Unit: Concept Definition: Social Forestry is the practice of Forestry on Lands outside the conventional forest area for

the benefit of the rural and urban communities (Prasad, 1985). The primary aims are to fulfil the demands on fuel wood, fodder, small timber, protection of agriculture by creation of diverse ecosystem, arresting wind and water erosion, and to create recreational forests. Social forestry is a term applied to tree planting or natural forest management designed to meet the forestry - related basic needs of rural people. Social forestry had been defined as encompassing "any situation which intimately involves local people in a forestry activity for the direct benefit of those people" (Magid and ElSiddig, )

Principles y y y y Social forestry programmes are of the people Social forestry programmes are implemented by the people Social forestry programmes are to benefit the people The role of the government in social forestry programmes is a facilitator; to provide support people needed to make the programme self-sustaining.

Objectives The objectives of Social Forestry is mainly driven by the needs of the local people and also partly by the legislation of the government, meaning that the latter sets some preconditions for the programme. But most of the general objectives are more-or-less concurrent to the following: 1. Improve the environment for protecting agriculture from adverse climatic factors, 2. Increase the supply of wood fuel for domestic use, small timber for rural housing, fodder for livestock, and minor forest produce for local industries, 3. Increase the natural beauty of the landscape; create recreational forests for the benefit of rural and urban population, 4. Provide jobs for unskilled workers and 5. Land rehabilitation 6. Finally, its object is to raise the standard of living and quality of life of the rural and urban people.

Benefits of Social Forestry y Employment and volunteering

It can help retain and enhance local skills, especially among young people, and help to strengthen local economies. Forest-related volunteering can also bring measurable benefits: to the volunteer, to individual beneficiaries, groups and organisations, communities, environment and society at large y Recreation and Accessibility

The number of visits is a measure of the accessibility of forests for recreation. However, accessibility needs to be seen as more than just physical access, and includes the full range of economic, social, cultural and psychological factors (or barriers) that influence decisions to visit forests. y Health and Well being

A growing body of evidence demonstrates that trees and forests can have a role to play in improving people¶s health and well-being (O¶Brien, 2005). Benefits tend to be separated into three types: physical well-being is enhanced through the ability to exercise in a pleasant environment which may encourage higher levels of exercise; psychological well-being is derived through stress reduction, mood improvement and restoration in natural environments; and social well-being can be realised through participation in health intervention projects, such as walking schemes that motivate people to get involved and stay involved because they meet others and develop social networks. y Community Capacity

At the individual level, benefits may include self-esteem and self-confidence, personal identity, sense of belonging, ownership, empowerment, wellbeing, and quality of life. Benefits to the community may include social connectedness, cohesion, integration, stability, and resilience. y Contribution to Economy

The contribution of the social forestry to economy is assessed through estimates of Gross Value Added (GVA), which is defined as the difference between the value of goods and services produced and the cost of raw materials and other non-labour inputs which are used up in production. y Learning and Education

Children can be in contact with natural environment Outdoor education: outdoor play, adventure, guided walks and interpretation y Culture and Landscape

Intangible cultural values are also difficult to separate from each other, yet they are undeniably important and may rank higher in some stakeholder consultations than timber benefits.

Three related perspectives include: 1) Cultural values associated with cultural sites and features, cultural and artistic activities and events, and the meanings people attach to woodlands and trees; 2) Aesthetic values gained from the contribution of trees and forests to the landscape, and 3) Non-use values people derive from knowing that trees exist for the benefit of present and future generations, and as a habitat for biodiversity preservation. Social Forestry Rules and Regulation Forestry leases (a) The Head of the Ministry or his authorised representative may lease Government Reserved Forest to any person for improvement, protection and sustainable use in accordance with the applicable management plan. (b) The conditions of a lease under this section, including permitted and required operations, payment of rent, royalties and other charges, and taking and disposing of the produce, shall be as specified in rules issued by the Ministry and in the lease. Taking Forest Produce from Registered Private Land (a) The Ministry may issue Social Forestry Rules to encourage any person to grow or nurture forest crops on his own registered private land, excluding Tsamdrog and Sokshing. (b) The Ministry may issue rules allowing any person to take forest produce on his own registered private land, excluding Tsamdrog and Sokshing, with or without a permit or payment of royalty, subject to such conditions as may be prescribed in such rules. (c) No forest produce shall be removed from private land without a transit pass, except those excluded from such requirement by rules issued under 16(b). (d) An authorised Forest Officer shall issue a transit pass for the removal of timber whenever he is satisfied that it has been taken on private land in accordance with this Act. Community Forests (a) The Ministry may make rules for the establishment of community forests on Government Reserved Forest. (b) The rules for community forests may provide for the transfer of ownership of the forest produce in the community forest to appropriate groups of inhabitants of communities adjoining the forest. (c) The group to which community forests have been transferred shall manage them for sustainable use in accordance with the rules for community forests and the approved management plan. (d) Permits, royalties and other charges, as well as assistance to community forestry, shall be governed by the rules for community forests. Protection of Social Forestry and Community Forestry Any person who contrary to this Act or rules takes, damages or destroys any forest produce on private registered land, in leased forest or in a community forest

established under this Chapter, is guilty of an offence punishable with imprisonment which may extend to 3 months, or a fine which may extend to an amount prescribed in the Rules which may be issued from time to time, or both, in addition to either (i) Confiscation of anything illegally taken or the proceeds from the sale thereof, or (ii) Payment of compensation at fair market value for anything illegally taken, damaged or destroyed. Social Forestry Programmes Social Forestry by the schools y y y Learn about nature and plant science Learn about landscaping and beautification Learn about benefits of plants

Social Forestry by the farmers y y Learn about benefits of trees: direct and indirect Inculcate sense of responsibility and ownership

Social forestry by communities y y y y Bring about cohesiveness and unity Cooperation and coordination Learn about benefits of trees: direct and indirect Inculcate sense of responsibility and ownership

Social forestry by government organizations y y y y Protection and conservation (environmental concern) Diversification Landscaping Land management

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful