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Prehistoric Early civilizations developed, often independently, in scattered locations around the globe.

The architecture was often a mixture of styles in timber cut from local forests, and stone hewn from local rocks. Most of the timber has gone, although the earthworks remain. Impressive, massive stone structures have survived. Neolithic 10,000-3000 BC [edit]Ancient Americas Mesoamerican Talud-tablero Maya Puuc Aztec [edit]Mediterranean and Middle-East Civilizations Phoenician 3000-500 BC Ancient Egyptian 3000 BC - 373 AD Minoan 3000?+ BC (Crete) Knossos (Crete) Mycenaean 1600-1100 BC (Greece) [edit]Ancient Near East and Mesopotamia Sumerian 5300-2000 BC [edit]Classical Antiquity Classical 600 BC-323 AD Ancient Greek 776-265 BC Roman 753 BC 663 AD Herodian 37-4 BC (Judea) Early Christian 100-500 Byzantine 527 (Sofia) - 1520 [edit]Iranian and Persian Ancient Persian Achaemenid Sassanid Iranian, c.8th c.+ (Iran) Persian Garden Style (Iran) Classical Style - Hayat Formal Style - Meidan (public) or Charbagh (private) Casual Style - Park (public) or Bagh (private) Paradise garden [edit]Islamic Islamic 691+

Moorish c.8th c. - 1492 (Northern Africa, Spain, Portugal) Ottoman c.1300-1918 (Turkey) [edit]South Asia Indian Bengalese Karnataka Indian rock-cut architecture [edit]Ancient India Mauryan 321-185 BC (All India) [edit]Historic Temple Styles Buddhist Temple 1st c. AD Hindu Temple in 3 styles Nagara Style Dravida Style 610-? Vesara Style (a combination of Nagara and Dravida) [edit]Dravidian and Vesara Temple Styles Badami Chalukya aka "Central Indian temple style" or "Deccan architecture" 450-700 Rashtrakuta 750-983 (Central and South India) Western Chalukya aka Gadag 1050-1200 (Karnataka) Hoysala 900-1300 (Karnataka) Vijayanagara 1336-1565 (South India) [edit]Other historic eras Maru-Gurjara Temple Architecture 500-? (Rajastan) Maha-Maru Maru-Gurjara Kalinga architecture (Orissa and N Andhra Pradesh) Rekha Deula Pidha Deula Khakhara Deula Hemadpanthi 1200-? (Maharashtra) [edit]Islamic influences Indo-Islamic Mughal 1540-? (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh) Akbari Mughal Garden Style Sharqi aka Janpur Style Indo-Saracenic Revival aka Hindoo Style, Indo-Gothic, Mughal-Gothic, NeoMughal, Hindu-Gothic late 19th c. (British India aka The Raj) [edit]Also

Harappan 3300-1600 BC (Pakistan) Sikh [edit]Europe up to 1000 AD [edit]The Dark Ages Anglo-Saxon 450s-1066 (England, Wales) Pre-Romanesque c.700-1000 (Western Europe) Merovingian 5th c. - 8th c. (France, Germany) Asturian 711-910 (North Spain, North Portugal) Carolingian 780s-9th c. (France, Germany) Ottonian 950s-1050s (Germany) Repoblacin 880s-11th c. (Spain) [edit]Eastern European Armenian 4th c. - 16th c. Bulgarian 681+ The First Bulgarian Empire 681-1018 Tarnavo Artistic School 13th-14th c. (Bulgaria) Serbian Raska School 12th-15th c. Morava School [edit]Medieval Europe The dominance of the Church over everyday life was expressed in grand spiritual designs which emphasized piety and sobriety. The Romanesque style was simple and austere. The Gothic style heightened the effect with heavenly spires, pointed arches and ornamental religious carvings. Medieval Byzantine architecture -1520 (see above) Kievan Rus' architecture 988-1237 [edit]Romanesque Pre-Romanesque (see above) First Romanesque 1000-? (France, Italy, Spain) (including "Lombard Romanesque" in Italy) Romanesque 1000-1300 Norman 1074-1250 (Normandy, UK, Ireland, Italy, Malta) Cistercian monasteries mid 12th c. (Europe) [edit]Associated styles Timber frame styles (UK, France, Germany, Holland) Tarnovo Artistic School 13th-14th century (Bulgaria)

