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It gives the farmer year-round work and provides him with extra income. He can make use of cheap, plentiful farm by-products such as corn stovers, rice straw, copra meal, rice bran and sugarcane tops, which ordinarily go to waste. Most importantly, it helps meet the urgent demand for high-protein foods in the Filipino diet. Backyard cattle fattening or on a large scale can be profitably undertaken. It consists of buying healthy stock, feeding and fattening them for 120 to 180 days, and selling them at anytime of the year. Minimum space for housing is required: 1.5 to 2 sq. meters per head for a sheltered feeding area, and 5 meters per head for a fenced loafing area. Given the proper care, there is less danger of diseases and parasites affecting confined animals and the fattening period is shorter. Marbling or intermixture of fat and lean in meat is better obtained through feedlot fattening. This is preferred by customers.
Types of Cattle Raising Cow-calf Operation In a cow-calf operation, cows and bulls are raised to produce calves which are raised until they are weaned from their dams at seven (7) to eight (8) months of age. After weaning, they can be sold immediately, or raised for a few more months for use as replacement stocks or sold for fattening The cow-calf operation is considered most challenging because the breeder needs to be familiar with the reproductive cycle, management practices involved in the production and maintenance of cows, bulls and calves as well as breeding and feeding systems. A good animal health program should also be observed to minimize mortality and ensure the productivity of the animals. Breeder Farm Operation In a breeder farm operation, the main interest of the raisers is to produce animals for breeding purposes. There is a set of selection criteria for calves and they are raised until they are ready for breeding. Since the main output of a breeder farm is quality breeding animals, a large herd is necessary for the selection of the replacement stocks. Purebred animals are usually utilized in this type of operation. The breeder farm can be maintained in the ranch, in complete confinement, or integrated with plantation and forest trees. The farm requires a number of animal stock, a big space and a big capital. Growing-Fattening Operation This is the most popular type of cattle raising in the Philippines. It requires simple facilities and level of management. The lifespan of operation is shorter and the return of investment is relatively higher.
neck and hump. The term Batangas beef has become popular because of the good quality cattle produced by the ³supak´ method of Batangas. Cattle fattened in Batangas comes from Mindoro. The animals are kept within an area so that the feeds given to them are utilized to develop their tissues. Management Practices Management of Calves Calves should suckle colostrum milk from their mother within three (3) hours after calving.Growing cattle can be raised through grazing or cut-and-carry feeding. Knees may be black. Masbate and other provinces. weak calves should be taken to the barn with the mother. Management of Growers . orphaned calves may be raised to cow¶s milk or milk replacers. Indu-Brazil colors vary from light to silver gray and brownish dark gray to red. Ongle or Nellore color is white. On the other hand. it needs little capital so it can be managed by smallhold cattle raisers. Breed Improved breeds and crossbreds gain weight faster than native animals. Tropical breeds are more adaptable to local climatic and feed conditions than temperate breeds. A calf that has not suckled five (5) to six (6) hours after calving should be led to his mother¶s udder. some are reddish. The bulls may have dark gray head. Calves should be given concentrates at an early age for faster growth. Thus. However. Some of the recommended tropical breeds are: Brahman color is gray. During bad weathers. the fattening or finishing stage is usually done intensively or in confinement. Batangas Cattle this is not really distinct breed of cattle in the Philippines. This breed is resistant to diseases and can withstand heat better.
1 to 2. Flooring of the area must be cemented to facilitate drying. Management of Fatteners Fatteners require a shorter period to reach slaughter weight. Goats consume up to 30% of the day¶s intake during the night when light is provided. they are given salt and mineral supplements.7 meters. Feeding and watering troughs can also be made out of locally available materials such as used tires. It is desirable to maintain an interior temperature of 28 to 30°C. They are generally bigger. The permanent type of housing consisting of GI roofing.5 to 1 feet clearance between floor to wall and wall to beam to create an adequate circulation and to lower draft. The growing period starts from weaning to fattening or replacement stage. The shelter is open-sided and is located near the farmer¶s house or under the shade trees. The shed is usually built near the house of the farmer. However. The animals are usually tethered during the day and kept inside the shed during the night. . used and halved drums. The shed is built from native materials like wood and bamboo frames and enclosures. Majority of pneumonia cases can be traced to excessively warm and humid interior and sudden changes in temperature. Cattle Housing Proper housing is important in successful cattle fattening operation. timber frames. A fenced loafing area beside the goat house must be provided (100 to 150 sqm/250 head). Building height ranges from 1. Housing System for Cow-calf Operation Cow-calf operation in smallhold farms is usually done using simple methods and facilities. Growers are usually maintained in the pasture with very little attention.9 meters while the width varies from 2. Ventilation is of outmost importance. If raised in confinement. nipa and cogon for roofings. It has been established that above 30°C ruminants are inhibited from eating. Lighting may also be provided in the barns during the night. mature.5 to 4. They are handled in such a way that maximum growth is achieved at the lowest possible cost. Each animal can be allocated with 1. Allow a 0. on pasture. concentrates should be given in addition to grass or roughage.5 sq. meters. They may be fattened either in feedlot.Growers are weaned yearlings which are not to be fattened immediately. Adequately protect animals against the adverse effects of weather when they are raised in relatively small areas. or in both areas. Animals in backyard cattle farms are usually tethered along roadsides and in backyards during the day and confined in a shed or corral at night. complete with feeding racks and water troughs to allow animals to loaf freely. feed trough and water troughs are used in most farms. concrete floor. one and a half to two-year old animals weighing 200 to 300 kg are preferred. or nearing maturity.79 to 1. Other Options: 1. Cogon and nipa as roof materials are preferred in hot and humid areas.
Should be of medium width between the thurls and pins to have necessary frame on which to hang profitable beef. Housing System for Fattening Operation In this type of operation. Its udder is of good size and shape. Milking Ability and Feminity A cow should have a mild maternal face with bright and alert eyes. nipa or cogon for roofing materials although galvanized iron roofing may be used for durability. Breeding Ability and Ancestry Cows that calve regularly are desirable. B. flexible and spongy to touch. Each stall can accommodate one animal during the entire fattening period. Calves from cows that do not take on flesh readily do not give much profit. They are most productive from four to eight years of age. and quiet temperament. 4. This characteristic is expected to secrete more milk unlike an udder that is fleshlike and hard. soft. Bamboo. The shed is built three (3) meters high to allow good ventilation. Types and Conformation An ideal cow has a rectangular frame. Selecting a Bull 1. Guide in Selecting Stocks Based on Physical Appearance A. This will facilitate cleaning.2. good disposition. the animals are raised in individual stalls with a space about 1. 3. Selecting Cows and Heifers for Breeding 1. select those which belong to families which have regularly produced outstanding calves. beef cows remain productive for 13 years if they start calving at three years of age. lumber. Concrete and sand should be used as flooring to prevent mud from accumulating.5 m x 4 m/head. The rump must be long and smooth. Age In general. In buying heifers for foundation stock. 2. Physical Appearance . or ipil-ipil poles can be used for frames.
deep and full chest show good constitution and vigor. . Generally. They need less feed for every unit gain in weight because they can masticate and ruminate thoroughly and can consume more feed in proportion to their body weight. deep wide chest. they readily relish the feeds ordinarily rejected by the calves. 3. quiet.A fairly good middle or barrel indicates a well-developed digestive system and healthy vital organs such as the heart. liver and lungs. well-rounded thighs and a full loin. make up a good constitution. A bull with these qualities is desirable. a large heart girth. strong appetite. Selecting Cattle for Fattening 1. Successful mating of cows is ensured when a bull has strong legs. These qualities indicate virility and good reproduction. and easily-handled steer usually grows fast and fattens easily. Sex Character Well-developed sex organs are characterized by fully descended testicles. 2. nervous and erratic cattle waste too much energy when they panic even at the slightest provocation. On the other hand. Age Young animals have striking advantages over older cattle. Likewise. Calves are choosy when given coarse and stemmy roughage. Their increase in weight is due partly to the growth of muscles and vital organs. The legs of a bull should be strong enough to carry its own weight and to carry him around to look for cows that are in heat and to search for food when necessary. older animals as feeder stock also have advantages. a full heart girth. large nostrils. broad muzzle. In most cases. a two-year old steer will require a shorter feeding period than a calf or a yearling because the latter grows while it fattens. 2. and broad head. Restless. muscular cheeks and jaw. Disposition An active yet mild. while two-year old steers utilize large quantities of roughage to produce fat primarily because they have a better capacity to digest. A large feeding capacity. well-sprung ribs and a wide. In older cattle the increase is largely due to fat deposits. C. Constitution and Vigor These are determined by the size and quality of the vital organs.
Uneasiness. 5. causing matting of tail hair. more steers than heifers are available for fattening because some heifers must be retained as herd replacements. Animals that are blind. lack of appetite and bleating. rough skin. young bulls have 20% greater gain in live weight and require 22% less feed to produce a leaner carcass which is nearly of the same quality as that of steers.4. It will be dangerous to mix the buck with an herd of pregnant does for they will breed indiscriminately. Buck to doe ratio is 1:25. Two or four breedings during the heat period will suffice. always introduce the doe to the buck. On the other hand. Health Considerations A healthy animal is active. constant urination. Sex In general. It is highly impractical if not economical to raise pure breed goats. bright eyes and moist muzzle. If fed for the same period of time. not to the doe herd particularly when bucks have not been used for a long time. Breeding Does reach puberty from 4 to 18 months. The preferred method will be to upgrade local native or grade does with pure . When breeding. has a soft and smooth hair coat. Older bucks can cover up to 75/year. steers gain about 10% faster than heifers and require 10 to 15% less feeds with equal weight gain. lame or with crooked legs. depending on desired weight. unless the main purpose is to sell breeders. and evidence of ectoparasite should be avoided. Seeks out or stays near the buck and lets herself be mounted. Best breeding age will be 10 to 12 months. Special attention should be given to unsoundness and defects in conformation when selecting feeders. Breeding ± Reproductive Characteristics of Goats Age of puberty Cycle of type Cycle length Duration of heat Gestation period 4-8 months Polyestrus 18-21 days 2-3 days (secondary heat: 8-12 days after) 150 (+/-) 5 days Best breeding time Daily during estrus Breeding ± signs of Heat or Estrus Mucus discharge from the vulva. Limit yearling buck services to 25 doe services/year.
In our experience. any of three Occidental breeds and the Nubian has produced a greatly superior animal than any of the three under our conditions. is a common problem most particularly with highproducing does.bucks. Breeding ± Procedures in Artificial Insemination 1. Dystocia is very common in crossing natives with large pure breeds due to the invariably large size of the unborn kids. perform your insemination in a heated environment. D and E injections to breeding herds also contribute to reproductive well being. mineral and other nutrient deficiencies. will largely be beneficial. Crossbreeds usually perform better than pure ones under local conditions. Inseminate at the proper time. If no heated facility is available. Anestrus or failure to come in heat. Keep the semen warm for it is extremely temperature sensitive and will be irrevocably damaged if improperly handled. large native does with a minimum weight of 25 kilos or more and those that have given birth at least once. Vitamin. A maximum infusion of 75% foreign bloodline must be observed to retain the natural resistance of the native. in crossbreeding. uterine fluids and in the rapid regression of the uterus. respectively. breeding a doe approximately 6 ± 10 hours before she goes out of standing heat has yielded the best results. Fifty percent of breeding problems can be traced to the buck used. use a heating pad or hot water bottle to keep the semen and related equipment at the proper temperature before use. Routine administration of oxytocin right after kidding and before weaning (5 days) aids in faster expulsion of the placenta. Three-way crosses between the native. Never allow the temperature of semen thawed in 95°F water to drop below 80°F. 2. blood tests and sperm motility tests are some very useful procedures to follow in successful buck management. On the other hand. should be done. During the main part of the breeding season . If at all possible. Preputial scraping. Crossbreed birthweights of up to four (4) kilos for multiple births and up to six (6) kilos for single births have been observed while native birthweights reach only 2 to 4 kilos for multiple and single births. Never practice inbreeding unless fully knowledgeable in breeding techniques. infections of the genital tract and hormone deficiencies are some of the various and implants and pregnant mare serum (PMS have been used with varying rates of success. Routine Vitamin A. Thus. as most successful inseminators agree that conception rates are generally highest when breeding during the later third of standing heat. Infusion of two or more bloodlines into the native doe will elicit a better product due to hybrid vigor. Always consult a trained veterinarian to do these tests. Higher milk production should be the main consideration for it will not only mean bigger kid but also more milk for human consumption. Routine check up of the bucks¶ health condition. but this should be done only when necessary. especially of the genito-urinary tract. should be used. intensive culling especially in milking herds. Thoroughly pre-warm the inseminating gun before inserting the straw. Providing human assistance during birth will also be of help in saving kids.
which can persist for several months. Use only one straw per breeding as research in goat production indicates that sperm cells introduced into the does¶ reproductive tract tend to form ³colonies´ in the mucous present in the folds of the cervix. Count to fifteen very slowly while depressing the plunger on the breeding gun. Abnormally long heats are more common early in the breeding season. Compare the difference between the length of the two breeding sheaths. The use of a second straw of semen later in heat can cause a disruption in the orderly migration of mature sperm cells from the colonies already established in the cervix and actually reduces the chance of conception. 7. where union of the egg actually occurs. Use of hormones to synchronize does. Avoid attempting to AI does who remain in standing heat longer than 48 hours for reasons not fully understood. this means breeding approximately 24-30 hours after the onset of estrus. Fortunately in most cases the condition is transitory and most does begin to exhibit more normal estrus behavior as the breeding season progresses. Be aware that the use of prostaglandins may cause erratic estrus behavior in some animals. After passing through several cervical rings. place a clean breeding sheath in the speculum alongside the gun with its tip against the back wall of the does¶ vagina. Always deposit semen deep intracervically by measuring the depth of penetration of the breeding gun. 5. and occur more frequently in some areas than others. Deposit semen very slowly because rapid expulsion of semen from the breeding gun can damage sperm cells and cause irritation of the does¶ reproductive tract. Many breeders have reported disappointing AI conception rates after having used hormones to induce estrus in goats. After undergoing a short maturation process. does exhibiting extremely lengthy standing estrus generally fail to conceive when artificially inseminated. 3. may result in lowered conception rates. . 4. If it is necessary to synchronize a group of does in this way. Quantities of viable sperm cells sufficient for adequate fertilization should remain in the reproductive tract for up to 18 hours after the first insemination. 6. Ideal depth of penetration is approximately 1 ½ inches. though successful and useful.and with most does. wait until the first natural heat after the drug induced estrus before artificially inseminating. they migrate in fairly constant number from the cervix into the uterus and ultimately on to the oviduct.
Small quantities of semen can be transported and stored for a half day or longer in a stainless steel thermos bottle. plan to board them several days before they are due to come into heat. 11. Virgin does should present no problem so long as they weigh at least 75 lbs. such does will seldom allow a buck to mount them. 13. conception rates may drop off if you attempt AI towards the very end of the normal breeding season.8. Note the number of hours that each does remains in standing heat. time required to complete the insemination. depth and relative difficulty or cervical penetration. inseminate only does with regularly occurring heats and no history of breeding or kidding problems. Chart the heat cycles of each of your animals on a calendar. You can do your own inseminating even if you do not own your own tank. If in doubt. 10. It is probably preferable if you cannot breed your own does yourself to have an AI technician come to your farm to perform the insemination. Make sure that you do not screw the lid onto the thermos as possible rupture can occur as a result of nitrogen gas pressure. Although they may exhibit otherwise typical estrus behavior. Don¶t haul a doe in heat to have her bred via AI. Watch your does carefully 17 to 22 days after breeding them by AI for some reason that some does who conceive by AI experience a false heat three weeks later. submit a milk or blood sample to a testing laboratory for a progesterone assay. For best conception rates. Does that are overly fat or thin are less than ideal prospects for AI breeding. Note such factors as color and consistency of cervical mucous. These records will often be of great help in explaining why some does settle and others did not. Does that are difficult to settle by natural service are not good AI candidates. and other pertinent information. 12. length of standing heat both before and after inseminating. weather conditions. Keep detailed records of your AI breeding. 9. Observe them at least three times daily during the breeding seasons for signs of estrus behavior. and the . If you do not have your own equipment or storage tank and must transport your does to have them bred. Know your does. Proper nutritional management also pays a big role in reproductive efficiency. Don¶t attempt to AI a doe on her first heat cycle of the season ± the first heat cycle of the year is often infertile and is frequently followed by a second heat 5 to 8 days later. Likewise. Conception rates will usually be higher if you wait until the second or later heats to do your breeding.
14. Artificial insemination is only a tool. Feed animals daily with concentrate one to two kilograms per day during fattening period. Feeds and Feeding Practices Feeding Management Practices 1. hands-on experience is the best way to develop the confidence and correct techniques necessary to use AI effectively. palatable feed and clean water at all times. . or the meat and dairy goat industry. 3. Observe proper sanitary procedures. albeit a powerful one. as iodine is spermicidal.relative intensity of estrus activities such as flagging. Specula should be thoroughly washed and sanitized between use. As with any other acquired skill. Attend an AI school. Do your homework. the breeder. fighting and mounting other does. Give roughage daily at 3% of body weight if given air dry or 14% if given fresh. To be really successful with AI. 16. 2. Only through intelligent selection of sires compatible with the objectives of a carefully thought out breeding program can AI benefit you. Do not use iodine-based products. Give clean water without limit or ad libitum. Take care not to touch the part of the speculum or breeding sheath which is inserted in the doe¶s vagina. Give the animals fresh. you have to do more than just put kids on the ground. 15. Do not overstock feeds in the feedbunk since the bottom portion will develop heat and make the feed stale. Provide ordinary table salt about 30-50 grams per head per day. Reduction of feed intake by 5 percent will reduce weight gain by 10 percent. Attendance at an AI school taught by a competent and knowledgeable instructor can increase your chances of success with AI. Scrub the doe¶s external genitalia with soap and water and dry completely before inserting the speculum.
Providing 12-14 inches of bunk space per head will allow cattle to eat slowly. cattle will eat more during the daytime.4. 7. Mix feed properly. 8. If allowed to remain with the animals. deep. Roughage consumption tends to stimulate saliva secretion up to as much as 80-120 liters per day. During rainy days. 5. udders and interdigital spaces Flowing saliva Animal refuses to eat Becomes lame and refuses to stand . During summer. Diseases and Care Practices Common Diseases and Parasites y Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Cause Enterovirus of major strains ±A. O & C Transmission Direct contact with sick animals excreting the virus Indirect transmission by ingestion of contaminated feeds Contact with infected products and animal excretion by inhalation Symptom High fever Depression Appearance of vesicles and blisters with fluid on tongue. Have at least 15-20 percent roughage in feed to prevent bloat and other digestive disorders. Provide enough feeds during these periods. 6. they will eat more at night and during the cooler hours. Digestion will be more efficient if roughage is eaten separately from concentrates. Schedule manure removal. wet manure will reduce both feed intake and weight gain. gums.
saliva and from the natural body openings contaminating the area Ingestion Indirect transmission through airborne via respiratory tract (inhalation) or vector borne through stable files and mosquitoes Cause Caused by large. Control Isolate and quarantine infected premises Promptly dispose of carcasses of dead animals by burning or burying in soil Segregate sick animals and treat them with antibiotics Vaccinate apparently healthy and unexposed animals Sterilize and disinfect used instruments and equipment. feces.Control Regular FMD vaccination every 6 months in areas where the disease is common y Hemorrhagic Septicemia Cause Common bacterial disease characterized by hemorrhage (escape of blood from the blood vessels) and septicemia (a condition manifested by the generalized presence of pathogenic bacteria and the associated poisons in the blood). dewlap Difficulty in breathing. wherein the bacili are excreted in the urine. y Anthrax Anthrax is a peracute disease characterized by septicemia and sudden death with the exudation of tarry blood from the natural body openings. painful swelling on the throat. It is a disease virtually of all warm-blooded animals. Transmission Direct contact with infected animals Ingestion of contaminated feedstuffs By aerosol Symptoms Sudden increase in body temperature (41-42°C) Profuse salivation Severe depression Development of hot. including man. gram-positive. Transmission Direct Contact ± spread form one animal to another. and Development of signs of pulmonary alimentary involvement in the later stages. The disease is rapid in onset and runs a relatively short course. aerobic spore-forming rod-shaped bacteria known as .
In cultures. rice bran. throax. goats and carabaos) Introduction UMMB or Urea-Molasses Mineral Block is a food supplement for cows. feeding materials. Under low magnification. carabaos. cement. etc. It is for this reason that they are sometimes described as ³Medusa head´ colonies. vitamin and mineral such as di-calcium phosphate and salt. Decontamination of all contaminated pens. shoulder) Edema Difficulty in breathing Death Prevention/ Control Control by immunization Proper disposal of dead animal by burning or deep burial. The depth should be 2 meters. molasses or honey. Quicktime should be used to cover the body before covering with soil. Feeding UMMB is considered as one of the most important way to lessen the loss of essential . the margin of the colonies which lie in parallel formation look like locks of hair. Avoid contact with infected animals and contaminated animal by-products Reduce movement of animals Quarantine infected areas Practice environmental and personal hygiene Control insects and flies Notify the proper authority in case of outbreak Technology Options: UREA ± MOLASSES Mineral Block (UMMB) (Food supplement for cows. appear as solid filaments because the square ends of the individual cells fit very closely together.Bacillus anthracic. beddings. This is a block containing a mixture of urea. sheep and goats. Symptoms Peracute form (1-2 hours) Sudden death Unclotted blood comes out from the natural openings Acute form (24-48 hours) Depression Fever Difficulty in breathing Loss of appetite Swelling in hind quarters Hemorrhage in many parts of the body Death Diarrhea stained with unclotted blood coming from the natural body openings Chronic form (48 hours or more) Swelling (ventral muscle. forms long chains which. unstained.
copper and other minerals that are not naturally found in grass. Rice bran should be added last. minerals and protein needed by animals to increase milk production. its better to use hand in mixing or a cement mixer to mix the ingredients thoroughly. stirring should be continuous. Energy ± UMMB gives 45% energy needed by animals to increase production of meat and milk. 6. .and substantial food for animals especially in the warm months of the year. difficulty in breathing. Use a cook ware with a wide mouth like a vat. Pour the mixture into molds to form the blocks. 3. Don¶t give UMMB when animals are hungry or when the waterer is empty. Make sure there are no lumps of urea in the mixture. Prepare and weigh ingredients according to proper proportions: 2. Call a veterinary when symptoms of poisoning are evident like salivating. Prevent the block from getting wet thereby feeding the animals in excess. Each bloke may weigh 1 to 5 kilos each. Add cement and continue stirring. Increases the ability to dissolve grass fibers and other feed eaten by the animals. 2. and bloating. Pour honey into the vat. zinc. The mineral content of UMMB also helps in increasing milk production. 2. 4. Slowly add urea while slowly stirring the mixture. Wait for 1 to 2 weeks before feeding the block to the animals. UMMB is rich in: 1. Method of Feeding: UMMB is fed through ³licking´ of the animals. Steps in making UMMB: 1. 8. Prepare the mixing pot. 4. Wrap each block with plastic and arrange in a box. Add di-calcium phosphate and salt. Some Warning when Feeding UMMB: 1. reproduction and milk production. 7. Place and leave the UMMB in the animal feeder until animals get their daily nutrition needs. Other Characteristics of UMMB: 1. Don¶t give UMMB to animals that are not more than six months and to those animals that are in their last trimester of pregnancy 3. Protein ± UMMB gives up to 50% protein needed by animals for growth. Feeding is not difficult since UMMB tastes good to the animals. Importance of UMMB UMMB gives energy or heat. phosphorous. Old tires can be used a support to the vat. iodine. 3. 5. Mineral ± contains elements such as calcium. Helps in increasing appetite 2. In this case. These minerals are important for growth.
Nue .3. Bureau of Animal Industry. 1 Philippine Carabao Center. Maintains the energy and health of animals. References: Extension Bulletin No.