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PROCON Pressure Process Rig 38-930-M

Electrical Power & Machines

Test & Measurement

PROCON Pressure Process Rig 38-930-M
For use with 38-714

Feedback Instruments Ltd, Park Road, Crowborough, E. Sussex, TN6 2QR, UK. Telephone: +44 (0) 1892 653322, Fax: +44 (0) 1892 663719. email: feedback@fdbk.co.uk website: http://www.fbk.com Manual: 38-930-M Ed01 122004 Printed in England by Fl Ltd, Crowborough

Feedback Part No. 1160–38930M

Notes

If. Any component may be ordered direct from Feedback or its agents by quoting the following information: 1. All major changes are incorporated into up-dated editions of our manuals and this manual was believed to be correct at the time of printing. In order to maintain compliance with international directives. all replacement components should be identical to those originally supplied.e. if there is any doubt whatsoever about any aspect.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Preface THE HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK ACT 1974 We are required under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974. i. circumstances exist in which a potential hazard may be brought about by careless or improper use. Equipment serial number Components can often be replaced by alternatives available locally. these will be pointed out and the necessary precautions emphasised. These have been indicated in the specified way by yellow labels with black printing.+ The equipment. Component value 3. 38-930-M i . these must be replaced with components of equal international safety approval in order to maintain full equipment safety. the meaning of any labels that may be fixed to the instrument are shown below: CAUTION RISK OF DANGER Refer to accompanying documents CAUTION RISK OF ELECTRIC SHOCK CAUTION ELECTROSTATIC SENSITIVE DEVICE PRODUCT IMPROVEMENTS We maintain a policy of continuous product improvement by incorporating the latest developments and components into our equipment. may not be included until it is necessary to incorporate other significant changes. This equipment should not be used by inexperienced users unless they are under supervision. all components involved with the supply or carrying of voltages at supply potential or higher. should not cause any danger or hazard to health or safety if normal engineering practices are observed and they are used in accordance with the instructions supplied. even up to the time of dispatch. in specific cases. While we provide the fullest possible user information relating to the proper use of this equipment. the user should contact the Product Safety Officer at Feedback Instruments Limited. however we cannot therefore guarantee continued performance either to published specification or compliance with international standards. Component reference 4. when used in normal or prescribed applications within the parameters set for its mechanical and electrical performance. to make available to users of this equipment certain information regarding its safe use. some product changes which do not affect the instructional capability of the equipment. However. We are required by European Directives to indicate on our equipment panels certain areas and warnings that require attention by the user. COMPONENT REPLACEMENT Where components are of a ‘Safety Critical’ nature. Equipment type 2. Crowborough.

in any form or by any means. without the prior permission of Feedback Instruments Limited. does not cause electromagnetic disturbance outside its immediate electromagnetic environment. recording or otherwise. WINDOWS ME. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Feedback Instruments Ltd acknowledge all trademarks. WINDOWS 98. WINDOWS XP. This equipment.PC are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. IBM. WINDOWS NT.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Preface DECLARATION CONCERNING ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY Should this equipment be used outside the classroom. photocopying. IBM . MICROSOFT. WINDOWS 3. WINDOWS 95. when operated in accordance with the supplied documentation. electronic. or transmitted. mechanical. stored in a retrieval system. WINDOWS 2000.1 and Internet Explorer are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. COPYRIGHT NOTICE © Feedback Instruments Limited All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced. ii 38-930-M . laboratory study area or similar such place for which it is designed and sold then Feedback Instruments Ltd hereby states that conformity with the protection requirements of the European Community Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive (89/336/EEC) may be invalidated and could lead to prosecution.

1 Theory 4-1 4-2 38-930-M TOC-1 .1 1.3 2.3 Theory Practical 1 : 38-300 Calibration Practical 2 : Reading the 38-300 3-1 3-2 3-8 3-12 4 The Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 4.5 1.4 2.2 1.1 2.6 Introduction Practical 1 : System Pressurisation Practical 2 : Current Source Calibration Practical 3 : I/P Converter and Pneumatic Control Valve Operation Practical 4 : Pressure Sensor and Transmitter Practical 5 : Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 1-1 1-2 1-6 1-8 1-9 1-11 1-12 2 Controller Familiarisation 2.2 3.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1.4 1.1 3.5 2.6 38-300 Process Controller Control Systems Automatic Control Systems Practical 1 : Serial Communication Practical 2 : Navigating the 38-300 Practical 3 : Using the 38-300 2-1 2-2 2-2 2-4 2-9 2-14 2-22 3 Controller Calibration 3.2 2.3 1.

PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG 4.1 7.2 7.1 5.3 8.4 Theory Practical 1: Maintaining Pressure at a Set-Point Practical 2: Effects of Disturbance Practical 3: Changing the Set-Point Remotely 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-6 8-6 9 Proportional only Process Control 9.2 Theory Practical 1: Characteristics of the Pneumatic Control Valve 6-1 6-2 6-3 6.3 Practical 2: Pneumatic Control Valve Characteristics at Different Pressure Ranges 6-7 7 System Response and the Air Receiver 7.2 4.3 Theory Practical 1: System Response without the Air Receiver Practical 2: System Response with the Air Receiver 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-6 8 Principles of Proportioning Valve 8.3 Theory Practical 1: The I to P Converter Practical 2: The I to P Converter Linearity and Hysteresis 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-6 6 The Pneumatic Control Valve 6.2 5.1 8.3 Practical 1: Pressure Sensor and Transmitter Calibration Practical 2: Linearity and Hysteresis Contents 4-3 4-6 5 The I to P Converter 5.1 6.1 Theory 9-1 9-2 38-930-M TOC-2 .2 8.

4 9.1 11.5 11.Removing Offsets Practical 2: Proportional Control.Effects of Changing the Set Point Practical 4: Proportional Control .3 11.4 Theory Practical 2: Effects of Changing the Set Point Practical 3: Effects of Changing the Integral Action Time Practical 4: Effects of Changing the Proportional Band 10-1 10-2 10-5 10-5 10-6 11 Proportional + Derivative Action Process Controller 11.2 12.3 9.2 9.Effect of Changing the Proportional 10 Proportional + Integral Action Process Controller 10.4 Theory Practical 1: Ultimate Period/Ziegler-Nichols Practical 2: Reaction Curve Method Practical 3: Evaluation of Controller by Introducing a Disturbance 12-1 12-2 12-3 12-6 12-7 13 PID Controller and the Air Receiver 38-930-M 13-1 TOC-3 .PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG 9.3 10.1 12.4 11.5 Band Practical 1: Proportional Control.2 11.1 10.6 Theory Practical 1: P + D Control of Pressure Practical 2: Effects of Disturbance Practical 3: Effect of Changing the Set Point Practical 4: Effects of Changing the Derivative Time Practical 5: Effect of Changing the Proportional Band 11-1 11-2 11-3 11-5 11-5 11-5 11-6 12 Optimising Proportional Integral and Derivative Controllers 12.3 12.Effects of Disturbance Contents 9-3 9-6 9-6 9-7 Practical 3: Proportional Control .2 10.

2 Theory 14-2 Practical 1: Calibration of the Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter14-3 15 Flow Control in the Process Rig 15.1 13.2 13.5 Theory Practical 1: Maintaining a flow by using the Control Valve Practical 2: Operation of Square Root Extractor Practical 3: Changing the Set Point Remotely Results Table 15-1 15-2 15-4 15-6 15-7 15-8 TOC-4 38-930-M .4 15.2 15.1 15.3 15.3 Theory Practical 1: System Response Contents 13-2 13-3 Practical 2: Determining Optimum Settings for the Process Controller 13-5 14 Calibration of the Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 14-1 14.1 14.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG 13.

Chapter 1 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1 Pressure Rig Familiarisation Objective Equipment Required To familiarise the student with the rig and demonstrate how to calibrate the various components Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller 38-714 Pressure Control Module 38-461 Pressure Transmitter 38-490 Digital Display Module Note: The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air. Prerequisite Assignments Knowledge Level None None 38-930-M 1-1 .

1 Introduction The successful design and operation of industrial plant requires the optimum choices of instrumentation and control equipment together with the ability to commission. Technicians and engineers need to be trained in these skills. monitor and maintain such equipment. particularly in view of the rapid advances in the use of electronics and microcomputers in process control. The design allows study of component operation and connection to electrical control devices through the use of pressure/current transducers.Chapter 1 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1. which is part of the PROCON range of equipment designed to introduce and demonstrate the principles of process measurement and control. This assignment describes the 38-714 Pressure Process Rig. The system includes those pneumatic control components of interest to the process industries. 1-2 38-930-M . This range of specially designed equipment allows practical appreciation and understanding of the whole spectrum of process control technology from the characteristics of individual components to complex control loops operating on real processes.

The valve is operated from a Current to Pressure Converter.Chapter 1 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1. The flow discharges directly to atmosphere or via an Air Receiver to vary the process lag.1.1 Pressure Rig Description The Pressure Process Rig 38-714 is shown below: The front panel of the rig incorporates a schematic diagram of the equipment which identifies the major components and relevant connections in standard pneumatic notation. 38-930-M 1-3 . and sensors for direct and differential pressure facilitates measurement of pressure and flow respectively. The unit consists of a pipeline on which are mounted a Pneumatic Control Valve. Orifice Block and pressure tappings.

The design allows study of component operation and connection of control devices through the use of current to pressure converters. Air for the instrumentation is regulated by a Regulator R1 and the operating pressure in indicated on a Gauge G1.2 Process Rig Controller The square root extraction facility of the 38-300 Process Controller is used with the Current to Pressure Converter to provide a linear signal. Step changes may be applied to the process by bleeding air through an additional Diffuser by opening and closing the Valve V4. 1.1. An indicator on the valve stem shows the actual position of the valve. This rig incorporates pneumatic control components of great interest to the process industries. The Air Receiver incorporates a pressure relief valve. The 4-2O mA input to the I/P Converter can be connected to the 38-200 Process Connections or the Servo Valve connection. The I/P Converter accepts a 4-2O mA control signal from the 38-200 Process Interface and converts this to a 3-l5 psi pneumatic signal which operates the control valve. Both sensors are provided with conditioners. These are explored in greater detail within a later assignment. A set of manual valves V1.1. A gauge G2 indicates the pneumatic signal applied to the control valve by the I/P Converter. The air flowing through the process pipe passes through the Pneumatic Control Valve and an Orifice Block assembly before discharging to atmosphere via a Diffuser.Chapter 1 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1. Compressed air for the pneumatic instrumentation and process is connected to a common inlet.3 Rig Control Valves The control valve comprises a diaphragm actuator which positions the stem of a plug type valve. 1-4 38-930-M . Air for the process is regulated by a Regulator R2 and the operating pressure is indicated on Gauge G3. The pneumatic instrumentation comprises a I/P Converter and Pneumatic Control Valve. The unit is designed to operate with the 38-200 and 38-300 Process Interface and Process Controller to configure open or closed loop control circuits. The pipework and fittings are mounted on a support frame which is designed to stand on a bench top. V2 and V3 allow a rear-mounted air receiver to be connected in series or parallel with the process pipe to change the response of the system (to vary the process lag).

If you are unsure about how to check this value. If they are switched incorrectly.4 Process Controller and Interface This Discovery software contains an integral Chart Recorder and configuration program. When you start certain practicals. Before attempting any of the practicals: 1. This software automatically configures the 38-300 Process Controller. a small delay will occur while the computer sets the process controller parameters. 3. 2.1.Chapter 1 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1. 38-930-M 1-5 . Ensure that the switches on the rear of the controller are correctly set up. Ensure that the Process Controller is connected to the serial port of your computer. the controller will begin to show the current operation of the process using a chart recorder program. When complete. Ensure that the controller is given the identity '1'. please refer to the ABB manual that is supplied with your controller. through a serial port allowing it to be immediately used with each practical. You will be presented with different controls depending upon the assignment and practical that is being studied. the computer will not be able to communicate to the controller. Communication Port 1 (Com1) is used by default.

Warning !! The maximum supply pressure should not exceed 40psi.2 Practical 1 : System Pressurisation The following instructions describe how to set-up the 38-714 Pressure Process Rig and its associated components. Pull the collar out to adjust the regulator. Air will flow through the system. V3 and V4 adjacent to the air tank connection. V5 and V6. Turn the collar clockwise to increase the downstream pressure and anticlockwise to reduce the pressure. Supply pressure should be adequately and reliably regulated prior to presentation to the Pressure Process Rig. Adjust process pressure regulator R2 to give 10psi at G3. Connect a supply of clean compressed air to the inlet using a reinforced air hose. The supply must be capable of providing the required volume of compressed air at the operating pressure. otherwise flow and pressure in the system will be inadequate for satisfactory demonstrations. 1-6 38-930-M .Chapter 1 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1. pressurising the pipes and Air Receiver to 10 psi. Use the patching diagram to identify all the relevant gauges and valves on the Pressure Rig. Open valve V1. Adjust instrumentation pressure regulator R1 to give 25psi at G1. close valves V2. Push the collar back into place after adjustment.

1 Patching Diagram 38-930-M 1-7 .Chapter 1 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1.2.

If it does not. 1. Turn the Current Source control fully clockwise to increase the output to the maximum. adjust the zero control using a small screwdriver or trim tool until the display shows 4 mA or 0%. adjust the span control.1 Patching Diagram 1-8 38-930-M .Chapter 1 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1. 4.3. If it does not.3 Practical 2 : Current Source Calibration Calibrate the Process Interface 38-200 Current Source as follows. The display should read 20 mA or 100%. Turn on the 38-200 Process Interface. The display should read 4 mA or 0%. Turn the Current Source control fully anticlockwise to reduce the output to the minimum. 3. The Current Source is now calibrated. 1. Connect the Current Source to the Digital Display Module 38-490 as shown in the patching diagram 2.

1. The indicator on the valve stem should be in the raised position. Gauge G2 should indicate 15 psi with control valve fully closed. Note that the indicator on the valve stem provides only an approximate indication of valve position. Connect the I/P Converter to the 38-200 4-20 mA supply by making the connections shown in the patching diagram. Note: If the pressures indicated on G2 differ from the values stated above it will be necessary to recalibrate the I/P Converter.Chapter 1 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1. Turn on the 38-200 and pressurise the system as per the pressurisation practical. They may be damaged if presented with differential pressures in excess of 30 psi. 5. 38-930-M 1-9 . This procedure is detailed in the I/P Converter Assignment (see Chapter 6). 4. 2. Caution !! The Pressure Sensors are very delicate instruments. Set the Current Source Output to maximum (20 mA) by turning the adjusting knob fully clockwise.4 Practical 3 : I/P Converter and Pneumatic Control Valve Operation Check operation of I/P Converter and Pneumatic Control Valve. 3. Set the Current Source Output to minimum (4 mA) by turning the adjusting knob fully anticlockwise. Gauge G2 should indicate 3 psi with control valve fully open. The indicator on the valve stem should be in the lowered position.

Chapter 1 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1.1 Patching Diagram 1-10 38-930-M .4.

The Digital Display Module should show 4 mA or 0%. adjust the span control until the desired reading is obtained. Pressurise the Air Receiver by opening V1 and closing V2 then adjusting R2 to produce a reading 0. If it does not. 4. Repeat the above process checking readings of 0% at atmospheric pressure and 100% at 10 psi. If it does not. Drain all pressure from the system by fully closing R2 and fully opening V2. 2. Complete the connections shown in the patching diagram.7 bar or 10 psi on G3. The Digital Display Module should read 20 mA or 100%. adjust the zero control until the desired reading is obtained.5. 5. Pressurise the System as in the pressurisation practical 3. After a few moments the Air Receiver pressure gauge will read 10 psi. V4 and V5.Chapter 1 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1.5 Practical 4 : Pressure Sensor and Transmitter Check the operation of the Pressure Sensor and Transmitter. After a few moments the system will be at atmospheric pressure throughout. 1. 1.1 Patching Diagram 38-930-M 1-11 .

Drain all pressure from the system by fully closing R2 and fully opening V2. Close valves V1 and V3 (ensure V7 is fully open). V4.6. 2. V5. If it does not.6 Practical 5 : Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter Check operation of Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter. The Digital Display Module should show 20 mA or 100%. V6 and V7. After a few moments the system will be at atmospheric pressure throughout. 4. This should easily be achieved. If it does not. Complete the connections shown in the patching diagram. Create a full flow condition by adjusting R2 until a 10psi difference is shown between the reading on G4 and the reading on G5. Pressurise the System as in the pressurisation practical 3.Chapter 1 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Pressure Rig Familiarisation 1. adjust the zero control until the desired reading is obtained. Open valves V2. The Digital Display Module should show 4 mA or 0% to indicate the zero flow condition. adjust the span control until the desired reading is obtained. 1. When G4 indicates 10 psi and G5 indicates zero the flow meter will show a flow of approx 24 litres/min.1 Patching Diagram 1-12 38-930-M . 5. 1.

Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation 2 Controller Familiarisation The Process Controller (38-300) unit is powered by the Process Interface (PI) and includes the ABB Kent-Taylor Commander 300 process controller and labelled inputs and outputs. since the 38-300 will control the Process Interface (PI). The industry standard serial communication RS485 and RS232 interfaces are included as standard on the rear panel of the 38-300. The 38-300 features local.c (normally closed). pressure. flow and other process parameters. its process inputs and control outputs are of the 4-20 mA loop current type. labelled n. that measures. to and from the Process Interface (PI). In your case. 38-930-M 2-1 . the controller accepts a large variety of input signal types: • • • • • • Thermocouple (THC) Resistance thermometer (RTD) Linear voltage or current Resistance Non-linear voltage or current from temperature transmitters and other variables transduced to a suitable voltage or current. In addition. The ABB Commander 300 is a universal digital microprocessor-based single loop programmable controller. remote or dual set-point. For this reason. displays and controls temperature. and retransmission of set-point or process variable. there are four logic inputs (one on the rear) and four time proportioned. voltage activated relays.o (normally open) and n. according to the user requirements. so that a digital computer can communicate with it and control of the process carried out using the Discovery software package. liquid level.

these are still legitimate automatic control systems. • • • • • • • • On/Off PID Ramp/Soak (profile sequencing with up to 9 programs) Dual Output (Heat/Cool) Current Proportioning Time Proportioning Position Proportioning Automatic bumpless transfer from manual to auto mode and vice versa An autotune facility is provided. including. 2-2 38-930-M . pneumatic. from menus. either using analogue circuits or a digital computer (microprocessor). Anti-reset windup is a technique included to prevent a large control effort building up when attempting to eliminate a deviation caused by a physical problem. vehicle. Actuators are commonly electric. A plant is the machine. The interface between the plant and the controller requires actuators (control elements) to provide the control action. or process that is being controlled. or hydraulic. where the controller is a device. Users can select the instrument functionality required.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation 2.2 Control Systems A control system consists of a controller and a plant. depending on the application and power level required. Configuration data is stored in non-volatile memory. using the eight tactile membrane keys and the three high intensity seven-segment displays plus the deviation bar graph. The controller is the system that is required to produce satisfactory results from the plant. and select suitable control parameters for optimum performance. which can analyse the requirements of a process under control. The alternative to this is an automatic control system. 2. Instrument set up is restricted to authorised users through multiple levels of security. Pneumatic and hydraulic controllers can also be found in industry. usually implemented electronically. A manual control system is one where the controller is a person.1 38-300 Process Controller The 38-300 is equipped with control algorithms for various types of control. Each of these features will be explained fully as it arises through the increasing use of the 38-300 in this and further assignments.

a closed-loop control system utilises an additional measure of the actual output.1 Control Systems Continued The diagram below shows the basic elements of a control system. without incorporating feedback.2. This is then compared to the desired output response. or reference input signal.2. it allows us to cope with a 38-930-M 2-3 . 2. which represent the measured values of the system. The term transmitter is used to describe the action of the measurement element when it sends signals to the controller. These signals can be very diverse. mechanical. so that the difference is continually reduced The notion of feedback exists in everyday life.2 Closed and Open Loop Control An open-loop control system utilises a controller or control actuator in order to obtain the desired response. A feedback control system often uses a prescribed function between the output and reference input to control the process. The flow of information between these elements can be seen. In contrast to an open-loop control system. For instance we use visual feedback to walk. for example electrical. etc. Feedback not only gives verification of our actions. The input-output relationship of the system is only the cause and effect relationship of the output from the controller and the plant. sensors (measurement elements) and instrumentation are needed to provide information about the plant status to the controller. 2. Often the difference between the output of the process under control and the reference input is amplified and used to control the process. The measure of the output is called the 'feedback signal'.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation In addition. pneumatic. The information that is passed between the controller and the plant is in the form of signals. A control system can be open-loop or closed-loop. detectors.

the system is called a regulator. The input is a reference level of fluid that the operator is instructed to maintain. Feedback gives an automatic control system the ability to deal with unexpected disturbances and changes in the plant behaviour. Automation is often used for processes that were previously operated by humans. The power amplifier is the operator and the sensor is visual. adaptive. In its modern usage. 2. since some tasks are best carried out by humans. In fact. semi-automated (hybrid. robust. The operator views the level of fluid through a port in the side of the tank. This reference is memorised by the operator. One example of a regulator control system is the speed-control system on the ac generators of power utility companies.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation changing environment by adjusting our actions in the presence of unforseen events and changing conditions. 2. The operator compares the actual level with the desired level and opens or closes the valve (actuator) to adjust the flow and hence maintain the desired level. and in less time.Classes Control systems are sometimes divided into two classes. automation can be defined as a technology that uses programmed commands to operate a given process. The purpose of this control system is to maintain the speed of the generators at the constant value that results in the generated voltage 2-4 38-930-M . still exist. Feedback has similar advantages when applied to automatic control.1 Automatic Control Systems . than humans are able to do. or human-robot) processes that incorporate human workers and robots (computer controlled machines) and manually controlled systems. able to learn about a process.3 Automatic Control Systems The control of an industrial process by automatic rather than human means is called automation. most automated systems are capable of performing their functions with greater accuracy and precision. If the object of the control system is to maintain the physical variable at some constant value in the presence of disturbances.3. and can optimise control. This kind of automation is provided by the digital PID process controller Commander 350. When automated. combined with feedback of information to determine that the commands have been properly executed. the process can operate without human assistance or interference. However. A manually controlled closed-loop system for regulating the level of fluid in a tank uses negative feedback. Modern control systems are self-organising.

Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation having a frequency of 50 Hz in the presence of varying electrical power loads. A valve is located in the tank inlet to vary the flow rate. Different types of control can be carried out by the Process Controller (38-300). or track. The second class of control systems is the servomechanism (sometimes called a Kinetic control system). Although this term was originally applied to a system that controlled a mechanical position or motion. All types are covered thoroughly in their own assignments. in which the robot 'hand' is made to follow some desired path in space. it is now often used to describe a control system in which a physical variable is required to follow. and by doing this you will gain an insight into the types of control that are available. An example of this type of system is an automatic landing system. but an introduction to each is given in this theory. The process being supplied requires a constant head of liquid and so a control system is required to keep the tank level constant. A tank is holding liquid to feed a process. The diagram below illustrates the situation. A second example is the control systems of a robot. some desired time function. 38-930-M 2-5 . Each type is shown by applying it to a simple level control problem. in which the aircraft follows a 'ramp' trajectory to the desired touchdown point. depending on the requirements of the process and the desired output. Another example of a regulating process control system is the biological system that maintains the temperature of the human body at approximately 36oC in an environment that usually has a different temperature.

It is simple and will work well. feedforward control will not be successful. Although feedforward control is an improvement over open-loop operation. the correct position of the handwheel can be determined by examining the calibration curve for the new flow.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation 2. a more reasonable approach is to produce calibration curves for a number of outflow rates.3 Feedforward Control The major cause of disturbances affecting the tank level is likely to be changes in the tank outflow rate. it does have disadvantages that restrict its usefulness. then the level will fall. By monitoring the outflow rate. The handwheel is then adjusted to keep the tank at the required level. the handwheel can be changed to increase or decrease the flow until the new level is reached.3. An increased outflow will cause the tank level to drop. Another is that the process may vary with time. Under these circumstances. outflow and level.3. provided there is no change in the outflow of the liquid. or disturbances occur that are not included in the calibration curves or are not monitored. if a different level is required. There is no electrical or mechanical feedback path. Therefore. if the valve is closed a little so that more water is going out than is coming in. These must be accurate for the process to function correctly. Now. Conversely. If the valve is opened a little more. If the outflow is constant. This technique is Feedforward Control. so that more water is coming into the tank than is going out. This method is Open-Loop Operation. One of these disadvantages is the calibration curves between the handwheel position.2 Open-loop Operation The simplest strategy is to calibrate the inlet valve. 2. a position of the handwheel can be found that keeps the level constant. so the system is open loop. and requires a measurement of the outflow rate in order to calculate the change in the position of the inlet valve. By experimentation. then the level will rise. 2-6 38-930-M . a relationship between tank level and position of the handwheel can be obtained. but feedback is being provided through the user. He/she is deciding if the actual level is above or below the desired level. and all other parameters affecting the level in the tank remain constant. and adjusting the actuator accordingly.

Common control law types are the P-type (proportional). The relationship between the error and the control effort is called the control law. Feedback level control does require a more elaborate level measurement technique. that is. the inlet valve is adjusted by an amount dependent on the difference between the actual level and the desired level. PI.3.e a level transmitter). The diagram below illustrates how this may be implemented for the situation described earlier. or a combination of these. Feedback control is error driven in that the control effort is a function of the difference between the desired and the actual levels. An appropriate control law must be designed or selected to produce a satisfactory performance.3. 2. the obvious solution to keep the level in the tank constant. and an accurate valve actuator. It also requires a signal related to the actual level (i. the valve actuator must be able to hold the valve in any position. However. If it deviates from the desired value. it can produce small as well as large corrections. and to also change its position gradually and smoothly.4 Feedback Control We could carry out more measurements to compensate for the errors that can occur in feedforward control. 38-930-M 2-7 . The important characteristic of feedback control is that it is capable of providing a range of control effort. In addition. This control strategy is called Feedback Control.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation 2. PID. is to monitor the level itself.5 Control Law The control law represents the action of the controller. ie. I-type (integral) and D-type (derivative).

it switches the control effort between two extremes. The switch produces a binary (on/off) signal that indicates whether the level is above or below the desired value. The control law in on/off control is kept simple. there are several problems associated with on/off control. 2. The body responds to a difference in temperature by perspiring. depending on the sign of the error. then control action will be applied to correct the situation.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation Examples of feedback control systems can be found in nature. the inlet valve is closed. However. is that if the magnitude of the error becomes too large. Another characteristic of this system. the environment tends to vary the body temperature. This control system has one characteristic that control systems designed by humans do not often have : it normally operates in a satisfactory manner for seventy years or more. The signal can then be used to operate the inlet valve directly. provided the deviation is large enough to activate the switch. one of which is the temperature-control of the human body. Generally. it is opened.3. and so on. by shivering. This control system attempts to maintain the body temperature at a constant value. and when below. mounted at the desired level. Monitoring can now be carried out by a float switch.6 On/Off Feedback Control A simplification of the general feedback control type is On/Off Feedback Control. The diagram below illustrates the control method in the context of the equipment set-up. by increasing or decreasing blood flow. either above the desired level or below it. the system fails. The level in our example would now only have two states. Whatever the cause of the change in level. 2-8 38-930-M . By using on/off control our equipment requirements have been simplified. and one that is usually present in control systems that we design. When the level is above the reference value.

The answer is not just to make the switch quick and sensitive as this can lead to unnecessary switching caused by waves or ripples. Linking the 38-300 to a computer is accomplished by completing this practical. the easier it will be to maintain). and so on. With lengthy delays. and explains the control panel and how it functions. health and safety (how dangerous is an overflow of the process in question?). 2. Practical 2 considers the 38-300 in much greater detail. It is possible to use more than one 38300 if a practical demands it.4 Practical 1 : Serial Communication Practical 1 will take you through the steps that must be carried out before you can attempt any practical that uses the Process Controller (38-300) and a personal computer together. Step 3 deals with the parameters that must be set up in the 38-300 to allow it to communicate with your personal computer. Steps 1 and 2 concern the physical link between the 38-300 and your personal computer. and in such a case the controllers form a chain from the computer. The type of control chosen for a particular situation will depend on the accuracy required. degree of human intervention required. if they are set up incorrectly the 38-300 will not understand the messages being sent by your personal computer. overflow could occur if the valve is not shut as soon as the desired level is reached. It is sufficient just to follow them for now. the inlet valve and the rate of change of flow.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation One problem concerns the abrupt fluctuations in flow as the valve switches between fully open and fully closed. These four amount to the 'language' that is being spoken. The reason for keeping this in a separate practical is that it can now be referenced at any time very easily. and that the 38-300 is terminated correctly. disturbances expected and the degree of disturbance rejection expected. maintenance (the simpler the system. Another problem is that the precision of on/off control depends heavily on delays associated with the switch. 38-930-M 2-9 . cost of equipment. It is vital that these steps are completed successfully to allow the 38-300 to communicate with your personal computer. the type of parity checking and the block check character enable (the last two are both error checking facilities). Although you may not fully understand all of the steps yet they will become clear in the next practical. They ensure that the cable supplied to link the two devices is connected to the correct ports. the identity of the 38-300 (to allow more than one to be used). This is when the termination of the serial lines is important. but this practical must be completed first. The parameters are the speed of communication (or Baud rate).

2-10 38-930-M .Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation 2.4. although it includes steps that are not only hardware links (wires and plugs and the like) but parameter assignments in the 38-300.1 Patching Diagram This practical has no patching diagram as its aim is to get you familiar with the procedure that must be followed before any other practical that uses the 38-300 Controller. Essentially the completed practical is the patching diagram for serial communication.

Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation

2.4.2 Practical Step 1: Link There is a serial lead supplied with your equipment to connect the Process Controller (38300) to your computer. This is plugged into the port marked RS-232 on the rear of the 38300 and to a COM Port on the rear of your computer. An adapter is commonly used to change the 25-way connector to a 9-way connector that many modern computers use. Step 2: Termination There are two switches on the rear of the 38-300, marked Termination and Connection, that deal with the communication lines to the 38-300. You will be using it as a single controller linked to your computer, so both of these switches must be ON. Step 3: Serial Parameters Plug the 38-300 power lead into one of the ac supply sockets on the rear of the Process Interface (not the switched ac supply), turn both on and observe the LED Displays. 2.4.3 Practical – Setting the Serial Parameters Press and hold the Page Advance and the Increase buttons together for three seconds. It is helpful to press the Page Advance button first, then with another finger, press the Up button. Parameter Advance Button

Up Button until the RED 38-300 LED display shows LEV.6. User interface of the controller is divided into a number of levels. Each level contains a number of related parameters that can be adjusted. Pressing those two buttons together sets the controller on the first of the configuration levels, the Basic Configuration level. Press the Raise button to increase to higher levels. Press the Raise button seven times until LEV.d, the Serial Configuration Level is displayed. If a higher level is selected, press the Lower button. Raise Button

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Lower Button Use the Page Advance to move between individual parameter settings. Use the Up and Down buttons to adjust each parameter.

Up Button

Down Button Ensure that the controller is configured with the values shown in the below table. Parameter S.CFG Value 4 Description Whether 2 or 4 wire serial connection and baud rate. Value 4 indicates a 4 wire connection, running at 9600 baud. Parity error checking. Default is none. Unique address of this controller. This is defined as a part of the MODBUS protocol that the controller uses to communicate to the PC. This must be set to 2 if you are configuring a second controller.

PrtY Addr

none 1

When all parameters have been set, press the Alarm button:

Alarm Button Pressing this button will return you to the Operating Display where you can observe the Process Variable, Set Point and Controller Output.

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2.4.4 Questions 1. Why is it vital that this practical is completed before any others that involve the Process Controller (38-300) and a personal computer?

2. The first two steps deal with the physical link between the 38-300 and a computer, what does the third deal with? What would be the effect of incorrectly completing this step?

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2-13

To make small adjustments. or step up through a selection of parameters. Lower is used to decrease a parameter value or step down through a selection of parameters. Continued pressure on these buttons causes the rate of change of the displayed variable to increase.5 Practical 2 : Navigating the 38-300 The following diagram shows the configuration of the front control panel of the ABB Commander 350 controller.5. press the keys momentarily. The buttons used on the controller are described in more detail below. 2.1 Controller Controls Raise Lower Raise is used to increase a parameter value. 2-14 38-930-M .Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation 2.

When in automatic mode this facility is disabled. If a parameter has changed within a level. Up Down When the controller is in manual operation. each level containing a set of related parameters. since the output is calculated by the controller. When the controller is being configured.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Parameter Advance Controller Familiarisation The various configuration options are held in a number of different 'levels'. When a level has been selected. 38-930-M 2-15 . When the controller is in manual operation. a small M can be seen in the output display. pressing the Parameter Advance button will store the value within the controllers memory. In manual mode. Auto/Manual This button is used to change the controller operation mode between automatic and manual. pressing the Parameter Advance moves between different controller Frames within a level. these allow specific controller parameters to be changed. and the Raise and Lower buttons can be used to alter the control output. the displays automatically revert to control output (bottom display) and the process variable values (top display). as shown within the Process Variable Display. these buttons allow the changing of the controller output.

These concepts are explored and studied in future assignments and practicals.5. Key parameters include Proportional Band. while the configuration levels allow more sophisticated settings to be adjusted. 2. this button allows the controller user to acknowledge an alarm. operation levels and configuration levels.2. requiring user intervention.Operation The controller contains two types of Level.5. When the controller is being configured. 2. This section describes the controllers Operational Levels.2 Controller Levels . Operation levels allow the operator to change simple operational characteristics of the controller during normal functioning. whereas the next describes the controllers Configuration Levels.5.3 Level 3 : Set Points The Commander 350 has the ability to support a number of different Set Points.2 Level 2 : Tuning Allows the setting of important control parameters used to control a process. a state that a process may have entered into.2.5. Integral Action time and Derivative Action Time. 2. this button is used to return to the Operating Display.1 Level 1 : Operator Level Normal day to day operation of the controller.5. 2. 2-16 38-930-M .4 Level 4 : Alarm Trip Points Allows the configuration of conditions under which Alarms can occur. an alarm symbol will be seen within the bottom output panel. This Level is not explored within the software.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation Alarm During normal controller operation. This allows Set Point variables to be configured. depending upon which Control Template has been selected.2. When an alarm occurs. 2. giving the controller flexibility.2. This level should be accessed to manually adjust operating parameters.

3. For some PROCON practicals.Configuration Levels labelled 6 though E allow the controller to be configured. The type of mode depends entirely upon the type of actuators that are used in the PROCON rig.5. Analogue Inputs also allows the operator to configure the number of Decimal Places. allowing audible warnings to alert operators.5. The concept of an alarm is explored within a number of PROCON assignments.3. there are many controller settings that have to be configured through these level using the front panel of the controller. 2. Warning! Only change the configuration parameters if you are sure they need to be changed. choose the type of Control Output and set the Control Action. the Control Action setting is required to be changed. The Pressure Rig requires the setting of Direct Action. It also allows alarms to be associated to relays.5. do not change! 2. Control Action can be set to two different modes. the controller can be configured to use different types of signalling. 2. It is used in conjunction with special types of motorised valve. 2. operational Engineering Range. alarm trip level and hysteresis settings.2.5.3 Level 8 : Alarms Level 8 is dedicated to the setting up of Alarms.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG 2. For safety reasons.2 Level 7 : Analogue Inputs The controller is designed to be flexible. 38-930-M 2-17 Controller Familiarisation .3 Controller Levels .5 Level 5 : Valve Setup This level is not applicable to the PROCON training software. lending itself to a number of different control situations and needs. Changing the configuration parameters without fully understanding what they are may cause your controller to enter a state which is not compatible with the PROCON assignments and practicals! If you are in doubt. This level contains setting for alam type. amongst other settings. Direct Action or Reverse Action.3. rather than the controllers RS485 communications port. Subsequently.1 Level 6 : Basic Configuration The basic configuration level allows the operator to select a required Template.5.

2.5. One of the most important parameters in this level is the Modbus address.5.3.6 Level B : Operator Configuration In an industrial environment.5. it is useful to prevent access to the controller to those who do not require it.3. Provision is made to adjust the controller settings.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation The concept of an alarm is explored within a number of PROCON assignments. this level should rarely be accessed.3.7 Level C : Output Assignments The Commander 350 provides both Analogue (Proportional) and Digital (On/Off) Outputs. such as what should occur following a power failure and the defining of controller Output limits. Local/Remote Set Point key and the Alarm Acknowledge Key.5.5 Level A : Control Configuration Level A contains general controller configuration settings. 2. Since the PROCON Process Rigs only use a small fraction of the controllers overall abilities. 2.5. and the baud rate. to be configured.5.3.4 Controller Documentation The following documentation is supplied with the controller: • 2-18 User Guide 38-930-M . this is particularly important. 2. 2. This level allows the selection of set points and the choosing of local or remote set points in process control. This level allows the output facilities of the controller to be configured. such as the Auto/Manual key. The Operator Configuration level allows the enabling or disabling of certain keys.3.5.4 Level 9 : Set Points The Commander 350 supports 4 different set points. 2. 2. It also allows Set Point Tracking. Within safety critical systems and processes. a useful control facility to start and stop processes.9 Level E : Calibration The controller is calibrated before it is used in the Procon system.8 Level D : Serial Communication Setting of the type of serial cable used.3. This level is described in the previous practical. This level is described for completeness and should not have be to accessed.

so that the 38-300 and your computer are able to communicate. and the use of a personal computer and the controller together. 38-930-M 2-19 .5. followed by the main operating display. show the version of the controller operating system that is installed and the date. When the controller is running in manual operation mode. The user guide is especially useful. When the 38-300 is switched on it will perform a self-test. press the: Automatic/Manual Button If the Process Controller is not set to manual mode. its keys and displays. 2. since it describes each level in detail. To begin. 2. Always ensure that the controller has been set to Manual mode before a practical is started.6 Practical Set up the Process Controller (38-300) in exactly the same way as you did in the first practical. Please go through that practical again if you are unsure.5. the controller will not accept new settings from the computer. ensure that the controller is set in Manual operation mode. this practical has no patching diagram. its parameters and pages. parameters can be set using the front panel or by the computer.5 Patching Diagram In a similar way to the previous practical. Its aim is for you to become familiar with the Commander 350 controller.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG • Modbus Communication Guide Controller Familiarisation It is useful to reference these manuals when carrying out practicals involving the controller. To change the controller operation mode.

Using the previous instructions. return to the top of the level (LEV. Use the Up and Down to move between individual parameters. Pressing Auto/Manual will disable this facility. showing Auto operation.5. Press Parameter Advance twice more to move to the first level of the configuration displays. The output can be decreased and increased with Lower and Raise.0. changing a number of key parameters. and press Parameter Advance once to display output.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG 2. When the transmission has finished (after approximately 2 seconds) the box will close.2). Press the Parameter Advance to return to the main operating display. Press Page Advance and then Enter to return to the operating page. Press the Raise button so LEV.1 Step 1 : Configuration Setting 1 Pressing the button below to begins to transmit commands from the controller from the computer. The LED is off.2 is displayed. 2. Controller Familiarisation 2-20 38-930-M .5. record the same parameters as you did earlier and compare the two sets of values. Press and hold the Parameter Advance keys on the control panel until CodE is displayed.6.2 Step 2 : Configuration Setting 2 Press the below button to transmit a different configuration to the controller. Check this. Record all the settings within this level. and change to level 1. When you have done. A dialog box will appear when the transmission is proceeding.6. This is the tuning level. the operating level. shown by OP 100. the output is set automatically.

As well as saving time and effort. and the information given in the background to this practical (2) on computer initialisation.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation 2. of what type are the process inputs and outputs of the Process Controller (38-300)? What input signals does the 38-300 accept? 2. what is another advantage of using a computer to initialise the 38-300 before attempting a practical? 38-930-M 2-21 . and so how many variables can be controlled? 3. Considering the operations carried out before the parameters on the Control and Set Point pages were recorded.7 Questions 1. What is the major restriction when using the 38-300 controller in terms of monitoring process variables? What sort of control can be implemented using this controller.5. When controlling the PI. what do you suggest is the reason for the differences in the two sets of parameter values recorded? 4.

is you. manually controlling its operation. and the Up/Down keys will carry out the same function as the current source control knob on the PI.6. and the measurement section is also you watching the level in the tank. and it is a very simple matter to set the level of the tank. 2. Um.6. This ensures that the plant is operating steadily at the desired operating point at the instant of switching. The controller output will then be adjusted until the deviation between set-point and actual operating point is zero. changing the output at will. Here the manual control effort.2 Bumpless Transfer between Automatic and Manual Control When switching control modes (manual-auto or auto-manual) a problem can arise when the automatic set-point and the measured operating point are not equal. 2. It introduces a number of basic features of the controller. including manual control of controller output and the use and purpose of alarms. Disturbance is normally included in this sort of situation to account for any fluctuations that are out of your control (environmental changes can affect the flow for example). The 38-300 will take the place of the current source on the Process Interface (PI). where the automatic set-point is adjusted until it is equal to the required operating point.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation 2.6 Practical 3 : Using the 38-300 In this practical you shall make use of some of the facilities of the Process Controller (38300) that are available for different modes of control.1 Manual Control Initially you will control the output of the 38-300 using the Up and Down keys on the control panel. and the controller switched to auto mode. 2-22 38-930-M . The actuator is the servo valve. As the assignments develop. Normally a controller will start in manual mode. This practical is kept simple. You will be the operator of the process. so too will the use of the 38-300 and more of its full capacity shall be seen.

On the control panel of the Commander 350. This is slightly anomalous as there will be a (possibly large) deviation and an incorrect setpoint. and the automatic controller will attempt to correct this. Although bumpless transfer is available on modern controllers.3 Alarms The ABB Commander 350 like other industry process controllers. a Trip Level and a Hysteresis setting. but it has prevented bumps. an alarm will be triggered. • • • • High or Low Process Value High or Low Output High or Low Deviation High or Low calculated mathematical value The trip level is the level of the selected type that should trigger the alarm. the plant will continue at its desired operating point (with no bump). alarm A can be set to 'high output' with a trip level of 80%. Each alarm can be assigned a Type.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation If the actual operating point is changed (using the manual controls) but the set-point is not. When using the 38-300. is capable of triggering alarms should certain predefined conditions be met. when the plant has reached steady state and is switched to auto there will be a deviation (because the measured operating point is not equal to the set-point). if there is a deviation between the desired operating point (as set by the manual controls) and the automatic set-point at the time of switching from manual to auto. For example. rather than rely on this facility. which is a facility most modern controllers include. if the manual output control is not equal to the actual automatic controller output. it is good engineering practice to ensure no deviation in operating points (automatic set-point and actual measured operating point) before switching modes. 38-930-M 2-23 . an alarm LED will appear in green at the bottom of the middle LED display. The way to avoid this is to employ automatic bumpless transfer.6. Each alarm can be programmed separately. The alarm Type describes the situation that the alarm is watching for and it can be one of the following. numbered 1 through to 8. 2. Up to 8 different alarms can be used. The same effect can occur when switching from auto to manual. If the output of the Controller is increased to 80% or above. The LED will flash to show that an alarm has been triggered but not acknowledged. This will cause a bump and will drive the plant away from the operating point set manually by the operator.

press the Raise keys to move to LEV. Note particularly the tyP.n setting. Do not worry about understanding them all.4. All available parameters are described in the table below for completeness. press and hold the Raise key to move to the higher configuration levels. the alarms level. With the tyP. Use the Up and Down keys to observe the parameters 2. and the control output is too low. Press and hold the Parameter Advance key to change to the configuration mode. The alarm level is situated at level 8. as shown by the display AL_S. The output must move into the safe region by an amount equal to the hysteresis setting.1. The hysteresis setting is operational when an alarm is active. and the hysteresis setting is 5%.5% hysteresis setting) before the alarm is turned off. Finally. but it must decrease below 75% (80% trip level . change the setting by pressing the Raise and Lower keys.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation The hysteresis setting is another way of checking process parameters. the alarm settings can be seen on the Alarms Trip Point page. indicated by the letters HO. Only a small fraction of the available alarm types are used. then press the button again twice to move to LEV. Use the controls on the controller to view the parameters that can be set at this level. and it is specified as a percentage or in engineering units. the operational level. When you are carrying out this practical.4. This manual control practical uses alarms to indicate control output that is too high.1 parameter displayed.4 Configuring Alarms The practical requires the operator to configure two of the controllers alarms. When the display shows LEV. alarm A has been triggered by the output of the controller increasing above 80%. The output is lowered.6. It is best shown with the above example. where n refers to the alarm number. 2-24 38-930-M . after the alarms have been set. indicated by LO.

Press and hold the Parameter Advance key to change to the configuration mode. can be set using the Alarms Trip Point page. Programmable mathematical calculations. the trip levels for all alarms that have been enabled. then press the button again twice to move to LEV. When all alarms have been configured. Always remember that the alarm settings can be found at Level 8. high and low settings. select the practical page to begin to use and configure the controller.6. Since the alarms are used in a number of different ways. High and Low Process Variable values High and Low Latch Process Variable High and Low Deviation High and Low Input values. Finally.5 Alarm Settings Display NONE HPU and LPU HLP and LLP Hd and Ld HPn and LPn HO and LO Description No alarm currently assigned. 38-930-M 2-25 . press the Raise keys to move to LEV. the operational level. This prevents the likelihood of software accidentally changing the alarm operation that could be used to indicate potentially hazardous process states.4. potentially used to prevent actuators going beyond preset limits. Lbn and Hbn Alarms are set either by using the front panel or by the ABB configurator software. rather than using the main serial communications link for security purposes. where n refers to different inputs High and Low Process Output settings. the alarms level. If no alarms have been enabled. they will be have to be reconfigured during a number of practicals. no parameters can be changed. Use the Up and Down keys to observe the parameters.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation 2. Now that alarms are familiar.1.

Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation

2.6.6 Patching Diagram

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2.6.7 Practical Please ensure that you have completed the first practical! Set up the process equipment as shown in the patching diagram. Ensure that the controller is set to manual operation. You can change the mode of operation by pressing the Automatic/Manual button on the front of the controller. Step 1 : Resetting the Controller Initialise the 38-300 by clicking on the Setup button below to set the controller to some default operation values. Step 2 : Configuring Alarms For safety and security reasons, the controller alarms have to be set manually. Press the Page Advance button to go to the operational setting level, LEV.1, then press the Raise button until LEV.8 is displayed. When on Level 8, set the following parameters: Parameter tyP.1 trP.1 Hy5.1 tyP.2 trP.2 Hy5.2 Value LO 40.0 40.0 HO 80.0 20.0 Description Alarm 1 Type: Controller Output Low Alarm 1 Trip Level Alarm 1 Hysteresis Alarm 2 Type: Controller Output High Alarm 2 Trip Level Alarm 2 Hysteresis

Step 3 : Manual Control using the Controller Switch on the pump (with the ac supply switch on the front of the PI). Open all manual valves. Note that the output value has been set to 50%. Increase and decrease the output by pressing the Up and Down keys. Use the whole range of output; 0%-100%. What is the DDM showing? What are the units of the output being displayed by the 38-300? Notice the operation of the alarms. Experiment with the Alarm Acknowledge button, and consider how it works. Use LEV.4, the Alarm Trip Points level to adjust the trip level and observe the alarm behaviour. Try changing the hysteresis value using LEV.8.
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Change the operation of the controller between automatic and manual mode by pressing the Automatic/Manual button. When you have finished, turn off the pump, return to LEV.8 and set all alarm types to NONE so you are ready for the next practical.

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and when using it. 38-930-M 2-29 .8 Questions 1. (f) A pedestrian crossing with traffic lights. split the following into Automatic Control and Manual Control: (a) A heater with a thermostat. what is a 'bump' and what are the conditions that would cause a bump? What steps should be carried out to prevent bumps. (h) A petrol-driven lawnmower once it has been turned on.6. and what facility is available on modern controllers to prevent bumps? What is the anomalous situation that can occur if care is not taken when transferring modes in a modern controller? 3. Hysteresis.Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Familiarisation 2. Considering what you have learnt in this and previous assignments about automatic and manual control systems. (g) A washing machine once it is turned on. (e) Traffic lights at a road junction. is the difference between the switchon level and the switch-off level of the variable assigned to the alarm. (d) A burglar alarm which has been set. (b) A refrigerator. (c) Filling a bath tub. what can be said about the variable as it moves inside the trip level? 2. with regard to the 38-300 alarms. When transferring between modes of the 38-300. Did you find your experimental results were the same as the values set up in the controller? When is hysteresis operational.

Chapter 2 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Notes Controller Familiarisation 2-30 38-930-M .

its settings and how to read data from the controller using the Discovery software Qty Apparatus 1 1 Prerequisite Assignments Knowledge Level 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller Equipment Required Controller Familiarisation None 38-930-M 3-1 .Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Calibration 3 Controller Calibration Objective To further explore the 38-300 process controller.

Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Calibration

3.1

Theory

3.1.1 Controller Calibration As discussed in the previous assignment, the ABB Commander 350 Process Controller used within the 38-300 is a universal digital microprocessor-based single loop programmable controller, which can measure, display and control temperature, pressure, liquid level, flow and other process parameters. The 38-300 accepts a large variety of input signal types: • • • • • Thermocouple (THC) Resistance thermometer (RTD) Linear voltage or current Resistance Non-linear voltage or current from temperature transmitters

In your case, since the 38-300 communicates with the PI, its process inputs and control outputs are of the 4-20 mA loop current type. The 38-300 features local, remote or dual set-point, and retransmission of the set-point or process variable. In addition, according to user requirements, there are logic inputs and time proportioned, voltage activated relays, labelled n.o (normally open) and n.c (normally closed). The ABB Commander controller is equipped with control algorithms for various types of control which were mentioned earlier. These will be illustrated in later assignments so that you become familiar with the full capabilities of the 38-300. The 38-300 contains analogue to digital and digital to analogue converters. The sample time of these devices must be faster than the dynamics of the process for the controller to operate the system reliably. The sample time of the 38-300 for both converters is 125 ms, which is much faster than any dynamics that exist in this process; fluids, pipes, tanks, pumps and servo valves are relatively slow elements in terms of time response and disturbance introduction. This assignment introduces you to further elements of the 38-300 controller, including calibration and they key to many PROCON assignments, the chart recorder.

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Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Calibration

3.1.2 Practical Controller The task of a controller is to maintain the desired system performance despite any disturbances in the system. Controllers are usually implemented electronically, either using analogue circuits, or a digital computer (microprocessor). However pneumatic and hydraulic controllers are still in use. In process control, it is unusual to design a specific controller for a particular plant, because the dynamics of the plant are uncertain and often very dependent on operating conditions. Therefore, a general purpose controller is normally implemented, which has a number of variable parameters that can be set to meet the static and dynamic requirements of the control system. The static characteristics of a system are independent of time and the response of the system depends only on the inputs. The dynamic characteristics of a system depend on both time and inputs. Various types of general purpose controllers exist, and each can be characterised by its actions and methods of controlling a system. 3.1.3 General Process Controllers A block diagram of a General Process Control System is shown below:

This shows the plant, and some means of measuring a process variable. This measured variable is fed back to the controller to determine how well the system is operating. With the addition of the feedback loop it has now become a closed loop system. The controller will compare the measured output and the desired output (the Set Point) to determine the control effort. Um is the manual input, and the manual/auto switch can also be seen.
38-930-M 3-3

Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Calibration

With the switch in the manual position the control law has been disconnected from the process plant and the system is controlled by the operator only (a manual control system, the type of control we have been implementing so far). With the switch in the automatic position the control law is added to the manual input and this will determine the behaviour of the process. The process can now be controlled automatically, provided it is given desired operating levels. An automatic controller cannot determine how to control a process, it can only carry out desired control, determined by a third party, you. We shall be carrying out various types of feedback control in later assignments. 3.1.4 Digital Control Systems The use of digital computers for the control and monitoring of processes is becoming increasingly important. Digital computers offer improved performance, better management of a process, reliability, flexibility, reduced cost and can perform complex calculations that could not be done by other analogue means. Powerful software development tools (programming languages for instance) which can be run on digital computers, result in reduced development costs for computer-based control systems. A number of digital single loop controllers can be used (an example of one of these controllers being the 38-300), each carrying out the feedback control of a single variable in a multi-variable process. These controllers are called the slave controllers and are coordinated by a digital controller called the master. A master controller sends set point information to the slave controllers and receives back information on the measured variables. This type of control is called set point control and a major benefit of this type of control is that even in the event of a master controller failure, the individual slave controllers will continue to operate, and with these operating the process should continue to run. The other type of computer control is called Direct Digital Control (DDC). DDC as the name implies, uses digital controllers to determine the actual control effort applied to the process or plant. The digital controllers are microprocessor-based single loop or multi-loop controllers that control a single- or multi-variable plant, in place of the old analogue, mechanical or pneumatic controllers.

3-4

38-930-M

This method has the advantage of familiarity with the analogue concepts and terminology. A digital to analogue converter (DAC) must be included between the controller output and the plant input. However. The drawback of this method is that during discrete time (i. so that the digital approximation will produce similar results to the conventional analogue controller. The control law in the discrete time example is implemented digitally.5 Digital Control Law The digital control law of a process that determines the control effort can be obtained from two completely different design techniques.1. The controller you are provided with is a single loop. a major disadvantage is to restrict the vast capabilities of digital computers due to the digital approximation of the analogue controllers having limited capabilities. The other method for the design of digital controllers is to design directly in discrete time. digital controller. 38-930-M 3-5 . but the plant is a continuous analogue system. during the sample times) very good control may be achieved. The simple method is to approximate the analogue control law with a discrete time control law. and as such they will not concern you through your practicals. Consequently it must be much faster than the process dynamics. Design techniques must be must be accurate and thorough to encompass such eventualities. but between samples the controlled variable is effectively in the open loop condition and may oscillate. In essence we implement the existing analogue controller with a digital controller. The DAC and ADC are integral parts of the controller.e.Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Calibration 3. The sampling rate fs of the DAC and ADC will determine how the controller copes with oscillation and fluctuations. The two block diagrams show the analogue and digital discrete time controllers and how they differ. and a corresponding analogue to digital converter (ADC) between the plant output and the comparator in the feedback path.

As well as displaying variables in real time the chart recorder has the facility to record a curve. press the Record button: When pressed.1. If you try to quit the environment or start another practical without ending the recording. This provides several facilities for you to monitor process variables in conjunction with the controller. Controller Calibration 3.Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG 3. indicating at at any time the recording can be saved.7 Recording The chart recorder can naturally take a recording of an entire process. This can be found within the menu tree.6 Chart Recorders In this assignment you a chart recorder will be seen for the first time.1. the recorded process data will not be saved. button will change into a 'disk' icon. 3-6 38-930-M . The recorded files can then be selected and replayed using the playback practical. To begin a recording. The disk icon is shown as follows: The data logging environment must be set up correctly before running the Discovery Procon Recorder. The chart recorder is used to display a representation of changing analogue signals that are presented to the controller.

This allows you to load in a file from a disk. a disk icon will be shown. Load allows the loading of recorded data from disk: Controller Calibration Pause will halt the chart recorder: Clear will clear the current curve from a recorder: Ghost will display a faint frozen curve from the instant that the button is pressed. When the 'on/off line' button is pressed.Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG 3. disconnects the recorder from the controller. in effect.8 Playback The playback of a recorded trace can be performed by taking the chart recorder 'off-line'. 38-930-M 3-7 . allowing you to load a previously saved trace set. This.1. The scrollbar can be used for moving forwards and backwards through the replayed trace.

As mentioned in the Interface Calibration Assignment this calibration should now be carried out before every practical that uses the 38-300. settings for the span and zero parameters of its inputs. so that a record of the calibration history of any instrument will always be available. 3-8 38-930-M . stored in its memory. with the known value or level of the parameter. but because the 38-300 has been calibrated to a level of accuracy much greater than most meters readily available to you. and you may reset these to ensure the 38-300 is accurately calibrated. as measured by a standard instrument of known accuracy. measurements are carried out to monitor process parameters and to determine the control effort that should be applied when controlling a process. Such measurements ensure the correct operation of the process system. its accuracy will be either inside. the accuracy of these measurements must be guaranteed by proper calibration of the controller used. Before beginning this practical. make sure that your process interface is switched on so that the 38-300 controller is powered up. When a process controller is calibrated against a standard instrument. temperature. Because of this. If the controller's accuracy is outside the acceptable measurement limits. until they are within the specified measurement limits. not because it does not need to be accurate.Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG 3. It has. pressure) present during the calibration process. 3. Calibration guarantees that the accuracy of the input or output reading in a calibrated controller will be at a certain acceptable level.2. when used under the environmental conditions (eg. or outside that required by the application measurement accuracy limits. and so the accuracy of the instrument will vary to a greater or lesser extent according to its susceptibility to the modifying inputs inherent in the new environmental conditions. characteristics may change. The more often it is carried out the more familiar you will become with the importance of calibration and the need to carry it out before every practical. as shown by the controller being calibrated.1 Calibration Check of the Process Controller There is no need to actually calibrate the controller in this practical. then its characteristics should be adjusted by the zero and span parameters provided. humidity.2 Practical 1 : 38-300 Calibration Controller Calibration With reference to the 38-300. Bear in mind that all calibration and measurement procedures should be documented. Outside those conditions. Calibration consists of comparing the measured value or level of a parameter.

Its aim is to show you where and how to reset the 38-300 analogue input configuration parameters. decimal point settings and engineering ranges to be configured. press and hold the Parameter Advance and press twice more to jump to the first level. The Commander 350 provides three analogue inputs. mV. Then press the Raise button until LEV.3 Perform Practical Now you have had experience of starting the initialisation process by clicking on an on screen button in the previous practical. when a practical is started.Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Calibration 3. allowing the controller to accept Thermocouple. you will check the analogue input settings of the 38-300 controller. mA and resistance signals.2. You will use the controllers keys to locate the specific parameters and reset them. to ensure that all measurements made with it are within a predefined level of accuracy. This is something that should be done before every practical using the 38-300. the Analogue Input Level allows the input type. Volts. Two analogue inputs are universally configurable. The third analogue input signal can only accept mA and mV signals. As mentioned in the background pages and the patching diagram associated with this practical. 3. Level 7. 38-930-M 3-9 . Resistance Thermometer.2. this shall be carried out automatically from now on.7 is displayed.2 Patching Diagram This practical has no patching diagram as it only deals with parameters of the 38-300. To go to the Analogue Input Level.

up and down.0 0.1 FLt. The Broken Sensor Drive is a setting that allows an action to be carried out if an invalid signal is received. Options include none.Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Calibration Parameter tyP.1 Value 2 1 100.H EN1.0 nonE 0 Description Input 1 Setting: 4 to 20 mA (Process Variable) Input 1 Decimal Places Input 1 Engineering Unit High Input 1 Engineering Unit Low Broken sensor drive.1 EN1. 3-10 38-930-M . This is to ensure that a sensible operation and potentially preventative operation is performed following a sensor failure. Ensure that the input settings for analogue inputs 2 and 3 are identical. Input values averaged over seconds.L bSd.1 dP.