[edit]Gothic 1140-1520 Gothic Early English Period c.1190c.1250 Decorated Period c.1290c.1350 Perpendicular Period c.1350c.1550 Rayonnant Gothic 1240-c.1350 (France, Germany, Central Europe) Venetian Gothic 14th-15th c. (Venice in Italy) Spanish Gothic Mudjar Style c.1200-1700 (Spain, Portugal, Latin America) Aragonese Mudjar c.1200-1700 (Aragon in Spain) Isabelline Gothic 1474-1505 (reign) (Spain) Plateresque 1490-1560 (Spain & colonies, bridging Gothic and Renaissance styles) Flamboyant Gothic 1400-1500 (Spain, France, Portugal) Brick Gothic c.1350c.1400 Manueline 1495-1521 (reign) (Portugal & colonies) [edit]The Renaissance and its successors 1425-1660+. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread through Europe, rebelling against the all-powerful Church, by placing Man at the centre of his world instead of God. [3] The Gothic spires and pointed arches were replaced by classical domes and rounded arches, with comfortable spaces and entertaining details, in a celebration of humanity. The Baroque style was a florid development of this 200 years later, largely by the Catholic Church to restate its religious values. Renaissance c.1425-1600 (Western Europe, American colonies) Palladian 1516-1580 (Venezia, Italy; revived in UK) Mannerism 1520-1600 Eastern Orthodox Church 1400?+ (Eastern Europe) [edit]United Kingdom Tudor 14851603 Elizabethan 1480-1620? Jacobean 1580-1660 [edit]Spain Spanish Renaissance Herrerian 1550-1650 (Spain & colonies) Plateresque continued from Spanish Gothic -1560 (Spain & colonies, Low Countries)

[edit]Colonial Spanish Colonial 1520sc.1820s (New World, East Indies, other colonies) Dutch Colonial 1615-1674 (Treaty of Westminster) (New England) Chilotan 1600+ (Chilo and southern Chile) [edit]Baroque 1600-1800, up to 1900 Baroque c.1600-1750 (Western Europe, the Americas) English Baroque 1666 (Great Fire) 1713 (Treaty of Utrecht) Spanish Baroque c.1600-1760 Churrigueresque, 1660s-1750s (Spain & New World), revival 1915+ (southwest USA, Hawaii) French Baroque c. 1650-1789 Dutch Baroque c.1650-1700 Sicilian Baroque 1693 earthquake c.1745 Russian Baroque (c.1680-1750) Naryshkin Baroque c.1690-1720 (Moscow, Russian Empire) Ukrainian Baroque late 17th-18th (Kiev, Russian Empire) Petrine Baroque c.1700-1745 (St.Petersburg, Russian Empire) Elizabethian Baroque 1736-1762 (Russian Empire) Rococo c.1720-1789 (France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain) [edit]Neoclassicism 1720-1837 and on. A time often depicted as a rural idyll by the great painters, but in fact was a hive of early industrial activity, with small kilns and workshops springing up wherever materials could be mined or manufactured. After the Renaissance, neoclassical forms were developed and refined into new styles for public buildings and the gentry. [edit]Neoclassical Neoclassical c.1715-1820 Beaux-Arts 1670+ (France) and 1880 (USA) Georgian 1720-1840s (UK, USA) American Colonial 1720-1780s (USA) Pombaline style 1755-c.1860 (earthquake in Portugal) Adam style 1760-1795 (England, Scotland, Russia, USA) Federal 1780-1830 (USA) Empire 1804-1830, revival 1870 (Europe, USA) Regency 1811-1830 (UK) Neo-palladian Jeffersonian 1790s-1830s (Virginia in USA)

American Empire 1810 Greek Revival architecture Neo-Grec 184565 (UK, USA, France) [edit]Revivalism and Orientalism 19th- early 20th century. The Victorian Era was a time of giant leaps forward in technology and society, such as iron bridges, aqueducts, sewer systems, roads, canals, trains and factories. As engineers, inventors and businessmen they reshaped much of the British Empire, including the UK, India, Australia, South Africa and Canada, and influenced Europe and the USA. Architecturally, they were revivalists who modified old styles to suit new purposes. Revival architecture Victorian 1837-1901 (UK) See also San Francisco architecture Edwardian 1901-1910 (UK) [edit]Revivals originating prior to the Victorian Era Gothic Revival 1740s+ (UK, USA, Europe) Italianate 1802-1890 (UK, Europe, USA) Egyptian Revival 18091820s, 1840s, 1920s (Europe, USA) Biedermeier 18151848 (Central Europe) Russian Revival 1826-1917 (Russian Empire, Germany, Middle Asia) Russo-Byzantine style 1861-1917 (Russia, Eastern Europe, Balkans) Russian neoclassical revival 1900-1920 (Russian Empire, Eastern Europe) [edit]Victorian Revivals Renaissance Revival 184090 (UK) Timber frame revivals in various styles (Europe) Black-and-white Revival 1811+ (UK especially Chester) Jacobethan 183070 (UK) Tudorbethan aka Mock Tudor 18351885+ (UK) Bristol Byzantine 1850-1880 Second Empire 18551880 (France, UK, USA, Canada, Australia) Queen Anne Style 18701910s (UK, USA) Edwardian Baroque 1901-1922 (UK & British Empire) [edit]Orientalism Orientalism Neo-Mudjar 1880s-1920s (Spain, Portugal, Bosnia, California) Moorish Revival (USA, Europe) Egyptian Revival 1920s (Europe, USA; see above)

Mayan Revival 1920-1930s (USA) [edit]Revivals in North America Rundbogenstil 1835-1870 (Germany) Romanesque Revival 18401930s (USA) Gothic Revival (see above) Carpenter Gothic 1870+ (USA) High Victorian Gothic (Anglosphere) Collegiate Gothic, 19101960 (USA) Stick Style 1860-1890+ (US) Queen Anne Style architecture (United States) 18801910s (US) Eastlake Style 1879-1905 Richardsonian Romanesque 1880s-1905 (USA) Shingle Style 1879-1905 Neo-Byzantine 18821920s (USA) Renaissance Revival American Renaissance Chteauesque 1887-1930s (Canada, USA, Hungary) Canadian Chateau 1880s-1920s (Canada) Mediterranean Revival 1890s+ (USA, Latin America, Europe) Mission Revival 1894-1936; (California, southwest USA) Pueblo Revival 18981930+ (southwest USA) Colonial Revival 1890s+ Dutch Colonial Revival c.1900 (New England) Spanish Colonial Revival 1915+ (California, Hawaii, Florida, southwest USA) Beaux-Arts Revival 1880+ (USA, Canada), 1920+ (Australia) City Beautiful 189020th c. (USA) [edit]Other late 19th century Queenslander 1840s1960s (Australian) Australian styles Federation 1890-1920 (Australian) Neo-Manueline 1840s-1910s (Portugal, Brazil) Dragestil 1880s-1910s (Norway) Neo-Plateresque and Monterrey Style 19th c. - early 20th c. (Spain, Mexico) [edit]Rural styles Swiss chalet style 1840s-1920s+ (Scandinavia, Germany, later global) Adirondack 1850s (New York, USA) National Park Service Rustic aka Parkitecture 1903+ (USA) [edit]Reactions to the Industrial Revolution 1880-1940. As a reaction to the dirty towns, urbanisation and mechanisation, movements appeared calling for a return to wholesome living, craftsmanship and a connection with nature. Some of this was manifested in a taste for exotic

cultures and spirituality. [edit]Arts and Crafts in Europe Arts and Crafts 18801910 (UK) Anglo-Japanese style 1872-1900 (UK) Art Nouveau aka Jugendstil 18851910 Modernisme 1888-1911 (Catalonian Art Nouveau) Glasgow Style 1890-1910 (Glasgow, Scotland) Vienna Secession 1897-1905 (Austrian Art Nouveau) [edit]Arts and Crafts in the USA American Craftsman aka American Arts and Crafts 1890s1930 (USA) Prairie Style 19001917 (USA) American Foursquare mid 1890s - late 1930s (USA) California Bungalow 1910-1939 (USA, Australia, then global) [edit]Modernism 1880+. The Industrial Revolution had brought steel, plate glass, and massproduced components. These enabled a brave new world of bold structural frames, with clean lines and plain or shiny surfaces. In the early stages, a popular motto was "decoration is a crime". In Eastern Europe the Communists rejected the West's decadent ways, and modernism developed in a markedly more bureaucratic, sombre and monumental fashion. Chicago School 1880-1890, 1940s-1960s (USA) Functionalism c.1900-1930s (Europe, USA) Futurism 1909 (Europe) Expressionism 1910c.1924 Amsterdam School 19121924 (Netherlands) Organic architecture New Objectivity aka Rationalism 1920-1939 (Germany, Holland, Budapest) Bauhaus 1919-1930+ (Germany, Northern Europe) De Stijl 1920s (Holland, Europe) Art Deco 19251940s (global) List of Art Deco architecture Modernism 19271960s International Style 1930+ (Europe, USA) Streamline Moderne 19301937 Usonian 19361940s (USA) [edit]Modernism under communism

Constructivism 19251932 (USSR) Postconstructivism 19321941 (USSR) [edit]New Tradition Fascist architecture Nazi 1933-1944 (Germany) Stalinist 19331955 (USSR) [edit]Post-War 1945Modernism (continued) International Style (continued) New towns 1946-1968+ (UK, global) Mid-century modern 1950s (California, etc.) Googie 1950s (USA) Brutalism 1950s1970s Structuralism 1950s-1970s Metabolist 1959 (Japan) Danish Functionalism 1960s (Denmark) Structural Expressionism aka Hi-Tech 1980s+ [edit]Other 20th century Ponce Creole 1895-1920 (Ponce in Puerto Rico) Heliopolis style 1905 c.1935 (Egypt) Mar del Plata style 1935-1950 (Mar del Plata in Argentina) Soft Portuguese 1940-1955 (Portugal & colonies) Ranch-style 1940s-1970s (USA) [edit]Post-Modernism and the 21st century Post-Modernism 1945+ (USA, UK) Shed Style Arcology 1970s+ (Europe) Deconstructivism 1982+ (Europe, USA, Far East) Memphis Group 1981-1988 (USA) Blobitecture 2003+ Interactive architecture 2000+ Sustainable architecture 2000+ Earthship 1980+ (Started in USA, now global) Green building 2000+ Natural building 2000+ [edit]