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c details.txt C++, C, ASM.OS/RTOS: Linux, Nucleus, FAMOS, WinCEPlatform: PC, 8/16/32bit Processors, Encoders, Decoders, SOCs etc.

Domain: MPEG-1/2/4 codecs, DVB technology for Satellite (DVB-S), Cable (DVB-C), Terrestrial (DVB-T) & IP Networks, Set Top Box, Head-ends, Modulators, Demodulators, Sat-finders etc. Mandatory Requirements: Expert level Knowledge of C++, Object Oriented Programming, Embedded Linux, UML Standards and DVB Standards (Transport Streams Analysis) is must. ing/using-pointers-arrays-structures-and-unions-in-8051-c-compilers.html Embedded Systems Academy Products, Consulting & Training for Embedded Systems Deutsch EnglishWelcomeProductsClient WorkTrainingLibraryContact UsUsing Pointers, Arrays, Structures and Unions in 8051 C Compilers by Olaf Pfieffer, based on the C51 Primer by Mike Beach, Hitex UK Although both the Keil and Raisonance 8051 C compiler systems allow you to use pointers, arrays, structures and unions as in any PC-based C dialect, there are several important extensions allowing to generate more efficient code. Using Pointers And Arrays One of C's greatest strengths can also be its greatest weakness - the pointer. The use and, more appropriately, the abuse of this language feature is largely why C is condemned by some as dangerous! Pointers In Assembler For an assembler programmer the C pointer equates closely to indirect addressing. In the 8051 this is achieved by the following instructions 1.MOV R0,#40 2.MOV A,@RO 3.MOV R0,#40 4.MOVX A,@RO 5.MOVX A,@DPTR 6. 7.CLR A 8.MOV DPTR,#0040 9.MOVC A,@A+DPTR In each case the registers to the ; ; ; ; ; ; Put on-chip address to be indirectly addressed in R0 Put off-chip address to be indirectly addressed in R0 Put off-chip address to be indirectly addressed in DPTR

; Put off-chip address to be indirectly ; addressed in DPTR data is held in a memory location indicated by the value in right of the '@'.

Pointers In C The C equivalent of the indirect instruction is the pointer. The register holding the address to be indirectly accessed in the assembler examples is a normal C type, except that its purpose is to hold an address rather than a variable or constant data value. It is declared by: 1.unsigned char *pointer0 ; Note the asterisk prefix, indicating that the data held in this variable is an address rather than a piece of data that might be used in a calculation etc.. In all cases in the assembler example two distinct operations are required: 1. Place address to be indirectly addressed in a register. 2. Use the appropriate indirect addressing instruction to access data held at chosen address. Fortunately in C the same procedure is necessary, although the indirect register must be explicitly defined, whereas in assembler the register exists in hardware. 1./* 1 - Define a variable which will hold an address */ Page 1

c details.txt 2.unsigned char *pointer ; 3./* 2 - Load pointer variable with address to be accessed*/ 4./*indirectly */ 5.pointer = &c_variable ; 6./* 3 - Put data '0xff' indirectly into c variable via*/ 7./*pointer */ 8.*pointer = 0xff ; Taking each operation in turn... 1.Reserve RAM to hold pointer. In practice the compiler attaches a symbolic name to a RAM location, just as with a normal variable. 2.Load reserved RAM with address to be accessed, equivalent to 'MOV R0,#40'. In English this C statement means: "take the 'address of' c_variable and put it into the reserved RAM, i.e, the pointer" In this case the pointer's RAM corresponds to R0 and the '&' equates loosely to the assembler '#'. 3.Move the data indirectly into pointed-at C variable, as per the assembler 'MOV A,@R0'. The ability to access data either directly, x = y, or indirectly, x = *y_ptr, is extremely useful. Here is C example: 1./* Demonstration Of Using A Pointer */ 2.void function(void) 3.{ 4.unsigned char c_variable ; // 1 - Declare a c variable unsigned char 5.*ptr ; // 2 - Declare a pointer (not pointing at anything yet!) 6. c_variable = 0xff ; // 3 - Set variable equal to 0xff directly 7. // OR, to do the same with pointers: 8. ptr = &c_variable ; // 4 - Force pointer to point at c_variable at run time 9. *ptr = 0xff ; // 5 - Move 0xff into c_variable indirectly 10.} Note: Line 8 causes pointer to point at variable. An alternative way of doing this is at compile time thus: 1./* Demonstration Of Using A Pointer */ 2.void function (void) 3.{ 4.unsigned char c_variable; // 1-Declare a c variable 5.unsigned char *ptr = &c_variable; // 2-Declare a pointer, intialized to pointing at 6. c_variable during compilation 7. c_variable = 0xff ; // 3 - Set variable equal to 0xff directly 8. // OR - use the pointer which is already initialized 9. *ptr = 0xff // 5 - Move 0xff into c_variable indirectly 10.} Pointers with their asterisk prefix can be used exactly as per normal data types. The statement: 1.x = y + 3 ; could equally well perform with pointers, as per 1.char x, y ; 2.char *x_ptr = &x ; 3.char *y_ptr = &y ; 4.*x_ptr = *y_ptr + 3 ; or: 1.x = y * 25 ; 2.*x_ptr = *y_ptr * 25 ; The most important thing to understand about pointers is that 1.*ptr = var ; Page 2

c details.txt means "set the value of the pointed-at address to value var", whereas 1.ptr = &var ; means "make ptr point at var by putting the address of (&) in ptr, but do not move any data out of var itself". Thus the rule is to initialize a pointer: 1.ptr = &var ; To access the data indicated by *ptr: 1.var = *ptr ; Pointers To Absolute Addresses In embedded C, ROM, RAM and peripherals are at fixed addresses. This immediately raises the question of how to make pointers point at absolute addresses rather than just variables whose address is unknown (and largely irrelevant). The simplest method is to determine the pointed-at address at compile time: 1.char *abs_ptr = 0x8000 ; // Declare pointer and force to 0x8000 However if the address to be pointed at is only known at run time, an alternative approach is necessary. Simply, an uncommitted pointer is declared and then forced to point at the required address thus: 1.char *abs_ptr ; // Declare uncommitted pointer 2.abs_ptr = (char *) 0x8000 ; // Initialize pointer to 0x8000 3.*abs_ptr = 0xff ; // Write 0xff to 0x8000 4.*abs_ptr++ ; // Make pointer point at next location in RAM Arrays And Pointers - Two Sides Of The Same Coin? Uninitialized Arrays The variables declared via 1.unsigned char x ; 2.unsigned char y ; are single 8 bit memory locations. The declarations: 1.unsigned int a ; 2.unsigned int b ; yield four memory locations, two allocated to 'a' and two to 'b'. In other programming languages it is possible to group similar types together in arrays. In basic an array is created by DIM a(10). Likewise 'C' incorporates arrays, declared by: 1.unsigned char a[10] ; This has the effect of generating ten sequential address of 'a'. As there is nothing to the right values are inserted into the array. It therefore only to reserve ten contiguous bytes. Initialized Arrays A more usual instance of arrays would be 1.unsigned char test_array [] = { 0x00,0x40,0x80,0xC0,0xFF } ; where the initial values are put in place before the program gets to "main()". Note that the size of this initialized array is not given in the square brackets the compiler works-out the size automatically upon compilation. Another common instance of an array is analogous to the BASIC string as per: 1.A$ = "HELLO!" In C this equates to: 1.char test_array[] = { "HELLO!" } ; Page 3 locations, starting at of the declaration, no contains zero data and the initial serves

c details.txt In C there is no real distinction between strings and arrays as a C array is just a series of sequential bytes occupied either by a string or a series of numbers. In fact the realms of pointers and arrays overlap with strings by virtue of : 1.char test_array = { "HELLO!" } ; 2.char *string_ptr = { "HELLO!" } ; Case 1 creates a sequence of bytes containing the ASCII equivalent of "HELLO!". Likewise the second case allocates the same sequence of bytes but in addition creates a separate pointer called *string_ptr to it. Notice that the "unsigned char" used previously has become "char", literally an ASCII character. The second is really equivalent to: 1.char test_array = { "HELLO!" } ; Then at run time: 1.char arr_ptr = test_array ; // Array treated as pointer - or; 2.char arr_ptr = &test_array[0] ; 3.// Put address of first element of array into pointer This again shows the partial interchangeability of pointers and arrays. In English, the first means "transfer address of test_array into arr_ptr". Stating an array name in this context causes the array to be treated as a pointer to the first location of the array. Hence no "address of" (&) or '*' to be seen. The second case reads as "get the address of the first element of the array name and put it into arr_ptr". No implied pointer conversion is employed, just the return of the address of the array base. The new pointer "*arr_ptr" now exactly corresponds to *string_ptr, except that the physical "HELLO!" they point at is at a different address. Using Arrays Arrays are typically used like this 1./* Copy The String HELLO! Into An Empty Array */ 2.unsigned char source_array[] = { "HELLO!" } ; 3.unsigned char dest_array[7]; 4.unsigned char array_index ; 5.array_index = 0 ; // First character index 6.while(array_index < 7) // Check for end of array 7.{ 8. dest_array[array_index] = source_array[array_index] ; 9. // Move character-by-character into destination array 10. 11. array_index++ ; // Next character index 12.} The variable array_index shows the offset of the character to be fetched (and then stored) from the starts of the arrays. As has been indicated, pointers and arrays are closely related. Indeed the above program could be re-written as: 1./* Copy The String HELLO! Into An Empty Array */ 2.char *string_ptr = { "HELLO!" } ; 3.unsigned char dest_array[7] ; 4.unsigned char array_index ; 5.array_index = 0 ; // First character index 6.while(array_index < 7) // Check for end of array 7.{ 8. dest_array[array_index] = string_ptr[array_index] ; 9. // Move character-by-character into destination array. 10. array_index++ ; 11.} Page 4

