Art History ISSN 0141-6790 Vol. 26 No.


November 2003 pp. 669–699

Doubles and Desire: Anatomies of masculinity in the later nineteenth century
Anthea Callen

Recent studies of the naked or semi-naked male body have drawn attention to the hitherto undervalued importance of the male nude in later nineteenthcentury European art. The long-standing preoccupation with the female nude in art-historical studies has tended to overshadow analysis of the male nude, its functions and audiences at a period recognized as one of crisis in notions of masculinity, of male health and potency, and of man’s identity. The view put forward by Margaret Walters in 1978, that the male nude ‘disappears’ in the nineteenth century, must now be revised, particularly when considering a broader spectrum of images.1 Indeed, the wealth of visual evidence – whether fine art, photography or medical illustrations – attests to a fascination with the male body as well as concerns over its physical condition and aesthetic status. Key issues in representations of the male body are sexuality and gender – masculinity – which is inseparably linked to class: the majority of models performing male nudity, whether in the artist’s studio or the anatomist’s theatre, were of the lower or labouring classes. What, then, is the status of an ideal or paradigmatic masculinity if its physical and aesthetic perfection is embodied in the physique of a working-class male ‘Other’? Problems of male identity and intersubjectivity across class boundaries surface, as does the issue of male subjects looking at a potentially sexualized male object of visual pleasure. And while the look of the male spectator may have been problematic, so too was the ‘forbidden gaze’ of the female viewer of male nudes.2 Given the material under scrutiny here, and its intersection at the boundaries of art and medicine, the relationship between a medical and an artistic gaze requires attention: the dominant model for looking at this moment of emergent modernism has been ˆ that of the Baudelairean flaneur, but here I offer an alternative vision – that of the medical gaze. The Anatomy Class at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (plate 3.1) by Francois Salle ¸ ´ (1839–1899) provides important material for examining ideas of normality, as against abnormality, in late nineteenth-century social formations of masculinity. Combining medical demonstration and artistic anatomy, it reveals the ways that ideas of the body thus constituted inflected cultural concerns about masculinity, class and male desire. In this modern grande machine celebrating a contemporary clinician, the anatomist Professor Mathias-Marie Duval
r Association of Art Historians 2003. Published by Blackwell Publishing, 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148, USA.




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3.1 Francois Salle, The Anatomy Class at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Salon of 1888. Oil on canvas, 223 Â 302 cm. Sydney: The Art Gallery of ¸ ´ New South Wales. Photo: courtesy of the Art Gallery of New South Wales.

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3.2 Engraving by E. Pirodon, after Andre Brouillet’s oil painting, Une Lecon clinique, 1887. 38 Â 54 cm. Photo: courtesy of The Wellcome ¸ ´ Institute Library, London.

patronage. The representation of Duval in Salle’s ´ Anatomy Class prompts reference to another doctor of the period: Dr Jekyll – in British literature. prostitution and the threat to family and patriarchy of sexually transmitted disease. The focus of audience attention reinforces a compositional reading from left to right. perverse. In the late nineteenth century sexualities were in the process of being ‘scientifically’ classified and pathologized: sexologists normalized certain practices as healthy.6 The bestial. The connection was reinforced because Brouillet had included Professor Duval among the audience for Charcot’s lecture. and categorized others – here.5 Although primarily asssociated with deviant female sexuality. depicts one of Dr Jean-Martin Charcot’s Tuesday Lectures at La Salpetriere. and is reproduced here in a popularizing print (plate 3. Professionalization and masculine identity Andre Brouillet’s Une Lecon clinique (Musee de Nice). and people identified as non-Caucasian. was attached to a degenerate or atavistic humanity commonly identified with the lower or criminal classes. beneath the picture but cropped in this illustration. any unconstrained or unconventional sexuality at this time was deemed akin to bestiality. friendship. shown at the Salon of ¸ ´ ´ 1887. the chief protagonists – doctor and model or patient – are positioned right of centre with the audience of specialists or students placed to the left. Painted the following year. an often international audience of the medical and non-medical intelligentsia. Contemporary accounts confirm that those present at the Tuesday lectures commonly included a wide spread of political. There are parallels between the main figures in this painting and the protagonist(s) in Robert Louis Stevenson’s novella.2).4 The context for this study is the more overt contemporary male preoccupation with female sexuality and femininity: the perceived dangers of an uncontrolled female libido. published in England in 1886. By referring to Brouillet’s homage to the renowned Charcot.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY (1844–1907) demonstrates on the live male model. America in 1887. literary and artistic figures. The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. the pictures’ spectators are invited to identify with their concentrated interest. it was awarded a third-class gold medal. immediately behind the window shutter at the far left.7 672 r Association of Art Historians 2003 . towards the narrative climax and pictorial message of both compositions: the demonstration of medical authority. the work in The Anatomy Class of both Salle as painter and ´ Duval as anatomist gained heightened legitimacy. Salle’s ´ composition in The Anatomy Class is obviously dependent on that of Brouillet. and with French translations in 1888 and 1890. a chart identifying all those present: both print and painting were self-evidently concerned with male professional identity. male homosexuality – ‘abnormal’. male mentoring – and male homosexuality: the ‘continuum’ between the spoken and the unspeakable which Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick calls male ‘homosocial desire’. In both.3 Both works exemplify the interplay between homosociality – the socially visible structures of male bonding. in social Darwinist rhetoric. The ˆ ` complete print includes. Shown at the Salon of 1888.

the paintings by Brouillet and Salle are ´ both large-scale group portraits. the life studio in the Academie ´ de dessin.10 Richer’s drawings both recorded Charcot’s cases and were used as an aid in his teaching.9 Both he. closely related. L’Anatomie dans l’art. both professor and model perform. subordinate or subsidiary.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY Brouillet himself was a pupil of Jean-Leon Gerome. the first of which.8 Charcot himself was a prominent Third Republican patron of the arts and an ardent supporter of the conservative ‘feminisme du foyer’ movement reacting against the radical New Woman. then. appeared in 1893. the surgical operating theatre. their role is ¸ ˆ apparently passive. Depicted in both these paintings. such as L’Etude descriptive de la grandey hysterie ´ (1881). women’s presence – or indeed their absence – is discursively central. In these theatrical spaces. becomes more urgent when hierarchies of power or status are subject to gendered renegotiation. performs – if more passively – with the painting’s viewers as their audience. In a tradition going back at least to Dutch seventeenth-century art. an historical survey of the visible symptoms of madness that they identified in paintings by the old masters. and in the social relations inscribed in. in the latter. though not always exclusively. He was also noted for his research and publications on artistic anatomy. It is a phenomenon which aptly. the staging of male professional solidarity constitutes and celebrates the homosocial world. immediately behind and to the left of Charcot. r Association of Art Historians 2003 673 . drawing. Les Demoniacs dans ´ l’art. and. men. sculptor and draughtsman. on the male body. these architectural spaces: the anatomy theatre (whether in the medical or the artistic academy). an intimate of Charcot and ´ ´ ˆ professor of painting at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. used his drawings to illustrate his ` ´ own medical publications. who specialized in ‘licked surface’ Orientalism. the lecture theatre. they may be a compositional focus (as in Brouillet’s Une Lecon clinique). one might argue. However. who appears in Brouillet’s composition. Most renowned of these was Paul Richer. Together Richer and Charcot had published. serving to secure the bonds of the homosocial while veiling the homosexual.11 Richer. 1887. too. art students. what do they signify. Completing the professional circle. in c. were themselves also artists. Richer was to succeed Duval in 1903 to the chair of anatomy at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. male medical experts predominate. How are such relations figured in these paintings. Beyond any simple group portrait. who was Charcot’s chef du laboratoire de la clinique des maladies du systeme nerveux. and some of the medical men in his immediate circle. The theatrical is announced in the historical denomination of. The figures are principally. Within the pictorial space their audience. and at times of crisis in masculine identity. but despite the fact that when women are included. which themselves constitute the spaces of knowledge and learning. and how do they assist in or complicate the production of broader class and (homo)social relations at the period? Two conventions are present in this genre: the theatrical and the performative.12 in the former. is a complex historical web of connections between artistic and medical professionals. These images contributed to the processes of professionalization and legitimation of knowledge in these fields: decoding them also reveals their meanings as representations of male bonding and homosocial desire.

In Gervex’s painting of Pean.13 The mise-en-scene of male medical expertise depended upon the very ` theatricality symptomatic of hysteria. Where Henri Gervex’s pictorial celebration of the pragmatic Pean demonstrating the advantages of his clamp ´ for blood vessels in Avant l’operation (plate 3. all his senses are deployed in wrapt attention to the woman. was the consolidation of discourses linking the working classes. and y sees’:17 not in the distant. irrational world of sleep now surfacing in broad daylight at the whim of a doctor. mais une hysterique. focused in the man’s ambiguous touch: so close to the woman’s breast. deviance. so tender – is he really taking her pulse?19 Equally erotic. Seated. whereas ‘ladies’ were segregated as ‘private’ patients. and from the working classes. prostitution. this was a deep-rooted fear of hypnosis. s’entend. anaesthesia. Particularly pertinent here. oh le cauchemar! Bientot. ´ ´ ´ ´ bon dieu! L’hypnotisme.15 The association of hysteria with the feminine. Prey to suggestion (and women were thought more so than men). Critical reaction at the Salon of 1887 reveals the anxieties associated with female sexual excess in general and. on fera tout par suggestion ˆ y sauf de bons tableaux. one of his so-called ‘vedettes’ (performers). it is in Avant l’operation that the penetrating ‘plurisensorial’ gaze which Michel ´ Foucault identifies as emerging in the nineteenth-century clinic is apparent.3) was found unproblematic. The kinship of medical knowledge and eroticism noted by Foucault is painfully evident here. ´ Brouillet’s painting prompted a tremor of terror from the critics: ‘y Voici le Dr Charcot devant non une anesthesisee. Submission to the penetrating gaze of the medical hypnotist might allow suppressed unconscious desires to surface. social unrest. pontificant18 figure of Pean. Much has been written on the hysteria diagnosis. alongside concerns in the wake of defeat by the Prussians about the enfeebled condition of French manhood (both psychological and physical) are relevant to my analysis of Salle’s The Anatomy ´ Class. criminality. which was closely identified with women and notably with their sex organs. The novelist Leon ´ Daudet. Yet. ´ 674 r Association of Art Historians 2003 . inverting civilized behaviour and freeing the ‘primitive’. Charcot’s staging of his spectacle of female disempowerment was directly equated by contemporaries with prostitution. described Charcot’s lecture theatre as a brothel for voyeurs. they were treated as filles publiques. a ‘gaze that touches. a chloroform-induced state which apparently produced ´ erotic behaviour in the patient. plague and revolution.’16 Literally. Que de medecine.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY Brouillet’s picture shows Charcot demonstrating on an hysteria patient under hypnosis: Blanche Wittman. in the aftermath of the Franco-Prussian War (1870) and the Paris Commune (1871). in particular. but in his assistant surgeon. an habitue. involving both visible somatization and visual diagnosis. hears. paradoxically. or the bestial. with the loss of control under hypnosis and the power of suggestion. what a nightmare – the horrors of the unconscious: the dark. is considered unthreatening compared to the hypnotic trance.14 All the patients displayed by Charcot at his Tuesday lectures were women. leaning right over the insensible ´ body of this bizarrely ungowned and uncapped female patient. and hence the link between curbing female sexuality and treating hysteria. which permitted a blurring of boundaries in the regulation of these phenomena.

Oil on canvas.3 Henri Gervex. 242 Â 188 cm. ´ ´ r Association of Art Historians 2003 675 . Photo: Reunion des musees nationaux. Avant l’operation ou le Docteur Pean enseignant a l’hopital Saint-Louis sa ´ ´ ˆ decouverte du pincement des vaisseux. Salon of 1887. Musee ´ ´ d’Orsay. Paris. Paris.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY ` 3.

ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY Alain Corbin identifies it as ‘above all a symptom. and perhaps an unwitting therapy. however much they may overlap in their representation and inscription of a submissive and sexually charged femininity. heightens the erotic frisson. Yet there are clearly distinct visual economies at work here. the representation of woman as the passive object of an actively sexualized male gaze: from the early 1860s. dress/ undress. therefore. His is the knowing look which separates him from the crowd. Medical vision combined with the other senses – touch. is health versus pathology. as do the majority of images in which the homosocial world of these emergent male professions is articulated. Blanche Wittman in Brouillet’s painting is seen to perform the flamboyant deviancy which guarantees her close scrutiny as pathological. by apparently offering complete control over the female patient. providing him with a means of distinction within the urban public space. As Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick convincingly argues in respect of 676 r Association of Art Historians 2003 . vertical/supine. and consensus. conscious/unconscious. and affirming the bonds of the group. Affirming the sexual excess attached to her class origins and degenerate femininity. like modern pathological anatomy. But I want to complicate and extend this reading to consider a diseased male heterosexuality. a product of woman’s biological difference.’20 Feminist theorists have analysed. in Parisian argot the verb voir meant heterosexual intercourse. the plurisensorial structure identified by Foucault. belongs within the hierarchical structures and spaces of professional life: a gaze inviting conformity. The pivotal binary in the Brouillet image. in the representation of the available erotic body. yet the modern diagonistic gaze presupposes an intimacy alien to the anonymity associated ˆ with the flaneur. for example. An ideal objectivity may be embodied in medical scrutiny. then. ‘Under the dominant sign of the visible’ each of the senses is endowed with a complementary instrumental ˆ function (and with a physicality foreign to the flaneur) which anticipates the ultimate ‘triumph of the gaze’ at the moment of autopsy. hearing and. For although Brouillet’s painting deploys the stereotypical binaries associated with male voyeurism (male/female. Since the eighteenth-century medicine had designated female physiology as inherently pathological. is the meaning anatomical dissection brings to these images: the visibility of those parts invisible in life.22 Similarity. sought to reveal. re-configuring voyeuristic sight as a disinterested diagnostic tool. The obvious reading. The complex game of exhibitionism and voyeurism y dramatised a sick relation to desire on the part of both participants and onlookers. professional/working class. veils – perhaps due to the limitations of pictorial convention – the different visual practices at work. The medical gaze. within a ˆ Parisian visual culture centred on the Baudelairean flaneur.21 Hypnosis extends that masculine power and. the clinic provides a powerful legitimation of the act of looking. the interior of the body which artistic anatomy. is that her sickness secures the healthy heterosexuality of her observers. however. smell – to achieve a new plenitude. rational/irrational). and to ask whether pathological masculinity is a contradiction in terms? Brouillet employs a female as the object of inquiry. Useful for my purposes here. for an affliction of men. then. of course.

of the dark interior of the body or the jungle. This idea of a femininity resistant to masculine conquest found apt pictorial expression in another contemporary painting of anatomical dissection. had its search for ‘treasure’ to be discovered. like a middle-class version of the barrack-room pin-up. Enrique Simonet y Lombardo’s She had a Heart! (1890. identified by Arthur Conan Doyle as the beginning of the modern masculine novel. a true boys’ adventure of medical discovery. the anatomist reflects on the said organ. however. but goes a long way – for the men she leaves bonded together – towards palliating its gaps and failures. medical or imperial. plate 3.26 In a title which plays on the meanings of ‘heart’. and projected onto the safer spectacle of female sexual deviance.4). Brouillet’s portrayal ´ contributes to a visual iconography of modern medicine carving out its professional terrain and status upon the semi-naked bodies of inert women patients. where no female is portrayed. it has been r Association of Art Historians 2003 677 . held in his hand after its removal from the beautiful woman whom he had evidently found submissive only in death. Brouillet’s painting invites the implied male spectator to identify with his peers in the condemnation and control of female sexual excess. In this communal act of voyeurism – in which its audiences are complicit – unrecognized homosexual desire is relocated. Joseph Conrad’s Congo. Equally. the unnamed subtext in Brouillet’s Une Lecon clinique is male homosexual desire. ¸ Representations of male homosociality risk transgressing the fragile boundary between the licit and the illicit. excised and heroically returned to masculine order: the treasure was the diseased feminine. Whether imagined as tropical island. the male medical professionalism which Brouillet’s picture authorizes is a story of male bonding: pioneers at the frontiers of medicine in a masculine ‘quest romance’. between the homosocial and the homosexual. the alarming Pandora’s Box of female sexuality is transfigured as a manly Treasure Island – Stevenson’s first bestseller. The sexually pitiable or contemptible female figure is a solvent that not only facilitates the relative democratization that grows up with capitalism and cash exchange. authorizing their shared expertise. or Charcot’s madwoman. the work’s focus on female sexuality veils the same-sex desire latent in this serene vision of male homosociality. Simultaneously. Identifying the homoerotic as about the articulation of a desire that cannot be validated (rather than the validation of homosexual desire). Like Gervex’s Avant l’operation. Here.23 The female patient in Brouillet’s picture provides the ‘solvent’ to bind these male professionals.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY mid-Victorian literary examples. y in the presence of a woman who can be seen as pitiable or contemptible. men are able to exchange power and to confirm each other’s value even in the context of the remaining inequalities in their power. but the risk is greatest. while sharing the thrill of its display. As in the modern masculine novel. the exotic ‘wilderness’ stands for the tangled terrain of a feminized alterity which required exploring.25 The conquest.24 Aided by the open foreground. perhaps. the ‘heart of darkness’. mapping and containing. their power and their voyeurism.

suggested that homoeroticism – male pleasure in a male body – not only marks the visible boundary which divides the realms of the homosocial and the homosexual but. two disciplines within which a rationale is offered to explain the insistent male gaze on the male body. are central to the construction of meaning in Salle’s painting.5). Simonet y Lombardo’s oil painting. which mark this painting as significant. To a degree. foreshortened with his buttocks towards the viewer. At a time when masculine ´ subjectivity was in crisis. Shuster. by introducing the field of desire. Malaga: Museo de belles artes. The substitution of a male body as the focus of medico-artistic attention in pictorial narratives of male professionalization is unusual.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY 3. where categories of otherness ‘turn the gaze into an administrative instrument. Salle’s choice of model ´ is dictated by the strict regulations governing the use of models at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. London. after E. another exception is that of Thomas Eakins’s The Gros Clinic (1875. as well as a difference of class.’28 However. here the function of this ‘administrative instrument’ is inflected by its location within the medical visual economy. 1906. yet a closely contemporaneous print of the anatomy class simply avoids the problem by showing Duval demonstrating on a skeleton (plate 3. Philadelphia: Jefferson Medical Collection). She had a Heart! 1890.4 Photogravure by R. Photo: courtesy of The Wellcome Institute Library.27 In Salle’s The Anatomy Class this discursive strategy combines with that of ´ hierarchy. destabilizes the professional objectivity of medicine and art. where its youthful male patient is also exposed semi-naked. it is precisely in the tension between his deployment of these competing strategies for containing the homoerotic. and their ultimate failure to mitigate desire. 678 r Association of Art Historians 2003 . A professional medical subject position.

1889. under Mathias Duval. Paris. ´ r Association of Art Historians 2003 679 . ‘Le cours d’anatomie’. L’Ecole des Beaux-Arts. 1889.5 Engraving of Alexis Lemaistre. published in Lemaistre. Photo: courtesy of the Ecole nationale superieure des beaux-arts. Paris.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY 3.