Why is it unnecessary to calibrate the 38-300 in the same way that the current source on the Process Interface was calibrated? What devices would be needed to calibrate the 38-300 to an accuracy level greater than the one it has already been calibrated to? 38-930-M 3-11 .2.4 Questions 1.Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Calibration 3. What are the steps that make up the 38-300 pre-practical setup procedure? 2.

this may cause problems within the process that is being controlled. with its virtual instrumentation. The value you set on the control bar is displayed in the small upper window.3. potentially causing a dangerous situation. known as CRC for short. variables monitored by the 38-300 can be displayed by your computer. your computer can also ask for a parameter from the process controller. Since the communication is two way. As well as the chart recorder displaying a parameter graphically.1 Virtual Instrumentation This practical will take the output from the current source on the PI and use it as a process variable input to the 38-300 controller. to record and chart process variables automatically. 3-12 38-930-M . If they do not match. In this way. In control systems. Both of these display facilities are shown in the practical. providing a virtual chart recorder allowing the value of the current as to be observed as you vary it by hand. and this value is sent to the 38-300. The signal returned to the computer contains the a number of the parameter that has been set. This was discussed primarily in terms of oneway communication. the computer. When your personal computer sends a command to the 38-300 containing information about a particular parameter. The computer calculates the same checksum as the one that is transmitted from the controller. As the assignments develop and the need to monitor variables increases. If an error is present. this indicates that an error has occurred during transmission. 3. via the serial link. will play a greater and greater part. the 38-300 will acknowledge the reception of this data by sending a signal back to the computer. but it is in fact two-way.Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Calibration 3. rather than tell the 38-300 what a particular parameter should be. it is very important that the correct operational parameters are set and reported. you will then be familiar with a personal computer as a control tool in a process system. there is also a virtual control bar facility. Having completed it. This enables you to change a parameter value by varying the position of a bar with your mouse. This practical will demonstrate the read facility so that you will be familiar with it for later practicals.3 Practical 2 : Reading the 38-300 In the controller familiarisation assignment you were introduced to the concept of computer initialisation of the 38-300. Your personal computer will monitor this process variable continuously. along with a checksum called a cyclic redundancy check.

2 Patching Diagram 38-930-M 3-13 .3. depending on requirements Allow the user to directly alter parameters and observe their effect by observing the process or by monitoring the process variables using virtual instrumentation. Controller Calibration 3.Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The computer offers the following to the user: • • • It initialises the 38-300 by setting up a number of its parameters. It reads operational parameters. such as the set point and process variable. displaying them in a number of ways.

If an error occurs during initialisation. Vary the current source output from the PI and observe the response of the chart recorder onscreen. Try entering a number directly into the control and pressing return. The lower control bar is controlling the output of the 38-300. consider whether you need to adjust the 'level 7' settings you have checked within the previous practical. as read by the DDM. This output is being fed to the DDM. From your observations of the chart recorder. and the controller has been set up automatically. check the serial communication links and ensure that the controller is set to the manual operation mode.3. 3-14 38-930-M . Observe the change on the controller.Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Calibration 3. The window shows the control bar value. The upper control bar is controlling the set point level of the 38-300.3 Perform Practical The patching diagram corresponding to this practical should have been completed already. Ensure that the 38300 is showing the set point in the Green LED display. Change the setting of this control bar and observe the effect. Change this control bar setting and observe its effect on the set point level in the 38-300. This is recording the process variable input to the 38-300.

4 Questions 1. Why are there steps in the curve being drawn by the chart recorder? What are these steps dependent on? How could the size of the steps be reduced. and between whom. and what is the nature of the subservient relationship between controller and computer. include which direction communication is passing. 2.Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Calibration 3. In this practical you have met two virtual instruments that are used when controlling a process with your computer. What type of controller is the 38-300. 3.3. how could the curve be made smoother? 38-930-M 3-15 . Briefly outline the different facilities that a computer offers to process control.

Chapter 3 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Controller Calibration Notes 3-16 38-930-M .

Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-714 Pressure Process Rig 38-461 Pressure Transmitter 38-490 Digital Display Module Note .5 Metre Mercury Manometer or Digital Pressure Sensor (not supplied). Prerequisite Assignments Knowledge Level Familiarisation Equipment Required 38-930-M 4-1 . Optional Equipment: 0.The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air.Chapter 4 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 4 The Pressure Sensor and Transmitter Objective To calibrate the pressure sensor and pressure transmitter and to investigate the linearity and hysteresis of the sensor/transmitter.

Resolution of the Pressure Sensor is much finer than the Bourdon gauge that is designed for indication of approximate pressure only.Chapter 4 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 4. The Pressure Sensor may be calibrated to suit the operating range and datum required for a particular application. This feature will be used in later experiments to enable the level to be controlled automatically. For accuracy in operation.1 The Pressure Sensor and Transmitter A Pressure Sensor may be used to give a remote reading of pressure in a system. and hysteresis is small. a Pressure Sensor should be calibrated using a manometer or dead weight calibrator. Note that this characteristic will not apply to all Pressure Sensors used in process control. It is necessary to calibrate an electrical sensor (with its conditioning circuit) before use to provide an output that is meaningful.1.1 Theory 4. The sensor supplied has an output that changes linearly with change in pressure. 4-2 38-930-M .

2.1 Patching Diagram 38-930-M 4-3 .2 Practical 1: Pressure Sensor and Transmitter Calibration 4.Chapter 4 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 4.

Open valve V4. 4. the minimum required.Chapter 4 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 4. (Note that the connection is a 1/4 inch push-fitting).2. 5. Experimental Details: 3.2 Perform Practical Complete the connections as shown in patching diagram and set R1 and R2 to closed. With R2 closed. With R1 closed and the I/P Converter disconnected. 4-4 38-930-M .0 psi on gauge G5 or 414 mm on the manometer) by adjusting valve R2. the pressure in the system will be atmospheric (ie. Set the pressure in the system to the maximum required (10. The aim of this experiment is to calibrate the Pressure Sensor and Transmitter to give the following conditions. 0 psi on gauge G5 or 0 mm differential on the manometer). When the pressure is steady. If an accurate Manometer or Digital Pressure Gauge is available this may be connected underneath the Bourdon gauge (G5) to allow a more precise calibration to be performed. 1. Repeat the minimum and maximum settings until no further adjustments of the zero and span controls is required. the valve will remain open. V2 open and all other valves closed. adjust the span control on the Pressure Transmitter to give a reading of 20 mA or 100% on the Digital Display Module. Maximum pressure = 10 psi = 20 mA output from the Pressure Transmitter Note: The Pneumatic Control Valve is designed to open with lack of air. Use a small screwdriver or trim tool to adjust the zero control on the Pressure Transmitter to give a reading of 4 mA or 0% on the Digital Display Module. Minimum pressure = 0 psi = 4 mA output from the Pressure Transmitter. 2.

2.3 Results Table Pressure (psi) Rising Pressure Falling Percentage 38-930-M 4-5 .Chapter 4 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 4.

3. 4-6 38-930-M .3.Chapter 4 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 4. 1.3 Practical 2: Linearity and Hysteresis 4. Please refer the Familiarisation Assignment (Chapter 1) for more information. Adjust the pressure in the system in steps of 2 psi from 0 psi to 10 psi indicated on gauge G5. if using a Mercury Manometer. Alternatively. 4. Plot the pressure versus the output voltage to determine the linearity and hysteresis. Record the pressure and corresponding output from the Pressure Transmitter at each step. Repeat for reducing pressure in the system to investigate the hysteresis in the sensor. Caution !! Do not exceed a reading of 30psi on Gauge G5 as sensor damage could occur. Print out the blank table in the results table section to record your results. adjust the pressure in steps of 50 mm from 0 mm to 515 mm differential reading on the manometer. Perform further experiments by repeating the procedures outlined for different minimum and maximum pressures in the system. in the previous practical it is interesting to determine the linearity of the output over the operating range from minimum to maximum pressure. Note: 1 mmHg = 0.1 Perform Practical Having calibrated the Pressure Sensor and Transmitter.01934 psi 2.

Prerequisite Assignments Knowledge Level Familiarisation 38-930-M 5-1 .Chapter 5 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The I to P Converter 5 The I to P Converter Equipment Required Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller 38-714 Pressure Process Rig 38-490 Digital Display Module Note: The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air.

Note that this characteristic will apply to the majority of proportional control valves used in process control. Hysteresis is small. the equivalent of the 4 to 20 mA electronic signal is 3 psi to 15 psi.1 The I to P Converter A Pneumatic Control Valve requires a current to pressure converter to change the electrical signal from the control circuit to a corresponding pressure which can actuate the valve. In this pneumatic control system. 5-2 38-930-M .Chapter 5 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The I to P Converter 5. It is necessary to calibrate a current to pressure converter before use to provide the appropriate output to a Pneumatic Control Valve.1. The Pneumatic Control Valve should not be used in applications where total shut-off is required. An additional Isolating or Stop valve should be used.1 Theory 5. The I/P Converter provides a largely linear conversion from current input to pneumatic output.

V1. 20 mA to converter = 15 psi from converter(on G2) = Pneumatic Control Valve closed To set up the practical. which is designed is designed to open with lack of air with the following characteristics: 1. Calibration of the controller is not required. V2 & V4 Open 5. V5 & V6 Closed . 3. 4 mA to converter = 3 psi from converter (on G2) = Pneumatic Control Valve open 2.Chapter 5 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The I to P Converter 5. R2. Adjust R1 to give a reading of 25 psi on gauge G1 For this demonstration the 38-300 Process Controller will be used in Manual operation mode to operate the I/P Converter. 4. 38-930-M 5-3 . V3. This practical requires that the controller is switched on and correctly connected to the computer.2 Practical 1: The I to P Converter The aim of this experiment is to calibrate the I/P Converter to position the Pneumatic Control Valve. perform the following: Complete the connections shown in the patching diagram. R1.

Chapter 5 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The I to P Converter 5.2.1 Patching Diagram 5-4 38-930-M .

Chapter 5 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The I to P Converter 5. adjust valve R2 until a reading of 10 psi is indicated on gauge G5. Check the operation of the Pneumatic Control Valve. A small amount of air will leak past the valve seat and from the system. To perform the practical. Repeat the minimum and maximum settings until no further adjustments of the zero and span controls is required. all other valves should be closed. The Pneumatic Control Valve should be just fully closed. Note: The Pneumatic Control Valve is not designed to isolate totally when in the position. Remove the plastic stoppers which seal the zero and span adjusting controls on the I/P Converter. Observe that the pressure in the system falls to zero with the valve closed. This could be described as a braced position. 10. 11. 5. 3. 7. 9. Note the span control on the I/P Converter is called Range. 38-930-M 5-5 . carry out the following steps: 1.2. Replace the plastic stoppers on the zero and span controls. Adjust the output from the Process Controller to 100%. Valve V2 should be open. The below control emulates the one that can be accessed by the controls on the front of the controller. 40% and 60%) and observe the change in valve position and the change in pressure on gauge G5. Adjust the output from the controller to intermediate settings (eg. Adjust the span (range) control on the I/P Converter to give a reading of 15 psi on gauge G2. 2. 8. 4. 6. Adjust the output from the Process Controller to 100% by using the scrollbar. The Pneumatic Control Valve should be just on the point of starting to close.2 Perform Practical The controller will have been automatically initialised by starting this practical. With the output from the controller set to 0%. Adjust the zero output on the I/P Converter to give a reading of 3 psi on gauge G2.

Confirm that the corresponding output from the I/P Converter is 3 psi on gauge G2.1 Perform Practical The aim of the practical is to investigate the linearity and hysteresis of the I/P Converter. Reset the trainer to the initial settings as described in the previous practical. 5-6 38-930-M . Record the observations using the results table then plot the input versus the output for rising and falling inputs to determine the linearity and hysteresis of the I/P Converter. The small amount of air bleeding through the valve causes the float in the flow meter to attempt to lift very slightly and a clicking noise can be heard from the flow meter. Repeat for reducing inputs to the I/P Converter. Adjust the controller output from 0% to 100% in steps of 10% and record the corresponding pressure from the I/P Converter on gauge G2. 3. 4. adjusting of the Control Output variable will be performed.3 Practical 2: The I to P Converter Linearity and Hysteresis 5.3. 1. Ensure that the controller output is set to 0% (4 mA). 2. Note: The pressure gauge used to perform this experiment has a stated accuracy of only ±3% of full scale. 5. Close valve R2.Chapter 5 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The I to P Converter An Isolation or Stop Valve is required to completely remove leakage. 5. Like the previous practical.

2 Results Table Controller Output (%) Increasing G2 psi Decreasing G2 psi 38-930-M 5-7 .3.Chapter 5 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The I to P Converter 5.

Chapter 5 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The I to P Converter Notes 5-8 38-930-M .

Equipment Required 38-930-M 6-1 . Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller 38-714 Pressure Process Rig 38-461 Pressure Transmitter 38-490 Digital Display Module Note: The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air.Chapter 6 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pneumatic Control Valve 6 The Pneumatic Control Valve Objective To demonstrate manual operation of the Pneumatic Control Valve and to determine its characteristics (pressure/position).

Chapter 6 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pneumatic Control Valve 6.1 Theory 6. A 4-20 mA control signal may be used to open or close a valve to any intermediate position. As the pressure is increased. This facility to operate a valve remotely allows a process to be controlled automatically when the valve is connected to an appropriate sensor and controller. the relationship becomes less linear. 6-2 38-930-M . it is satisfactory for control purposes at the operating pressure suggested.1. Although the Pneumatic Control Valve supplied does not have a truly linear characteristic. The control valve must be carefully selected to give the correct characteristics over the normal range of operation.1 The Pneumatic Control Valve The plug-type valve provides a fine adjustment of flow through the valve and is ideal for the purpose of pressure control.

R2. V3 & V6 Closed.Chapter 6 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pneumatic Control Valve 6. Set R1. The Process Controller is factory calibrated in the following way: 1. Adjust R1 to give 25psi on gauge G1. Adjust R2 to give 10 psi on gauge G5 with the Pneumatic Control Valve open. V2.1 Settings To prepare for the practical. 0 psi at G5 produces 4mA from Pressure Transmitter. Set V1. Span 100% represents 20 mA input or output 2. This practical requires that the controller is switched on and correctly connected to the computer. The aim of this practical is to demonstrate how the valve may be opened or closed to any intermediate position using a 4-20 mA current and to obtain the characteristics of pressure versus position. 2. 6.2 Practical 1: Characteristics of the Pneumatic Control Valve The Pneumatic Control Valve comprises a plug type valve operated by a pneumatic actuator which receives a 3 to 15 psi pneumatic signal from a Current to Pressure Converter. 10 psi at G5 produces 20mA from Pressure Transmitter. The relationship between current input and corresponding process variable is relevant in control applications. 5. 4. 3. complete the following steps: 1. Calibration of the controller is not required. The most useful characteristic of the control valve is the relationship between current input to the I/P Converter and pressure in the process pipe downstream of the valve. Connect the equipment as shown in the patching diagram. Zero 0% represents 4 mA input or output The Pressure Sensor and Transmitter are calibrated in the following way: 3. representing 0% of range 4. representing 100% of range For this demonstration the 38-300 Process Controller will be used in Manual operation mode to operate the I/P Converter.2. 38-930-M 6-3 . V4 & V5 Open.