c details.txt The point to note is that only the definition of string_ptr (previous source_array) changed. By removing the '*' on string_ptr and appending a '[ ]' pair, this pointer can be turned back into an array! However in this case there is an alternative way of scanning along the HELLO! string, using the *ptr++ convention: 1./* Copy The String HELLO! Into An Empty Array */ 2.char *string_ptr = { "HELLO!" } ; 3.unsigned char dest_array[7] ; 4.unsigned char array_index ; 5.array_index = 0 ; // First character index 6.while(array_index < 7) // Check for end of array 7.{ 8. dest_array[array_index] = *string_ptr++ ; 9. // Move character-by-character into destination array. 10. array_index++ ; 11.} This is an example of C being somewhat inconsistent; this *ptr++ statement does not mean "increment the thing being pointed at" but rather, increment the pointer itself, so causing it to point at the next sequential address. Thus in the example the character is obtained and then the pointer moved along to point at the next higher address in memory. Summary Of Arrays And Pointers To summarize Create An Uncommitted Pointer 1.unsigned char *x_ptr ; Create A Pointer To A Normal C Variable 1.unsigned char x ; 2.unsigned char *x_ptr = &x ; Create An Array With No Initial Values 1. unsigned char x_arr[10] ; Create An Array With Initialized Values 1.unsigned char x_arr[] = { 0,1,2,3 } ; Create An Array In The Form Of A String 1.char x_arr[] = { "HELLO" } ; Create A Pointer To A String 1.char *string_ptr = { "HELLO" } ; Create A Pointer To An Array 1.char x_arr[] = { "HELLO" } ; 2.char *x_ptr = x_arr ; Force A Pointer To Point At The Next Location 1.*ptr++ ; Structures Structures are perhaps what makes C such a powerful language for creating very complex programs with huge amounts of data. They are basically a way of grouping together related data items under a single symbolic name. Why Use Structures? Here is an example: A piece of C51 software had to perform a linearization process on the raw signal from a variety of pressure sensors manufactured by the same company. For each sensor to be catered for there is an input signal with a span and offset, a temperature coefficient, the signal conditioning amplifier, a gain Page 5

c details.txt and offset. The information for each sensor type could be held in "normal" constants thus: 1.unsigned char sensor_type1_gain = 0x30 ; 2.unsigned char sensor_type1_offset = 0x50 ; 3.unsigned char sensor_type1_temp_coeff = 0x60 ; 4.unsigned char sensor_type1_span = 0xC4 ; 5.unsigned char sensor_type1_amp_gain = 0x21 ; 6.unsigned char sensor_type2_gain = 0x32 ; 7.unsigned char sensor_type2_offset = 0x56 ; 8.unsigned char sensor_type2_temp_coeff = 0x56 ; 9.unsigned char sensor_type2_span = 0xC5 ; 10.unsigned char sensor_type2_amp_gain = 0x28 ; 11.unsigned char sensor_type3_gain = 0x20 ; 12.unsigned char sensor_type3_offset = 0x43 ; 13.unsigned char sensor_type3_temp_coeff = 0x61 ; 14.unsigned char sensor_type3_span = 0x89 ; 15.unsigned char sensor_type3_amp_gain = 0x29 ; As can be seen, the names conform to an easily identifiable pattern of: 1.unsigned char sensor_typeN_gain = 0x20 ; 2.unsigned char sensor_typeN_offset = 0x43 ; 3.unsigned char sensor_typeN_temp_coeff = 0x61 ; 4.unsigned char sensor_typeN_span = 0x89 ; 5.unsigned char sensor_typeN_amp_gain = 0x29 ; Where 'N' is the number of the sensor type. A structure is a neat way of condensing this type of related and repeating data. In fact the information needed to describe a sensor can be reduced to a generalized: 1.unsigned char gain ; 2.unsigned char offset ; 3.unsigned char temp_coeff ; 4.unsigned char span ; 5.unsigned char amp_gain ; The concept of a structure is based on this idea of generalized "template" for related data. In this case, a structure template (or "component list") describing any of the manufacturer's sensors would be declared: 1.struct SENSOR_DESC 2.{ 3. unsigned char gain ; 4. unsigned char offset ; 5. unsigned char temp_coeff ; 6. unsigned char span ; 7. unsigned char amp_gain ; 8.} ; This does not physically do anything to memory. At this stage it merely creates a template which can now be used to put real data into memory. This is achieved by: 1.struct SENSOR_DESC sensor_database ; This reads as "use the template SENSOR_DESC to layout an area of memory named sensor_database, reflecting the mix of data types stated in the template". Thus a group of 5 unsigned chars will be created in the form of a structure. The individual elements of the structure can now be accessed as: 1.sensor_database.gain = 0x30 ; 2.sensor_database.offset = 0x50 ; 3.sensor_database.temp_coeff = 0x60 ; 4.sensor_database.span = 0xC4 ; 5.sensor_database.amp_gain = 0x21 ; Page 6

c details.txt Arrays Of Structures In the example though, information on many sensors is required and, as with individual chars and ints, it is possible to declare an array of structures. This allows many similar groups of data to have different sets of values. 1.struct SENSOR_DESC sensor_database[4] ; This creates four identical structures in memory, each with an internal layout determined by the structure template. Accessing this array is performed simply by appending an array index to the structure name: 1./*Operate On Elements In First Structure Describing */ 2./*Sensor 0 */ 3.sensor_database[0].gain = 0x30 ; 4.sensor_database[0].offset = 0x50 ; 5.sensor_database[0].temp_coeff = 0x60 ; 6.sensor_database[0].span = 0xC4 ; 7.sensor_database[0].amp_gain = 0x21 ; 8./* Operate On Elements In First Structure Describing */ 9./*Sensor 1 */ 10.sensor_database[1].gain = 0x32 ; 11.sensor_database[1].offset = 0x56 ; 12.sensor_database[1].temp_coeff = 0x56 ; 13.sensor_database[1].span = 0xC5 ; 14.sensor_database[1].amp_gain = 0x28 ; 15.// and so on... Initialized Structures As with arrays, a structure can be initialized at declaration time 1.struct SENSOR_DESC sensor_database = { 0x30, 0x50, 0x60, 0xC4, 0x21 } ; so that here the structure is created in memory and pre-loaded with values. The array case follows a similar form: 1.struct SENSOR_DESC sensor_database[4] = 2.{ 3. {0x20,0x40,0x50,0xA4,0x21}, 4. {0x33,0x52,0x65,0xB4,0x2F}, 5. {0x30,0x50,0x48,0xC4,0x3A}, 6. {0x32,0x56,0x56,0xC5,0x28} 7.} ; Placing Structures At Absolute Addresses It is sometimes necessary to place a structure at an absolute address. A typical example are CAN interfaces or other peripheral chips that offer arrays of data groups. For example, the registers of a memory-mapped real time clock chip are to be grouped together as a structure. The template in this instance might be 1.// Contents Of RTCBYTES.C Module 2.struct RTC 3.{ 4. unsigned char seconds ; 5. unsigned char minutes ; 6. unsigned char hours ; 7. unsigned char days ; 8.} ; 9.struct RTC xdata RTC_chip ; // Create xdata structure A trick using the linker is required here so the structure creation must be placed in a dedicated module. This module's XDATA segment, containing the RTC structure, is then fixed at the required address at link time. Using the absolute structure could be: 1./* Structure located at base of RTC Chip */ Page 7

c details.txt 2.MAIN.C Module 3.extern xdata struct RTC_chip ; 4./* Other XDATA Objects */ 5.xdata unsigned char time_secs, time_mins ; 6.void main(void) 7.{ 8. time_secs = RTC_chip.seconds ; 9. time_mins = RTC_chip.minutes; 10.} Linker Input File To Locate RTC_chip structure over real RTC Registers is: 1.l51 main.obj,rtcbytes.obj XDATA(?XD?RTCBYTES(0h)) Pointers To Structures Pointers can be used to access structures, just as with simple data items. Here is an example: 1./* Define pointer to structure */ 2.struct SENSOR_DESC *sensor_database ; 3./* Use Pointer To Access Structure Elements */ 4.sensor_database->gain = 0x30 ; 5.sensor_database->offset = 0x50 ; 6.sensor_database->temp_coeff = 0x60 ; 7.sensor_database->span = 0xC4 ; 8.sensor_database->amp_gain = 0x21 ; Note that the '*' which normally indicates a pointer has been replaced by appending '->' to the pointer name. Thus '*name' and 'name->' are equivalent. Passing Structure Pointers To Functions A common use for structure pointers is to allow them to be passed to functions without huge amounts of parameter passing; a typical structure might contain 20 data bytes and to pass this to a function would require 20 parameters to either be pushed onto the stack or an abnormally large parameter passing area. By using a pointer to the structure, only the two or three bytes that constitute the pointer need be passed. This approach is recommended for C51 as the overhead of passing whole structures can tie the poor old 8051 CPU in knots! This would be achieved by: 1.struct SENSOR_DESC *sensor_database ; 2.sensor_database->gain = 0x30 ; 3.sensor_database->offset = 0x50 ; 4.sensor_database->temp_coeff = 0x60 ; 5.sensor_database->span = 0xC4 ; 6.sensor_database->amp_gain = 0x21 ; 7.test_function(*struct_pointer) ; 8.test_function(struct SENSOR_DESC *received_struct_pointer) 9.{ 10. // Write directly into the structure 11. received_struct_pointer->gain = 0x20 ; 12. received_struct_pointer->temp_coef = 0x40 ; 13.} Advanced Note: Using a structure pointer will cause the called function to operate directly on the structure rather than on a copy made during the parameter passing process. Structure Pointers To Absolute Addresses It is sometimes necessary to place a structure at an absolute address. This might occur if, for example, a memory-mapped real time clock chip is to be handled as a structure. An alternative approach to that given earlier is to address the clock chip via a structure pointer. The important difference is that in this case no memory is reserved for the structure - only an "image" of it appears to be at the address. Page 8

c details.txt The template in this instance might be: 1./* Define Real Time Clock Structure */ 2.struct RTC 3.{ 4. char seconds ; 5. char mins ; 6. char hours ; 7. char days ; 8.} ; 9. 10./* Create A Pointer To Structure */ 11.struct RTC xdata *rtc_ptr ; // 'xdata' tells C51 that this 12. //is a memory-mapped device. 13.void main(void) 14.{ 15. rtc_ptr = (void xdata *) 0x8000 ; // Move structure 16. // pointer to address of real-time 17. // clock at 0x8000 in xdata 18. rtc_ptr->seconds = 0 ; // Operate on elements 19. rtc_ptr->mins = 0x01 ; 20.} This general technique can be used in any situation where a pointer-addressed structure needs to be placed over a specific IO device. However it is the user's responsibility to make sure that the address given is not likely to be allocated by the linker as general variable RAM! To summarize, the procedure is: 1.Define template 2.Declare structure pointer as normal 3.At run time, force pointer to required absolute address in the normal way. Unions Unions allow you to define different datatype references for the same physical address. This way you can address a 32-bit word as a "long" OR as 2 different "ints" OR as an array of 4 bytes. A union is similar in concept to a structure except that rather than creating sequential locations to represent each of the items in the template, it places each item at the same address. A union specifying 4 bytes may still only occupy a single byte. A union may consist of a combination of longs, char and ints all based at the same physical address. The the number of bytes of RAM used by a union is simply determined by the size of the largest element, so: 1.union test 2.{ 3. char x ; 4. int y ; 5. char a[3] ; 6. long z ; 7.} ; requires 4 bytes, this being the size of a long. The physical location of each element is the base address plus the following offsets: Offset x y a z 0 byte high byte a[0] highest byte +1 low byte a[1] mid byte +2 a[2] mid byte +3 a[3] lowest byte Page 9

c details.txt In embedded C the commonest use of a union is to allow fast access to individual bytes of longs or ints. These might be 16 or 32 bit real time counters, as in this example: 1./* Declare Union */ 2.union clock 3.{ 4. long real_time_count ; // Reserve four byte 5. int real_time_words[2] ; // Reserve four bytes as 6. // int array 7. char real_time_bytes[4] ; // Reserve four bytes as 8. // char array 9.} ; 10./* Real Time Interrupt */ 11.void timer0_int(void) interrupt 1 using 1 12.{ 13. clock.real_time_count++ ; // Increment clock 14. 15. if(clock.real_time_words[1] == 0x8000) 16. { // Check/compare lower word only 17. /* Do something! */ 18. } 19. if(clock.real_time_bytes[3] == 0x80) 20. { // Check/compare most significant byte only 21. 22. /* Do something! */ 23. } 24. 25.} Generic Pointers C51 offers two basic types of pointer, the spaced (memory-specific) and the generic. As has been mentioned, the 8051 has many physically separate memory spaces, each addressed by special assembler instructions. Such characteristics are not peculiar to the 8051 - for example, the 8086 has data instructions which operate on a 16 bit (within segment) and a 20 bit basis. For the sake of simplicity, and to hide the real structure of the 8051 from the programmer, C51 uses three byte pointers, rather than the single or two bytes that might be expected. The end result is that pointers can be used without regard to the actual location of the data. For example: 1.xdata char buffer[10] ; 2.code char message[] = { "HELLO" } ; 3.void main(void) 4.{ 5.char *s ; 6.char *d ; 7. 8. s = message ; 9. d = buffer ; 10. while(*s != '\0') 11. { 12. *d++ = *s++ ; 13. } 14.} Yields the following code: 1. RSEG ?XD?T1 Page 10

c details.txt 2.buffer: DS 10 3. RSEG ?CO?T1 4.message: 5. DB 'H' ,'E' ,'L' ,'L' ,'O' ,000H 6.; 7.; 8.; xdata char buffer[10] ; 9.; code char message[] = { "HELLO" } ; 10.; 11.; void main(void) { 12. RSEG ?PR?main?T1 13. USING 0 14.main: 15. ; SOURCE LINE # 6 16.; 17.; char *s ; 18.; char *d ; 19.; 20.; s = message ; 21. ; SOURCE LINE # 11 22. MOV s?02,#05H 23. MOV s?02+01H,#HIGH message 24. MOV s?02+02H,#LOW message 25.; d = buffer ; 26. ; SOURCE LINE # 12 27. MOV d?02,#02H 28. MOV d?02+01H,#HIGH buffer 29. MOV d?02+02H,#LOW buffer 30.?C0001: 31.; 32.; while(*s != '\0') { 33. ; SOURCE LINE # 14 34. MOV R3,s?02 35. MOV R2,s?02+01H 36. MOV R1,s?02+02H 37. LCALL ?C_CLDPTR 38. JZ ?C0003 39.; *d++ = *s++ ; 40. ; SOURCE LINE # 15 41. INC s?02+02H 42. MOV A,s?02+02H 43. JNZ ?C0004 44. INC s?02+01H 45.?C0004: 46. DEC A 47. MOV R1,A 48. LCALL ?C_CLDPTR 49. MOV R7,A 50. MOV R3,d?02 51. INC d?02+02H 52. MOV A,d?02+02H 53. MOV R2,d?02+01H 54. JNZ ?C0005 55. INC d?02+01H 56.?C0005: 57. DEC A 58. MOV R1,A 59. MOV A,R7 60. LCALL ?C_CSTPTR 61.; } 62. ; SOURCE LINE # 16 63. SJMP ?C0001 64.; } Page 11

c details.txt 65. ; SOURCE LINE # 17 66.?C0003: 67. RET 68.; END OF main 69. END As can be seen, the pointers '*s' and '*d' are composed of three bytes, not two as might be expected. In making *s point at the message in the code space an '05' is loaded into s ahead of the actual address to be pointed at. In the case of *d '02' is loaded. These additional bytes are how C51 knows which assembler addressing mode to use. The library function C_CLDPTR checks the value of the first byte and loads the data, using the addressing instructions appropriate to the memory space being used. This means that every access via a generic pointer requires this library function to be called. The memory space codes used by C51 are: CODE - 05 XDATA - 02 PDATA - 03 DATA - 05 IDATA - 01 Spaced Pointers In C51 Considerable run time savings are possible by using spaced pointers. By restricting a pointer to only being able to point into one of the 8051's memory spaces, the need for the memory space "code" byte is eliminated, along with the library routines needed to interpret it. A spaced pointer is created by: 1.char xdata *ext_ptr ; to produce an uncommitted pointer into the XDATA space or 1.char code *const_ptr ; which gives a pointer solely into the CODE space. Note that in both cases the pointers themselves are located in the memory space given by the current memory model. A pointer to xdata which is to be itself located in PDATA would be declared as: 1.pdata char xdata *ext_ptr ; pdatachar = location of pointer, xdata = memory space pointed to. In this example strings are always copied from the CODE area into an XDATA buffer. By customizing the library function "strcpy()" to use a CODE source pointer and a XDATA destination pointer, the runtime for the string copy was reduced by 50%. The new strcpy has been named strcpy_x_c(). The function prototype is: 1.extern char xdata *strcpy(char xdata*,char code *) ; Here is the code produced by the spaced pointer strcpy(): 1.; char xdata *strcpy_x_c(char xdata *s1, char code *s2) { 2._strcpy_x_c: 3.MOV s2?10,R4 4.MOV s2?10+01H,R5 5.;__ Variable 's1?10' assigned to Register 'R6/R7' __ 6.; unsigned char i = 0; 7.;__ Variable 'i?11' assigned to Register 'R1' __ 8.CLR A 9.MOV R1,A 10.?C0004: 11.; 12.; while ((s1[i++] = *s2++) != 0); Page 12

c details.txt 13.INC s2?10+01H 14.MOV A,s2?10+01H 15.MOV R4,s2?10 16.JNZ ?C0008 17.INC s2?10 18.?C0008: 19.DEC A 20.MOV DPL,A 21.MOV DPH,R4 22.CLR A 23.MOVC A,@A+DPTR 24.MOV R5,A 25.MOV R4,AR1 26.INC R1 27.MOV A,R7 28.ADD A,R4 29.MOV DPL,A 30.CLR A 31.ADDC A,R6 32.MOV DPH,A 33.MOV A,R5 34.MOVX @DPTR,A 35.JNZ ?C0004 36.?C0005: 37.; return (s1); 38.; } 39.?C0006: 40.END Notice that no library functions are used to determine which memory spaces are intended. The function prototype tells C51 only to look in code for the string and xdata for the RAM buffer. SectionsMailing List Join our mailing list and receive updates on training, consulting and our products. Join the mailing list Embedded Systems Blog Follow our blog to learn the latest news and developments in the world of embedded systems. Read the blog CANopen Store Buy off-the-shelf embedded and PC software Go to the US store | Go to the EU store CANopen Book Embedded Networking with CAN and CANopen. "one of the most useful books embedded network designers can own" - W. Seitz Buy in US | Buy in EU | Learn more... Flash Magic Get the PC tool for programming NXP flash microcontrollers Learn more and download... You are in: Welcome Library Technical Articles and Documents 8051 Programming Using Pointers, Arrays, Structures and Unions in 8051 C Compilers Copyright Embedded Systems Academy 1999 - 2010, All Rights Reserved | No unauthorized reproduction | Disclaimer CANopen is a registered trademark of CAN in Automation User's Group

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*************************************************************************** QUICK REFERENCE FOR RS485, RS422, RS232 AND RS423 INTRODUCTION Line drivers and receivers are commonly used to exchange data between two or more points (nodes) on a network. Reliable data communications can be difficult in the presence of induced noise, ground level differences, impedance mismatches, failure to effectively bias for idle line conditions, and other hazards associated with installation of a network. The connection between two or more elements (drivers and receivers) should be considered a transmission line if the rise and/or fall time is less than half the time for the signal to travel from the transmitter to the receiver. Standards have been developed to insure compatibility between units provided by different manufacturers, and to allow for reasonable success in transferring data over specified distances and/or data rates. The Electronics Industry Association (EIA) has produced standards for RS485, RS422, RS232, and RS423 that deal with data communications. Suggestions are often made to deal with practical problems that might be encountered in a typical network. EIA standards where previously marked with the prefix "RS" to indicate recommended standard; however, the standards are now generally indicated as "EIA" standards to identify the standards organization. While the standards bring uniformity to data communications, many areas are not specifically covered and remain as "gray areas" for the user to discover (usually during installation) on his own.

SINGLE-ENDED DATA TRANSMISSION Electronic data communications between elements will generally fall into two broad categories: single-ended and differential. RS232 (single-ended) was introduced in 1962, and despite rumors for its early demise, has remained widely used through the industry. The specification allows for data transmission from one transmitter to one receiver at relatively slow data rates (up to 20K bits/second) and short distances (up to 50Ft. @ the maximum data rate). Independent channels are established for two-way (full-duplex) communications. The RS232 signals are represented by voltage levels with respect to a system common (power / logic ground). The "idle" state (MARK) has the signal level negative with respect to common, and the "active" state (SPACE) has the signal level positive with respect to common. RS232 has numerous handshaking lines (primarily used with modems), and also specifies a communications protocol. In general if you are not connected to a modem the handshaking lines can present a lot of problems if not disabled in software or accounted for in the hardware (loop-back or pulled-up). RTS (Request to send) does have some utility in certain applications. RS423 is another single ended specification with enhanced operation over RS232; however, it has not been widely used in the industry. Page 14

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DIFFERENTIAL DATA TRANSMISSION When communicating at high data rates, or over long distances in real world environments, single-ended methods are often inadequate. Differential data transmission (balanced differential signal) offers superior performance in most applications. Differential signals can help nullify the effects of ground shifts and induced noise signals that can appear as common mode voltages on a network. RS422 (differential) was designed for greater distances and higher Baud rates than RS232. In its simplest form, a pair of converters from RS232 to RS422 (and back again) can be used to form an "RS232 extension cord." Data rates of up to 100K bits / second and distances up to 4000 Ft. can be accommodated with RS422. RS422 is also specified for multi-drop (party-line) applications where only one driver is connected to, and transmits on, a "bus" of up to 10 receivers. While a multi-drop "type" application has many desirable advantages, RS422 devices cannot be used to construct a truly multi-point network. A true multi-point network consists of multiple drivers and receivers connected on a single bus, where any node can transmit or receive data. "Quasi" multi-drop networks (4-wire) are often constructed using RS422 devices. These networks are often used in a half-duplex mode, where a single master in a system sends a command to one of several "slave" devices on a network. Typically one device (node) is addressed by the host computer and a response is received from that device. Systems of this type (4-wire, half-duplex) are often constructed to avoid "data collision" (bus contention) problems on a multi-drop network (more about solving this problem on a two-wire network in a moment). RS485 meets the requirements for a truly multi-point communications network, and the standard specifies up to 32 drivers and 32 receivers on a single (2-wire) bus. With the introduction of "automatic" repeaters and high-impedance drivers / receivers this "limitation" can be extended to hundreds (or even thousands) of nodes on a network. RS485 extends the common mode range for both drivers and receivers in the "tri-state" mode and with power off. Also, RS485 drivers are able to withstand "data collisions" (bus contention) problems and bus fault conditions. To solve the "data collision" problem often present in multi-drop networks hardware units (converters, repeaters, micro-processor controls) can be constructed to remain in a receive mode until they are ready to transmit data. Single master systems (many other communications schemes are available) offer a straight forward and simple means of avoiding "data collisions" in a typical 2-wire, half-duplex, multi-drop system. The master initiates a communications request to a "slave node" by addressing that unit. The hardware detects the start-bit of the transmission and automatically enables (on the fly) the RS485 transmitter. Once a character is sent the hardware reverts back into a receive mode in about 1-2 microseconds (at least with R.E. Smith converters, repeaters, and remote I/O boards). Any number of characters can be sent, and the transmitter will automatically re-trigger with each new character (or in many cases a "bit-oriented" timing scheme is used in conjunction with network biasing for fully automatic operation, including any Baud rate and/or any communications specification, eg. 9600,N,8,1). Once a "slave" unit is addressed it is able to respond immediately because of the fast transmitter turn-off time of the automatic device. It is NOT necessary to introduce long delays in a network to avoid "data collisions." Because delays are NOT required, networks can be constructed, that will utilize the data communications bandwidth with up to 100% through put. Page 15

c details.txt Below are the specifications for RS232, RS423, RS422, and RS485. Please give us a call at 513-874-4796 if further information is required. We have solutions to most problems that are encountered in this area. Any comments and/or corrections would be appreciated. Thanks, Ron Smith

SPECIFICATIONS RS232 RS423 RS422 RS485 Mode of Operation SINGLE -ENDED SINGLE -ENDED DIFFERENTIAL DIFFERENTIAL Total Number of Drivers and Receivers on One Line (One driver active at a time for RS485 networks) 1 DRIVER 1 RECVR 1 DRIVER 10 RECVR 1 DRIVER 10 RECVR 32 DRIVER 32 RECVR Maximum Cable Length 50 FT. 4000 FT. 4000 FT. 4000 FT. Maximum Data Rate (40ft. - 4000ft. for RS422/RS485) 20kb/s 100kb/s 10Mb/s-100Kb/s 10Mb/s-100Kb/s Maximum Driver Output Voltage +/-25V +/-6V -0.25V to +6V -7V to +12V Driver Output Signal Level (Loaded Min.) Loaded +/-5V to +/-15V +/-3.6V +/-2.0V +/-1.5V Driver Output Signal Level (Unloaded Max) Unloaded +/-25V +/-6V +/-6V +/-6V Driver Load Impedance (Ohms) 3k to 7k >=450 100 54 Max. Driver Current in High Z State Power On N/A N/A N/A +/-100uA Max. Driver Current in High Z State Power Off +/-6mA @ +/-2v +/-100uA +/-100uA +/-100uA Slew Rate (Max.) 30V/uS Adjustable N/A N/A Receiver Input Voltage Range +/-15V +/-12V -10V to +10V -7V to +12V Receiver Input Sensitivity +/-3V +/-200mV +/-200mV +/-200mV Receiver Input Resistance (Ohms), (1 Standard Load for RS485) 3k to 7k 4k min. 4k min. >=12k

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