This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Frank W Carpenter, (1943- ) “The Philippines are at present our frontier but I hope we presently are to deprive ourselves of that frontier.” Woodrow Wilson, Dec. 28, 1912.1 In 1937, the U.S. Congress passed a bill granting Carpenter (1871-1945) an annuity. In the Report on the Bill is stated: In 1921 assisted the President’s Special Mission (Woods-Forbes) in its investigations and report on the Philippine Government, during which I proposed the creation of the Philippine Commonwealth and the office of High Commissioner.2 The Commonwealth of the Philippines was a designation of the Philippines from 1935 to 1946 when the country was a commonwealth of the United States. The Commonwealth was created by the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which was passed by the U.S. Congress in 1934. When Manuel Quezon was inaugurated president in 1935, he became the first Filipino to head an internationally recognized government of the Philippines.3 The concept of a ‘commonwealth of the Philippines’ first appeared in the debates of the U.S. Congress in actions on what was known as the “Fairfield Bill.” On April 30, 1924, Representative Louis W. Fairfield (1858-1930), Republican, of Indiana, Chairman of the Insular Affairs Committee declared that the time had arrived when the United States should make a definite pledge to the Filipinos as to when they would obtain the privilege of self-government.4 On May 13, 1924, the New York Times reported, “The bill, providing for the creation of a commonwealth Government in the Philippines, and that on the expiration of the commonwealth in twenty years the islands shall be recognized as a member of the family of nations, was formally presented to the House today by Representative Fairfield of Indiana, Chairman of the Committee on Insular Affairs, with a report recommending its passage.”5 In a Democratic minority report on May 17, “on Representative Fairfield's Philippine Commonwealth bill filed with the House” called for immediate independence.6 The bill failed to pass, largely due to Quezon’s protest to the long wait period for full independence. Forbes’ THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS (1928) gives some background for the Fairfield Bill. Carpenter played a significant role in the writing of this work. Accordingly, in 1924, the Secretary of War found the House and Senate committees responsible for Philippine affairs were strongly inclined to recommend cutting the Islands adrift. “As a result, the Fairfield Bill [fn: House Bill No 8856, 68th Congress, 1st Session, April 23,, 1924] was introduced in Congress providing for the creation of a supervised republic – to be known as the ‘Commonwealth of the Philippines’ – the supervision to be exercised by a United States commissioner. …. Had this measure become law … the United Sates would have been virtually in a position of responsibility without adequate means of intervention.”7
1934. On February 8.Forbes’s work appears to have been written in support of the Commonwealth concept.” 9 It was another ten years. subject to the conditions and qualifications prescribed in this Act.” we read. the High Commissioner should have much more extensive powers than those proposed to be given him in the so-called Fairfield Bill. 1935. the 1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines was approved by the convention by a vote of 177 to 1. which shall exercise jurisdiction over all the territory ceded to the United States by the treaty of peace concluded between the United States and Spain on the 10th day of December. The Philippine Legislature shall provide for the necessary expenses of such convention. The Philippine Legislature is hereby authorized to provide for the election of delegates to a constitutional convention. which we deem essential to the rule of law and the maintenance of individual freedom. and grant the Filipinos management of their domestic affairs just so long as they should observe those fundamentals described by Secretary Root in 1901 as ‘certain great principles of government which have been made the basis of our governmental system. Section 1. Candidates included former president Emilio Aguinaldo. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña of the Nacionalista Party were proclaimed the winners. Roosevelt on March 23. to formulate and draft a constitution for the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippine Islands. but not later than October 1. 2 . which shall meet in the hall of the House of Representatives in the capital of the Philippine Islands. 1935 and ratified by popular vote on May 14. together with those islands embraced in the treaty between Spain and the United States concluded at Washington on the 7th day of November.. and others. winning the seats of president and vice-president. It called for a commonwealth followed by independence in ten years. 1934. respectively. Some careful and thoughtful observers. 1934. The constitution was approved by President Franklin D. A Constitutional Convention was convened in Manila on July 30. “to make such a plan workable. believe that the solution of the Philippine problem and the satisfaction of American pledges and Filipino aspirations can be reached by the creation of a supervised commonwealth. before the passage of the so-called Tydings-McDuffie Act was passed. 1900. at such time as the Philippine Legislature may fix. both American and Filipino.’8 The authors went on to comment. the boundaries of which are set forth in Article III of said treaty. … . under American sovereignty. presidential elections were held. 1898. In the last pages of the “conclusion. Manuel L. the Iglesia Filipina Independiente leader Gregorio Aglipay. In October 1935. 1935.
been connected with the Philippine independence movement in the United States for five years. will strike readers seeking alternative paradigms to American expansionism as requiring demythologizing: 3 .’ Quezon wrote of Kalaw: He came with the writer to Washington in 1911 as private secretary and manager of "The Filipino People" devoted to the cause of Philippine independence.. in ceremonies held on the steps of the Legislative Building in Manila. 1935.The Commonwealth Government was inaugurated on the morning of November 15. The event was attended by a crowd of around 300. 11 In 1916 Kalaw had published a book.10 The July 1935 issue of FOREIGN AFFAIRS carried an article. He was graduated in law at Georgetown University in 1914. In the ‘Introduction.12 Kalaw’s 1935 FOREIGN AFFAIRS article on the Commonwealth. particularly the introduction. He has. THE CASE FOR THE FILIPINOS. by Maximo M Kalaw. therefore.000 people. The New Constitution of the Philippine Commonwealth.
a 1946 cover of The Saturday Evening Post.This romantic reference to the New England village. Roosevelt's work is based on government documentation and supported by personal anecdotes of backwoodsmen.” 15 This probably is an expression of nostalgia. features Old Chapel. Roosevelt published The Winning of the West in four volumes between 1889-1896. of all good government. reveals some underlying American frontier mythology which Kalaw may have absorbed during his study of law at Georgetown University. this archetypal image seems to have long answered the aspirations and anxieties of Americans. however much in denial. Some observers have seen in this myth of the peaceful village access to national expansionist policy. The small town was. Winthrop’s city upon a hill. Norman Rockwell's "Willie Gillis in College". Taft is reported as saying by the Manila Times. he will find that great writer devotes much of what he has to say to the town conditions of New England and other parts of the country. Theodore Roosevelt was the author of the primer classic of the day on the history of the frontier. “The town is the unit.13 Lowell’s “sturdy commonwealths. VT. He discusses the natural elements of the western frontier as 4 . for this ‘town’ was under siege in the US. as a backdrop through the window.” As Michael Zuckerman observes. The Winning of the West tells the story of the westward expansion of the United States from the Allegheny Mountains in the late 18th century. or ought to be the unit.. At an open meeting of the Philippine Commission in 1901. Or from Governor Taft.16 The role of the New England village in American utopian dreamings has long been noted.17 And Norman Rockwell has been its artist. losing its autonomy under the demands of an enlarging global economy. If one reads DeTocqueville’s history of the United States.”14 if pondered upon. De Tocqueville declared that “the township seems to come directly from the hand of God. Middlebury College.
mainly because of its great distance from the great Far Eastern markets on the Asiatic continent. setting examples to brutal mankind. nobody wants to see me and I can work as long as ever I please. This wonder I used to explain to Theodore Roosevelt. including Roosevelt’s.22 5 . "Nobody comes to interrupt. Governor Carpenter. the familiar corn fields undulating in cool sea breezes reminds me very much of the beautiful valleys of New England..”21 Carpenter himself was very much of this expansionist persuasion. D. VT. supporting the benefits of aggression in settling the United States. although of a limited version. in May 1899: “This country carries ones mind back to the dear old States. and grizzly bears in the National Zoo. in frontier narratives the peace of the village demanded Indians be kept at a distance. in Dummerston. He also declared that military opinion was divided as to the strategic value of the Islands and he thought it safest not to jump at a conclusion in that regard.’ found that for generations. Americans had made of “our recurrent Indian wars a historical fable or myth. “I never got over the wonder of a people who. 1922 gathering in Manila of the American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines. considering the situation entirely from the standpoint of the best interests of the United States. At an April 26. honestly believed that they were a godly little New England community. stated that the commonly accepted idea of Manila being a potentially strong and profitable trading center for American Far Eastern business was erroneous. his home for four years. Richard Slotkin." wrote Rudyard Kipling about his time at Naulakha.”18 The British poet Rudyard Kipling made his first trip to Washington. 1892-1896.20 Kipling’s subversion of the frontier myth may or may not have been intentional. who made the glass cases of Indian relics rattle with his rebuttals. having extirpated the aboriginals of their continent more completely than any modern race had ever done. is usually mentioned in any story about the Kipling house. Whatever the case. concluding with the hope that he and Captain Heath [ex-president of the Chamber who called for Carpenter to speak] would some day be ranging cattle in Sonora. in 1895.C. It didn’t take. a leading scholar of ‘the Myth of the Frontier. Mexico. French and Native Americans. Kipling wrote in his autobiography.well as the struggles of the backwoodsmen against the Spanish. in which the confrontation of redskins and pale-faces became the symbolic key to interpreting the meaning of history. Due to its proximity to Naulakha. The nostalgia of some of the American service personnel in the Philippines may be sensed by a remark by Robert Carter to his Father.”19 Kipling knew well the New England village. taking him to see Smithsonian exhibits of Indian artifacts. Brattleboro. Roosevelt attempted to persuade him of the virtues of American expansionism. His idea was that America might more profitably expand on her own continent.
Forbes’s THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS recommends a Commonwealth form.The place of the sturdy godly commonwealth is described in the ‘American monomyth. a variation on the classical monomyth as proposed by Joseph Campbell. arising from the perceived treachery of a father or faithlessness of a mother." he is easy prey for Marxism. life is no longer satisfactorily explained in terms of the divine. Now a secular religion had appeared to serve something of the same purpose. The loss of this framework left a void. Jewett and Lawrence define the American monomyth as: A community in a harmonious paradise is threatened by evil. "Somebody or something he feels must be to blame" for things that go wrong." Having laid out some interpretive framework. winning a decisive victory there and returning with a 'boon'. The more wretched. Modern sensibility rejects explicitly religious explanations. the more psychologically desperate to identify the villain who has stolen mankind's "surplus.’ The American Monomyth is a 1977 book by Robert Jewett and John Shelton Lawrence arguing for the existence and cultural importance of an 'American Monomyth'. In this Dollard follows [Bertrand] Russell. a selfless superhero emerges to renounce temptations and carry out the redemptive task. but from his own Freudian perspective.”24 Writing of the “extensive powers reserved to the High Commissioner.” they comment. we may now revert to our topic. In contrast. normal institutions fail to contend with this threat. In his view one of the ideas man tolerates least well is the notion that a large number of hard-to-control forces and circumstances dominates the lives of individuals and societies. one which would shift from him the responsibility for his miserable lot. page 31: In the 1970s John Dollard at Yale addressed the subject of guilt as a political motive. clinging to blame as would a shipwreck victim to flotsam.23 Campbell's monomyth describes a hero's journey: a hero ventures from the normal world into a supernatural one. says Dollard. the superhero then recedes into obscurity. his decisive victory restores the community to its paradisiacal condition. the Commonwealth of the Philippines. And because man has "been in the market for an exculpatory theory. not to mention plotting by siblings. in one's earliest days. A quote from Daniel Patrick Moynihan ON THE LAW OF NATIONS. where “none of the abuses which brought about the downfall of the Spanish government in the Islands would creep into the new government…. 6 . To survive in this heaving sea of guilt and malevolence the psyche must displace responsibility. Religions have responded to this unease. so eulogized by Kalaw. aided by fate. This need to blame is rooted.
7 .Under this system the Islands would be safe from the danger of some radical Filipino administrators embarking upon a policy so dangerous to free institutions as to require intervention. has been played out through the narratives of the frontier. and that it was the High Commissioner’s role to play the part of American superhero.25 I hope I am not by now exercising the reader’s credulity to suggest that the sturdy New England Commonwealth was some sort of archetypal model for this proposal of a Filipino commonwealth.. protecting the Filipino from evil. American foreign policy then as much more recently.
II 419 9 Ibid. J. 1924. 1928. page 20. In the Old World national pride feeds itself with the record of battles and conquests . II:419. 1699. SOCIAL ENGINEERING IN THE PHILIPPINES.crjc..wikipedia. page 8. .google. New York Times. The spiritual thirst of mankind has for ages been quenched at Hebrew fountains. Greenwood Pres. PEACEABLE KINGDOMS: NEW ENGLAND TOWNS IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 6 New York Times.. Report No. 15 16 Quoted in Glenn May.wikipedia. Vol. Volumes 1 & 2.org/wiki/City_upon_a_Hill .wikipedia. 18 Robert D. MINORITY SUGGESTS. http://books. Cameron Forbes. THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. ASK EARLY VOTE ON FILIPINO BILL. conquests which shifted a boundary on the map. Journal of the American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines.1 2 W. Carter Papers. colleges. 420 24 25 . 13 14 THE history of New England is written imperishably on the face of a continent. 1st Session. 687 (8 pages) http://thefilipinomind. 1994.html http://en. Foreign Affairs. to accompany S. Riverside Press. churches. How Five Americans Made Their Country a World Power. Next to the fugitives whom Moses led out of Egypt. Vidich & Joseph Bensman. op cit. II: 199. page 7. p. Kennedy & Ronald Reagan. 75th Congress. Arthur J. or their influence penetrated. 7 8 Forbes. Leave New England out in the cold! While you are plotting it. tell him where the men of his race have been. 20 http://www.org/wiki/The_American_Monomyth Forbes.htm 21 22 Richard Slotkin. quotes from Winthrop. Vintage Books. and free thought.com/books? id=HfrmAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA5PA12&dq=American+Chamber+of+Commerce+of+the+Philippines&hl=en&ei=8qxNTaDsOIP78Ab1q8z7Dg&sa=X&oi= book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA 23 http://en. — battles which proved nothing and settled nothing. the little ship-load of outcasts who landed at Plymouth two centuries and a half ago are destined to influence the future of the world.wikipedia. 1968. 1924. Iss. http://en. 1980.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_the_Philippines 4 5 New York Times. Jul 1935. 1970. Boston. PA 19 Quoted in Warren Zimmerman. op cit.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_the_Philippines 11 12 Kalaw. but the embodiment in human institutions of truths uttered by the Son of man eighteen centuries ago was to be mainly the work of Puritan thought and Puritan self-devotion. page 18. op cit. page 363. she sits by every fireside in the land where there is piety.. and put one ugly head instead of another on the coin which the people paid to the tax-gatherer. 10 http://en.org/heritage/V03-3. FREE FILIPINOS NOW. May 13. culture. Forbes. page vii.. Princeton University Press. 2002. But wherever the New-Englander travels among the sturdy commonwealths which have sprung from the seed of the Mayflower. US Army heritage Center. Strause and Giroux.com/2007/10/case-for-filipinos-maximo-m-kalaw-1916. Random House. Ibid. 1870. II: 373 ff. and in characters as beneficent as they are enduring. New York. Boston. May 18. FAIRFIELD URGES PHILIPPINE BILL. NEW ENGLAND TWO CENTURIES AGO. 13.blogspot. Carlisle. and an intelligent freedom is the monument of conquests whose results are not to be measured in square miles. Farrarr. Maximo M. FIRST GREAT TRIUMPH. 17 Quoted in Michael Zuckerman. May 1. schools. F. THE FATAL ENVIRONMENT Norman Univ OK Press. 3 Wikipedia. SMALL TOWN IN MASS SOCIETY. New York. James Russell Lowell. 873. page 41.4. 1924.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.