Joscelyn Godwin
with 126 illustrations

Hermetic Philosopher and Surveyor of Two Worlds

Thames and Hudson

Acknowledgments Research for this book was much facilitated by generous grants from the Colgate University Research Council and Faculty Development Fund, The author also thanks Todd Barton, A.llen G, Debus, and Manly p, Hall. The author is.aisoqrateful to Manly 'P. Hall. Presidentof the Philosophical Research Society, for permission to reproduce the English version of plare 39 from his The Secret Teachings of All Ages, Photographic acknowledgments are due to the Bodleian Library, Oxford; Stjohn's Go'llege Library, Oxford; the British Library, London; the National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh; the Library of the Colleqe of Physicians, Philadelphia,



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1 IV V 20 34 42 54 68 Cabbala Pyramids and Monochords Wilnds and Weather-g!lasses Man. the Microcosm The Ape of Nature The Microcosmic Arts VI VII 76 88 BIBUOGRAPHY 93 .Contents INTRODUCTION 5 PLATES The Macrocosm II 11.


HIS father was Sir Thomas Fludd. Bearsted. Fludd was born and bred an Elizabethan. The magic of these pictures is that they remind us of the possibiiitv. One cannot help wonderIng what this tough and successful man of the world thought of the career and interests of Robert himself. when he entered St John's College. jf one can so call it. So much we learn from the commemorative plaque placed by Robert In Bearsted Parish Church. and retired to his horne in Kent : Milgate House. and fears and hopes were rife throughout Europe" In England. How different his vision must have been from the common one of our own time. who laid the foundation for a philosophical separation of matter from Intelligence which stili holds the race In thrall. Oxf o rd : a Citadel of High Church allegiance in a university that was generally Calvinistic In leanings There (Opposite) Matt/lieu Phllosophl~ Robert Fludd bV MeHan Sacra. and the time of 'Renaissance men' was all but past. the hour-hands of the cosmic clock which usher In new epochs and crumble old orders. which also records the marriages of Sir Thomas's other children to knights and gentlefolk. Only now. which though largely rebuilt In the eighteenth century still retains part of the sixteenth-century building Here Sir Thomas lived until his death In 1607. and from the barbarous North rode James Stuart. a wend king who loved learning and lechery. The spiral of human development is leading many people back to a world-vlCw not so very different from Fludd's.Introduction At the start of the seventeenth century the world was still fraught with wonders and nothing seemed impossible. the younger son of a Shropshire family who had made his own way through a career of military administration. the knowledge won through the SCientific Revolution is ready to be incorporated Into a new system that again takes account of rnetaohvsical realities. had reached its zenith. Our knowledge of Robert is a blank from his birth in 1574 until 1592. New stars suddenly appeared the next year In the constellations of the Serpent and the Swan. of a cosmic view free alike from the myopia of materialism and the absurdities of naive spiritualism. of whom Paul Arnold says In his Histoire that 'his Impetuous character and his thirst for knowledge far removed him from the peaceable life of a gentleman farmer'. in the last quarter of our century.and the relations between them. For his services he received a knighthood. thanks to the amazing results that experimental science has wrought in the phvsical world.of macrocosm and micro cosm . the long reign of the Tudors came to an end. Robert Fludd was such a man He lived at the very end of the era In which it was possible for one mind to encompass the whole of learning HIS was one of the last attempts to do so. In December 1603 there was a conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter. Britain's Renaissance. he could envisage one that passed through a few well defined regions and then terminated In the utter simplex of God This unitied VISion was sundered in his own life-time by Descartes. and hated witches and weapons. In place of an infinite material cosmos expanding in all directions beyond hope of description. yet (as IS the way with spirals) a little more advanced. respected and esteemed by all. from /676 . Indeed the imminence. acting as Justice of the Peace. and he betravs something approaching despair in his endlessly elaborated plans for a magnum opus that was never finished" HIS goal was nothing less than to summarize the knowledge of both the universe and man . riSing from the humble post of victualler for the Berwick-onTweed garrison to that of Treasurer for Her Majestvs forces In the Netherlands.

' ~ Lorraine. I thanked him for hIS advice (UCH I. saying [hat I could not have solved this cnrne Without demonic ald. One Tuesday a young man from Magdalen came to see me. President of Corpus and an expert in Hebrew and rabbinical studies. later physician to James I and a lifelong friend of both Laud and Fludd. Fludd was sufficiently versed In music to compose his treatise on the subject. but he swore that he had touched nothing of mine Next I sent my servant to speak to the boy who had accompanied my visitor on that day. and since Mercury had been in the house of Venus. It was de It a nd scabbard. and while dressing for the occasion I could not find my val u able sword . de Cadenet. that accorded with the association with music and women. and Paddy later presented his college with an organ as well as with copies of some of Fludd's works. On thinking this over I remembered my guest of Tuesday. and I received my stolen property wrapped in two beautiful parchments. b. 701-3) Pridinq himself on having always remained an 'unstained virgin'.ois. It emerged that the music-house near Christ Church was the lair of a receiver of stolen goods who had robbed many degenerate scholars. and Sir William Paddy.. Spain. I sent my servant to approach him politely. mathematician of Trinity and a collector of medieval manuscripts. whose college lay directly to the east of St John's. I scarcely left my room for a week on end. He rvarrie s son\c of his pupils as Charles de . Both were concerned for the restoration of music to its proper place in the Anglican liturgy. and had become expert in mundane and horary astrology He tells one of his few anecdotes In this connection: While I was workmg on my music treatise. After this the boy was taken into the presence of his companion and flung to the ground. and with harsh words and threats he made him confess that he had stolen the goods and taken them to a place I knew near Christ Church where people listened to music and consorted with women This confirmed my conjecture that the place was to the south of SI John's. and begged my servant 10 say no more: he promised to retneve the belt and scabbard on the following day This was done. and his brother Frant. Others who may well have influenced Fludd as an undergraduate were Dr John Hainoldes. then left England for the Continent where he travelled for nearly SIX years in France. worth ten French gold pieces. He swore that he had Indeed committed the crime. and sexual desire figured in his philosophy as the very cause of man's Fall He remained at Oxford until after hts Master of Arts degree in 1598. wasting them with gluttony and womanizing My friend implored me to desist from the study of astrology. ~ '. the Marquis and one Reinaud of Aviqnon. and Thomas Allen. and deduced from the position of Mercury and other features that the thief was a talkative youth situated In the East. I therefore drew up a horary chart for the moment at which I had noticed the loss. pp. later Archbishop of Canterbury. while the stolen goods must now be in the South. 6 . By the time he graduated Bachelorof Arts in 1596. and dined in my room The following Sunday I was invited to dine with a friend from the town. but with no success. Italy and Germany. I asked everyone in college If they knew anything about It. supported by his father and working as a tutor In aristocratic laml\\cs.he would have known William Laud. fourth Vicomte Due de Guise. Fludd had little sympathy for the frailties of the flesh.

He was certainly in Leghorn and Rome. was against surgery and in favour of treating like With like' a pnnciple accepted III vaccinanon and the very baSIS of homoeopathy. Traditional medicine. 'prating about himself and his chemical medrcincs and heaping contempt on the Galenic doctors'. still based largely on the balancing of the four humours (choleric. was thrice exarnined. It seems fair to assume that Fludd's vocation as a physician formed Itself during these years of roaming. already evident in his hobby of astrology. where he was to tutor the Guises Our Information on his further travels is very slim. But his allegiance to Paracelsian principles soon led him Into difficulties With the medical establishment. and the wandering scholar made a new and influential friend He said that he was sorry to have to leave Avignon for Marseilles. HIS was a holistic healing system that treated the patient first and the disease not Just the physical body but the subtler a doctor Ignorant of astrology IS nothing too. he was exhibiting all the zeal of a recent convert. In February 1606 he was examined a second urne. and by May 1605 was able to pass his Bachelor and Doctorate of Medicine. and re-admitted as a candidate in December In March 1608. the Historv of the Macrocosm and the Microcosm (Utriusoue Cosmi . he again 'conducted himself so insolentlv as to offend everyone'. Oxford. and according to the College's records. He must have returned to Italy. where he compiled his knowledge of engineering into a treatise for Reinaud. Not until September 1609 was he finally admitted a Fellow in good standing One feels a little sorry for his father. where he met one 'Grutherus'. and was once more rejected. a system of divination from the panorns of thrown pebbles. for In 1607 he met William Harvey In Padua. his name was removed from the roll and he was told to behave himself better. and its practitioners were looked upon askance by the established physicians.In Aviqnon that he was delayed durinq the winter 01 1601 2 while hop 1119 to cross the Alps into Italy. of the subtle bodies through by such as C Ci Jung. Paracclsuss 'chcrnicat' medicine compared with the prevailing Galenic medicine much as hvmoeopathy does nowadays with allopathy. So in 1607 he had to apply again. and scmJ that better than a quack Here. he was thought not unlearned and therefore allowed to practise medicine' By May. sanqu. He failed his first examination by the Colleqe of Phvsicians and was not allowed to practise. 'Although he did not give full satisfaction In the examinations. led him into Paracelsian medical circles on the Continent. Fludd entered Christ Church. who died In the midst of these ernbarrassinq proceadinqs The years after Fludd's return to England were also spent asscrnblinq his assorted treatises and teaching notes Into what was to become his major work. This would have been before his sojourn in Avignon. his ideas are returning In the treatment radionics and the respect paid to astrology always read his patients' horoscopes. Historia) More of an encyclopedia than a history 1 .ne. and tanqled with the Jesuits on the subject of geomancy. who On his return to England. thus he considered ones as well. second. and had not taken advantage of the diSCOveries which had been made as by products of alchemy Paracelsus like present day practitioners of fringe medicine. They disapproved of the science and tried to discredit him with the Papal Vice-Legate But that gentleman turned out to be an even better qcornancer than Fludd himself. a SWISS in the employ of Cardinal Sextus Giorgio who taught him engineering and the use of the weapon salve and other 'rnaqnetic medicines. phlegmatic and melancholic). had made little progress since the time of Galen himself (second century AD). and that his leanings towards the occult.

till by his elevated expressions he operated them into a fa ith . the eminent lawyer and the modern sense. to both of which he gave 8 . before 1604. milking a most Impressive achievement for a man of thirty. wh IC h co nseq uently contri buted to the well working of the physic' Obviously he was something of a psychic healer. and he eviderittv wrote fast He assures us that he had completed the macrocosmic volume bur or five years before he first heard of the ROSicrucians. Fludd set up his medical pract. this massive work was Intended to cover in ItS first volume the macrocosm-what we would call the external worldin two divisions: God's works. and Anthony a Wood that 'he spoke to his patients amusing them with I know not what. Otherwise. He says that he prepared the one on arithmetic for Charles. which for Fludd included things as disparate as mUSIC and fortification. Finallv. This dates them all. the whole world was his concern. Plato and the Neoplatonists) only in Ficinos Latin translations. and the physical body Itself) and his own inventions which lead to self knowledge (palmistry. Those on music and the art of memory were written for the Marquis de Orizcn The book on cosmography was dedicated to Fludd's father. [the patients'] fancy or f aith natural was much advanced by his elevated expressions'. He used several techniques of diagnosis. man's are the arts and sciences. and those on geometry. attributed his success merely to his bedside manner' Thomas Fuller wrote that 'seeing conceit is very contributive to the well working of phYSIC. to help him in his observations abroad. his standinq Improved to the point of his serving frequently as their Censor (examiner) Much of his medical approach can be deduced from his own treatises. His early biographers. the microcosm. and of those he knew the Greek ones (the Corpus Hermeticurn. and the one on qeomancy to the Papal Vice-Legate mentioned above. etc) The only major fields of Renaissance learning which Fludd never touched upon were con troversial theology and classical philology As a broad-minded man who was proud that his Writings were acceptable to Calvinists. and Included both man's God-given faculties (such as prophecy. horoscopy. by 1612 at the very latest We can date some of the treatises more precisely with the help of the introduction to the second part of this volume. living first in Fenchurch Street and later in Coleman Street. notably the several parts of Medicina Catholica. that IS. and he could discuss the pracn caiities of eng ineen ng as authoritatively as the mysteries which were closer to his heart A tremendous enthusiasm and a voracious appetite for detailed knowledge mark all Fludd's encvclopedic works. who discovered the circulation of the blood> Once his initial sparring with the College of Phvsicians was over. and man's. Among his patients he could count John Selden. geomancy. the astrological and engineering treatises were prepared for Reinaud of Avignon. Anglicans and Catholics alike. including the time honoured methods of feeling the patients' pulses and exarrumnq their urrne. knowledge of higher worlds. He was successful enough to employ his own apothecary -doubtless a necessity for a Paracelsian phvsician whose herbal and chemical remedies were not compounded by every pharmacist. and among his close Iriends William Harvey. Duc de Guise. perspective and military science for his brother Francois. In substance If not In their final form. he had no time for the issues that divided them.natural. misunderstandinq his medica! m London. astroloqy and perspective-drawing. God's works are the creation and sustenance of the universe and all Its inhabitants. The second volume was devoted to man himself. he seems to have been Interested only in the philosophical works. As for Greek and Latin literature.

p. William Foster. Into the circle of masquemakers who flourished in the early Stuart court Many of the machines and fountains In his engineering treatise are desiqned for frivolous or entertaining purposes. that he gained the ear of the King himself. an ointment with which one anoints not the wound but the article that caused it. are all the sufferer will find in his books. But unfortunately he wrote little of treatment: a few recipes and rules of life. hissed and spat flames at the ox' which he claims supports the conjectures of the World) and Thomas in Tractatus Apo!ogeticus to have constructed himself. to whom he dedicated his first major work ? It seems that this. too. 9 . (Quoted In Peuckert. it should be taken. and from a man who has died a violent death. When in addition he tells us that his mechanical musical instruments were well received by the royal musicians. waiting to acquire the material for a new magnet Among the other prominent flgures of the early seventeenth century with whom Fludd has been associated. but some of those surrounding the paranoid king may have whispered rumours of Witchcraft when they saw the work With ItS mysterious illustrations. Theatre Campion (see Barton). Was It through this channel or through Sir William Paddy. and a great many prayers. and said in his reply to Foster that he 'recetved from that time forward many gracious favours of him. This generated a lively controversy after Fludd published the recipe In Anatomiae Amphitheatrum. sc. the Royal Physician. (James died In 1625) Two manuscripts addressed to the King between 1617 and 1620. which addressed him with the Hermetic epithet Fer maximus ('thrice greatest'}. supporting his views With letters from sympathetic Ioreiq n sc ho la rs. strong circumstantial evidence that he knew Inigo Jones (see Yates. One exception is the weapon-salve. and found him my just and kingly patron all the days of his life'. Fludd was summoned by James to reply to his calumniators. and we came to discuss these things. as was his wont. through his patients' horoscopes and calculated their critical days from planetary transits. through his interest In machinery and mUSIC. This brought him. also show Fludd in a defensive position.a thorough if idiosyncratic philosophical grounding He diagnosed. Gebelie. from a body still warm. thereby annoying an obscure parish priest. and a dragon that moved. who attacked it with his Sponge to Wipe Away the Weapon-Salve And this was not the only 'magnetic' remedy in Fludd's medicine-bag The mysterious Scottish doctor William Maxwell was apparently close enough to Fludd to learn some of his darker secrets: When I was vismnq Dr Robert Fludd last year with my friend Stafford. very sagaciously but also secretively about this art [of magnetic healing] Among other things he was able to tell me of the wonders of a magnet which I had heard of but never myself tried it had such power of attraction that when he applied It to his heart it drew him with such force that he could not have held out for long. 271) It IS hard to visualize the gentle doctor lurking at Tyburn. The Fluddian magnet is nothing other than dessicated human flesh. Dr Fludd spoke. which certainly possesses the greatest attractive power.alpel in hand. the first part of the History of the Macrocosm. it seems more than likely that his rnultitarious talents were called upon by the producers of the masques in designing their stage effects. James had accepted the fulsome dedication. If possible. like the 'wooden ox that lowed and moved. entitled Decleretio Brevis and A Philosophicall Key. created something of a stir on Its appearance in 1617.

the primordial wisdom of mankind whose traces are found everywhere but in the 10 . of whose Church the manifestoes were harshly critical. So apparently the secret society of ROSicrucians had never really existed. it is presupposed in Fludd's works and in those of the alchemists. a theological discussion of life. and the Tractatus Tbeotoqo-Phitosoptucus.microcosmic harmony. The violent reaction to their jeu d'esprit scared them. whatever bodies were founded subsequently that bore the name. it reappears In the more esoteric aspects of Freemasonry and becomes the basis for Theosophy It is a philosophic child of Neoplatorusrn. opposed reconciled insect on the may represent as solar of which are rose. or anyone else. In 1615 and 1616 Andreas Libavius issued works denigrating the Rosicrucians' doctrines as expressed in the Fama and C ontessio. to secret in all doctrines such d In emanation be p ublicire works the as the theosophical cross. The enigmas surrounding the Rosicrucian manifestoes have attracted the efforts of many scholars. which sets out in miniature the philosophy and Intentions of hIS major works. and which sees the proper end of man as the direct knowledge of God ThIS kind of belief underlies the manifestoes. It forms. (see Biblroqraphv) Fludd first entered print. both by the philosophic S8. and the Wingless rose (a negative. aIso ded icated to the Brotherhood. and according to them we cannot properly call Fludd. Coming at a time when Catholics and Protestants were constantly at each other's throats.p. couched in alchemical symbolism. Next year.hatched History but with three small books occasioned by the Rosicrucian manifestoes. Cabbala. and John Dee. he issued the Tractatus Apologeticus. a Hosicrucian The fact remains. and their use of the Hermetic texts. with on a strung (he sign the solar Circle triumphs of metter over the cross may interpret saying gives bees that solace the motto 'spiritual to souls'. the idea of a religious reformation and recoricihation was welcomed by many. The Rose gives honey. of H. This he did in his Apologia Compendiaria of 1616. that there is a certain type of philosophy which combines the practical examination of nature WIth a spiritual view of the universe as an intelligent hierarchy of beings. which kindled such emotions of sympathy and antipathy. Paracelsus.' Rosicrucien (he bees was first This explicitly symbol of Joachim used at the head Frizius's Summum Bonum. The Chemical Wedding is a fairytale dsscribinq the experiences of Christian Rosenkreuz. especia IIy those of macro . however. in 1617. Tauler. Thomas a Kernpis. Thus far the scholars have disentangled the skein of Rosicrucian per sonalities. of septenerv were later Blavatsky the thorny resembling which (a seven circles of seven each alludes. while in his teens Philosophical sources for the manifestoes are traceable In the earlier mysticism of Joachim de Flore. and a close relative of the Eastern religions. were the Fama Fraternitatis of 1614. not with his long . and turned his efforts to the foundation of 'Christian Unions'. the Coniessio Fraternitatis R. an enlarged version of his Apologia. and stili they are not altogether solved. A rose with petals probability. death and resurrection. one of the bees. t. Andreae's circle supposedly sent out their works as a pleasant fiction. in short. calling it a silly Jest. a secret society which announced an imminent reformation of the whole world and invited prospective members to make themselves known. a branch of the 'Perennial Philosophy'. The Fama and Confessio purported to come from the Brothers of the Rosy Cross.: CP. the legendary founder of the Brotherhood. but rejected by the Catholics. however. Ruysbroek. These anonymous publications. C of 1615. magic. know/edge are a venerable webs divisions) The spiders' sevenfold grape arbour (also in the background. then adopted lor Fludd's Ctavis. so that Andreae disowned the affair. P The Rose surmounts whole of Venus in We as of whom symbol.The Rose and the Cross . which draws its wisdom from all possible sources. the Protestant utopist who later admitted to having written the Chemical Wedding In about 1604. spiaerr) lunar forces. fa (he positive. This was a criticism by implication of the very foundations of the massive work which Fludd already had in hand. l. also taking the opportunity to ask the Brotherhood to receive him as one of their number. and the Chvmische Hocnzeit Christisru Rosenkreuz of 1616. and naturally he felt urged to defend the Hosicrucians. with the serious purpose of pointing a way out of the agonizing religious controversies of the day.p. The Fama and Confessio probably came from a circle of scholars in Tubingen which surrounded Johann Valentin Andreae. books and events In the first three decades of the seventeenth century.

from the presses of Johann Theodore de Bry in the Palatinate region of Germany. beyond the seas. Volume I and the first part of Volume II were duly completed and published in rapid succession in 1617-20. 93). 93) By the time Philosophia Sacra appeared In 1626. Elector Palatine. The hopes of all those whose outlook could be described as 'Rosicrucian' were pinned on Frederick. His second major scheme. and his wife Elizabeth. smce their time Fludd's biography from 1617 onwards is scarcely more than his bibliography. Fludd's History of the Macrocosm and Microcosm. take on a new meaning when placed in their political setting. Of course it ISalways possible that the manifestoes achieved precisely what they purported to do. must have seemed like a bible of the Rosicrucian philosophy. with purposes and methods of its own. for better or worse. it was printed at no cost of mine. but. Frances Yates In The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. To the publisher whose press formed one of the main propaganda weapons of the reforming movement. the master plan was beyond repair. hopes that he could initiate the reform of which the Fama and Confessio spoke. a universal medical textbook in two volumes (see table. and heal the religious rifts that were. was the Medicine Cetholice. being Portion IV of Section I of Tractate II of Volume II. If that were the case. daughter of James I. To Fludd. has pieced together the tascinatinq story of De Brv 's work in Oppenheim and Frankfurt and its connection with the short reign of Frederick. and to find the cuts In copper. appearing posthumously in 1638 11 . but easily understood from a table (p. it may be that they were only interested in those people who could be trusted to reveal absolutely nothing. and no time was wasted in getting it Into print.modern West and its dependencies As It surfaced in the Europe of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries it has been called 'Rosicrucianism'. the De Sry firm's efficiency and experience must have come as a godsend. and Fludd wrote no more extensive works until the Philosophia Movseic«. Its parts came out from 1629 to 1631. beautifully illustrated with engravmgs by De Sry and his SWISS son-In-law Matthieu Merian. completing the first of two promised volumes. And I had 16 ccpres sent me over. 21) This sounds like royal patronape indeed. and there are worse labels for It Hence we may certainly say that Fludd's philosophy is Rosicrucian in spirit. too. for he says in his answer to Foster that 'our home-borne Printers demanded of me five hundred pounds to print the first volume. p. The huge works of Fludd and the alchemical emblem books of Michael Maier. The next few years saw the appearance of his History. No one has gone down in history as saying that they were contacted by the Rosicrucians and enrolled In the Brotherhood. but if the alms and activities of the Brothers were deliberately kept secret. by now probably nearing completion. and that as I would wish. somewhat less ambitious. we should never know what was really going on. Then that. at the rate of one fat tome a year. and we must certainly admit that the whole world has been re-formed. was left unfinished. Sut the scale of the work then began to exceed all reasonable proportions as Fludd proceeded to divide and subdivide it in a way too complicated to describe in words. only to launch a new one three years later. even if he never belonged to the Brotherhood if there was a Brotherhood. as an unexpected gratuitie for it' (p. soon to spilt Central Europe apart with the Thirty Years' War. We could only surmise that behind the known Rosicrucian philosophers like Maier and Fludd there may have been an even more esoteric group. with 40 pounds in gold. and Fludd abandoned It. a fairly succinct summation of his philosophy. alas.