Because masculine identity was secured primarily through individualization. itself still an all-male institution. the skeleton and superficial muscles are far more clearly visible in a fit. therefore. female models were considered to be too distracting for the students and insufficiently elevating to embody the seriousness and propriety sought in history painting. In anatomy teaching.30 Duval’s Cours d’anatomie of 1873 makes frequent mention of horses and comparative anatomy. whether for the life class or the anatomy class. Of course. the artist’s characterization of him as an individual makes this male nude a sexualized ‘person’. but there is no explicit reference to female anatomy: animal and racial difference were included. the satisfactory projection of unwanted homosexual desire onto the Other is compromised. objectification of the male body could best be achieved by exploiting class difference: as here. mainly after the antique. The empowerment of the male sexual gaze is premised upon objectification. the rationale for not using female models was augmented by assumptions about physiological difference. Whereas the Academy. This is one important reason why the male nude was a troubled commodity. endorsed looking only at male bodies. and for many men who took it up it became a lifetime career. unless the female is also an athlete.29 The employment of live female models at the Ecole was restricted to the clothed. No longer safely polarized in a gender binary by the inclusion of the ‘contemptible’ or ‘pitiable’ female. than in the average female body (especially the curvaceous body type then fashionable) on which layers of subcutaneous fat tend to obscure the muscle groups. notorious history in the Paris art world in the work of 680 r Association of Art Historians 2003 . The appearance in Salle’s The Anatomy Class of a semi-naked male body ´ foregrounds the tensions between the homosocial and the homosexual. vigour and athletic musculature – characteristics that they needed to maintain in this job.33 Individual characterization (as in portraiture) of female nudes had already been recognized as transgressive. such attributes were generally admired. athletic male body. usually with the female body as the object of scrutiny.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY At the Ecole. That is. muscle development in a woman was associated with manual labour (or gymnastic entertainment) and considered unfeminine. especially in a naturalist style. but not gender difference.32 But although Salle’s dual positioning of his model as ´ scientific specimen and as working-class Other doubly legitimizes his scrutiny as an object.31 The Ecole. Without the trappings of a classicizing academicism to distance the gaze from desire. Despite the signs of ´ class. Modelling is hard physical work. But whereas. only male models were permitted in the life class. professional middle-class ‘viewers’ and a working-class body. this is not a male figure devoid of agency or subjectivity. was the domain of the male model. Although both sexes have the same basic chassis. the male professional space. they were by no means ‘ordinary’ types. objectification is incomplete. and had its own recent. the female model was more associated with the private ‘domestic’ setting of the artist’s studio. the conflicts entailed for Salle in objectifying his model remain visible. the men who modelled. and less common than the female nude in late nineteenth-century French painting. in a man. rendering his objectification unstable. were selected with an eye to their manliness. ‘expressive head’ exercise and students could only work from the female nude in the form of casts.

and on minute observation of the patient’s body.’40 Again. Yet just as Sherlock Holmes had his Moriarty. made them answer questions. allait de pair avec le ´ medecin. as well as that by ´ Brouillet. for example. Charcot maintained a constant ‘silence mysterieux’. as potentially two masculine aspects of a single personality. was also a measure of the physical disgust attached to touching patients.34 Salle’s The Anatomy Class. Artist and doctor alike are objects of envy and fantasy.38 His ´ ´ ´ ´ emphasis on the visual was equally apparent in his teaching. rationalist and creator. representation of an imagined double. Yet. because. Thus. l’artiste qui. Blanche Whitman? The fin-de-siecle preoccupation with ` doubles and its importance with regard to homosexuality at this time has. fondee sur l’etude visuelle’. Charcot had patients brought in. especially in the context of the Gothic novel. when the two disciplines are brought together these nonetheless distinct cultures of visuality complement and reinforce each other. n’a pas ete etranger a ces trouvailles. visuality and doctors with doubles The artistic and medical professions coincide in important ways with respect to the treatment of human bodies. was Charcot’s sinister ‘Other’ his star hysteric. received considerable attention in literary studies. looking again and ´ again.36 In the context of socially sanctioned forms of voyeurism. even touching. was ‘l’origine de toutes les decouvertes de Charcot.’39 This emphasis on the ` visual image. looking and touching are prominently figured in the images by Gervex and Salle. especially women. he contended that it is only by this means that one comes to see ` [a voir].41 In the novel. this transgression is sanctioned. one after another. the Sherlock Holmes of the consulting room. had their reflexes checked and their bodies examined for loss of sensation. Surrounded by students. Charcot opted for a medical career. assistants and visiting stagiaires. ‘sans pour autant mettre ensommeil ses dons artistiques qui vont etre ˆ l’allie de sa conception de la medecine. and Dr Jekyll his Hyde. as Foucault notes. for them. not simply through the use of Richer’s drawings and his own on the blackboard: ‘Charcot fut un des premiers a utiliser y des appareils de projectiony. rather than post-mortem investigation once the patient had died. too. Both involve prolonged and careful looking. is transgressive. chez lui.37 Having from the first shown an artistic talent. His procedure to reveal illness was based on visual examination of the naked live patient. the distance permitted by the stethoscope. and then proceeded to study them in silence. mixing the literary metaphors. it is significant that Charcot’s studies of hysteria were so wholly dependent on – and an extreme example of – the modern diagnostic gaze. r Association of Art Historians 2003 681 . Charcot was represented as both doctor and artist. the rhetoric of the ´ ´ ´ ´ ` explorer on uncharted female territory or. which transgress the moral boundaries of inter-personal social contact. Charcot. alter ego. He commanded them to move. and stripped.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY Manet. its failure to contain ´ the homoerotic permits male homosexual desire a visibility which subverts the painting’s sober project and threatens homosocial propriety. while attentively observing.35 Arguably.

42 Examining the male world of The Anatomy Class alongside contemporary literary narratives. presented a ‘‘‘morbid disintegration’’ which fascinated French doctors’. well-behaved. the greater the need to veil the underlying ‘perverse’ desires. ´ Reading Dr Jekyll and Hyde as a story of conflicted male homosexual desire. They cured him through hypnosis ‘so effectively that he could not even remember what he had done’. Louis V. what Sedgwick calls ‘paranoid Gothic’.44 The second source for the novella was a powerful dream Stevenson experienced while in a ‘hectic fever’ resulting from a haemorrhage in his lungs. and in Salle’s Anatomy Class. too. what seems to have upset his doctors particularly was that he tried to caress them. in particular. Stephen Heath argues that male sexual normality is secured by fixing the problem on woman.’s condition ‘to a shock he received from being frightened by a viper’. he abruptly became ‘‘violent. and ‘neurosis’ with female (passive) sexuality. greedy. and a view to exploring comparable ‘dualities’ in the visual arts. the model/the ecorche. is perhaps simpler to realize than in visual media. or the conscious/unconscious split – as in the case of Robert Louis Stevenson’s Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. suggests ways of unpacking Salle’s representation of male homosociality.’ His physicians attributed Louis V. finds literal embodiment as Hyde through Jekyll’s splitting. in the Jekyll/Hyde duality. in pathological manifestations. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde Two sources have been identified for Stevenson’s novella. a political radical. powerfully enacts unspeakable male desires. and quarrelsome. His painting ´ contains three ‘pairs’ of figures. The case of Louis V. This takes 682 r Association of Art Historians 2003 . I want now to reposition the question of binaries as one of doubles: the two in one. Heath identifies Dr Jekyll’s problem as the ‘suppression of the perverse instincts’. Both as a working-class man sexually attracted to his doctors and as an hysteric – the more feared because a male one – Louis V. The more urgently ‘difference’ is articulated. in the Gothic horror of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. With literary doubles in mind. Freud associates ‘perversion’ with male (active) sexuality. the model/the youthful student – will ´ ´ be explored. His hysterical attacks caused him to undergo a ‘startling metamorphosis’ in adolesence. he argues. provides a further link in the chain connecting all my protagonists. in which. the dual personality.46 Citing Freud’s essay on ‘‘‘civilised’’ sexual morality and modern nervous illness’. and an atheist.45 Both sources emphasize the importance attributed to the unconscious which.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY or suppressed second identity. (Stevenson’s second given name was Louis). and obedient’’ street urchin.’’ a heavy drinker. whether in the ‘quest romance’ or. Having been ‘a ‘‘quiet. that of a male hysteric Louis V.43 The first was a medical case. The hierarchy of class difference underpinning this case – professional doctors versus a politically radicalized street urchin – is present. where fear of splitting and of actions beyond conscious control is hysterically manifest. and the meanings of each of these doubles – Duval/the model. in Stevenson’s text. especially revealing.

given to the Vienna Society of Medicine in October 1886 was. and all familiars of that other theatre – the anatomy theatre. scrutinizing. and like Stevenson and his character Jekyll. imperial conquest. deriving directly from his stage with Charcot. Jekyll. Freud himself shared the ‘over-valuation of consciousness’. The sodomite had been a temporary aberration. suggests a greater awareness of male hysteria in France in the 1880s than is commonly r Association of Art Historians 2003 683 . ‘Civilisation y obtains mastery over the individual’s dangerous desire for aggression by weakening and disarming it.48 For him. My analysis does not assume any direct influence on Salle of Stevenson’s novella. with whom he undertook a crucial six-month stage at La Salpetriere in ˆ ` the winter of 1885–6.’50 As Foucault suggests. a hermaphrodism of the soul.51 Foucault locates Charcot’s enterprise within this ‘medicine of sex’.’49 Again. the ‘anatomical y theatre. The paper was badly received – apparently due to incredulity – and has not survived. orginally ¸ ˆ ` published in 1888. marked a key change: [A] medical category of homosexuality was constituted from the moment it was characterised y less by a type of sexual relations than by a certain quality of sensibility.52 Freud. say. and by setting up an agency within him to watch over it.47 Concomitant with late nineteenth-century notions of ideal masculinity. Robert Louis Stevenson described this splitting of the masculine self in visual terms: ‘The prim obliterated polite face of life. Stevenson’s Hyde. Carl Westphal’s famous article of 1870 on ‘contrary sexual sensations’. like a garrison in a conquered city. this is the Boys’ Own metaphor. bawdy and orgiastic – or maenadic – foundations. a period which marked the beginning of Freud’s move from the physiological to the psychological study of nervous disorder. When lacking the sanctioned sublimation of.54 Freud’s first public paper. but also of French Symbolist novels like Joris-Karl Huysmans’s story of male decadence A Rebours (1884). a certain way of inverting the masculine and feminine within oneself.55 Freud’s paper. policing his self to keep under control the instinctual.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY place ‘under the influence of education and social demands’. was directly familiar with Charcot. he argues.53 and of Richard von Krafft-Ebing’s Psycopathia Sexualis (1889). Duval: all were doctors. primitive forces: the excess commonly associated with the feminine. It was in the old anatomy theatre on his premises (housed in a building across his yard) that Jekyll created the chemical potion which released the Hyde in him: ‘the building y indifferently known as the laboratory or the dissecting rooms’. is ‘a creation of civilized sexual morality’. significantly. form a spectacle to which no habit reconciles me. on a case of male hysteria. Freud. once crowded with eager students now lying gaunt and silent y’. it suggests parallels. the homosexual was now a species. and the broad. civilized man turns on the inner savage. This moment in the mid-1880s coincides not only with the appearance of the two key paintings discussed here. and with the English publication of Stevenson’s Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886). Homosexuality appeared as y a kind of interior androgyny. ´ Freud himself described Charcot’s methods in the preface and footnotes to his translation of 1892 of Charcot’s Lecons du Mardi de la Salpetriere. of course. Charcot.

the patients in question were undoubtedly working class.64 In this context.60 In respect of Stevenson’s Hyde. thus it was in dialogue with the articulate uppermiddle-class female that Freud’s ‘talking cure’ emerged: broadly. one with his shirt (provocatively?) drawn back below his shoulders the better to expose his characteristic swollen neck (plate 3. and only passing reference is made to the class-specific caricature of the Hyde persona: physical brutishness. observing ˆ ` that ‘hysterical men in the Salpetriere’s special ward were ‘‘timid and fearful ˆ ` men’’’. Hyde’s atavistic anatomy closely identified him with what in France were dubbed the classes dangereuses.56 Indeed.57 She notes that ‘[W]hile it was recognised in men. but rather soft.’58 She cites Emile Batault.65 That such criminal traits (both physical and moral) might be ´ hereditary compounded widespread fears of hereditary syphilitic contagion: 684 r Association of Art Historians 2003 . or a lost soul’. the androgeny associated with male hysteria surfaces in the rough. they prefer ribbons and scarves to hard manual labour. the anatomist Peter Camper began the comparative study of skull structures measured according to his ‘facial angle’. Charcot’s public patients – whose symptoms were dramatically somatised as ‘possession’ – were subject to a more violent physical expression of doctor–patient power relations in. Paradoxically. the admired manly physique seen as the privilege of the working classes (as opposed to the sedentary bourgeois) contained what was deemed to be an infantilized or femininized personality. a technique later exploited in a social Darwinist rhetoric of relative evolutionary development to demarcate class difference. given the reference to manual labour. Freud’s ear as against Charcot’s eye. Among Richer’s drawings of hysteric patients there are several of men. In the late eighteenth century. echoing the classed mind–body image. electric shock treatment. for example. another scholar of male hysteria and one of Charcot’s disciples at La Salpetriere (not shown in Brouillet’s picture). unlike the virile male. The question of class has received little attention in the scholarly literature on Stevenson’s novella. brutal man who wrestles ‘against the approaches of the hysteria’. Coquettish and eccentric. where the male hysteric is seen as expressing his bisexuality or homosexuality through the language of the body’. ‘is neither lively nor piercing.6). Elaine Showalter draws attention to the publication in 1886 of Augustin Berjon’s book on male hysteria. poetic.62 working-class man was also closer to the feminine. or weeps ‘like a woman. this trait has been identified as the remnants of a Jekyllian morality – but can surely be best understood in terms of class difference. Showalter argues that the medical view of the hysterical man as effeminate would later be ‘carried into psychoanalytic theory. Richer shows the head hair growing low on the patient’s forehead and in this profile view a weak.61 Viewed as remorse. then.59 The (re)presentation and treatment of hysteria were class-specific. and hence the emotions: repression of the baser instincts was less complete in the lower-class male than in his professional counterpart. and languorous. his ‘ape-like’ or ‘troglodytic’63 appearance and coarse manners. receding chin is emphasized. whose gaze.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY assumed. Psychoanalytic readings predominate. hysteria carried the stigma of being a humiliatingly female affliction.’ Manly health is here associated with honest toil and. Represented in criminal anthropology as closer to the ‘primitive’.

lighter. morality. whose instinctual.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY biological evolutionism provided the scientific rationale for social control. ‘express and single’. Richer Family collection.66 and the submerged atavism in civilized man threatened to resurface. Pen and ink on paper. whence the ‘animal in man springs to the surface. a Darwin-inspired biological determinist. it was proposed. Theories of duality were given a new biological credibility when. which controlled the right side of the body.’ Fleiss believed that ‘normal. instincts and insanity.6 Paul Richer. or right side. within which 3. arguing that ‘all human beings were bisexual. no. Stevenson simultaneously represented the ‘ugly idol’ Hyde as seductive: as Hyde. in 1863.1. environmental factors impacted upon the individual. a solution of the bonds of 34 Â 26 cm. French neuro-anatomist Paul Broca. it ‘virtually defined the distinction between the animal and the human.hysterique. Jekyll recalled ‘I felt younger. and the other the repressed gender. heterosexual people would be r Association of Art Historians 2003 685 .69 which entailed the attribution of relative brain development according to race. Taking on the Hyde form for the first time. Brain asymmetry was also gendered: men. reason. In Hyde. a current of disordered sensual for illustration in La Nouvelle Iconographie de ` images running like a mill race in my la Salpetriere. Jekyll felt whole. which controlled the left or ‘sinister’ side. class and gender. and could precipitate a degeneration which became hereditary. happier in body. 67 seemed ‘natural and human’. December 1884. Photo: ´ obligation’. fancy. Preparatory study ´ ness. The left brain was associated with the higher faculties – intelligence. In the Lamarckian view of evolution. 1889. had larger left brains than women. Paris.’70 Double-brain theories gave a biological underpinning to the Jekyll/Hyde splitting – and grounds for contemporary anxieties about the unity of the masculine self which Stevenson’s text explores. with the dominant side of the brain representing the dominant gender. This provided new means to evaluate ‘different classes of humanity in the natural scheme of things’. Criminality was associated with a dominant right brain. articulate language. In 1865 Broca argued the importance of the left brain. whereas (combining good and evil) Jekyll’s countenance was ‘imperfect and divided’. Gonflement du cou chez un I was conscious of a heady reckless. was more developed. as against the more primitive right globe.’68 In contrast. the right brain was found weaker and linked with the emotions. Yet. these fears materialize: ‘Evil y had left on that body an imprint of deformity and decay’. too. published his work on the asymmetry of the human brain. which released a self that courtesy of Musee de l’assistance publique. Freud’s close friend Wilhelm Fleiss went further.

and which. a conscious-unconscious duality already emergent in debates on psychiatry. I now return to Duval in his Anatomy Class. it is the hand of a manual labourer. Female roles in Stevenson’s novella are marginal and exclusively working class. while ‘‘effeminate men and masculine women are entirely or partly left-handed. athletic (workingclass) type admired by Edward Carpenter. too. Although of a ‘rich and sober fabric’. In this latter example. implying lefthandedness. the split personality in Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde evokes not simply an embattled ego.’79 Keeping Hyde’s trousers in mind. The lesson of Dr Duval The Ecole des Beaux-Arts – as Salle’s painting shows – and Dr Jekyll and Mr ´ Hyde were both renowned for their exclusion or marginalization of women. while Jekyll is a ‘tall fine build of a man’. or the Wildeian aristocratic effeminate. whereas Hyde’s was ‘lean corded. in the wider social context and exemplified in the Gothic novel. I had supplied my double with a signature. stress and harsh environmental conditions had made the working classes physically smaller and less healthy than their ‘betters’.e. Jekyll writes that ‘by sloping my own hand backwards [i. 686 r Association of Art Historians 2003 . but ‘differently sloped’. The ‘comely’ effeminacy of Jekyll’s hand also suggests a predisposition to bisexuality. of a dusky pallor. which was to be theorized in the writings of Breuer and Freud. Hyde’s overall physique is smaller than Jekyll’s. but the return of the surpressed: that male same-sex desire which the respectable middle-class man was expected to disavow.’ In short.’’’71 Although Hyde is not specifically designated as lefthanded by Stevenson. in Britain and France. more immediately. whether the butch. it was large. The dualities proposed here are twofold: those which inflected the popular characterization of the male homosexual.73 Hyde’s ‘corded’ hand has been read as an emblematic penis. the ‘Nineties School of Duality framed a dialect.72 Hands themselves figure significantly in the novella: Jekyll’s hand was ‘professional in shape and size. white and comely’. and a dialectic. they were ‘enormously too large’75 for him: ‘foreign to his body’76 and hence producing a foreign body. mesmerism and hypnosis. it is implied.74 but. leftwards].’ Hyde is described by Guest as ‘an odd hand’ in reference to his writing – but relevantly. a working-class Other – the ‘trousers [were] hanging on his legs and rolled up to keep them from the groundy. not right. firm. In the novella Guest recognizes that Hyde’s handwriting is identical to Jekyll’s. Hyde is ‘dwarfish’. that malnutrition. As Karl Miller comments in his discussion of Stevenson.77 These distinctions find their parallel in the contemporary awareness. and thickly shaded with a swart growth of hair’. for the love that dared not speak its name – for the vexed question of homosexuality and bisexuality. emerged as paranoid homophobia. as juxtaposition of the two hands in Stevenson’s text implies.78 and those representing a psychic doubling. so he appears caricature-like in Jekyll’s clothes.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY right-handed. in adapting his handwriting to his Hyde (to hide his) character. knuckly.

r Association of Art Historians 2003 687 . The ¸ ´ Anatomy Class at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Yet this is a professor passionately engaged in his subject and in sharing it. but the male model who was ‘subjected to the collective scrutiny of male artists. the artist. suffering from a ‘combination of great muscular activity and 3. Sydney: The Art Gallery of New South Wales.7).ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY including a female child victim of Hyde’s aggression. as in the academy life class. his whole body actively engaged in his professional persona. bound together in a brotherhood. he dictates the balance of power (plate 3. Salon of 1888. it was not the female. Photo: courtesy of the Art Gallery of New South Wales. 223 Â 302 cm.7 Detail of Francois Salle. the model. through the model. is figured in their body language: Duval leans forward. his Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde.81 The relation of Salle’s two main protago´ nists. away from the traditional space of disinterested knowledge professed. Duval forms the central pivot. perhaps. Oil on canvas. weight on his rear leg. he moves away from the disused lecturn (with its accretion of precarious bottles).80 In Salle’s ´ pictorial world of male knowledges and professional identity formation. exploring the self’. In The Anatomy Class. stepping down from his podium. like Hyde. leans back and away from the doctor. almost languid.

