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CHAPTER – VIII MINING
CHAPTER – VIII MINING 8.1 Introduction
Mining of minerals and extraction of metals were in practice in ancient Orissa. Modern mining as per available records started in 1909, when coal was first excavated in the Rampur area of Ib valley. The TISCO mines for iron ore at Gorumohisani and manganese mine in Goriajhar (Gangpur State) started in 1910 followed by dolomite and limestone mining in 1914 at Panposh and Bisra respectively. Mining of chromite in Baula area started much later, in 1942. After independence, rapid growth of mining activities in the state was witnessed upto early 80’s. Iron and manganese ore mining spread over extensive areas in Keonjhar and Sundergarh districts to meet the demands of new industries and for export. Chromite mining at Baula and Sukinda increased with establishment of ferroalloy industries and scope for export. Bauxite mining in large scale started at Panchpatmali hills in Koraput district in 1984. Besides growth of limestone and dolomite mining in Sundergarh district, new limestone mines came up at Dungri in Baragarh and Sunki in Koraput district with new cement plants. Beach sand mining at Gopalpur, lead ore mining in Sundargarh and mining of tin ore in Koraput started in 1980’s, while the lead and tin mining has stopped latter on. Other minerals mined in the state are graphite, china clay, fire clay, quartz etc. Besides mining of gemstones, small mines for minor minerals like morrum, decorative and dimensional stones and stone quarries with crushers came up at many places in the state in a very unorganized manner. During the period of 1985-2000, when mineral development in the state has been very slow, bauxite production by NALCO in Koraput and coal mining by MCL in Ib valley and Talcher area have increased. Though many attribute poor growth of mining sector to stringent forest and environment acts. But even without development of new mines, sudden increase in production of iron ore, chromite, coal and bauxite, have been seen recently. Increase in mineral production and development of new mines have been mostly dependent on market demand and industrial growth in India. Up to late 50’s, when the mines were small and mostly manual, environmental impact was not very significant and localized. Subsequently large scale mechanized mines came up with the establishment of large industries. These mines and the beneficiation plants/washeries, waste dumps and effluents discharged increased pollution in and around the mines. The mines mostly being located in forest areas were considered to be
State of Environment Report Orissa
CHAPTER – VIII MINING
responsible for increased deforestations. As a result, mines and mining activities were considered to have serious environmental impact. With the growing awareness on environment, new regulations were made and various stringent measures were enforced in eighties. Mines in the state started taking pollution control measures for their survival. Steps were taken for protection of environmental degradations in the mining areas. In spite of this, often there are public oppositions against development of new mines and mineral industries. In order to achieve sustainable development, there are still many areas in the mining sector, which are to be taken care off. 8.2 Mineral Resources of Orissa
Nature has gifted Orissa with vast and extensive mineral resources. While mining activities have depleted resources of many deposits, new findings have also added to it. Reserves of ores and minerals in the state as on 1.1.2000 are placed below as reported by Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM) (Table 8.1) TABLE: 8.1 IBM Data on Reserves of Ores & Minerals in Orissa
Sl. 1. Mineral Bauxite Location / District Koraput, Rayagada, Kalahandi and Bolangir and small deposits in Phulbani, Nuapada & Sundargarh Ganjam and Puri Mayurbhanj & small deposits in Malkangiri Keonjhar & Jajpur Sambalpur, Jharsuguda & Angul - Talcher Sundargarh & Koraput Cuttack, Sambalpur & Jharsuguda Baragarh, Sambalpur, Bolangir, Kalahandi, Phulbani & Raygada Sundargarh, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, Jajpur Sundargarh, Bargarh, Koraput & Malkangiri Sundargarh, Keonjhar & Rayagada Jajpur & Keonjhar Resources (million tonnes) 1,733 (3,075)
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.
Beach Sand China Clay Chromite Coal Dolomite Fireclay Graphite Iron Ore Limestone Manganese Nickel
82*(366) 314(2353) 183*(186*) 60,987(245,692)** 882(7349) 177(706) 4.6(16) 4,177(12,317) 2,224(1,69,941) 116(406) 174(188)
(The figures in brackets are the reserves of India) * As per latest figures of Directorate of Geology, Orissa. ** As per latest figures of Ministry of Coal.
