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NEWLY DEVELOPED PRINCIPLES AND MECHANISMS FOR MOTION TRANSFORMATION

Tomislav PETROVI, Ivan IVANOV, Duan MIHAJLOVI Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ni, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, Ni, Serbia, toma@masfak.ni.ac.rs, ivanovivan@bankerinter.net, dusanmih86@gmail.com Abstract: The desired movement for the realization of various technological operations can be achieved by direct transformation of different forms of energy into mechanical energy of rotary or linear movement, or transformation already achieved through the mechanisms of movement. Transformation issues with different types of movement mechanisms were analyzed in this paper. Aside from the standard and conventional mechanisms, we are particularly focused on newly developed mechanisms for different purposes. Many years of scientific research in this field resulted in the formation of new principles for the transformation of movement from which emerged new design solutions of mechanisms. The practical usefulness of new design solutions of mechanisms for the transformation of the movement was confirmed by several domestic and international patents. Theoretical researches were verified by the realization of laboratory mechanism models, and their kinematic, dynamic and performance characteristics were confirmed by the experimental tests whose results are presented in this paper. Key words: mechanisms, the transformation of movement, construction solutions

1. INTRODUCTION
This paper presents newly developed mechanisms for the transformation of different forms of movement. a) The new structures of mechanisms with one degree of freedom of movement had been developed as follows: - reducer with extremely high transmission ratio for the transformation of rotation into rotation motion was shown. - for the transformation of rotary motion into rectilinear with a special kinetostatic characteristics, a description of the combination lever and the screw mechanism (the mechanism for the ventilation system) was given. b) The new principles and structures of mechanisms with two degrees of freedom of movement had been developed as follows: - new principle of transformation of motion and structures of mechanism for transforming of circular into two-way rectilinear motion with impulse control - a brief description of achieved results in research of transforming a rectilineal oscillatory motion into oneway circular motion(new motor drive mechanism) was given

are either poor efficiencies or large dimensions and high manufacturing costs. Combined gear trains, for example the combination of a worm gearing and a spur gearing or the combination of a worm gearing and a simple planetary gear train, produce marked improvements. Because of the transmission ratios being rather limited, very high transmission ratios can be achieved, only when a combined gear train is composed of several serially connected transmission stages. However, in that case, such design can hardly remain compact. For these reasons a new combined gear train, which eliminates problems caused by limited transmission ratios, has been developed.

2. SPECIAL STRUCTURE OF COMBINED WORM-PLANETARY GEAR TRAINS ENABLING REALIZATION OF HIGH TRANSMISSION RATIOS
An analysis of the possibility of high transmission ratios (i > 100) and very high transmission ratios (i > 1000) being realized by gear trains confirms that there is no ideal gear train type enabling the realization of such transmission ratios without limitations. Those limitations

Fig. 1. Structure of new worm-planetary gear train The suggested structure of the new combined wormplanetary gear train represents the combination of a worm gearing and planetary gear trains of the type A+A (German is transmitted from a worm (1) (Fig. 1.a) to a worm wheel (2) (Fig. 1.b)). The worm wheel is at the

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same time a carrier of doubled planet gears (4=4') and rotates on an output shaft. A stationary sun gear (30) is in mesh with planet gears (4) while a sun gear (5), which is fastened to the output shaft, is in mesh with planet gears (4'). The planet gears (4) and (4') are attached to each other by planet axles. The output shaft rotates with the rotation speed n5 (Fig. 1). The expression for the total efficiency 15 of the new worm-planetary gear train is obtained:

15 = 12 25 = 12

1 i25 + (1 i25 ) k

(1)

Because rather high transmission ratios can be realized by a one-stage worm gearing, the suggested structure of the worm-planetary gear train has a high or very high total transmission ratio, even with the relatively low transmission ratio of the planetary gear train. The total efficiency is then quite good and nearly equal to the total efficiency of the combination of a worm gearing and a spur gearing or the ordinary combination of a worm gearing and a simple planetary gear train, by which only limited high transmission ratios can be achieved. Thereby, the total efficiency of the suggested structure is much better than the efficiency of separate planetary gear trains of the type A+A or the type I+I. In that case this wormplanetary gear train can be used both for high power transmission and realization of very high transmission ratios. In the case of increasing of the transmission ratio of the planetary gear train, the total efficiency rather decreases, so then the suggested structure of the worm planetary gear train can be used a priory for motion transmission, namely for transferring low powers by very high transmission rates. In this way extremely high transmission ratios can be achieved, for which very complicated structures of combined worm gearings will be necessary, with a very poor total efficiency as well. So high transmission rates could also be obtained by independent planetary gear trains with double planet gears of the type A+A and the type I+I. but also with extremely low efficiencies.

Fig. 2. Efficiency bar chart of some types of planetary gear trains and combined planetary gear trains enabling realization of high (eg i = 256) and very high (eg i = 1024) transmission ratios (for combined planetary gear trains: i = 32 x 8 and i = 64 x 16) As a result of the development of the new worm-planetary gear train [3-5] a corresponding prototype (Fig. 3) were made for the structure with the planetary gear train of the type A+A. On these prototypes the functionality of the new type of combined gear train was proved successfully for the extremely high transmission ratio: I15 = 5320.

3. OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS OF DRIVE MECHANISMS OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS


Modern companies pay considerable attention to achieving optimal working conditions because they are one of the most important factors for realizing high productivity both in physical and mental work. The fact that a great part of processes of production, trade, economic promotions, cultural demonstrations etc, take place in large spaces makes the problem of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning a very important one. As these spaces are usually very large their ventilation is done by means of cupolas and high windows whose manipulation is difficult because of their dimensions, position and weight.

FIg. 3. Model of drive with suggested structure of combined worm-planetary gear trains Fig. 4. Structure of technical problem 240

This problem can be solved by the use of various mechanisms and each of them has its advantages and disadvantages. In order to overcome the disadvantages a special screw-lever mechanism for manipulation of vent hole has been designed. Because of its favourable constructional solutions, relatively small dimensionscomparing to the mechanisms in today's use, the possibilities for local and remote control, favorable kinematic and kinesthetic characteristics, this mechanism has found an important application in factory plants, hangars store-rooms, trade - centers, blocks of flats etc. Rectilinear motion of drive and considerable force exerted at it are required from mechanisms applied for manipulation of vent holes. When mechanisms are applied they must have rectilinear motion with changeable length of range (aconst). and changeable angle (fconst.) which enable the vent hole to rotate around the static axis. In order to solve the problem of manipulating vent holes varied mechanisms can be used pneumatic cylinders, electromotor drive with gear transmission and mechanisms with rotate nut. Newly developed driving mechanism of ventilation systems represents the combination of screw and lever mechanism with the guidance of the point along rectilinear trajectory. Structural scheme is shown in Fig.5. The rotation of driving electromotor M is transformed by screw mechanism into translatory motion of the nut s1. Lever mechanism, whose basis is slider-crank mechanism, realizes ideal rectilinear trajectory of point C along axis A0C if the condition: A0 A = AB = AC = a is valid. In order to perform motion slider-crank mechanism is driven at point B, which is a nut representing the working element of the screw mechanism.

technical parameters enable simple and safe application in local and remote control systems. The prevention from damage that may be caused by a mistake while controlling is done by switches. The changing of motion direction of the working element is effectuated by the changing of the sense of direction of electromotor rotation. This paper presents the analysis of a new vent hole drive mechanism, its structural scheme and its kinematic and working characteristics. The (conducted) experimental researches confirmed its very favourable kinematic and kinestathic characteristics. It is experimentally proved that necessary force for manipulation even the largest vent holes can be accomplished by relatively small driving electromotors. Favourable aestethic characteristics are made possible by compact construction and this resulted in the expansion of this application in practice.

4. MECHANISM FOR THE TRANSFORMATION OF ONE-WAY CIRCULAR INTO A TWO-WAY RECTILINEAR MOTION
In the theory of machines a great number of mechanisms by which circular motion of drive element can be transformed into a rectilinear motion of driven element is known . Requirements of contemporary machines and units in accomplishing principle motion, energy balance and control are increasingly stringent, so it is very difficult to find a mechanism that can fulfill all the requirements. Goal is to indicate the possibilities which new mechanism for transformation of one-way circular into a two-way rectilinear motion provides. Primary goal is for the mechanism to transform one-way rotary motion into rectilinear with the possibility of stopping and simple change of direction of driven component. In order to ensure use of the mechanisms for transmission of motion and energy, screw mechanism as a basic mechanism was used. To facilitate consideration of working principle of mechanism it is given that screw nut is the driven component which performs as rectilinear motion. Since the same direction movement of spindle is needed to ensure both directions motion of screw nut on the lead screw (a) both left and right chock are threaded ,and screw nut (b and c) with appropriate thread are set (Fig.6).

Fig. 5. Technical principle of mechanism The force in the screw mechanism overcomes the resistance of motion G. These resistance is the weight component of the Vent hole cover. The movement of the nut of screw mechanism S1, which causes the change of drive angle a in the slide crank mechanism as well as the working motion S2 of the point C, is considered to be the drive parameter in the mechanism. Point C is attached to the vent hole cover by appropriate coupling. The working motion is transmitted to the element of ventilation system that performs circular motion around static axis. Realized

Fig. 6. Structure of mechanism If the screw nut can rotate about its own axis while the lead screw is rotating, due to mutual friction the screw nuts would also be rotated. If we take away the possibility

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of rotation from any of the screw nuts, then each screw nut will change its distance. Then the problem remains: installation of such additional mechanism (m) between the screw nuts, that will be in constant contact with them, and with moving one of the screw nut along the lead screw would enable relative rotation of second screw nut over the lead screw in opposite direction. That rotation should be the right size to provide the same axial movement of screw nut as the move of the screw nut which is deprived the opportunity to rotate around its own axis. Thus with one-way rotation of the lead screw by alternately depriving the opportunity to rotate around its own axis from the screw nut, two-way rectilinear motion is achieved. Additional mechanism is differential sprocket gear with negative transfer ratio whose standing gears are tightly connected to screw nuts (b) and (c) loose gears are driven by the lead screw directly or by gear.

Working mechanism is based on transformation of movement with a dynamic coercion. Applied mechanism has two degrees of freedom of movement, so that achievement of the dynamic link between the elements of the mechanism is needed, so the movement would be fully defined. Principle of motion transformation and mathematical model are formed, and laboratory prototype for further research is made. Initial results indicate possibility of applying this principle for the realization of the motor drive mechanism. The basic advantage of this mechanism in reference to the existing motor mechanism is its high coefficient of efficiency because the maximum pressure of combustion gases can be brought into harmony with the optimal parameters of the piston mechanism enabling transformation of motion by appropriate selection of the moment of its application. It is possible to achieve completely dynamically balanced mechanism by symmetrically arranged elements.

6. CONCLUSION
In this paper aside from the standard and conventional mechanisms, we are particularly focused on newly developed mechanisms for different purposes. Many years of scientific research in this field resulted in the formation of new principles for the transformation of movement from which emerged new design solutions of mechanisms. Theoretical researches were verified by the realization of laboratory mechanism models, and their kinematic, dynamic and performance characteristics were confirmed by the experimental tests whose results are presented in this paper.

a) Fig. 7. Research results

b)

Mechanism for the transformation of one-way circular into two-way rectilinear motion represents the combination of the screw mechanism and the differential gear with negative transfer ratio. During inaction mechanism has two degrees of freedom of movement. By the alternate prevention of rotation of screw nut about its own axis or by defining their angular velocity (by subtracting another degree of freedom of movement) two-way rectilinear motion is achieved. Throughout stationary motion characteristics of mechanism in terms of achieving force and kinematic legality are indentical to thread mechanism (Fig. 7a), while the differential gear enables quick stop and easy change of the direction of rectilinear motion (Fig. 7b). Minor losses at the change of direction of movement represent the biggest advantage of these mechanisms compared to mechanisms applied to tool machines. All elements of the mechanism are always in conjunction, so that transitional processes that would incurred in plugging or disconnecting the drive are avoided.

REFERENCES
[1] IVANOV, I. (2004.) Sinteza kombinovanog prenosnika velikog prenosnog odnosa, magistarska teza, Mainski fakultet, Ni. [2] PETROVI, T., IVANOV, I. (2004.) A Contribution to the Development of Gear Trains with High Transmission Ratios, Proceedings of the 11th World Congress in Mechanism and Machine Science, China Machine Press, Tianjin, pp 695-698 [3] PETROVI T., IVANOV I., MILOEVI M., (2009) A new structure of combined gear trains with high transmission ratios, Forschung im Ingenieurwesen, Vol. 73, No. 3, pp 119-127 , ISSN: 00157899 (Print) 1434-0860 (Online) [4] PETROVI, T. (1981) Zavojni mehanizam za transformaciju jednosmernog krunog u dvosmerno pravolinijsko kretanje sa impulsnim upravljanjem, Doktorska disertacija, Ni. [5] PETROVI, T. , DJORDJEVI B. (1997) Operating Characteristics of Drive Mechanisms of Ventilation Systems, International Symposium Machines and Mechanisms, Belgrade, September 2-5.

5. INERTIAL MECHANISM ENABLING TRANSFOR-MATION AN OSCILLATORY MOTION INTO A ONE-WAY CIRCULAR MOTION
This research solves the problem of transformation of the oscillating motion into one-way circular motion providing for the high coefficient of efficiency.

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