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Irian Jaya is the eastern-most province of Indonesia and is located on the western half of the island of New Guinea (Fig. 14.1). The island of New Guinea is the second largest island in the world and includes Puncak Jaya (4884 m), the highest peak in Southeast Asia and Australia. Traditionally, the outline of the island of New Guinea has been described as similar to a bird flying westward with open mouth (Fig. 14.1). As a result, the island has been geographically divided into the Bird's Head, Neck, Body and Tail regions. The geologic of the Irian Jaya is very complex, involving interaction between two plates; the Australian and Pacific plates (Fig. 14.1 ). Most of the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of New Guinea is the result of oblique convergence between the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates (Hamilton, 1979; Dow et al., 1988). New Guinea and the mountainous Central Range, is commonly cited as the type locality of an active oceanic island arc - continent collision (Dewey and Bird, 1970). The Central Range is a 1300 km long, 150 km-wide belt with rugged topography and numerous peaks over 3000 m in elevation. Most of the range is composed of folded and faulted Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata that was deposited on the Australian passive continental margin. The purpose of this paper is to make a general summary of the geology and tectonics of Irian Jaya from various sources of published information.
and a collided Melanesian arc island arc complex (the Meervlakte depression/north coast basin and the Mamberamo Thrust Belt). 1.1. 14. . this relatively simple zonation doesn't apply perfectly to the Bird's Head and Bird's Neck. RMB . The transition province is a zone that consists of highly deformed and regional metamorphic rocks as a product of interaction between two plates. from the north to the south. 18.104.22.168): the New Guinea Fore land/fore land basin (Arafura Platform). Therefore.2).Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt. Pigram and Davies. Lithotectonic map of the island of New Guinea. magmatic and tectonics history. the geology of Irian Jaya can be divided into three broad geologic provinces: Continental. 1983. However. The Oceanic province consists of ophiolite rocks and island-arc volcanics complex as a part of Pacific plate. IRIAN Fig. a"metamorphic (the Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt) and ophiolite belt. The Continental province consists of sediments as apart of Australian craton. the Central Range fold-andthrust belt. their geologic history differs and should be separated from Bird's Body (Pieters et al. 1987). Oceanic and Transitional provinces (Fig. REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL SETTING In general. Every geologic province has its own characteristic in stratigraphic. MTFB = Mamberamo Thrust and Fold Belt. Some authors believe that this region consists of widely diverse terrains where their origin is not at the present position. The central portion of New Guinea (the Bird's Body) can be divided into four lithotectonic provinces (Fig. 14.
14. b). This wide zone is a south verging fold-andthrust belt that largely involves Paleozoic to Tertiary rocks of the Australian continent. The amount of shortening across this belt in Irian Jaya is unknown. LFB = Lengguru Fault Belt. WO = Weyland Overthrust. The New Guinea Foreland (Arafura Platform) consists of the Arafura Sea and southern coastal plain of Irian Jaya which lie on Australia continental crust. IRIAN Fig. RFZ = Ransiki Fault Zone. but palinspatic reconstruction of cross-section across the thrust belt in Papua New Guinea shows approximately 75 km north-south directed shortening (Hobson. YFZ = Yapen Fault Zone. WT = Waipona Trough. 1986). Arrow show relative motion between Pacific and Australian plates. 14. The stratigraphy of the platform is composed mostly of unmetamorphosed marine and nonmarine Pliocene and Holocene siliciclastic sedimentary rocks which are underlain by the Cenozoic carbonate and Mesozoic siliciclastic strata deposited on the northern passive margin of Australia (Dow and Sukamto.2 Tectonic setting of Irian Jaya. The 150 km-wide belt has rugged topography and numerous peaks over 3000 m in elevation. SFZ = Sorong Fault Zone.. Foreland thrust and the Central Range Foldand-Thrust Belt are defined as the New Guinea Mobile Belt (Dow et al. 1984a. 1988). TAFZ = Tarera-Aiduna Fault Zone. . The Central Range is an orogenic belt that stretches 1300 km from Irian Jaya to the Papuan Peninsula. MO = Misool-Onin High. Tectonic features include MTFB = MamberamoThrust & Fold Belt.
