Training Notes on

Issued by Operation Performance Section

National Aviation Company of India Limited Central Training Establishment Hyderabad

The weight of the aircraft exerts pressure on the surfaces. Discomfort to passengers. Such conditions adversely affect the aircraft operations in the following ways: Excessive braking co-efficient. (1/14) . For efficiency and durability. these surfaces must be smooth and at the same time offer acceptable rolling resistance and assist in the braking process.AIRCRAFT CLASSIFICATION NUMBER (ACN) PAVEMENT CLASSIFICATION NUMBER (PCN) LOAD CLASSIFICATION NUMBER (LCN) Introduction All runways are constructed to provide a durable surface on which aircraft take-offs and landings may be conducted safety. Pavement failures occur due to wear and tear. The runway surface degrades to states of excessive roughness. It is essential that these pavements are frequently inspected and maintained to the desired strength. Runway pavements cannot remain permanently durable. Rough landings and increases landing distances. Structural failure or Hairline cracks on airframes. loss of surface drainage and water penetration. Engine ingestion of pebbles and loose stones. and pavements reaction is to distend to some extent. Increased take-off distances.

(a) PCN is qualified by following: Type of Pavement R.Rigid F-Flexible Subgrade Strength (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (c) A – High (K = 150 MN / m3) B – Medium (K = 80 MN / m3) C – Low (K = 40 MN / m3) D – Ultra Low (L = 20 MN / m3) (b) Tyre Pressure Category (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) W – High. Limited to 1. Attachment ‘B’ and DOC 9157 – AN/901.50 Mpa (73 psi) (2/14) . Pavement Rating Practice In order to prepare the Runway and Apron pavements suitably to withstand the stress of aircraft weights. ICAO introduced the LCN/PCN system as a method to classify pavement bearing strengths. Limited to 0. The Pavement Classification Number is notified by the Airport authorities through the medium of NOTAMs. Part-3. ICAO reference documents are Annex-14.5 Mpa (217 psi) Y – Low.5 Mpa (145 psi) Z – Very Low. 3. No Pressure limit X – Medium. Limited to 1.2.

Subgrade reaction. The measures of reaction of these pavements are termed as Westergards Radius of Relative Stiffness (K) for rigid pavements and California Bearing Radio (CBR) for Flexible pavements. tyre pressure category and classification method. The strength of the subgrade in the case of Rigid (3/14) . The topmost layer is the asphalt or cement concrete.(d) Pavement Classification Method (i) (ii) T. The next upper levels are subbase and base. (b) Subgrade Strength: The lowermost base of the pavement is called Subgrade. Rigid Pavement and Flexible Pavement (i) (ii) Rigid pavements are built using cement concrete Flexible pavements use Asphalt.Technical Evaluation U -Using Aircraft Experience Calculation of PCN of the aircraft from the ICAO Tables PCN is notified by describing the type of Pavement. CBR is a measure of the penetration load of specific soil as compared to the penetration load of standard material. (a) Type of Pavement: Two types of Pavements are commonly used.

5 MPa (217 psi) (MPa = Mega Pascals) Y – Low. No Pressure Limit X – Medium. They are classified as High (K = 150 MN/ m3) and Medium (K = 80MN/ m3). these are: W – High.0 MPa (145 psi) Z – Very Low.50 MPa (73 psi) (d) Pavement Calculation Method: (i) Technical Evaluation (T): In Technical Evaluation. the surface is subjected to Penetrometer Tests and Deflection Tests. Limited to 1. (4/14) . The impact on pavements by using aircraft is the basis of this evaluation. Low (K= 40 MN/ m3) and Ultra Low (K = 20 MN/ m3). (c) Tyre Pressure Category: Four categories of Tyre Pressure have been listed for arriving at PCN. Limited to 1. Limited to 0. (ii) Using Aircraft Experience (U): This is based on experience gained over a period of time.Pavements are measured as Mega New togs per Cubic Metre (K). The results are correlated to PCN tables and PCN values are thus arrived at.

(5/14) . A0040 / 09 A new TWY N10.Note: The two all-up masses shown in columns 2 and 3 in the table each aircraft type are respectively the Maximum Apron (ramp) Mass and a representative Operating Mass Empty. 16N0725057.5M PCN 110 / R / C / W / T Edge LGT colour and Spacing – Blue / 15M TWY CL LGT – Provided Dist FM THR Rwy 27-2812M. To compute the ACN for any intermediate value.68E LEN – 330M WID – 25M Shoulder WID – 17. has been commissioned. 21 Jan 04:30 2009 until Perm. Created: 14 Jan 12: 42 2009. located west of TWY N9 at a dist of 2812M FM THR Rwy 27. 4. Example of NOTAM VABB Chhatrapati Shivaji Intl. The details are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) WGS Co-ord – 190519. proceed on the assumption that the ACN varies linearly between the Operating Mass Empty and Maximum Apron Mass.

ACN values for Maximum Ramp Weight and Operating Empty. ACN value of B737 – 200 with tyre pressure of 165 psi operating to or from a “Rigid Pavement” with “Medium” Subgrade strength varies from ACN = 14 at AUW of 27293 Kgs to ACN = 30 at AUW of 52616 Kgs. A319/ A320/ A321 and A330 aircraft are enclosed herewith from page 11 to 14. ACN Tables for B737 series. are promulgated through NOTAM. Availability of PCN values: Details of PCN of all Runways / Taxi ways / Bays of the airports are available in Aeronautical Information Publications (AIP) of the country. Aircraft Classification Number (ACN) ACN for aircraft depends upon its All-up Weight. resting on a low strength Subgrade has been assessed by technical evaluation of PCN 110 and there is no tyre pressure limitation.Explanation of the above Notam At Mumbai. with effect from 0430 UTC on 21 Jan 2009. 6. Tyre Pressure and type of surface over which it is to be operated e. (6/14) ...g. Weight Empty are listed in the tables. has been commissioned. 5. a new taxi way “N10” located West of TWY “N9” at a distance of 2812M from Threshold of Rwy 27. The bearing strength of the Rigid Pavement. Any change or new constructions of Runways/ Taxi ways/ Bays etc.

Examples of ACN Tables Problem: Find the Maximum Take-off weight for B737-200-17A from SILCHAR Solution: 1. aircraft cannot operate at maximum weight. Occasional minor overloading upto 10% above PCN on Flexible pavements and 5% above PCN on Rigid pavements may be made subject to approval of the appropriate airport authority. From ACN Tables (Page 11) for B737200-17A (Tyre Pressure 160 psi).To compute ACN for any intermediate value. 7. 2. ACN should be equal to or less than PCN. the following maximum take-off weight is arrived at. PCN at SILCHAR is PCN 27 FCWT. proceed on the assumption that ACN vary linearly between these two listed weights. ACN 31 ACN 14 Difference 17 52616 Kgs 27593 Kgs 25323 Kgs (7/14) . The values are as follows: ACN (FWCT) ACN 31 ACN 14 Weight 52616 Kgs 27593 Kgs PCN being 27. Interpolating linearly.

31 – 27 = 4) Therefore. LCN for a given aircraft is to be determined and compared with the specific runway LCN. The information required for determining the aircraft LCN are Single Isolated Wheel Load (SIWL) or Estimated Single Wheel Load (ESWL) obtained from Aircraft Operations Manual and Tyre Pressure. MLW is also limited to 46681 Kgs 8.25323 Difference per unit value of ACN = 17 25323 Difference for 4 unit values = 17 (i. (8/14) . Normally aircraft LCN should not exceed Runway LCN.e. Maximum Take-off Weight = 52616 – 5935 = 46681 Kgs As this is lower than Maximum Landing Weight (MLW) Structural Limit (46720). This is notified by NOTAM-D series. SIWL / ESLW for A320 Bogie Gear aircraft are 47% of All-up weight and B737-200 – 17A is 45.5% of All-up weight. Load Classification Number Classification Group (LCG) (LCN)/ Load X 4 = 5935 Kgs Defence airfields in India classify the bearing strength of runway pavements by LCN.

5% of 45 T = 20. B737-200 AUW = 45 Tons SIWL = 45.475 T Tyre Pressure = 120 psi (say) Therefore Aircraft LCN = 60 Load Classification Group LCG = III ******* (9/14) .Example for calculation of LCN from the graph Refer Graph on Page 9.

(10/14) .

(11/14) .

(12/14) .

(13/14) .

(14/14) .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful