Introduction to Acoustics

Bruel & Kjaer Norcross, Georgia www.bkhome.com

Agenda

Introduction to Theory and Terminology The Decibel Frequency of Sound Measuring Sound Applications of Acoustics

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Sound

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Sound and Noise

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Terminology of Sound
Active Intensity RMS Peak Statistical analysis Fast Slow Impulse Free Field/Pressure Field Percentile level Logarithmic scales Pascal RMS Leq L90 Weighting L10

Sound Pressure dB

Constant percentage bandwidth

1/1 and 1/3 Octave Analysis Noise Dose

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Basic Parameters of Sound (cont.)
Sound Pressure Level

p2 Lp = 10 log10 2 po

Receiver

po = 2 ×10−5 N / m2
= 20µPa

Path

Sound Intensity Level

Li = 10 log10

I I0 2 Io = 1pW / m

Source

Sound Power Level

Lw = 10 log10
Wo = 1pW

W Wo

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Pressure vs. Power

Pressure p [N/m2 = Pa] Lp [dB]

Analogy
Temperature t [°C]

Power P [W]

Power P [W] Sound Source Electrical Heater
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Sound Levels Under Free-field Conditions
Example:
r = 1.5 m Sound Power = 0.01 Watt

W p2 Ι= = 2 ρc 4πr

Sound Power
W = 0.01 Watt

Sound Intensity
Ι= W 0.01 = 2πr 2 2π ⋅ 1.5 2 = 0.000707 W m2

Sound Pressure
p= Ι ⋅ ρc = 0.000707 ⋅ 400 = 0.532 Pascal
p2 Lp = 10 log10 2 dB p0 = 10 log10

L W = 10 log10

W dB W0

Ι L Ι = 10 log10 dB Ι0 7.07 ⋅ 10 − 4 = 10 log10 dB 10 −12 L Ι = 88.5 dB

LW

0.01 = 10 log10 −12 dB 10 = 100 dB

(20 ⋅ 10 )

0.532 2

−6 2

dB

Lp = 88.5 dB

LI = Lp under free-field conditions
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Sound Pressure Propagation

Pressure [Pa] 100 000 Pascal

Time
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Range of Sound Pressure Levels
Sound Pressure, p [Pa] 100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000 1 0.000 01
10

Sound Pressure Level, Lp 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 [dB]

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Converting Pascals to Decibels
⎛ p⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜p ⎟ ⎝ 0⎠

Lp = 20 log

dB re 20 µPa

(p0 = 20 µPa = 20 × 10-6 Pa)

Ex. 1: p = 1 Pa Lp = 20 log 20 × 10 −6 = 20 log 50 000 = 94 dB
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Ex. 2: p = 31.7 Pa Lp = 20 log
317 . 20 × 10 −6

= 20 log 1.58 × 10-6 = 124 dB

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Human Perception of dBs
Change in Sound Level (dB) Change in Perceived Loudness

3 5 10 15 20

Just perceptible Noticeable difference Twice (or 1/2) as loud Large change Four times (or 1/4) as loud

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Types of Sound Sources
Point source

Line source r: Lp 2r: Lp − 3 dB

Plane source r: Lp 2r: Lp − 6 dB r: Lp
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2r: Lp

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Anechoic and Reverberant Enclosures

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Pressure Field

Loudspeaker

Enclosure

Microphone

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Sound Fields
Lp
Near field Far field Free field Reverberant field

6 dB

Distance, r A1 2 × A1

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Frequency Range of Different Sound Sources

1
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10
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100

1000

10 000

Frequency [Hz]

Wavelength and Frequency

c λ= f
λ λ

Wavelength, λ [m]
20 10 5 2 1 0.2 0.1 0.05

10

20

50

100

200

500

1k

2k

5k

10 k

Frequency, f [Hz]
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Why Make a Frequency Analysis

C
Amplitude Amplitude

A A
Time

DE C

E D

Sound

Frequency

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1/1 and 1/3 Octave Filters
L
B = 1/1 Octave

1/1 Octave
f2 = 2 × f1

f1 = 708 f0 = 1000

Frequency f2 = 1410 [Hz]

B = 0 .7 × f0 ≈ 70%

L
B = 1/3 Octave

1/3 Octave
f2 =
3

2 × f1 = 1.25 × f1

f1 = 891

f2 = 1120 f0 = 1000

Frequency [Hz]