but unmetamorphosed. However. The Derewo fault zone was mapped primarily with aerial photographs and satellite images as the boundary between the Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt and unmetamorphosed strata in the Irian fold belt by Dow et al. The most commonly published scenario is the subduction polarity reversal (or arc reversal) model which entails movement of the Australian continental crust and mantle into a northward dipping subduction zone. 1991).. Warren. largely within the Melanesian arc terrane. Hamilton. 1984a.14. 1987). NW-trending zone of convergent deformation. A second model proposed to explain relationships in eastern New Guinea shows the island underlain by a doubly-dipping slab of oceanic lithosphere ("zippering" model). 1988). The Meervlakte is an intramontane basin and this basin has been actively subsiding from Middle Miocene to the present in which the rate of subsidence is greater than the rate of sedimentation (Dow et al. 1988. passive margin strata (Dow et al. MTFB is a 200-km wide.2.. 1995). followed by collision and initiation of southward subduction of the Pacific plate at the New Guinea Trench (Dewey and Bird. the mapped DFZ does not correspond to the southern boundary of the metamorphic rock as shown on previous maps. All of these authors agree that southern New Guinea is underlain by the passive northern margin of the Australian continent which was thickly blanketed from the early Mesozoic by siliciclastics grading into Cenozoic carbonate strata. 1985. 14. Milsom. 1993.. (1986). Both of these later models require significant oblique convergence across most of the island. 1983. The suture separating the rocks from two different plates may be at the boundary between the Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt and the Irian Jaya Ophiolite Belt. A third model is similar to the first. Dow-et al. This belt consists of the Meervlakte (lake plain) depression and the Mamberamo Thrust-and-Fold Belt (MTFB).. which is the westward continuation of the subducted Solomon plate (Ripper and McCue. recent mapping shows that the transition from the Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt to unmetamorphosed strata is gradational from north to south and that from near 137° to 138°E longitude (Warren. Dow et al. IRIAN The Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt is a 50 km wide zone of highly-deformed generally lowtemperature (<300°) metamorphic rocks which is bounded on the north by Irian Jaya Ophiolite Belt and on the south by deformed. Most of these authors argue for one major collisional event with an oceanic island arc. Nash et al. that began in the Pliocene and is still active (Dow and Sukamto. Katili. complex zone involving oceanic rock from a collided Melanesian island arc built into the Pacific Plate. 1988. 1970. Cooper and Taylor. b. but the subducted Australian plate is simply dipping vertical without a reversal in subduction direction (Johnson and Jaques. Thus. The Irian Jaya Ophiolite Belt is separated from the Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt by a series of faults and is covered by alluvium of the Meervlakte depression. The most northern orogenic belt in Irian Jaya is a poorly exposed. Based on the change from carbonate . 1999). Weiland. 1980). TECTONIC SETTING The details of the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of New Guinea are the subject of some debate.. 1979. 1988). 1995.
The "Central Range orogeny. This diagram shows regional stratigraphic corelation from the Bird's Head in the NNW to the Bird's Body in the ESE. Quarles van Ufford (1996) proposes that the island is the site of two orogenic events that are spatially and temporally distinct. 14.3. leftlateral strike-slip that dominates the recent tectonics of western New Guinea. 1966." on the other hand. Dow and Sukamto. STRATIGRAPHY The details and complete stratigraphic nomenclatures of Irian Jaya are best described in the geological report and map from Dow et al (1988) published by GRDC Bandung. Dow et al. The generation and erosion of a significant landmass is recorded in Oligocene and younger clastic sedimentation in the Aure Trough. The precollisional stage is related to the bulldozing and metamorphism of passive margin sediments in a northward-dipping subduction zone.3. 1988). The stratigraphy of the Australian Craton mainly known from exposed rocks in the deformed northern margin of Australian Craton resulted from regional uplift during the Central Range Orogeny and drill wells when exploring for oil in the Bird's Head platform. In this chapter the stratigraphic of the region has been compiled.. 1993) and crystalline continental basement becomes involved in the deformation. To account for these relationships. .. termed the "Peninsular orogeny. 1990). was an event that began in the middle Miocene and generated the present width of the island and caused widespread clastic sedimentation. The collisional stage only occurs when buoyant Australian lithosphere actually jams the subduction zone (Cloos. Besides involvement of crystalline basement. generalized and simplified from various publications. However. Collisional delamination is proposed as the tectonic process that occurred within the subducting Australian lithosphere between 7 to 3 Ma. Davies. Importantly. this process causes latestage igneous activity and a vertical mountain uplift of 1 to 2 km. The simplified stratigraphic nomenclatures of the rock from Australian Craton are summarized in Fig. based on the metamorphic age of rocks in Papua New Guinea and the island arc terrane. 1984a. some workers conclude that the collision began in the early Oligocene (Pigram et al. Quarles van Ufford (1996) divided the Central Range orogeny into preccilisional and collisional stages. 14. IRIAN sedimentation to widespread clastic sedimentation derived from orogenic uplifts. The earlier (Eocene-Oligocene) event. Dow et al. the collision apparently began in the late Miocene (Visser and Hermes. (1988) propose that New Guinea is the product of two distinct island arc-continent collisions: one during the Oligocene and a second during the Miocene (Melanesian Orogeny).14. This process culminated with the initiation of the E-W trending. 1989." was restricted to the Bird's Tail region of easternmost New Guinea.