however much the toiler may be lauded in some traditions. he is evidently ‘happier in body’ than the taut Duval. Aware that his physique is admired. invites a reading of the model’s body as assertively masculine in an iconographic tradition linking sport. the very dreariness and pain of their labour accords them lowly status: thus to be darker. in a society where evolutionism identified this class as degenerate. Duval’s male anatomical specimen is both the raw material of science.’85 Work outside the home meant not only out-of-doors but away from the values of domesticity: hence less ‘civilized’ – but also less effeminized. would be white-skinned.82 Like Charcot’s hysterical specimen Blanche Wittman. 688 r Association of Art Historians 2003 .84 Salle/Duval’s representation of the ´ labourer as a good anatomical specimen suggests that well-endowed manhood could best be exemplified in the 1880s by a working-class physique. He must be a labourer temporarily unemployed. as Dyer explains. and Stevenson’s chemical specimen Hyde. loosely ´ based on the Borghese Mars. working constantly indoors. yet remains a vigorous male. men without education – a sign of social status on which the primary meaning of Salle’s painting depends. Being so obviously modern – and lacking full nudity and a classical head – the model is flawed as a classical ideal. the white muscleman hero’s body is darker than that of upper-class men.86 Men who labour were. and not simply to the neck. and furthermore stunted by deprivation. However. but paler than that of native peoples. thereby alerting us not only to the sensuality of the gesture. but which excludes the model. though racially white. Chosen for his developed physique the better to exhibit the male anatomy. ´ since the exchange of knowledge is the bond which unites all these men. Duval’s right hand seems almost like a surgical clamp. the paradox in using as a model of physical ‘perfection’ a man of the lower classes. a type first widely celebrated and idealized in France at the time of the 1848 Revolution. as Alan Krell notes. Duval’s hold on his model was noted in the only review to comment on The Anatomy Class at the Salon of 1888: y Salle has painted a solidly made Anatomy Lesson. is to be inferior. but to the importance of touch in the plurisensorial medical armoury. in the middle of ´ which a fine piece of nude (un beau morceau de nu) stands out: the model obligingly allowing a professor to knead (petrir) his biceps. He is weathered to the waist. ‘[I]n most hierarchical systems. yet the pose Salle gives him.83 ´ The model’s closed eyes show absorption in his physical self and the relaxed submission of his body to touch as much as to scientific meaning. Gripping the model’s wrist. As Richard Dyer argues. who is their ‘text’. and its product – the body transformed into legible text. while his left hand is visibly digging into the flesh of the model’s upper arm. by semi-naked exposure to the elements. generally. Duval’s model is evidently an outdoor manual worker. an atavistic throwback. Indeed. because any professional model. bodily health and fitness for war. However. He succumbs. and hence quietly self-assured in his performance both of the male anatomy and of his own masculinity.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY great apparent debility of constitution’. a fact signalled by his ‘dusky pallor’ (to use Stevenson’s description of Hyde’s skin).

His thick head-hair. undone at the waist. his casually hoisted. his moustache swaggering.89 Opposed to the close-cropped. been identified as a defence against anxieties over male potency. for the bourgeoisie thus ‘armoured and protected y buttoned-up’. unkempt. The anatomist unpacks the body. their undifferentiated forms sink into shadow. of course. the model’s black hair is. to the exposure of the deep muscles. aside from the military. mediated experience. and also to reverse middle-class man’s decline into decadence and effeminism. yet there remain similarities. ill-fitting trousers are coarse and crumpled. the costumes of the foreground figures displace their bodies. or artists’ lay figures. The rise of sport and body-building is thought to be linked. sobriety and self-control’ were the values signified by the habits noir. Identified by contemporary anthropologists with atavism and a low position on the evolutionary scale. like his trousers. to the sudden notoriety attached to homosexuality. be enjoyed in private. they speak of a careless.88 Salle’s model evidently has a more developed muscular physique and stature ´ than did the runtish Hyde.91 r Association of Art Historians 2003 689 . ‘aesthetic’ and overtly pornographic male nudes – the visual pleasures of which could. systematically exposing all. and individuation relies solely on facial distinctions. potential deviance and criminality. expressed a general desire in England and throughout Continental Europe to strengthen male populations.90 In the pairing of Duval and his model. and the need to find spaces. it was also perhaps an attempt to reintegrate body and mind in Western societies riven by an overvaluation of the cerebral and a consignment of the sensual to the closet.87 Photography offered a new. They evoke an embodied physicality akin to that attributed by Stevenson to Hyde. In recognition of the bodily enfeeblement caused by splitting. widening visual access to the male body. evoking an erotic subtext which can be read through the processes of dissection. in order to grasp its fundamentals. which in turn spawned a burgeoning market in illicit sexualities. The rise at this time of a male culture of body building. Half-naked. and popularizing the consumption of naturist. low forehead and narrow facial angle would all have been perceived as characteristics of human degeneration associated with the man’s social class. in terms of class these particular physiognomic signs defined low social status. sobriety and spectacle are contrasted. the divestment begun by the model in Salle’s painting prefigures the ´ anatomical striptease down to the bones – but here the body is male. to the excavation of the superficial muscles. With the exception of the foreground youth. most of whom are ‘disembodied’ by the raked desks. effort. then the vital organs: the inner man is laid bare. where men could enjoy legitimate bodily contact and the pleasures of a ‘deeroticized’ male nudity. too. Stevenson’s description of the ill-fitting tramp-like appearance of Jekyll’s clothes on Hyde’s body is paralleled in the dress of Duval’s model. ‘Decency. right down to the skeleton. Like Salome’s dance of the seven ´ veils. and of sport in emulation of both Ancient Greek and upper-class pursuits. rapid toilet and a poverty stark in contrast to the neat bourgeois attire of the class. clean-shaven students. Like tailors’ dummies. which have also.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY exposes the contradictions at the heart of this enterprise. From the initial flaying. France in particular had been scarred in its peremptory defeat by the Prussians in 1870. This new body culture aimed to stem the physical degeneration of the working classes.

the patient’s (or model’s) performance of their symptoms (or morphology) entails intimate engagement – ˆ as distinct from the anonymous distance cultivated by the flaneur. By extension. Yet it is clear from the curriculum and from surviving anatomical drawings in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris. this intimacy includes the students – particularly the foreground youth. in his attentive look and pince-nez. the iconography constructed anatomy as a necrophilic strip-show. What might be termed the plurisensoriality of the painter’s gaze is evident here in the youth: purposefully highlighted. He thus identifies it (in contrast to what ˆ I see as the mute vision of the solitary flaneur). This pairing highlights not only the process of stripping down. it is also evidenced in Richer’s task as draughtsman mediating in drawings the work of the gaze. This theme is echoed in the pedagogical prints on the back wall: large-scale anatomies showing. a closely annotated muscleman. the one of his hands that grips his buckskin gloves replicates the doctor’s touch on the model’s flesh. to emphasize the physical vitality of his model. Whereas Duval concentrates exclusively on his students. Thus. the skeleton and right. where the anatomist demonstrates the scapula and thus the model has his back turned.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY Duval is demonstrating the morphology and movement of the forearm. and then again re-presented – embodied in Salle’s own painted record of the layered anatomical ´ process. required drawings of the whole figure. Salle counterpoints the live model with the plaster ecorche in an axis ´ ´ ´ to which his lighting draws our attention. ´ ´ This dynamic invokes the plurisensorial medical gaze: a penetrating vision which unveils the hidden secrets of the inner body. Hence the deshabille and half-open flies of Duval’s model suggest only a ´ momentary break in this process of revelation – a frozen moment of morbid erotic suspense. and in his eloquently performative delivery. above all. that student anatomy competitions. both displaying his knowledge and inviting his audience to celebrate it. and a metaphor for his tactile engagement with the matter of painting and the ‘handling’ of flesh. too. This is the case.94 An erotic gesture. whose prominence and wrapt attention mark him as an active agent of mutuality.93 Foucault also called medical sight the ‘loquacious gaze’. it is also a reference to the artist’s own touch when posing the model.92 The dynamic between model ´ ´ and ecorche is replayed in the paired still lifes of discarded clothes and bones. Given that. In The Anatomy Class this process is evoked in Duval’s range of visual aids. therefore the painting shows the model naked only from the waist up. in Zoffany’s painting of Dr William Hunter lecturing at the Royal Academy (plate 3. for Foucault. a communication subject to subject rather than reductive objectification. revelation and communication of bodily mysteries: the professional knowledges of medicine. Hence the multiple and complementary sensualities of art 690 r Association of Art Historians 2003 .8). whose virile body language is echoed in the sculpted ecorche. left. the clinical gaze invites mutuality. but the scientific guise which renders it acceptable. Hunter looks self-consciously out at the spectator. Locked into an historical tradition which repeatedly enacted dissection as a narrative of unveiling. with minute observation. at least up until Duval’s time. and thus that models were posed fully nude. with the accretion of empirical detail which builds into the description.

77. hands or the forearm under discussion. then. reveals not only the importance of this pairing in the r Association of Art Historians 2003 691 . Salle ´ stressed the youth’s profile through contrast with the pale prints beyond him. is distinguished from the crowd not only by his prominent position.8 Johann Zoffany. London NPG RN 3995. London: Royal College of Physicians. This youth is not concentrating studiously on Duval’s face.5 cm. on the model’s tanned and muscular body. especially where the sooty black meets the brilliant whites of the tablecloth – replete with its mediating memento mori still life. head tilted upwards. The attentiveness of this young man. 1772. his eyes are directed at the model’s naked torso.95 The youth. but by his proximity to the viewer (hence his size). Pleasure in the male body-beautiful slips into desire. and the greater solidity of his body: a sculpting fall of light on his back and the selfshadow it produces strengthen this body’s form while the rest remain flat. Photo: Picture Library. Oil on canvas.5 Â 103. where these disciplines intersect.9). with his striking blond hair. the tenderness with which he gazes. and medicine are revealed in all their fullness in the field of anatomical study. Salle ´ further separates him from his background by exploiting strong contrasts of tone. National Portrait Gallery. while the model’s profile is starkly etched against the blackboard. with the final living double in this composition: model and youthful student (plate 3. Dr William Hunter lecturing at the Royal Academy c.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY 3.

10). but crucial to its narrative. Two things are remarkable here. ` emerging either wholly naked. provided that the 692 r Association of Art Historians 2003 . Photo: courtesy of the Art Gallery of New South Wales. This still life on the turntable is of the model’s clothes and hat – and full of life. and the fact that they were often used as props in a sexual narrative of male artist and female model testifies to the erotic power of disrobing – as opposed to blunt nudity. it ‘closes’ the composition on the right. First.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY 3. Oil on canvas. Thus. The Anatomy Class at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. The youth is rendered by Salle with notable care: the soft line of his face ´ caught in the light. Salon of 1888. but also the discursive centrality to this painting of male same-sex desire. or the cool restraint of scientific distance: white bones. as in artistic tableaux (which were condoned). or draped in a gown – almost a la Grecque – prior to posing.9 Detail of Francois Salle. at the far right (plate 3. artist’s eyes. preventing the eye from drifting out of the canvas and drawing the viewer’s gaze back to the youth. Its placing means that. In images of artists’ studios screens are ubiquitous. creating a suspense which compromises decency. The sensuality of Salle’s handling and matiere on the youth and the model is ´ ` also deployed elsewhere in the painting to strengthen this subtle eroticism. plaster. importantly. the attention to detail in the ear. From at least the nineteenth century models disrobed in privacy. this still life is intensely moving. The illusion of propriety could be maintained. Those elsewhere in the picture are marked by death. is the eloquent still life on a studio turntable. marginalized in the composition. the vulnerable nape of the neck exposed by his pose – which positions the viewer behind him. Sydney: The Art Gallery of New South Wales. like punctuation in a text. When seen ‘in the flesh’. the undressing of the model is normally sacrosanct in the etiquette of the academy: models usually had (and still have) a changing room in these institutions. cloth. an unwitnessed voyeur. the skull revealed beneath cropped hair. glass phials and bottles. ¸ ´ 223 Â 302 cm. To watch the process of transformation from clothed individual into nude model is to witness a narrative involving movement over the passage of time.

between the homosocial and the homoerotic. r Association of Art Historians 2003 693 . or anatomy class. ‘It is not enough to identify a homosocial scrutiny of the [male] body. as in Salle’s painting. As Michael Hatt remarks. arousing in the spectator the desire to see more while freeing him/her to fantasize on what is veiled.’97 Modern semi-dress in particular (as opposed to timeless ‘drapery’) locates the artist/viewer in their own time. Degas. We have to find the places where such a scrutiny is pulled back from the obscene to the acceptable. a near-contemporary wrote: ‘We want to make ourselves familiar with the Nude. ‘Tu vois yon a compris que c’est une femme qui se deshabille.’98 The issue was topical.10 Detail of Salle. the narrative of her dishevelled clothes. So the erotic was constituted in the act of disrobing. painting by Henri Gervex.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY naked figures remained static: narrative movement in time implies there is more to come. social difference and sexual desire which are more effectively disguised by complete nudity.11) was refused at the Salon of 1878 precisely on the grounds that his composition included the woman’s discarded attire. and the unseemly haste with which they had been removed. Inviting respectability with his capital ‘N’s. Posing a partly dressed model in the life class was always highly problematic. Partial nudity is especially erotic given the unequal relations of power it renders explicit. Discarded garments were deployed to courtesy of the Art Gallery of New South signal the lust of an urgent sexual transaction. often the erogenous zones. notably her raunchy red corset placed prominently in the foreground. His Rolla (plate 3. ´ iconography of the scene of seduction. not the academic life The Anatomy Class.’96 The Anatomy Class is one such place – and yet the professional setting barely disguises its discrete obscenity. making identification immediate and casting partial nudity as obscene. the ´ ´ model’s clothes are not only prominently displayed and lovingly painted in colours and brushwork designed to catch the eye. Partial coverage draws excessive attention to the hidden bits. One senses almost the fading warmth of the body and its smells pervading the ‘cast’ of the abandoned garment. appears palpably erotic and ´ perhaps for this reason was less common in images of the teaching studio or the Academy. The physical evidence of an act of undressing (clothes) belonged to the 3. What made the work obscene was not her nudity. remarked to him after its Salon rejection. in transgressing the boundary between functional nudity and obscene undress(ing) – in Salle’s ´ painting. In Salle’s painting. because the Nude is not immoral. as in another Wales. who had advised Gervex to add these garments to ensure his nude was not mistaken for a model. a semi-dressed body is more perverse than absolute nudity. This is most obvious where a modern semi-dressed body is placed among clothed figures: it exposes disturbing conflicts over professional propriety. The second issue to which this particular still life in The Anatomy Class alerts us is – simple but audacious – the inclusion of the model’s discarded clothes. then. but the man’s shirt – of coarse and doubtless soiled fabric – retains the form of the body which so recently filled it. The partially dressed male model. but her undress.

Similar devices ´ are employed in Salle’s painting. 1878. The lack of tactile. Here. Photo: Reunion des musees nationaux. 175 Â 220 cm Bordeaux: Musee des beaux-arts. Rolla. refused at the Salon of 1878. between Duval and his model. which contrast with the pale deshabille of Blanche Whitman. but by the unifying effect of their habits noirs. the tools of his brain and of the diagnostic touch.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY 3. his own professional text: just legible in faint white chalk on the blackboard. or more properly intellectual–sensual split is again figured in the Duval/model duality. 694 r Association of Art Historians 2003 . while his illuminated head stands out. are starkly highlighted. His bodiliness is fused with. drawn outlines of the shoulder and upper arm bones in precise echo of the live naked variant he grasps. Duval figures the intellectual/sensual ´ splitting entailed in fin-de-siecle ideal masculinity. ´ ´ ´ Dress is a crucial device to demarcate boundaries of class and to signal professional affiliation. subsumed into. Duval’s body appears amorphous. Oil on canvas. visible brushwork in the dark areas of his painting enable Salle to stress the material sensuality of the model and ´ his clothes. effaced. The mind–body.11 Henri Gervex. In Brouillet’s Une Lecon clinique the homogeneity of the ¸ male professional world is visually reinforced not only by the compositional organization of the figures. appear the traces of his lesson.99 his entire body melting ` into the black of the blackboard. as if decapitated. too. Paris. His hands.

in Kathleen Adler and Marcia Pointon (eds).J. trans. see. 33–42.100 While Duval/Jekyll is trapped by ‘the self-denying toils of my professional life’. 2 See Tamar Garb. Tamar Garb. Krell suggests. 1890. ed. 228ff. spoke fluent r Association of Art Historians 2003 695 . sensual vitality of the model’s ´ labouring body.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY Salle’s painting draws attention to the warm. Hyde. and by the cold. which. 1978. Paris. The Male Nude. Hyde. Oxford Art Journal. The present article was written before the publication of Susan Waller’s relevant work ‘Professional Poseurs: The male model in the Ecole des Beaux-Arts and the Popular Imagination’. London. Reinforcing the left-to-right pictorial reading and movement of his composition. 1888. and Exposed: ` The Victorian Nude. Alison Smith. 2001. the pleasure of looking for its own sake. this classed opposition intended to celebrate the victory of mind over matter. intrudes as unregulated desire. The Body Imaged: The human form and visual culture since the Renaissance.P. Quebec. 41–64. 2 (2002). The climactic pictorial focus is on the strength.102 Conventional pictorial allusions and serious subject matter normally guarantee the excision of the homosexual from the acceptably homosocial. 1993. I am also indebted to the British Academy for their support in the research of this paper. beauty and physical power of the male body. for example. ´ Jekyll et de M. ‘The forbidden gaze: women artists and the male nude in late nineteenthcentury France’. His painting celebrates sensual matiere and uses it ´ ` strategically to establish a distinct space where youthful student. Jekyll et de M. This calls into question the professional disinterest of both the medical and artistic gaze. the projection of unwanted desire. signal his sexual interest in the man. model and still lifes – especially the discarded clothes – articulate an unspoken homosocial formation: male same-sex desire. Lowe. but he is simultaneously the object of that desire: the young gentleman’s ‘bit of rough’. 1998. Cambridge. by the ‘bonds of obligation’. in the final analysis. Anthea Callen University of Nottingham Notes I am very grateful to Michael Hatt and the readers for Art History for their helpful comments on this paper. London. Bodies of Modernity: Figure and Flesh in Fin-de-Siecle France. Literally foregrounded. pp. Salle uses the fall of light to direct the ´ spectator’s gaze to be in line with that of the youth: our eyes are inexorably drawn towards the model. Le cas etrange du Dr. the sensual homoerotic pleasure in the male body. vol. no. 25. is undermined by Salle. For recent revisions to this view. hard perfection of the white plaster ecorche. of knowledge over ignorance. Mme B. 1 Margaret Walters. London. Tardival. 3 Although there may well be others. trans. pp. it is Hyde’s wonderful ‘love of life’101 which is recognized in the youth’s transparent admiration of the model’s semi-naked body. as against the black professional uniformity epitomized by Duval. pp. Tate Publishing. J. The male model may be Duval/Jekyll’s working-class Other. all taut ´ ´ muscles and heroics. to date I have found two early French translations: Le cas extraordinaire du Dr. Yet. A new perspective. But in Salle’s The Anatomy Class these conventions are destabilized by the ´ powerful dynamic between the young student and the male model. Stevenson was a Francophile. This look is reinforced by the shaft-like gloves that the youth clasps at crotch level.

81ff on hypnosis at La Salpetriere. note 2. ‘Cries and Whispers’. in Homosexuality: Power and Politics. 78. London and New York. Henry James. of course. Figures of Ill Repute: Representing Prostitution in Nineteenth-Century France. 315. Control and Classify: The French Psychiatric Pofession in the Nineteenth Century. Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick. Manchester. These will be discussed in my forthcoming book. ‘Capitalism and the Organisation of Sex’. 631. A. Corbin. two of whom – Philippe Burty and Jules Claretie – had also promoted avant-garde painting ´ through their art criticism. 1990. 48–53. esp. Dealing with Degas: Representations of Women and the Politics of Vision. 19 Foucault. in M. e.p. and G. and ¸ see chap. 210. What medicine. ‘Looking. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. trans. London. La Lecon de Charcot. p. ¸ 12 For the major historical anatomy classes. Between Men. the Pissarros. pp. see Deborah Silverman. pp. Richer was a sculptor of plebian genre figures in the late style of Aime-Jules Dalou and Constantin ´ Meunier. and A. 24 In a psychoanalytic reading. On ` British masculinity. 16 ‘Here is M Charcot before not an anaestheticised patient but an hysteric. Los Angeles. pp. 21 Deborah Bershad. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings. 17–21. 5. 1887.M. On the fin-de-siecle split between the rational and ` the animal in masculine identity in France. good God! Hypnotism. Dangerous Liaisons: Art and Anatomy from Albinus to Freud. 9. ˆ ` Paris. See also Abigail SolomonGodeau. On Charcot and the arts. 1991. Mass. 1989. and London. 4 (December 1996). The Birth of the Clinic.). Paris. DidiHuberman. Male Trouble: A Crisis in Representation. See Leon Daudet’s comments which are quoted by ´ Charles Bernheimer in his major book on sexuality in the period. see Annelise Maugue. 315. 1997. (entry ¸ ` on Gervex). 1990. p. Epistemology of the Closet. 202–3. chap. 1–5. 15 See Nicholas Green. On definitions of sex. Mass. Psychology and Style. vol. p. Les Morticoles. pp. no. p. 663–79. pp. Art Nouveau. see Martin Kemp and Marina Wallace. 17 Michel Foucault. 17 and p. p. Charcot et ´ l’iconographie photographique de la Salpetriere. 160. 54 (1982). ‘Psychologie nouvelle’. The Spectacular Body: Science. in La Lecon ¸ ´ de Charcot. also ‘Rencontre avec l’hysterie’. ¸ p. Empire Boys: Adventures in a Man’s World. Hamel in the Gazette des Beaux-Arts. Pollock (eds). A Man’s Place. 1987. 8. 1980. 209–39. pp. pp. ´ 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 696 r Association of Art Historians 2003 . 1992. 1989. identifies all the sitters and on pp. The History of Sexuality. see John Tosh. esp. London. volume I: An Introduction. 14 See Jan Goldstein. p. Weeks. p. pp. and Jeffrey Weeks. 69–78. 39–40). p. Kendall and G. Ponsonailhe in his review in L’Artiste. p. 38–40. 1894. ¸ and pp. ˆ ` Gerome was a regular guest at Charcot’s Tuesday ´ ˆ ‘soirees’. 119–20 and passim.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY French and had from his youth lived in the country for extensive periods. pp. in reference to the education of boys.’ Journal of Modern History. A. The Spectacle of Nature: Landscape and Bourgeois Culture in Nineteenthcentury France. 11–20. and Joseph Bristow. in R. 22 Foucault. Cambridge. Monet. Cambridge. 1985. New York and London. pp. The Birth of the Clinic. and see La Lecon de Charcot. Gay Left Collective. London. 1973. Whistler. 32. esp. A diagram in La Lecon de Charcot. and her ‘The Hysteria Diagnosis and the Politics of Anticlericalism in Late Nineteenth Century France. p. 1990. Art Nouveau. 27–30. Daudet. chap. pp. A recent critical case study is Julie V. 92. London. Paris. pp. n. Goldhammer. see Anthea Callen. 11 on Mme Charcot’s role. ed. 45–6) differentiates two forms of ‘meconnaissance’ or failure to recognize. 20. see La Lecon de Charcot. cited by Bernheimer. pp. 28–38. 13 La Lecon de Charcot. and J. thumbnail biographies are given for many of Charcot’s colleagues at La Salpetriere. Introduction. 51ff. 59. 1995. Art Nouveau in Fin-de-Siecle ` France: Politics. Spectacular Bodies: Art and Science of the Human Body from Leonardo to Now. New York. p. pp. Invention de l’hysterie. The Birth of the Clinic: An archaeology of medical perception. 2. Sheridan. 65. Berkeley. 55. Kaja Silverman (Male Subjectivity at the Margins. 161. Power and Sexuality: Degas’s Woman with a Lorgnette’. and chap. Perrot (ed. 18 The word used by Ch. 4. and ¸ ´ Silverman. Included in Brouillet’s group portrait are three prominent writers. New Haven and London. He moved in the same Anglo-American-French artistic and literary circles as did all the major figures of his time. ˆ ` see also Silverman. ¸ pp. Art Nouveau. trans.. n. 4–5. 5. On the visual. Art Bulletin. Myths and Modern Sexualities. (La Lecon de Charcot. what a nightmare! Soon everything will be done by suggestion y except good paintings. chap. 1987. Sargent. 1985. quoted in La Lecon de Charcot. See Silverman. 99. L’Identite masculine en crise au ´ tournant du siecle. 16–17. esp. Oscar Wilde. 202. London. note 32.g. London. and gender and sexuality. see Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick. chap. UCLA Press. 20–1. Hansen’s ‘Resurrecting Death: Anatomical Art in the Cabinet of Dr Frederk Ruysch’. p. 1992. 1982. pp. Paris. 16. vol. New Haven and London. See especially Michel Foucault. and passim. reprinted in Equivoques: peintures francaise du XIXe siecle. pp. which. 23 Kosofsky Sedgwick. but he also made heroic athletic figurines celebrating male physical prowess. 75ff. 1978. vol. p. Method and Meaning in the Work of Degas. 20. 2003. 102–106. 2000.’ M. A History of Private Life. ¸ pp. Cambridge. 20 L. New York. 1999. Figures of Ill Repute.

Souques and H. p.’ (My trans. 1999. see also Elaine Showalter. n. Between Men. ‘Psychopathia Sexualis’. and W. has not been a stranger to these discoveries. by relocating it. p. 105ff. Drying Himself. London. March 1997. London and New York. pp. 1. Revue medicale illustree. Nadine Simon-Dhaouilly. this is also relevant to France. 3. pp. Meige. modernity and the Ideal Figure. p. see Lynne Walker and Deborah Cherry. 10.J. pp. and pp. Identity and Space in the Modernisation of Nineteenth-Century Medicine’. p. Simonet y Lombardo (1864– 1927) exhibited at the Paris Salon. Veeder and G. Chicago. Envisaging the Congo’. pp. vol. she states (p. Clark. in Journal of British Visual Culture. The Painting of Modern Life: Paris in the Art of Manet and his Followers. Meige. and p. Showalter. vol. on medical touch. see Philippe Grunchec. The 1880s and 1890s have been called ‘the golden age of literary and sexual doubles’.). 1991. 201. 12. in the Journal of Mental Science. son oeuvre.’ (My trans. London. 100. he knew of this case from its write-up in the Archives de Neurologie. in Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siecle. 145–7. See my discussion of Caillebotte’s male nude Man at his Bath. ‘Les Biographies Medicales: Jean-Martin Charcot (1825–1893). For the anatomy classs. p. The Spectacular Body. 190. London. 1. in him. ‘Charcot was one of the first to use projection apparatus [lantern slides]. London. Souques and Meige. A Man’s Place. see ‘Charcot artiste’. pp. The Birth of the Clinic. A. which examines the concept of doubles in the work of Robert Louis Stevenson. On the reception of Manet’s Olympia. Kosofsky Sedgwick. Noted in respect of the British context by Martin Postle (Martin Postle and William Vaughan. 31. vol. 40– ¸ 3. 35 36 25 37 38 26 39 27 28 29 40 30 41 31 42 32 43 33 44 34 45 46 r Association of Art Historians 2003 697 . Sexual Anarchy. Stephen Heath. and pp. Hatt. is discussed by Nicholas Mirzoeff. Duval’s curriculum is reprinted as an Appendix. 1925. Paris. see Garb. 91–109. and Alex Potts’s analysis of masculinity and dancing in ‘Dance. and The Grand Prix de Rome: Paintings from the Ecole des Beaux-Arts 1797–1863. 6. chap. ‘Children of the Night: Stevenson and Patriarchy’. 92. She argues that the Gothic novel ‘crystallized for English audiences the terms of a dialectic between male homosexuality and homophobia. 55). 5. 333. 209–16. Heath. 1988. ¸ p. ‘Les Biographies Medicales: Jean-Martin Charcot ´ (1825–1893)’.’ Showalter. 1983. and see his discussion of the rise of the modern masculine novel. 13. chapter 11. See Showalter. p. no. founded on study of the visual’ (my trans). chap. 2. A Man Place. cited in Tosh. 1939. ‘Photography at the Heart of Darkness. Guillain.’ (her emphasis). in Journal of Philosophy and the Visual Arts. chap. my emphasis). 1955. 106ff. Art History.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY depending upon its object. in his Bodyscape: art. ‘Elizabeth Garrett Anderson: Image. Cf. p. A. Washington DC. pp. 2002. i. ´ ‘ y without for all that putting to bed his artistic gifts which were to be the ally of his conception of medicine. is paired with the physician. for examples of his drawing. Bodies of Modernity. ‘The Body and Difference: Anatomy training at the Ecole des Beaux-Art in Paris in the later nineteenth century’. 13e ´ ´ ´ annee. especially Veeder’s essay. The ` Spanish painter E. Joseph Conrad’s novella The Heart of Darkness (1899). Le Grand Prix de Peinture: Les concours des prix de Rome de 1797–1863. when Monet began his campaign to persuade the State to buy it for the Luxembourg. p. pp. Art History. ‘The Male Body in Another Frame’. 62. On Quest Romance. ed. Masson. a process which sometimes requires the support of a fetish. p. no. Foucault. 1985. 1. 99. part. Edward Carpenter’s advocacy of ‘homogenic love’ across class boundaries as a means of social renewal. On models at the Ecole. pp. 1995. March 1987. Paris. 1993. The anxieties provoked by Olympia remained into the 1890s. in La Lecon de Charcot. Sexual Anarchy. Benjamin. p. on class and homosexuality more broadly. 74. 174. Veeder and Hirsch. 105. quoted in La Lecon de Charcot.-M. Paris. 200ff. see Anthea Callen. and see H. 1987. before it appeared in English translation. Jekyll and Hyde. Hirsch (eds). in which homophobia appeared thematically in paranoid plots. 20. See chapter on men’s ‘Flight from Domesticity’ in late nineteenth-century Britain in Tosh. see T. 221) that. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde after One Hundred Years. For a gendered reading of touch and the medical gaze. can pertain either to the self or to the Other: ‘The subject classically refuses to recognize an unwanted feature of the self by projecting it onto the other. 1. G. On Caillebotte’s male figures. 141–57. esp. ‘Psychopathia Sexualis: Stevenson’s Strange Case’. Doubles: Studies in Literary History. in January 1886. pp. no. Charcot. Sexual Anarchy. Karl Miller. chap. Between Men. ‘ y the origin of all Charcot’s discoveries: the artist who. Critical Quarterly. 172ff. 3. in La Lecon de ¸ Charcot. The Artist’s Model from Etty to Spencer. p. pp. ´ Notes pour server a l’histoire de la medicine et des ` grands medecins’. Arthur Conan Doyle. J. and notes 1 and 2.. ‘The Body’. pp. p. He or she refuses to recognize an unpleasurable or anxiety-inducing aspect of the Other by disavowing it. cited in Tosh. p. 105 (my emphasis). 100–101 and note 22. 333. ‘Queer Fellows’. Kosofsky Sedgwick. in Callen.e. Charcot artiste. according to Stevenson’s wife. ‘The Male Body’. A Man’s Place. vol. 38–46. sa vie. 1984. 14. 28 (1986). 222. pp. 23–60. Politics and Sculpture’. 2. Victorine Meurend is very recognizable in Manet’s figure painting in the 1860s and had her own strong identity in art circles of the period. Michael Hatt. 13.

The Spectacular Body. 88 (‘ape-like spite’). the resulting paper. translated and quoted by Alan Krell. p. vol. 77 Stevenson. 114–15. p. 72 and 73. and also cf. ¸ 61 Quoted in Heath. quoted in Heath. pp. pp. p. 1981). Sexual Anarchy. 36–8. 292. 86 See ‘Flight from Domesticity’ in Tosh. 133–43. 120. On p. p. Sexual Anarchy. 1. 84 Richard Dyer. Stevenson. On masculinity and imperialism. p. ‘Psychopathia Sexualis’. associates the rise of sport and sport clubs in Britain with the expansion of middle-class public schools from mid-century. Broca was founder in 1861 of the modern French school of anthropology. p. J. 100. 38. in relation to Anthropology. identifes the brain ´ as the organ of French nineteenth-century male dominance. pp. p. ` 58 Showalter. see Showalter. 49 Quoted in Heath.G. J. in F. 80 Postle. 69 Broca. ed. The Perfectible Body. chap. 1 May 1888. London. 89 Garb. chap. 1886. 187–8. in Stevenson. Sexual Anarchy. 1979. 23 (‘troglodytic’). 52 Stevenson. Between Men. p. pp. 64 On the physiognomic signifiers of class. The Artist’s Model. p. 105. pp. Laurent. see ‘Flight from Domesticity’. Fully Exposed: The Male Nude in Photography. London edition. The Psychology ¨ of Clothes. p. p. 105–106. 49–51. pp. 70 J. see Callen. ` Paris. The Spectacular Body. ‘Psychopathia Sexualis’. ‘Fearful Desires: ‘‘Embodiments’’ in Late Nineteenth-Century Painting’. and see Showalter. 21–2. 81 I am grateful to Marcia Pointon for drawing this to my attention. 115. 1981. 50. and Heath’s discussion on this point in ‘Psychopathia Sexualis’.A. pp. 1996. and notes that he has found no further ´ reviews of the painting. Bailliere. in 1876 he founded the Ecole publique d’anthropologie in Paris. 9. 82 In Dr Lanyon’s words. 126. ed. Control and Classify: France took the lead in the professionalization of psychiatry. and passim. 698 r Association of Art Historians 2003 . History of Sexuality. discussing the theories of psychoanalyst and historian of costume J. 14–15. 67 Stevenson. 78 Kosofky Sedgwick. Clark. chap. Doubles. Dutton. The Absolute Bourgeois. 74 Showalter.B. A Man’s Place. 1876. 87 Tosh. 76 Heath. 145. Maugue. and note 19. p. 77. and his reference. Paris. 28ff.C. Keith R. 80pp. and animal’ nature of improperly socialized sexual desires. 55 See Freud. Sexual Anarchy. Freud. 138. 25–31. 59 Showalter. The danger posed by the ‘great unwashed’ masses was later theorized by Gustave Le Bon. White. 43. 94. pp. which emphasized the somatization of hysteria (a hemianaesthesia). challenged in response to his paper to present a case of male hysteria to the Society. 35. p. Bodies of Modernity. p. 216. ‘Sexual perversion and the Whitechapel murders’ (1888). notes. 103. Standard Edition. Krell also gives a classed and homoerotic reading of the Salle. p. chap. Jekyll and Hyde. 23. 5–15. 68 Showalter. vol. ‘Psychopathia Sexualis’. Sexual Anarchy. ‘Psychopathia Sexualis’. 52. Jekyll and Hyde. September 1894. 101. chap. 48 Heath. A Man’s Place. 2. in Tosh. see also Freud’s translation of Charcot’s Lectures on the Diseases of the Nervous System. Strachey. p. p. p. equates Hyde’s ‘phallic’ hand with the ‘twisted. p. 1. 65. Biologist of the Mind. London. Jekyll and Hyde. Barrows. ed. Princeton. vol. The Standard Edition. 103. 101. Strachey. 1995 and Emmanuel Cooper. Criminal Man. 72 Stevenson. 57 and chap. cf. La grande hysterie chez ´ l’homme. 101. 103. ‘Psychopathia Sexualis’. New Haven. Jekyll and Hyde. quoted in Callen. chap. 79 Miller. Distorting Mirrors: Visions of the Crowd in Late Nineteenth-Century France. ‘Le Salon de 1888. 1. pp. Bodies of Modernity. draft variant of the novella. 1973. 15. 53 See Bernheimer. Sexual Anarchy. p. it is referred to as a ‘surgical theatre’. 65 The term classes dangereuses was first popularized ´ by Louis Chevalier (Labouring and Dangerous Classes in Paris y [1973].J. 54 Sigmund. White. p. 1.M. 73 Stevenson. p. my emphasis. 30 (‘ape-like fury’) and p. pp. and his report of his stage with Charcot. ‘Psychopathia Sexualis’. sadistic. Flugel. in Postle and Vaughan. ‘Psychopathia Sexualis’. pp. p. Jurisprudence and Psychiatry. 105–106. Sexual Anarchy. 4. L’Identite masculine. Standard Edition. esp. Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. 1996. see Garb. d’apres les travaux de Bourru et Burol. Standard Edition. 57. 63 Stevenson. Harmondsworth. ‘Psychopathia Sexualis’. 34. and see Vedeer’s comments on an earlier. p. and passim. p. vol. 99. p. 75 Stevenson. pp. Sydney: Art Gallery of New South Wales. 65. 1997. Jekyll and Hyde. 1. p. pp. on Freud’s gendering of the distinction between neurosis and perversion. 81ff. 62 Cesare Lombroso. 1997. 65. quoted in Heath. 85 Dyer. Jekyll and Hyde. London. A Man’s Place. in Freud. in Veeder and Hirsch. 114. 66 Stevenson. Freud demonstrated on a suitable patient in November 1886. 24. Sulloway. anthropologist and crowd pshychologist: see S. 60 La Lecon de Charcot. see T. ‘Psychopathia Sexualis’. p. appears in translation in Freud. chap. p. on 1848. 1930. 57 Augustin Berjon. 1. 88 On body-building in France.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY 47 Heath. 76. Freud. 73. James Strachey. Figures of Ill Repute. in Body. 8. Jekyll and Hyde: for example. p. 50 In a letter to R. London and New York. pp. Kiernan. London. 55. to Enfield’s repeated naming of Hyde as ‘deformed’ in appearance. p. 71 Showalter. 56 See Goldstein. p. 83 Ch. 51 Foucault.

pp. 5 – Nature unveiling before science. Bonnat (1833–1922) would have been fifty-five. which published and distributed photographs of ‘artistic’ male and female nudes. In 1888 however. p. and Selection in Relation to Sex had first been published in 1871. 4 and pp. Puttfarken. quoted in Veeder. 14. which simultaneously exposes maximum muscle structure (for prints and sculpted examples. p. Sexual Visions Images of Gender in Science and Medicine between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Richer and Cuyer are shown the correct age).S. 1924. and as this is a modern subject (Duval. quoted in Garb. Degas. 14 April 1905. see Kemp and Warner. quoted in ‘‘Equivoques’’: Peintures francaises di ¸ XIXe siecle. ‘Le Nu n’est pas immoral: nos photographies sont artistiques’.. 202 and passim. ‘The Male Body’. esp. 1985. ´ French seventeenth. London. 78–9. chap. chap. ‘You see y they have understood that this is a woman who takes her clothes off. 28–38. pp.’ Edgar Degas. 1989.ANATOMIES OF MASCULINITY IN THE LATER NINETEENTH CENTURY 90 Charles Darwin’s The Descent of Man. 93 Foucault. 81–3 and passim. 1991. p. 37). (entry for Gervex). 1973. Clinic. Tabulae sceleti et musculorum corporis humani. 73. note 70. 126. and for the Wandelaar. Paris. Roger de Piles’ Theory of Art. the muscleman is an as-yet unidentified example in an athletic or fighting posture typical of the ecorche ´ ´ genre since the Renaissance. Krell. 147. p. pp. New Haven and London. 40.D. 59). Paris. this identification is unconvincing. in Veeder and Hirsch. 91 Wilde’s biographer reproduces a photograph of a man contentiously identified (?) as Wilde himself. ` Hatt. 92 The skeleton relates closely to Jan Wandelaar’s ‘Skeleton with putto’ drawing (1726). Helen Toussaint tentatively identified this figure as the young Leon Bonnat (see Callen ‘The Body and ´ Difference’. p. cited by Ambroise Vollard. dressed in female drag apparently for a performance of Wilde’s Salome. L.p. Albinus. 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 r Association of Art Historians 2003 699 . p. p. Jekyll and Hyde. see also Ludmilla Jordanova. Spectacular Bodies. the fact that it emerged nevertheless adds resonance to my argument. ‘Fearful Desires’. 94 Alan Krell. ` See Hollis Clayson’s extensive analysis of this painting in Painted Love: Prostitution in French Art of the Impressionist Era. L’Identite masculine. La culture physique. n. esp. aptly stresses the theme of homoerotic desire in his identification of the glove fingers as standing for male genitalia. 1747. 95 According to the Art Gallery of New South Wales. Hemel Hempstead. p. although the story ´ of this performance may be apocryphal. Bodies of Modernity. 48–9.and eighteenth-century theories of pictorial unity to which Salle’s ´ treatment of light and shade principally conforms are discussed in T. p. 126. See Maugue. Stevenson. 131–3. LD was one of the editors of this journal. 54–5. The ecorche is by ´ ´ Jacque-Eugene Caudron (1818–65). for a plate (reversing the pose) in B. 79–93. in ‘Fearful Desires: ‘‘Embodiments’’ in Late Nineteenth-Century Painting’.