US Army Photography Course SS0516-A - Introduction to Special Photographic Assignments | Shutter Speed | Film Speed




INTRODUCTION TO SPECIAL PHOTOGRAPHIC ASSIGNMENTS Subcourse Number SS0516 EDITION A United States Army Signal Center and School Fort Gordon, GA 30905-5074 6 Credit Hours Edition Date: September 1994 SUBCOURSE OVERVIEW This subcourse presents you with information on how to accomplish special photographic assignments in photojournalism, group and awards photography, investigative photography, clinical/medical photography, and architectural photography. Topics covered include selection of equipment, lens, film format, and film. You will learn the professional way to approach an assignment from idea development and planning to layout of the final pictures. Techniques for use in investigation and documentation photography will be examined. In addition, this subcourse will cover perspective control in architectural photography when using the view camera. There are no prerequisites for this subcourse. This subcourse reflects the doctrine which was current at the time it was prepared. In your own work situation, always refer to the latest official publications. Unless otherwise stated, the masculine gender of singular pronouns is used to refer to both men and women. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE ACTION: You will identify and describe procedures for photographing groups and awards ceremonies as well as investigative and clinical/medical photography. You will be given information from TM 11-401-2, STP 11-25S13SM-TG, and Photographer's Mate Training Series NAVEDTRA 37302-45-83, MOD 2. To demonstrate competency of this task, you must achieve a minimum score of 70% on the subcourse examination.





TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Subcourse Overview Lesson 1: Page .................................................. i

Introduction to Photojournalism ........................... 1-1 Part A: Part B: Part C: Part D: Part E: News/Sports Photography ........................ 1-2 Picture Story ................................. 1-12 Photo Essay ................................... 1-22 Basic Photojournalistic Techniques ............ l-26 Photo Layout/Captions ......................... 1-37

Practice Exercise......................................... 1-47 Answer Key and Feedback .................................. 1-50 Lesson 2: Group and Awards Photography............................... 2-1 Part A: Part B: Formal and Informal Group Photography .......... 2-2 Recognition Photographs......................... 2-5

Practice Exercise ........................................ 2-15 Answer Key and Feedback................................... 2-18 Lesson 3: Investigative Photography.................................. 3-1 Part A: Part B: Part C: Aircraft/Vehicle Accidents ..................... 3-2 Criminal Investigations ........................ 3-5 Fire and Arson Investigations .................. 3-8

Practice Exercise ........................................ 3-11 Answer Key and Feedback................................... 3-13



Section Lesson 4:

Page Clinical/Medical Photography............................... 4-1 Part A: Part B: Part C: Types of Clinical/Medical Photography........... 4-1 Autopsies ...................................... 4-6 Photographing Surgical Procedures .............. 4-7

Practice Exercise ........................................ 4-11 Answer Key and Feedback .................................. 4-14 Lesson 5: Architectural Photography ................................. 5-1 Part A: Part B: Types of Architectural Photography ............. 5-2 View Camera Operation and Perspective Control......................................... 5-6

Practice Exercise......................................... 5-13 Answer Key and Feedback................................... 5-16 Appendix: List of Acronyms........................................... A-l



LESSON 1 INTRODUCTION TO PHOTOJOURNALISM Critical Tasks: 113-578-1005 113-578-1011 OVERVIEW LESSON DESCRIPTION: In this lesson you will learn how to define an event as news, be given basic guidelines on how to obtain sharp images of moving subjects, and learn to choose the best film and lens for news/sports action. You will learn to tell a story with your pictures, using basic layout composition, idea development, research, and script planning. You will define a photo essay and a picture story. You also will learn various photographic techniques that lend themselves to portraying interpretive or subjective ideas. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVES: ACTIONS: a. b. c. d. e. CONDITION: Describe the “newsworthy.” qualities which define an event as

Explain various methods which can be employed to obtain sharp images of moving subjects. Identify lens selection for sporting events and various pictures. Identify the relationship of individual pictures to the continuity of the overall picture story. Describe the four elements of describe cropping and scaling. layout composition and

You will be given information from TM 11-401-2, STP 11-25S13SM-TG, and Photographer's Mate Training Series NAVEDTRA 37302-45-83, MOD 2. Photojournalistic techniques and development of a picture story/photo essay will be in accordance with TM 11-401-2, STP 11-25S13-SM-TG, and Photographer's Mate Training Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-45-83, MOD 2. The material contained in this subcourse was derived from the following publications: TM 11-401-2, STP 11-25S13-SM-TG, and Photographer's Mate Training Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-45-83, MOD 2.





INTRODUCTION This subcourse will not turn you into a full-fledged photojournalist like Robert Capa or Margret Burke White overnight, but it will get you started in the right direction. Many people learn to do specific photographic jobs technically correct. A school photographer may shoot hundreds of pictures a day against a fixed background with fixed lighting and exposure; or a military photographer may excel in recording damage to equipment; another may consistently produce aerial photographs with sharp detail. Are these people only good technicians or merely good craftsman? Who then, are the photojournalists? These are the ones who can sense and capture the feeling and emotions of a situation and transfer them through his pictures to the viewer. A fashion photographer can make you desire the latest style in a gown. The news photographer is able to capture and make you feel the tragedy of an accident or the joy in the face of child. A combat photographer can make you feel the anguish of war. These are the photojournalists! Intangibles such as these mentioned are not learned in a short time. Indeed, they may never be developed unless you begin thinking about photography in terms beyond the technical. To be successful you must study, develop skills, and be receptive, sensitive, and concerned. But above all, you must have a desire to share with and communicate to others. Technical competence is necessary. The foremost requirement to be a successful photojournalist is to master your equipment and have it ready for use at all times. These things, plus your imagination, are the means by which you can produce pictures that will be appreciated by a great many people and be satisfying to you. PART A - NEWS/SPORTS PHOTOGRAPHY 1. News. news will some from

a. Qualities of a News Item. To consider an event or subject as or newsworthy, it must be of interest to the general public to which it be presented. That may sound simple enough, but in reality there are specific characteristics or qualities which separates a news item ordinary information. Those qualities are: (1) Immediacy (timeliness). This is why news is NEWS. interested in current events. What happened today? (2) Proximity. own community.

People are

People are interested in what is going on in their



(3) Consequence. than just a few? (4) Prominence. the subject. (5) Oddity. bites dog.” (6) Conflict. elements.

Does it affect the majority of the people rather Relates to the greatness or notable recognition of “Man

An unusual event that is inherently newsworthy.

Depicts man against man or man versus nature and the

(7) Human Interest. An event or subject that has emotional elements with which the public can empathize. (8) Progress. Good news that shows a change for the better.

b. Summary. One or more of these qualities should be present in your subject matter and pictures in order for them to be newsworthy. Often you will have to draw on your power of observation, sensitivity, and imagination to capture and communicate to your readers the essence of the event. Good news photographs do that and thereby leave an indelible mark on the mind of the viewer. 2. News Coverage.

News coverage is divided into three types: a. Spot News. Spot news is an event that happens without warning. Most experienced photographers agree that a spot news event is the most difficult and nerve-shattering assignment. Why? Because they are rapidly occurring events with little time to think and a pressing need to “get the news out.” (1) Normally a spot news event requires that you work at top speed and under the pressure of a deadline. This is a time when mastery of your equipment and technical competence is a key factor. Your own movement and control over the subject may be limited; however, you are still expected to obtain complete coverage. (2) Complete coverage may include long, medium, and close-up views. You may be limited to camera angle, choice of lens from your equipment bag, and the instant of exposure. Considering the environment of a spot news event, it may very well be the most difficult event to photograph. b. General News. General news is usually an event that is scheduled and for which you have time to preplan the coverage.



(1) General news events may include sporting meets and ceremonies such as a change of command, awards, advancements, ribbon cutting, etc. You will know what, where, when, and who about the event and have some idea of the type of photographs needed. (2) You will be able to roughly preplan the coverage, but maintain some flexibility to decide the exact pictures to take during the event. You will probably still have a deadline to meet, but these will generally not be as short-fused, as those for spot news. c. Feature News. Feature news is reporting on the activities of some person, organization, or group that you have selected in advance. Since speed in publishing is not an overriding factor, a more in-depth story is possible. (1) More time is available to research the subject and gain an understanding of the elements. You can previsualize the entire feature whether it be a single picture or a series of pictures. (2) Ideally, you should compile a shooting script. A shooting script is a written guide you use for planning the coverage. Later in this lesson we will discuss researching and scripting the shoot in greater detail. 3. Action and Sports.

a. Goal of the Photojournalist. When you photograph people in action, at work, or at play, the name of the game is anticipation, staying alert, and expecting the unexpected. Your goal is to capture the “peak” of action or that moment which best imparts to the viewer the feeling or emotion you want them to feel. Whether it is the precision movement of the post drill team or that interception that won the championship, you want the viewer to feel the intensity of that moment as if he were actually there. (1) Action pictures of people. The best pictures of people will usually have action--implied or apparent. Action will enhance the emotional mood and impact of your images. The action should be appropriate to the subject. (a) Even a posed picture can have action and interest. Avoid dull, static pictures of people looking into the camera. Plan and shoot for action, such as shots of a speaker making gestures, audience's facial reactions, applause, people shaking hands, etc.



(b) It is not easy to capture action in pictures because people have a tendency to “ham” or look at the camera. By understanding the importance of action in your pictures and the abundance of action available everywhere, you will soon become adept at recognizing and capturing it on film. Figures 1-1 and 1-2 illustrates action pictures. In figure 1-1, the photographer panned with the action which “froze” the player but blurred the background. In figure 1-2, the photographer kept his camera trained to the action. A fast shutter speed “froze” the action in place.

Figure 1-1.

Football action picture



Figure 1-2.

Baseball action picture

(2) Action pictures in sports. While photographing sporting events, most photographers concentrate on the obvious action; the jump shot in basketball, the pass reception/interception or the tackle in football, or the slide for third base. Don't miss those moments, but open your eyes and look around. Catch the coaches reaction to a touchdown, the water person running the water bucket onto the field during a time-out or the tired slump of the players' shoulders who are sitting on the bench. Remember, action is all around you. Refer to figure 1-3 for a crowd reaction shot.



Figure 1-3. 4.

Crowd reaction shot in a sports event

Important Factors in Taking Action Pictures.

There are several things you must be aware of and take into your calculations when photographing subjects in motion: speed of the subject, angle of travel relative to the film plane, the subject's distance from the camera, and lens selection. a. Speed of the Subject. When the action you are photographing is violent or rapid, problems may arise. The images may be blurred and unusable. You can eliminate or control blurred images by choosing the proper shutter speed to “freeze” and change the technique the action. Keep in mind that when you increase the shutter speed to stop the action, you will need to adjust your f/stop in order to maintain the proper exposure.



b. Angle of Travel Relative to Film Plane. Subject movement matters most when the subject of the photograph is traveling parallel to or across the film plane. If a subject is traveling straight toward or away from the camera at 50 mph, it will appear as if it is hardly moving and will record as a sharp image on the film. This is true even at a shutter speed as slow as 1/60 of a second. However, if that same subject was traveling across the field of view or parallel to the film plane, its speed would be quite apparent in the blurred image produced on the film. To eliminate the blurring, you must use a faster shutter speed, such as 1/1000 of a second or faster. Refer to the chart in figure 1-4. c. Subject's Distance from Camera. You must also consider the subject's distance from the camera. The closer a moving object is to the camera, the faster the shutter speed must be to capture a sharp image. For example, an aircraft flying at a great distance can be captured as a sharp image on film at a slow shutter speed, while the same shutter speed will give you a blurred image of a plane flying much nearer the camera. d. Lens Selection. Another factor that you must consider for action shots is the lens selection. You may use a variety of lenses in sports and action photography, depending on your distance from the action. (1) For sports like boxing, wrestling, golf, or activities where you can get close to the subject, a normal angle lens, or on occasion a wide angle lens, can be used. (2) The preferred lens for field sports is the long focal length (telephoto or zoom) lens. By using a long lens, you can bring the subject action up close. The inherent shallow depth of field of these long focal length lens can also help you isolate the subject (separate it from background and foreground). There are technical problems which you should be aware of when using a long focal length lens. (3) Because of the shallow depth of field, keeping the subject in focus can be more difficult, especially when the subject is constantly moving. Camera movement or shake is more pronounced. (4) A rule of thumb which helps to eliminate this problem is to use a shutter speed which is the reciprocal to the focal length of the lens being used. For example, if you are using a 250mm lens, you should not use a shutter speed that is slower than 1/250 second. This will help you obtain sharp images on the film.



Figure 1-4.

Action stopping shutter speeds for normal focal length lenses

Recommended Focal Length and Minimum Shutter Speeds to Capture Action 50mm 105mm 200mm 300mm 1/60th 1/125th 1/250th 1/500th

e. Additional Factors to Ensure Sharp Images. (1) You may further ensure sharp images by using either a monopod or chestpod. A monopod, unlike a tripod, has only one 1-9 SS0516

leg. It provides a steady camera support for long lens use but is easy to move rapidly from position to position. A chestpod does have three legs but they are short and mounted under a swivel head which allows you to brace it against your chest and provide firm support for your camera. (2) Using electronic flash equipment to augment low-light level conditions is another way to capture fast action on film. Their inherent speed of 1/1000 of a second or less will freeze action and allow you to select a reasonable f/stop to maintain depth of field. Be aware of the electronic synchroflash speed of your camera. Cameras with focal plane shutters usually sync at 1/60th of a second or slower. (3) The faster shutter speeds sometimes required to obtain sharp images of subjects in motion become an important factor in choosing the film which you will use. Faster shutter speeds will probably require faster films. Over the past few years the selection available for use has broadened considerably due to ongoing research and development by film manufacturers. (a) Film with International Standardization Organization (ISO) 400 speed once considered fast are now overshadowed by ISO ratings of 1600, 3200, and higher. (b) Both color and black and white films come in these faster emulsions. The advantage to you as the photographer is that you can make action photographs under natural or existing light. (c) Gymnasiums are notorious for poor lighting conditions. Yet with special care, a fast film, and a practiced eye, you can create dramatic photographs. Under normal light conditions where the action is fast, such as an auto race or a football game, you may wish to use the faster film to obtain stop action photographs and still be able to select an f/stop that gives you plenty of depth of field. (d) Remember the “sunny f/16” rule. Set your f/stop at f/16 and use the reciprocal of the ISO to determine your shutter speed. Using a color film with an ISO of 400 gives a reciprocal of 1/400 of a second. Select the shutter speed closest to the reciprocal. The closest on most cameras will be 1/500 of a second. You will now be able to stop action and obtain sharp images. f. Blurring Techniques. Up to this point we have been directing your attention to techniques used to stop or freeze action. There is another effective way to illustrate action. Why not create some blurring?