14. IRIAN .
IRIAN 14. the Tipuma Formation is unconformably overlying the Aifam Group (Biantoro and Luthfi. 1996). 1982a). Awigatoh Formation is the oldest rock known in Irian Jaya. 1989). 1988). the oldest strata known are the thick Kemoem Formation which consist mostly of slate.1. in the northeast Kemum high.14. 1999). 18-km-thick sedimentary sequence. 1988). The Aifam Groups occurs widely in the Bird's Head region where it appears to be unmetamorphosed. Triassic granitic rocks intrude the lower Paleozoic (i. the best out crop of unmetamorphosed section of Paleozoic strata is exposed along the Gunung Bijih Mining Access (GBMA) at the southwestern Central Range. Anggi Granite. Netoni Intrusive Complex) (Dow et al. 1999). The GBMA contains road cuts. Kemoem Formation is overlain unconformably by the Aifam Group. This rock unit was named Awigatoh Formation by Bar et al (1961) and V isser and Hermes (1962). There are several locations that expose Paleozoic strata in Irian Jaya. In the Bird's Head this formation is intruded by Carboniferous biotite granite (Melaiurna Granite). This group is more strongly deformed and metamorphosed in the Bird's Neck area. However. In the Central Range (Bird's Body). the metamorphism is interpreted as occurring in Devonian to early Carbonaceous (Pigram et al. the formation is exposed along Baidu and Nerewip Rivers west of GBMA (Ufford. metavolcanic with minor limestone. Based on limited field observation. In the Bird's Head region. The southwestern Central Range forms a simple north-dipping homocline. Therefore it is difficult to generate regional correlation of this strata throughout the region. The Aifam Group is best known from the northern margin of the Bird's Head Platform and in this region the group has been subdivided into three formations: Aimau Formation. On the other hand. . This rock is exposed in the Awigatoh Mountain close to the border. In the Bintuni area. PALEOZOIC BASEMENT The distribution of Paleozoic rocks in Irian Jaya is poor due to the lack of exposures. phyllitic and minor quartzite. Aifat Mudstone and Ainim Formation (Dow et al. Aifam Group is used for describing a group of mappable rocks consisting of shallow-water shelf sediments in the lower part and grading upward to fluviodeltaic environment. 1994. Therefore. shale and siltstone. Kwatisore. this fort-nation appears to be overlain disconformably by Karietn Formation.e. and later named as Nerewip Formation on Timika Sheet Map by Parris (1994). approximately consisting of 30km-wide. In addition. the core of Mapenduma and Digul Range anticlines (Paris. In the Mapenduma anticline. The largest block of the rocks exposed In the mountaih of the northeastern Bird's Head is known as Kemum High. a lot of older strata have been regionally metamorphosed. which expose the most stratigraphically continuous section in all of Irian Jaya (Sapiie et al. Granath and Argakosoemah.3. The formation consists of metabasalt.
The age of Modio Formation is constrained as Silurian to Devonian based on Late Devonian (Frasnian) coral found and identified from the limestone in the Modio B member (Oliver et al. 1996).. this sediment were metamorphosed. On the other hand. Therefore the nature of the contact is unknown (Sapiie et al. . The upper contact with Aiduna is not well exposed and is interpreted to be disconformable (Ufford. or a new name Otomona Formation on the Timika Map Sheet (Parris. Kariem Formation was the description for a group of sedimentary rock exposed in the Kariem river at Eastern Irian Jaya (Bar et al.. Modio formation is interpreted as a transgressive sequence deposited from tidal to marine self.to medium-grained quartz sandstone with interbedded conglomerate and shale. 1995). 1983. Tuaba Formation was named by Pieters et al.14. 1996). This interpretation is based on stratigraphic position that is below the Silurian and Devonian Modio Formation and from the result of reset age of zircon fission-track (ZFT) showing age of 650f63 Ma (Quarles van Ufford. eroded before late Carboniferous. 1988). Van Ufford (1996) renamed this rock unit from Modio Dolomite to Modio Formation to incorporate tne smctcfasttc member in the tipper part. Modio Formation is previously named Modio Dolomite (Pigram and Panggabean. 1996). 1988). 1961. Visser and Hermes. 1994). Lithologically this formation consists of finegrained quartzose turbidite. intruded by granite. 1962). At the GBMA. the relationship between Kariem Formation with the overlying Tuaba Formation is inferred to be disconformable (Quarles van Ufford. 1996). 1975). and overlain unconformably by the Aifam Group (Dow et al. This formation is divided into two members. finegrained clastic rocks consisting of bioturbated mudstone and siltstone dominate the upper B Member. However. IRIAN Kariem Formation along GBMA has been given different names. 1999). Tuaba Formation is composed of thick bedded of coarse. In the northeastern Bird's Head Region. The lower A Member is dominated by carbonate specifically wellbedded stromatolitic dolostone. such as Kemoem Formation based on lithologic correlation with the northeastern Bird's Head Region (Martodjojo et al. Originally.. The age of Tuaba Formation is constrained as Precambrian or early Paleozoic. (1983) for describing unit exposed in the Tuaba river. fine-grained planar cross-bedded to horizontally laminated sandstone (Ufford. The formation is stratigraphically below the Silurian to Devonian Modio Formation.. along the GBMA this formation is in the fault contact (Hannekam Fault) with Modio Formation. Dow et al. The age of Kariem Formation is interpreted as Precambrian or Early Paleozoic.
MESOZOIC TO CENOZOIC SEDIMENTATION 14. 1988). The Tipuma Formation is characterized by a distinctive red color with minor light green mottling. the presence of Brachiopods indicates that some of the Aiduna Formation was deposited in marine environment or perhaps lagoonal area (Martodjojo et al. 1 well in the Bird's neck area. Field observation indicates that the thickness of the formation changes rapidly along the strike (Quarles van Ufford. TIPUMA FORMATION The Tipuma Formation is widespread in Irian Jaya. 1994). This formation is interpreted to have been deposited in fluvial to deltaic environment (Visser & Hermes. 1975) and by plant flora as Late Permian (Ufford. 1975. Tertiary isopach contours are in km. Parris..4. Adopted from Charlton. Tipuma Formation was deposited in fluvial environment during the period of continental rifting (Pigram and Panggabean. 1996. 14. Pigram and Panggabean (1983) used Aiduna Formation in Waghete Sheet area because of difficulty of subdividing the Aifam Group. Aiduna Formation was first named by Lehner et al.3. Dow et al. since he had already subdivided the lower Aifam into The Tuaba and Modio Formation.14. (1975) placed this formation within Aifam Group as Aifam C Member of Visser and Hermes (1962). interpolated from 'feet' contouring by Redmond & Koesoemadinata (1976).3. 1983). Ufford. In GBMA Martodjojo et al. 1996). Visser and Hermes (1962) were the first who formally gave the name Tipuma Formation for the rock unit derived from Kembelangan No. The contact with overlying Tipuma Formation is conformable. The Salawati Basin. 1994. 1962. Parris (1994) on the Timika Sheet area preferred the use of Aiduna Formation replacing Aifam C Member. IRIAN Fig.2. The age of Aiduna Formation is constrained by Brachiopods fossils as Permian (Martodjojo et al. extending from the northwest Bird's Head to the east near the border. 1996)... This evidence is interpreted to be . However. 1994).1. Aiduna Formation is characterized by well-bedded coal bearing silisiclastic rocks.2. (1955) in the western part of the Waghete sheet as a part of the lower member of the Aifam Formation (Parris. 14.
14. Dow et al. 1988). Triassic to Early Jurassic.3. which is composed of fossiliferous dolostone. The Waripi Formation was deposited in a shallow marine. that is. high energy environment. 1962. medium energy environment. This formation has gradational contact with the Yawee Limestone and Late Cretaceous Ekmai Sandstone (Pieters et al. The age of the Tipuma Formation is solely constrained by its stratigraphic position. Pigram and Panggabean (1983) on Waghete Map Sheet suggested that the contact between the Tipuma Formation and the overlying Kembelangan Group is unconformable (post-breakup uncorrformity). The Kembelangan Group consists of interlayer carbonaceous siltstone and mudstone in the lower section.2. the Kopai Formation. This formation is composed of thick-bedded (up to I S m) to massive foraminifera-rich limestone.grained quartz sandstone and siltstone that is locally . The New Guinea Limestone Group is generally divided into four formations. the Kembelangan Group cannot be subdivided into four formations.. the island of New Guinea is characterized by car bonate deposition known as the New Guinea Limestone Group (NGLG). 1988. The Jass Formation consists of quartz sandstone and calcareous mudstone. This formation is composed of a foraminiferabearing. 1983). the Woniwogi Sandstone.3. quartz sandstone and minor limestone. the Piniya Mudstone and the Ekmai Sandstone. The basal unit is the Paleocene to Eocene Waripi Formation. In central Irian Jaya. In the Bird's Head region. The upper part of this group is known as the Jass Formation (Dow et al.2.3. 1988). The contact with overlying Waripi Formation of New Guinea Limestone Group appears to be conformable. marly limestone. and fine-grained glauconitic quartz sandstone and minor shale in the upper section. coarse to medium . The Early Oligocene Sirga Formation conformably overlies the Faumai Formation. Pigram and Panggabean (1983) divided the Kembelangan Group into four formations. 14. The NGLG overlies the Kembelangan Group as originally defined by Visser and Hermes (1962). IRIAN representing a horst and graben depositional topography resulting from active extension. 14. approximately at the Cretaceous and Cenozoic boundary. 1994). Parris. KEMBELANGAN GROUP The Kembelangan Group is recognized from the Bird's Head to the Arafura Platform and is a regionally extensive unit deposited on the northern passive margin of the Australian continent during Mesozoic time (Visser & Hermes. dolostone and a few quartz-rich sandstone layers up to 5 m thick. NEW GUINEA LIMESTONE GROUP (NGLG) During the Cenozoic time.. The Faumai Formation was deposited in shallow marine.2. The Eocene Faumai Formation conformably overlies the Waripi Formation. This group was deposited as a passive margin sequence conformably overlying the Triassic rift sequences of the Tipuma Formation (Dow et al.
three major formations are . This formation ranges in age from Paleocene to middle Miocene (Pieters et al.to low-energy carbonate shelf. 1983). 1962. 1983). chert and abundant pelagic foraminifera (Visser and Hermes. chalk. 1988). 14. The Sirga Formation was deposited in a fluvial to shallow marine environment after period of non-deposition. In the Bird's Head. Cross section through the Salawati Basin showing Tertiary geology and preTertiary subcrop (eastern part after Vincelette & Soepardjadi 1976).5. In the Irian Jaya region. LATE CENOZOIC SEDIMENTATION The late Cenozoic sedimentation in the Australian continental basement is characterized by the kilometer-thick siliciclastic sequences overlying middle Miocene carbonate strata (Visser and Hermes. marl. This formation is composed primarily of foraminiferal limestone with interbedded marl. The Oligocene to Middle Miocene Kais Formation conformably overlies the Sirga Formation. Fig. the Kais Formation represents a reef complex comprising platform and patch reef facies. 1996. Koesoemadinata. in the Salawati and Bintuni basins the Kais Formation partly interfingers and is conformably overlain by the Klasafet Formation (Dow et al. Biostratigraphic analysis indicates the youngest strata to be . 1978. In addition.14.3. The Kais Formation was deposited on a medium.15 Ma (Ufford. The Miocene Salawati Basin had a depocentre beneath the present-day Sele Straits. Dow et al. The Sirga Formation deposition is the result of the transgression that followed the Oligocene sea-level fall as well as Oligocene orogenic activity in eastern New Guinea (Ufford. The Imskin Formation is a pelagic limestone which consists of wellbedded carbonate mudstone. IRIAN pebblerich. distinct from the main Plio-Quaternary depoCentre between Salawati and Misool Island. 1996). This formation represents deep-marine environment and grades upward into shallow-water carbonate. 1994). 1962. This formation is the only silisiclastic formation deposited in the Irian Jaya region between the Eocene and Middle Miocene.3. 1988). 14. This formation is laterally equivalent to the Klamogun Limestone of Salawati basin. Adopted from Charlton. carbonaceous siltstone and coal. Pieters et al. Pigram and Panggabean (1983) name this formation as Adi Member.
Throughout Irian Jaya they range in age from Paleogene to Early Miocene (Visser and Hermes. These are the Klasaman. They are all put together within one group.3. This rocks unit known as the Makats Formation covers the oceanic basement.14. but it is interpreted as Mesozoic based on metamorphic block. the Pacific rocks consist of mantle derived rocks. was raised in status of unit to a group. In northern Irian Jaya. the Cyclop Mountain. They are mostly characterized by basic composition. 14. 1983). Waigeo Island. they are overlain by younger clastic sediments (i. Upa and Sele Conglomerates). 14. north of Gauttier Mountain and as sliver blocks along the Sorong and Yapen Fault Zone (Dow et al. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE TRANSITION ZONE The convergence between Australian and Pacific plates generated rocks of within the zone of deformation. 1988). The mantle derived rocks are exposed extensively along the Irian Jaya Ophiolite Belt (IOB). 1998). The sediments in Pacific plate are characterized by shallow-marine carbonate with interbedded terrigenous sediments derived from islandarc and less commonly from the mantle rocks. named as Holandia Formation (Visser and Hermes. The age of this group ranges from Early Miocene to Pliocene.and Dow et al (1988).4. 1988). because all the volcanic rocks have the same ages and is very similar in composition. Locally.e. and Yapen islands and on the flank of the Cyclop Mountains. Originally. Dow et al.3. which consists mostly of metamorphic rocks. This unit. . However. The group is extensively distributed at Waigeo. 1962) and Dow et al (1988). This group of rocks is classified as transitional zone.5. The IOB is approximately 400 km long and 50 km wide of east-west belt made of ultramafic. Steenkool and Buru Formations. The Auwewa Volcanic Group is the volcanic rocks of the Pacific plate (Dow et al. 1988). In general. They occur respectively in the Salawati and Bintuni Basins and in the southern part of the Central Range (Akimeugah and Iwur Basins). The age of the IOB is unknown. Biak. siliciclastic rocks occurred in the North Coast Basin (Meervlakte) in the early middle Miocene (Visser and Hermes. IRIAN known and all of them are similar in terms of age and lithology (Pieters et al. In Irian Jaya low T regionally metamorphosed rocks are exposed along the Weyland Range and the northern flank of the Central Range. basic plutonic and highgrade basic metamorphic (Dow et al. Visser and Hermes named it Auwewa Formation. The metamorphic rocks formed continuous belt (>1000km) from Irian Jaya to Papua New Guinea. island-arc volcanis and shalow-marine sediments. 1988). STRATIGRAPHY OF THE PACIFIC PLATE The detail stratigraphy of the Pacific plate (Oceanic province) is presented by Pieters et al (1983) . The rocks in the group are mostly the product of island-arc volcanism which are remarkably uniform (Dow et al. 1962. 1962).
1988) than in the Central is interpreted as result of the intrusion of the Utawa batholith (Warren. 14. Dow et al. a 300-km wide zone of continuos belt from Papua Nugini to Irian Jaya (Dow et al. The Tarera-Aiduna fault zone separating the west directed . the structural pattern in Irian Jaya can be divided in three major structural domains: Bird's Head. The structures in the Bird's neck are dominated by N-NW trending fold known as Lenguru Fold Belt (LFB). 1995). 1995). This motion starts in the Bismarck Sea. returns to leftlateral offset along the Yapen fault zone. In general. This fold belt is terminated at the Kemum high in the Bird's head region. the dominant effect of this interaction is to cause left-lateral transform motion. The contact seperating this belt and the Irian Fold Belt is gradational (Warren.. This microplate is moving nearly. the Tarera-Aiduna Fault Zone (TAFZ). Most of the structural features in the island today are product of Late Miocene arc-continent collision.. 1983). W to NW trending structures is dominant throughout the Central Range. the Caroline plate. Sapiie et al.14.. The evidence of the oldest structures are recorded in the Paleozoic sections. the majority structures are dominated by EW trending fault system. makes a 200 km long right step with convergent deformation along the Mamberamo thrust and fold belt. This belt generally consist of low T (± 300°-350°C and 5 . comes on land forming the 250 km long BewaniTorricelli fault zone. but not exactly. Neck and Body. The fact that the metamorphic rocks from Weyland Range recorded higher T (straulitebiotitegarnet. 1988) in Irian Jaya. with the Pacific plate. 1995). REGIONAL STRUCTURES Only little structural geologic evidence has been found prior to Late Miocene tectonic event (Melanesian orogeny by Dow et al. 1993) and Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt (Dow et al. the exposure of this group are limited. The New Guinea Mobile Belt is terminated by EW trending continental strike-slip fault. In western New Guinea. a 300 km long left step forms the divergent Waipona Trough which links to the TareraAiduna fault zone which in turn extends westward to the Banda Sea. Further west.. 1988. In the Bird's body. 1999). (1999) proposed that the piece of lithosphere north of New Guinea is moving as yet another distinct kinematic entity. several different name have been proposed for these metamorphic belt such as Derewo Metamorphics (Pieters et al. This W-NW belt known as New Guinea Mobile Belt. Isotopic ages from metapelitic rocks in Irian Jaya and Papua New Guinea record a late Oligocene to Earliest Miocene regional metamorphic event (Weiland.. In this region.. Later tectonic event (<4 Ma) is reactivated some of the older structures becoming dominated left-lateral strike-slip faults (Sapiie et al. Warren. 1999). at Bird's neck. However. therefore the knowledge of the Paleozoic tectonic is also very poor.8 kb) metapelites derived from the Mesozoic passive-margin of the Australian continent. Derewo Metamorphic Belt (Nash et al.4. 1988).. IRIAN Historically.
a major depocenter since the Pliocene (Dow et al. active divergence is concentrated along the east coast of the Bird's Head. cutting across the Lengguru fold belt. significant west-directed convergence has been accommodated at the Seram Trough. The restraining bend forming the Mamberamo thrust and fold belt is well defined from the regional seismicity. In western New Guinea. perhaps 10 km. Because they do not appear to be long-lived phenomena. Total extension in either of these areas is small. IRIAN underthrusting at the Serarr Trough from the northward subduction at the Timor/Aru Trench.. As earthquakes occur down to depths approaching 150 km. convergence probably only recently began as earthquakes are shallow and there is no evidence of significant recent deformation in the nearby New Guinea Trench (Milson et al.14. Perhaps 50 to 100 km of lithospheric extension could have been centered on this zone. . it is possible that underthrusting in the Biak area and extension along the back of the Bird's Head are very recent developments in the area. which marks the rifting of the edge of the Australian plate. Based upon seismicity. 1992). A southern extension of this divergent motion is the Aru Trough. 1988). The major releasing bend in the system is the little studied Waipona Trough. Near Biak Island. which has seismicity extending down to depths of 100 km. at least 200 km of convergence has occurred in this area and hence a similar magnitude of strike-slip is indicated along the BewaniTorricelli and Yapen fault zones.
14. IRIAN .
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