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SEMESTER 2 EXAMINATION 2010/11 AUTOMOTIVE PROPULSION Duration: 120 mins
Attempt Section A (one question) which is compulsory. Attempt TWO questions from Section B. A total of 99 marks are available for this paper. All questions carry equal marks. Marks in brackets are for guidance only. Only University approved calculators over-stamped with the University’s dolphin logo, or new logo, can be used, but all stages of working must be shown. The following will be provided: 1. ‘An Engineering Data Book’ (Calvert and Farrar)
No reference material is to be brought to the examination room. Except where stated or implied otherwise, pressure means absolute pressure and temperature means thermodynamic temperature. The universal gas constant Ru is 8.3144 J/mol K.
Copyright 2011 ©University of Southampton
Number of pages 6
the battery maximum depth of discharge is 70% and the battery voltage is 300 V. the electric motor drive efficiency is 80%. an air drag coefficient of 0. The maximum mass of the vehicle is 2000 kg. Determine the energy. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both systems. the Ah capacity. and power rating of the battery that enables the vehicle to travel 120km at a constant speed of 40km/h on a level road. Describe with diagrams both series and parallel drive system configurations of hybrid electric vehicles. Discuss briefly how such drive systems may be controlled to achieve maximum efficiency.009. Comment of the assumptions made in the calculations.2 SECTION A 1. Assume that the drive train efficiency is 90%.32 and a tyre rolling resistance coefficient of 0. Determine the motor power rating that enables the vehicle to travel at a speed of 120 km/h assuming a maximum road gradient of 4%. [20 marks] (b) An electric vehicle has a frontal area of 3 m2. SESM6018W1 (a) Discuss the rationale behind the hybrid electric vehicle concept. the battery efficiency is 70%. [13 marks] .
which lead to very different performance parameters and emission levels.3 SECTION B 2. [13 marks] (c) Explain how the combustion processes of spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines place different requirements on fuel properties. SESM6018W1 The operations of petrol and diesel engines are different. [10 marks] (b) Describe key events related to the combustion process of a fourstroke compression-ignition diesel engine. that affects their combustion processes? What would happen to the operation of the engine if petrol were added to the fuel tank of a diesel car and vice versa? [10 marks] TURN OVER . respectively. (a) Describe key events related to the combustion process of a fourstroke spark-ignition petrol engine. Sketch its heat release rate – crank angle diagram. Sketch its heat release rate – crank angle diagram. What is the key fuel property of petrol and diesel fuels.
You need not solve the equation. by mole fraction. (c) the higher heating value of the blended fuel. (b) the stoichiometric air-to-fuel ratio by mass. and [7 marks] (e) the equation that may be used to compute the adiabatic flame temperature of the blended fuel with initial conditions of the reactants at the datum state.8 For the blended fuel.5 -285. The standard molar enthalpies of formation (based on a common datum state of 25 ºC and 1 atm) for the constituent fuels are shown below. SESM6018W1 A blended fuel consisting of normal butane. determine: (a) the mean molecular formula of the blended fuel.4 -393. given that the water formed is in the liquid state.30 -24. Substance n-butane Iso-octane dimethylbenzene carbon dioxide water (liquid) water (vapour) Formula C4H10 C8H18 C8H10 CO2 H2O (l) H2O (v) Mole Molar enthalpy of Fraction formation (kJ/mol) 0. of the combustion products on stoichiometric combustion in air.21.55 -255.1 0.15 -147. trimethylpentane (isooctane) and dimethylbenzene in the mole fractions indicated below is used to power a spark-ignition engine.4 3. .9 0.8 -241. [5 marks] You may assume that air consists of only oxygen and nitrogen with oxygen having a mole fraction of 0. [5 marks] [8 marks] [8 marks] (d) the gaseous composition.
and i and i are the stoichiometric coefficients for the reactants and products. moles of CO2 (where <<1) are dissociated when chemical equilibrium is reached. [8 marks] TURN OVER . Calculate the molar concentrations of CO and O2 in the mixture. N2. Assume that the equilibrium constant Kp is 109 at the temperature 1000 K and the standard reference pressure Po = 1 atm. 10%. …. determine the equilibrium molar concentration of CO. [11 marks] (c) Give the expressions for the equilibrium constant Kp in terms of partial pressures Pi and mole fractions xi. O2.5 atm and 1000 K. The mole fractions of the gas mixture entering the reactor are: CO. (a) Carbon monoxide reacts with air in an exhaust gas reactor at 2. [6 marks] (d) If. 6%. in the product mixture from (b). CO2.5 4. [8 marks] (b) Assuming that 100 moles of the gas mixture defined in (a) enter the reactor and the reaction 1 CO + O 2 CO 2 2 is complete. 74%. 7%. assuming that the reference pressure is Po and the total pressure is P. respectively. SESM6018W1 A general one-step chemical reaction can be represented by the following stoichiometric equation: i M i i M i i 1 i 1 N N where Mi (i = 1. H2O. N) are the symbols for the chemical species involved in the reaction. 3%. respectively. calculate the mole fractions of CO and O2 in the product mixture.
) engines? [11 marks] (c) Explain what cycle-by-cycle variations are in i. [12 marks] END OF PAPER . [10 marks] (b) What is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)? How does EGR affect the emissions from internal combustion (i. engines. Outline at least two methods of reducing soot emissions from engines to the atmosphere.c. Discuss how cycle-by-cycle variations affect the formation of the main types of engine emissions.c.6 5. SESM6018W1 (a) Describe the key stages of soot formation in diesel engines.