Fludd died at his home In Coleman Street on 8 September 1637. published 1630. The idea that a picture could show what words could not tell also lay behind the beautifully illustrated alchemical texts which appeared In great numbers in the fifty years around 1600 When woodcuts gave way to copper engravings as the favourite means of printing such pictures. in which g raph ic mater: al played such a prominent part. Gassendi and Lanovius In C/avis Philosophiae. Several f actors had conspired to prepa re the ground for this approach. especially when compared with major productions like De Naturae Simia (798 pp. I have already mentioned the defensive positions of his early Rosicrucian works. First there was the immense popularity of emblem books. apparently In order to match Fludd's other works. and was buried In Bearsted Church. William Foster attacks the weapon-salve In Hoplocrisme- Fludd answers Foster in Doctor Fludd's Answer unto M Foster. Lanovius (Francois de La Noue) condemns Hudr' in Judicium Ftuddo. Issued as part of Anatomiae Amphitheatrum Marin Mersenne attacks Fludd and the Hermetic philosophy In Quaestiones celeberrimae If? Genesim. 1629 Fludd answers Mersenne In Soohise Cum Marla Certamen Joachim Frizius answers Mersenne in Summum Bonum 1630 Pierre Gassendi supports Mersennes views In Epistotics exer1628 de Roberto citetio. aged sixty-three.H IS at her books are best understood as Incidental to his two great compendia. and indeed his books are not easy to read. Most of these are slight works. prompted for the most part by an almost pathological sensi tivitv to criticism. and continued until well on In the seventeenth century. are as follows: 1619 Johannes Kepler criticizes Fludd's ideas of world harmony In his Harmonices mundi 1621 Fludd answers Kepler in s/eritetis Proscenium. 1633 Fludd answers Mersenne. and of the manuscript trCJtlSCS Oecteretio Brevis and A Philosophicall Key. His other controversial writings. with which they arc sometimes bound. the quality of illustration improved markedly: a 12 . with thei r prompters. although it was moved from the chancel to the vestry by a disapproving vicar towards the end of the nineteenth century The name of Robert Fludd soon passed as a mere catchword for arcane and Incomprehensible philosophy. in which pictorial symbols were combined With mottoes and poems to make an ethical or philosophical point or just for the sake of a conceit. His greatest inspirations lie not so much in his words as in the illustrat ions wh ich he desiq ned to accompa ny them. Patrick Scot disparages alchemy In The Tillage ot Light 1624? Fludd answers Scot In a manuscript entitled Truth's Golden Harrow. Innumerable emblem books followed on the proto type.) or Integrum Morborum My sterium (532 pp). 1623 Fludd answers Kepler again in Monochordum Mundi. 1621/2 Kepler answers with his Prodromus dissertstionum cosmographicum. The handsome monument desiqned by him and erected by his nephew Thomas may still be seen there. Alciati's Emblemata (1531). They were pn nted in fol io format. 1631 spongus.

but the subsequent parts were probably done by Matthieu Menan. or fight and conflict with one another. namely Why God rn his secret sense or mental! intent did raise up and ordain out of the Informed matter or Ideally delineated 111 himself. which doth not communicate With badness (111 so much that God hi mself is not withou t an adversary) veri Iy It is too occ ult a Caball to be explained by mortal! capacity. which IS the finall cause. and clean extinguish all enmity out of the world. it can either remain In itself. on the other hand. or thus or after this fashion. it has a dual power. so that there IS found nothing which particip ateth of goodness. to cause thereby that all things in the world. should be put Into a mutuall dissonance. shall be discovered So that as two contrarieties or discords. for it gives the whole universe being and sustains It with all its creatures. So also these two dissonant branches or confusion of Unities. Fludd's gift tor summarizing lengthy explanations in diagrammatic form makes it possible to understand much of his philosophy from his engravings alone. But although it is a perfect unity. God's active state. being that it may well be esteemed the profoundest secret of all the divine mysteries . who Signed the sympathetic portrait of Fludd in Philosophia Sacra (our frontispiece) and the title-page of De Naturae Simia (plate 95).change for which Theodore de Bry. which will come to pass. these two contrarieties. Touching the explication of this most profound Sphv nqien Riddle or abstruse question. but I have annotated them in order to make them comprehensible to those who are unfamiliar with Latin or with Rosicrucian doctrines. the parent of all the evils and discord In the world. The Cabbalists call both these powers by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. But since God's unity Includes it. Just as the Absolute can never be described. but It IS appropriate here to give a brief summary of what he believed and why his work IS valuable [0 people of the twentieth century At the head of Fludd's cosmos is one Absolute God. is obviously good. for then that high mystery. The task of tracing all the sources and descendants of his philosophy would demand a much larger work than this. in which there will be found no dissonancy (p 144) 13 . when the seventh Seal shall be opened. namely Light and Darkness from one Divine Essence. why and for what end God's Providence Will by these two OPPOSltSreveal it self. impersonal principle is beyond the distinctions of goed and evil. we must accept it as an aspect of him and hence ultimately good. or It can act.. Fludd expresses the problem thus H1 his Mossicelt Ptnlosophv . But it behoveth the zealous to refer all this unto the time when the secrets shall be discovered. neither verily doth it become us of our selves to enquire why God made this or that. It IS the source of Satan and the demons who trouble the world and fight perpetually against the angels of light. distinguishing them as the 'Light Aleph' and the 'Dark Aleph' Fludd says that God's dark side seems like an abyss of chaos. that is to say. Johann Theodore de Bry himself engraved the first part of Fludd's History of the Macrocosm. the most copiously Illustrated of all his treatises. contained III a state of potentiality. whom he usually represents by the Hebrew Tetragrammaton YHVH. This supreme. was largely responsible through his massive illustrated books describing America and other recent discoveries. proceeded from one Unity Or unison. will at the last be reduced or return again into one harmonious Unity. which hath not his contrary. a word that IS never pronounced. father of Fludd's publisher Johann Theodore.

encircles both waters in its embrace. most pure and subtle. Far from being lifeless. eternal. the Microcosm. i. the elemental world. But there IS one level in particular which. extending inwards from the sphere of the Trinity as far as the sphere of the stars The substance of this region of the world IS so subtle and pure. both fixed and moving. the greater world that IS bounded and contained by the concavity of the Prirnurn Mobile' and this world IS. equally cornpounded of light and darkness into a substance we call ether. spiritual. intellectual and sempiternal. where darkness predominates over light. by the Will of God. on account of Its form. (3) As man. and the other cor14 . or the spirit of God. (2) As a noncelestia! body. At the beginning of his History of the Macrocosm Fludd describes the world and Its divisions. or Heaven. after whose model and divine image the beauty and form of the real world are constructed (as Bosthius says): and this world remains permanently in the divine mind. Martianus [Capella] has a threefold interpretation of the word 'world' (1) As an archetype whose substance IS incorporeal. though not at the top of the hierarchy. is nevertheless particularly favoured by God Trus IS the Sun. the empyrean world. The va r. and the primary substance of light contained. and from this secondary residence his active power radiates anew to all the lower realms. planets and demons. all these worlds are thronged with beings: the empyrean With angels. exceed i ng and finally exnnq u ishi ng it. material spaces. But in the outer reaches of God's illumination.Fludd was very Interested In the process of creation. the darkness gradually preva iled ave r I ight. or a Macrocosm: for the spiritual light. In two principal parts: the higher one incorporeal. In that It desiqriares the entire space of prime matter as a world. the Bible and the Corpus Hermettcum He explains the creation of the universe as the result of a ray of God's active light sent out into the void and diminishing gradually as it went farther from him. and In its highest stage spiritual The middle region is adorned by stars. liquid and solid. All these creatures partake of God's light in measure according to their place on the hierarchy. which is placed at the crucial midpoint of the chain of being. where spi n t and matter are In perfect eq uity and ba la n ce God has made the Sun his tabernacle. Hence the Philosophers call it intellectual. The first is to be distinguished from man. on all levels. plants and minerals. and IS said to be perpetual In form but corruptible In body We differ little from Martianuss opinion In treating the world as duplex: the Macrocosm and the Microcosm. invisible. the ethereal world. who is called the lesser world. and anxious to find the common ground of the creation myths In the two books he most respected. and occupies the concavity between the spheres of the Primum Mobile and that of the moon. of which there are three main divisions : first. gaseous. third. producing the traditional four states of matter: fiery.e. the elemental with men. the less matter could exist in its presence. This portion of the abyss IS composed of a circle of manifold lights and darknesses. the world-mass. divided Into three regions according to their degrees of purrtv and Impurity The highest is the region of the world where the igneous spirit is prepared. that It IS altogether Imperceptible to our senses. the ethereal with stars. a Cosmos. the latter taking the form of exceedingly rarefied rnatrer : second. The stronger the ray. Around it the darkness coalesced In the form of matter. where light exceeds darkness. animals. Thence proceeds the manifest region.ous cornpounds of SPIrit and matter became worlds and regions of worlds.

or the holy Spirit of intelligence. 1. says ministers. This immaculate Nymph desires assiduously the presence. or whether God himself is she. that she IS surrounded with the perpetual splendour of eternal Life and protected with the sword of blazing light against the Invasions of the impIOUS. obedient to the maker of the Earthly Paradise and of herself. since the airy virtue of the admirable Father and Son. the Archangel Michael.. society and assistance of her Deiforrn spouse. immaculate dove and friend. The scriptures qenerallv call the middle region the othero a! or 'lucid' heaven. for the devils were beaten down from the empyrean heaven by the Archangel Michael and his hosts before the lower worlds were ever created. which IS the Igneous love havinq the virtue of the Father and the Word. The angels Fludd. and God the Son. which he called Paradise. nlHj Catholic by the Vii gin Mary Protestants. a flashing Spirit of Wisdom. are borne Into these three are the servants of his light aspect. that she may lead her work to still greater perfec tion. of whom Flu(jd writes III the early Trect etus Ibeotoqo. 5) Similarly the Spirit of the Lord. for I am sick with love' (Song of Solomon. Nature is the feminine. for it IS filled with spiritual fire or the substance of light And It was Into that thitd heaven. has placed its tabernacle in her. that Saint Paul was taken in the spint. tenuous IS aqa. so imbued IS she with his Word and with supercelestial Nectar. that some have wondered whether this splendid Nature. that is. or simply 'heaven' (UCH I. projecting its igneous seeds Into the matrix of the universal waters . Therefore the Philosopher in his sacred sermon also says 'Out of the light a Word was made and descended on Nature. . pp 45-6) God's powers.. 5). Fludd's theogony and angelology are complicated and mtcrtwrnco in such a way that some very remarkable conclusions emerge. 2. the Cabbalists' Metatron. His most Important concepts are those of Nature. to whom it is given to know the 'Word that shineth in the darkness and by whom all things were made' This noble and most pure Virgin is decked With such divine light.n divided and Incorruptible. They are not exactly equal. She reveals her essence and virtue to none but the sons of God. middle This corporeal region one IS subtle. is that true and supercelestial desire. warming her' iPimender. the Messiah. whose chosen daughter is the immaculate Psyche and bride of the bridegroom. speaks to her beloved from the depths of her desire. the Anima Mundi (World Soul). was borne over the waters and gave them ItS fiery vigour. (pp 36 7) A feminine In aspect Christianitv of divinity this IS IS an Ingredient supplied of most rellqlor1s.poreal. worlds by his and the devils of his darkness. Happy is he who shall taste of her limpid waters. maternal principle. and to the holy Spirit of wisdom. gross and reeki ng of corrup tion These the ancient Philosophers call the regions of the Macro co srn. however. and Mich<lel then took up his abode in the Sun. Into two parts : the and the lower is the su bl u nary or elemental reg io n.. impu re. and the Scriptures call the Heavens But they call the highest one the Empyrean or fiery heaven. this Psyche. two parallel hierarchies which strive perpetually one against the other. Thus this most fair sister. minister of life to all creatures.Philosophicus : This Nature IS the noblest daughter of the Creator. 15 . a. into the womb of Phvsis. So this burning love. for he will be exalted with the splendour of the Word and the rays of the Spirit's teaching . comfort me With apples. IS herself God. 'stay me with flowers.

and Fludd's account takes on new clarity when associated with the Hindu duality of Purusha and Prakriti. and hath Its being. turning it from a potential state to an active one. and nonAnd this therefore was existence. and the members thereof' to reduce them from deformity. there is no Purusha. the cosmic substance which is formless and void until the cosmic thought of Purusha enters and inseminates it. and so on. ISthe divine mentall emanation absolutely in It self. In order for a human being to know her. An exclusively male god does not warm the emotions of many people. this divine light IS its very soul. which sustain any cosmic entity. absolute Brahma. by which it liveth. and operateth all. and Centrall or mental soul of the world. which in Hinduism is called 'bhakti'. From that union. is more often directed to an all-Iovinq female figure. and the way of divine love. Nature in her highest aspect IS Prakrrti. He describes thus the origin of the World Soul' the Logos gives off an emanation of light which IS the 'Eternal Spirit of Wisdom'. where the manifested Logos or Word finds in Virgin Nature its field of activity.. or Mens divina in mundo [the divine Mind in the world]. This creative pnnciple [Purusha] infuses the humid chaos [Prakriti]. have rejected the deification of the Virgin Mother. and not from either principle alone. cal! their loss. but they do not thereby annul the psychological and spiritual need for her. From the world's point of view. he must unify his soh ntered perception sand expene nee the pu re presentat Ion of knowledge as a whole. and consequently the essential! life. and no world. but that which doth animate or vivifie a body or spirit: why then should not the catho lick divine Spirit which filleth all. be tearrned the fountain of the world's life. is nothing else but that universalt Spirit of Wlsdome which God sent out of his own mouth. so alien to conventional theology. rnovmp the created humid spirit thereof (p 150) Fludd recognized that the Jewish Cabbala described exactly the same principle as Metatron. as the greatest gift and token of his benignity unto each world. In the words of the Moss. . 'the soul of the world. This principle. which he translates as the 'gift of God'. and in all. no Prakriti. She comprises the potential creative forces that will go to make a universe. ISsimply a way of saying that the Absolute One must make a Second before a universe can be produced. a world can be born: for at the supreme level of the self-existent. thus transcending the world of Maya which is born from her In later works FIudd speaks less of Nat ure and more of the World Soul This IS the same thing: the creative forces of light. so that It becomes the substratum for the world. He describes her in metaphysical terms as God's first creation and also his spouse. Fludd's eloquent praise of Nature shows that she is such a figure to him. once they are 'known' by the Logos. These profound principles have been studied and described more systematically in the East than in the modern West. the One without a Second. whom they make the catholick intellectual Aqerit. simply taken. intellect. moveth. This Idea. Fludd seems In the above quotation to be speaking of a lower level of the primordial duality. being distinguished from the created spirit' (p 149) In the same chapter Fludd draws a parallel from the individual soul That Anima is nothing else. will. Into act and formal I being tearmed rightly In the eies of wise men Mitsttron or Donum Dei cetho16 .

II. or. corner stone and universal rock. Flucid himself explains that these prrnciples are not all on the same level of being They are. Christ. Here he actually says that the Light Aleph is the Son. said that nothing could be more rrnpio us than Fludd's doctrine. beyond which there IS no progression (p ]04) 17 . his most Virulent opponent. p. What is more. exalted JS they are. and "Word" of the Prophets and Apostles as the true Soul of the World. and who on occasion descend as Messiahs. arc obviously not the same as the Absolute Principle of the whole universe. Modern phvsicists would have to agree in principle. and "Messiah" of the Christians. in which is the light of Ensoph. Fludd seems to have known intuitive lv what esoteric doctrines have taught in every culture. which reduceth the Somethinq (pp 151 2) universal I Nothing Into a universall That Fludd considered this principle to be none other than the second person of the Christian Trinity ernerqes from statements in his answer to Kepler. or Light. pnnted with Anatomiae Amphitbeetrum. Avatars and Christs These beings. which IS understood to be mixed into all things. Buddhas. Chaldaean. or the Word. squared and cubed . 'And the Platonists accept this "Wisdom" of the Hebrews. which signifies the living God. and the Soul of the Messiah In the Angelic world. 441) What outraged Mersenne was the Idea that Christ should be reduced to parity With the World Soul. All souls. are none other than particles of this same Soul Thrs Soul IS also the Angel Michael or Miseuron. thus does Mettatron in the celestial world. and "Mittatron" of the Cabbalists. havinq discovered that matter is nothing but quasi-mathematical entities in a state of vibranon. ' (pp 302 3) The reference here IS to tile description of the world's creation In Plato's Timeous where. which could see the essential truth In any doctrine. and Adonai in the Archetypal [world]. a mere angel But although In the seventeenth century It WJS danqero us to say as much. that there are great beings who watch over the planetary bodies. And to the degree to which the active intellect of Mind is the light of the soul.ett res. rather. Plato shows how the universe IS orqaniz ed mathematically and harmonically. whom they say filled harmonically all tho Intervals of tho world In throes.ticum. whose light is the Soul of the Messiah or of the Tetragrammaton's virtue. different manifestations of a single prm ciplc in different worlds. In Ptutosophis Mov seics he also writes The more secret Theologians and those most expert in true Cabbala say that Just as Mind has domination In the human Soul. Hebrew or Christian Marin Merscnne. signifying the infinity of Divinity The world's soul IS therefore Metta tron. but JOined to evil material. whether of men or of brutes. in which is the light of the living God. and the light of Adonai is Ensoph. Saviour. even so the light of that same Mettatron or World's Soul is Sadai. following Pythagorean number theory.. worse. the same SOUl IS the true Messiah. where he rules from the Sun. which he summarized thus Compounded from God and this ethereal Spirit is the Anima Mundi The purest part of this Soul IS the Anqelic nature and the Empyrean heaven. whether Greek. on which the Church and all salvation are founded (Mersunnes l. But Fludd's Catholic critics objected to his syncretistic mind. The Dernons are part of the same essence. or Wisdom. and the light of the Messiah's soul IS Etchai.

Shakespeare. who rules in the En Soph the Infinite Elchai the living Sadai all-powerful Mind God . therefore If one understands the lesser cosmos."_-- " " world _" i " I Metatron Anima Mundi Human Soul " Celestial world a I7d rules (here Space does not permit a fuller discussion of this subject. and of the Hermetic axiom. and his firm grasp of the theory of multiple states of being All three features set him apart from the dominant philosophical and theological concerns of his own day and of the centuries that followed Yet these are preciselv the things that have always separated esoteric thinkers from the simplistic and exclusive doctrines of exoteric religion. and nowhere are quantitative relationships so keenly felt as when they are manifested In music.' Modern science has disproved this venerable notion of correspondence to its own satisfaction. _. But Fludd would have been the first to protest that the matenal bodies of men and planets alike are their least important vehicles. and It will be the task of astrology in years to come to Identify. Ihe material. Readers who wish to pursue It in ItS cabbalistic aspect would do well to consult the definitions of these Hebrew names in Leo Schave's The Universal Meaning of the Kabbalah (1971).. knovvinq that the discords of Earth are resolved when our centre of consciousness rises to a h ig her level. _---_ Archetypal world Angelic . I have dwelt on these few areas of Fludd's thought to the exclusion of others because they illustrate his utter independence from sectarian Christian theology. one will comprehend the greater. The chords and Intervals which he heard between the levels of the universe may not be SCientifically demonstrable or even accurate. on a philosophical as well as a mundane level. . . Fludd also appreciated this. Shaddai for Sada/. where the spellings differ slightly. and arithmetic IS experienced as feeling. This IS the true meaning of the Creator's words in Genesis. As an inheritor of the Pythagorean. man IS a miniature universe and the universe is a great being. the ratio 2 3 flowers into the unmistakable sound of a perfect fifth. and so on Our modern experience With digital computers shows that more and more of our knowledge can be expressed as relationships between simple numbers. but expressed it in the life-enhanCing language of musical harmony.. 'Let us make man In our own image'.. through the Simple expedient of iqnorinq every level of beinq but one. Another of Fludd's deepest concerns was with the idea of harmony between rrucrocosrn and macrocosm According to this. his readiness to recognize wisdom wherever he saw II. in which nothing is related by chance and all is imbued With a harmony which we Will one day understand and hear for ourselves HIS contemporary.. EI hai for Etchei. Here quantity becomes quality. wrote that 'Such harmony is in immortal souls'.. The first and '18 1 . but they testify to his faith in an orderly world.This may be expressed ----_. : -- --_ . diagrammatically._ .. What really correspond vvuh the macrocosmic enunes are man's subtle bodies._ ._. the exact correspondences and their rne arunqs Harmony Implies relationships.Platonic tradition. is the light of Adonai the Lord Soul of the Messiah YHVH's Virtue _. 'That which IS above IS like unto that which IS below.

. Robert Fludd is a link in the chain of Christian esotericisrn which includes figures as disparate as Origen. but symbolically it is still entirely valid. The fact that he illustrates them with reference to a g:eocentric universe is irrelevant: the Ptolemaic system is not true physically. 19 . This is illustrated most impressively by Fludd's synthesis of both good and evil in the Absolute. Fludd used the former metaphor. found in Anatorniae Amphitheatrum (pp. returning with a new vision of its inexhaustible riches. The third feature is allied to the others. From ow position as embodied human beings on a physical earth. Eckhart Ficino. and this has brought upon him the incongruous label of 'materialist' from those to whom matter and mind are an irreconcilable dualitv. and he seems to have received his arcane knowledge not only from other writers but from the same source as all true theosophists before and since. for it involves a realization of the relativity of all standpoints: what is valid on one level may have to be sacrificed on a higher one. they approach the spiritual world directly. Such people are often at variance with the established Churches. to whose authority they offer the challenge of a personal revelation. published in London the seme year. which Fludd saw as the ultimate goal of man. Spenser. Whether Fludd was connected with any of these is 8 Question for specialists in this controversiet field. and almost identical 10 tnst used repeatedly in the tirst totto edition of Shakespeare's works. Manly P. Raleigh. and thus his work has always been prized as an inspired vehicle for universal truth.'Shakespearian' tellpiece. second features are natural for those who recognize that God and his wisdom are not the preserve of anv one sect or creed. but this requires a view of humanity and God that transcends one's immediate milieu: even more of a raritv in the seventeenth century than it is todav. Emerson and Steiner. 51. as well as to the existence of unseen higher worlds compounded either of finer states of matter (etherlc. 1'623. Hall and a/hers have remerked on the occurrence of similar or identical decorations in the King James Bible (T 611) and in early seventeenth-century publications of Bacon. Boehme.The writings of all traditions lend their support to this idea of the sours ascent.ard.) or simply of different states of mind. 285). 218. 250. Hildeg. lit was Fludd's virtue that he could present his vital teachings unmarred by his own psychology. The levels of being formthe principal subject of so many of his plates that they must have been Fludd's major concern. Cutting through the crvsralllzatlons of dogma. the universe does seem to turnaround us. and we each feel and behave as if we were the centre of it. and others associated with underground spiritual movements. and an escape from the 'earth' of OUf physical being and shackling ego . astral. Sbekespeere. Any expansion of consciousness is an ascent through the 'spheres' or spiritual states which the planets symbolize. etc.

UCH I. open on [he one hand to the Absolute: on the other entering the constricnnq vortex that is creanon. While Fludd did not accept 'the Copernican doctrine of the Sun as centre of the material universe. as the midpoint of the chain of being stretching 'rom Heaven to Earth. The Absolute creates bv limiting i'15own infinity. Nature producing nature: First comes Cosmic or World Mind (Mens). like Ficino he did accord It absolute primacy in the planetary order. a. and <I universal symbol the Supreme Deity. The 1 0' Sun in the sky. erc. The 20 . 19 2 The Ptoiemeic Universe I From the infinite light of God (Deus). see Bibliography The Solar Logos The Sun is the brightest object visible to mortal siqht.The Macrocosm The creation of the universe and the metepbvsicsl principles (h. IS God's most immediate manifestation on its particular level (see plate 39). like 'the heart In 'the human body. Page references are (0 the same book from which the plate is taken. p. For key to the abbreviated titles (UCH. in an aCI described by the caption: 'The simplex unl'ly. the firsl act. the beqmrunq : the startinq pornt . source of essences.). unless otherwise indicated.1I govern it Passages in the commentaries /0 the plates which are in Quotation marks are' either Fludd's own words or etse paraphrases of them. a sprral descends to the uttermost depths of matter. the Being of beings.

Wah 11. 219 21 . Virtues. Principalities. Thrones. we reach the sphere of the zodiac which encloses the seven Chaldean planets (12-18): Saturn.A/~ph. Mercury and Moon.lrom which the other 21 hypostases emanate In a threefold scheme. The third division is the sublunary region where all IS compounded of the four elements (19-22): fire. Powers. Venus. Sun. The turns 01 the spiral marked 2-10 are the nine orders of angels. Seraphim. Jupiter. Cherubim. air.lirst 01 the Hebrew lel!ers. UCH II. These mhabrt incorporeal. Dominations. Mars. mstaphvsical realms. p. Archangels and Angels. water and earth. the heaven of the fixed stars. The archetypes or intelligences that preside over each of '[he 'twenty-two spheres are Signified both by the Hebrew letters and by the winged heads. marks this beginning of beglnnings. a.

carves the Universe out of the clouds of nothingness. pp.Platoruc doctrine of the Threefold Sun. The three divisions are more clearly enunciated here The ninefold celestial hierarchy is divided rrno only three circles (probably corresponding to the Orphrc.PlatOniC divrsion of 'the Intelligible Gods. and disposes the planetary influences to the elemental realms. Silkworms. It is she who turns the sphere 01 'the stars. which in Fludd's day Included what we call SCiences. and Similar conjunctions of lesser gods with their consorts generate each descending level 0·1 existence. at whose behest she governs the subcalesnal worlds. a. astronomy. with the Koran. First of tho elements IS lrre . and at her feet between sulphur and mercury. cosmography. painting and Iorufrcaucn) euree Art supplanltng Nature m the ammal realm (apiculture. produces things snnilar to hers This Ape 01 Nature we call Art. then come air and water. her left in water. gold. Creation on every level requrres a tension between opposites. but the proximate minister 01 God. as It were. nourishing all creatures from her bosom. here It IS shown created as an instantaneous whole'. are man's means of making the Earth a happy and beaunlul place . who has ansen trorn human mqenuuv.. His conjunction with her produces the universe. We might say. lion. rnedicme) Art assls(lflg Nature in (he vegetable realm (teee-qraftinq. antimony. notice. Her Tight fool stands on earth. lead. appropriately stocked with birds. snail and fish) Vege/able (trees.3 3 The Ptolemaic Universe /I While the previous vrsrcn represented the cosmos as spiralling down from God.5 22 . that man IS God's vlcegerem upon Earth. Fire and air have their circles. down 1. are' the thrae realms of Nature Animal (coruammq pictures of dolphin. p 9 4 The Ptolemaic Universe III Whole of Nature and This most all 01 Fludd's cosmic the preVIOUS one in its general layout The subtunarv world is drawn in great detail. grapes. a. Wheat. g. his feminine creative power. soil) cultivation 01 the 'The Mirror of the the Image of Art' comprehensive of schemata follows Art correctinq Nature In tile mineral realm (distillation with alembic and retort] UCH I. woman. or the Invisible Fire of Heraclitus andZoroaster. for divulging' which the Emperor Julian met tus death m AD 364. Fludd's descnpnon 01 this plate centres on the Ilgure 01 Nature. I'n the picture he forms the terminus of the chain 01 being. she is God's 'Shakti'. 4-. snake. but he implies Ihe same princrples by rhe symbols of conjunction In Nature's womb between stellar influences and the mercurial spirit. mfused in her womb by 'the rnercuria! spirit (called by the philosophers the Spint of the Moon). whose influence. but water and earth are depicted as a realistic landscape on which stands NaWTe (see below).0 the very centre 01 the Earth. would not use this imagery. geomancy. and Intellectual Gods) The hxed stars and 'the seven planets follow. alcherrncsl language.lgnilymg 'the conjunction 01 sulphur and mercury without which nothing can be created ' (pp 7-8) Thus Fludd describes her in cryptic..eometry. music. has a helper who. Fludd.If he uses them rightly The circles of the arts are as follows Liberal Arts (. eagle. as a monotheist. In the form of a dove. s. that man [aces the Sun and woman the Moon The presence of three suns may' be II reference to the Orphic. imitating her. man. aruhrneuc. already conversinq with the serpent UCH I. Intelligible Intellectuals. to the stars and planets. erprmern and sal ammoniac. She is the Soul 01 the World (anima mundi}. bearing the same relation to Nature as she 10 God. too. on her belly the Moon. where he is entrusted With the task 01 looking alter thrs corner of the universe The arts. copper. In Hindu terminology. each ruled by the appropriate planet) The connections between the planetary and elementary worlds are shown by dotted hnes . In the picture she is Joined to God by a chain [the catena of Homer. tlowers and rOO'IS) M'tneral (talc. Nature. 'On her breast is the true' Sun. which descends through all the hierarchy of existence]. and: the symbols for thrs are manifold. of which Sun and Moon shed their light upon ths sublunary world. Her heart gives light. perspecuvedrawmg . Under the aegis of these elements. The SPirit of God. says Fludd. Ihen earth-and here II seems to be our terrestrial globe Itself at the dawn of creation. depicted as a beauurul Ilme·keepmg. and fishas. egg· hatctunq. is sent. silver. 'She is not a goddess. Adam and Eva are visible In the Gardan of Eden.

23 .

the rational soul in man. the Spirit 01 Mercury. neither moving nor still. the 'waterv spirits' beg. This light neither uncreated nor created. p. 29 'The prime matter. The light cloud in between is a mysterious state. It is called variously the Earth-spirit. p. 5 The Great Darkness 6 The Appeerence 'And! thus. divides into two.5 . the perfection 01 things being in proportion to its presence.. As i. p. a. the' Ether and the Oumtessence. to Infinity: 'What was there batore creation? Some first state of unformed matter (materia prima). while In the surrounding part dwells the active fire 01 love. neither' small nor large. without properties or inclinations. (p. The par!' furthest removed from the light (the dark cloud in the middle of the picture] remains in a state a" passivity. the vivifying virtue 0'1 the 'heavens.23-4) UCH I. without dimension or quantity.' (pp. in the darkness. It diminishes gradually on this descending scale. 27-9) Here is the lirst appearance of IIgh. and depicts itas the blackest a" clouds. neither spiritual nor corporeal.' Fludd leaves us to decide between them. is the intelliqerice of the angels. a. sends forth its virtue from the centre. and thus acts as the vehicle of the soul's descent into mailer: (pp. 30) UCH I. the darkest abyss.into separate into those nearer and those farther from rt. Paracelsus calls il the Great Mystery (Mvsterium Magnum) which he says is uncreated: others cl'aim i. 26 'Moses. and the life-force of the lower realms. a.t as God's first creation. 37 24 . (pp. extending from infinity to inflrutv. 11has the capacity to penetrate and alter bodies. fecundated by the divine ligh!. 35-6) UCH I. These are Ihe lower and the upper waters. 01 Light Prato and Hermes all agree in 7 The Division 01 the Waters calil'ing the first act 01 creation one of light.

49. a precious g. This is the light-filled empyrean. Following closely the book of Genesis. described by St John the Divine CIS 'a sea of glass. PS. Fludd himself makes the bowels in man equivaleruto the elemental realm in the universe (see plate 91). p.42) UCH I. p. 48-9) the resemblance of 'thistigure to the human tntestines. On the first day. proceeding from the primordial word FIAT {'let II be'}. and describes in detail the battle of the elements which was reproduced in the vessel. he savs. Fludd describes them CiS the products of the first three days of creation. mingled with fire' (Revelation 15. Manly P. Its base IS !.he crystalline sphere. a. 6-8) and the celestial firmament appeared. Fludd derived I. AA. in which the 'four elements fight against each other: hot against cold. UCH I. 157 25 . Hall has poimed out (Man. a. Onthe second dClYthe Spirit made lts second revolution (described in Genesis 1. as shown in [his plate. 41 9 The Central Sun Resolving the chaos of the preVIOUS plate. which on the third day would become the elemental realm. At the end. wet against dry. (p. they extracted from the centre of the mass a 'solar substance'. p.his image from an alchemical axpenrnent which he witnessed performed by a friend. p 23 10 'L et there be Light A second series of illustrations recapitulates the creation of the three realms' angelic (empyrean). with the words FIAT urx ('let there be light'}. the highest heaven appeared. air. water and earth. while in the centre appears the Sun. UCH I. dividing the upper waters (the empyrean) from the lower ones.10 8 The Chaos of the Etements The lower waters have now been stirred into a confused end 'undigested' mass. a. Each 'day' was defined by a circuit of the Spirit of God. celestial (ethereal) and elemental. 43. the elements arrange themselves into concentric Circles of fire. pp.em 'Iike Lucitertallen Irom heaven'. p. perceptible not to mortal eyes but only '10 the intellect.2).

s. in the elemental sphere. in the empyrean.Iy all !hinges were made. The ethereal sphere is 'the region of equality. p. AI'though closely related by position and quality to the ethereal substance 01 the celestial sphere.12 '111 The €mpyr. Without this ligh! no. This is also known as the' Quintessence and as spiritus. matter is supreme: (pp." Therevotutlons of the Spirit carved out spheres of light. UCH I. the one which contains the fixed stars and wandering planets. 58 26 . p. '55.ean Sphere 'The appearance of the first created Ilight. of the Spirit is reflected in the empyrean sphere as in a mirror.. a. dry fire by which all things are eventually led to putretectton. II is simply the hot. 'The uncreated light.ahis lis not the "invisible fire" 01 the philosophers bv which they . and it naturallv rises to the outermost region of the elemental sphere.t 59 The Ethereal Sphere 'The second day witnessed the creation of the ethereal sehere. p. illuminated. p. 55) We might say. in other words" that nothing: can exist if it is not held. Fire 'The 'finest and most volatile 01 the four materiateternents is lire'.62-3) UCH I. 63 UCH'" a. in the mind of God. from the primeval darkness.' (pp. lorm oredorntnatesand matter is totally absent. a substance free from the decay which affects the four tower elements. and these reflections are in turn thefirst manifestation of created light. 57-8) Thus begins the primal duality of tormand matter 12 13 The Elemental Spnere /. This orate shows the void that was yet 10 become the lower realms. It is constituted of 'ether. creation or creature could exist for a moment: (p. a. in which the formal and malarial qualities are held in balance. Below. surrounded by the empyrean after the first day of creation. Above. PS.

159-60) Here IS proof. p 69 15 16 The Creation of the Primum Mobile 'When the darkness had been dismissed to the region of the Earth. we depict it thus with the pen: (pp. and how il !riled the whole world before the CrealIon 01 the Sun. 66 The Elemental Sphere 11/: Air and Water In between the fire and earth spheres IS a zone compounded of earth's coldness mixed with fire's heat. as it were. to the very centre of the universe This plate shows it condensed Into (I dark ball In the middle of the fire-circle. Words fall him. a. 160 27 . a. No wonder that the Earth is such a vale of misery. enemy to God and man. It is the bearer of hrs Wisdom and will. 0 calesual creatures. thrice blessed and more beyond human telling: you are freed by the melfable power of light from the miseries and chams that shackle us!' (p.66). Humidity 1$ not so much an archetypal quality In Its own right as an me-dental state of matter not 'producuve' but 'dlstingulshing' between the two extremes. so he sketches hrs vision (for a VISion I[ must have been) of the protocosrruc light entennq the dark womb of the universe PS. and as the darkest and heaviest element it sinks. p. (pp 67-8) UCH I. inhabitants of the sweetest Paradise. God made the Pnmum Mobile which gives movement and hIe 10 all the mfenor spheres. Earth The qualities of earth are cold and dry. since it is formed from the very dregs of creation and contains Ihe Devil himself. p.14 The Elemental Sphere II. Three parts of Igneous heat and one 01 terrestrial coldness make up the element of air' the reverse proportions give water. If proof were needed. which are effected here below by Ihe angels For want of words to describe how God's Wisdom acts In Ihe Primum Mobile. says Fludd. that Fludd himself drew hrs diagrams. at least In rough. 'like the coitus of male with female' (p. 'But you. 65) UCH I.

' (oo. Obeying the law of gravity. We can see parallel phenomena on Earth in the phosphorescence 01 putre'fying wood and certain fish.h of plants. Fludd draws the parallel between the' ernerqence of the Sun and 'the upward growt. 28 . the end seeing t:hat spirit ascend violently by its own sun-qivan heat with its newly acquired lincture. since they can best make 'that light visible to 'the lower worlds. Therefore the brig. this celestial substance began to rise towards its rightful place in the' heavens. and it was thus that our Sun was formed. and observed its marvellous transmutation into Sol [gold?]. Here he gives a tantalizing glimpse into his own alchemical laboratory: 'I myself once extracted the spiritual humour from some most noble body. as also in stars will be' !he densest. both impelled by their indwellinq spiritus. 'We know that the empyrean light Is invisible to us unless fll'tered throug:h matter. 10 the top of the' alembic. '30) UCH I. and there glow like the bright'es! of rubies without any elemental fire present. the day alter tnecrearion o'f the vegetable kingdom. but rather assimilate it and give lit off later (pp. But II is above all The perturbations 19 18. p. 13 5) The Sun is seen rising from the Earth on the fourth day of creanon. 125. according to Genesis. Fludd thinks that they were probablv created on 'the second day of creation .' (p. They do not reflect the Sun's liqht. I remember at. a. 128).1e 17 The Creation of the Stars The fixed stars appear on the outside edge of the celestial sphere.. 126) He accounts in an interesting way for the different degrees of brightness in the fixed stars. mas! material ones. 1'31 The Creation 01 the Sun I attendant oncreauon had caused some of the celestial ligh'l: '[0 be trapped in the cold mass of Ihe central Eanh.' (p. but 'thaI they were not visible until the Sun was created.

UCH I. and mdeed enlivens the whole creation. Here the zigzag shaded circles represent the planetary spheres surrounding the Earth. The outer planets were formed analogically. 136 20 The Creation of the Planets 'The planets all arose from the action of the Sun's rays. being in the middle of the ethereal sphere. p. The source of all power and movement is at the periphery of the universe. the Moon at the midpoint between Mercury and the lower boundary of the ethereal sphere. 155 29 . UCH I. These quahties are consistent with the effects of the planets in astrology. while the Moon has the wet coldness of the lowest ethereal vapours. nearer to God. a. a. 137) Fludd's intuitive realization of the Sun's supremacy is here at variance with his materialistic cosmogenesis. imbued with the opposing 'tendencies that manifest as its direct and retrograde motions. Anthroposophists will note the anticipation here of Rudolf Steiner who in Cosmic Memory describes the extrusion of the Sun from the Earth.1 A Refutation of Copernicus 'Ifthe Earth were not the centre of the universe. and less apt to move than any of the others. The descending solar rays met ascending vaporous material. it would be remarkable if The Earth alone were to move steadily upon its axis. a. streaming in both directions. but more material than the outer ones and the fixed stars. de facto. 138 19 The Creation of the Sun 1/ 'One might expect 'the Sun to have risen far beyond Its present location to rejoin the original source of its substance in the empyrean heaven. as the Earth is the largest and densest of all bodies it stands to reason that it would be at the centre of the more ranfied ones. and more filled with light The Sun. and Mars and Saturn filling the gaps. p. a. and makes of it a kind of secondary residence for God. a wheel is much more easily turned from its Circumference than from its hub I' (pp. there would be no possibility of life upon it ' Violent winds would sweep everything to the ground. Finally.stressing its central situation. while all the other planets varied in latitude.for as our picture shows. Fludd explains later (p. 153-7) UCH I. but a revolving body circling the Sun. But its "spiritual material" is actually too dense for the liqht-filted heavens. According to the latter. more spiritual. Saturn and the Moon are therefore the coldest planets. p. p. Jupiter forming at the midpoint between the Sun and the fixed stars.' (pp. IS therefore more spiritual than the inner planets and the Earth. And just as the meeting of two opposite winds produces a cloud. as some ancient and modern philosophers maintain (notably Copernicus and William Gilbert). 145 21 the Sun's power that kindles these latent rising forces In plants. but they differ in that Saturn shares the dry coldness of the crystalline heaven. planets will be colder as they are further awavIrorn it.' (p. Venus was similarly formed at the midpoint between Mercury and the Sun. so the globe of Mercury condensed at this midpoint. Besides. 143-5) 'Since the Sun is the source 01 heat for the entire ethereal realm.' (pp. that which is higher IS.175) that before the Sun'S creation the souls of the plants were encouraged by the' planets (but see also plate 20) Evidently he is thinking of the 'days' 0'1creation as longer periods of 'time. Fludd compensates by 2. not in the centre . too rarefied for the Earth: hence it remains in the middle. 146-7) UCH I. and at the point where they were equal a battle ensued.

grace and health In hrs light hand but In h. 'There is one God. silence. in hrs essence end lighl. the spiritual Chnst filling all. the 30 . etc. one Supreme Bainq. before the creation 01 the world. there is an archetypal Sun through which all IS adorned with beauty and harmony. who carnes life. but he does not send il out Pimander calls thrs "an infinite shadow in the abyss". vel volens. disease. God's ether property gives the world its lite.stone of lighl (lapis luckium angularis). for In God there .s no eVil Thus Hermes.----. F. in the Pimander "The monad generales 11 monad [voluntv] and reflects its ardour In Itself [nnluntv] " 'In the dark Circle all IS In the pnmal state of chaos. and the incorrupuble Spint in all things. vel nolens= both willing and nliling [This IS the upper circle 1 These are like a man's dual faculties of affirmation and negation: and Just as both can be gOOd. as can be seen by its connection to thc central CIrcle.s left a bow and arrows as a siqn of tus severity. n. known by day as Apollo and at night as Dionysus. Similar to him IS Bacchus or Dionysus. But he IS the same being. so God is good whether he Wills Or nil Is. They attribute the mystery of the VISible. one Essence. Thrs divine properly rnarulests as darkness. 22 22 The Pnmevet Oualicy This is one of the most important plates for the understanding of Fludd's metaphysics. It is the Word of God. by whom creatures are torn In pieces. light. God IS In the middle. created Sun 10 thiS divms Sun. " IS the Dark Aleph 01 the Cabbala. 'According to the Ancients. form and harmony. E.----------------x---------. c. that 01 the world And If we could visu the centre 01 the Earth. death. G. Apollo. one Divine Mind. we would doubtless hnd there the corner.

'Jehova: light. Demogorgon flung down Chaos and Strife to the dark. we may interpret the winged figure also as Satan. .--. t. so Apollo restores him by day to his sevenfold constitution. and the Triad and Tetrad follow. . rI ../ Tcnetra •.-. the firs! created hght.Lux . ' ~ ... creates the world of formless matter' (paraphrases of Job 12. 'Divine nolunty. or Strife."' • _ •••• ~ ~ i /' : • ..c ~ > PI ~ >~ "1 .22.-. \ Q. TTP. the lather of Saturn and hence the ancestor 01 all classical gods... According to the Ancients. Seeing the damage done by them.-.. 4 24 The Pythagorean Tetrad Another model 01 creation is the mathematical one whose source is the Pythagorean number. p.. still one'. ~. +23 The Fall of Icarus Renaissance initials often show some rnvthotoqical or biblical Jig. '.. Fludd borrowed this mathematical philosophy from Francesco Giorgio. bringing the number of principles up to len.---~. .'17).. p. •.~ \\ \... doing 'the Father's notuntv. doing the will of the Father and revealing Ihe foundations from the darkness and bringing 10 light the lethal shadow. I \. . plunges to earth.. L I: '\ I I I \\ ./ / " ( /---.:.. 3: UCH If... ~x. a. c. \ Atj_Ucl'.ure whose name begins with the appropriate tetter. Tenebra. .J.. PS." . 'God._. H& is the same as Phanes Protogonus. the first essence was Oemogorgon.. ~/ . from which this tale is confusedly derived.--. The Dyad is the polaritv 0'[ light and darkness._. and the life-force: MC I. In the Orphic cosmogony. . who dwells between the light powers and the dark and ~egulates the harmony of the spheres with the' .. Pan is far more than the woodland deity of common legend. . . I • .. _l.~-: ~-....••. -. Fludd did not delve deeply into Ihis complex theology.. yt.' In the mlddte : "OneIrorn two'.. a. Pan. ~ 24 sevenfold pipes of his syrinx. . \.. from which comes divine potency. whose De Harmonia Mundi (1525) also supplied him with his ideas of musical proportion as a universal schema.. from the top downwards' 'Divine votuntv. Here Icarus.Prince of Darkness [see (he lower hemispheres]. who gave birth to Litigium. from which comes the divine act or wisdom.. other than 'the one God.. It is ironic mat the classical Pan was to become the very model and image of the Devil.. . who works all in all: (pp. Fludd explains in Chapter II of Trectetus Theologo·Phi/osophicus.i / j ! -..i .. . But there is another level of meaning here. 4: II..philosophy handed down in Plato's Timeeus... a. \ ·1 I. having flown tOO near the Sun on the wings made by his father Daedalus.. p.·Lux.. ' . Since the subject of the book which opens with this initial is the Fall and Redemption of mankind.. \. and the third Chaos._ 't"I __ ~~ __ _ ~~.../··--··r·····\. The second was Eternity (equivalent to Nature).~' i i \ \ \ 'I. The polarization of the four elements concludes the foundation of Ihe world.•. j . with which the Humid Spirit makes a third. p. 32: PM. Nature then gave birth to another son. thrust down from Heaven... As Dionysus tears man into his seven pieces by night.. cold centre of the Earth.lhe uncreated. sent: down by his Father to combat Saran In the hearts of men.. 2. In the plate the absolute darkness precedes the Monad. p. 5-8) The legends around the circles read. Wisdom 11... health. -.~ . The Monad generates the Dyad.. They are both none.. and on the right. It sufficed him to imag'ine that the Ancients had anticipated the role of Christ.. . the arithmetical progression continuing indefinitely.p. 33 31 .

.I ./.J I 25 32 .

the mean between Unity and Trinity. p.irSl-lborn of Unity. 'a watery or fluid Substance. I. UCH fl.25 The Trinity and the Generation of the Four Elements lna section on sacred numbers. in which God the . and seeds of all things was cornolicitlv contelned. and Duality is the 'f. as the principle of reincarnation. are products of the subsequent unfoldment of the arithmetical series. a. Yet its Journey is continued out 01 sight. blood. and the Spirit lathe' lightningflash. and faecal earth. and the pupil the Spirit. 23 33 . as nighl follows day.:mem fOQr-roldlyaltcrcd" 26 Generation and Corruption The world is formed of a 'simple square': the f'our primal elements whose emanation was shown in the two previous plates. and it rises again from the same pornt 10 create another day. i. II Fludd had no! been so inescapably a man of his time and its JudaeoChristian dogma. the iris the Son. The first cubic number 8 represents 'an exact rotation of the foure vsntous forms into one mixtion'. • • • 'The root of 'GenemioD which is fromth. namely the bones. 'until it 'returns to the point otthe simple Spermatick Element from whence it began. and will by degrees appear out 'explicitly.27 Growth. UCH II(.e. Generation and its inseparable counterpart. p. and yet nothing did appear externally but water. 27 t-J. his beg:inning is from sperm. 25-6) He thinks 01 'the' third number as healing the rift of the primeval duality.0 the Terminus ad quem and disappears. which is one in essence with the Father and the Son. The middle figure relates the Trinity to the Sun. sinews. while the orb itself represents the Father.' (pp. MP. It 'travels across the sky 1. The lower figure certainly seems 10 contain fire. flesh. Decay and Rebirth The' Sun's rotation is". and there it beginneth a new Generation in another form: For the 811acting nature is never idle'.he mixture 01 the four separate subtle elements into a three-dimensional compound: the body. (0. whose characteristics 01 light and heat refer to the Son and Spirit. by intervention of the solar power. 10. the Holy Spirit. air. corruption. The third figure shows the 'eruptlon of a cloud'.l. This. the terminus . Fludd savs that 'Unity is the starting point. a. drops of water. 78) See the commentary on Planetary Man (plate 88) lor anotherassoclatlon of generation with 'Ihe number 5. 78 . The idea is more fully developed in the last three cabbalistic ligures (plale537-9). Corruption follows as a natural consequence. are compliciUy contained. is likened 10 the sound of thunder. symbol of the process: rt rises in the morning as the primal point of light. aside from Hudd's own exegesis. he might have been led 'to see the reflection of this cosmic event in human life.a QUO.'. as a downward sequence d'epicting the polarization of the four elements or states of matter from the undifferentiated One.' (p. So in 'Ihe seed or Sperm". From the Dyad proceeds the Third. + Efcmems OJ[he catholick E.falher appears as a consuming tire. The Son. very curious plate might be interpreted. the whole man. and in turn binds themtoqether. and such like. In the case of man. The top figure depicts the Trinity in the 'form of an eye: the white represents the Father. being the divine Word. but urne altered: and as in 'the water the whole Fabrick of the world.

IIil Cabbala dens. the unpronounceable word 10 which Jews allude as Adonai (the Lord) or simply tie Shem (the Word). see the commentary to plate 29. saying 'Under the shadow 0·1 thy wings will I rejoice' (Psalm 63. :'l He. A3' 34 . Fludd generally uses these Hebrew letters to represent God in his dIagrams. ale lruerprsted as Father. Vau. b. expressed in th« terms of Hebrew esotericistn I 28 . and proceeding from the Father and the Son: tor another rationale. 7). The clouds have parted to allow David direct vision 01 the Tetraqrarnrnaton. The presence of two letters He is explained in this context by the Holy Spirit both joining. Jehovah' King David kneels before the Most High. Son and Holy Spirit. For a Christian Cabbatist they are easily accommodated to Trinitarian doctrine: the three different Ietters " Yod. f.inJentur .. the universe and its microcosmic image. The principles governing bo. The mont recalls the Hosrcrucian manifesto 01 1614 (the Fama) which concluded with the similar words 'sub umbra alarum tuarurn JEHOVA'.28 'Under ThV Wings. UCH II.

From it emanates the empyrean world. Briah.. p. the letter from which all proceeds and which conceals in itself the whole Name. Hence all Cabbalists refer these lower realms to 'the archetypal one. and Moses that man. and Assieh. too. b. S-6) The plate also shows how Goers full name unfolds staqe by stage: I. the 'pure world'. p. Vau and the lower He are respectivelv intellect. Allhough Fludd does not mention it. UCH H. these are atso the four worlds of the Cabbalists : Atziluth. The Psalmist says that God places his tabernacle in the Sun.29 The TetragrammalOn in the Macrocosm 'Hermes says that the world is an Image of God. B 35 . 'the world 01 creation. life and the natural faculty. too. This plate shows how the ineffable Name is imprinted on the universe : above and beyond all is roa. Yetzlreh. b. IHVH. the material world. so they. is made after God's example. the wortd of formation. This is better understood in the light of plates 49"-56 UCH II. He. JUSI as in 'the previous plate Yod isabovs the manifested universe.6 30 The Tetragrammaton in the Microcosm As man's faculties correspond to the regions of the universe. IH. IHV. can be seen as a manifestation of the divine Name. Yod is the higher mind no! contained by the physical bodyhence above the man's head. the elemental world: (pp. and this we may interpret as follows: God forms around the Sun the ethereal world (Vau) dividing the empyrean from the lower He. symbolized by He.

or 'the primal letter" Yod. . expressed in cabbalistic numerology. Whereas Aleph . and they aliqn thus with the cosmic hierarchy: 1'1:1 :12 }GOd. The plate seems to represent rhe descent 0'1 God's Spirit lnro manltestation. and the ascent 01 the soul!hrough the hierarchies 01 being 10 God. He. and Ihe centre column reads Yod. n Heth. Moon i}E1emental region The Sun. symbol of 'the ultimate void • 32 36 .. 13 . and Resh is the 'life produced in the world by Ihal wisdom'. which can be signified by either the first tetter 01 the Hebrew Yod is the 'Liqht Aleph'.4 )15 angels Mars 6 Fixed stars. is also equivalent to the second or rower He of the Tetraqrammetcn: il is God's particular tabernacle in the centre of the universe On the right. (p. UCH III.. 42 31 3. Mem and Heth are the 'remainder 01 'the darkness" from which creation is made'. Saturn. the 'Dark Aleph'. . 44) In the lower figure are the protactinq wings of God regarded as the goal 0'1 mortals.' The Mystery 01 the Number 5 The . Sun Venus. The crown is Kether. the first principle 0'1 Cabbala. 1 Dale/h. God as Creatcr. 1Dafe(h. in fifth place. 'the left-hand letters should be the alphabetical progression from Aleph: ::J.Beth. Mercury. the series goes Irom " Yod to ~ Mem. These have the numerical values " 'to 5.before creation. On the upper figure. Daleth is the 'gate through which wisdom enters the world'. p. ::'t Aleph. The letters on either side are reversed. This is an approximation 01 'JEHOVAH' (see plate 28).engraver's lack of clarity in Hebrew lettering is aggravated here bv one' of Fludd's most oonfusi. He. b. verbal explanations. J Gimel. Aleph: the two 'formal' letters embracing the two 'material'. Jupiter. Resh.

and (10) Kingdom. is perceived in many ways and called by many names. for It represents the empyrean heaven. These names. For Fludd this is another illustration of the rnutiplicatlcn 01 God's aspects. joined directly to God (see plate 60). (3) Prudence. 4. The names manifest as the len Sephiroth. (7) Triumph. (6) Grace. This plate shows the four teners of the Tetraqrarnmaton retated.called by the conventional but misleading names 01 ('1) Crown. The copious quotations which Fludd gives concerning the bottom sphere (Ihe rnaterla! Earth) give a new stant: 'The Spirit of the Lord fiUeth the world' (Wisdoml. The left-hand balance rises. that the Lord he is God in heaven above. and consider il: in thine' heart. UCH 'II.32 Gad's Omnipresence The previous plates would seem 10 leave the Earth devoid of God's emanations. (2) Wisdom. Here the names of God are given in Hebrew. 'God is everywhere in heaven. 74 33 The Emanation of the Septnrotb God. In the middle 0'" the ethereal world: Ihe pain! of balance in the exact centra 0'1 the universe.39). 'Know therefore this day. in hell. 11 37 . b. and their descent into the created world. in night. excluded trorn his celestial schemes. correspond to some of his inexhaustible etuibutes. p. (4) Mercy. p. made of 'Iigh! 'fire': the nqht-hand one falls. and in the earth beneath: there is none else' (Deut.7). in the uttermost parts 01 the sea. (9) Redemption. to God and the three worlds. being the 'heavy earth' of the elemental realm. though he is One in himself.1. Ten names in particular give the key to one possible symbol of the universal scheme by which the worlds are made: the tenfold emanations known in Cabbala as the Sephiroth. The fulcrum is the Sun. F:ludd's diagrams often show it as a dense sphere in the centre. UCH 1. 170 33 34 34 The Weighing of tne Worlds Another arranqernent of the Tetraqrarnmaton shows Yodas 'the Supreme Deity holding a pair of scales. (5) Power. b. PS. which is untranslatable for the simple reason that the IEnglish language lacks an adequate metaphysical vocabulary. in darkness' (paraphrase trorn Psalm 139'). p. (8) Honour. as before.

PS. Althouqh these ideas have 'to pass through the remaining eight Sephlr. Hokhmah. These are coupled With the traditional Christian names for the nine orders of angels (Cherubim. rain. Sun. It issues from the ineffable Clown (Kether) replete with the ideas of the universe which it radiates like a sun. Seraphim. correspondinq to a second Malkl. the corresponding name of God. ice. IS 'the emanation from Malkuth. and 'Soul'. comets. The plats can be regarded as a cabbalistic commentary on plate 16. Mercury. Fludd shows 'them coming directly 'from Hokhmah and filling the universe.oth before they can actually manifest as created beings. hail. lightning. wind again. The four letters correspond (0 the traditional drsposrnon of the Sephrroth according to the lour worlds (see plate 30): Alzilurh contains one. Venus. Virtues. in conformity with Fludd's view of them as mediators between the ethereal and elemental worlds. IS usually translated as 'Wisdom'. The creations of Wisdom are (clockwise from the top) the fixed stars. wind. Briah the next two. snow. Note thai the winds are on the horizontal diameter. Most. its Latin translation. 181 38 . Dominations. vegetables.174 36 The Sephirothk: Tree Fludd's idiosyncratic interpretation of the traditional Sephirothlc tree places Ihe ten emanations on either side of a central trunk bearing the Tetragrammaton. Yerzirah six and Assiah the last But the middle pillar should also include Ti!ereth and 35 Yesod.35 Wisdom's Creations The second of the Sephiroth. Powers. Saturn. and in some cases a Trinitarian Interpretation. animals. Angels.l/h. p. Principalities. Mars. Each Sephira is given its Hebrew name. clouds. and angels. minerals. Interesting. supporting 'the theory of universal correspondence UCH II. whence sprout ton branches in turn bearing the names of the Sepbirotb. Moon. for Fludd. thunder. frost. Jupiter. Thus the supreme tree of God's names is reflected in the angelic hierarchy. Archangels. b.p. Thrones).

The two Alephs. weather conditions. It corresponds to Yod. 'from all of which man is made'. which manifests through the Son and Spirit.of life: The next two circles show 'these archetypes as expressed by the Cabbalists in Hebrew letters. UCH II. the daytime of generation and the continuation of life: the beginning of corruption. or minerai body. 198 38 38 The World's Constitution The same principles govern the creation and history of the macrocosm. the enc'. Thus in the Tetragrarnmaton Vau divides the two He's. vegetable. space. 'thrOlJgh psychic elements. made of the substance of light which is perfect activity Corresponding to it on the negative side are the lower waters of gross spirit. causality and correspondence In this rdealisuc SCheme. humours. The third ring baqms with potarulaluv. He and Vau. shrouded in incomprehensible darkness. the virtue of the Te'tragrammaton. the origin of life. and organs. b.' The inner circles reflect these processes as they are manifested in the microcosm. UCH II. p. allied to the darkness. the first reads: 'Motion from the nothrngness of potentiality to the act of general ion. Mem IS the symbol of the created waters. Everything beqlns in 'the darkness of potentiality and emerges into light. 'Aleph signifies the darkness from which the uncreaied light arises. The starting point of these circles is always at the bottom. are his positive and negative aspects (see plate 22). Mem and Shin are called the three Mother Letters. which by the influence of '[he Light Aleph becomes 'the upper waters or the empyrean heaven. The next rings treat of the states of matter. Aleph. It is hard to separate time. returning again to 'the darkness. since they receive like wax the rmprint of the three male letters Yod. Yod is the Absolute Father. and in the centre condenses the animal. 199 39 . b. which are divided by the Spirit Shin. meteorological phenomena. light and dark.37 37 Man's Constitution This and the next two plates derive from the cyclic idea expressed in plate 27. and their progress is clockwise. vaporous and gaseous substances. subtle and material substances. into gross and subtle by the interposition of the firmament. The outer rings are the archetypes of the whole.

whose physical body is the Sun. Thus. and Angels as found In the Great Meteorological Chart (plate 81). enhanced by the names of God. The doctrine of correspondence states that every level of the hierarchy of being. He emanates Grace: the beauty of 'the universe which is buill by the angels called Virtues. is a reflection of the one above. is based upon this 40 . Vau. 'the Spirit that manifests CiS £Ioah. 39 39 Universal Causation This plate is a summation of 'the two preceding ones. emanates Shin. it illustrates very aptly the doctrines of emanation. So Michael. 'the personal God. is like the Sun in the company of the planets. Or the heart in the human body. Corresponding to 'this principle in our little solar system is the Archangel Michael. This is a nacessarv corollary to the theory 01 emanation. they emanate 'them as manifes!1I'tions of themselves on inferior planes 0'1 existence. black and white. The theory 01 emanation explains that higher principles do not create lower beings out of nothing. or gold among metals. correspondence. The whole of magic. to take one 'chain' as an illustration. from the mineral world up to the very archetypes themselves.I jol/(J. in the company of the archangels. (the lower circles are rather debatable). Theatre of the World) and suggests that it is intended as a pattern to be memorized. Sephirolh. the archetypal Son or Word. and cyclicity. etc.lft. Its layout resembles that of Giulio Camillo's 'memory theatre' (see Yates. 'lor from each archetype is suspended a chain of being that descends to the very bottom of manifestation. Whatever issue may be taken over its details. That Sun gives us our vital loree.

All of this adds up toa very profound world view. wheels within wheels. each unrolling in imitation 01 its superiors.n. from the spirals of electrons up to the birlh and death of galaxies and beyond. 11'0 j". 181 41 . eic. sceptre. Me II. a. etc . one IS facilitating the descent of the solar forces into the cup. Earth _. but a system Of cycles within cycles. the return of the seesoosme individual's periodic descent into incarnation. Aquarian. running po.nd EfI"\"':/ . confirming Fludd's position in the' ranks 01 true esoteric philosophers. On a human scale the cycles are experienced in day and night. doctrine.". in making ritual objects of gold.) or the cycle of the four ages of the Hindus and Greeks.inllessly hom infinity to infinity. The principie 0'1 cyclicity is the 'Myth of the Eternal Return': the idea that time is not a straiqht line. for it assumes that actions taken on one level will have repercussions In the corresponding ones. and the turning of the ages of world history. for example.. ring. whether one' considers Ihe astrological ages (Piscean. and thereby imbUing the user with them. p.

III Monochords A pair of int'ersec{ing triangles or pyramids represents the cosmic duality of light and darkness as these interpenetrate one another. iii one.stringed instrument' used in musical pedagogy since Amiquity. symbolizes the chain of being: the 'scale' of levels of existence that runs from the Earth to God 40 42 . The monochord.

p. a.BYand gateway to philosophy. that lovers of this science may reach their goal. for want of knowing 'this doctrine of the pyramids.. 79-80) Here is a sector of the Ptolemaic universe (see plates 2-4) showing the interpenetration of material and spiritus! qualities. and the other 1. we have set it out succinctly here. at the point where the emanations of matter and light are in perfect balance.1).1). we present the two hemispheres of No. € :> 43 . As an adaptation of these combs.. The regions in between partake of both qualities in varying proportions' (pp. 2. which is the true k.2. PS. and opaque to an extreme degree'. we have tried to give an exposition 01 our doctrine concerninq the matsrlaland 'formal pyramids. and a dark one for the material world (see No.enerative nature. gentle reader. p. the upper one corresponding to the male. Thus.. 2. The actual result of this mixture.The Dark and Light Pyramids The heights 01 the empyrean realm are pure light. And since few attain the mysteries 01 the heavens' constituuon. seed of light This material hemisphere is like wax which can be formed by the seal of spirit. where the spiritual fire diminishes gradually as it approaches the Earth. dense.' UCH II. 212 40 .' C it~~=~~~~ ~~~__ }-__ ~~__ ~ __ ~ ~~ ~ . a. so that no empty space remains between their interstices (No. is to be seen in No. g.' UCH II..JIfi.. the lowest depths of the elemental realm are heavy. Correspondingly. receptive 'to the. 190 42 -. • :I. In the middle of the ethereal realm stands the Sun. virtually free from all material qualities. p. .~-- 42 'z. 188 The Hemispheres United 'We must now imagine the dark and light hemispheres united.0 the 'female. . 41 Dark and Ught Combs 'We can also represent these dark and light pyramids as two combs: a light one representing the downwardpointing spiritual forces.2. and to every science. in the form of dark and light pyramids.

And In order for the tones and semi tones to be correct (10 the right of the string). UCH I. 90 44 45 The Divine Monochord This is a conllation of the two preceding plates. in order 10 show their internal proportions. To the immediate left of the Siring Fludd specifies the members of each realm (giving to the empyrean hierarchy the Greek names of Epiphaniae =apparitions. ApplylOg the proportions of the last diagram. 89 44 The Proportions of the Pyramids The pyramids of mailer and form are here separated and placed ontha complete circle of the universe. a. Taking the material pyramid as an example.g. we find that they work perfectly: e. the rest of the elemental realm three material. p. Proportlo sesauitente=s : 4 (fourth). Epiphonomiae = voices. the ascending one before the supercelestial realm of God. 'free 'from matter. Earth (the Greek leiter Gamma) up through two octaves to gg for the highest division of the empyrean.four. one formal: the ethereal realm two of each. Diapason =octave=Z: 1 . Strings of lengths 1x and 4 x produce notes two octaves apart. On the right are the Greek names of the musical intervals corresponding to each proportion: Disdiapason =double octave=4: " . three formal. God is all form.3. we find the proportion 1 : 4 between its extremes in Heaven and Earth (Proportio auedruote). 44 . UCH I. none of form. UCH I. assigned to the highest. p. the Prooonio dupla (2: 1) from the Earth to the Sun becomes the octave interval from Gamma to G.84 To each is assigned a note of the scale. we have to imagine the Fs as sharp. The three realms with their divisions are set out along a monochord. as should the corresponding proportlo sesquisttere. The empyrean divides into three. These proportions lead directly to the Music of the Spheres. and Ephiomae=acclamations). a. the empyrean only one material. Dietesseron = fou. from low Gforthe. The descending pyramid stops short of Earth. a. The other proportions follow analogically: Proportio dup/a=l : 2 and 2: 4 (octaves): Proportio sesqoisttere=Z: 3 (fifth). The Earth contains four parts of matter.rth=4. There is an error in the 'Oiapente rnaterialis: it should join the Sun's G to the C of fire.43 43 The Pyramids of Form and MiiUer A more elaborate version of' plate 40. middle. this fills in the divisions of each realm. and lowest members of the angelic hierarchy : the ethereal imo the circles of the seven planets: the elemental into . p. DifJpente = fifth =3 : 2.




, ,






The Elemente! Pvremids

'As above, so below.' The elemental realm ilself is a microcosm of the whole. In place ofform and rnener, it has as rrs extremes fire and earth, the respective bases ofthe fiery and corporeal pyramids. There is no fire present in earth, no earth in fire, while water and air are produced from mixtures in varying: proportions, 'Between water and air is a humid zone, a 'sphere of equality' corresponding to the Sun in the macrocosm. In order 'to make the proportions work, we should imag;ine the 'figures 1, 2. 3, 4 inscribed in each pyramid, as in plate 44., UCH I, a, p. 9'7 47 The Elemental Monochord Pursuing the analog,y of the elemental realm with the whole cosmos, Fludd assigns 10 it the 'full two-octave span of 'the divine monochord. Each element is divided into three regions, the hig;hesl 0'1 each being assigned a sernitone on account of its closeness in qualitv to the next, element. (Here ,again some

accidentals are rnissinq.) The proportions show the sympathies and antipathies of the 'elements. Perhaps more significant than this rather laboured system is the presence of the Sun at the monochord's peg, in the same position as 'the hand of God in plate 45, Does this imply thet as the Creator is to the universe, so is the Sun to the sublunary realm? Occult doctrine would certainly agree. UCH I; a, p, 100 48 'The Dieosson cloS'ing full in Man' 'The body is formed of food, hence 01 the 'four elements. This inert matter is vivified by the soul, which is of another order 01 existence altogether. The wonderful harmony of these two extremes is brought about by the Spiritus Mundi. the limpid spirit. representee here by a sning, It extertds Irom God to the Earth, and participates in both extremes, On it are marked the stages of the soul's descent into the body, and its re-ascentafter death.' (pp. 27 5)

The three worlds are shown as concentric circles, marked on the left 'Empyrean Heaven of the Microcosm', 'Ethereal Heaven of the Microcosm', and 'Elemental Heaven', They correspond respectively to man's head, chest and bellv. or on the mental plane to intellect imagination and sense, One might also identify them with the vital (etheric) and astral bodies, enclosed in the 'auric egg'. Each has a I'ight and a dark hemisphere, 'the latter described here as a 'mass 01 microcosmic earth; two columns by which the universe is suppo ned at rig,ht angles'. UCH II,. a,1', p .. 275



for Fludd. 1. a. theethereal heaven and the Quintessence. is sexuality. (3) the instincts and the body. 82 50 51 48 . thorax and abdomen. while the intoxicating vapours of sensuelitv prevail. active pyramid of formation. These 'acts' rsterto the' descending. On 'the light are man's three cavities: head. Below are the reqions of intellect. the Act of Nature. Man's loftiest faculty. 83 The Py~amids Uniting Man and Cosmos Like a Oloss on the preceding plat. intellect and reason.49 Man's Fundamental Duality A simple diagram shows how in man the divine fire diminishes as it proceeds downwards. the elemental act and the elemental heaven. p. the point of balance at the heart.this one explains the correlations of macrocosm and microcosm. 1. a. p. These are the physical correlates of' (1) the higher mind. or levels 01 cosmic 'existence: the Act 0'1 God and the empyrean heaven. and the elemental realm 01 the appetites whose base and nadir.e. On the left are the three 'heavens'. UCH II. (2)lhe lower mind and the vital spirits. UCH II. Ihe higher mind (Mens) receives the direct rayslrom God.

248 52 52 53 The M<lcrocosm <IS Universal Man The full three octaves of man's regions are set out here' the 'supercelestial and spiritual'. Man's members are divided harmonically into the 'material octave' below the heart and the 'spiritual octave' above it. soul. More interestingly. p. p. and spiritus. The figure resembles those in Albrecht Durer's book on human proportions. 1. With which more people are familiar today. The notes run up the gamut from the bottom G of the bass clef 10 the top F of the treble. UCH II. Each is correlated with a level of the macrocosm: God the Father Word Holy Spirit Mind Intellect Reason Will Saturn JUPiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Fire Upper air Middle air Lower air Fresh water Salt water Earth The legend above reads "God thus Immerses himself In hyle Or unformed material for the creation of the world. p. Ficino's and Fludd's spiritus (not to be confused with the immortal Spint) is a corporeal vapour. Soul and Spiritus Contrary to the previous plate. 1. formed from ether. (The region of the higher thorax is mis-labelled: it should be diepente spiriruaJe. 254 49 . showing the degrees of body. there are now three pyramids. the 'celestial and middle'. In the yogic traduion. 'from which Fludd had borrowed several drawinqs 'for his previous treatise. God's forming SPirit IS drawn Into man: UCH II. 242 Pyramids of Body.) On the left are the mathematical proportions of the resultant lanes.61 The Proportions of Man's Regions This applies the system of plate 44 to the microcosm. and the 'elemental and corporeal'. a. we find it as 'prana' or vital breath. which vivifies the brain and links the body with the soul. hence its pyramid has the same size and shape as the corporeal one. excluding the abdomen from the harmonic scheme. 1. I! is coextensive with the body. UCH II. a. formed In the blood. a. this one aligns the head and thorax alone with the spiritual and corporeal octaves.

.~. Just as a line generates a surface.....i . a. so creation proceeds downwards in the lett-hand pyramid. 214 50 ... PS.·· . UCH II.·. and inserted the veqetabte and rnmeral realms between water and earth.-:. square.... Whereas the last plate dIvided each region into seven. making rune subdsvrsrons in the ethereal and elemental worlds. and cubic numbers. surface a solid. To correspond With rhe nme orders of angels.·· .. 70... 1..00 ·r····4·~To·o. ·3:·0·:·0·0. 45. p...·\······6~To·o··-· . p. "r 'i'o~'o'~" 50. accordinq to which the three realms 01 the macrocosm are given radical.~. and 8. And rn the same way the soul ascends In the IIghthand column.0'0 .·( ·~ . mcrsasmq In sprritualitv until II reaches pertecuon.!-· 54 54 The Descent and Re-escent of the Soul The idea or three 'octaves' IS transposed here to an arithrnetrcal scheme..··i~·to·o·-· ... ttus one uses ninefold subdivisions. Fludd added the primum mobile and the heaven of frxed stars above the planets.

1'. and c The Rational Spirit. The engraver has even approached the 'traditional number of petals on the upper chakras: two wings. He does this through his.56 56 Man's Higher Faculties The twenty-seven levels of the macrocosm and the corporeal pyramid are familiar from the previous ptare. the resemblance ceases. a. with its five 'lotuses' and the 'thousandpetalled' blaze of God's light. p. respectively). from the rerrestrtat to the seraphic. UCHII. whose members Fludd describes as follows: the aperture to God Intellect: the first sheath or vehicle of Mind B The Active A Pure Mind: This maps out the moral evolution of man from the slate of a vegetable through the development of will. On the right are man's faculties as they correspond to the middle and upper regions: Love of God: Will tntettiqence: Action Intellect. 259 56 The Seven Cbekres The right-hand arc: reads: 'The essential harmony by which the human soul draws into its own constitution any portion 01 the regions of the three worlds: This is a fundamental statement 01 the macrocosm-microcosm doctrine. for the !WOpetalled aina (third eye) chakra: nineteen and thirteen petals for the visuddha (throat) and anahata (heart) chakras (which should have sixteen and twelve. Mind and Intellect E The Vital Light in the Mind. subtle organism. II means that man can operate on any 01 the levels of being. UCH II. Receptive nature Love of others: Natural force Reason. receptacle 0'1all lhings Although this terminology is not easily reconciled with the Hindu system of the seven chakras -Ihe energy. Irascible nature Aversion {O oneself: Vital nature Aversion to the world: Destre nature Imagination: Fantasizing nature Sense: Vegetative nat life from self-absorbed thought to the love and 'knowledge 01 God. centres of the subtle body -some such VIsion may have inspired the illustration. p. conrainioq the Rational Spirit. 93 51 . containing Mind and Intellect and open to Reason or Intellect o The Middle Soul. a. or the Middle Soul swimming in ethereal fluid F The Body. 1. Below that.

On the monochord nself are the notes of the diatonic scale for three octaves from C to c'. is Alpha in a triangle. This is musically COrreCI. Vau. The scrolls read as follows: God (alpha). Similarly. lad. the seven planets and the four elements. where lod is in He. who remains 'beyond all things'. reveals itself to men for tne world's salvation Several systems are contained in the chan. The seven candlesticks of the Menorah. Bod». humours: tesser Alept). could be continued up to Infinity if space allowed. or the Lesser Aleph of the un created dsrkness. vegetable and minerai creations. UCH II. the lucid soul The octeve of life or spiritus where lod [. spatial rather than temporal. The intervals are comprehensible in the light of plate '56: there is an octave between adjacent worlds. also divrded into three' the Holy of Hohes. The One is all things and all chings ere the One. These inrum are joined by arcs showing their harmonic relations. 31 4 15 '57 57 Threefold Manifestation The light triangle of the Trinity represents God. and elemental. the numerals in the lowest column. may be the reason for the second sun engraved here In the middle of the appropriate region AA. Reason. symbol of God as beginning: The central principle or Dark Aleph.' To this corresponds. and the beginning is the end': 'God is '[he end. and they do not always align With each other. the middle part decked With gold and with seven candlesticks: the last. symbol of God as 'end and circumference'. and a double octave between 'the 'empyrean and elemental. which overtly represent the seven Chatdean planets grouped around the Sun. with the animal. entering the black hole of matter. or tile Greater Aleph. Between c6 and the bridge at the Orneqa end. each an octave in its own right The upper row refers 10 the parts 01 the Tabernacle of Moses. Nine spheres of the Ethereal Heaven Nine regions of the Elemenlal World. Towards the upper corners are parallel statements: 'God is the beginmng. reveals itself tor the world's creation by changing to light. Spiritus. The intervals are named In the adjacent column. with the 'pre-cosmic' numbers 1-3 (see plates 24-5). At the left-hand end. As a result. the Omega. Stellar (ethereal). ?]: Life. To this belong also the ninefold divisions described directly above' Nine orders of Angels In the Empyrean Heaven. a. or set. p. pp. which give the proportions of strinq-Ienqth for each scale-tone in the lowes! possible whole integers. They are glossed on the unbroken arcs and in the next row up with 'their correspondences In man: The octave of Intellect or Mind. God (omega). The column between Alpha and Omega contains the familiar Circles of the Ptolemaic universe: three drvisrons of the angelic hierarchy. corresponding 10 the four notes of the dietesssron [4th] and five of the dieoente [Sth]. Another symbol of this reciprocity IS the Tetragrammaton. and thereafter the octaves alone up to c·. exterior part. the heaven of fixed stars. where the tuning-peg governs the Whole monochord. These correspond wrth the musical notes only as far as the Sun at the midpoint : they belong to another standpoint which is flnits rather than indefinite.lower are the proportions of string· length and the intervals marked on the 58 52 . 62 The Great Monochord Fludd's syncretic cosmology is summarized here in its 'fullest form. GOD is all that tbere is: irom him all things proceed and co him all things must return. and the end is the beginning'. Four ell-embracing statements stand Cit the top: The monad generales a monad and reflects its ardour in itself. He. 1. spelled out in palindrormc form' fad. emerging from dsreesnt: or the created derkness. The elementsl Of corporeal octave. there IS Iheoretically an rndehnlte series of higher octaves. Mind. In the centre is the Tetragrarnmaton. The infinite dimension of the Tetragrammaton. Plale 54 shows the members of these regions when divided ninefold.. three worlds arise' the angelic (empyrean). on the fight. He. or potency. Below these IS the 'Least Aleph'.' in and between all things.

". o 58 53 .

which can be either pacific (lower right) or tempestuous. refuting Aristotelian notions and relaling!'he rnacrocesrnic events to man. earthquakes (lower Iett). and the combination of wind. they represent the results of 'macrocosrnlc meteors'. More elevated 'meteors' appear above 'the flanking pictures.p. his viscera spreadout above him '10 show their correspondences with heavenly phenomena. Francofu[d praO:at in OftjCiD:1 Bryana. and at the bottom the seminal vesicles. Michael.lempests at sea (upper right).el. liver and gall-bladder. Al the bottom 01 the plate lies the microcosmic man. 0' 54 . designed to iIIustrateFludd's theories 0'1 'rneteoroloqlcal anatomy'. Examples of 'Ihem are respectively rains of fir. Fludd applies the word 'meteor' to any heavenly phenomenon.IV W:j'nds and Weatlher. stomach. t. MDCXXYI.H the top. wind and eanb. has '(he Sun for his head. seems to summarizethe contents. and above him are three suns beneath a rainbow. The circle is marked with the names of the eight winds.glasses Fludd regards the winds IlS all. since they certv the good and evil influences of angel's and demons. Above' Daniel are comets 01 various shapes. caused by wind. of Michael subduing: the dragan and Gabriel in'terpreting to D'aniel' his dream of the four beasts. bot and cold. from the weather to the planets and stars themselves. PS. being the solar angel of the East. lightning. and all three together. in particular theintluences the wmds on health. The title-paqe. separated by the diaphragm from the lower hemisphere which it joins via the' aorta: belaw the diaphragm are the spleen. Fludd knew very well how the viscera really look (see plate 90).28 provides the key 10 the 'Scenes in the four corners and ·the upper centre. In this book entlued 'The Holy and Truly Christian Philosophy' he surveys them all. and rains of water and stones (upper centre). with East . The latter are of lour kinds. Very similar pictures appeared both before and after Fludd's time 10 illustrate the (then) common phenomenon of aeretius or mulfiple images of the Sun. as it eiiects human health 59 Cosmic Meteorology ROBERTI DE FL V. schematic diaqrarn. important for medicine. to be met with later (plate 81). The weather-glass fa primitive thermometer} symbolizes the metaphysical duality of lighl and dark. The organs comprise 'the heart.D. thunder. Naturally this is a symbolic.e (upper le'ft). wind and water. thoug:h it is never explained in the book.D FLVCTIBVS MET EOR OLOGIA COSMICA. A chart on pag.

elemental) surroundinq the Earth. p. finally. 90. Boreas. penetratesto the elemental world where it vivifies the appropriate wind. Saturn's rav. The divine Iig. in turn. that of Saturn. 189 55 . a light descends into the dark circle which represents the triple worlds (empyrean. . PS. These two plates show the chain of being by which this occurs. pours its influences upon 'the Earth. in the middle of the ethereal (or planetary) world. The NOrlh Wind. 'From the cloudy tabernacle of God himself. . In plate 61 60.The Origin of the Winds The' winds are proximate agen'ts of God's will on settles in the Sun.61 we see the Sun sending out one of its rays to the outermost otanerarv sphere. whence it radiates throughout: creation. 'inhabiting and anlrnatinq' that ptanet and endowing: II with power of its own. causmg the meteorological and medical phenomena 10 which Fludd devotes so much space in his Medicina Cethottce. deriving: their power from him. ethereal.

and God reptles: 'No plague shall come nigh thy dwelling. 'They are' not under Divine Justice. death and disease. ):( ):( "-5') Me I. Explaining the reason 'lor the existence 01 devils. given by his Angels whose ruler is. carried by thetour winds. thinks of the contagion as purely aerial. II has been remarked that the wing. Fludd'. 338 56 . as creatures 01 the Light can only be saved and remain healthy by prayer to God: (ff. but come 'from Injustice. Health is from God alone. but we.62 The Fortress of Health 'The Sound Man' (Homo San us) prays to God: 'Show thy servant the light 01 thy countenance. fleeing Irom the plague in Cologne. a" I. a. which is a figment of the Divine Darkness. the first emanation before creation and 'the mediator between God and his creatures. Fludd says that it wasmreuan God's dark side (see plate 22) thaI they entered the world. saw II descending on the city like a reddish cloud (p. Jesus Christ. South.16). 338). God's will is carried out by both good and evil Angels. his friend and printer William 'Fitzer. From North. p. and mentions that. H. ):( ):( 2. fori will give my angels charge over thee.10-'" J. 10 keep thee in all Ihv ways' (Psalm 91. and save me lor thy mercy's sake' (Psalm 3'. East and West the evil angels unleash noxious plagues. They are combatt-ed by the four Archangels who guard the fortress.ed insects which surround each demon on his steed may be the first illustration 01 the idea of germs as the carriers of disease. however.

is ruled by the demons of Earth and the South.l Seem. whom we would call demons.. and associated with one of the cardinal points and a certain element. for instance. Tharsis Ariel 0' 63 The Four Archangels and the Twefve Winds The Four Great Bemgs who stand 'at the round earth'S Irnaqm'd corners' delegate their power to the spirits of' the 57 . II. Austro Affricus. The names of the winds are given in the inner circle. in the south-west. 113. and their qualities may be deduced from their guiding spirits. 267 p. a. effects. I. Each one is under the influence of one or more planets. Me I. and astrological factors arethe subjects of some hundreds of pages in Medicine Cetbotice and Phifosophi.ymon Egyn Element Angel Fire Air Water Earth Seraph Cherub Demon Samael AZ<l~el Azael Mahazael winds dwelling in the sphere o'f im surrounding the Earth. The exact qualities.63 Archangel East (Oriens) South (Meridies) West (Occidens) North (Septenuio] Michael Uriel Raphael Gabriel ~ Demon Oriens Amaymon Pa. a. p.. p. PS. and affected by Mercury and Jupiter.

the general nature of diseases. t. or the various reasons for the invasion and ettack of the Fortress 0" Health' (see next plata).64 The Qualities of the Winds The twelve winds are shown with their Aristotelian Qualities of hot and cold. is equally cold and dry. This. JOining the human body 10 the planetary and stellar Influences thai in turn reflect the Will of angels. '[he North Wind. wet and dry Thus Boreas. with astrology. and prayer. and the eHects of their equal and unequal combinations. a. MC I. is the foundation of his Medicina Cotnonce. including ways of diagnosing and foretelling the effects of the weather. lucidly 'explained and plainly set our. Fludd regarded i! as a link In the chain of berng. astrology. hot and dry. scarcely heard before. If possible. and to 'demonstrate a universal chart 01 healings and sicknesses. and ulrimately of God. the East. Wind. p. air-conditioning and comfortable travel. In numerous tables Fludd shows the correspondences of Winds. Subsolanus. b. 125 65 65 The Sick Bed The treatise of which rhrs is the utlepage is advenised to 'descnbe in a new way. Hence his complicated association of medicine with meteorology. demon intent on sending disease to mankind Another lenqthv section of the book IS devoted to prayers for warding off these noxious mfluences. demons. Me I. In the seventeenth century the weather impinged on people fat more violently than it does in these days ot central healing.p 58 . A doctor had to take it into account and. based upon the assumption that behind each wind is a malevolent. elements and humours. predict It. and AQuila and Caecras represent stages m between.

my precepts. Presumably he can try to rebuild the battered fortress. a. <r. and give thee the pestilence to pursue thee until Thou perish' (adapted from Dsut. 8. .. ..cold and will give thee a fearful heart and a sadness of soul until thou perish' (adapted from Deu!.) b '-l ~ 66 66 Enemies Invading Heal(h the Fortress of God himself is present at Ihe cardinal points. I will afflict thee with. f.' [illegible] West: 'I will afflict thee with dropsy' (Luke 14). that thou canst not speak' (I Mace. who represent God's irascible properties.. has already broken through the fortress to afflict the patrent with the diseases associated with the South Wind (see plate 71). . mounted on a basilisk. . -' . I will afflict thee with hot and seethmq .. I will afflict thee in summer with corrupt air. 28). and affected with a heavy spirit' (Mauhew17). ):( 3-4 59 .. (Jerem. Me II...'7) East: 'Because thou hast not observed The preceding plate showed the sick man in his outward aspect: here is his true situation. One wonders what help the physician can be in the face of this divine wrath (or negative karma). 28).55). 'I will dissolve thee with palsy. Azazel. and fever . which will not be charmed. 'I will make thee lunauc.. 'I will send serpents among you.. The sufferer exclaims: 'The arrows of the Almighty are within me.. the poison whereof drinketh up my spirit. South: 'Because thou hast not kept my commandments. 9. and encourage prayer and the amendment of life when the punishment is passed. the terrors of God do set 'themselves in array against me' (Job 6A). so that thy enterprises are hindered and thy mouth slopped. beset by the demons 0'1 the four winds. and issues his stern dicta from every direction: North: 'Because thou has! not hearkened unto my voice._ .

This manuscript belonged to Thomas Allen. UCH I. The principle isthat the heat of the Sun. p. cross it. fall Or rise. verie well at the fier and 69 Advertisement for a Weather-glass This is not from one of 'Fludd's books: i t is a printed broadside dated the same year (IS his 'treatise on the weatherglass. analogically 10 their belief that the Sun pulls the water-vapour up: they do not understand the expansion and contraction of the air as a factor of heat. Oxford (f¥1S. By cal'ibrating the tube (here from -7 '10 + 7) one can quantify the outside temperature: '+ 7 is reached. and hence makethe water level in the' tube. Actually the manuscript IS still extant.or thirteenth-century copy 01 Philo of Bvzanthrrn's treatise De Ingeniis Spirirualibu:. and reproduced it in several works. PS. 459 68 Fludd's Own Wearher-glass 'You see it depicted here just: as you would Iind it in my house' (p. If a sudden drop occurs. Is made by inverting: a heated bulbedtube in a receptacle ol water. This Simple experiment was to supersede the monochord as Fludd's favourite symbol for the demonstration of his philosophy. '10 make it more wonderful and entertaining'. 9) that he saw this instrument illustr. 3't. t to -7 the Summer one. The region 1 10 7 IS called the Winler Hemisphere. as Sherwood Tayior suggests.' 013) MC II.7 An Old . the water is sucked up into view. a. Next III the glas EE almost as full as you can of lair water warmed Ihat hath some Homan vitriol dissolved in it. Through it put the shank of "'AA andIasten it 50 that i. Sir Kenelm Digby. 299. who believe that Ihe rise of the water is due to attraction from the heat of the bulb. with or without his consent. Digby 4. only when the Thames is frozen so that men and animals can safe. with the SUIi1l nearby. in Integrum Morborum Mysterium (p. a combination of thermometer and barometer.AA and EE •hen unto Ihe mouth ot ee fit a close cork through which make a. p. and later passed to thaatchernlcal phvslclan.ated in a manuscript at least seven hundred years old-an estimate which in Philosophia Moysaica he' modified to five hundred.. 'Fludd was very fond of this experiment and its picture. if. The directions are so close '[0 his own that there can be no question of another source. Then heat the hed of AA_A. Divide then the space between bodie of AAA. a contemporary of Fludd at Oxford. p. 8). will makethe air in the sealed bulb 'A'e'xpand or contract. andtha tube made 01 glass and held by an elegant wooden framework. say of two or three degrees in four or live. 10 rise and fall. p. to Ihe Bodleian. The texts in the panels read: Prepare 2 glasses like unto these 'figures marked WIth A. hours. it is the twelfth. or its absence. a.' (pp. Here the receptacle is disquised. p. How wrong' are the disciples of Aristotle. 8 69 on Fludd's invention. 204. hole. ibid. as in the preceding' plate. The relevant page is reproduced in Taylor's article (see Bibliography): it similarly shows an open and a closed vessel joined by an inverted U-shaped tube.0). when the warmed air pushes the water level down. 283. As the tube coots and the air in tne bulb contracts. being put into the glass EE may rech almost unto the botorn. MC II. and the cork so Iastned into 16 eqall parts. derived from the open ewer. beneath artificial rocks. Changes in the external temperature' will then cause il. it will certainly rain in 'twelve houris' tlrne. who presented i. p.Experiment Fludd says.67 6.0 60 . ibid. It is interesting to find that someone was attamptlnq capitalize . a. here listed in chronotcqicalorder. Heat and expansion are manifestations of God's own Light: cold and contraction of his Darkness. The weather-glass. now in the Bodleian Library.

behould the figure BBB. which the water-level approaches in cold weather. Soe long as the water stands at anyone degre. Another '01 Fludd's favourite 70 70 symbols. 2. Lastly include <~ in a box as bb. at the South Pole.. 1631 The Weather· glass as Symbol of the Earth The 'hemispheres' mentioned in plate 68 have here become literal ones. London. so long the wether wil ccntinue at that stay it is then at. is present in the triangies GI-II. put: It into 'the gla5 'EE and wax It 'fast and you shall perceive 'the water to ascend into it. Hale Street. isthe equator. The bulb. c.cri Mcrid.s sphere. You may bye the glasses A_A_A and EE an the signe of the Princes arms in . 3. to which it falls when 'the enclosed air expands. 28 61 . 1. Anno Domini 1. is at the wintry North Pole: the water reservoir. supposedly the very sea! of summer. Lastly by diligent Observacion you may foretell frost. Note that this water ascendeth with could and descendeth with heate. a.631. as the weather-qlass is stretched 'from pole to pole 01 the Earth'.Printed broadside.s . intersected by the solar circle of the Ecliptic at 'the spring and autumn equinoxes (Aries and Libra). snow or foul wether. Thus the archetypal qualities of contraction and expansion are manifested in the physical world. 'THE USE. EFK.CalJ. The midpoin'. Me II. that 0'1 'the intersecting pyramids of form (=expansion) and matter (-contraction).ie. If in 6 or 8 hewers the water tale a degre or more it wil suref ram within 12 hower strer..

melancholy. whose lower temperature makes it condense into drops. fear. heavy constuution. hardening. pleurisy. empyema. n rises to the colder region of the head. dry. sleepiness. leprosy. erysipelas. epilepsy. coalesces in 62 .:zd \!:itUUM ~mr LJ. lust. tuberculosis. melancholy with catarrh.irstthe mental ailments.F. stu pour. and in disease is heated by 'he fire of 'he liver.iY'~. loose bowels. Boreas and Circius. Crossing the equator we 'find the warm and we.lamma'tion. I . dysentery. where again it.y. painful fever. gonorrhea. which ascends from the pot and meets the lid.' South. choleric West. torpor of the senses. mental 'torpor. a. sorrow. sluggishness. whose humour is sanguine. Each of these has its characteristic diseases. They range from the extremes of mortification in the North 'to 'hose of inflammation in the South. p. we read !hal' there are 'two hemispheres: the cold wintry one and the hot summery one. It is even so with 'the human body: the watery phlegm originates in 'he southerly region of the intestines. watery and phlegmatic. lethargy. decay. Lastly the diseases of the body: scorching. losing one's rnmd. The West is cold and wet. . apoplexy. bolcness. convulsion. paralysis. plague. edema. timidity. reading downwards: care. tenesmus. inf. and the warm. herpes and gangrene. griel.. The North is cold and dry. with three degrees represented by the North Winds Aquila. earthy and melancholic.j.. dropsy. borne on the winds (see plate 62). irascibili. apoplexy. also withits three winds. 88 72 The Origin of Catarrh 'Here we see water converted by Ihe 'fire's heat into a vapour. pneumonia. MC II. 'fury. j\ DI!. catarrh: disease of the spleen. syphilis ('the French disease'). itching.STl0 7'1 71 The Weather-glass as Medical Symbol 'Beginning from the left. love 0'1 darkness. insomnia. phrenitis. cancer.

This in turn forces the water out by its only available routes: up the tubes concealed in the figures. At' night this rises to the head and. p. These are the cause of colds. This could lead to many other conclusions: I merely commend it to The consideration of doctors as an entirely new theory: (p 466) MC II. Some of it escapes through the hidden channels of the veins and arteries. impaired hearing and vertigo. thus quenching the fire. a. and from this phlegm in the head one suffers their side-effects of headaches. p. p.. making the patient cough. falls back into the lungs. and out of their vases.. 432. its heal causes the air inside the reservoir 10 expand.' (p. 'When a fire is lit upon the altar. a. ibid. 465 63 . This fountain demonstrates what happens in tuberculosis: the air contained in the thorax becomes overheated and expands. 424) MC It.c 73 warm droplets. p. taken from Hera of Alexandria and adapted as a medical allegory. catarrh and coryza. 424. condensing there. emerging in the viscera as phlegm. ibia. 446 73 The Origin of Tuberculosis This is a design lor an ingenious fountain.

causes and meanings of urine are discussed in a new way. nor heat. p. p.149) The theory of colours as consisting 0'1 varying degrees of light and shade was carried much further by Goethe and his follower Rudolf Steiner. passing in between through blue-black. b. p. In assessing the patient's state through its colour and consistency he was acting in accordance with his fundamental belief In the metaphysical dualism which manifests on Earth as the twin poles of light and dark. green and blue between red and black.' Fludd devotes nearly lWO hundred pages 10 diagnosis through urine. 271 76 The Physician examines a Specimen This is part of the title-page 01 a treatise on 'Physiological Urinomancy. nor taste. species. is here adapted to the science of uroscopy.l1!l. "154 75 The Colours of Urine The weather-glass. different from the common teachings and scarcely known before. nor colour. orange. Orange and yellow are stages between red and while. and red is the mean between them. golden (in the middle)./'Vr/~p. a. b:uttt. red. nor odour are (as Ihe old Philosophers thought) accidents. and most nearly approaches its colour: (p. Fire is the closest element to it. which calibrates the region betweenthe two terrestrial poles or cosmic extremes.147). in five books. white (a/bus). and 01 the degree 01 primordial lighl and darkness Within 'them. Black and white are extremes of darkness and light. 255 77. pale grey. Me II. The colours of things are a factor of their 'elemental constitution. water white. black (niger). MC II. The colours of urine correspond to those of the previous plate. or diagnosis through the careful inspection of urine. earth black. but essences placed primordially in creatures by the Creator' (p. white. air yellow."_m • 75 74 A Colour Wheel 'Neither cold. fire is naturally orange or red. winecoloured and green. On the colour wheel are seven colours: red (rubeus). 'The radical sulphur has us root and origin in the Light which 'first differentiated itself out 01 the primal mass. No wonder that most: a" them indicate disease I The actual disorder to be expected can be read off from the great medical weatherglass in plate 71 or deduced from plate mystery. They can apparently range from a 'putrefied black' in the north toa 'boiled black' in the south. MC I. Plate 74 showed how he traced every colour 'to this duality.. Goethe's 'colour wheel' differs from Fludd's only in his placing of green between blue and yellow. yellow (ttevus). orange (croceus). and the next plate relates these colours to the weatherglass.s Bort!'. 'But the ultimate cause of colour is the natural or radical sulphur. Colour derives from the elements. which is present in all things and causes rotation of the elements and mutation oftorrns. b. t_. aqua. in which the 64 .rym CUIIJ . A~f. blue (ceruleus} and green (viridis). or diagnosis through examination of urine.. essence. rarefietd and condensed. yellow.

milk. signify excesses in the digestion. The colours of spring water. and breathe upon these slain.9): Fludd's interest in the blood was more rnetaphvsicat tban anatomical. It comes in the first place from the Sun. Their indications are asfollows. [The Golden Mean?] Me II. Colours resembling those of liver. or cabbaqe stalks indicate overheating. t. 'each marked with a urine flask. ranging from crocus-colour to that of intensefire. "Come from the four winds.. 65 . and through it this collection of 'dead bones' is vivified. Pallid colours like cooked fat indicate the beginnings of digestion. Savile 39. and is taken up by the 'four winds as the Sun revolves round the quarters of 'the Earth. this plate is an exact copy from a. Oxford (Ms. 343 78: The Pulse The Pulse. or camel hair show indigestion. and that this is also carried by the blood. Obviously we have here a description Of what the Hindus call 'prana'.p. 7'). carry this aerial spirit into the heart. Black and leaden colours show bad digestion. in turn. or the new and secret history 01 the pulses. a. "My bones are pierced in me in the night season. in the centre. the etheric life force. Cider colours show medium digestion. fifteenth-cemury manuscript now in the Bodleian Library. though he was certainly 'familiar with the evidence 01 dissection. which 'is '[he 'sun' of the' physical body.17). that they may live" (Ezekiel 77 78 37. The winds. white beans. Me I. and my pulse takes no rest" (Job 30. 0 breath. drawn from sacred sources yet compared with the sayings and authority of the ethnic physicians. f. With the other Paracetsians.'77 The Circle ot Urinary Colours With the exception of the physician pictured. It shows a more complete range of colours than plate 75. b. and it is to diagnosis through the pulse's strength and speed the!'! this book is devoted. light filtering 'through horn. Golden colours alone are the sign of a perfect digestion. be believed that man is nourished by subtle as well as ohvsicattooc. p. beginning at the top: Reds. Given this super-phvsical 'function 01 the blood and the heart it is natural that Fludd should regard the pulse as an rndicator 01 'general health.

square. Below the clouds. Here. Take a man who weighs 200 Ibs when alive' his corpse may weigh 240 lbs. and (3) those which do not exist but are seen. giving life and essence to one 01 the angelic Orders who in turn directs a circle of the ethereal world. That air also has a natural upward monon IS proved here by the common experiment of 'f[Ylng a kite. the guardian of Titereth. . or Venus-c-or vice is another circle of planetary aspects. Fludd has given the example of a lighted candle standing upright in a bowl of water with a glass retort placed over it. symbolized by the Tetraqrarnmattm. A=au'tumn. a large. H= winter). expansive SOUlh.a small bluish comet with a long thin tail Miles: <I red comet Aurora: looks like a star. God's special relationship with the Sun is indicated in 'the upper centre where the angel Michael. according to the four seasons (V=sprmg. hall. In the frrst category arethe various types of comets depicted in the outside crescent: Other thtngs both seen and to be believed are the clouds in the next circle.79 19 The System of (he Universal Pulse Again the weather-glass serves as a symbol of the extremes 01 manuestation. favouring prnqressrvelv stronger blood-flow. On the teft are arteries of different sizes. from which one can predict the 'opening of 'the great gates of heaven in the upper sphere. The unreal phenomena are haloes around Sun. Here they are those specifically 0'1 pulse activity. Preceding it. p. r. and the things whichfa!l out of them: 'sudden winds'. ordinary rain and snow Penelrating the fissures in the clouds.4). The difference 01 . hence a stronger pulse. (2) those which exist but are not seen. as well as fiery exhatations: 'monstrous showers' of blood. 139 Trebs: Xiphlas: sword (a blazrnq beam] t. 'He hath placed his 81 0' so 80 Flying 11 Kite This charming illustration is designed 10 show how the higher elements have a natural tendencv upwards.60 pounds' welghlof Vital spirit would be enough 10 lift his [vllal?] body to the sphere of the Sun!' (pp. mirages such as temples in Ihe sky. and lightning flashes. and directly transits Saturn. in the opinion of all astrologers. The inner circle shows the aspects whrch cause the opening 01 'the lesser doors 0'1 66 . p. showrnq that man contains a higher proportion of vital light than they. thunderbolts. constricting North Pole to the warm. there' will be abundant rains and consequently great floods are 10 be expected. Flanking God are ten compartments which are the emanations from his ten Hebrew names. (Of course a kite can be Hawn In a sideways breeze. which signifies Infinitude' (p.) Fludd goes on 10 say that t. 142). which Fludd cat. the Caboallsts and secret theologians use also the word Ensopb. colorations of the moon and magnification of rhe setting Sun by vaporous air. frogs. the twelve winds blow. At the top is God.y. falling and shoounq-stars. is written close by. spear-fike comet a shorter one. In the lowest region we find the real phenomena of 'goalS'.he upward tendency 01 the 'vivjfie spirit' makes living creatures weigh less than dead ones. descends. UCH II. MC I. Mercury. rainbows. 'B8-41) Perhaps Fludd had done more krte-flvinq than corpse-weighing. The correspondences are shown m the table opposite. One Fludd's favourite quotations. where the best health is to be 'found. stones.lnging on the right from slow 'to Iast beals and from Infrequent to frequent rests.ail Cera/las: has lhe shape of a Ilame or horn Chasma and } brief appearances of Scintillae votente flames and flying sparks rhe Greet Meteorological Chart Every heavenly phenomenon that can affect or afflict mankind is shown in this remarkable chart. Conjunctions. Then. by the 'occult faculty' of lire. like a pcinted Mercurietis: . The chart on the left shows the influences 01 planetary aspects on the weather. 100. through the point ot equality and perfect balance. 145-6) as (1) those which exist and are seen. oppositions and squares are treated alike lor purposes of prognostication. AE=summer. Each name or aspect of God 'gushes forth' through 'the channel of one of 'the 'len Sephrroth. are formed the vapours 'that give ofl hall and dew. 'Since no irnaqe can represent. 'This IS more the case with humans than with animals. or Mars. This occurs when the Moon is passing out of conjunction. 78 retort. just as sailing ships can tack against the wind: but ttus would complicate matters and is net considered. b..Jupirer. but excels all In briqhtness and splendour Rosa. Moon and stars. nor any human mind comprehend him in his In'flnit. The blueness of the sky is explained (lower left) by 'the combination of light with blackness. he says. giving lorth invisible hurncanes and whirlwinds. (p. On the rig.encee: a fong. round comet. with a human face Tenaculum: stands on a fiery base Niger: a dark comet with a short t. The water is raised mto the tabernacle in the Sun' (Psalm 19. Musical notes <Ire used 10 designate the tempo. Here he seems close to the Aristotelian notion of the attractive property of fire which he larerrejected in favour 01 the truer principles of expansion and contraction (see commentary to plate 68). and when reflected off clouds in the evening they produce the illusion of a red sky. These are correlated with the scale that runs from (he cold. or Opposition with Sun. The large semicircle contains all the mereorotoqical phenomena. the Sun's rays cause 'perpendicular lines'. a.

170-1 Name of God 1 Ehieh lah Sepbirs Kelher Hokhmah Binah Hesed Geburah Tifererh Netsah Hod Yesod Malkuth Order of Angels Seraphim Cherubim Thrones Dominations Powers Virtues Principalities Archangels Angels Souls Chief Angel Metatron Ruziel Zabkiel Zadkrel Sarnael Michael Anael Raphael Gabriel Soul of the Messiah Ethereal Circle Primum Mobile Fixed Stars Saturn Jupiter Mars Sun Venus Mercury Moon Elements 2 3 4 5 6 7 Elohrrn EI Elohim gibor Eloah Jehovah Sabaoth Elohim 8 9 10 Sabaoth Sadai Adona' 67 . This is a secret which the astrologers seldom divulge. springs. clouds. On the left is a list of 'meteors sent lor man's benefif: good angels. rain.\ . dew. p. lightning and hail. rain. PS. I \ . storm. On the right are the 'meteors sent for man's chastisement or punishment': bad angels. rain and lightning. wind. ice. thunder. manna [thought to be derived from dew]. All these are supported with biblical quotations of which the sources are given.. wind. '" F " 81 heaven..275) The legend proceeding from the mouth of the recumbent man reads: 'Man is the perfection and end of all creatures in the world: He seems 'to represent Adam before the Fall. fiery whirlwinds (with and wuhout demons). with consequent rainfall.~.. but it will be found very useful: (p. cold..

The human being fe!larded as a universe in miniature: his constitution connection with the macrocosm and 82 68 .

equivalent to the frxed stars. These higher 'faculties are. With hrs 'supernatural' faCulties of Reason (Ratio). To this macrocosm corresponds the microcosm of man. Intellect and Mind (Mens). all-encompassing Time turns both macrocosm and microcosm. of course. air= blood (sanguis). alias dcFlucti~ lohannis qht:odmj Ga1kri..p.ROBERTO FLUD '1JT1tmni'4nU_Lmll'J~1'1.lltJ tore Oxorrienfi .. rule his members from head (Aries) to feet (Pisces).82 M!1cracosm and Microcosm The familiar 'title-page of Utriusque Cosmi _.Microcofnllllifioria~ in T ta8atus tres .. whose domain stops at the circle which the man touches. from the fixed stars t. which Saturn rules and which sees in the new year Naturally thrs 'Saturn' is a marufestanon of a higher order than the planetary one. Histaria summarizes the correspondence of the ethereal and elemental realms with man. he soars through the triple world of the angelic hierarchies and contacts God himself. he is on the way to becoming 'Universal Man' and eventually a God in hts own fight.ina:Doc. Since Father Time is the same as Kronos or Saturn they may refer to the constellation of Capricorn. He has his usual au rib ures of wings. The signs of the zodiac. Above and beyond the realm of opposites. t. 83 69 . UCH II. AUTHORE diflribl1ta. water=phlegm (pituita) and earth =black bile (melancholia). Beyond thaI.o.7' eSc ~cdi~. hourglass (With an escapement on 'the top: sometimes there is an actual clock there) and goal's feet. The outer circle represents the Ptotematc universe. In the Orphic theology the cognate name Chronos is actually given to the Supreme Principle itself. with four further.hrough the planets. NA: TURALI)PR4:TERNATURA.6:9' 83 Man'S Higher Vehicles A more exalted view of man relates hrm also to the world above the zodiac. 1. S'VPERNATVRALI. a. We may recall their traditional presence in medieval paintings of the Crucifixion. outside the physical and etherlc bodies.m""·'m. a. to which correspond the four humours of Galenic medicine: fire=yellow bile (cholera). UCH I. unmarked circles denoting the elements (see plates 2-4). the King and Queen whose marriage is the goal of alchemy. In man they are Spirit and Soul. At 'the head of each world preside another Sun and Moon. representing the polar opposites between which the DIvine Man is sacrificed for the world.: ~ bus Armigero . LI ET CONTRANATURALI DE . HiJ. . After the planetary CIrcles come the elements. r.

Gregor Reisch and others (see Manly Hall. so the intellectual world of God and 'the angelic hierarchy finds here its entrvto the soul. water and earth correspond to the five senses (as the dotted lines show). These correspond to 'Book VII. Manas.wO lateral ventricles. One might align these with the principles of Hindu Sankhya philosophy: five mebebhutes (sensible elements) arisinglrom five terunetres (subtle potentialities of the senses). corresponding to an extent with Fludd's reason. E'. Just as the thousand-petalled lows al the top of the yogi's head opens up to the consciousness of the divine.e higher 'faculties of 'Reason.1. hence with the pituitary gland. Intellect and Mind are associated with the upper ventricle of the brain. In the rear 01 the head is the seat of memory and motion. Sankhya also has three higher principles. p. corresponding in the previous prate to Sense and Imagination. and live jnsnendriyes (organs 0'1 sense knowledge). subtle and gross air. Aharnkara and Buddtti. plates 5--6. Comparable to it in every respect is the imagined world which enters directly into the I. intellect and mind. but can be seen in cruder illustrations TO the works of Albertus Magnus. placed in the two halves of the fourth ventricle. Man). UCH II. Like most of the illustrations to Fludd's work on corporeal anatomy. p. 217 70 . IS shown by the letters 'D. whose five elements of light. The whole concept was not original with Fludd. The soul is also informed by the sensible world. De Humeni Corporis Febrics. here shown in the front. a. of the brain. 163 85 84 84 The Spiritual Brain The thre. these are borrowed directly from an edition of Andreas Vesalius's epochmaking work. AA. in the original edition 01 1543.The Physical Brain The physical location of the pair of lateral ventricles.

or disciplined thought. 'to penetrate through one's very centre: (p.. inner knowledge. . the inner organ of knowledqe: to Intelligence. thence through Reason. 272 71 . i . then. a. and finally to the Word itself. '_ r:. where the Rational Spirit enjoys God's proximate presence I To artaln this. and that man should be so made that he can participate in eternal beatitude. r '\ I . How much greater.. fiI J ! . " . . ' " . . p. that God himself should have contracted into corporeality. 1. What joy there is in this world comes alone fromthe presence of the spirit in 'the corruptible body.. 273) Fludd hints here at his own experience in meditation. to Intellect. /. indeed. which opens the suoerceresnat realm.. . it is necessary to (urn away frornextarfor t'hings and turn inwards. . or the object of direct. The ladder of perfection shows the steps that must be taken 10 mount from Earth to Heaven: 'from the world of the senses to the inner world of Imagination . UCH II. 1 ~'I 'l" I 86 86 Jacob's Ladder 'How amazing it is that things so disparate as the vile body and the immortal spirit should be joined together in man I No less miraculous it is. must be the bliss at Heaven.

ribs. intestines. stomach. head. pulse. kidneys. 'f<lce Taurus: neck. From headtotoe and from left to right they are as follows: Aries: ears. but also a system for detecting the crttical days when the course 01 a disease can be reversed. liver Mercury: tongue. b. a double zodiac being used lor illustrative convenience. a. as Demiurge. hands. eyes. arms Cancer: lungs. gall bladder Sun: brain. 1. left eye. belly. sides. the abode of the Will through which. brain. semen. touches the circle at five equidistant points and is centred on the genitals. bladder Jupiter: lungs. buttocks. p. MC II. p. bladder Sagittarius: hips. Five is supposed to be the number of man as he is on Earth. UCH III. nape 01 'the neck. like that of plate 82. and so on. voice Gemini: shoulder. Venus in Pisces the shins. he brings the universe into being and. teeth. The chart is part of a grand scheme of astrological diagnosis which purports to give not only the probable diseases to be expected from every planetary aspect. loins. p.1. kidneys Scorpio: pudenda. throat.86 87 Zodiacal Man The rulershrps of the signs 01 the zodiac over 'the pans 0'1 'the body are shown in more detail here. spleen. ribs. 113 Planetary Ma'n The seven circles 0'1 the planets. which he enters through the generative process. as Avatar. loins. though authoritiesdifler on the details: Saturn: rig:hl ear. thighs Capricorn: knees Aquarius: shins Pisces: feet UCH II. on the other hand. womb. chest. liver Mars: left ear. From this chart one can read all the part that is likely to be affected bv any possible planet-sign combination. . 'formed a cross centred on 'the navel. breasts Leo: diaphragm. pudenda. whereas the cross-shaped ones represent the' macrocosmic man. . also have 'their rulershlps over the' body. 11 2 89 Ine Parts of the Body end their Rutershlps 1 88 A more complete table of rulerships includes both the zodiacal and the planetary influences on the human body. !'ingers. The latter is centred not on the genitals but on the navel. heart Virgo: belly. one. heart. mesentery Libra: navel. Salurn in Aries affects the chest. The previous. memory Moon: brain. right eye Venus: breasts. Other intentions apart such pentagonal figures essentiallv represent the microcosmic human being.183 72 . taste This figure.8.genitals. 'crucified' on the four directions of space. redeems it. back. throat.

and Fludd could not surmount it. At the centre are the genitals. 105 The Torso Dissected Again we show that Fludd was perfectly familiar with the physical constitution of man. p. so this shows the three realms as they manifest in man. and from this point. the lowest member 01 the whole human being: a mere vehicle for the SOUl and Spirit. corresponding to the centre of the Earth (see plate 88). empyrean. the melancholic humour. 113 91 Threefold Man Just as Fludd's diagrams of the Ptolemaic universe show the light of God shining above the three realms. under God. equivalent to the Sun in the 'sphere of life'. and the seat of temptation and sin. The sunburst above his head may recall the thousand-petalled lotus of yoga. the 90 91 73 . air. 1. water and earth are marked :both on the diagram and beneath: Choler (gall bladder) (liver and veins) C Phlegm (belly) o Faeces or dung (viscera) A B Blood If we need a clarification of what the ancients meant by 'black bile'. here it is. in whose centre rules the heart. The body is for him. UCH II. p.Sebesrere Chakra whose opening marks the transcendence of the conditioned realms. To the highest heaven corresponds the head. this despised object is fearfully and wonderfully made so as to reflect God's cosmos in its every particular. One 0'1 Christian civilizatlon's major problems arises from this dichotomy. of view it deserves our awe and admiration. AA. even if he probably learnt it more Irom reading Vesalius than through actual dissection. Yet at the same time. a. with its three functions : The Deific Ray or Mind: Uncreated Light The Sphere of Light Or Intellect: Created Light The Sphere 01 Spiritus: Reason: the Empyrean The planetary spheres or ethereal heaven correspond to 'the 'thorax. ethereal and elemental alike. The elemental spheres of fire. as lor all mystics.

Michael (E). The small circle to the left explains thaI the spiritus or air (Al and the soul (8) surround IHS. presided over by the Archangels Gabriel (N). was the subject of an alchemical experiment by which Fludd set great store. 'the food of man'." Jr:ftu<llj"4Jrmffr"" .92 Soul.'J«in" D· GA" - _ Like most of Fludd's tirle-paqes. Here the Universal Man holds a circle inscribed 'Man. Body and Bread ANAT'OM liE AMPHITHEA. the dissector (6) and his instruments (C). To them are ascribed the respective properties 01 conge'aling.. 'l. III (right) 'The living effigy of common anatomy' 92 93 A scene 01 dissection is explained in a parallel way: 'Three watch over common anatomy: They are the subject of dissection (Al.. dissolving and conserving. . 23) AA.. 'Earth or body'. EFTIGtE TRI puc I. or theelements of the subject .60-64.. along with the many macrocosmic conclusions he drew from this process. MORE . or 'the Microcosm: the admirable receptacle of all these subjects' WHhin are three large circles: I (above) The external ima. O'£. the instruments-alembic and retort (I. the pre -erninent 'food of man'.. this epitomizes the main themes of the book. generating.. p.".. Uriel (S) and Raphael (W).. t. VARIA. 74 . TRVM JI. (Josten..T CONDITIONE t·D nudcl..I. He suggests that it is 'probably meant to convey the idea that the Word of God (as nourishing 'to man as wheat and bread) is manifested 'to him by sound propagating itself through the medium of air'.here the five elements into which he divided wheat (E-G).p. The Theatre of Anatomy discusses the anatomy 01 wheat and of man's physical and subtle bodies. see plates .Kl. H. The small circle reads: 'Three things are necessary 'to make anatomy accessible: They are the of man's mystic anatornv' The sacred monogram IHS (Jesus) is at the heart of the four winds. II (Ielt) The bright mirror 0'1 the anatomy 01 wheal or bread' Wheat. C. . [. He devotes the first lengthy section of this book 10 an account of how he extracted the quintessence of wheat. Josten has pointed out that the three apexes join the monogram IHS with the level in the boule equivalent 'to air and the ear 01 the surgeon._)(. Further on the Winds. The three large circles are joined by a triangle along whose sides are wrinen the words: 'Heaven or spiritus'. These arethe 'triple members of internal man'. 'the light or cen-tre of men'. 'Robert Fludd's "Philosophicall Key"'.SIGNATVM' ~ ~! bread (Al and wheat (8): the dissected members.

dedicated 10 those called the Brothers of the Rose Cross by Rudollo Otreb [anagram 0'1 RoberlO Floud]. frmihN'i_C colle&a. Fludd offers this.ndifferemly uponthe whole Earth.Thcologo. 1VI~um- .fragmenra: e~ profun~ (ophorum fonte hautb atquc titcrarum Litefarum f. . 165 94 The Fall of Man 'Theological-philosophical treatise in three books: 1. The upper one in turn gives off light: the lower swallows up the ray in its own darkness. or God's. at the expense af Johann Theodora de Bry. II. The title-page shows lour scenes common'ly found in Christian iconagraphy: God creating Eve trorn Adam's SIde. on Life. 0 c aR. ' RESURRECTIONE.o IIA4ilIU. We could compare 'this to the action of the Sun. Similarly. 2. joining them in expectation of an imminent renewal of Heaven and Earth. the inretlectual and invisible Sun is one in its act but V. out of necessity. Ada~. 164) The plate shows the Sun's rays.p. Both resemble hearts.' (p.. mass of matter receives ill the acts of the divine mind. A'I the Oppenheim press of Hieronymus Gallerus. TTP. ~ :U. cleM 0 R T E.. life to the world". The major part of the Trectstus Theologo-'philosophicus is a statement of the traditional Christian doctrines concerning man's Fall and Redemption. and "the darkness cornprehendeth it not". on Resurrection. his second work.HiOU5 lin its effects. Nothing is done in Heaven or Earth which does not derive its motion from the divine will. amplified :by many quotations from the Corpus Hermeticum. a Briton. solved by adding the capitals of Christvs MVnDo VITa: CIVMVDVI~c1617. 94 ~93: Divine and Human Will 'God acts out of will: not. which shines i. but whose ravs are variously received according to the nature 01 :bodies.!. objects. fuper:!litis. perhaps alluding to the esoteric doctrine that the highest soul in man is associated with the subtle heartcentre. The Sun can make plants 'grow.::n{i~&:. Further symbols appear in the decorations: at rhe lOp of each column are fruits.. I. In which are included some fragments of ancient wisdom witnessing 10 Adam's rnisfortune : derived and compiled in the I:ight of Holy Writ and from the tirnpidIount ot 'the wiser Philosophers."'1 dijlriblllll4. p.atquc c:dimpidiod &:Liquidiori wullmmPhilQ~. Adam and Eve with the trult of the Tree of Knowledge. on Death. to the mysterious Rosicrucians. meeting light and dark. 75 . depending on his level ot consciousness. III. yet it can also shrivel them. representing the passions and desires to which our first parents succumbed: al the bottom are symbols 01 the death which came to mankind as a result of the Fell. This source 01 the divine within man can be radiant or latent. in(crunturnonnullaSapielltiz veretis. 411"". Only the dark. the pair expelled from '[he Garden of Eden by the flaming sword and placed under Deeth's dorninlornthe Resurrection of the Dead. in the year "Christ.phicu5 • . 3. PS.' The year is concealed in a chranogram.(11 Lilmu . '" .Pbilofo. as the Peripatetics say.lumme.

With the exception of music. UCH. The Ape squats in the centre.irle-page of the second treatise 01 the History of the Macrocosm represents the Arts by which Man imitates and ccntlnues Nature's work on Earth (see plate 3).Jenson). He was probably aware that it was a symbol of Thoth. 76 . The asscciations Thoth-HerrnesMercurius cornt 10 a deeper purpose In this book: the arts of man are indeed guides to his soul. the legendary inventor of writing and other useful arts. capable 01 transforming and preparing it for higher contemplations. tirne-keepinq.p. are geometry (applied in surveying). astrology. pointing like a schoolmaster to an arithmetic book. and reminding us that all the arts are based on number. which follows erithrnanc. perspective. proceeding clockwise. military science. under .VII The Ape of Nature in the arts and sciences. pamting. imitating and complementing those Man's accomplishments of Nature '9S The Ape of Nature The t. cosmography. geomancyand music. b. engineering. The image of the ape had borne many diff'erem connotations before Fludd used it in the title of his book De Naturae Simia (see Bibliography. this is the order in which the subjects are expounded in the treatise. I. The other arts. t.

best known from Raphael's version in rhe Vatican. whether between the parts of the human body or those of rhe cosmos. and there are several other misprints. II is a common enough scene. 13 96 97 Apollo and the Muses This emblem heads Fludd's treanse on mUSIC. He is a personification of the regulal:ing:. lute. harmonizing forces in the. The god Apollo sits under a laurel tree on Pamassus with his head enveloped ina 501. were an imoortern consideration lor Greek. p. UCH I. bass viol. dispensing inspiration 1. The most detailed working out of them look place in muslcsl theory. some holding musical instruments: lyre. 159 97 77 . It gives the Latin terms lor all manner of proportions and the corresponding numerical ratios (as they are called today). The number 5 at the very bottom should be 25. b. Around him are Ihe nine Muses. UCH r. universe.11 nrrnbus. cornerto. medieval and Ren<Jissance philosophers alike.rts. Later. where the proportions between strings of venous lengths or tensions were translated into audible intervals. lin his hand is a seven-strlnqed lyre.0 monats.The Mirror of Proportions Proportions. indicating that as Sun God he is leader of the choir of planets. and as such is aptly associated with music. The 'Mirror 0'1 Proportions' (ProportiOnl. The Muses traditionall'y preside over the A. b. p. They are femmes inspiretrlces : images of the Anima: or the levels of Ihe soul from which true artistic creation arises. with the invention 0" precise rhythmical notation. they were also realized in metrical relationships. cornerto (on the ground) and straight trumpet.m Speculum) is an example of 'the many circular charts in '!hIS' book. in which these torces are made audible.

i. II being the highest of the three. depending on the time-signature. the lower one Ihe dirf. the place of the latter is taken by a curious profile mask. we come to another gamu't between the' Iirst lWO Tuscan columns. so we do not know the extent 0'1 his knowledge. an aid 10 composition. For some reason each IS also accompanied by a 110t. the subject of the next plate.) To each of these are added their appropriate rests. obviously influenced by Renaissancethealrical architecture. temple.e. the normal limits of mas! mUSLCIn Fludd's day. The legend 01 the musical contest between Apollo and the satyr Marsyas. pp. The two outer circles contain the notes and their relationships: '1 maxima (Fludd calls it larga) equals 2 longs. described. two higher octaves being indicated only by Gs Skippmg the chart. the upper dial shows 12 hours. These were called respectively the salt. fire. from msximus to semiiuss (tbe tatrer ecuet to our quaver or eig:hlh-:note). (The last note should have two flags on its tan. was probably conceived as.98 '98 Tower on this enlarged detail of the Temple. of the loser. and as the notes proceed up the scale so their values get smaller. 9. however rare. The ramifications of this 'net' are vast. natural and hard hexachcrds.pes. C or G.hesl element. The doors are flanked by panels containing (left) harp. The next three spaces explain the three species of hexachords. Proceeding along the bottom we find first a lute. (p. cornettc. the hard hexachord by square ones. was philosophically lnrerpretadto represent the painful liberation 'from one's earthly body (the satyr's skin) in order to hear Apollo's lyre. running up Irom F 10 a". but this system Iails when the Iusa is between cities: it shows the distances between the notes of the scale. could fall on an F. Might it be too fanciful to see the spiral also as a reference [0 [he cochlea of 'the inner ear 7 Unfortunately Fludd's Anetomis« Amphitheetrum. it '10 the hlg. Pagan My. but here it serves simply 'to show the proportions of note-values to each other. UCH I. BUI whilst this muddy vesture of decay Doth grossly close it in.he temple amplifies. sole entrances of sound. (right) viol. There are 'two errors. The area above Pythagoras is divided diagonally. In the engraving of the complete. 4 breves. 8 and 6. These reflect t'he different versrons of the note S as it falls in the respective hexachords: in 'the salt one it sounds B -uat. The lowest :nOI'8' is G. or 9 minims. p. These two accidentals may be seen in Ihe 1. organ. hence avoids B altogether. Examining the hammers. neither do lickle lnventions seduce men's alf'ec!ions from it. i) In the second storey we find first a colurnn-rnonochord with the notes of the gamut marked off lor two octaves. These are fancifully drawn above the two doors which represent the ears. an instrument which Fludd honours with the following encomium: 1 In the commentary 'No other invention. On the lefl is the Platonic lambda. The 'chess-board' is. ancient or modern. 168 :99 The Temple 01 Music This extraordinary structure. in the hard one it sounds Snatural. 204): 16 should be 12. 226) NexI is the famous scene 01 Pythagoras entering the IOrge in which he noticed the consonant pitches produced by four hammers.Brent note-values. This is the basis which the rest of t. b. Ap'I:ly surmounted by Father Time.the bottom of the gamut. Time destroys not the sweetness 01 its sounds. barely men tlons the apparatus of heari ng. the six-note 'scales' of medieval music whose lowest nOIB. and 24 should be 27. The possibilities for longer notes were correspondingly greater. constructed rather like the charts which show the milea. unusual. In medieval and: Renaissance notation a breve could contain either 4. pointed like a flame. . '64 fusae. or more easily learnt these may be . rectified in the text (p. is more seemly for consorts nor more desirable lor symphonies. fifth and octave. The massive foundation obscuring the remainder 01 the arcade is in 'the form of a staff with a bass clef. Fludd defines sound as made by the striking of air with the consequent vibrations which propagate in spirals and circles (p. The Round Perhaps the 'harmony in immortal souls' IS indicated by the decorated Circles thatsurmount the edifice. one of them 'lull of 'vounq-ev'd cherubms'. on the right Marsyas with pan-pipes. The natura! hexachord runs for six notes up from C. he 'found their weig:h!s In the proportion 12. 68).'Op 0'1 the ground-floorarcading. and gIves it the highest tower. We consider next the clock above Apollo. But i'l only gives consonances.sleries in (he Renaissance. in the Timeeus. (The Merchant of Venice V. 'ut'. which ended with the Ilaying. 6. Fludd likens. On the lefl IS Apollo with a lute. giving the intervals of fourth. written with a square b which survives in our natural sign. 171-6). cittem and lute. we cannot hear it. a mnemonic device for the rules of music. nor more admirable to the ears a! listeners. which has very derailed dissection drawings of the human eye. 8 sernibreves.e' of the next value down. In the engraving the son hexachord is surmounted by a round tower and round organ p. experience the celestial worlds (see Edgar Wind. Suppose one has written 78 . 16 minims. written with a round b that became the famihar flat sign. 32 semiminims. 128 sernifusae.

sixth. enabhnq one to check al a glance Ihe notes respectively an octave. however. Try a B. The 'clerestory' on the level of the three towers is a similar device. in the alcove beneath the twin portals representing ears. 160-1 (Transcribed by Todd Barton) 79 . UCH I. the triumphant result of 'these compositional aids (right). p.low A and wants to write a middle C it. The chan shows that all is well: the interval is a tenth. and one meets a blank: the interval is a discord. a Muse stands pointing at a phrase In three parts. third and fifth from any given n018. these being only imperfect consonances as opposed to the perfect octave and fifth Finally. The Windows B aqainst 'for the sixths and thirds are smaller. b.

UCH !I. The upper device forms a small triangle with the cursor and swivelling pointer. one transcribes. both ascribed to Matrhieu Merian. and then calculate by means of similar triangles formed by the calibrated rod and Sliding cursor. called a 'Jacob's staff'. of a tower by means of a surveying instrument already old in Fludd's day. 284 An Aid 10 Palmers A frame divided by wires into a grid of equal squares is 'fixed on a table. but he does not discuss them. Like several of the illustrations in this book. This column also carries spikes which set off a carillon to strike each hour. this is the culmination of his book on Time and its measurement The hexagonal barrel is f.reat advantaqe of no! needing a known horizontal distance. p. UCH I. At noon one refills 'the barrel. One has to know one's horizontal dis!ance from the object being measured. and the process repeats. b. The landscapes throughout this chapter have a strong resemblance to those in Michael Maier's alchemical emblem-book Atlanta Fugiens and l. Two other examples rnav be seen in Frances Yates' Ttteatre of the World. UCHI. plate 5. the IIoat rises to the 'top again.ilfed with water which runs out from a tap (not shown) in the course of twelve hours. b..1'00 101 A Musical Clock One 01 Fludd's own inventions.525 102 11010 101' Surveying I A man determines the height. Looking at the scene through the eyepiece.) UCH If.. (See Yates. p. and the drawing paper is correspondingly divided. One of the illustrations reproduced by Yates (see previous commentary) seems to imply the use of tangents. similar to that formed by the horizontal distance and the entire height 0'1 the rod. p. wooden column fitted witha poi mer that indicates the hours as it descends . Fludd may also have known the USB of trigonometry in survevinq. who also signs the title-page of the present book. Floating in 'the water is a. The Rosicrucian Enlightenment. 282 102 SurveVing II Two surveying instruments of Fludd's own invention also work on the principle of similar triangles. p.ambsprinck's De Lapide Philosophico Libel/us. this recalls some of the buildings of Heidelberg where Frederick and Elizabeth enjoyed their brief reign. 307 103 80 . b. but have the g. it square by square on to the paper. b.

~~~-...."". . . ... . ._ -: ... .\... I .../ / . •I ..' .l . '! .. l .-:_-::. 103 .. ! . . . \ . ..... .-::. ' -_..-:. . . . .. ... .. . . .. .". r .

82 '106 .

is due in part to its mandalalike symmetry. 384) UCH I. UCH I. Aden and Mexico. Certainly it could repel most efforts to lake il by storm. 345 1'05 Crimpen. We show it with its 'five bastions and defences in the second plate. Imagination and memory are the two nurses and midwives of this art. which help one to depict it accurately.' (p. 390 106 The Bastions of Bommene and Crimpen 'There is a toruficatlcn in Holland called :Bammena. With its twelve points. UCH I.' (o. 338) The elegant engraving ofa deer presumably shows what. p. It is shown in 'the first picture. The town of 83 . and Iav it aside. b. Fludd shows bird'seye views of the fortifications of many other European cities. p. repul. b. 'Sketch it in black or red pencil or charcoal. Fludd faces the problem of how to draw irregular objects such as animals which do not lend themselves to treatment by use of the grid. His main interest is in the arrangement of reentrant bastions. it might be mistaken for a giant zodiac. In this way one can work on as many as forty drawings simultaneously. b. each day. Perhaps this fascination began in Fludd's youth. but it does nOI appear as well supplied against. see what parts of it need improvement and amend them bit by bit. this Tuscan town is shown as an example of natural fortification. was besieged and assaulted in 1576 by the Prince of Orange. one may hope to achieve through diligent practice. p. Then. a lengthy siege.104 Advice (0 the Aspiring Artist After explaining the geome'trical bases of the human form.edly invented by a German. surrounded by water and equipped with four bastions. well fortified. 338 Orvieto In the section on military science. UCH I. and gradually increase one's skill. when his father was posted at Berwickon-Tweed. until 'the next day. and mentions even Tunis. 385 107 The Perfect Fortification No doubt the perfection of 'this 'ideal' Ionification. b. a town famous for its ltalianate bastions. p.

with needles on their heads or bells hung around them. 418 1 08 84 .dro e'ltl itu!'l1. Some also hang bells on posts or in trees for [his purpose: (p.nnLorltfrl camp.8.1h·nm Jlltl".. one 0..f 0'1 torulI1 ba. E: Two wings 01 the phalanx.A.DIIl!:' ph • is .' Fludd's treatise on military science. . 417) UCH I. I' Squadron of mounted arquebusiers. D: Artillery. .. UCH I.sOf"e. E. p. G: Guards of the baggage.lIlfdu'm .s.Vtl .fOf1ed: . 108 The I(alian .specLltli. C. p.•.s'l1futu. also devoteslal'ge lolding plates to the disposition of the Spanish and Imperial armies.exerci hM. b. H. ha.mft't'lill J1l CO hod.s· l'l. (Jnumtocu.sell .ill'l' "~cu manica:: ll~ru1''' !:'F0rta. B: TIOOPS of light cavalry divided into squares on left and right.e~ in dno ~l. .!J~u intpeclimenta.exfrttm rtempe & .sml.ftgetlblu'a.Army on the March 'A: Scouts. PrLC'Cur. The sliqhtest vibration underqround Will cause them 10 sound.JR: .ex.~a. [qnitu.l)mnJ. F: Phalanx or main part of the army.t"rcifrL3.A iter Jru"ie>! . S. Cohores a J TlUfJ~CUl'l10GtiAff.1 his most extensive.rl. 409 109 Derecting' Enemv Movemencs 'Those under siege who suspect their enemies of tunnelling under the walls should place drums above the most suspect points.· I). fti' d. Baggage train. C: Corps of engineers.i5 i~~rellfju. con. : H.s .c{t~a. C .lu.

109 85 .

H he cannot expect that single weight 10 be lifted so far by 'the much shorter motion of its fellows. now in 'the British library (MS. the 'famous scholar and Palatine Librarian. b. as seems likely. 461 86 .l . He does not seem 10 have believed in Ihe posstbility of perpetual physical motion. then (somehow) rehung on the top of the wheel. this one is obviously taken from life and depicted accurately and convincingly. 'I cannot praise enough his artifice and ingenuity. 457 "" A Waf'er Pump 'When I was in Rome. It caused the water from a tiny sprinq. 10 ascend to the top. The inventor thought thai. the' weights remaining onthe wheel could easily raise a single weigh! in this way and that motion would therefore be perpetual. The' sketch of it is from a rnanuscnpt of part of the treatise'. made this machine for Cardinal Sextus Giorgio whom he served as engineer. Sloane 870). which from so mean a spring raised water to a height with SLJchease: (p. who was born in Antwerp and whom Fludd may also have known. bubbling up at the 'fOOl of a mound in his garden. p. UCH I. a good idea of the state in which his designs reached 'the engraver. Fludd pomts out th. a Swiss by birth and my master in this art. it gives.I . one Grurerus.I r 11'0 111 1110 A Perpetual Motion Machine Fludd shows this as an ingenious but 'fallacious Swiss invention. b. The idea was that as each weight reached 'the bottom of the wheel it was whipped up by the comb-Ilks pistons. Unlike some of the machines Fludd illustrates. 460) This Gruterus is not-Janus Grutsr. UCH I. If it is in Fludd's hand. p.

. I1 I'~':: ' • _.~ ~ I' ... 87 .u. ..' .- ... L".

VII The Microcosmic Arts ('. 112 88 .. both psycholegical and psychic TOMI SECVNDI TRACTA SECTIO De technica TUS SEC . . P R IMI. divifa..AUTHollE ROB E R T 0 FLU D alias deFLtlCTlBU'i Armigero &in MedicinaDoaore OXQnienli.0 Man"s sciences as {hey retete sell-knewledge.In U N D A.· Microcofini h.ifi:oria> Portiones V I I.

a. UCH ill. columns. which represents. I have found no satisfactory explanation for these particular scenes. The images are the Tower of Babel. the art of memory. Here the threa ventricles are shown again. p . but the things 10 be rnarnorized are brought from the obscurity 0'1 the :back of the head and exposed to the eye ot imagination. containing as it does many available places such as the doors. p. a. 47 114 The Theatre of the World One begins the an of memory by forming an ordered collection of 'memory places' in the mind's eye.2 The MicrocDsmlc Arts Whereas the book from which the previous plates are taken (UCH I. who wrote the standard historical study of the subject.he spaces between them. windows. and the 'science of pyramids'. 2. b) treated man's activities in the outside' world. a. Again he IS shown reaching from the Divine triangle down to the Ape. 55 113 1'14 89 . the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.11. UCH 11.p. This plate achieved: tarna when Richard Bernhermer and Frances Yates suggested that it might be an actual drawing of Shakespeare's GlObe Theatre. A theatre is recommended as a suitable locale. 2. and the point at which man is explained in macrocosrnic terms. The latter is Fludd's own invention. an obelisk. the mterpretaticn or natal horoscopes. this one deal's with the sciences which man has devised concerning himself. in which one can then put images of the things to be remembered. UCH II. and t.. 113 The Art of Memory The memory can be enormously enhanced by transmuting concepts into visual and spatial images: herein lies the secret of the Ars Memorativa of Antiquity. His achievements towards self-understanding and selfdevelopment. are prophecy. palmistry. physiognomy. a. geomancy. Unlike Frances Yates. 2. storm at sea and the Last Judgement. his own efforts to Imitate God's work. I have practised this art and 'found II dramatlcallv successful. Tobias and the Angel. t.

and also in those of Antiquity. UCH II.anointing David. and the sex 01 an unborn child. buteven a person's virginl'IY or otherwise. and prudence by their prominent upper lips. p.Orpheus. 3 good memory and longevity by their large ears. Cassandra. Examples are to be found in many biblical figures. 143 90 . UCH II. Marin Mersenne. Pla1:O. 2. 2. adultery and love 0" injustice. or rusncitv: a nose thal neertv reaches tne mouth denotes a worthy and magnanimous man. Presumably this couple illustrates the euqenic ideal. a" 2. p. and the Spirit in the shape of a dove issuing from above: or perhaps Samuel . was particularly averse to this science'. a. Inasmuch as they had it before their fall: (pp. Indicating 1 11'7 Cturomencv Lifted wholesale from Cornelius Agrrppa. though he believed that palmistry could: reveal not cnlv character. B. p1 17 11:6 Physiognomy The science of physiognomy studies the 'rrnddle soul' of men as revealed In their bodies. UCH II. Craven (see Bibliography) suggests that this scene represents Elijah anointing Elisha with a horn 01 oil. very hairy arms indicate insanity. and Merlin. such as Mercurius Trisrneqistus. the Sibylline and Chaldaaan Oracles.. a. 8-1 ") J. 'this chirornantic hand shows the traditional lines and: mounds of the planets. and invited his opponent to rnterpret the markings . and those who receive them become prophets. Either would represent the influx 01 divine g'race which makes a true' prophet. through the ministration of demons. Fludd is not known to have responded 10 the challenge. baldness (see frontispIece) is a sign of subtlely and astuteness.11'5 115 Prophecy The gift of prophecy can come directly from God. But the evil demons can also give knowledge. Apollonius ot Tvana. in his attack on Fludd. so God incessantly offers his pearls of wisdom. In our own day we have Nostradamus Just as the Sun Shines perpetually en all men. Here are some typical observauons trorn Fludd's 'treatise on the subject: large and fleshy feel indicate foolishness in love. or else indirectly.0'1 a palm which he illustrated.

91 .

638-9) These divisions 01 the day became important in Fludd's Medicina 121 Cetbolice. Thus in summer. 190. The first hour of the day beginsBt dawn and the first hourof the night at sunset ~ whatever the' time of year. 71 92 . squares. Lunae= Monday. The Instrument. 1595) for more accurate details UCH I. UCH I. The chan lists the days (Solis Sunday. and positions of the planets and tixed stars. So one cannot rely on the clock 'for guidance: one must divide the day and the night whatever their lengths. for instance. dividers.) UCH II. Fludd says 'that the most efficacious of all aspects is the conjunction :between planets. b.he other aspects in descending' order of strength. and . 545 119' Zodiacal Aspects This shows 'the astrological aspects of each zodiacal sign to 'the rest : oppositions. can give times of solar and lunar risings and settlnqs.' (pp. almost impossible to visualize the complete planisphere of which this and two other components are shown. spectacles. noticing that the 'alchernrstas-astrologer' is pointing to the sign 01 Pisces. 633 12. p. and this differs on each day of the week. p. where they have an mfluence on the critical pornts of diseases. a. p 638 1:21 An Astrologer at Work In this beautiful engraving an astrologer draws upa horoscope with the tools of his trade: a above. Johannes Fabricius suggests" deeper meaning. in which all the heavenly bodies are obligingly shining. b. Ftudd refers us to the world maps ot Petrus Plancius (London observation of the skies. books 01 tables. p. making il.' (Alchemy. p. and lists t. trines and sextilas Not all of them have been drawn in. UCH I.) and the hours of 'the day (above the horizonl and nigh! (below it). 'In this sign the old philosopher beholds the splendour of the last coniunctio solis at lunas bursting to illuminate the heavens at the and of his opus. the daytime "hours" will be for longer than those of the night. phases of the' moon. differing from his modern counterpart . b. when assembled. 'Fludd's itlustratcttalls to do his text justice. into twelve equal parts each. 2.lIS 119 120 11 8: Parr of iii Planisphere 'For once.0 A Teate of Planetary Influences 'Each hour of the day is ruled by a certain planet.


History Tractate

of (he Macrocosm I, 1617 (UCH and



I. a) Origins I_ b)


I {

Meldphysics Tractate Ans


The Macrocosm

II, 1618


and Sciences Section 1,1619 (UCHI!, Spmt uet Psychology a, 1)

r Tractate


Secuoo 11,1620)


IL a, 2)

SCiences Portions I, II. 1621 (UCH and Cabbafa II, b)



Portion Section Arun omv

The Microcosm

III. 1623 (AA)

Poruon IV, 1626 (PS) Tractate"
Section II Meleorolagy and





lne ver appearedj



Section I, 1()79 (MC of disease' I, a) demons


Causes I

Winds and I. b)

II, 1631 ) (MC { Section The pulse Volume I Section

I, 1631 (MC

11,a) sna rardaClion


ca. uses




II. 1631 (MC II, b) { Sectiou DiagnosIs ov astrologV and uroscopy

Volume [never

11 iJPpuuredj

1 WRITINCS [AC] macu/is F/uctibus Gottfried [TA] Apologia de Rosen


FI UOD tretemit stem







In sectiones

Ires 1 heodore


[UCH Naturae I, b ] snu Simia

divis» Irsctetus Secundus Se(J Tecbnics
De de Bry [VP]


Cruce espersam. Basson.

suspiciorus et internise veraotis quasi

ebtuens et obst erqens



In paries


Trect etus Ap%geIiC!1S tntcor.totom Societatis De Rosea Cruce defendens l eide n. GOltfr'ed Hasson. 1617

aivtss Oppenheim. Johann Theodore de Ehy, 1618 2nd erin Fr<lnkftJ(!. Johann Tncodoro de (3ry, 1624 Tomus Sccundus De Supernaturali, Netureti, Preeterneturotr Et Cootrenetursti Microcosmi tnstoris, I() Trectstus Ires distribute. Oppenheim, Johann Tneodore de BfY, 1619.
:UCIf Primi II. a. 2] Tami

v cntotis Proscenium, III quo Au/aeum Errotis Trs qicum Dimovetor, Sipenom iqnorsntise SCAniCUm comphcstur, ipseoue vent as a suo
ministro Frankfurt. in puoticom Johann prodocttur. Scu



Dcmonstretio 1621


Aneivtico Theodore de Brv.

Thcotoqo-Ptntosoptucus, Quorum I. de Vita, I/. de tvlorte, tll, de
In Libras Ires dislributlls: Oppenheim, Johann


[UCH SCilicet Atque Volumina I,

The odor e rie B(y. 1617



Secunat l rectntus De tecbnice

al Utriusoue Cosm! Maioris et Minoris Mctoonvsico, Pbv sir:»
His/aria In duo secundum Tomus

Microcosm, historis, in Portiones divis» \I P. n d l ' Opner-he.m.
) 1620'

/snet omiee Amphrlilaatwm tfliqlA More Er Conditione Varia Desiqoet um Frankfurt Johann Theodore de Brv. 1623. Includes Monochordum Mundi as pp. 287-331, dawd 9 December 16)1
Triotici. :PS: Philosophia Brvana, sacra et vere Christiana



Cosmt dittereruiem


II, b]

Lomi Secundt
De Preeteroetorst.


Seu Me/eorologia Officina




Pfli?lUS De Macrocosmi

Secundus .


ISM) quo, Marino

Soptuee Lapis


Moria Monacho


In Fr



translation Gouda,

Responsum M Peter


Johannes Blume. Musik Kassel, Places Buhle, 1804,

Kepler vol

Oxford, 18 'Rober! und

1975; Fludd', 438-42

v istes


A Fa/so


Hoplocrisma-Spongum Presbiteri 1638


in Astronomy, Friedrich, 1955, Fludd's J. G,



celebemma (in Genesin)

v otummss

in Geschichte
vol 4,

Musicae der in


[SB] Magiae, Fra/rum


[Frankfurt Quod


1629, est Verum

Summum Roseae

Bonum, Crucis

Cebelee, Alchymiae
Per loechimurn 1629 on Fludd motive


Clevis Phitosopbis« Et Alchymiae Fluddanae, Sive Roberti Fluddl Armiqen, Et Meaicinee o oct oris, Ad Epistolicem


De Templo

Its tustoricat Rosenkrcuzer summarized


Petri Gessendi
1633 [PM] under


William Fitzer,

Uber den Ursprung
und Freimuurer.






All writers
that some prompted year

have assumed known to himself this work

Philosophia sacra

Moysaica. vereque

In qua et ((II est Christiana


Sapientia creaturarum p ote

et scientie crestionis

him to publish It appeared Cum

a pseudonvm.

in the same on this appears calumnies I have it with


basis sive FundamenlUm

Buhles findings were q v. Booz. Ada Mah (A. M. Yirkholz ). translator, Scbutzsctuitt fur die Aectttheit der Rosonkreuzerqesettschett LeipZig, 1780 German transtanon of TA pp 244ff.
by De Ouincev, Cafiero, con Filosoii«. Cassirer. neueren 343ff Chacornac. Docteur 1931, Collier, Paul, 'Robert f,udd, Ie ro sicrucien'. pp 321-39 Katherine New P, Cosmogonies 1934, of pp 2t> -32 York, Le VOile dtsis.

as Soptnoe

Morie Certemen.
address Good


life LapIS Angularis ad

t esus


'Robert vol


e la polemica pp 367410,

and, like lI)at work, Mersenne treatise to the reader states:

is an attack 'Because

exp/icatur 1638 [MP] upon

amussun ct


Riviste Critics di Storie
19 (1964), pp. 3- 15. und Wissenschaft Berlin, 1911, der pp

The printer's


Peter Rarnmazen,

and vol ;10 (1965), Mosalca" the Wflt/en thus Humphrey Philosophy first rendred Grounded or Eternal and English 1659 in der Piutosoptve Zen.

on the Highest Madn

Ernst, Das Erkenntnisprob/em 2nd edn

to lay bare the extraordinary of Brother thought iltustrious named Mersenne It worth Robert as author

Essenuetl Truth,


Sapience. afterwards london,

in Latm,

to bind


the Response not 10 attribute presuming supporter defence [MC

to the same of the I see no reason Fnzius It to the Joachim on the title who page, or



WORKS Manuscript library, Ms forthcoming in Royal, in

London, 12.c.11 Ambix

Brevis Brilish

him to be a !fiend of Hurid to the anonymous

our Fsttiers.

subrmt tcd this punter Seu In

tr aostauon

et passim
Craven, J

B, Count Michael
1910, reprinted comprehensive aSSOCIMe Robert Fludd

Maler 1970 on de Life

I, a]

Mcdicioo Cettiolics,

A Ptntosoptncetl
Tr irutv College, 1150 Debus Irutbs Bodleian 766, [0246],


Manuscript in
Western G Ms.

Kirkwall, The only Fludd's Fluctibus)

London, monograph


Artis Medicandi Secrerium. Tomas divisum duos In Ooibus
Et Pbv sics morborurn reuo nenrecteto, 1629, EI Arcana Fonte Non Dret.s Hoc Tenia, nd Completed


by Allen

Melaphysica tuendee, Frankfurt. [MC propulsandorum

Tam Serutsus

f orthcormnq. Golden Harrow Oxford, H Manuscript Ms Josten in

, Doctor
and Wrilings



the English KI.kwall, st art-nq G, Acles

Rosicrucian, 1902. for Huddian Nller




Library, by C

Ashmole In Arnbix,



edition III (1949)

Debus, Allen 'The Aerial du Dixierm: ill the Sixteenth Centunes'. and Early Seventeenth Conores d'Hist oire des SCiences,

I, b) Pulsus

Seu Nova E Sacro Nec


pp 91-150

Pulsuum Radicaliter Medicorurn eottioritete Portionis Pulsuum


Etnrncorum comproba/a. Tertise Scientie 1629 Inlegrum Sive Trectetus diS/fibulas 1631. Pars Np,

If WRITINGS Allen, Paul M, Anthology. Rosicrucians Steiner largest plates, Amman, and Journal

ABOUT New York,

ROBERT 1968.

FLUDD The the IV

tnternetionet Paris, 1964, --, The Seventeenth to Robert Reason, 1975, van Helmonr",


A Ctmstien Rosenkreut s
interpreted by Rudolf contains of Fludd's

vot. 2, pp. 835-9
Chemical Century Debates

01 the

the Heaction Baptiste and New of the pp. 20Shea, York, Bonelli

[~ Frankfurt, 19 October [MC II, a]


and his disciples, collection Peter J, of the vet. heretofore 'The and a transtat.on


and Jean


Morborum Catholicae

of SB, book Fludd', Courteutd 198 Croix pp


and Mysticism

Myslerium Tomi Primi Sectiones Wilham [MC

Medicinae duas

MUSICal Theory and

in the Scientific pp 19-47.

Revolution Dream



of Robert Warburg 30 (1967),


-, The Chemical Renaissance. 23 , 'The Chemical Chcrruc Medicrne et


Arnold, Paris. tes origines




II. b]I,~()oil~('"
In quo, Morbi

Medic orum Quasi Speculo more preesemes

Paul, Hist oire des Rose 1955,

~·:xron7f""" Potitissimo tuturi Prim], ratione

de la Franc-Ma(:oonsrie

al Philosophers fron) r'aracelsu~ to of Science,

pp 126-9
et ses rapports avec of

cemumur. Secunda

ctsrissirne indicsntur,
proonostics epene Sive



La Rose-Croix book,

van Hetmont, His/ory 12 (1974), Seventeenth York, 1977, New 'Harvey pp. 235-59 Debates Century"The Cherrncal


la Franc-Ma(:onnerle. his 1955 Ashbee, edn. Barton, Dictionsrv Andrew, london, Todd,

A revised version
documented Grove's 6th Fludd',

A varrant
of the

st que orosptcuntur Sectio [Frankfurt], 1629. Fludd's Answer 1631.

but less well 'Hobert and 1979.

Trect et us Secundi,


of Music 'Robert

MUSICians De In

The Chemical vol. York, 1 --, 1965; The English

Philosophy Paracelsians 1966. pp. 104

New London, 27 et

17 December IDFA] Foster Fosters Salve. Doctor


unto for


Templo progress.

Mus/cae' Universitv and held

Dissertation of Oregon,

Or, The Squeesing Sponge, away London, ordained of the Nathaniel

of Parson bV him WeaponBUller

--, of Factor and Fludd· Ceruurv. the lrrnnon al of the of tbe in the Rational Science Journal

Beer, Arthur, Four

Peter Beer, Kepler: Years, Proceedmgs of in honour

the wiping


C onterences


History of Biology, vol. 3 (1970), pp, 81-105, --, Man and Nature in Renais!JfJnce. New Vork and London, 1978. --, 'Ma!hematicsand Nature in the Chemical Texts of the Renaissance', Ambix. vol, 15 (1968), pp,1-2B, 211, --, 'The Medico-ChemIcal World of the, Paracelsians'. Changing Perspectives in the His/Dry of Science; Essays in Honour ot Joseph Needham, ed MikulaS Teich and Robert Young, Dordrecht and Boston. 19'73, pp. 85-99, --. 'The Paracelsian Aerial Niter', Isis, vat. 55 (1964) pp43-61. --, The Paracelsian Compromise In Elizabethan England', Ambix, vel, 8 (,1960), pp. 71-97. --, 'Renaissance Chemistry and the Work of Robert Fludd', A/chemy and Chemistry in the Seventeenth Century, University of California, Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library Seminar,1966, pp, 3-29. --, 'Renaissance Chemistry and the Work of Robert Fludd', Ambi», vet. 14 (,1967), pp. 42-59. --, 'Robert Fludd', Dictionary of Scientific Biography, New York, 1972, vol, 5. pp. 47-9. --, Robert Fludd and His Philosophical Key: Being a Transcript of the Manuscript at Trinity College, Cambridge. With an Introduction, New York, 1978. --. 'Rebert Fludd and the Chemical Philosophy of the Renaissance', Organon (Warsaw), vol, 4 (1'967), pp. 119-26. --, 'RobertFludd and the Circulation 01 the Blood', Journal of (he Historv of Medicine and Allied Sciences, vol, 16 (1961), pp, 374-93. --, 'Robert Fludd and the Use of Gilbert's De Magnete in the WeaponSalve controversv'. Journal of [he Historv of Medicine and Allied Sciences, vol, 19 (1964), pp. 389-41'7. --, Science and Education in the Seventeenth Century. The WebsterWard Oebete. London and New York, 1.970, pp. 23-6. --. 'The Sun in 'the Universe of Robert Fludd', La Solei/.a te Renaissance, Sciences et Mythes. Brussels, 1965, pp. 2~59-78, De Ouincev. Thomas, 'Hlsrorlco-crltical Inquiry into the Origin of the Rosicrucians and: the Free·masons', Tales and Phentesies, London, 1897, pp. 384-448. First appeared in the London Magazine, 1824. Reprinted Mokelumne Hill, California, n.d., under title The Rosicruciens, Past and Present. At Home and Abroad, Disraeli. tsaac, 'The Rasacrucian Fludd' [sic]. Amenities 01 Litereture. vol. II.

2nd edn, New York, '1841. pp. 324-32. 'Durelle, P. Jean, Effigies contrecte Roberti Flud Medici Angli, cum Neevis, Apoendice el Retecttone, Paris, 1636. A contnbutlon to the Hudd-Mersenne controversy by a friend of Ihe latter Copy in Bibliotheque Nationale. Fabricus, Johannes, Atctiem«: the Medieval Alchemists and their Royal Art. Copenhagen, 1976. Incomparable collection of Renaissance (not medieval) alchemical illustrations. Ferguson. John. Blbllothet» Chemica. Glasgow, 1906, vot, 1. pp 283-5, and vel, 2, p. 284. Foster. Wilham, Hoplocrisma·$pongus: Ora Sponge t'o Wipe .Away the Weapon-Salve. London, 1631. An attack answered by Fludd's only vernacular publication, Doctor Fludd's Answer .... Freudenberg. F., Perecetsus una Fludd, die beiden gross en Okkultisten und Arne des 15. und 16. Jehrhunderts .. , . 2nd edn, Berlin, 1921 : no. 17 in series 'Geheime Wissenschaften'. The Fludd portion is pp. 233-71, and consists 0'1 a German 'translation 0'1 Summum Bonum, book IV. Frizius, Joachim, Summum Bonum, Quod est verum Magiae, Cabalae. Alchvmiee veree, Fretrum Boseee Crucis verorum Subjectum .. " [Frankfurt], 1629. A defence of Fludd against 'Mersenne, assumed by many 'to be by Fludd himself. See note to this rille in list 01 Fludd's works, above, Fuller. Thomas. Wonhies of Eng/and, ed. John Freeman, London. 1952. p. 281. This contains the earliest bioqr aphv of Fludd, and first appeared in 1662. Gassendi, Pierre, Epistafica exercitetio. Paris, 1630. Gassendi's contribution to the Fludd-Mersenne controversv. --, Lettres temitleres Frenco!« Luillief pendant t'biver 1632-1633, with introduction and notes by Bernard 'Rochat. P.aris,l 944, pp. 26ft., 65ft Godwin, Joscelyn. 'Instruments in Robert Fludd's Utriusoue Cosml ... Historle', Galpin Society Journal, vol, 26 (1973), PP. 2-14, --, 'Robert Fludd on the Lute and Pandora', Lute Society Joumst, vel. 15 (1973), oo. 1-13. Gould, Robert Flake, The History of Freemasonry. London. 1884, vet. 3, pp. 79ff. Source of some ott- repeated cliches. Grillot de Givry, AnthoJogie de l'occultisme. Paris, 1922, pp. 329-32. Includes French translation of part of TA. --, Picture Museum ot Sorcery, Magic and Alchemy, trans. J. Courtenay Locke. New York, 1963. Gunther, Robert W. T., Early Science in Oxford, Oxford, 1920-45 ; especially vet, I. part 2.

Hall, Manly P., ed., The All-Seeing Eye. Various issues, 1923-31. Hall, Manly P.. Man, the Grand Symbol of the Mysteries,' ESsays in Occult Anatomy. Los Angeles. 1932. Explains several 01 Fludd's anatomical plates. --, The Secret Teachings of .AfI Ages' an Encyclopedic Outline of Masonic. Hermetic, Oabbalistic and Rosicrucian Svmbotice! Philosophv. Los Angeles, 1928. 20th edn, 1975. Hawkins, Sir John, History of the Science and Practice of Music London, 1776, pp 620-3. Harnprich, K.. R Fludd, Leben und Schriiten, 1908. 'Impossible to find' (5. HUlin). Heninger, S. K., Jr., Touches 01 Sweet Hsrmony : Pythagorean Cosmology and Renaissance Poetics San Marino, Caltfornia. 1974. Hirst. Desiree, Hidden Riches: hadifional Symbolism from the Renaissance to Blake. London, 1964, pp. 116-37. Traces Influences from GIorgio and on Blake. Hunt, John, Religious Thought in Engfand. London, 1870, vel. I, pp, 24911. Huun, Serge, Histoire des Rose- Croix, Pans, 1955. --, A History of Alchemy. trans, Tamara Alferoff. New York. 1962. --. 'Robert Fludd, Le ROSIcrucian', Revue metephvsioue, no. 20 (1952). pp 211-25 . Raben Fludd: La Rosicrucien Pans, 1953. -, Robert Fludd (1574-1637). Alchlmist« et Philosophe Rosicrucien. Paris, 1971 . Collection AlclJimie el Atchimistes. no. 8, The best general monograph on Fludd. by a writar who combines svrnpathv with scholarship. Janson, H, W .• 'Apes and Ape Lore', Studies of the Walbu.rg Institute, vol, 20 (1952), p. 305. Brief treatment of the Neturse Simie idea. Josten, C H,. 'Robert Fludd's "Philosophical Key" and his Alchemical Experiment on Wheat', Arnbix, vol, II (1963) pp. 1-23. The Phifosophicalf Key is a manuscript version in English of AA, part L --, 'Robert Fludd's Theory of Geomancy and his Experiences in Avignon in the Wimer 01 1601 to 1602', Journal of the Warburg and Courteuld Institutes, vol. 27 (1964), pp. 327-35. --, 'Truth's Golden Harrow; an Unpublished Alchemical Treatise by Raben Fludd', Ambix, vol. 3 (1949), pp, 91-150. Contains the entire text. of the treatise Kepler, Johannes, Hermonices mondi., 1619. Kepler's attack on the wortd-harrnonic ideas of UCH I, a.



passim. The most philosophy. works and are or. Speculative Karl. Yates. pp Leip2ig. n d. In Enlightenment. Excursion'. Lovejoy. and the W. Lenoble. trans. 263 Kircher. The Secret York. of Physicians Gottlieb of London 1. 803. vol tiepuis Mersenrle. Arthur 1628 Patrem Francisci Fluddo. MC. II. The Historv Christoph Ursprung (pp Walter. The Art of Memory a Catalogue the given Haven. Medical History of Sortais. 97-128. Rome. especially vols. b Paris. Mary Library. William and 265 Thermometer'. Harvey's York. dess L obtictien Ordens des Rosenkreut res. Milton.que de la Sante vol. vol.nte d A. the Cosmic pp.--. 450. TA not ganl and pp 53) des Frcvrneurcrordens. Quaestiones Genesim Paris. Ambix. UCH Trsite Pans. A. 3. et passim C de Waard and R Pintard. --. reprinted et passim reprinted Hill. Alhenar. Uber den uoa . The Roll vol. Thinker. Andrews Seminar. Spheres Shakespeare 138 66 World. Berlin. Los Angeles 1968. London. et passim --. ist Fludds Namens 'Paracelsus Unoertevisscbe Sammlung zur Historie der Rosenkreuzer l eip7lg. E. Gassendis Eoistole John exercitetio answered Dissertation Reserve ou la A rn CP in Proportion variorum de Phifosophiae on Fludd's Ftuddssn» E. London. The Occult Berkeley. 74 and Mersenne. answered Sedir. pp 94·6 618-22. Yale University Correspondance. passim . Treite French Praetonus. 'Les trois oer-ue-s Mokelumne astroooues. Das Man Danis.rnie of Fludd's autograph Morsius' Scot. History and ed. The London and London Chicago. Marlnum Lsnovn Paris. Gaston 1922. The Kassel. and Reverendum Mersennum de Roberto Wri1ten criticism Leidenfrost. Rosicrucians.. 1972 Lo Ptulosoptue jusqu'j 41 Bacon 2. 11(1922) Tradition reprinted aesuotoqie Astrology . 1878. 1964. Prodromus answer dissertstionum Frankfurt. Kurt. F. Pauli. 271-·308 of the 1887. Murz. Hoctueit Anno Christien! 1459. 248-67. Angeles. 150--3. A Christian of the Contessio. Alchemy Occult. Schneider. pp 370 41 lan. 1926. Giordano the Hermetic 1964. Waite. First and f ranees Oxonienses.- from Meflon New Collection 1968. pp. 1614. Pans. pp. Wayne. Cambridge. Rosicrucien Boston. 1943. The Real Rosicrucians by Health pp California. pp. Milton 2. . and . 82 Saurat. Rose-Croo: Seligrnann. 132 Piobb.rbr arv pp. the 1970. 'William Fitzer. The Interpretation Priscilla 1955. 'Religlous of the of the vet. E. 83 ed. 'The Memory Tillage of Light.anovius (Francois de ra Noue). l. UCH London of the section 1630.. Phitosopbise St conscnpte. et 10 metonotisme 1978. pp.27ff. ormcroles Westman. On FI"dd's hieroqlvph. The Brotherhood The ROSicrucian 96 . 2nd Gebeue pp 271 2 Berlin. The Chemical Wedding Biological 1967. Science. Blake Sofie. L eibnitr On Contessio Secretions Philosophiae Consntereuo Century'. Bruno and 1966. 1 -91.~ attack Meyer. Wood. of MagiC Volumes New and VI/-VIII York. Sherwood. Harvey's Robert S. Research. Will 2nd Erich. also Enligh{enment. 1628'. Das edn.. op 334f. passim n of . French F. altere Rosenkreurerturn Joachim MorslUs Coru ams in vol Fludd des III of Magic The THE Filma und General ROSICRUCIAN MANIFESTOES pp. The Library. 1786. Rosenkreute. an aile gelehrte und HiJlJpter Furop se gesclweben. UniverSIty.' du mccbenisme. . 12 (1967).. pp History london. (1942). the York. 1925.. du Rempart (dapres (1932). Snhicx Berlin. translator. of Chvmiscbe 'Description Mystique Fludd)" 55 History Century. Cham the and of Ancieru Mariner of Robert Fludd'.. in 'Truth's Histoire Bihoret. Fludd 1924. der der Rosenkreuzer Sulzbach. 2. pp. Pans. . H. 5 a PhiliPP a Gabel/a. 438-44 _"-. London. and Kathi. and and of Paul see nos. generale from translation from Christoph Wlttembcrg. vol 24 (1944). New Weil. Modeme Paris.. and Revolution. and . London. n. the publisher of De motu cordis. pp 1691 O. Geschichte neuereo Occoltismos Pignatel. pp Robert Fludd's Studies. Rosy New Cross. of the London Princeton. which Fludd senteotns attack Raine. pp California. Biology Bulletin Medicine. 265 . 1969. in the 66. In the progress. I ntluonce C G Jung Sill. Expenmental the Waite. Ideas on the SCientific and and New of Nature MAllen. -. 41. 1650. 19//. -'-. 69 Tennessee Studies Anthony Bliss. in Geomancy I. on 'Robert Manchester vol. College London. 1621 Peuckert. ed P Merserine Merno nal l. 1973. Lc Voile dtsis of all three Archetypal Theories Pauli. Le VOile dtsis (1926). appeared 1815. von. 213 Fludd's Basel 113-18. York. 1947. 312 Pp Tradition'. on 1907. vol 2. ceteberomee 1623. vol. 'Drvms met aphvsicai and 'The Tradition 74 Rime 6 of the System in Renaissance' TheSIS Heconsrdered'. 370f. 3 (1967). pp 142-64. Tradition. to VP des 1909. 1615 31. Alchemv. 147-240. webren Thinks 'Sie P~gel. pp 42 -79 et osssim -j William. Taylor. rhe Kepler'. Literature. the Association Mesonic tr anslation of the section Research. pp. bOOK The 1623. Rostvig. Beneben Fame Fretcrnitetis. London Chicnqo. 'Magical Reform: Reform The Yates ond of Astronomical Scientific Clark 1977. naissance pp. 273-5. weather·glass Tetespbore. edn. 125 In the of the pp vol 8 (1960). The Great Mass. Semler. on Fludd's B~er. and de geomanr:ie. S J. de. Thorndike. London. York. Munk. Strasbourq. 70 90 et Heinrich. Roseokreutz Amnotoqv. Psyche. 2. . D. London. 1958 of the 48 Rosenkreuz 1616 Translations in Paul The Real the Fama A. vol. 87 Atbanasius. Royal Paul. 86 are on Ideas 51 brevis Gassendi. MIJsurgla pp 283-307 and et 5 P V. 1932·-70. 1929 tacs.os Neoplatonic ano Gnostic Motives Seventeenth Institute 3 (1935). 1942.d. Renaissance. in Frances New Wolfgang. FI udd. Hermeticism Case Western Robert. et nunc prtruum one cum Coniessio Fretemitetis R C In iucem Kassel. 13 78 . published Ad Judicium . Patrick. FreemJsonry: Transactions for In Untverselis.3.. Kathleen. Seventeenth A. Staqc System'. Theatre 1969. b Varias Bigoted Gottlieb. l.. pp and SCiences by Fludd unwurdig' the der gi3l1uen we/tan Welt. Shumaker. of Robert pp Lynn. New pp Yates. 2 1967. Being Macphail. I. MUSIC of the Dana pp of Death 191-202 of the 1/) severe und sein Kreis Lubeck. Annals 129 56 pp The Onqin of the of SCience. 0/ Books to Manuscripts ctireuen en Angleterre and Parts. Marin. Allgemeine Retormstron. Maren Univorsuv William Princeton. edits. 1948 Chicago. sive Ars Magna Consoru et Dissor». 1715. cosmographicum Kepler's Kiesewe1ter. which Harrow' A criticism Golden et Doctrine 1932.

from the Hebre Bible.ysician His volwrunous WIltlngS were devoted to defending the philosoph of the alchemists and ROSicrucians. he became a con inced occultist while travelling on the Continent. Par ahead f hl time 111 some respects. or Catholic OJ: Protestant sources. Fludd summa. Expounding the ideas of cosaac harmon • the multiple levels of exrsteace and the correia: between them. and applymg thel1~ doctrines to a vast description of man and the universe. he recognized the uru er sality tnlth. London ISB 0 III 3QP 500 8rol7 6 .azes esoteric t:eaE. Paracelsian pQ. Bom in Elisabethan ~land.nulgS common to all ages and peoples. and his work eil coplousl illustn1#d by some of the best en ra en of his cia: • All Pltidd's important plates are collected here for the flrSt tune. together irh an Introduction to his life and tholJght The author 15 a mUSl 1 t who has made a stud f Oriental phil phi and comparan e reb 1 n IDee 1971 he been on the MUSIC Facu1 of Colgate n1 erslty ew York State He 15 current! workmg on a comparuon volume on thaaasies Kircher. from Pythagobs. annotated and explain d. researching the occult and philosophical aspects 6f mustc aria f THAMES AND HUDSON 30 BIoomsbnty Street. Plato or Hermes Trism gl tus Fludd had a geruus fo e pressing his philosoph and cosmology 10 graphic form.z 95 net In only About this book ROBERT LOOD was one of the last of tnie 'Renaissance men' who took all leaming their preserve and tried to encompass the whole ofhwnan knowledge. welcoming it whether It came from me. and thereafter followed a career as II.

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