B = 0 .2 3 × f 0 ≈ 2 3 %

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Third-octave and Octave Passband
Band No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 27 28 29 30 31 32 40 41 42 43 Nominal Centre Frequency Hz 1.25 1.6 2 2.5 3.15 4 500 630 800 1000 1250 1600 10 K 1.25 K 16 K 20 K Third-octave Passband Hz 1.12 – 1.41 1.41 – 1.78 1.78 – 2.24 2.24 – 2.82 2.82 – 3.55 3.55 – 4.47 447 – 562 562 – 708 708 – 891 891 – 1120 1120 – 1410 1410 – 1780 8910 – 11200 11.2 – 14.1 14.1 – 17.8 K 17.8 – 22.4 K Octave Passband Hz

1.41 – 2.82 2.82 – 5.62 355 – 708 780 – 1410

11.2 – 22.4 K

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Auditory Field
140 dB 120 100 Sound Pressure Level 80 60 40 20 0 20 Threshold in Quiet 50 100 200 500 1k 2k Frequency [Hz] 5k 10k 20 k Music Speech Threshold of Pain

Limit of Damage Risk

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Equal Loudness Contours for Pure Tones
120 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Phon 20 Hz
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Sound pressure level, Lp
(dB re 20 µPa)

100 80 60 40 20 0 100 Hz

1 kHz Frequency

10 kHz

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40 dB Equal Loudness Contours and A-Weight L
p

40 dB Equal Loudness Contour normalized to 0 dB at 1kHz

(dB) 40 20 0 20 Hz

40

Lp
40 dB Equal Loudness Contour inverted -20 and compared with A-weighting -40 (dB) 0

100

1 kHz

10 kHz

40 A-weighting

20 Hz
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100

1 kHz

10 kHz

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Frequency Weighting Curves
Lp
[dB] Lin. 0 D -20 A B -40 C B+C A D

-60 Frequency [Hz]

10

20

50

100

200

500

1k

2k

5k

10 k 20 k

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The Sound Level Analyzer

dB 100 1/1, 1/3 oct Weighting 80 RMS Peak Fast Slow Impulse 60 40 20

1/3 Octave Analysis

125 250 500 1k

2k

4k

8k

LA

87.2
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Time Weighting
p

Time

Lp

Lp

Impulse (1.5 ) Slow (1 s) Fast (125 ms)

Slow (1 s) Fast (125 ms) Impulse (35 ms)
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Time

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Equivalent Level, Leq
⎛ p(t ) ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ dt ⎝ p0 ⎠
2

Leq = 10 log10

1 T ∫0

Lp

Leq
Time

T
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Sound Power
Product noise labeling Government regulations ‘Apples to Apples’ comparison of noise Can predict SPL with knowledge of sound field

Three ways to calculate sound power: Free Field Reverberant Field Sound Intensity
X
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Intensity Mapping

Visually identify where sounds come from Rank sound power contribution of individual components Make modern art?

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Sound Quality
L = 63 dBA L = 63 dBA L = 63 dBA

Sound Quality is a parameter that sells the product Sound Quality is a parameter that sells the product A-weighted noise levels and sound power are not sufficiently A-weighted noise levels and sound power are not sufficiently sensitive to fully characterize the “quality” of product sound sensitive to fully characterize the “quality” of product sound Sound Quality is function of consumer expectations Sound Quality is function of consumer expectations

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Building Acoustics
Reverberation Time Transmission Loss Leakage between rooms Impact Isolation Speech Intelligibility

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Environmental Noise Models

Large Plane Smaller size

Mid Sized Mid Sized

Noise Contours

Smaller

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Conclusion
Clear understanding of the three basic acoustic parameters: pressure, intensity, power What a decibel is and why we use it in acoustics Differences between Anechoic, Reverberant, and Pressure sound fields How wavelengths are calculated and the importance of frequency analysis in acoustics Introduction to some different acoustic applications

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Literature for Further Reading
References
Acoustic Noise Measurements Journals and Magazines Brüel & Kjær (BT 0010-12) Journal of the Acoustical Noise Control - Principles and Practice Society of America Brüel & Kjær (188-81) Noise Control Engineering Noise and Vibration Control Sound and Vibration Magazine L. L. Beranek, ed. INCE Bruel & Kjaer Magazine Industrial Noise Control Websites Louis Bell, Dekker www.bkhome.com The Science and Application of Acoustics asa.aip.org Daniel Raichel, AIP Press www.inceusa.org Industrial Noise and Vibration Control www.nonoise.org Irwin and Graf, Prentice Hall Acoustics L.L. Beranek, Acoustical Society of America Acoustical Designing in Architecture V. Knudsen, C. Harris Acoustical Society of America

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