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History 11 Silitch DBQ Review


U.S. Expansion and Imperialism: 1) AP US History Review Book: Rise of American economic power and the closing of the frontier encouraged expansion beyond the U.S. Sewards Folly: 1867: Secretary of State William H. Seward brokered a deal to purchase Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million dollars later found to be rich with fossil fuels. Overseas Expansion: Imperialists used Social Darwinism to justify expansion. 1823: Monroe Doctrine: new imperialism spurred by jingoism (extreme nationalism), the desire to find new markets in which to sell American goods, and social Darwinism. o Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Influence of Sea Power upon History focused on the idea that the U.S. needed to pour money and resources into the building a powerful navy. Early expansionist efforts concentrated on Pacific Islands and Central America. (ex. Hawaii) The Spanish American War: Both Spanish and American imperial powers in Cuba. Spanish forcibly tried to put out rebellion American press covered the atrocities. Yellow journalism McKinley did not favor intervention: o A letter was leaked to Hearsts Journal that directly insulted McKinley from the Spanish. o February 15, 1898: U.S.S. Maine mysteriously explodes. U.S. news publicized the story. o The Teller Amendment: added to the war declaration to assure Cuba and the world that the U.S. intended to grant Cuba her independence once the war ended. April 11, 1898: war officially begins in Philippines/ Manila Bay. o Battle of San Juan Hill in Cuba aided by Teddy Roosevelts rough riders After the United States claimed victory in Cuba on July 1, it invaded the Spanish colony of Puerto Rico Spanish ultimately signed a cease fire with the U.S. in August 1898. o Peace treaty gave U.S. the pacific island of Guam and Puerto Rico. President McKinley ultimately took the Philippines despite his promise to grant them independence.

Problems with the New Expansion: Some opposition. Ex. William Jennings Bryan Supreme court ruling that a conquered territory did not have the protection of the Constitution= Insular cases. U.S. forced Cuban government to accept the Platt Amendment in 1903: Cuba had to have all treaties approved by the United States and the U.S. had the right to interfere in Cuban affairs both politically and morally. Revolution against American presence in the Philippines led by Aguinaldo: fighting between natives and Americans. Revolution= subdued in 1901 the Philippines did not gain its independence until 1946. John Hay announces his Open Door Policy, hoping to gain some influence in China: China would be open and free to any nation, despite Chinese distaste for intervention. The Panama Canal: Desire to build a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. U.S. needed to secure the building rights from Colombia, since the canal would go through the country. Colombians refused to recognize the Hay-Pauncefote treaty. President Teddy Roosevelt raised a revolutionary force to fight for Panamanian independence from Colombia. Panamanian government agreed to the construction of a canal. Critics of Roosevelts tactics referred to them as gunboat diplomacy. The Roosevelt Corollary Changes Relations Abroad: Roosevelt amended the Monroe doctrine with the Roosevelt Corollary, which sated that the U.S. would come to the aid of any Latin American nation experiencing financial trouble. United States used force to protect the Dominican Rebpulic and Cuba from political chaos. Roosevelt intervene in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 in order to prevent either nation from winning control over the regions of Korea and Manchuria. Treaty of Portsmouth (1905) ended to Russo-Japanese war. Negotiations with Japan: Influx of Japanese immigrants flooded the city of San Francisco to escape financial crisis in Japan. U.S. began passing restrictive laws aimed at incoming immigrants. Gentlemans Agreement between the San Francisco School Board nad the Japanese government-> would allow Japanese students to enter public school if the Japanese government would help stem the tide of immigrants coming to California.

Taft on Imperialism: Dollar Diplomacy: encouraged American businesses to send their dollars to foreign countries such as those in Latin America to weaken European bonds and strengthen ties with the United States. When these investments were endangered Taft frequently sent U.S. forces to invade Latin American countries and protect American internests. Wilson on Imperialism: Believed that imperialism was immoral. Believed in the superiority of American democracy duty to spread that ideal to protect nations under threat of totalitarianism.= Moral Diplomacy. Sent troops to invade Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic and purchased the Virgin Islands. Intervened in the Mexican Revolution to capture Pancho Vila. 2) Brinkley: Stirrings of Imperialism: 3) Different Presidents and Imperialism: President McKinley and Imperialism: The Battle for Cuba/ The Spanish American-War: Spain ultimately cedes Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S. and recognizes the independence of Cuba. Spanish accepted continued American occupation of Manila.

The Debate over the Philippines: Ambivalent to Annexation, yet felt that it was inevitable. End of Spanish-American war Americans offered $20 million for the Philippines. ratified by the Senate in 1899. Other Territories: Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and Alaska received territorial status. Navy took control of Guam and Tutuila. Military forces remained in Cuba until 1902 Platt Amendment. The Philippine War: Filipino resentment towards imperial authority conflict rebellion led by Emilio Aguinaldo. 1901: military transfers authority to William Howard Taft gradual shift to self-rule. July 4, 1946: the Philippines gained their independence. Open Door Policy: Secretary of State John Hay: asked each nation with a sphere of influence in China to allow other nations to trade freely and equally in its sphere. McKinley and Hay agreed to American participation in quelling the Boxer rebellion.

Theodore Roosevelt and Imperialism: Pushed McKinley into the Philippines. Most fervent imperialist president. See class notes: America and the Great War Taft and Imperialism: See class notes: America and the Great War Wilson and Imperialism: See class notes: America and the Great War. Question: To what extent was the 19th and 20th C. Expansionism a continuation or a departure from the expansion out west? Teddy Roosevelt= corollary ideas Cartoon of China and the Open door Cartoon with Germany picking parts off of the globe (countries are taking parts of the world and America doesnt want to be left out. The importance of the navy. Going out west= expansionism Going to other countries= imperialism. Political expansion vs. primarily economic incentives While they were both motivated by economic and political interests,

American imperialism in the 19th and 20th centuries was moreso an attempt to gain new markets Immigration Restriction: Growing immigrant population created social problems. Arguments that the introduction of immigrants was polluting the nations racial stock hybrids. Reports that immigration should be restricted by nationality. Support of the limitation of immigration as a way to solve urban problems. Nativists vs. those in support of immigration. Causes of Imperialism: o Wanted new economic markets o Wanted natural resources after having exhausted the west. o Used to dominating other cultures ex. The Native Americans in their expansion out west. o Manifest destiny.