumer or target audience. posts and stories from different people across the globe which are based on the religion and its importance. For this project. questionnaires. interviews. A primary research is basically a research conducted by the person working on the project on personal level. blogs. it was found that gurmukhi is a religious script for the sikh community. This primary research would help the author in validating certain points and assumptions. To validate certain points that came up in the secondary research. it was necessary to conduct a primary research.CHAPTER 3 METHODS
Determination of research design
From the compilation of secondary research. Many scholars and high level religious heads are a part of such publications and portals. This includes research in the form of surveys. There are many web-based portals and publications that come up regularly with articles. the primary research had to be conducted withign a specific age group and set of people. the primary research had to be conducted withing a specific region.
. number of respondents and age group. To take this project ahead.
decides the quality and level of information and feedback on would get from the research.
. The conclusion from the primary research would then be combined with the secondary research and compiled into a single data conclusion that would lead the author to the possible opportunity areas for design intervention. the primary research had to be conducted withing a specific region. After the research was competed.METHODS
For this project. To validate certain points that came up in the secondary research. number of respondents and age group. data analysis and conclusion. which in this case was gursikhs or people who belong to the sikh community. There were certain objectives defined for the primary research in advance: • To check the percentage of people who can read and write gurmukhi • To check If they feel they are/ are not religious if they can/cannot read and write gurmukhi • To check If they would like to learn gurmukh If given options and means to do so and what kinds and types of means they would like to use for learning gurmukhi and how. The compilation from this primary collection of data would enable the author to support certain assumptions or observations with facts and figures. the primary research had to be conducted withign a specific age group and set of people. The set of people to be interviewed or surveyed. It was also necessary to define what age group those people be in. It is very important to define a correct target audience for the research. there had to be a stage of research compilation. Once these objectives were clear. it was important to define the target audience for the same.
the methods of online and printed surveys was finalized.METHODS
The compilation from this primary collection of data would enable the author to support certain assumptions or observations with facts and figures. The answers from these people will be collected in the form of questionnaires and calculated by using the percentage method. these answers will enable the author to compile a basic overview of the research and come down with a conclusion of the primary research. The answers given by them would be in the form of objective choices. The results from this research would then be assembled with the secondary data collected through online sources. For this research. magazines etc. This data would be collected in the form of questionnaire from prospective target audience who will be approached through various means. books. This would help in making the research more fine. These elements enable the people taking the survey understand the questions better and give their opinion in a better way. diagrams. pictures and tables that support the questionnaire format of the survey. The conclusion from both types of research would lead the author to the possible opportunity areas for design intervention. the survey was finalized as a source of primary data. Once calculted. A survey usually consists of questions.
. For this research. This was done in order to ensure that maximum number of people can be reached out to in a specific duration of time.
SIKH ADULTS: This segment of target audience includes people who are grown up. sensible. students. it was found that gurmukhi is a religious script for the sikh community. They prefer things on-the-go. number of respondents and age group. the primary research had to be conducted withing a specific region. It is easier to reach out to them if done so correctly. the primary research had to be conducted withign a specific age group and set of people. thigns which are fast. There is an immediate need and urgent requirement to spread awareness about this issue among kids. innovators This segment is the toughest to cater to because they cannot be easily influenced and generally look for reasoning while buying any idea/ concept. Age group: 18-50 Proffession/Occupation: Working proffessionals. achievers. homemkers. It holds a special sentimental and emotional value in the hearts of the gursikhs because it was formulated by the Gurus themselves for spreading the teachings to all people. They are working professionals who have less time for other liesure activities. However. The target age group for this research was finalized to be in two sets: SIKH KIDS: This is a segment of target audience which needs to be catered to first. Apart from gursikhs. To validate certain points that came up in the secondary research. family and teachers. many general non-sikh people were also interviewed and their views were taken on the awareness and degree of knowledge of gurmukhi and punjabi. For this project. businessmen Attributes: Not easily influenced. working proffesionals and busy due to work. busy.
. Mostly students of classes 3-7 who know or are learning how to read and write.CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
Demographics of the population
From the compilation of secondary research. They are experienced and matured. These are the most easily influenced group as they can be influenced by their peers. However. These two were the target audience for the primary research. less time consuming and interactive. Matured. Age group: 7-12 Demographics: Kids going to school. peer rpessure plays an important role.
Testing of hypotheses
On the basis of primary research definitions. The objective was: • To check the awareness of gurmukhi and punjabi among non-sikh people • To check if they can differenciate between punjabi and gurmukhi • To check the reasons why they know/ do not know about gurmukhi • To check what means of communication and education they prefer the most
. The first questionnaire was focussed on gursikhs.
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
The second questionnaire focussed on the general awareness on punjabi and gurmukhi among non-sikhs. be it kids or adults. a formal research startegy was designed. The objective of the survey was: • To check the percentage of people who can read and write gurmukhi • To check If they feel they are/ are not religious if they can/cannot read and write gurmukhi • To check If they would like to learn gurmukh If given options and means to do so and what kinds and types of means they would like to use for learning gurmukhi and how. This included two questionnaires that were distributed among 100 gursikhs and 100 non gursikhs to test their knowledge and awareness on gurmukhi.
No words=3% 1=52% 2=23% 3=2% All=20% 3. When is this passage used by people? •Correct answer= 16% •Incorrect answer=21% •No answer=63% 4. 1. Have you spoken Punjabi more or less than you did 5 years ago? More=32% Less= 68% 5. most people were interviewed in gurudwaras and in colonies. Punjabi Bagh etc. How many words could you read ? Zero. Do you speak Punjabi with your children? Yes=39% No=6% Sometimes=41% N/A=23%
.DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
Survey Results: survey 1
This survey was conducted among gurskhs who were residing in the punjabi inhabited regions of Delhi like Rajouri Garden. Also. Tilak Nagar. No words= 32% 1=47% 2=7% 3=0 % All=14% 2. Do you only speak Punjabi when elders are present? Yes= 32% No=44% Sometimes=18% N/A= 7% 6. How well did you understand the lines above? Zero.
Where you born in Delhi? Yes=68% No=32% 9. Do you feel this script is losing its importance and needs promotion? Yes=57% No=21% A little=38% 14. Who was there in your family when you were a child? Single parent= 6% Both parents=81% Grand parents also=11% Relatives=2% 11. How old were you when you arrived in Delhi? 0-10 yr=49% 10-16 yr=21% 16-21=23% 21 above= 7% 10. What do you think is the reason? Lifestyle changes= 47% Cultural influence=24% Peer pressure=29%
. Is Punjabi your mother tongue? Yes= 89% No=11% 8.7. Would you like to learn or strengthen your Gurmukhi? Yes=61% No=18% Maybe=21% 13. Does a Punjabi program interest you? Yes=89 No=11% 12.
Survey Results: survey 2
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS