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> 1 minute; deep extremity swollen 4+: very deep pit/8 mm, lasts 2-5 min, deep extremity grossly distorted
y y y y y
Blood pressure: 90/60 mm/Hg to 120/80 mm/Hg Breathing: 12 - 18 breaths per minute (RR) Pulse: 60 - 100 beats per minute (heart rate) Temperature: 97.8 - 99.1 degrees Fahrenheit / average 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit O2: 95-100%
Fluid and Electrolytes:
SODIUM y Increased sodium (hypernatremia) in the blood occurs whenever there is excess sodium in relation to water. There are numerous causes of hypernatremia; these may include kidney disease, too little water intake, and loss of water due to diarrhea and/or vomiting.
A decreased concentration of sodium (hyponatremia) occurs whenever there is a relative increase in the amount of body water relative to sodium. This happens with some diseases of the liver and kidney, in patients with congestive heart failure, in burn victims, and in numerous other conditions.
A Normal blood sodium level is 135 - 145 milliEquivalents/liter (mEq/L) POTASSIUM y Increased potassium is known as hyperkalemia. Potassium is normally excreted by the kidneys, so disorders that decrease the function of the kidneys can result in hyperkalemia. Certain medications may also predispose an individual to hyperkalemia. Hypokalemia, or decreased potassium, can arise due to kidney diseases; excessive loss due to heavy sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea, eating disorders, certain medications, or other causes.
The normal blood potassium level is 3.5 - 5.0 milliEquivalents/liter (mEq/L)
6 ± 2. It can also result from kidney disease. calcium. Excessive loss can occur from heavy sweating. The chemical notation for bicarbonate on most lab reports is HCO3. Bicarbonate levels are measured to monitor the acidity of the blood and body fluids.or represented as the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Decreased albumin may also be explained by malnutrition or a low protein diet. which allows albumin to escape into the urine.2 ± 2 mEq/liter 1. including bilirubin.Albumin helps move many small molecules through the blood. progesterone.2 mg/dl Magnesium Normal adult: 1.Because albumin is made by the liver. The acidity is affected by foods or medications that we ingest and the function of the kidneys and lungs.serum Albumin is a protein made by the liver. The normal serum range for bicarbonate is 22-30 mmol/L. certain kidney diseases.5. and sometimes in overactivity of the parathyroid glands. It plays an important role in keeping the fluid from the blood from leaking out into the tissues.4 grams per deciliter (g/dL). sweat.030 PaCO2: 35-45 mmHg SERUM ANION GAP: 10-12 mEq/L NORMAL GLUCOSE: 60-110 mg/dl NORMAL BUN: 7-20 mg/dl Albumin .2-10. and medications. Normal Results The normal range is 3. Decreased chloride (hypochloremia): Chloride is normally lost in the urine. and adrenal gland and kidney disease. .CHLORIDE y Increased chloride (hyperchloremia): Elevations in chloride may be seen in diarrhea. and stomach secretions. y The normal serum range for chloride is 98 . A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood. BICARBONATE y The bicarbonate ion acts as a buffer to maintain the normal levels of acidity (pH) in blood and other fluids in the body. decreased serum albumin may be a sign of liver disease. Calcium Normal adult: 8.108 mmol/L.4 . vomiting.6 mg/dl NORMAL HEMATICRIT: 40-50% NORMAL URINE SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 1.002-1.
In Respiratory Acidosis/Alkalosis.the kidneys are the problem and can only be fixed by the lungs The lungs only have one compound to fix an acid base imbalance and that is CO2.. however. You still have an abnormal ABG with an acid-base imbalance. just the pH. or fluid volume deficit. The effects are immediate. It doesn't actually mean the problem is fixed. which is an acid. . Mg and Phos are inversely proportional. the other goes down. and a low sodium means fluid overload. you have a normal pH because the body has compensated.KEY POINTS: Electrolytes found inside the cells are small numbers (like K+ 3. and it will either be excreted (hyperventilation) to correct metabolic acidosis or retained (hypoventilation) to fix metabolic alkalosis.) they contain them Na+ levels are a good indicator of hydration.. The result of the 'problem being fixed' by the lungs/kidneys is only the body's attempt to restore a normal pH. or fluid volume excess. That's where you get compensated acid base problems.the lungs are the problem and can only be fixed by the kidneys In Metablolic Acidosis/Alkalosis. Therefore hypermagnesiemia is the same as hypophosphatemia.5-5.0 vs Na+ 135-145) Since potassium is normally found inside the cell... A high Na+ means dehydration. If one goes up. anytime you have tissue damage (cellular contents spill out) then serum K+ (potassium levels in the blood) will rise Mg and K+ can only be excreted by the kidneys so if urine output is decreased you have to monitor these levels closely and decrease any dietary intake (including antacids. The kidneys can excrete HCO3(base) or H+(acid) to correct respiratory problems but this usually takes at least three days to become effective. etc.