(1) By selecting shutter speeds slower than those that completely freeze all the action in a scene, you may obtain blurring that will impart a greater feeling of motion to your viewer. For example, a picture of a baseball pitcher may show his head and body in sharp detail while his pitching arm is blurred, or a soldier running may be sharp except for his legs. You may have to experiment and practice with this technique. (2) “Panning,” or following the action with the camera, will give you a sharp image of the subject and create a blurred background. For example, an aircraft on its takeoff or a crash vehicle speeding to the scene of an accident. (3) To get the feel of this method, practice with an empty camera. Simply pivot at the waist, keeping the camera lined up on the passing subject. Remember, these techniques require practice to master. Figure 1-5 illustrates panning.

Figure 1-5.

Panning with a moving subject to stop motion



PART B - PICTURE STORY 5. What is a Picture Story.

A picture story is a complete unit which you plan, research, and often support with text and captions. It presents an in-depth account of an interesting and significant event, personality, idea, or other topic. a. The production of a picture story is one of the most exciting and challenging assignments in photography. For Army photographers, it is an effective method of telling the Army's story. However, the picture story doesn't just happen. Your idea forms the foundation upon which the story is built. b. If the idea is good and you support it with good photography, you have an excellent chance of producing a professional story. If the idea is poor and the planning weak, no amount of photographic skill or technical perfection will make it better. Look at the foldout of figure 1-6 for a sample picture story. In this picture story, the lead photo introduces the subject. There is a beginning, middle, and end. The photos lead into the layout. The last photo provides “closure” by facing to the left, directing the eye back to the beginning. c. Regrettably, the development of picture story ideas is a major stumbling block for many photographers. All too frequently you hear the comment, “There is nothing in my command on which to do a picture story.” This is a most unfortunate attitude. Army men and women are surrounded by a fantastic wealth of picture story material. d. Army personnel take their environment for granted. It is the same old story of not being able to see the forest for the trees. All you have to do is look around. When you say you can not find any subject for a story, you are admitting that you are not very alert, or observant. You can get ideas by subjecting yourself to stimulating experiences, talking to other people and observing the world around you. 6. Picture Story Composition.

Composition is of great importance in photojournalism. Photographs that possess a center of interest are composed using the rule of thirds. They are pleasing to view, and are generally considered to be well-composed.



Figure 1-6.

Picture story



Figure 1-6a.

Picture story






In this subcourse, we will discuss composition in terms of how your pictures must relate to each other and allow the viewer to follow the story line from beginning to end. Each picture must have visual appeal and clearly communicate an idea or feeling that relates to the point or theme of the story. This relationship is called continuity. Five continuity types that are frequently used to hold picture stories together are as follows: a. Simple Commonality. A photojournalist uses simple commonality when he has a group of images on the same subject that can not be arranged in any particular order. In other words, the pictures have no starting point and no conclusion. (1) For example, suppose a photojournalist has prepared a picture story on Army journalism training. Individual pictures might show the following; (a) Two students tape recording an interview in the radio studio. (b) A student setting Foto-type headlines for the front page of his photo-offset paper. (c) An instructor pointing out a speed graphic to a small group of students gathered around him. (d) A student, foreign officer. with pencil and paper in hand, interviewing a

(e) A general classroom scene showing the students seated and the instructor using the chalkboard. (f) A student struggling under the weight of an armful of books issued to him the first day for use during the 12-week course. (g) A group of students viewing the rotary presses during a field trip to a local newspaper. (2) Each photograph features a different pose, scene, students, and instructors, but the common denominator is that they all show journalism training. The photographs have no starting point or conclusion, but the photojournalist has established or maintained continuity by the fact that all the pictures pertain to the same general subject matter. b. Narrative Chronology. Unlike the simple commonality, the narrative chronology is presented with a definite time sequence in mind. A narrative chronology will present pictures with a definite beginning, middle or body, and conclusion.



(1) Each image is closely related to the one that precedes it and to the one that follows. The photographer must display the pictures in sequence. (2) The first picture should have the visual impact to grab the readers' attention, the middle pictures should be informative, and the last picture should impart a definite feeling of conclusion. c. Repeated Identity. This type of continuity is one of the simplest to develop and the one photojournalists most commonly use in publications today. (1) In its basic form, it involves the repeated appearance of the same person or subject (repeated identity) in every scene of the picture story. For example, if you want to develop a picture story of recruit training in the Army, the easiest way of doing it is to select a typical recruit and follow him through a day of training from reveille to taps. The same recruit in every picture, but with every picture showing a different scene and different action. (2) Remember, this continuity presentation applies not only to people, but objects, scenes, moods, and situations as well. The basic technique is the same; however, more ingenuity may be necessary to make the presentation interesting and effective. d. How-to-do-it Continuity. This type of continuity employs a task sequence of pictures showing step-by-step procedures for doing something. You can use it to show how to make anything from an eye splice in a line to building one's own boat. This type of continuity is frequently seen in today's newspapers and magazines. Publishers commonly use this type of continuity in how-to-do-it articles dealing with carpentry, hobbies, homemaking, cooking, building, and sports such as bowling and golf. e. Parallel or Contrast Continuity. Using this style a photojournalist employs the “do and don't,” “right or wrong,” or “before and after” approach in his presentation of pictures in the story. He will frequently use this style to present two divergent points of view. As an Army photojournalist, you might use the “do and don't” approach. For example, in a story on safety you may find that the "right and wrong" technique can be effective in a feature on military courtesy. The "before and after" comparison is most commonly used in picture stories dealing with progress.



Now that you understand the various types of continuity and how they help communicate the theme of your pictures, let us look at some things that all good photojournalists do before they even pick up their cameras. 7. Researching Your Picture Story Subject.

Research is one of the most important steps in doing a picture story. You must have some knowledge about your subject. Before you outline the shooting script and load your camera, you need to learn as much as possible about the place, situation, object, and people involved. The more complicated the story the more in-depth research you will have to do. This is when you will flesh out that idea, clarify the objective of the story, and gather information from which to write the shooting script, captions, and supporting text. The following steps will help you to efficiently and effectively produce a top quality picture story. a. Contact the person in charge of whomever or whatever you will be doing the story on and explain what it is that you desire to cover photographically. b. Obtain names, phone numbers, work schedules, and background information on those persons who will be portrayed in or are important to your story. c. Observe the subject of your story, without interfering, and make notes of picture possibilities. Also think about which lenses to use, the angle, lighting, and implied or apparent motion. d. Stay with your subject until you are fully satisfied that you know and can anticipate the next probable move or step that may occur. Watch for facial expressions, gestures, and mannerisms which may be useful in the development of the story. e. Schedule an interview with the people in your story in order to gain additional information. This information may give you more picture ideas and help you write the captions and supporting text for your layout. Don't short change yourself by skipping any of these steps. Some stories may require only a few hours of research while others may take days. Once you have completed your research, sit down and prepare your shooting script. 8. Preparing a Shooting Script.

In order for a carpenter to build a strong sturdy house he must have a blueprint to follow. A pilot who is making a



cross-country flight must have a flight plan. The shooting script, like the carpenter's blueprint and pilot's flight plan, is essential to you as a photojournalist. It enables you to visualize the entire picture story before you start taking pictures. a. Importance of a Shooting Script. Shooting a picture story without a positive concept and plan of what you are trying to say is, at best, a gamble. Remember, the shooting script is a blueprint or guide from which you will build your story. (1) The shooting script will help you identify weak areas, gaps, and avoid including material which may cloud the main point of your efforts. If properly prepared, it will keep you from wandering about or getting sidetracked once you start taking the pictures for your story. With its use, you are not likely to forget a key element or lose track of your main idea. (2) You must remember that the shooting script is only a guide. It is not carved in stone, it's not binding. Don't let it stifle your creativity once you begin shooting. Be alert to developments and actions that offer new perspectives on pictures that may enhance your picture story. (3) Having too many photos when you begin composing the layout is not a bad thing. Having too few can necessitate your going back to shoot more. (4) Remember that the time you spend preparing your shooting script is compensated for by the time and possible confusion you save while you are shooting the job. b. Preparing the Shooting Script (First Step). The first step in preparing a shooting script is to write a short objective statement. Writing an objective statement will help you to focus on the key element in the story and strengthen the overall impact. It should clearly identify the subject, who or what the story is about, and what you are trying to communicate to the reader/viewer. The objective statement should answer the 5 W's: WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE, and WHY. (1) WHO. Identify the subject or people who will be photographed. Include names and/or titles, duty responsibilities, and functions. (2) WHAT. Describe the exact nature of what the subject will be doing in support of the overall theme of the picture story.



(3) WHEN. List the dates and times that the subject will be photographed. Coordinate this with the subject or point of contact to ensure subject is available when specified. (4) WHERE. Select the photography will take place. (5) WHY. exact location or locations that the

State your reasons for shooting the story.

c. Preparing the Shooting Script (Second Step). The second part of your shooting script will outline how you will put across your idea and story objective by listing the shots you plan to take. Review the notes you made while conducting your research, and list each photo idea you pictured in your mind. Each one should be followed by a description of the composition you visualized. Whether it should be a long shot, medium shot, close-up, high or low angle of view, what the point of focus is, and any unusual lighting conditions or requirements. The following is an example of a portion of a shooting script: (1) Shot 1. Medium shot, wide angle lens, syncro-sun fill.

WHAT: Instructor in the field with students. Shoot between two rows of students from a low angle to separate subjects from background. WHY: To show the reader the size of the class and the method used to acquaint students with the Speed Graphic. (2) Shot 2. Medium shot, normal angle lens, syncro-sun fill.

WHAT: Instructor working with two students, adjusting the Speed Graphic or pointing out to the proper method of viewing a scene. Use shallow depth of field, about waist level camera position. WHY: To identify the instructor and a couple of students attending the photo school. (3) Shot 3. Medium shot, normal angle lens, Multiflash.

WHAT: Instructor and student discussing a problem. Show student showing something to instructor. Shoot from low angle to see faces bent over item being discussed.



WHY: flash.

To illustrate instructors' interest in their students. (4) Shot 4. Medium shot, long focal length (105mm), off camera-

WHAT: Two instructors in section office reviewing a student’s work progress. Shoot across desk with negative in instructor’s hand the only thing in focus. WHY: To illustrate how instructors work together in helping students obtain course learning goals. (5) Summary. Carry out this format and plan each picture you have visualized in your mind while conducting the research. Keep in mind that you can change this as the situation warrants. You can even add new picture ideas or delete some. The script is only a guide. Figure 1-7 illustrates a simple picture story sketch from an assignment to photograph a newly-opened bowling alley. d. Evaluation of Shooting Script. You can evaluate your objective statement and shooting script using the following criteria: (1) Interest. will not read it. The leaders must gain something from the story or they That "something" which

(2) Impact. Your pictures must have impact. appeals to the eye, catches attention and holds it.

(3) Focus/scope. Narrow the scope of your subject. A picture story about your whole post may be interesting but would be cumbersome and time consuming to read. Focus on a smaller part. Maybe a department, or division, or an individual. (4) People. Focus on people. Whatever your story, the chances are that it can be made better and more interesting if it is told in terms of people doing things. Readership tests have shown that people are interested in people. (5) Universal appeal. Finally, evaluate your story for universal appeal. It is not enough that the story subject appeals to you. It must also appeal to a large number of the people who read the publication in which it will appear.



Figure 1-7. 9. Picture Story Elements.

Picture story sketch

Your picture story, like all good picture stories, must have certain key elements; a beginning, a middle, and an ending. a. The beginning. The lead photograph is the most important single photo of a story. It has the responsibility of gaining the reader's attention and making them want to read the rest of the story. It must have visual impact. 1-21 SS0516

b. The middle (body). The body of the picture story should proceed in a logical order, with each picture contributing something fresh and significant to the development of the story line. You should vary in the body with long shots, medium, and close-ups. You should vary the angle or perspective of the shots. Within all of this variety, you must maintain a continuity which enables your readers to proceed smoothly from the beginning to the end without becoming bored or confused. c. The ending. The last picture of the story is the second most important photograph. This photograph should present a feeling of finality and enable the viewer to arrive at the desired conclusion. The Army is a vast reserve of picture story ideas that lend themselves to keeping the Army in the public eye. PART C - PHOTO ESSAY 10. Picture Essay. a. What is a Picture Essay? A picture essay, unlike a picture story, does not have to follow a logical order, have continuity, or be objective. A picture essay has no plot, theme, beginning, middle, or end. You may base an essay on opinion rather than fact and be subjective rather than objective. It allows you to present a subject from a personal point of view. For example, how does a main battle tank affect you emotionally? Does its massive bulk overwhelm you? If so, you might photograph it abstractly with a fish eye lens or-wide angle lens to emphasize this feeling. The foldout of figure 1-8 provides a sample picture essay. This essay shows a series of photos on a television station. The lead photo, the largest, provides information with the surrounding photos supporting what we see. We get a glimpse of what it's like at a busy TV station. b. What the Picture Essay Requires. Like the picture story, creating a picture essay still requires an idea, research, and planning. You will have to decide just how subjective you want to be. Will you use a broad interpretation or a tightly knit, artistic approach? What technique will you employ? (1) As a rule, subjective photographs show the subject in an unusual form which makes it more interesting and stimulating because it is presented in a new light; a way that they have not been seen before.



Figure 1-8.

Picture essay



Figure 1-8a.

Picture essay






(2) The picture essay uses pictorial interpretation techniques to portray the feeling or emotion the photographer wishes. A few that you may want to consider for inclusion in your shooting are: (a) Infrared. You can use black and white infrared film to transform a landscape from a dull photograph to a thing of beauty. Because of the amount of infrared radiation absorbed or reflected by the subject, infrared film renders unnatural tones compared to the same subject photographed on regular black and white film. (When you use infrared, film foliage and grass appear lighter than normal because chlorophyll strongly reflects infrared radiation.) (b) Motion. In still pictures, you can use blurring to suggest or enhance action. By using a slow shutter speed and panning with the moving subject, you will produce a sharp subject with a blurred foreground and background. (c) Posterization. Sometimes called the "poster effect" because the images are usually large and uncomplicated. You can use posterization to capture the viewer's attention quickly and to present a strong point. (d) Grain. Although many photographers generally consider this technique objectionable, you can use grain to portray certain subjects or feelings. A grainy rendition is highly effective when it is used to emphasize war, violence, dark and somber moods, etc. (e) High Contrast. Photographers use high contrast for symbolization. The result is a stark black and white print with little or no detail. All middle tones are eliminated. In order to make this work effectively, you need a strong graphic image with leading lines or patterns and strong highlights. (f) Image Distortion. When printing, you can use image distortion to create odd angles and give unnatural appearance to your subject. You can accomplish image distortion by tilting or arching the printing paper during exposure. This provides an uneven surface for the projected image and distortion is the result. You can also use this technique to correct or reduce unwanted camera distortion. Whichever technique you choose to use, do it with good reason and not just to doctor poor pictures. Remember, you are limited only by your own skill, creativity, and imagination.



PART D - BASIC PHOTOJOURNALISTIC TECHNIQUES 11. Photojournalism. Photojournalism is communication of a very special type. It is "in-depth" reporting with photographs and words. To do so effectively, you must understand certain fundamentals. a. You must know and understand your subject. You can not communicate information about a subject with which you are not familiar. It isn't necessary that you like the subject, but unless you understand your subject, how can you expect someone looking at your pictures to understand it? b. A photographer should have a purpose for the message he is trying to put across. Otherwise, there is no need for it. Your purpose might be profound or you might simply want to share an emotion of experience, but identify your purpose. c. You should know to whom you are communicating. For example, is it to a specific audience which possesses some knowledge of your subject? Is it to adults? Or is it to a mixed group of men, women, and children? Answers to these types of questions should determine the way you will approach and cover your subject. 12. People are Interesting Subjects. Approximately two and one-half million photographs are taken annually by amateur and professional photographers alike. More then one-half of these photographs use people as their prime subject. Photojournalism is a form of communication that portrays people and their environment; therefore, your choice of subject matter is relatively simple. Or is it? "All people are different," no two alike. To photograph people, you must understand their individual differences and explore "in-depth" the world in which they work, play, and live. Not the world, but their world. a. You will have to do some research, a little exploring to gain an understanding about your subject. The following are some examples of the type of questions you will have to ask of yourself and your subject. (1) What does this person do? (2) How do they feel about their work? (3) Why do I want to photograph this subject?



(4) What do I wish to show in my pictures? b. Your list of questions could be endless and you can't stop to get all the answers. Be sure, though, to ask enough to get the subject clear in your mind and decide what and how you want to communicate to your viewer about the subject. c. You will occasionally be required to produce a photo story about an inanimate object. Don't panic. You can use the same approach and research methods to gain that understanding. You have completed your research, gained some understanding about your subject, and wrote out a flexible shooting script. You are ready to start shooting. Think again. No photojournalist worth his silver halides heads out to a photo assignment without inventorying and thoroughly checking his gear. 13. Equipment Maintenance. You and your supervisor would be very unhappy if you lost a picture or maybe a whole roll of pictures because a piece of gear did not work. Equipment checks should become a routine part of your approach to every job. Build your own preventative maintenance kit and keep it in your camera bag. The following is a list of basic things to put in the kit. Items A lint-free cloth. A small container of denatured alcohol. Cotton swabs in a clean plastic pill bottle. Jeweler's screwdriver. Pencil or typewriter eraser. Lens tissue. A soft bristle brush 1/2" wide. One dozen toothpicks. You start by finding a clean work place with good light. follows: Then proceed as

a. Using the lint-free cloth, wipe down the camera's exterior, including the case. If you find dirt build-up, lightly dampen a cotton swab and brush the area; then wipe again with the cloth. (A toothpick with a bit of cotton wrapped around one end makes a good substitute if cotton swabs are not available.) b. With the jeweler's screwdriver, tighten all screws on the exterior of the camera body. Look under the rewind knob and



on the bottom base plate for hidden screws.

Be careful not to over-tighten.

c. Ensure there is no film in the camera. Open the back and continue your inspection for loose screws in the film supply and take-up chambers. d. Using your soft brush or compressed air canister, dust or blow debris and film fragments from the camera's interior. Be careful that you don't strike or blow air on the shutter curtain (single lens reflex cameras) because they are easily damaged. e. While you have the camera open, you can make a quick shutter function test. Open the f/stop to wide-open. While looking through the back of the camera, cock and fire the shutter several times at each speed setting. You can watch the shutter cycle from closed to open then closed again. This works with both focal plane and between the lens shutters. You should see a change in the time of the cycle as you work your way through the speed settings. If not, see your camera repairman. f. You should next make a lens aperture check. Set the shutter speed on "B." Wind and trip the shutter. It should remain open. While viewing the aperture leafs, rotate the aperture ring through its full-range and back. The aperture should maintain a circular shape as it gets smaller and larger, as you turn the ring. If it does not, see your camera repairman. g. If your camera has an automatic aperture stop down feature, you can run this check. Set the f/stop at 11 or 16 and the shutter speed at 1/2 second or one second. Wind and trip the shutter while again looking through the open camera back. The aperture should move smoothly from open to the present aperture without a stop or hesitation. h. Clean all electrical contacts. Remove the battery and using a common pencil eraser, clean the contacts on the battery, in the battery housing, and the cap or screw cover that holds the battery in place. All these contacts should be shiny and free of oil. i. Check your battery with the camera battery check or a voltmeter. If the camera has not been used for six or more months, consider replacing the old battery with a new one. Batteries go bad from lack of use nearly as rapidly as with constant use. j. After function. ensuring your battery is good, check the camera meter



(1) Turn on the meter and set an ISO film speed of 400 in the camera. Aim the camera at a subject of average brightness and balance the meter needle for correct exposure of that subject. Now aim the camera at a brighter light subject and then a darker one. The meter is functioning if the needle responds, or the f/stop or shutter speed changes on automatic cameras. (2) You can even make a reasonably accurate check on the accuracy of your meter on a bright, sunny day. Set your f/stop at f/16 and convert the ISO to a fraction. For example, using ISO 400 film coverts to 1/400. The closest shutter speed is 1/500 of a second so set the shutter speed at 1/500. Point the camera at a lawn, the pavement, or the side of a building. They must be in the sun. If the meter indicates an exposure of f/16, plus or minus a half f/stop, it is working properly and is fairly accurate. k. Your next step is to clean all glass surfaces.

WARNING Never touch the mirror on the inside of the camera/lens housing, as it can be easily scratched.


(1) To clean the mirror, blow or lightly brush off dust with a soft

(2) Use a cotton swab or lens tissue to clean the viewfinder glass, camera lens, and filters. CAUTION Never put cleaning fluid directly on glass surfaces. It could seep under the glass and attack the glue that binds the optics together or holds it in place. (3) If you use a cleaning fluid, lightly dampen a swab or lens tissue and then gently wipe the glass surface clean.



14. Techniques. Let's discuss a few technical aspects you might want to consider. Once you have a visualization of your subject and how you want to present it to your viewers, you should consider what film to use, what lenses for what effect, and your lighting. You will have made many of these choices while preparing your shooting script. a. Every photographer has experienced the time when he has seen a shot he wanted, but when he put the camera up to his eye, he found that the faster shutter speed for the lighting conditions was too slow to hand-hold. The photographer has to make a choice:    Pass up the shot. Find a flash or tripod and chance missing the shot. Change the ISO of the film allowing him to use faster shutter speeds.

b. You decide passing up the shot is out of the question. Unless you carry a flash and some sort of camera support, you choose to change the ISO of the film. This situation can be avoided or planned for while conducting your research and preparing the shooting script. c. You may choose and plan to increase film speed or "push" the film and process accordingly. "Pushing" film is assigning it a higher ISO. (1) Keep in mind that once you change the ISO, you must expose the entire roll at the new ISO to avoid variations in exposure and development. When you "push" film like this you are simply underexposing and overdeveloping to produce a printable negative. (2) Depending upon development, there can be an increase in contrast and grain and a loss of sharpness. For use in a newspaper where the print will be screened, a loss of sharpness might not be to worrisome. However, if you are doing a documentation it might mean a loss of detail. Here is an example to illustrate apparent film sensitivity increase when you up a film ISO rating: (a) You are using a film with an ISO of 400 in low light conditions that indicate an exposure of 1/15 of a second at f/2 (too slow to hand-hold). If you double the ISO to 800, the film can be exposed at f/2.8 or at 1/30 of a second. You can even go one step further and rate the ISO to 1600. You



will now have two additional f/stops or two faster shutter speeds available above the original at ISO 400. (b) Remember to expose for the shadow detail when pushing film because it is the first thing affected by this technique. (3) You can not forget the second half of the "pushing" technique, overdeveloping. By overdeveloping, you compensate for the lack of exposure. (a) As film is developed, the highlights develop first, then the shadow areas. In effect, the more silver there is to act on, the more development takes place. There is an increase in shadow density as long as the exposure does not fall below the threshold of the film's characteristic curve. (b) There are several developers on the market which give good results when push processing. A few of these are Acufine, D-76, and UltraFine Grain (UFG). Acufine and UFG are compensating developers. They effectively increase a films tonal range while controlling contrast. (c) Kodak's T-Max films and developers are especially effective in low light pushing situations at keeping grayness to a minimum. "Pushing" film should be done as a last resort since it causes a loss of shadow detail and grain can be increased. 15. Lens Choice. Many photographers use a variety of focal length lens for convenience or for effect. You, as a photojournalist, must be aware of the apparent distortions and perspective changes different lens produce, and how they influence your message. The classification of a lens (normal, wide, and long) is related to the diagonal of the image format with which it is being used. If the focal length of a lens is equal to the diagonal of the image format, it is a normal angle lens. If it is less, it is a wide angle, and if it is more, then it is a long or telephoto. The foldout of figure 1-9 illustrates the three different lenses field of view of the same subject shot from the same distance. The top photo used a normal angle 50mm lens. The middle photo used a wide angle 28mm lens. The bottom photo used a narrow (long) angle 90mm lens. a. Normal Lens. The normal angle lens covers a field of view of approximately 50 degrees, about what the human eye encompasses.



(1) This lens produces an image in which the relative size of objects appears the same as they would to the eye. Also the sharpness of near and far objects (depth of field), relative to the point of focus, matches that seen by the eye. (2) The normal angle lens is used effectively when the subject matter is not confined to limited space. If there is room to move around the subject and placement is all that is required, a normal angle lens can be used effectively. b. Wide Angle Lens. The wide angle lenses cover a field of view of 45 degrees or more. Extreme wide angle fish eye lens covers up to 75-degrees field of view. (1) You will be able to stay close to your subject and put a lot more of your subject on the film using these lenses. They are very handy and effective in tight places. Perspective is often exaggerated and distorted. (2) Combined with the extreme depth of field, you can present your subject in unusual and interesting ways which reinforce the feeling you are trying to portray. Consider a low-angle view taken with a 28mm lens of the muzzle of a 155mm Howitzer. It would make the muzzle look awesome and give the viewer a feeling of strength and power. c. Telephoto Lens. The long focal length (telephoto) lens has a field of view less than 45 degrees. As the focal length increases, the field of view will decrease. (1) You will find these lenses extremely useful in situations where you can not physically get close to your subject. They can reach out and capture large images of subjects at a distance. (2) Their normal shallow depth of field makes them an ideal lens with which to use the "selective focus" technique to isolate a subject from surrounding, distracting elements. (3) Another interesting effect that a long lens produces is "compressed perspective." A photograph of a line of cars traveling down the highway makes them look close together, and thus, strengthens the feeling of crowding. d. Lenses are tools. You can use them to portray your subject in an interesting way, grab and hold the viewer's attention, and direct him to the point of the subject matter.



Figure 1-9.

Normal, wide, and long lens field of view photos



Figure 1-9a.

Normal, wide, and long lens field of view photos



Figure 1-9b.

Normal, wide, and long lens field of view photos






16. Highlight Your Subject. Two popular techniques for isolating or focusing viewer attention on a subject are "framing" and "selective focus." a. Framing. Framing the subject gives the viewer "tunnel vision." His eyes automatically go to the subject in the photograph because you have channeled his vision. (1) Anything in the area can be used for framing. The standard frame used in outdoor pictures is the branches and leaves of a tree. (2) Old as the framing technique is, it still works. Your prime reason for taking photographs is to get people to look at them and feel and understand your message. Look for things to frame your subject and focus the viewer's attention where you want it. Refer now to figure 1-10 for an example of a picture using the framing technique. When framing a scene, it is helpful to think about "looking through" something at the subject you're interested in framing. Here the tree leaves provide a partial frame around three sides to enclose the subject. The eye is forced to look at what the photographer intended. b. Selective Focus. Let's say you're photographing a formation of soldiers and you know, because you researched the job, that SSG Jones in the first rank is going to be designated as "Soldier of the Month." You want a picture of him in ranks but you want to isolate him from the other people on either side of him. (1) Focus on SSG Jones and from your light meter reading, select a shutter speed that will allow you to open up the lens diaphragm decreasing the depth of field. (2) Again focus on SSG Jones. This time SSG Jones is in sharp focus while the foreground and background is fuzzy. All the elements are still in the picture but you have isolated your subject. Now the eyes of the viewer will not wander off the key subject in your photograph. Figure 1-11 shows a selective focus picture. Selective focus isolates the subject by having the foreground and background out of focus. With a wide aperture, almost any lens can use this technique. Here a 90mm lens was used to facilitate the effect.



Figure 1-10.




Figure 1-11.

Selective focus

Framing and selective focus can be highly effective tools to learn and place in your bag of tricks. PART E - PHOTO LAYOUT/CAPTIONS 17. The Layout. Layout is the arrangement of photographs, typed material, white space, illustrations, and other elements which are used to make up pages of a newspaper, magazine, or other printed medium. The message you wish to communicate to the readers should be easy to read and understand. The elements in a layout should lead the reader in a logical progression through a page or pages. Good layout is invisible. a. Understanding Layout. You will not be a full-fledged picture editor when you finish this part of the lesson, but you should have an understanding of the main elements of layout composition and be able to identify standard layout formats. You will also have a grasp on the problems facing the picture editor. You should be able to use this information to improve your picture-taking skills for publication use. 1-37 SS0516

b. Editorial Decisions. Most editors could get a job as a juggler. Not only do they have to make decisions about your pictures such as which ones to use, but their size, placement, and cropping. They also must balance the use of copy, other illustrations, headlines, captions, and white space. (1) They are usually hampered by material that must go in the publication. space limitations due to other

(2) The importance of the material is a determining factor on location; the hottest or most important items get the best positions. If your story is so complex that it takes several photos to get the message out clearly, it may not fit on the front page. 18. Elements of a Good Layout. If you know how a pictorial presentation is made effective by intelligent layout techniques, you will be better equipped to be an effective photojournalist. Your pictures should be arranged in a logical order which develops the subject theme or idea. The objectives of the layout are to grab your readers' attention, excite their curiosity, and lead them from the key picture through the body of the story to complete the communication. To accomplish that goal, the editor concentrates on four main elements of the layout composition: a. Impact. To reach the reader, the editor must select from your pictures the one that has the most emotional appeal and place it in a position in the layout that stops the reader. Some viewers become emotionally involved to the point of tears or anger. Some become sympathetic or even become actively involved in the issue. The body and end of the layout must maintain and support that impact. b. Logical Order. The layout should be arranged to promote an easilyunderstood flow of information. A haphazard jumble of pictures causes the reader to jump about the presentation trying to follow the subject theme or idea. The result is that the reader loses interest. You must arrange each element of the layout so one carries the point of interest to the next. Never use two pictures that repeat a part of the story. c. Balance. Good balance creates a pleasing and harmonious visual effect on the reader. Good pictures are often sacrificed on the altar of space and harmony. Pictures trimmed in odd shapes, such as circles or diamonds or an unusual format, such as long, narrow, vertical or horizontal, generally are not used unless they contribute significantly to the layout.



d. Unity. Whether the story requires one or several pages, you must establish a unity of page elements that will continue the central theme or idea you wish to communicate to your viewer. (1) If you are dealing with two facing pages, you can maintain the unity by story continuity (text) or by a headline or photograph that runs across the gutter. (2) If you have back-to-back pages, your last element on the first should make your reader desire to turn the page and follow the story to its conclusion. (3) You will more than likely achieve this unity if your lead elements have impact, the layout has a logical order of an easy-to-follow information flow, and presents a feeling of balance. 19. Flow/Directional Lines in Layout. a. How We Read. In our culture we read from top left and down to lower right of a page, in smooth, back and forth loops. The top left is the primary optical area (POA) and should be the location of our most impact, attention-getting element. The bottom right area, the terminal area (TA), is the goal of the eye scan and when our eyes reach this area, the mind automatically knows from habit that the page has ended. Refer to figure 112. b. Layout Elements. From this point, a layout must contain appealing elements that lead the readers' attention, in that left-to-right loop pattern, until we reach bottom right. Elements that may cause the scan to backtrack and read higher should be avoided. An example of such an element is a picture with a strong leading line that would redirect the reader's attention upward into the portion of the story that has been read. c. Using Lines of Force. Directional lines of force, real or implied, are those elements that move from the primary optical area through the leftright loop scan to the bottom right of a layout. (1) In laying out your pictures, you must find those lines of force, leading lines, and use them to build reader interest and force the eye to flow with the story. (2) Lines of force can be established by other elements, such as a headline, copy, or the shape and size of a photograph. Directional lines of force, when used incorrectly, can lure the eye away from the direction in which you would like



it to go. You might ask, "How many elements should go on a page?" There are only opinions and no rules on that matter.

Figure 1-12.

Primary layout elements

d. Key Points to Remember. Your own reading habits will probably tell you that a great number of items can be confusing. Here is a brief recap: (1) The most important elements should be placed in the upper-left or lower-right portion of a page. (2) Minor elements such as supporting pictures, headlines, rules, ornaments, or copy blocks should guide the eye either to or from major elements. (3) A balanced placement interesting than dead centering. of elements is much more pleasing and



(4) Elements should be arranged on the page to form an interesting pattern for the eye to follow. e. Summary. The goal is to arrange elements on the page so that the eye moves across and down the layout. We know, for example, that photographs, headlines, illustrations, and captions are strong attention getters. Properly positioned, they serve as guideposts pointing out the readers' visual route through the page. 20. Types of Layouts. There are more than a dozen different types of layouts used in newspapers and magazines today. Some are just slight modifications of others. What sort of layout is best? There is no black and white, correct or incorrect answer. Publications use different styles as the creativity of the people on the staff varies. Significance of the subject matter also may impact on the choice of layout. Take a look at some of the page designs illustrated in figure 1-13. a. Informal Layouts. Flexibility and appeal are the main attributes of informal layouts. There are scores of variations of this easy-moving and easy-reading pattern. In informal layouts, emphasis goes on nearly every element through the use of large bold headlines and large pictures. One of its major drawbacks is that it's prone to overcrowding. Elements in an informal layout should be kept to a minimum. b. Balance/Contrast Layout. Balance/contrast layout is perhaps the most difficult layout to use. We are concerned here with the balancing and contrasting of masses of elements not so much the individual elements. This format is not only difficult to layout, but often difficult to understand and imagine. It is best left to experienced layout men. c. Horizontal Layout. The horizontal pattern evolved from readability studies. Tests showed that readers thought they would spend less time reading blocks of type set horizontally--that is, across several columns, than reading blocks of type set vertically, down a single column. One pitfall editors should avoid when using the horizontal pattern is its overuse. It should be used sparingly to avoid monotony. d. Modular Layout. Modular is a contemporary design. Its overall basic pattern is a simple combination of horizontal and vertical rectangles. Unusual shapes should be avoided. Modular is a highly flexible pattern, offering make-up editors a wide range of designs for visual impact. Its uncluttered, orderly appearance affords readers easy accessibility to every element on the page.



Figure 1-13. 21. Cropping and Scaling.

Page designs

a. Why Cropping is Needed. Cropping is the physical adjustment of a photographer. A good photographer will crop in the camera so that the image he records is exactly the essence 1-42 SS0516

he is trying to communicate. Still some of your photographs may require additional cropping to fit the layout or to eliminate an unwanted portion of the photograph. There will be times when the image area is not the shape that will best communicate the feeling or idea intended. Cropping can sometimes focus the viewer's attention or heighten the emotional impact. In addition, cropping is an essential element in the scaling of photographs. b. The Cropping L's. Among the tools to aid the photographer/editor in determining the shape, size, and cropping of a photograph are the cropping L's. They are just that, a pair of large L's measuring 9 to 10 inches on one leg and 11 to 12 inches on the other. You can make them from mount board or compressed cardboard. Commercially, plastic L's are available that have ruler tick marks in 1/8 or 1/16 inch graduations. In terms of cropping, the photographer/editor uses the cropping L's to identify that portion of the photograph that should be cut away to properly convey the essence of his theme. By laying the L's on the photograph and moving them in or out, he can determine how the final photo will look. When scaling a photograph, the photographer/editor uses the cropping L's to calculate the change in size required to make a photograph fit a specific space or layout. c. Scaling a Photograph. Your photographs intended for publication will invariably be reduced or enlarged to fit a specific space. The amount of reduction or enlargement to make a photograph fit a given space is called "scaling." (1) There are several methods to scale photographs. One calls for a mathematical formula; methods use devices based on the principle of the slide rule. (2) The simple method is based on a common diagonal. This is based on the geometric principle that the diagonals of rectangles of the same proportions create identical angles with the sides. The following illustrations show the steps in its use. (a) Using your cropping L's, outline the area of the photograph you wish to use (A). Then draw a diagonal line (B) bisecting the cropped portion of photo. (b) Determine the width you wish the finished picture to be (i.e., one column, two columns, or a given number of picas). Draw a line (C) perpendicular to the left side of the cropped area, the desired width to the diagonal. Line (D) is the depth of the cut. Refer to figure 1-14.



NOTE: If you are restricted by the depth of the space, then draw line (D)(the first of the desired measurement) and then line (C) will be the width of space needed.

Figure 1-14.

Common diagonal method for scaling

(c) A good way to avoid damaging the print is to tape hinge a piece of tracing paper over the surface. This allows you to make your crop marks without drawing on the print surface. Working on a light table would help. If you wish to scale up (enlarge) a photo, tape the photo to the lower-left corner of a piece of larger paper. Use a ruler and project the diagonal out onto the paper then carry out the rest of the scaling as previously described. 22. Captions, Cutlines, and Credit Lines. a. Captions and Cutlines. Your photographs, despite their unique story-telling ability, are seldom effective enough to stand alone. No matter how exciting your picture may be, it fails unless the viewer understands the five W's-Who, What, When, Where, and Why of the photograph. (1) It is your responsibility, as the photographer, to gather the necessary information and write complete, concise, and factual captions, and cutlines. (2) The words "caption" and "cutline" are often used interchangeably; however, in journalistic situations "cutline" is the preferred word. To make a cutline work, it must contain three basic elements: (a) An explanation of the subject or action. The first sentence provides an explanation of the subject or action. It is the most important element in the cutline. It links the



photograph to the cutline by the action it describes. It should contain a verb written in the present tense. The reason for this is that the moment in time captured in the photograph immediately becomes the past. The use of a present tense verb gives the reader a sense of immediacy, as though the reader is actually witnessing the event taking place. For example, a cutline that reads, "SGT John Hero swims through the swirling waters of the Colorado River to rescue six-year old Ruth Gray..." has more impact and immediacy than one which reads "SGT John Hero swam through ......". (b) Identification of persons or things in the picture. Everyone or thing that is identifiable and pertinent to the story-telling function of the photograph should be identified. By identifiable, we mean anyone who is not blurred, obscured, or too far away for recognition. By pertinent, we mean involved to the central action of the picture. The best way to identify subjects is by action. If all persons are engaged in the same action, then you can use left to right. (c) Additional details of background information. They are facts that need to clarify the photograph. The amount of information included in this section depends on two factors: where and how you will use the photograph. The amount of background information needed to explain a photograph of bayonet practice is obviously greater for a civilian audience than to a basic trainee who is participating in such practice. b. Credit Lines. Credit lines for photographers are used in most military newspapers and publications. The usual method is to credit both the photographer and the service directly after the last word of the cutline. The credit line is in capital letters and enclosed in parenthesis as shown in the following example: (U.S. ARMY PHOTO by SGT JOHN SHUMAN).






LESSON 1 PRACTICE EXERCISE The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you complete the exercise, check your answers with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. 1. You photograph the rescue of a drowning 8-year-old child by a locallystationed soldier. What elements of "news worthiness" are met? A. B. C. D. 2. Prominence/oddity Consequence/conflict Conflict/human interest Human interest/proximity

You are photographing a basketball game in a gym with a 35mm format camera with a focal plane shutter. Which film, shutter speed, and light source would be best to "freeze" a jump shot? A. B. C. D. ISO ISO ISO ISO 25, 1/1000, available light 400, 1/60, electronic flash 400, 1/60, available light 3200, 1/500, electronic flash


While covering an afternoon football game using a 500mm lens on a 35mm camera, which shutter speed should you use to stop camera shake? A. B. C. D. 1/60 1/125 1/250 1/500


You have permission to photograph a wrestling match from the edge of the mat. Which lens should you use? A. B. C. D. 52mm 185mm 500mm 1000mm




You produce a photo story showing the right and wrong things to do while riding a bicycle on public streets. What type of continuity should you be using? A. B. C. D. Repeated identity Parallel contrast Simple commonality Narrative chronology


When assigned to do a photo story on the post auto hobby shop, what should be your first step? A. B. C. D. Write a shooting script Go fix your own car there Shoot exposure test inside the facility Find out all you can about the operation of the business


You write a shooting script to accomplish which of the following? A. B. C. D. Write captions for each picture Determine how much film you will use Predetermine exact composition and exposure for each picture To visualize in your mind the entire story and create a general plan or shooting guide


How does your picture essay present the subject? A. B. C. D. In a From With From logical order an objective point of view a beginning, middle, and ending your personal subjective point of view


In photojournalism, which factor most determines the way in which you will approach and cover your subject? A. B. C. D. Weather and time of the year The subject of your photo story The number of readers/viewers who will see your story The audience with which you are trying to communicate


In order to check lens aperture operation during routine maintenance, which shutter speed do you use? A. B. C. D. "B" 1/60 1/500 1 second




When you increase a film ISO rating and overdevelop to compensate, what side effects will you most likely get? A. B. C. D. Sharper detail Normal appearing negatives Increased contrast and grain Flat contrast and loss of detail


Which of the following lenses produces an image similar to what the human eye sees when using a 35mm format camera? A. B. C. D. 35mm 52mm 185mm 400mm


In a picture story which covers several pages, you must develop the desire in the viewer to turn the page and follow the story to the end. What is this called? A. B. C. D. Unity Impact Balance Contrast


Which of the following is not a basic element of a good caption? A. B. C. D. Identification Explanation of action Photographer's name and address Additional background information



LESSON 1 PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. Correct Answer and Feedback D. Human interest/proximity

An event that has emotional elements with which the public can empathize and also happens in their own community (page 3, para 1a(7)). 2. B. ISO 400, 1/60, electronic flash

A 35mm focal plane shutter usually has an electronic flash sync speed of 1/60 or slower. The electronic flash duration of 1/1000 of a second or less will stop the motion on a film fast enough to allow the use of f/11 or f/16 without the available light recording on the film also (page 10, para 4e(2)). 3. D. 1/500

A rule of thumb is to use a shutter speed which is the reciprocal of the focal length of the lens being used (page 8, para 4d(4)). 4. A. 52mm

When you are able to get close to the action, a normal angle or on occasion, a wide angle lens can be used (page 8, para 4d(2)). 5. B. Parallel/contrast

This style of continuity is used to compare or contrast things (page 16, para 6e). 6. D. Find out all you can about the operation of the business

Research is the most important and the first step in producing a good picture story (page 17, para 7).



Item 7.

Correct Answer and Feedback D. To visualize in your mind the entire story and create a general plan or shooting guide A shooting script enables you to visualize the entire story before you start taking pictures. The shooting script is also a plan of how you are going to shoot each picture and includes ideas on composition, techniques for posing the subject, lens selection, and camera angle (page 18, para 8).



From your personal subjective point of view

A picture essay presents your thoughts or opinion rather than fact, and is subjective rather than objective (page 22, para 10a). 9. D. The audience with which you are trying to communicate

You should know your audience. Is it all adults or young people? Do they have knowledge about the subject of your story? Is it a mixed group of both men and women? Answers to these types of questions should determine your approach and coverage of the subject (page 26, para 11c). 10. A. "B"

With the back of the camera open, you can make an aperture function check by setting the shutter speed on "B" and select an f/stop of 11 or 16 and trip the shutter while watching for the diaphragm to operate (page 28, para 13f). 11. C. Increased contrast and grain

When you "push" film, you are simply underexposing and overdeveloping it to produce a printable negative. Depending on development there can be an increase in contrast and grain (page 30, para 14c(2)). 12. B. 52mm

The normal angle lens produces an image in which the relative size of objects appears the same as the human eye sees them (page 31, para 15a(2)).



Item 13.

Correct Answer and Feedback A. Unity

Whether the story requires one, two, or more pages, you must establish a unity of elements that will communicate the central idea and encourage the viewer to follow the story to the end (page 39, para 18d(3)). 14. C. Photographer's name and address

To make a "caption" work effectively it must contain three basic elements: explanation, identification, and background (page 44, paras 22a(1) & (2)).



LESSON 2 GROUP AND AWARDS PHOTOGRAPHY Critical Tasks: 113-578-1005 113-578-1011 OVERVIEW LESSON DESCRIPTION: In this lesson you will learn how to define and pose formal and informal groups of people and choose the proper camera format, lens, and lighting. You will learn how to set up and photograph awards ceremonies to highlight award recipients. You also will learn to identify the types of common awards and presentation ceremonies. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTIONS: a. b. c. d. e. f. Describe formal and informal groups. Identify lighting requirements. Explain proper camera format sizes and lenses. Describe groups. proper posing for both awards small and and large

Identify the ceremonies.




Identify and describe the techniques, equipment and background selection, and composition to improve the "grip and grin" pictures.


You will be given information from TM 11-401-2 and Photographer's Mate Training Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-45-83, MOD 2. Informal and formal group photography will be in accordance with TM 11-401-2 and Photographer's Mate Training Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-45-83, MOD 2. The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications: TM 11-401-2 and Photographer's Mate Training Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-45-83, MOD 2.





INTRODUCTION Occasionally, you will receive an assignment to make a picture of a group of people. The group may be a graduating class, the commanding general's staff, a VIP touring group, or an infantry squad. There is added difficulty when working with a number of people at one time. You must pay attention to every member of the group, using every precaution to show each person clearly, and that interest is not drawn to one individual by some awkward pose or expression. Group pictures are made for official records, publicity, and recruiting. Group photographs are classified as either formal or informal. PART A - FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUP PHOTOGRAPHY 1. Formal Groups.

a. Goal. A formal group is one in which several people, uniformly dressed for the occasion, are posed, seated or standing, in similar poses. Your goal is to arrange the group to obtain the best composition to fill the frame and get as large an image size of each person as possible. You want to avoid stringing out long narrow rows of people across the frame. One exception to this general rule is when the background or foreground is as important as the group. b. Research and Prepare. When you receive an assignment to shoot a formal group photo you should do your research. A key question you need to ask is, "How many people are there in the group?" This information will help you plan the location, physical arrangements, camera format, and lighting equipment you may need. (1) The group size is a factor that will determine what format film you will use. Choose as large a format as practical to achieve maximum head size for easy recognition of all subjects. You will be able to use 35mm format for groups up to 15 people. For groups up to three dozen, 120 film would record a larger image for better recognition of the individuals. For groups much bigger than that, you will obtain clearer pictures with a 4x5 format. (2) As a rule of thumb your first choice when choosing a lens for formal group photos should be a short telephoto lens, provided you have the room to use it. However, in any case, you have should choose a lens slightly longer than normal for the film format. This will keep distracting distortions to a minimum. Use the shorter focal length lens when you are limited by the physical space available.



(3) For a group of 8 to 12 people, you may only need a few chairs. If the group is large (20 or more people), then you may need a method to raise the third, fourth, and additional rows so they can be clearly seen. You could use steps, bleachers, a hillside, or a terrace. You also may need to know the military ranks, and if there are civilians, who is the senior. You will want to follow military rules and customs and place people front and center according to rank and importance. Figure 2-1 illustrates a formal group photo.

Figure 2-1.

Formal group photo

(4) Be professional! Arrive at the job site early and ensure the physical arrangements are correct. Measure off approximate position of subject placement and have your camera position marked also. You may find that the use of a tripod makes these jobs a lot easier. c. Posing. You can ensure a better view of each individual in a large group by staggering the number in each two.



(1) If the first row has an even number of people the second should have an odd number, one less or more then the first row. After arranging the first row (probably seated), arrange the second with individuals looking between the heads of the people in the first row. (2) If you have a third row, it should contain an even number of subjects and so on until you can see each and every face from the camera position. (3) If the group is so large that the rows have 12 or more people in them, you should arrange them in a slight semicircle to place each person approximately the same distance from the camera. (4) Pose the front row with hands and feet in similar positions, check that hats are squared away, and all eyes are on the camera. (a) If you have a gift for "gab," a little on-going chatter may keep your subjects attention focused on you and the camera. (b) CLICK! Always take several pictures because no matter how hard you work, there will be someone who blinks if you only take one shot. (5) Up to this point we have discussed strictly formal groups. What do you think would happen if you "stylized" the shot just a bit? You could photograph groups using photojournalist techniques. (a) Is it always necessary to line them up shoulder to shoulder? Try loosening the feeling; stagger the group a little on the steps. Put in some foreground or background. (b) Don't forget the framing technique; it can work for group shots too. Even a member of the group (the commanding officer) can be your foreground, with the rest of his staff scattered through out the background. You may even want to try these ideas out with a group of buddies for practice. Remember, the subject is the people and they are looking at the camera. They are not involved in any action. 2. Informal Groups.

Now let's define and discuss informal groups. The informal group is intended to depict some action or tell a story about the people in the image.



a. Although positioning and posing in an informal group shot is necessarily carefully planned the results must appear casual and realistic. Achieving this natural feeling will depend on your ingenuity. If at all possible, limit the number of the group size to as few people as necessary to tell the story. Three to four subjects is ideal. b. As you compose the group, make sure everyone is engaged in some kind of action. The various members may be seated, kneeling, or standing in a variety of positions and need not be looking in the same direction, but they should be looking at the point of action taking place. That point of action, for example, may be a piece of equipment which is being worked on. 3. Lighting. your primary concern is even

When you photograph a group indoors, illumination over the entire group.

a. A single light held 2 to 3 feet to the side and higher than the camera is adequate for small groups. b. You will need several lights to photograph a large group. In both situations the light or lights should be higher than the tallest person in the group. This will prevent the appearance of unnatural lighting and shadows from the subjects in the front row falling on the subjects in the next row. c. When you use several lights, you must meter the light output across the full width of the group adjusting the lights until the lighting is even. d. You will find that the best outdoor lighting occurs on hazy, bright days during the early part of the day when the sun is at a 45-degree angle to the horizon. It provides soft light shadows and does not cause your subjects to squint. e. If possible, place your group so the light falls on it from 45 degrees of either side of the camera. f. On days that are sunny bright or when the shadows are too contrasty, you should use the synchro-sun flash technique to fill the shadows. PART B - RECOGNITION PHOTOGRAPHS 4. Types of Awards.

a. Recognition of Personnel. People generally thrive on accomplishment and recognition of their accomplishments; no place more so than in the military. The Army takes pride in



recognizing its personnel, and one way of showing that pride is in public ceremonies. The ceremonies you may be assigned to cover and photograph will fall into four basic types. These basic types are medal awards, trophies and certificates, promotions, and reenlistments. (1) Medal awards. These ceremonies present you an opportunity to produce pictures that have tight simple composition and strong emotional impact. You will have three elements to deal with: the recipient, the medal, and the person making the presentation. (a) This picture usually calls for a close-up. The photojournalist must compose his picture so that the recipient (the most important element) is easily recognized and the medal clearly visible. Ensure the background is plain and uncluttered. (b) If you take your picture during the actual ceremony, it is likely that the medal will be obscured by the presenter's hand. The professional approach to this problem is to arrange for time to pose a picture after the ceremony. Then you can arrange the presenter's hands so they do not hide the medal and may even get a better facial expression on the recipient. (c) Avoid pictures in which the presenter turns and looks at the camera. This draws the viewer's attention off the key element, the recipient. The most effective picture will be shot from the presenter's right side in order to show the recipient's face and the medal on the left pocket. (d) If you are assigned to cover this type of ceremony with the same presenter frequently, you may be able to get that person "keyed" to your needs and actions so that you can shoot these pictures during the ceremony. Figures 2-2 and 2-3 provide pictures of a soldier receiving a medal. Notice in figure 2-2 that the presenter has moved her hands away from the award so the camera can clearly see the action. By using an "overthe-shoulder" angle, the photographer has a clear view of the awardee's face. In figure 2-3, the photographer's angle on this shot is more of a side-view. The addition of a cluttered background and the presenter's hands covering the award diminish the usability of this photo.



Figure 2-2.

Medal award photo

Figure 2-3.

Soldier receiving a medal



(2) Trophies and certificates. This type of presentation usually involves a sports trophy, certificates of achievement, best mess awards, etc. The recipient and the presenter are usually holding the trophy or certificate with their left hands and shaking right hands below it. (a) Have the subjects look at each other or the award, not directly at the camera. Be sure the certificate or trophy is held upright. (b) On occasion, these awards will be presented to a team or group of people. The team captain or senior person in the group can be accepting the award from the presenter with the rest grouped around them. Be careful that no one’s face is hidden. Remember some of the techniques we discussed in group photography. You may have to pose this shot after the ceremony so you are not disruptive. Refer now to figure 2-4. In this photo, the photographer took control of the situation and turned the awardee slightly towards the camera. The results are better identification of the individual and we get to see the certificate. (3) Promotions. One of the most significant happenings in a soldier's career is when he is being recognized for his professionalism by promotion. With the recipient standing straight and tall, have a senior noncommissioned officer or an officer holding up a pair of new stripes or pinning on a new set of bars. (a) If the recipient has family present, it may be appropriate to include them in the picture sharing the soldier's happiness. Observe the same precautions about posing the participants as mentioned above. Make the recipient the focus of the picture and be sure the insignia is clearly seen. (b) When a group of individuals are promoted at the same ceremony, the photographer may want to pose an informal group picture. Figures 2-5 and 2-6 illustrate promotion photos. Since collar devices are small, the photographers need to move in and ask the people pinning on the new rank not to cover the device with their hands. One method is to stage the action as in figure 2-5. The other method is to be watchful during the actual ceremony, waiting for that moment where the hands do not cover the rank as we see in figure 2-6.



Figure 2-4.

Photograph of a certificate award



Figure 2-5.

Photograph of a promotion (view 1)

Figure 2-6.

Photograph of a promotion (view 2)



(4) Reenlistment Ceremonies. A reenlistment ceremony follows a set pattern. The officer administering the oath and the reenlistee stand at attention with their right hands raised as the oath is taken. (a) The photographer must take extra caution that the raised hands do not obscure faces or throw shadows on the principal subject. (b) You may get your best pictures by posing the shot after the actual event. See figure 2-7 for a picture of a reenlistment ceremony. Reenlistments are difficult at best. When possible, use the over-theshoulder technique and at a high angle. Simply standing on a box or low chair puts the photographer high enough to look over onto the action. Avoid becoming part of the action by toppling off the chair. This is a solemn ceremony and a degree of dignity is required. As such, the American and Army flags should be displayed as part of this formal ceremony. Ensuring that you include the flags in your photo adds a significant touch. b. Choosing the Best Shot. (1) Pride in pictures. The photographer who has covered a lot of ceremonies sometimes becomes complacent. He may begin to feel there is only one way to shoot these jobs and begin to think of them as just "grip and grin" pictures. (a) Remember, visual memories of these events are important to the individuals involved. As a photojournalist, you should strive to take pictures of these events that you would be proud of: (b) For self-satisfaction and to elevate the status photography, you should develop real interest and individuality. of Army

(2) Use imagination and creativity. These assignments are an opportunity to use your imagination and creativity. If a person receives recognition for his work, picture him on the job instead of in an office receiving a certificate. If a soldier reenlists, show him enjoying the benefits instead of standing at attention with his hand in the air. For a best mess award, show the mess sergeant preparing an attractive display of food. Picture a soldier who just graduated from advanced individual training performing her new duties or skills, instead of looking at her diploma. Remember, as a photojournalist you are trying to make the viewers feel emotion. All these pictures should show pride, joy, and satisfaction.



Figure 2-7.

Photograph of a reenlistment ceremony

The environmental portrait can be the cornerstone of personality portrait assignment. It is a storytelling photo that brings some of the individuals work, hobby, or duties forward. It is more than a portrait. It tells about the individual rather than identify him or her. Figure 2-8 represents this type of photo. 5. Summary.

a. You should watch that backgrounds are not cluttered with distracting elements. Do not pose your subjects close to the background. You can throw the background out of focus by using a wide aperture which will give you a shallow depth of field. b. The professional photographer plans ahead. Before the ceremony begins brief the participants, check the background, have all props in place, select the best lens for the job, check your equipment, and pre-focus your camera.



c. You should take the standard "grip and grin" poses but plan to shoot a few pictures of the recipient back in his work place. You will produce more interesting photographs, and more likely, photographs that will be published.



Figure 2-8.

Environmental portrait



LESSON 2 PRACTICE EXERCISE The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you complete the exercise, check your answer with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. 1. What factor listed here does not describe formal groups? A. B. C. D. 2. Everyone Everyone Everyone Everyone is is is is uniformly dressed looking at the camera standing in tiered rows looking at the senior man in the picture

You are assigned to photograph a group of 60 soldiers in dress uniform. What format camera should you use to obtain the best image clarity and head size of each soldier? A. B. C. D. 35mm 4x5 2-1/4 x 2-1/4 6:45


All the people in an informal group should be doing what? A. B. C. D. Looking at the camera Standing in neat rows Looking in the same direction Looking at the action or subject that is the focus of the picture


For formal group pictures, when does the best outdoor lighting occur? A. B. C. D. At 1200 high noon When the sky is completely overcast At sunrise or sunset when the sun is on the horizon On hazy, bright days in early morning or late afternoon


Who or what should be the center of attention in a picture of a medal award ceremony? A. B. C. D. The The The The medal recipient commanding officer recipient's family







Who should be included with the promotee in a picture of his promotion ceremony? A. B. C. D. The The The The soldier's family soldier's duty section Public Affairs Officer command's First Sergeant



LESSON 2 PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. Correct Answer and Feedback D. Everyone is looking at the senior man in the picture

In formal groups all personnel pictured should be looking at the camera, posed in tiered rows, and uniformly dressed (page 2, para 1a). 2. B. 4x5

The larger the group, the larger the film format required in order to obtain as large a head size of each individual as possible for easier recognition (page 2, para 1a(2)). 3. D. Looking at the action or subject that is the focus of the picture.

The informal group picture is intended to depict some action or tell a story about the people in the picture (page 5, para 2b). 4. D. On hazy, bright days in early morning or late afternoon

You will find that the best outdoor lighting for formal groups is on hazy bright days in early morning or late afternoon when the sun is 45 degrees from the horizon (para 5, para 3f). 5. B. The recipient

Avoid picture where the presenter is looking into the camera, or other element distracting the viewer’s attention is drawn away from the key element, the recipient (page 6, para 4a (1) (c)). 6. A. The soldier’s family

If the principal subject has family present it may be appropriate to include them in the picture sharing the soldier’s happiness (page 8, para 4a (3)(a)).



LESSON 3 INVESTIGATIVE PHOTOGRAPHY Critical Task: 113-578-1005 113-578-1011

OVERVIEW LESSON DESCRIPTION: In this lesson you will learn about various equipment, film, filters, lighting, and techniques/procedures employed by photographers when taking investigative photographs and in photographing aircraft and vehicle accidents. You also will learn to document criminal scenes in order to preserve and provide evidence for investigations and court exhibits using special techniques. In addition, you will learn the proper equipment, film, and lighting necessary to cover a fire to provide the investigators with visual records and clues. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTIONS: a. b. c. d. e. Identify the best equipment, cameras, lighting used in investigative photography. Explain the prescribed procedures types of investigations. in lenses, and



Describe the proper camera equipment, film, and lighting to document evidence. Describe the coverage specific to aircraft and vehicle accidents. Identify the equipment, film, filters, and light sources to properly document a homicide, drowning, hanging, and arson.


You will be given information from TM 11-401-2, STP 11-25S13SM-TG, and Photographer’s Mate Training Series NAVEDTRA 37302-45-83, MOD 2. Investigative photography will be in accordance with TM 11401-2, STP 11-25S13-SM-TG, and Photographer’s Mate Training Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-45-83, MOD 2. The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications: TM 11-401-2, STP 11-25S13-SM-TG, and Photographer’s Mate Training Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-45-83, MOD 2. 3-1 SS0516



INTRODUCTION Your responsibility when assigned to photograph crash and accident scenes, burglary sites, fire damage, etc., is to produce high quality photographs to help the investigators determine the cause of the accident or crime. The images you record on film right after an accident will be very valuable; not in terms of money but by recording and preserving evidence that over time would be lost. Aircraft and vehicle accidents sites may have to be cleaned up quickly so runways or roads can be returned to normal service. Firedamaged structures need to be repaired or razed, and burglary sites have to be repaired and security reestablished. Doing your job correctly will enable the investigators to do their job more effectively. PART A - AIRCRAFT/VEHICLE ACCIDENTS 1. Aircraft Accidents.

a. Importance of Photography. Photography plays a major role in aircraft accident investigations. Your pictures may help determine steps to be taken to prevent similar occurrences. Keep in mind that few accidents happen from a single cause. In most, a sequence of events occurs, the elimination of any one of which could have prevented the accident. Your approach to this type of assignment should be a methodical accumulation of visual information from aerial views of the site to close-ups of the smallest details. b. What's Needed for Good Coverage. There characteristics of good aircraft accident coverage. are four essential

(1) Promptness. You must get to the scene as soon as possible, before the evidence is disturbed. (2) Thoroughness. Photograph all evidence in minute detail. Operate on the idea that there is no limit to the amount of photography justified to prevent the reoccurrence of an accident or the loss of a life. (3) Conduct a planned photographic survey. (4) Accuracy/clarity. Pictures that show half-truths are unacceptable. Your pictures must be sharp in detail, well exposed, and not distort the subject. c. Use Black and White and Color Films. As the alert photographer, when you arrive on the scene, you should be prepared to photograph the job with both black and white (B & W) and color films. Both films can be used to document the overall and general area of the accident. Color film should be used to



take medium and close-up shots to show the extent of fire or chemical damage and to help investigators recognize factors not easily recognizable in black and white photographs. For instance, excessive friction between moving parts leaves a color pattern. Close-up color pictures could tell investigators the degree of wear, and the temperature caused by the friction. d. Types of Lenses and Flash Needed. You will find that a good 35mm format camera with a long focal length lens, a wide angle lens, and a normal focal length macro lens for close-up photography will be sufficient. (1) The macro lens will allow you to make 1:1 images of small pieces of evidence. (2) The wide angle lens is useful in cramped spaces. (3) An electronic flash is handy to fill in shadow areas to show detail. For the close-up photography, an electronic ring flash mounted on the macro lens provides excellent lighting for extreme close-ups. e. Picture Details at the Accident Scene. Whenever possible include an item in the picture that is of a known size for scale; i.e., vehicles in the aerial view, people or vehicles in the general view, a 12-inch ruler in the close-ups. You must also take detailed notes so you can accurately caption each picture for the accident report. Pertinent photographs of the following details are always required. (1) General views of the scene along the wreckage pattern from the point of impact to the point where the aircraft came to rest. Be sure to include all marks on the ground (i.e., skid marks, burned areas, ruts, and gouges). (2) Aerial view of the overall accident scene. (3) Damage to all objects struck or damaged including government and civilian property. (4) All major parts of the aircraft including wheels and landing gear assemblies, wing and tail structures, and control surfaces. (5) Medium and close-up views switch settings, and control handles. (6) Engines and propellers. of the cockpit, instrument panels,



(7) All parts suspected of structural failure. f. Additional Pictures Maybe Needed. You, the photographer, are not expected to be an expert in investigation techniques. In order to ensure you obtain the detailed pictures not covered by the foregoing list, contact the on-site investigator and confer on what additional pictures may be needed.

WARNING Never move any parts of the wreckage until told to do so by the investigator.

(1) After initial on site photography some of the small important pieces of evidence should be rephotographed in the laboratory under controlled conditions. There you will be able to produce clear and welldefined images. When possible, include an undamaged like item in the same picture so that damage and failure is readily apparent. (2) The final step you must take is to write detailed captions for each picture identifying the part, its location and position when photographed, date and time, plus any details that may help the investigator. 2. Vehicle Accidents.

a. Pictures May Become Court Evidence. Unlike aircraft accident photography, vehicle accident photography may be used in court to settle disputes concerning fault and damages. Your photographs can reveal if the accident was caused by carelessness of the operator or defective mechanisms. b. Picture Details Needed. Equipment needed to document vehicle accidents is the same as that for aircraft accidents, and is used in the same fashion. At a minimum you should obtain coverage of the following: (1) General views. These should show the accident site from all angles showing traffic signs and visual obstructions such as shrubbery, parked vehicles, buildings, and existing weather conditions like rain, fog, or snow. Take these pictures from the angle of approach of all vehicles involved in the accident.



(2) Road conditions. These photographs show existing icy conditions, snow, gravel or sand, loose leaves, mud, etc., which could have contributed to the accident. (3) Point of impact. You should show the location where the vehicles collided. Include as many points of view as possible, and include broken glass and other parts strewn on the ground. (4) Skid marks. Photographs of skid marks may help investigators determine the speed of the vehicles before impact. (5) Damage to vehicles. Your photographs should include as many angles as possible of the damaged parts of each vehicle involved. Start with full-length shots and finish with close-ups of the damage. c. Handling of Photographs. Under no circumstances do you release any information or photographs to anyone outside of proper military channels. The public affairs officer is the only person who releases information to the public. d. Providing Captions. Just as with an aircraft accident coverage, you should take notes as you photograph the accident so you can provide clear and complete captions. PART B - CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS Your camera and the photographs you produce are useful tools for criminal investigation and any legal action that may result. The photographs become a permanent record of the crime scene. By studying your photographs, investigators may gain information that will lead to the solution of a crime, apprehension of criminals, and recovery of stolen property. Additionally, your photographs may be used as evidence in court proceedings, criminal surveillance, and in crime prevention. 3. Photographs in a Criminal Investigation.

With certain combinations of film, filter, and light sources, you can record evidence that is not readily visible to the naked eye. a. You can make fingerprints, certain dyes, and some invisible ink show up by using panchromatic film with a yellow filter and ultraviolet lights. b. With black and white infrared film you can photograph faded documents and charred paper and read them where the naked eye can not. This film will also bring out old scars and tattoo marks, see through grease, grime, and some types of paint.



c. Remember, when producing photographs for legal use, they must be sharp, clear, and undistorted. You must present the facts as they are; not your impressions. (1) Do not use dramatic lighting or other photographic techniques that create misrepresentation of the facts. Your goal is to record scenes in their natural state. (2) Provide a natural view by photographing scenes from eye level using a normal focal length lens. Keep in mind that there may be occasions when you must use a shorter focal length lens due to limited room in which to work. Use a tripod or other method of stabilizing the camera to ensure sharp images. 4. Photograph Restrictions.

a. Record Detail. Your light source should be strong enough to enable you to use fine grain high resolution films like Kodak Plus-X, or Kodak Ektar 25. This will enable you to record small details that will show clearly in enlargements for use by the investigator and in court presentations. b. Prepare Detailed Captions. Your photographs alone are not admissible evidence in a court of law. Someone must attest to the authenticity of the picture. You can aid in this by preparing detailed captions. (1) The caption should contain names, places, dates, times, circumstances, and perhaps measurements. In addition, it should contain photographic data such as lens focal length, film type, camera angle, height and distance from the subject. A sketch of the scene marking the spot from which each picture is taken will be helpful especially if you take more than one picture. (2) Strict security procedures are also required to protect proof of authenticity, even if the pictures do not contain classified material. 5. Alert Photographer.

Almost every photo lab has an alert photographer available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to take investigative photography. An alert camera kit should also be ready at all times and contain the following equipment and supplies: a. A 35mm format camera with a variety of lenses from wide angle to telephoto. b. An electronic flash with extra batteries and sync cords.



c. Film to include color negative and slide film, black and white panchromatic, and infrared film. d. A flash light, pencil, and paper. e. A checklist of the kit's contents and a checklist for each of the types of investigative jobs that are covered in this lesson. 6. Burglary and Vandalism.

As when documenting an accident, you must obtain complete coverage when photographing burglary and vandalism sites. Coordinate with the senior investigator at the site. At a minimum, start by obtaining overall views showing the placement/locations of objects in the room. Do this by standing in each of the four corners of the room and take a picture looking toward the diagonally opposite corner. Follow this by taking medium shots of all important items. Finish by making the close-ups required by the investigator. Your coverage of burglary and vandalism scenes should include: a. General views of both the inside and outside. b. Medium shots of the point of entry and exit. c. Articles left at the scene. d. Marks left from shoes, tools, tires, etc. e. Areas from which items were removed. 7. Homicide.

Photographic documentation of a homicide scene closely resembles that of a burglary, with these additions: a. Take at least two pictures of the body. These should be taken from a standing position and at opposing angles to each other. b. Include close-ups of the wounds that illustrate apparent cause of death. Location of the murder weapon, if present, in relation to the body, and other special aspects of the body or scene as directed by the investigator. 8. Hanging.

If you are called upon to photograph the scene of a hanging, again use the basic scene coverage techniques as outlined above



but add views that include the body, rope or material used, and close-ups of any wounds or markings. Illustrate the height of the body above the floor by having another person stand along side the subject. Include views that show chairs, stools, etc., that appear to have been kicked out from under the victim's feet. 9. Drowning.

Start by obtaining overall views of the scene. Photograph the entire body from both sides from a standing position and ground level. Close-ups should include foam about the mouth, any wounds, peculiar markings, bruises, or unusual discoloration. Color film is the best choice to record any discoloration. Again, under no circumstances do you release any information or photographs to anyone outside of military channels. The Public Affairs Officer determines what information should be released to the civilian press. Your responsibility is to the scene commander and his staff conducting the investigation. PART C - FIRE AND ARSON INVESTIGATIONS Ever since man discovered fire it has been a blessing and when it gets out of control, a curse. Firefighters realize the value of a photographic record of a fire, and the ruins, in helping to determine both the cause of the fire, and the effectiveness of the methods used to fight the fire. Another important use of your photography is in training firefighters. However, our objective in this lesson is to focus on photography as a tool used to determine the cause of a fire and if arson was involved. 10. Photographing Fire and Arson Scenes. a. Importance of Early Arrival. The photographer should make every effort to arrive at the scene and begin documenting the fire as quickly as possible, whether arson is suspected or not. The standard alert camera bag, as discussed earlier in this lesson, should contain the necessary equipment. Like any assignment of investigative photography, you should report to the on scene commander to coordinate your efforts with what he needs. b. The pictures you make of a fire while it is burning should include: (1) The area or areas in which the fire started. (2) Pictures of any spectators/groups. An arsonist often remains to watch the fire. These group photos may later help investigators identify suspects.



(3) The fire's progress. Continue to document the fire as it spreads and is brought under control and extinguished. Use color film to photograph overall views that include the color and quantity of smoke and the color and size of flames. The color of the smoke and flames often indicates the type of material that is burning and whether an accelerant, such as gas, was used to speed the burning. It is important to keep notes of the time each picture is made. (4) Once the fire is out, be prepared to photograph medium and closeups of the rubble in the building. Some key things that pictures will be required of are incendiary devices and combustible materials such as match books, paper, and liquids such as gas and paint thinner. Fuses even though burned completely may have left a visible trail. Photograph defective wiring and electrical and gas appliances which may have been the cause. The investigator will point out and help you identify these things. Remember, take notes for each picture caption. c. Special Exposure Requirements. If you have never taken pictures of blackened and fire-charred material, you will be surprised/shocked by the amount of light these materials absorb. (1) The exposure required may be two stops more than indicated by normal exposure calculation methods. This is true even for close-ups and if using flash. (2) When using flash, hold the flash to the side as much as an arm length to bring out surface texture of the burned material or heat-blistered painted surfaces. (3) Return to the laboratory and process your film as soon as possible to ensure you have good exposures. If not, return to the scene immediately and using your notes, reshoot as necessary. (4) Keep the investigator informed and let him know when you have obtained good pictures/negatives. 11. Possible Emotional Effects. Investigative photography can be an emotionally disturbing assignment. Confusion and excitement compounded by the sight of severe wounds, fractures, burns, mutilation, and even death can cause nausea and even fainting. You must prepare yourself and maintain self-control; think about the photographic demands of the mission. You must remain calm under the very serious conditions which you may encounter.






LESSON 3 PRACTICE EXERCISE The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you complete the exercise, check your answer with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. 1. What camera and lens combinations vehicle accident documentation? A. B. C. D. 2. A A A A would be best for aircraft and

4x5 view camera with a 135mm lens twin lens reflex with a 85mm lens 35mm camera with a 35mm, 50mm, and 105mm lens 35mm camera with a 35mm, 90mm, and 200mm lens

What is a good light source to have in the field for extreme closeups? A. B. C. D. Flash bulbs Photo floods Electronic flash Electronic ring flash


Which of the following picture subjects is not applicable to vehicle accident coverage? A. B. C. D. Skid marks Point of impact Road conditions Aerial view of the accident site


What film, filter, and light combination should you use to photograph invisible ink messages? A. B. C. D. Color negative with a 85-C filter and photo floods Black and white film with a green filter and flash Color slide film with a U.V. filter and ultraviolet Panchromatic film with a yellow filter and ultraviolet you use when taking pictures for a criminal


What lens should investigation? A. B. C. D.

A telephoto lens A normal angle lens A 110mm to 400mm zoom lens An extreme wide angle lens




What special investigation? A. B. C. D.









General pictures of the whole site Close-ups of the soles of the feet Pictures of missing articles of clothing Two pictures of the body from opposing angles


What is the best choice of film to show skin discoloration of the body of a drowning victim? A. B. C. D. Color film Color infrared Black and white infrared Orthochromatic black and white


In your pictures, which of the following would help fire investigators determine if an accelerant was used? A. B. C. D. Defective wiring Smoke and flames Color of run off water Charred wood in the rubble


What must you do to ensure sufficient film exposure when photographing charred and fire-blackened material at a fire scene? A. B. C. D. Use time exposure Use two light sources Hold the flash to the side of the subject Overexpose by 2 f/stops above normal calculations



LESSON 3 PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. Correct Answer and Feedback C. A 35mm camera with a 35mm, 50mm, and a 105mm lens

You will find that a good 35mm camera with a long focal length lens, a normal focal length lens, a wide angle lens, and a macro lens for extreme close-up photography will be sufficient. (page 3, para 1d(3)). 2. D. Electronic ring flash

For the close-up photography an electronic ring mounted on the macro lens provides excellent lighting for extreme close-ups (page 3, para 1c). 3. D. Aerial view of the accident site

Aerial views of the accident site are a specific requirement for aircraft accidents because the debris usually covers a large area (page 3, para 1d(3)). 4. D. Panchromatic film with a yellow filter and ultraviolet

You can make fingerprints, certain dyes, and some invisible ink show up by using panchromatic film with a yellow filter and ultraviolet light (page 4, para 2a). 5. B. A normal angle lens

Your goal is to record scenes in their state. Provide a natural view by photographing scenes from eye level using a normal focal length lens which produces images similar to the human eye (page 5, para 3a).



Item 6.

Correct Answer and Feedback D. Two pictures of the body from opposing angles

Photodocumentation of a homicide is similar to that of a burglary with the addition of taking at least two pictures of the body from opposite angles (page 7, para 7a). 7. A. Color film

At the scene of a drowning, the use of color film for pictures of the victim will record any discoloration (page 8, para 9). 8. B. Smoke and flames

The color of smoke and flames often indicates the type of material that is burning and whether an accelerant, such as gas, was used to speed the burning (page 9, para 10b(4)). 9. D. Overexpose by 2 f/stops above normal calculations

Fire blackened and charred material absorbs light more then normal surfaces and may need as much as 2 f/stops more exposure then normal calculations indicate (page 9, para 10c(4)).



LESSON 4 CLINICAL/MEDICAL PHOTOGRAPHY Critical Tasks: 113-578-1005 113-578-1011 OVERVIEW LESSON DESCRIPTION: In this part you will learn to identify different types of clinical/medical photography. When finished, you will be able to select the right equipment, film, filters, and lighting needed to best show the subject. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTIONS: a. b. CONDITION: STANDARD: Identify various types of clinical/medical photography. Describe film, filters, background selection. lighting techniques, and Mate

You will be given information from Photographer's Training Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-45-83, MOD 2.

Selection of proper camera equipment, film, and lighting for medical photography will be in accordance with Photographer's Mate Training Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-45-83, MOD 2. The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications: Photographers' Mate Training Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-45-83, MOD 2.


INTRODUCTION As a military photographer, by the natural rotation of military assignments, you may one day find yourself assigned to a hospital photographic section. While there, you may be called upon to document various clinical procedures. There you will be faced with unique technical and personal requirements. PART A - TYPES OF CLINICAL/MEDICAL PHOTOGRAPHY 1. Clinical Photography. The most common areas are as

Clinical photography covers several areas. follows:



a. Actual surgical procedures to illustrate each step of the operation. b. "Before" and "after" pictures are made whenever a case is distinctive enough to merit study, and show the effect or success of the treatment. c. A progress record is a series of pictures taken during long term treatment of a condition. If the changes in the patient's condition is expected to be slow, pictures can provide a record of change not easily noted in day to day observations. d. Gross specimen photography is the photography of human tissue and organ samples removed in part or whole during surgery or an autopsy. These pictures are useful in teaching, illustration, exhibition, or to aid further study in the cause and progress of disease. Your photographs are an efficient way to record size; shape, and structure. When photographed in color, they are valuable in recording the appearance of freshly dissected specimens, and the changes caused by disease. e. Battered/abused people is the documentation of abuse to either spouse or children, or other people who have been physically beaten. Your photographs may be used to press criminal charges in court. There is one added dimension: of all the clinical cases you may cover, child abuse or neglect may be the most emotionally challenging. 2. Technical Considerations.

a. Importance of Keeping Records. If you are involved in producing photographs for "before" and "after" pictures or progress records, there will obviously be a passage of time between the beginning and end of the assignment. That passage of time may be days, weeks, even months. (1) You may get involved after another photographer has started the project or have to pass it to someone to finish. (2) Because of this possibility, it is necessary that you record every shot made and include technical details of the equipment used, film, lighting, etc., to enable someone else to pick up the job and continue on maintaining and matching the quality of the pictures. b. Personal Protection. While involved in gross specimen photography, you should keep your hands clean and allow the medical personnel to set up the subject or subjects.



(1) When the danger of infection is high, you should be governed by the advice of the medical staff regarding the use of masks, gowns, and rubber gloves. (2) As a general rule, you should always wear a gown to protect your clothes from contamination and infectious organisms. Follow proper procedures for disposal of these protective items after use. c. Using a Tripod. No matter how good you are, a tripod is a must for 90% of the clinical medical photography you might be assigned to do. 3. Film and Filters.

a. Medical photography requires a wide range of film and filter combinations. For gross specimen work, color negative and color slide film is most often used. These will provide the truest rendition of the condition of the specimens. Black and white panchromatic film, infrared film, and orthochromatic films are used in special situations; in addition to color films. a. Infrared film, when used with a blue-green filter, can show blood circulation and some dermatological conditions by enhancing the arterial patterns under the skin not normally visible to the naked eye. b. Color infrared film, when used with a yellow filter, can show the same conditions as black and white infrared film. c. Orthochromatic films are used to show skin conditions such as rashes, lesions, etc., because they darken the pink or red blotches that occur. 4. Lighting.

Proper lighting in clinical photography is important, not just for proper exposure but to accurately record the nature of the clinical condition you are photographing. Lighting for clinical photography falls into three basic types: flat, contour, and texture. a. Flat Lighting. Whether one light source or several is used to illuminate the subject, the light falls on the subject from near the camera. When using more than one unit, they must be of equal intensity, have the same color balance, and be equally spaced on either side of the camera at equal distance from the subject.



b. Contour Lighting. This type of lighting is used to reveal the volume and contour of forms and shapes. (1) You change from flat to contour lighting by placing one light (main light) a little to one side of the camera to produce shadows on the subject. (2) Place the second light (fill light) on the opposite side of the camera and further away from the subject to fill in, but not eliminate the shadows so detail is still visible. Light ratios from 2: 1 to 4: 1 are desirable. c. Texture Lighting. To achieve this lighting, move the main light source away from the camera until the light glances across the surface being photographed. The texture of the subject's surface will become readily apparent. Adjust the light position to obtain the best rendition of texture. Sometimes a fill light is used to maintain details in the shadows. 5. Background.

a. Importance of Background. Your choice of background in clinical/medical photography is very important because it can contribute to or detract from the clarity of the image. (1) You should not have shelves, cupboards, wall hangings, or other people in the picture area. (2) The background should be plain without pattern or design. (3) Attention must also be given to the color, tone, and texture, as well as shadows that appear on the background, since they all affect the scientific value of the picture. b. Basic Categories of Backgrounds. Backgrounds fall into these basic categories: colored, white, black, and gray. (1) Colored backgrounds. You might think since most clinical photography is shot on color film that color backgrounds would be suitable. However, you must bear in mind that the background color and the specimen colors mutually affect each other. (a) Sometimes unattractive and disturbing color contrasts may arise. Sometimes light reflected off the background onto the subject may distort its true color. (b) When choosing a colored background, complementary to the color of the specimen being choose one that is




Refer to figure 4-1 for appropriate background colors.

(2) White and black (achromatic) backgrounds. These backgrounds, do indeed, retreat visually into the background. Their color does not compete with the color of the specimen.

Figure 4-1.

Complementary colors used for background

(a) Experience shows that a black background should generally be used with light-colored specimens and a white background with dark-colored specimens in order to achieve better definition of the contour and outline of the subject. (b) Paleness of the skin can be accentuated with a black background while a white background with color film will emphasize jaundice. (3) Neutral mid-gray background. This background presents the most natural appearance. It should be your choice when documenting clinical conditions such as abuse cases, "before" and "after" shots, or progress records using either color or black and white films when the background will be visible in the picture. In situations where the subject is an infant or child and must be held by someone, use a neutral gray muslin cloth draped over the adult.



c. Shadows. Shadows can become a distraction in your pictures. One way to eliminate them is to use a transilluminated background. This is a transparent or translucent medium light from behind or from underneath, similar to a light table. This type of background treatment produces overall uniformity and softness. In addition, it eliminates undesirable shadows. By varying the intensity and color of the transmitted light you can easily produce any tone or color you desire. 6. Lenses.

a. Normal Angle Lens. Normal angle lens is the first choice in clinical medical photography. This is because the normal angle lens encompasses approximately the same field of view and produces an image in which the relative size of objects appear the same as seen by the human eye. b. Importance of Image Size. A second consideration in lens choice is that you want the maximum usable image size on the film whether it be negative films for prints or color slides for projection. (1) In some situations, it may be better to use a medium focal length telephoto lens (85mm to 135mm) or an extension tube. This choice allows you to obtain that maximum image of small areas on the body without getting uncomfortably close to the subject. (2) By not using the longer lens, you will keep the camera far enough away to allow room to properly light the subject. PART B – AUTOPSIES 7. Photographing Autopsies.

a. Emotional Impact. Although you may be able to handle photographing the clinical subject material we have covered so far, this is where many photographers lose it--draw the line. The emotional impact can be overwhelming. You must approach this assignment as a professional. The same techniques apply here as in any other photo assignment. Research, plan, photograph. b. Importance of Autopsy Pictures. Autopsies are performed to determine or confirm the cause of death. Your job is to record the evidence as the medical examiner proceeds with the autopsy. The pictures you make may be used in a court of law to help determine innocence or guilt of a defendant. They will allow experts to have an opportunity to see the pertinent evidence for themselves.



c. Film Selection. Color negative and color slide films are more commonly used than black and white. They will give the truest rendition of the condition of the subject. (1) You can use infrared film with different filters and light sources to disclose details invisible to the naked eye or not recorded by other types of film. Such items as bullet wounds on dark skin or gun powder residue on dark clothing are vividly depicted with infrared film. (2) Black and white film used with a green filter renders skin tones more truthfully. d. Photographing Procedure. Your shooting plan (script) should start with full-face and profile of head and shoulders. Your next series of pictures should be full-length pictures of the front, back, and both sides of the subject. (1) Shooting the side views are easy. In order to get good shots of the front and back, you have to get above the table so your view is straight down on the subject. Using an 8- to 10-foot step ladder should give you the elevation necessary. (2) Then proceed with the help of the medical examiner and photograph all injuries, major and minor, and any other noteworthy features such as marks, gags, knotted ropes, etc. It is a good technique to include a ruler in these detail pictures to provide scale. Markers or pointers can be included in your pictures to indicate important features. e. Record Each Picture. As usual in investigative photography, keeping notes on each picture you shoot is an important step. An effective way to pinpoint the location of the closeups is to use one of the full-length views and mark each spot A, B, C, etc., and put matching letters on the close-ups. f. Follow Confidentiality Rules. In all investigative photography jobs, you are being brought in as a professional. Conduct yourself as such on and after the job. The information you are exposed to should be treated as confidential. PART C - PHOTOGRAPHING SURGICAL PROCEDURES 8. Surgical Procedures.

a. Preparation for Surgical Photography. Preparation to photograph a surgical procedure is the same as any other assignment. Research, plan, and prepare your equipment. However, your need to get the picture comes secondary to the patient. The surgeon will usually be helpful and indicate the photographs he needs.



b. Personal Protection and Preparation. Prior to entering the operating room (OR), clean all exterior surfaces of your equipment by wiping with a cloth soaked with rubbing alcohol with the exception of the lens which can be cleaned with lens cleaner. Next, suit yourself up in a scrub suit, surgical cap, mask, and conductive overshoe. These items will be provided by the surgical staff.

WARNING With the presence of ether or oxygen, there is danger of ignition by sparks from the capacitor in electronic flash units. Never place any electrical equipment on the floor, since the gases used in the OR are heavier than air and normally are suspended within 2 feet off the floor.

(1) Because the OR can be a dangerous place to use photographic lighting equipment, check with the anesthesiologist about the lighting you expect to use. (2) Put your electrical equipment on carts or suspend it from light stands. You will notice that all electrical outlets in an OR are installed at eye level. c. Sterile Fields. Part of your research should be to acquaint yourself with the sterile fields that are established in the OR. Sterile fields are broken into three classifications: (1) STERILE. (a) The surgeon. (b) The surgical area around the patient. (c) The instrument tray. (d) Anyone in direct contact with the above. (2) CONSIDERED STERILE. ceiling. The space from the sterile areas to the



(3) CONSIDERED CLEAN. (a) The patient. (b) The patient's table. (c) The anesthesiologist and his equipment. (d) Those who are not required to scrub. (e) You, the photographer, and your equipment. d. Precautions to Follow. You must take precautions at all times not to touch, even accidentally, anyone or anything that is classified as STERILE. If you do, then that person or object is reclassified as CONSIDERED UNCLEAN, and the procedure has to stop until the sterile fields are reestablished. Remember, you are there at the surgeon's request, so follow his direction on what is to be photographed.






LESSON 4 PRACTICE EXERCISE The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you complete the exercise, check your answer with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. 1. Which type of clinical photography is used to document the effects of disease on internal organs? A. B. C. D. 2. Progress record Surgical procedures Gross specimen photography Before and after treatment record

Which lighting technique should best show the shape of a subject? A. B. C. D. Flat Contour Texture Backlight


Which background is best for documenting "before" and "after," and progress records? A. B. C. D. Red Black Neutral mid-gray Green hospital curtain


One way to illustrate scale in close-ups in autopsies is to include what in the picture? A. B. C. D. A ruler Your hand A film can The doctor’s hand


How should you photograph a full-length view during an autopsy? A. B. C. D. Stand the subject up Lay the subject on the floor Climb above the body on a stepladder Have the doctor roll the subject on its side







How do you prepare your equipment for use in the OR? A. B. C. D. Steam clean it Sterilize it in an autoclave Expose it to ultraviolet light for 1 hour Wipe it down with a clothed soaked with alcohol


Once the operation begins, what happens if you touch the surgeon's shoulder? A. B. C. D. Nothing You must be sterilized You must stop and leave the OR The surgeon must rescrub to a STERILE classification


Who should you check with on what lights you can use in the OR? A. B. C. D. The The The The surgeon head nurse anesthesiologist hospital administrator



LESSON 4 PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. Correct Answer and Feedback C. Gross specimen photography

Gross specimen photography is the photography of human tissue and organs removed during surgery or an autopsy (page 2, para Id). 2. B. Contour.

Contour lighting is used to reveal volume, form, and the shape of subjects (page 4, para 4b(2)). 3. C. Neutral mid-gray

Neutral mid-gray background presents the most natural appearance and should be used when documenting abuse cases, before and after shots, and progress records (page 5, para 5b(3)). 4. A. A ruler

It is a good technique to include a ruler in close-ups of cuts, bruises, and other marks to provide scale (page 7, para 7d(2)). 5. C. Climb above the body on a step ladder

For front and rear full-length photos of the body you need an 8' to 10' step ladder to gain the elevation necessary (page 7, para 7d(2)). 6. D. Wipe it down with a cloth soaked with alcohol

Prior to entering an OR, clean all exterior surfaces of your equipment by wiping it down with a cloth soaked in alcohol (page 8, para 8b).



Item 7.

Correct Answer and Feedback D. The surgeon must rescrub to a STERILE classification

You must take precautions not to touch, even accidentally, anyone or anything that is classified as STERILE. If you do, then the procedure has to stop until the STERILE FIELDS are reestablished (page 9, para 8d). 8. C. The anesthesiologist

With the presence of ether or oxygen, there is the danger of ignition by sparks from the capacitor in flash units. Check with the anesthesiologists about the lighting you expect to use (page 8, para 8b(2)).






LESSON 5 ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY Critical Task: 113-578-1005 OVERVIEW LESSON DESCRIPTION: In this lesson you will learn the major use of architectural photography and the equipment and techniques used to produce it. You also will learn how to operate the view camera, utilizing its controls to obtain proper perspective, and correction of distortion for architectural photography. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVES: ACTIONS: a. b. c. d. e. f. CONDITION: STANDARD: Identify the photography. four major types of architectural

Identify the equipment and lighting used. Determine the best composition, angle, and perspective. Describe the various parts of a view camera. Identify camera. the movements of the controls of the view

Identify the perspective controls to correct distortion in photographing buildings. and

You will be given information from STP 11-25S13-SM-TG Photographer's Mate Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-45-83, MOD 2.

Techniques for photographing architectural structures and operating the view camera will be in accordance with STP 1125S13-SM-TG and Photographer's Mate Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-4583, MOD 2. The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications: STP 11-25S13-SM-TG and Photographer's Mate Series NAVEDTRA 373-02-45-83, MOD 2.




INTRODUCTION With today's modern, small format, high-tech cameras that take all the worry out of the mechanical aspects of photography, many photographers, even professional photographers, are inclined to use their standard or "regular" camera for every assignment. Most of these cameras do not have adjustments that allow correction of vertical or horizontal distortions caused when you tilt or swing from a 90-degree angle of the subject. This inflexibility presents the subject with unnatural appearance because of excessive vertical or horizontal convergence. The view camera is the only camera that will give you the maximum control needed to produce images of a three-dimensional subject without this distortion on a single plane (the photograph). The understanding of the different types of architectural photography and the use of the view camera will enable you to produce distortion-free photographs of large and small structures that will be pleasing to view. PART A - TYPES OF ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY 1. Exterior Photography.

a. Uses of Architectural Photography. Architectural photography is the making of pictures of man-made structures, usually buildings. Your pictures will be used for many purposes. The four major uses are: planning, construction progress, illustrative purposes, and inspection or survey. (1) Planning. This may involve a photograph of a new construction site, a photo of an existing building for which modifications are to be made, or to provide the architect a general concept of how a new building should look. Some photographs may require you to show other buildings already in place which may be included in the proposal for construction. (2) Construction progress. These pictures become a record or proof of construction progress as the job proceeds. (a) They can show whether the contractor did or did not follow specifications and meet deadlines set out in the contract. (b) They will serve as a record of the use of material. (c) Some of your photos may be of historical value. They could become important elements of periodic reports to higher echelons, including Congressional Armed Services Committees.



(d) A complete construction record will require pictures taken at regular intervals, beginning with groundbreaking to the final landscaping. You should expect to take pictures every 7 to 14 days. You may be tasked to take pictures more often; at the beginning or end of significant steps in the construction, or to document specific construction details. Stay in touch with the requestor to determine and schedule this additional coverage. (3) Illustrative purposes. You may be requested to photograph a building just to "show off" its best features. It may be a simple photo to be included in a report, or it may be a picture of brigade headquarters for the commander's wall. It could be photos for inclusion in the post welcome packet. (a) All these photos are considered to be illustrative and should be made to show the building to best advantage. (b) When you take this type of photograph, you should take extra effort to eliminate all distractions in the field of view. Be sure the foreground and background are clean, that all windows and doors are either open or closed, and that all blinds or window shades are adjusted the same. This presents a clean image of the subject building. (4) Inspection or survey. Your pictures of building exteriors will be used by different people for different reasons. The fire marshal may use them to illustrate fire hazards and train firefighters in evacuation measures. The post police may use them in planning security efforts. They can be used by the public works department to keep track of a building's condition or "health," and use them in planning maintenance actions. b. Lighting is a Special Concern. Remember, every type of photographic assignment we have discussed in this subcourse requires research and planning to produce effective quality pictures. This is just as important, if not more so, in architectural photography. In most instances, buildings have to be photographed where they sit. When photographing people, you can change their pose, facial expressions, and most of the time arrange the lighting as you want it. You can not do any of that with a building. (1) The main controls you have over the picture are the viewpoint and the lighting. At best, your control of the light is a tenuous thing. You are limited to the time of the day at which you feel the lighting is best for what you are trying to photograph.



(a) When shooting exteriors of buildings, your light source is that which mother nature provides. It is constantly changing, shifting its position, changing the shadows, and appearance of texture as it filters through clouds. (b) There is only one way to select the best lighting for a building. You must study the building from different angles and viewpoints at different times of the day and on sunny and overcast days. Make notes on the effects you observe and choose the combination that best suits the subject. (2) A building should always experiences its volume and materials. be depicted so that the viewer

(a) Bright, sunny cloudless days create shadows strong lines rendering some buildings in a majestic pose.



(b) If you wait for a slightly overcast sky, the contrast will be less and may provide the right light for depicting the building material texture. The light's direction governs the building's form and may help you bring out it's characteristic features. (c) Generally, a building photographs better in direct, angled sunlight from a cloudless sky. This slightly overcast sky diffuses the light reducing the contrast in the materials just enough to create a good balance of highlights and shadow detail. (d) The worst kind of lighting is extremely overcast weather. destroys the building's form by reducing the contrast ratio too much. 2. Interior Photography. It

a. Types of Interiors. There is another aspect to architectural photography and that is photographs of building interiors. These pictures are grouped under one of three headings: public interiors, residential interiors, and details of interiors. b. Obtaining Correct Lighting. (1) Public interiors are often characterized by size, dominance, scale, and measurements. The inclusion of people can illustrate the scale and draw interest to unique features in the photograph. Lighting such interiors becomes a key element that needs your professional attention.



(a) The presence of fluorescent tubes in public places means color balance must be corrected in order to render proper color in your finished pictures. Mixing of light sources compounds the problem. Refer to the data sheet packed with your film to determine the correct film, lighting, and filter combination that will render correct color. (b) The most common problem with fluorescent lights is the creation of a green tint on color film. You can compensate by using a magenta filter. (2) Another important concern whether photographing public or residential interiors is the balance between outdoor light and the artificial illumination indoors. When lighting is mixed this way, it is better to delay shooting until the daylight is too weak to overwhelm the interior lighting. (a) Shooting your pictures near sunset or daylight is not dominant will give the best results. (b) Do not shoot so late or early windows in the picture shows completely black. that early sky morning seen when



(c) Office and residential interior can be enhanced by turning on existing tungsten room lights. This gives warm color to the picture. 3. Controlling Perspective.

Your key to perspective control for both outside and inside architectural photography is the camera position in relationship to the subject. The view camera with its many adjustments permits complete perspective control without the need to move the camera from one position to another. Also, with these controls you can prevent, moderate, or exaggerate distortion, and extend sharpness in depth of field. a. Need for Use of View Camera. When you photograph a building, you usually aim the camera up to include the top. However, when you do, the perspective appears distorted in the print. All the vertical lines appear to be converging and no longer look parallel. This distortion is not acceptable in architectural photography. Correct use of the view camera will eliminate this problem. b. Additional Equipment Needed. The view camera, therefore, is the choice for architectural photography. Additional equipment you will need includes a sturdy tripod, a hand-held light meter, a gray card, and a shutter cable release to minimize camera jiggle while taking an exposure.



PART B - VIEW CAMERA OPERATION AND PERSPECTIVE CONTROL Many photographers shy away from use of the view camera because of its bulk and many confusing adjustments. The best way for you to become proficient with the view camera is through practice before shooting official photographs. 4. Components of the View Camera. All may the all

View cameras have changed little since the early days of photography. view cameras in use throughout the Army are basically the same. They differ somewhat from model to model so it would be wise for you read operator's manual for each of the various views you may use. However, view cameras have the following standard parts:

a. A monorail or bed which serves as the base of support to hold all the other components. b. A front lens standard mounted on the monorail. This standard usually has a “U” shaped frame which allows the lens to be locked into any position on the monorail. It also permits swings and tilts and rising and falling adjustments. c. A rear standard, where the film is loaded, is the same as the front standard except that on some models it may not have a rising and falling adjustment. d. A bellows between the front and rear standards which allows them to be moved together or apart for focusing, and to accommodate various focal length lenses. The bellows also maintains light-tight integrity between the front and rear standards. It also allows extension for 1:1 and larger images. e. A tripod head which holds the monorail to a tripod. f. A lens which is mounted in a lens board which is in turn mounted into the front standard. g. A ground glass for focusing, viewing, and composing the image. h. Other parts which make up the whole view camera include various locking and adjusting knobs, focusing hood, lens shade, spirit levels, and springs and clips to secure film holders and dark cloths. 5. View Camera Adjustments. They

There are only four basic movements or adjustments with a view camera. are as follows:



a. Horizontal or Lateral Swing. swing horizontally.

Both the front and rear standards

(1) Using the swing back. The swing back is used to correct distortion or perspective in the horizontal plane. When photographing subjects from an angle, the horizontal lines have the appearance of excessive convergence. To correct this distortion, the camera back is swung to a position more nearly parallel to the horizontal plane of the subject. (2) Using the swing front. The front standards swing allows the lens to be pivoted horizontally around its optical axis. The swing front is used to focus and increase depth of field when the swing back is swung off center. When the swing back is off center, the film is not in the same plane as the image produced by the lens. Thus by swinging the lens, the image can be brought onto the same plane as the film. b. Tilt. The front and rear standards tilt forward and backward.

(1) Using the tilt back. The tilt back is used to correct distortion or perspective in the vertical plane. Tilting the camera up results in convergence of vertical lines of the subject image on the ground glass. This is quite apparent when photographing a tall building. If no correction is used, the building looks smaller at the top (bottom of the ground glass). To correct this distortion, the tilt back is tilted so that it is more parallel to the vertical plane of the subject. (2) Using the tilt front. The tilt front is used to focus and increase depth of field when the tilt back is off-center. When the tilt back is tilted away from the center, the film plane is not parallel to the image produced by the lens. Thus by tilting the lens, the image can be brought into the same plane as the film. c. Shifts. The front and rear standards shift from side to side.

(1) Shifting front standards. The shifting front standard is used to center the image on the ground glass when the subject is not directly in front of the lens. If after setting the camera up on a tripod the subject image is not centered on the film plane, use the shift front to center the image instead of moving the tripod. (2) Shifting rear standards. If enough correction is not obtained by shifting the front standard alone, it is



possible to increase the correction by shifting the rear standard in the opposite direction. (3) Adding more correction. If this still does not provide enough correction, aim the entire camera in the same direction as the front standard. Use the horizontal swing (front and rear) and front and rear shift to center the image. d. Rising and Falling Front. As the shift front was used to center the image horizontally, the rising and falling front is used to center the image vertically on the ground glass. (1) The front standard is moved up or down to center the image on the ground glass. (2) If enough correction can not be obtained with this method, you can correct this by tilting the entire camera up or down and using the tilting front or back to keep the image on the same plane as the subject. Figure 5-1 illustrates control movements of both front and rear standards. 6. Working With the View Camera.

a. Possible Positions. All of these adjustments have an infinite number of possible positions from the center or “0” position to their maximum shift left or right, tilt up or down, tilt forward or back, and swing left or right. Keep this in mind when using the view camera. (1) Whenever you set up the view camera, adjustments in the neutral or "0" position. always start with all

(2) Realize also that every time you change the position or adjust any of the controls, you must adjust the focus and image position on the ground glass. (3) Focusing a view camera is done by moving the front or rear standards along the monorail. If the rear standards are moved to get a sharp image, the image size will change due to the movement of the film plane. If the correct image size has already been obtained, focus with the front standard. b. Depth of Field. Greater depth of field can be obtained in horizontal, vertical, and intermediate planes by use of the front swings and tilts, and selecting a larger f/stop. Refer to figure 5-2.



Figure 5-1.

Control movements

Figure 5-2.

Control of depth of field with front swings by using the rear

(1) Additional depth of field can be gained standard swings and tilts also (see figure 5-3).

(2) By tilting the camera back (AB to CB), the lack of parallelism between the film plane and the subject plane is increased. This increases the depth of field. Remember to refocus with the front standard.



Figure 5-3.

Increasing depth of field with the swing back

c. Summary. The whole objective of the use of the various adjustments on the view camera is to control perspective in order to produce an image of a three-dimensional object without excessive convergence or distortion. The following illustrations in figures 5-4 and 5-5 will enable you to visualize the image as it appears on the ground glass as you employ the various controls of the view camera. The view camera is the only correct camera to use for architectural photography. Don't let it scare you. With practice, you will learn to produce pictures of which you will be proud.



Figure 5-4.

Visual review of perspective control 5-11 SS0516

Figure 5-5. Visual review of perspective control (horizontal image placement)



LESSON 5 PRACTICE EXERCISE The following items will test your grasp of the material covered in this lesson. There is only one correct answer for each item. When you complete the exercise, check your answer with the answer key that follows. If you answer any item incorrectly, study again that part of the lesson which contains the portion involved. 1. You are assigned to photograph a building site each week for 21 weeks. Which type of architectural photography is this? A. B. C. D. 2. Planning Illustrative Construction Inspection/survey

Which elements can you control when photographing a building? A. B. C. D. Position and lighting Camera viewpoint and lighting Time of day to shoot and the pose Direction building faces and lighting


Which is the poorest kind of light in which to photograph a building? A. B. C. D. Cloudy, bright day Sunny, cloudless day Slightly overcast day Extremely overcast day


How do you illustrate scale when shooting the interior of a large public building? A. B. C. D. Include people Print picture with a scale Include a yard stick in the picture Include a 12” ruler in the lower left corner


The monorail on a view camera serves what purpose? A. B. C. D. Holds lens board Clamps onto the tripod Supports all other components Allows you to move ground glass to compose image







When you try to center the image on the ground glass by shifting the front standard and cannot obtain enough correction, how can you obtain more? A. B. C. D. Move the tripod Tilt the monorail Use the rear horizontal swing Shift the rear standard in the opposite direction


How do you eliminate the appearance of vertical converging lines? A. B. C. D. Tilt front standard back Swing front standard to the left Shift front standard to the right Place the tilt back parallel to the vertical plane of the subject



LESSON 5 PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. Correct Answer and Feedback C. Construction

These pictures are a record of construction progress as the job proceeds. They can be used for reports and to show if deadlines and specifications are being met (page 2, para 1a(2)(c)). 2. B. Camera viewpoint and lighting

The main controls you have over taking a picture of a building are the point of view and the time of day you choose because the lighting is best in your opinion (page 4, para 1b(1)(b)). 3. D. Extremely overcast day

Extremely overcast weather is the worst kind of lighting. It destroys the building's form by reducing the contrast ratio too much (page 4, para 1b(2)(d)). 4. A. Include people

The inclusion of people in the picture can give a feeling of size and scale to the viewer (page 5, para 2b(1)). 5. C. Supports all other components

The monorail serves as the base on which all the other components are mounted (page 6, para 4a). 6. D. Shift the rear standard in the opposite direction

If enough correction is not obtained by shifting the front standard alone, it is possible to increase the correction by shifting the rear standard in the opposite direction (page 7, para 5c(2)).



Item 7.

Correct Answer and Feedback D. Place the tilt back parallel to the vertical plane of the subject

The tilt back is used to correct distortion in the vertical plane. This is readily apparent when photographing a tall building. To correct this distortion, tilt the back parallel to the vertical plane of the subject (page 7, para 5b(1)).






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