This is shown by the orange M displayed in the bottom LED display of the controller.2. 6.2 Patching Diagram 6-4 38-930-M .Chapter 6 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pneumatic Control Valve Before starting the practical ensure that all connections in the patching diagram have been carried out and the the controller is operating in manual mode.

4.3 Perform Practical The controller will have been automatically initialised by starting this practical.Chapter 6 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pneumatic Control Valve 6. 38-930-M 6-5 . 2. At each position of the valve record the corresponding pressure on the process variable display or chart recorder. Check that the maximum pressure is 100% on the process variable display of the controller (10 psi on gauge G5). Adjust the position of the valve in steps of 10% from 0% to 100% by adjusting the controller output manually. If not adjust R2. Close the Pneumatic Control Valve by setting the controller output to 100% (20mA). The Pneumatic Control Valve should now be fully open as the control output is 0%. Record the observations using the results table.2. Observe the bottom LED display which should show 0. Check that the process variable falls to 0% (0 psi on gauge G5). complete the following steps: 1. A control within the chart recorder emulates the one that can be accessed by the controls on the front of the controller and displays the value of the process variable. 3. Repeat the procedure for the valve opening in steps of 10% to determine any hysteresis. To perform the practical. 5.

4 Results Table Controller Output (%) Process Variable (%) 6-6 38-930-M .Chapter 6 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pneumatic Control Valve 6.2.

Adjust regulator R2 to give a reading of 12 psi on gauge G5 with the Pneumatic Control Valve fully open. eg. 2.3 Practical 2: Pneumatic Control Valve Characteristics at Different Pressure Ranges The aim of this practical is to demonstrate the change in characteristic when operated over a different range of pressures. 3. for the purpose of demonstration. 0 to 12 psi. the pressures may be read directly on gauge G5 to avoid the need for recalibration. 1.Chapter 6 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pneumatic Control Valve 6. However. Repeat the procedure from the previous practical but read the corresponding pressures directly on gauge G5. Observe the change in characteristic using the below chart recorder noting that the change from 10 psi to 12 psi operating pressure is a relatively small change. The Pressure Sensor may be recalibrated to operate over a different range. 38-930-M 6-7 .

Chapter 6 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG The Pneumatic Control Valve Notes 6-8 38-930-M .

38-930-M 7-1 . Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller 38-714 Pressure Process Rig 38-461 Pressure Transmitter 38-490 Digital Display Module Note: The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air.Chapter 7 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG System Response and the Air Receiver 7 System Response and the Air Receiver Objective Equipment Required To determine the system response with and without the Air Receiver by manually operating the Pneumatic Control Valve.

7-2 38-930-M .1 System Response and the Air Receiver Proportional adjustment of flow into the process pipe gives a steady pressure at the required value provided the process characteristics remain constant. Without the Air Receiver. ie a change in conditions in the system necessitates a corresponding change in valve position to maintain the pressure.1. disturbances cause the process variable to change very quickly.1 Theory 7. With the Air Receiver in series.Chapter 7 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG System Response and the Air Receiver 7. changes in process variable are much less fast. The Air Receiver has the effect of changing the response of the process (time constant). The Pneumatic Control Valve provides proportional adjustment of flow into the process pipe by remote operation using a 3-15 psi control signal.

2. V3. The Pressure Sensor and Transmitter are calibrated where 0 psi at G5 produces 4 mA from pressure transmitter. The Process Controller is factory calibrated where Span 100% represents 20 mA input or output and Zero 0% represents 4 mA input or output.2 Practical 1: System Response without the Air Receiver The current output from the Pressure Transmitter should be connected to the process variable input of the Process Controller to indicate the pressure in the process pipe as measured by the sensor. 38-930-M 7-3 . Adjust R1 to give 25 psi on gauge G1. R2. V1. 2. The changes may best be observed by watching the pressure indicated on gauge G5 (the digital changes on the process variable display may be too rapid to observe). 3. Before starting the practical ensure that all connections in the patching diagram have been carried out and the controller is operating in manual mode. The chart recorder which is found on the main practical page is used to give a clear indication of the responses. representing 100% of range. 7. Adjust R2 to give 10 psi on gauge G5 with Pneumatic Control Valve open. connect the equipment as shown in the patching diagram. representing 0% of range and 10 psi at G5 produces 20 mA from pressure transmitter. V2 & V4 Open. Before carrying out the practical. R1. This is shown by the orange M displayed in the bottom LED display of the controller. 4. V5 & V6 Closed. complete the following steps: 1.Chapter 7 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG System Response and the Air Receiver 7.1 Settings To prepare for the practical.

Chapter 7 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG System Response and the Air Receiver 7.2.2 Patching Diagram 7-4 38-930-M .

38-930-M 7-5 .Chapter 7 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG System Response and the Air Receiver 7.3 Perform Practical The object of the demonstration is to maintain the pressure of the air in the process pipe at a preset value.0) and note the corresponding process variable (pressure in the process pipe) on the chart recorder when the system has settled. Change the output from the controller to 50%. 5. Open valve V5 to give additional outflow and observe the response of the process variable. 6. Close valve V5 and observe the response of the process variable. Note that the process variable returns to the original value. complete the following steps: 1. The output from the controller will have been initially set to 50% (the bottom display will show 50.2. Adjust the controller output to its original value and observe that the process variable returns to 50%. To perform the practical. 3. Change the output from the controller to 60%. Adjust the position of the Pneumatic Control Valve to give a process variable reading of 50%. Note the output from the controller. 4. Observe the change in process variable. 2. Re-adjust the output from the controller to return the process variable to 50%.

2. carry out the following two steps.Chapter 7 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG System Response and the Air Receiver 7. open V3 and close valve V2 so that the air leaving the process pipe travels through the Air Receiver before discharging. 7-6 38-930-M . Fully open valve V1. Repeat the procedure outlined in the previous practical and observe the slower changes in response with the Air Receiver in series with the process pipe. To perform the practical.3 Practical 2: System Response with the Air Receiver This practical is very similar to the previous practical. 1.

Chapter 8 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Principles of Proportioning Valve 8 Principles of Proportioning Valve Content To control pressure in the process pipe using the Pressure Sensor and three-term Process Controller with 4-20 mA proportional output to an I/P Converter and Pneumatic Control Valve. Experiments 7 to 9 introduce the for setting up a Process Controller. This experiment is intended to introduce and demonstrate the principle of using a proportioning valve. Objective Equipment Required 38-930-M 8-1 . Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller 38-714 Pressure Control Module 38-461 Pressure Transmitter 38-490 Digital Display Module Note: The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air.

2 Using the Controller All practicals require the controller control action to be set to Direct Action. Press the Up button five times.Chapter 8 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Principles of Proportioning Valve 8. Many practicals require the controller to operate in Automatic mode. No adjustment to the process or sensor is required provided the inlet and outlet conditions are compatible with the new setting. Changing between Manual and Automatic mode is a simple matter of pressing the Auto/Manual button. The pressure in the system may be changed by setting an alternative set point on the controller. by using the front panel of the controller.1. Change the setting to dIr. press and hold the Parameter Advance key to return to the top of the level. return to Level 1. Proportional control of the Pneumatic Control Valve allows the pressure to be held at the required set point despite changes in the upstream and downstream conditions. 8.1.1 Principles of Proportioning Valve Pressure in the process pipe can be controlled using a Pressure Sensor and Process Controller configured for proportional output (4-20 mA) to position a Pneumatic Control Valve as required. This is represented by the display C. The control action can be checked. and altered if necessary. To exit the configuration level.1 Theory 8. the properties of the process rig and characteristics of different control algorithms can be explored.ACt. the Up key will have to be pressed for slightly longer. Between levels 5 and 6. indicating Direct Action. To set the controller to Direct Action carry out the following steps: Press and hold the Parameter Advance button three times to change to the Operator Level (level 1). 8-2 38-930-M . Press the Parameter Advance button three times to access the Control Action setting. When the controller is controlling a process in Automatic mode. then press and hold Parameter Advance once again to return to the main display.

Chapter 8 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Principles of Proportioning Valve 8. 2. The Air Receiver has been included in the circuit to give a slow response to the process. Complete the connections shown in the patching diagram. V1. 3. Adjust R1 to give 25 psi on gauge G1. V5 & V6 Closed. perform the following steps: 1. 5. To setup the practical. Adjust R2 to give 10 psi on gauge G5 with Pneumatic Control Valve open.2 Practical 1: Maintaining Pressure at a Set-Point The object of the demonstration is to maintain the pressure at the set point (50% process variable on the controller corresponds to 5 psi on gauge G5). 4. R1. V2. 38-930-M 8-3 . To maintain a steady pressure in the process pipe. R2. V3 & V4 Open. the Pneumatic Control Valve must be opened to the appropriate position by the Process Controller and continually adjusted to compensate for changes upstream or downstream in the system. The Air Receiver pressure will begin to rise towards 10 psi.

2.1 Patching Diagram 8-4 38-930-M .Chapter 8 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Principles of Proportioning Valve 8.

Integral Action time to 5 Seconds and Derivative Action Time turned off. set the controller to automatic mode. by pressing the automatic/manual button. When ready. The M shown in the bottom display should disappear.2 Perform Practical The below chart recorder should connected to the Pressure Transmitter output/controller input and controller output/current to pressure converter input 4-20 mA loops to provide a record of the response.2. air should be delivered to the process pipe and discharge at the outlet with the pressure remaining at 50% (process variable). This practical has initialised the Process Controller. If the set-up is correct.Chapter 8 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Principles of Proportioning Valve 8. the Proportional Band to 300%. 38-930-M 8-5 . setting the Set Point at 50%. Observe that the pressure is controlled at the set point.

the pressure was controlled about a mean value of 50% which corresponds to 5 psi on gauge G5. The Pneumatic Control Valve will open to give the required additional flow of air to maintain the pressure in the process pipe at the set point. Open valve V5 to give an additional outflow from the system. Adjust the set point to 70% on the Process Controller. observe the changes in the level and the valve operation. 3. and ensure that you have performed the previous practical.Chapter 8 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Principles of Proportioning Valve 8.3 Practical 2: Effects of Disturbance Complete the connections shown in the patching diagram. 2. Close valve V5. 8-6 38-930-M . Once again. Observe the changes in air flow on the flow meter. Adjust the set point to 40% on the Process Controller. Observe the response of the system. 3. 8. 2. 1. 4. 1.4 Practical 3: Changing the Set-Point Remotely In the basic set-up. Observe how the pressure changes to the required setting and the position of the Pneumatic Control Valve varies to suit the conditions. Observe the response as the Pneumatic Control Valve closes to maintain the pressure.

Knowledge Level It is assumed that the operator understands the meaning of Proportional Band.Chapter 9 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Proportional only Process Control 9 Proportional only Process Control Objective To demonstrate the characteristics of a Proportional (P) only Process Control and the response to a change in set point or a disturbance in the process. Equipment Required 38-930-M 9-1 . Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller 38-714 Pressure Control Module 38-461 Pressure Transmitter 38-490 Digital Display Module Note: The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air.

ie. The M LED will disappear when the controller is controlling the process. is a simple matter of pressing the Automatic/Manual button located on the third row. 9-2 38-930-M . the process variable will be offset from the set point by a large amount. second column of the controller. the controller will produce an output of 50% (12 mA) when the process variable matches the new set point.Chapter 9 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Proportional only Process Control 9. The controller centralises the Proportional Band about the set point.1 Proportional only Process Control As the process variable deviates from the set point. If a new set point is instructed by the operator. If the setting of the Proportional Band is too small.1 Theory 9. Any offset applied to the controller output will be transferred if a new set point is instructed. as described within the previous practical. If the setting of the Proportional Band is too large.1. change in outflow from the process tank) will result in an offset from the set point.g. Any changes in the process (e. The operator can offset the output to give accurate control of the process by setting the system up manually before transferring to Automatic Control. The optimum setting of Proportional Band is the smallest setting which will allow the process to operate with minimum offset while not allowing the system to become unstable. the output from the controller will change in an attempt to restore the process variable to the set point. A small setting of Proportional Band means a large change in controller output (large movement of the valve) for a small deviation from the set point. the output will be centralised about the new set point but offset by the amount of offset at the previous set point. Changing from Automatic to Manual (operator) control. the control loop will be unstable and continuous large scale oscillation of the control valve will occur.

LEU.Removing Offsets The object of the demonstration is to control the pressure in the process pipe using a Ponly controller to operate the Pneumatic Control Valve. This is the manual reset value. This would have been set when this practical is fully initialised. This option is known as manual reset and allows the operator to reduce the offsets to zero by offsetting the proportional band between 0 and 100% in 0. V3 and V6 to closed and valves V2.1. the operators setting level. Before continuing. This setting is only used when the controller is running in Automatic mode.1% increments. connect the equipment as shown in the patching diagram. press the Parameter Advance button three times until rSt.2). To view the Manual Reset setting on the controller.Chapter 9 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Proportional only Process Control 9. When set to manual mode.1 is displayed. Finally. 38-930-M 9-3 . Press twice to move to level 1. V4 and V5 to open. a default is used.2 Practical 1: Proportional Control. On the process rig set valves V1. The controller fitted in the 38-300 has an option for the removal of offsets in proportional only systems. Press the green Raise button to move the Tuning level (LEV. press and hold the Parameter Advance button until CoDE is displayed. The Manual Reset option will only function when no Integral Action has been selected.

Chapter 9 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Proportional only Process Control 9.1 Patching Diagram 9-4 38-930-M .2.

38-930-M 9-5 . 3. Notice how less oscillatory the process is. the following steps must be followed: 1. and turned the Derivative Action off. Return the setpoint to 50% and observe the offset is removed using the procedure previously outlined. 6. open valve V4. Reduce the Proportional Band to 100% and open valve V4 to introduce a step response on the system. Notice the offset is unaffected by the changed PB. Close valve V4 and observe the effect on the offset. Moving the setpoint requires the operator to make an adjustment to the amount of normal reset. 4. 7. Reduce the Proportional Band to 200% and observe the effect on the offset. Adjust the manual reset option until the measured value is 50%. Increase the Proportional Band to 400% and close valve V4. Once the system has settled. 2. Observe the oscillating response from the process. 5. Notice the offset has returned. It takes around 20 seconds to settle. Adjust the manual reset until the offset is reduced to zero. Change the set point to 40% and observe the effect on offset.2. To perform the practical and to consider how the manual reset function operates. Hence we have shown the manual reset option only reduces the offset for a given setpoint.2 Perform Practical Initialisation has set the Proportional Band to 300% and set the setpoint to 50%. hence there is no offset. We have shown that when there is a change in demand in the process the controller requires manual adjustment to reduce the offset in a Proportional only system.Chapter 9 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Proportional only Process Control 9.

The Pneumatic Control Valve will open to increase the flow into the process pipe to compensate for the increased pressure requirement. 1. 4. Adjust the Set Point to 30% on the Process Controller. Adjust the Set Point to 50% on the Process Controller. 3. Return valve V4 to its original position.Effects of Disturbance To follow on from the previous practical. Observe the response of the system. Observe that the pressure does not achieve the revised set point. 9.Effects of Changing the Set Point The measured variable and the set point are both shown on the chart recorder display. 5. 6. 9-6 38-930-M . 9. 8. 2. 10. 2. Observe that the pressure returns to the SetPoint. The Pneumatic Control Valve will open to give additional inflow to maintain the pressure at the set point. 7. and change the controller between Automatic and Manual mode.Chapter 9 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG 9. Adjust the Set Point to 70% on the Process Controller. 3. Adjust the Set Point to 50% on the Process Controller. Initially the Set Point is set to 50%. the Proportional Band would have been initially set to 300% and the Set Point set to 50%. Set the controller to Automatic operation and observe that offset from the Set Point is removed. Observe that the pressure returns to the set point. Once again. observe the changes in the pressure and the valve operation. Manually adjust output from the controller to maintain the process variable at 70%. Open valve V3 a little more to give a disturbance to the process. Adjust the Set Point to 70% on the Process Controller. You are required to change the controller output using the front panel. To perform this practical. Observe the response as the Pneumatic Control Valve closes to maintain the pressure.3 Proportional only Process Control Practical 2: Proportional Control.4 Practical 3: Proportional Control . carry out the following steps: 1. Observe that the process variable is offset from the SetPoint. Observe the offset from the set point. 4.

38-930-M 9-7 . 2. 3. 1. the Proportional Band setting is too small. Observe that the process has become unstable. Set the Proportional Band to 5% on the controller.Chapter 9 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Proportional only Process Control 9. Repeat the previous practical and observe the reduction in offsets. Set the Proportional Band to 20% on the controller. Set the Proportional Band to 1% on the controller.5 Practical 4: Proportional Control . ie.Effect of Changing the Proportional Band This practical explores the effect of changing the Proportional Band. Repeat the previous practical and observe the dramatic reduction in offsets.

Chapter 9 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Proportional only Process Control Notes 9-8 38-930-M .

Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller 38-714 Pressure Control Module 38-461 Pressure Transmitter 38-490 Digital Display Module Note: The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 10 Proportional + Integral Action Process Controller 10 Proportional + Integral Action Process Controller Objective To demonstrate the characteristics of a (P + I) Proportional + Integral Action Process Controller and the response to a change in set point or a disturbance to the process. Knowledge Level It is assumed that the operator understands the meaning of Proportional Band and Integral Action. Equipment Required 38-930-M 10-1 .

1 Proportional + Integral Action Process Controller Integral Action will remove offsets from the set point which occur with Proportional control. the amount of Integral Action must be limited (ie use longer Integral Action Time) to avoid problems of saturation. If the IAT setting is too small. he amount of correction applied to the output by the Integral Action is related to the Proportional Band setting.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 10 Proportional + Integral Action Process Controller 10. 38-100 and 38-600 involve processes with longer response times and may be used to demonstrate this feature. (A large Proportional Band means a smaller correction due to the Integral Action). In a process where disturbances take a long time to affect the process variable. 10-2 38-930-M . (The output is corrected more frequently). extreme actuation of the control valve will occur before the process has responded to initial valve adjustments. Correction is applied to the output from the controller while any deviation from the set point exists. A short setting of Integral Action Time means greater Integral Action effect on the output from the controller.1. Caution !! Note: Short settings of the Integral Action Time can be used in the pressure control demonstration to give fast correction of large offsets because the system responds quickly to changes. Increasing the time constant of the system makes the process more oscillatory and increases the setting time.1 Theory 10.

V2.1. The Pneumatic Control Valve will close to reduce the pressure at the set point. V3 & V6 to Closed. 38-930-M 10-3 . Set R1. 2. 10. Observe the response of the system.1. 2. Adjust R2 to give 10 psi on G5 with the Pneumatic Control Valve open. Set V1. V4 & V5 to Open. To perform the practical. 3. 3. perform the following steps: 1. Now open V4 and observe the system responding by increasing the airflow until the pressure is returned to the setpoint. R2. Allow the system to settle with no deviation.3 Perform Practical The controller is initialised for 300% Proportional Band and 5 seconds Integral Action Time. Close valve V4 further to give a disturbance to the process. Adjust R1 to give 25 psi on G1. 5. Observe that the initial offset from the set point is gradually removed as the Integral Action moves to the required position. 4. To setup the practical. 4.2 Practical 1: P +I Control and Effects of Disturbance The object of the demonstration is to control the pressure in the process pipe using a P+I controller to operate the Pneumatic Control Valve. Complete the connections shown in the patching diagram. the Process Controller is configured for Direct action. carry out the following steps: 1. As the Pneumatic Control Valve is open when 4 mA is applied to the current/pressure converter and a pressure below the set point requires the valve to be opened.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 10 Proportional + Integral Action Process Controller 10.

4 Patching Diagram 10-4 38-930-M .PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 10 Proportional + Integral Action Process Controller 10.1.

observe the changes. Adjust the Set Point to 70% on the Process Controller. Observe the initial response due to Proportional Action followed by the gradual correction due to Integral Action. 1. The effect of the Integral Action Time can be observed by following the below steps that were seen in the previous practical. 4. Observe the response. Adjust the Set Point to 70% on the Process Controller. Adjust the Set Point to 50% on the Process Controller and allow the process to settle at the Set Point.3 Practical 3: Effects of Changing the Integral Action Time In this practical. Adjust the Set Point to 30% on the Process Controller. 2. 1. 38-930-M 10-5 . 10. 3. Once again. observe the changes in the pressure and the valve operation. change the Integral Action Time to 1 second on the controller using the below control and observe the reduced effect of the Integral Action (the effect is the same but the time taken to reduce the offset is decreased). 4.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 10 Proportional + Integral Action Process Controller 10. Adjust the Set Point to 50% on the Process Controller and allow the process to settle at the Set Point. 2. 3. Once again.2 Practical 2: Effects of Changing the Set Point Connect the patching diagram as shown and setup the Pressure Rig as described in the previous practical. Adjust the Set Point to 30% on the Process Controller.

3. 2. Apply a disturbance to the process or change the set point. Observe the effect of this while repeating the above. Besides the reduced offset due to Proportional Action observe that the amount of correction applied by Integral Action is increased. Open valves V1 & V3 and close V2 to connect the air receiver. as described in the first and second practicals and observe the response of the process.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 10 Proportional + Integral Action Process Controller 10.4 Practical 4: Effects of Changing the Proportional Band 1. Set the Proportional Band to 200% and the Integral Action to 5 seconds on the controller. 10-6 38-930-M . 4.

Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller 38-714 Pressure Control Module 38-461 Pressure Transmitter 38-490 Digital Display Module Note: The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air. Knowledge Level It is assumed that the operator understands the meaning of Proportional Band and Derivative Action.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 11 Proportional + Derivative Action Process Controller 11 Proportional + Derivative Action Process Controller Objective To demonstrate the characteristics of a (P + D) Proportional + Derivative Action Process Controller and the response to a change in set point or a disturbance to the process. Equipment Required 38-930-M 11-1 .

11-2 38-930-M . If the Derivative Time setting is too long. (Any correction applied to the output lasts for a shorter period of time). the larger the amount of correction due to Derivative Action). (A large Proportional Band means a smaller correction due to the Derivative Action). Correction is applied to the output from the controller whenever the process variable is changing. (The faster the process variable changes. the corrections to the control valve will be excessive and the process will be unstable. The amount of correction applied to the controller output by the Derivative Action is related to the proportional Band setting. Derivative Action is usually applied to processes which have a slow reaction rate. The 38-100 Basic Process Rig and 38-600 Temperature Process Rig involve processes with longer response times and may be used to demonstrate this feature.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 11 Proportional + Derivative Action Process Controller 11. moderate lags and small changes in load to the process. The large initial correction to the control valve allows the process to stabilise more quickly.1 Proportional + Derivative Action Process Controller Derivative Action cannot reduce offsets from the set point which result with Proportional control.1 Theory 11. Caution !! Note: Short settings of the Derivative Time may be applied to this pressure process for the purpose of demonstration provided the setting of the Proportional Band is not too small.1. A short setting of Derivative Action Time means less Derivative Action effect on the output of the controller.

PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 11 Proportional + Derivative Action Process Controller 11. 4. perform the following steps: 1. The chart recorder is connected to the Pressure Transmitter output/controller input and controller output/current to pressure converter input to provide a record of the response. 38-930-M 11-3 . V4 & V5 Open. R2. 5. Set V1. V2. V3 & V6 Closed. To set-up the equipment for this practical. Carry out the procedure for removal of offsets detailed in the Proportional Control Removing Offsets practical. Adjust R2 to give 10psi on G5 with the Pneumatic Control Valve open. The controller is set for a 50% Proportional Band and a Derivative Action Time of 6 seconds from the initialisation of this practical. 3.2 Practical 1: P + D Control of Pressure The object of the demonstration is to control the pressure in the process pipe using a P+D controller to operate the Pneumatic Control Valve. Complete the connections shown in the patching diagram. 2. Set R1. Adjust R1 to give 25psi on G1.

1 Patching Diagram 11-4 38-930-M .2.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 11 Proportional + Derivative Action Process Controller 11.

Adjust the set point to 30% on the Process Controller. Observe the initial response due to Derivative Action followed by the conventional response due to the Proportional action.3 Practical 2: Effects of Disturbance Connect the patching diagram as shown and setup the Pressure Rig as described in the previous practical.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 11 Proportional + Derivative Action Process Controller 11.5 Practical 4: Effects of Changing the Derivative Time Connect the patching diagram as shown and setup the Pressure Rig as described in the first practical. 11. Adjust the Derivative Action Time in steps of 1 until the process becomes unstable. Observe the response of the system as the Pneumatic Control Valve closes to reduce the pressure at the set point. Observe that the large movements of the control valve as the process variable moves away from and towards the set point. 2. 11. This will happen at a setting of 8 or 9. observe the changes in the pressure and the valve operation. 2. 1. Observe the response as the Pneumatic Control Valve opens to maintain the pressure. 1. 3. Observe the large initial closing of the control valve occurs as the process variable moves away from the set point followed by an opening of the valve as the process variable approaches the set point. Return valve V4 to its initial position. Repeat the steps described within the previous practical by adjusting the Set Point values from 70% to 30% to observe the increased effect of the Derivative Action (the effect is the same but the time taken for the valve to return to the position dictated by the Proportional setting is increased). 2. Note once again that the deviation from the set point is not corrected. Close valve V4 further to give a disturbance to the process. Adjust the set point to 70% on the Process Controller. Note that the offset from the set point is not removed by the Derivative Action. 1. 38-930-M 11-5 . Once again. 3.4 Practical 3: Effect of Changing the Set Point Connect the patching diagram as shown and setup the Pressure Rig as described in the first practical.

Besides the reduced offset due to Proportional Action observe that the amount of correction applied by Derivative Action is increased. Ensure the Proportional Band is set to 20% and the Derivative Action Time is set to 6 seconds.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 11 Proportional + Derivative Action Process Controller 11. 11-6 38-930-M .6 Practical 5: Effect of Changing the Proportional Band Connect the patching diagram as shown and setup the Pressure Rig as described in the first practical. 1. Apply a disturbance to the process by opening valves V6 and V7 or change the set point. 2. 3.

These are load changes (how large and how fast). Objective The object of this experiment is to use one of the widely used field methods for optimising the P. I and D settings on the controller to suit the characteristics of the process. consideration must be given to those characteristics of the process which affect its controllability. Knowledge Level It is assumed the user understands the meanings of Proportional Band. and dead time. Equipment Required 38-930-M 12-1 . In this instance the Ultimate Period/Ziegler-Nichols (closed loop) and Reaction Curve (open loop) methods will be used. process lags (capacity lags and resistance lags). Integral Action and Derivative Action. response lags of sensors etc. When selecting the settings for a three-term controller. Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller 38-714 Pressure Control Module 38-461 Pressure Transmitter 38-490 Digital Display Module The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air. process reaction lags.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 12 Optimising Proportional Integral and Derivative Controllers 12 Optimising Proportional Integral and Derivative Controllers Content To demonstrate typical procedures for optimising the settings of a three-term controller to suit a particular process.

1 Theory 12.1. 12-2 38-930-M .1 Optimising PID Controllers Techniques exist which allow the settings of a three-term controller to be determined to suit a particular process. The settings predicted by these techniques will differ and should be treated as a starting condition for the setting up of the controller. Satisfactory control may be obtained from these settings but the commissioning engineer may need to make fine adjustments to obtain the required operating characteristics.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 12 Optimising Proportional Integral and Derivative Controllers 12.

In this instance. V4 & V5 to Open.2 Practical 1: Ultimate Period/Ziegler-Nichols The object of this experiment is to use one of the widely used field methods for optimising the P. perform the following steps: 1. V3 & V6 to Closed. Adjust R1 to give 25 psi on G1. 3.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 12 Optimising Proportional Integral and Derivative Controllers 12. 38-930-M 12-3 . 4. Adjust R2 to give 10 psi on G5 with V2 open and V4 closed. the Ultimate Period/Ziegler-Nichols (closed loop) method will be used. Complete the connections shown in the patching diagram. Set V1. R2. I and D settings on the controller the suit the characteristics of the process. 5. V2. 2. Set R1. To setup this practical.

2.1 Patching Diagram 12-4 38-930-M .PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 12 Optimising Proportional Integral and Derivative Controllers 12.

Integral and Derivative settings on the controller will have been turned off when this practical has initialised.2 PB = 1.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 12 Optimising Proportional Integral and Derivative Controllers 12. The optimum settings for the controller may be calculated as follows: P only P+I P+I+D PB = 2 PB = 2.2 Perform Practical The chart recorder is connected to the Pressure Transmitter output/controller input and controller output/current to pressure converter input 4-20 mA loops to provide a record of the process response.7 PBc PBc IAT = 0. To complete the practical. perform the following steps: 1. 2.83 Pc PBc IAT = 0. 3. Note the setting of the Proportional Band at which continual cycling occurs. 4. Data for the analysis is obtained using the controller configured for Proportional control only.13 Pc 38-930-M 12-5 . Allow the process variable to settle then apply a step change to the process by closing valve V4. From the trace obtained on the recorder measure the Period of the oscillation Pc in minutes.2.50 Pc DAT = 0. decrease the Proportional Band and reapply a step change (by closing V4. Continue adjusting the Proportional Band and applying a step change until the process variable continually oscillates. As the process variable remains steady.

Set the controller for Manual operation.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 12 Optimising Proportional Integral and Derivative Controllers 12. Adjust the output from the controller to give a steady pressure in the system with the process variable display showing 50%. 4. (Time at which step change is applied to time where straight line intersects time axis). the Reaction Curve (open loop) method will be used. perform the following steps: 1. Calculate the maximum slope R Determine R1 using the equation: When setup is complete and the practical has started. The open loop response may be analysed from the chart recorder to determine the optimum settings for P. Note the step change applied (M%). In this instance. The step change will result in a new pressure in the system. 2. A typical response curve is shown below: Draw a straight line through the point of maximum slope so that the line intersects the time axis. Measure the dead time L in minutes. I and D settings on the controller the suit the characteristics of the process. Leave the controller in Manual operation and apply a step disturbance to the process by changing the position of the Pneumatic Control Valve slightly.3 Practical 2: Reaction Curve Method The object of this experiment is to use one of the widely used field methods for optimising the P. 12-6 38-930-M . I & D. 3.

Repeat the procedure for the settings of the controller suggested by the other technique.1 Perform Practical Connect the patching diagram as shown and setup the Pressure Rig as described in the first practical. See the previous practical for details.5 L 12. Observe the behaviour of the process.3 L to0. Set the controller to Automatic operation then apply a disturbance by opening valve V4. Calculate the optimal controller settings using the equations and information from the background page.5 L PB = 1. 2. Like the previous practical. Compare the values obtained with those obtained using the Ziegler-Nichols method. 3. Set the set point to 50%.3. Set the controller to Manual operation and adjust the valve position to maintain the required set point (50% process variable. a chart recorder is used. 5. observing what occurs when a disturbance is introduced to the process.0 L to2. 6.1 (R1 x L) PB = 0. 38-930-M 12-7 .5 (R1 x L) to 0.0 L DAT=0. I and D to be evaluated on the Process Controller using the control boxes that are displayed within the chart recorder.4 Practical 3: Evaluation of Controller by Introducing a Disturbance In this practical. explore the operating settings that have been previously discovered.8 (R1 x L) IAT= 2. Enter the settings of P.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 12 Optimising Proportional Integral and Derivative Controllers The optimum settings for the controller may be calculated as follows: P only PI PID PB = R1 x L IAT= 3. 12. follow the below instructions: 1. When the main practical page is opened. 4. 4 psi on G5).

When the process is running. introduce a disturbance and observe the effects.4.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 12 Optimising Proportional Integral and Derivative Controllers 12.1 Perform Practical Enter the previously discovered settings into the parameter controls below then set the controller to run in Automatic mode. 12-8 38-930-M .

Equipment Required 38-930-M 13-1 . Knowledge Level It is assumed that the operator understands the meaning of Proportional Band. Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller 38-714 Pressure Control Module 38-461 Pressure Transmitter 38-490 Digital Display Module The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air. Integral Action and Derivative Action.Chapter 13 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG PID Controller and the Air Receiver 13 PID Controller and the Air Receiver Objective To demonstrate the effect of the Air Receiver on the response of the process and to determine the optimum settings for the Process Controller.

Any change in the response of a process will necessitate a change in the settings of the three terms on the controller to achieve optimum control.Chapter 13 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG PID Controller and the Air Receiver 13.1 Theory 13. Where the response of a process will change in operation. 13-2 38-930-M . (Pressure cannot change as quickly in the process pipe when a disturbance occurs or a new set point is instructed).1 PID Controller with the Air Receiver The addition of the Air Receiver makes the response of the system correspondingly slower. This may necessitate a reduction in performance at some conditions. the controller must be configured to give stable control under all operating conditions.1.

3. Set R1. Adjust R2 to give 10 psi on G5 with the Pneumatic Control Valve open. setup the equipment using the following steps: 1. 2. Adjust R1 to give 25 psi on G1. Observe the response of the system when valve V4 is opened and closed to give a disturbance. V2. V4 & V6 to Closed. The chart recorder is connected to the Pressure Transmitter output/controller input and controller output/current to pressure converter input 4-20mA loops to provide a record of the response. 4. V3 & V5 to Open. Apply a disturbance to the new configuration and observe the change in response. 5. Connect the equipment as shown in the patching diagram with the Air Receiver in series with the process pipe. V1.Chapter 13 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG PID Controller and the Air Receiver 13. R2. The Set Point of the system has been set to 50%.2 Practical 1: System Response To perform the practical. 38-930-M 13-3 . Isolate the Air Receiver from the process pipe by opening V2 and closing V1 and V3.

2.1 Patching Diagram 13-4 38-930-M .Chapter 13 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG PID Controller and the Air Receiver 13.

Apply the optimum settings for each system and evaluate their responses using valve V4 to apply a step change to the outflow from the system. determine the optimum settings for the three-term controller to suit the two systems. 38-930-M 13-5 . Observe that the process becomes unstable if the settings relating to the Air Receiver in series are applied to the process without the Air Receiver.3 Practical 2: Determining Optimum Settings for the Process Controller 13.2 Perform Practical Using the techniques described in the previous assignment.3.1 Patching Diagram 13.3.Chapter 13 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG PID Controller and the Air Receiver 13.

Chapter 13 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG PID Controller and the Air Receiver Notes 13-6 38-930-M .

PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 14 Calibration of the Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 14 Calibration of the Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter Objective Equipment Required To calibrate the Differential Pressure Sensor and Differential Pressure Transmitter. Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller 38-714 Pressure Process Rig 38-472 Differential Pressure Transmitter 38-490 Digital Display Module The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air. 38-930-M 14-1 .

14-2 38-930-M .PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 14 Calibration of the Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 14. The readings obtained can be related to actual flow rates from the flowmeter.1 Theory 14.1 Calibration of the Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter A Differential Pressure Sensor may be used to give a remote reading of the differential pressure in a system. It is necessary to calibrate an electrical sensor before use to provide an output which is meaningful. The Differential Pressure Sensor may be calibrated to suit the operating range and datum required for a particular application.1.

The Differential Pressure Sensor is connected to the tappings upstream and downstream of an Orifice Block located in the process pipe. Set V1. G5 will now be reading zero. Re-adjust R2 and V4 until G4 reads 15 psi and G5 reads 5. 5. The aperture in the Orifice Block is 1. Once there is a pressure difference of 10 psi between G4 and G5. R2.2. Adjust R2 to give 15 psi on G4 with the Pneumatic Control Valve open. The sensor and transmitter can be calibrated to the minimum and maximum conditions of flow through the pipe so as to be of use in control applications (the corresponding real values of the flow being known from the flowmeter reading).5 mm in diameter. Complete the connections shown in the patching diagram. V4 & V5 to Closed. 7. Adjust V4 to give 5 psi on G5. Set R1. reduce the pressure with R2 until G4 reads 10 psi. The flowmeter installed on the 38-714 allows the relationship between the actual flow rate and the output from the sensor to be considered.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 14 Calibration of the Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 14. 4.1 Preparing for the Practical For this set of demonstrations the controller will be used manually to operate the control valve via the I/P Converter and to monitor the differential pressure in the process pipe. 8. Pressure drop across the Orifice Block is related to the flow of air in the pipe (pressure drop is proportional to the square of the flow). V3. 14. 1. Adjust R1 to give 25 psi on G1. V2. 6. 38-930-M 14-3 . V6 and V7 to fully open.2 Practical 1: Calibration of the Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter The aim of this experiment is to calibrate the Differential Pressure Sensor/Transmitter to suit the process. 2. 3.

PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 14 Calibration of the Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 14.2 Patching Diagram 14-4 38-930-M .2.

adjust the span control on the Differential Pressure conditioning module to give a reading of 20. Use the trim tool supplied with 38-300 to adjust the zero control on the Differential Pressure conditioning module to give a reading of 4. With 4 mA input to the I/P Converter.2. 38-930-M 14-5 . 5.0 mA on the Digital Display Module. With the Pneumatic Control Valve open adjust R2 to give a flow rate of 25 L/min. Repeat the minimum and maximum settings until no further adjustments of the zero and span controls is required. gauge G5 will read 0 psi. Set the controller to Manual operation and open the control valve by setting output to 0%. 2.PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 14 Calibration of the Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter 14. adjust the span on the differential pressure transducer to give 100% reading on the controller. Caution !! The Pneumatic Control Valve is designed to open with lack of air. 3.3 Perform Practical To perform the calibration. follow the below steps: 1. Increase the controller output to close the control valve until the flow is zero. Connect the compressed air supply to the inlet. the valve will remain open.0 mA on the Digital Display Module. When the flow is steady. The Differential Pressure Sensor/Transmitter has now been calibrated to give readings from 4-20 mA (0-100% if used with the Process Controller) corresponding to the range of flow rates available in the process pipe. Set the flow in the system to the maximum required by opening the Pneumatic Control Valve (pressure process variable should return to 100%). 6. 4.

PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Chapter 14 Calibration of the Differential Pressure Sensor and Transmitter Notes 14-6 38-930-M .

Equipment Required 38-930-M 15-1 . Qty Apparatus 1 1 1 1 1 1 38-200 Process Interface 38-300 Process Controller 38-714 Pressure Process Rig 38-462 Differential Pressure Transmitter 38-490 Digital Display Module Configurator serial cable The equipment requires a supply of clean compressed air.Chapter 15 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Flow Control in the Process Rig 15 Flow Control in the Process Rig Objective To control flow in the process pipe using a Differential Pressure Sensor/Orifice Block with square root extractor and three-term Process Controller with a 4-20 mA proportional output to an I/P Converter and Pneumatic Control Valve.

The output from the Transmitter can be linearised using a square root extractor to provide a signal which is proportional to flow. Parameters such as P. Proportional control of the pneumatic control valve allows the flow to be held at the set point without the undue oscillations which are inherent in an on/off control system. There is a simple reason for hiding some features and making others easily available.2 Controller Advanced Settings The ABB Commander 350 process controller contains a large number of features that are not immediately accessible. 15-2 38-930-M . Flow in the process pipe can be controlled using a flow sensor/conditioner and Process Controller configured for proportional output (4-20 mA) and square-root extraction to an I/P Converter to position a Pneumatic Control Valve as required at the inlet to the pipe. preventing them to be changed accidentally. Normal users of a process controller will want to access common parameters. the output from the Differential Pressure Sensor is highly non-linear. This is achieved using a feature called a 'maths block'. Using the ABB Commander 350.1 Theory 15. like the PID and offset settings. ABB has created a separate pathway so the controller settings can be adjusted. This pathway is separate from the serial communication pathway used to obtain the state of a process and change the main operational parameters.Chapter 15 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Flow Control in the Process Rig 15. I and D will be familiar to all process control engineers.1. 15. it is possible to 'fine tune' the controller so that it can successfully control processes in situations where the input (and output) signals are not linear. The flow in the pipe may be changed by setting an alternative set point on the controller. No adjustment to the process or sensor is required provided the inlet and outlet conditions are compatible with the new setting. Advanced users can mathematically change the signals that the PID controller accepts and generates.1.1 Flow Control in the Process Pipe Flow in the process pipe can be measured using a Differential Pressure Sensor connected to an Orifice Block. As the pressure drop across the Orifice Block changes with the square of the velocity. So your controller can be configured easily. The more intricate settings of the controller are hidden from immediate view.

Chapter 15 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Flow Control in the Process Rig This separation is made for safety reasons. When the Configurator software has started and has found the PROCON controller (remember to check the number of the communications port if problems arise). developed by ABB. where only the highest most important levels can be changed when the controller is in manual mode. 15. When the advanced options are displayed. A potentially dangerous situation may arise if the linearity setting is accidentally changed during the middle of a process.3 Using the Configurator Software This practical requires the Square Root Lineariser to be used.1. select the Maths Block option. 38-930-M 15-3 . Controller settings can be changed by using a special Configurator program. The issue of safety and security can again be seen in the 'level' scheme that the controller adopts. shown in the bottom right of the display. This software requires a special cable that connects the controller to the computer using the circular jack plug located at the rear of the controller. select the Advanced Level option. A representation of the maths block dialog is shown below. This is one of many different linearisers that can be used with the Commander 350 controller.

4. the lineariser must be turned off. other users may observe behaviour that may be difficult to understand! 15. 5. Adjust R2 to give 25 L/min on the flow meter with the Pneumatic Control Valve open. 15-4 38-930-M . refer to the previous theory and the controller instruction manual for more information. V1. Adjust R1 to give 25 psi on G1. A skilled process control engineer who is familiar with computer controls will always know how to return to a known 'good' setting.2 Practical 1: Maintaining a flow by using the Control Valve The object of the demonstration is to maintain the flow at mid range in the process pipe (50% set point) by adjusting the opening of the Pneumatic Control Valve to allow the required amount of air to flow through the pipe.Chapter 15 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Flow Control in the Process Rig Ensure that the Maths Block 1 type is set to Square Root. V3. Be careful to only change the parameters you need to change. When you are happy with the settings. 2. V4. When you have finished using the practicals within this assignment. V6 & V7 (fully open) R1 & R2 Open. meaning it remembers its settings when the power is turned off. To learn about how to configure the controller to use a lineariser. &V5 Closed. 3. If you forget to do this. V2. transfer them to the controller. Complete the connections shown in patching diagram. carry out the following steps: 1. and the Square Root Source is set to Analogue Input 1. To prepare for this practical. Important! The controllers memory is non-volatile. The Process Controller is should be configured to use a square root lineariser.

2.1 Patching Diagram 38-930-M 15-5 .Chapter 15 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Flow Control in the Process Rig 15.

If the set-up is correct. 2. The Set Point is set to 50%. V6 & V7 (fully open).2 Perform Practical For this demonstration.3 Practical 2: Operation of Square Root Extractor To prepare for the practical.1 Perform Practical To demonstrate the effect of the square root extractor. Observe that the flow is controlled at the set point. Print out the blank table in the results table section to record your results. Increase the output in steps of 10% up to 100%. Record the process variable display on the controller and the actual flow rate on the flow meter. V5. Open valves V2. the Process Controller is configured for three-term control. Plot the two sets of data flow against process variable. Reduce the flow to zero and set the zero on the differential pressure transmitter to 0%. 15.Chapter 15 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Flow Control in the Process Rig 15. With the controller in manual mode set the o/p to 0%. 15-6 38-930-M . Set the span on the differential pressure transmitter to 100%. This should give a pressure drop of about 10 psi across the orifice plate (G4 . Connect the equipment as shown in Patching Diagram. perform the following steps: 1. 4. 5. 3. With the control valve fully open adjust the flow rate to 24 L/min. The flow should remain at 50% (process variable). Repeat the reading with the square root extraction option turned off.3. the output from the differential pressure transmitter will be plotted against flow with the square root option set on the process controller.2. 6. 15.G5 = 10 psi). Derivative Time is turned off. the Proportional Band to 300% and the Integral Time is set to 5 seconds. Close valves V1 & V3. V4. air should discharge from the main orifice.

If required.4 Practical 3: Changing the Set Point Remotely 15. Observe how the flow changes to the required setting and the position of the Pneumatic Control Valve varies to suit the conditions. the flow process may be studied in detail by following the procedures detailed in the Proportional Only to the Three-Term Controller assignment.4.Chapter 15 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG Flow Control in the Process Rig 15. observe the changes in the flow and the valve operation. Optimum controller settings and effects of the Air Receiver may also be investigated. Adjust the set point to 40% on the Process Controller. 38-930-M 15-7 . Adjust the set point to 60% on the Process Controller by using the control along side the chart recorder. Once again.1 Perform Practical In the basic set-up the flow was controlled about a mean value of 50%.

5 Results Table Practical 2.Chapter 15 PROCON PRESSURE PROCESS RIG 15. Table 2 Controller O/P 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Flow L/min Process Variable % Flow L/min Process Variable % Flow Control in the Process Rig 15-8 38-930-M . Table 1 Controller O/P 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Practical 2.

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