Firm Foundation

decreasing Vulnerability with selF-reliant urban design For riVerFront housing in Banjarmasin, indonesia

addina amalia bima Pritama stephen Kennedy alice shay

Universitas sebelas maret, bs arch Universitas sebelas maret, bs arch massachusetts institute of Technology, mcp massachusetts institute of Technology, mcp




where the Barito river empties into the java sea. trade. many communities live without utilities and basic infrastructure. The city’s tidal levels are rapidly rising due to climate change. economic and environmental transformations. residents battle with the waters everyday to maintain their wood-built homes and livelihoods. bathing. recreation. B ridge . stone (granite and andesit) is plentiful.O nly Access Porch to B oardwalk Firm Foundation reduces physical vulnerability and enables endogenous development of the urban riverfront communities with a flexible kit of parts of gabion foundations. and tributaries course through the city. it is the self-proclaimed City of 1000 rivers. O utdoor W/C Raised Pat h Banjarmasin is currently undergoing many largescale physical. more than 150 km of rivers. cleaning. Kalimantan rainforest lumber is an almost extinguished resource. resources of Kalimantan rainForest (1950) rainForest (Today) andesit TRIBUTARY CANAL MARTAPUR A granite THE CITY’S BANJARMASIN A B slum HousinG PubliC HousinG C D E F G dutCH arCHiteCture transit & trade boats lumber industry new riverfront walk rubber faCtory H I J K bird’s nest HarvestinG waterfront restaurant mosque waterfront market TURNING TIDES J B G C H E A F I K D . The project engages communities towards stewardship of their neighborhoods and waterways with a participatory design process. Banjarmasin sits at the southern tip of Borneo. The water is used daily for transport. Banjarmasin is growing but the city cannot keep up with this urbanization. the city needs a firm foundation. although the actual number of rivers falls short of the thousand declared. reinforcing the livelihoods and cultural identity of the riverfront communities. declining industrial production has left behind a legacy of contamination and ecological damage on the river’s edge. production. and fishing.the city of 1000 rivers: banjarmasin is undergoing turbulent changes. canals. Firm Foundation provides a stable ground for the urban poor in banjarmasin. it quickly becomes clear just how integral the river system is to the daily life of its citizens.



recent public health outbreaks are caused by waterborne bacteria. The city has no comprehensive utility system to reach the riverfront urban poor. will starve the water of oxygen and kill fish populations. However. which thrives in polluted water bodies because it has a high capacity for uptake of heavy metals. the city’s estuaries. The plant. flooding whole neighborhoods. build-up of urban waste and the elimination of a healthy river ecology. Troubled Waters the city’s solutions to these systemic Problems are only quicK wins.unstable building construction The urban poor are skillful at building homes over the water. the number of rivers has decreased from 72 to 61 in the last 5 years due to sedimentation and build-up of urban wastes. damaged riVer ecology Water hyacinth has taken over the waterways.coli & cholera WHere does THe resT go? the water. fires ravage the wooden structures. . increasing the number of homes over water. rivers lost in tHe last five years Flooding & rising tides Climate change and sedimentation have caused rising water levels across the city. hyacinth can be used to remediate contaminated water and harvested as a valuable ingredient for fertilizer.. banjarmasin needs solid. indUsTry & HoUseHolds prodUCe WasTe aT a raTe oF sanitation & Public health The urban poor are surrounded by rivers but lack access to potable water. during the dry season. 300 180 tons / day BUT THe CiTy only Has THe garBage managemenT CapaCiTy To Bring To THe landFill tons / day e. during the rainy season. at the same time. water quality: trash & Pollution The rivers have been contaminated by industrial pollution. The lack of adequate drainage infrastructure exacerbates public health issues and degrades built structures. Channelization disrupts river’s natural self-regulation. However. reCenT oUTBreaKs erosion & sedimentation The river embankments have eroded. longer-term strategies. homes are vulnerable due to a lack of high-quality materials or infrastructure and the constant need to raise homes because of flooding. canals and municipal drainage are overloaded.

traditiONal kaMpUNg Well preserved tradtional housing style on Martapura. MartapUra kaMpUNg Boardwalk functions as the main thoroughfare. boats are used as transportation while connections to land are haphazard and jerry-rigged. Opportunity to develop aquatic courtyards to strengthen quality of public realm. Strong sense of community. Businesses draw customers from downriver. urban analysis: neighborhood typologies waterfront housing 2 1 3 4 Must raise / reconstruct their boardwalks regularly. Need for formally organized utility system.sMall tribUtary kaMpUNg 1 2 3 4 Small-scale industry mixed amongst housing along river. Floods every couple weeks. Residential structures built far over the water.5 minute walk of waterways. city land uses slum housing residential residential Within 200 M of WatERWay waterway commercial green open space industrial agriculture of residential areas are within a 2. Utilities hang from boardwalks or float in the water. 52% 200 m Over 52% of Banjaris live within a 2. but low quality of public realm. but every neighborhood has a different relationship with the water. Entirely disconnected from services by canal. Need for improved boardwalks and structures to support informal businesses.5 minute walk of a river or canal. Waste collects between houses under boardwalks. dUtch caNal kaMpUNg Waterway lined with wooden bridges and small boat docks. . Need for intermodal connections.



These facilitated sessions will engage neighborhoods with the strategic vision of the project and identity opportunities for project sites. This research will refine identified needs and opportunities for the participatory design process. The Firm Foundation kit of parts will be applied to the neighborhood sites according to findings from the fieldwork and stakeholder interviews. tHey believe in HelPinG Citizens and offiCials alike understand tHe ComPlexities of tHe built environment so tHey Can better take on tHe Problems and oPPortunities tHat Come witH ramPant urbanization. campaign public campaign to increase awareness of urban design opportunities and competition. 4 5 . Fieldwork Community members will be trained by sKK and student designers to complete on-site fieldwork and stakeholder interviews. Winning neighborhood plans will determine the first phase of implementation.comPetition as camPaign: Firm Foundation will be implemented by the riverfront residents themselves. a Pedagogical aPProach with solo Kota Kita solo Kota Kita (sKK) is an nGo tHat foCuses on PartiCiPatory urban PlanninG. partnership between sKK. workshop Workshops organized by sKK to explain urban water issues. 2 1 charrette sKK and the student designers will lead participatory design session. urban design methodologies and competition process. 3 competition The site plans created from the community design sessions will be shared during a public campaign and meetings organized by sKK in collaboration with local government. and develoPment ProjeCts. working with residents to develop site plans for their neighborhoods. desiGn. urban design can be a learning tool for neighborhood planning and urban water issues. local government and neighborhood associations to disseminate information about urban water issues and the competition. skk’s aPProaCH is HiGHly inClusive of Communities wHere tHey work.

city challenge imPlementation through the comPetition method vulnerability is decreased when people can improve their own built environment. YEAR 3 city adoPtion oF Project Pedagogical imPlementation: comPetition as camPaign construction oF base structure gaBions arrive on siTe parTially assemBled in FlaT paCK FormaT WiTH laCing Wire and loCKing pins For permanenT ConneCTions. Programming imPlementation management oF Future Phases . Phases poliCy WriTTen FUnding apparaTUs engineering ConsUlTaTion CiTy-Wide Campaign neigHBorHood WorKsHops FieldWorK & inTervieWs CollaBoraTive design CHarreTTe CiTy-Wide CompeTiTion ConsTrUCTion doCUmenTs maTerials soUrCed CollaBoraTive ConsTrUCTion inFrasTrUCTUre sysTem inTermodal ConneCTions pUBliC programming WeTlands ConsTrUCTed managemenT & sTeWardsHip evalUaTion oF FirsT pHase FUnding For FUTUre pHases YEAR 1 YEAR 2 Firm Foundation gabions Can Be easily ConsTrUCTed WiTHoUT THe Use oF Heavy maCHinery By CommUniTy memBers THemselves. daily battles can be transformed into everyday advantages.

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