dolomite. coal.866 sq. tin ores (Koraput). Out of this.3% of the geographical area of the state. in and around of these mining areas forest cover exists today. There are reported occurrences of vanadiferrous magnetite (Mayurbhanj. km. only 0. manganese and nickel ores are formidable constituting approximately 50%. km lease area.3 (i) Status of Active Mining Areas Active mining areas As on 1. Deforestation and degraded forest areas are much more in the districts or parts of the state. 400 are operating mines with 827. beach sand. Addition of these low grade resources and new discoveries by application of advanced technologies of exploration. km open forest. latest process/technologies in practice and under development in various countries would influence the Indian scenario to use marginal and low-grade resources available in plenty. substantial portion of the remaining mining zones come under degraded and open forest areas. platinum group of elements (Jajpur & Keonjhar) and lead & zinc ores (Western Orissa).2004 about 1103 sq. limestone and manganese ores would lead to increased exploitations and development of large size mines. Mayurbhanj). Further. 98%. These deposits may prove to be economically potential in future. km is presently under forest cover i. coal. which includes 20.e. where there are no mining activities.01 % under active mining operation. 35%. which account of 0. quartz and quartzite. dimension stones.03% area of the state. iron ore.09% forest area comes under mining lease and 0. km area of the state is under mining leases. iron. chromite. Out of this 48838 sq. serpentinite. Kms. Besides new process/technology. chromite. 27% and 91% of total resources of the country. Mining activity today is actually confined to about 0. Orissa’s resources of bauxite. 31. While some mining activities are confined to non-forest areas. large-scale mining operations would make these low grades and presently rejected mineral resources economically viable. Total forest area of the state is 58. Kms i. 37.4.e.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING The other minerals that occur in the state include pyrophyllite.4%. 25%. As such. diamond in western Orissa.7% of the total geographical area of the state. 209 . Keonjhar). Keonjhar Sundergarh & Angul. It has been confirmed even by satellite imagery of mining belts of Koraput. 8. Within this. around 50 Sq. surface rights for mining is over 501 sq. Adequacy of available resources of suitable commercial grades of bauxite.135 sq. gemstones. the active mining operation area is nearly 10% of this i. the reserves of existing minerals and new findings as well are likely to increase the resource potential of the state. Simultaneously. While about 10% of the forest area has been lost in the last 50 years. to meet the demand of proposed industries. Because of afforestation taken up by the mines and their concern as organized sector for forest conservation. gold (Keonjhar.e.8 sq.
this study is being taken up. (+42) . 42.20 million tonnes mined with chromite. of active operating mines 2(+3) 1 7(+1) 18* 26 2 11 57 49(42) 25 19 3(+4) 4 ** 56 (Figures in million tonnes) 2000-01 2003-04 2.196 0. Sundergarh. The areas of unorganized mining activity of murrom.China clay with fire clay. mining activities are negligible. 46. (+1) .034 14. (+4)-pyrophyllite with quartzite * Pyroxynite .003 0. ** Soapstone .031 0. 59.01%. Fortunately in the districts like Boudh. about 2.32%. which would be substantial when taken together. Mineral revenue earned by 210 .24 0.26% respectively are taken into consideration.few thousands tonnes mined only. 67. 43.14 % respectively.20 10. Kandhamala.0061 1.230 0.19%. simultaneously taking care for forest and environment.2.0 60. laterites.83% and 49.27 0.iron ore with manganese ore.050 0.57% & 13.89 2.bauxite with iron & manganese ore. bauxite.698 0.2 Mineral Production Minerals Bauxite Beach sand China clay Chromite Coal Dolomite Fire Clay Graphite Iron Ore Limestone Manganese ore Pyrophyllite Soapstone Quartz & Quartzite No.036 0.9 4.95 2. There has been need for super imposing mining areas and mineral zones over forest map of these districts to assess the exact impact of mining activities in forest areas.0.125 (+3) .68%.079 0.20%. This should help in proper development of mining activities. It may be seen that during last 2 years.88 45. TABLE: 8. Gajapati. coal and iron ore have recorded remarkable step-up in production. Deogarh.94 0. Nayagarh & Sambalpur having forest cover of 41. Angul & Jharsuguda where the forest cover is 40.0 1.084 0. Sundergarh.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING If the active mining zones of major mining districts like Keonjhar.26 % of forest area of these districts come under mining activities. chromite.10 2. (ii) Mineral production Present day mining activities can be assessed from the mineral production for the years 2000-01 and 2003-04 as placed in Table 8.40 34. In the major mining districts like Keonjhar. have not been taken into consideration. 41. stone quarries and other small mines dispersed throughout the state.546 0.17%.
TABLE: 8. This impact would 211 . These are mostly worked manually or semi-mechanized/mechanized methods.31 crores to 550.27 32. except a few old underground mines for coal.06 0. 1996-97 and 2003-04 are placed below indicating the growth trend of mining activities in the state. Minerals Bauxite Beach sand Chromite Coal Dolomite Iron Ore Limestone Manganese 1987-88 0. Similarly there are steps taken for beneficiation/washing/up-gradation of mined out materials depending upon available grades and market demand. cement and power sectors. manganese ore & beach sand would increase at a comparatively slower rate.1 1. 3.6 8.7 2003-04 4. iron ore.98 8. shape and size of the exploitable mineral/ore bodies.0 1. 6. while only coal accounts for 70% of this revenue collection. 7. dolomite. (iii) Growth potential The production figures in million tonnes of 8 major minerals mined in the state for the years 1987-88.8 0.6 0. while that of limestone. quantity of excavated material and their handling etc. Concentration of mines.3 1.72 crores rupees.4 0. Depending upon reserves and grades available.7 2. Similar considerations would also guide future developments of mining activities in the state.9 0. 4. tonnage produced.6 0.3 Mining growth trends in Orissa Sl.7 Growth trend High Low High High Low High Low Low With available resources and the market demand arising from growth in aluminum.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING the state during this period has increased from 360.5 1.0 2. 2. (iv) Mining activity zones The state possesses varieties of minerals dispersed throughout.36 37. mining activities of bauxite. No. in a mineral-bearing zone are proportionately responsible for environmental impact in the region.23 3. chromite & coal would positively increase at a faster rate in coming 10 to 15 years. 8.9 0.3 60.17 11.24 0. 1.5 1996-97 2. steel and ferroalloys. mining activities are mostly under progress in small or large opencast mines. 5.
present status and future potential of each zone are briefly indicated in the Table 8. Though afforestations & reclamation have been attempted by many individual mines. Regional impact surveys need to be carried out in 4 sub-areas. The minerals mined. 16 mining zones have been indicated in the map of Orissa (Fig-8. i) Joda-Barbil area. land degradation and deforestation vis-à-vis reclamation and afforestations are not being planned & executed in a regional scale essential for the effective land use planning of the area for sustainable development. f. Sundergarh Iron & Manganese ore area. Local tribal people continue to be poor and there is not much of improvement in their standard of living. State & Impact a. though the observations at monitoring points are within the norms. loading and transfer points. Infrastructure like road. SPM level goes up to 1000 mg/m3.(North) East of ii) Khandbandh-Matangtoli(South) Koli River iii) Barsua-Kalta area (North) 212 . but silica content is expected to be low. All the mines operating under consent of Orissa State Pollution Control Board (OSPCB) are complying to the stipulated conditions. Localized dust levels are very high at crusher.4. b. e. d. Education and medical facilities need improvements. c. While zone-1 indicates highest mining activity. while the performance of major mines particularly Joda-East of TISCO and Barasua & Bolani of SAIL have been appreciable.1). TSS often goes up to 1000 mg/lit. the least is zone 16. Mining activities over the years & recent crushers and sponge iron plants are positively having environmental & socio-economic impacts. Air pollution is a major issue in all most all mines. Rivers & rivulets carry heavy suspended particles of iron oxide and look red in rainy season. Taking into account the above facts. water & power supply is in very bad condition & deserve attention. RPM is also high. g. often it is just around 600 mg/m3.4 Zone-wise Present Status and Future Potential of Mining Areas (i) Zone Zone-1 Keonjhar. TABLE: 8.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING increase further with additional mining activities in case available resource potential is high in the zone.
Combustion of coal in summer adds heat to environment besides air pollutions from burning of coal. handling. This area is already considered as ‘Hot spot’ from pollution point of view. Development of new mines and industries like thermal power plants. Coal washeries etc. Jharsuguda coalfield area. in summer season. At places it goes even higher beyond the standard. the washout of mining areas and drain water from workshops & townships ultimately goes to the river. general complaint of increasing temperature in the locality is linked to coal mining activity. Air pollution of localized nature in mining areas. the pollution level is not very serious except localized impacts. The mines are well organized with respect to treatment of hexavalent chromium in the surface 213 (iii) Zone-3 Sambalpur. Suspended solid are less than 100 mg/lit while COD and BOD is often observed to be high. Because of less number of mines. This being a hot area. The coalfield of Ib valley area of Brajarajnagar and Belpahar is considered to be highly polluting because of both air and water pollutions. stockpiles and loading areas are having appreciable dust level in the air. crushers. Besides air pollution. conveyers. Combustion of coal also adds to air pollution besides heat. SPM level in many places are more than 450 micro gm/m3 which goes up to 580. though the mines of this region meet the stipulated conditions. Though coal mines are not having any effluents discharged. Carrying capacity study of this area is also essential. (iv) Zone-4 . There are reports of air pollution & lowering of water table due to mining. Lowering of water table is often being reported during summer seasons. Lowering of water table is also a concern. silica level is also high. The coal washeries coming up in the locality may add in future. in this already polluted area deserves carrying capacity study.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING iv) KhandadharMankarnacha (South West of Koli river (ii) Zone-2 Angul Talcher coalfield area. RPM is often seen to be around 200 micro gm/m3. Besides. Local people have often expressed opposition to development of new mines for loss of valuable land possessed by them. coal dust. the river Brahmani passing through the area also gets polluted. besides rehabilitation of displaced persons for development of new mines.
The bauxite areas devoid of any vegetation after mining.e. The other impacts from socio-economic considerations are also identical to d. this zone being a tribal belt opposition against development of mines & industry is mostly linked with their economic and social issues. Limestone mines of Umpavalli being small and localized is not of serious consideration. Pollution of river Salandi have been under control and not much problem expected in future. Minimum 3 bauxite mines are likely to come up in the zone in coming 10-15 years. Air pollution is much below the standard and there is zero discharge. the mines have significant success in environment management. Small mines of chromite and soapstone mostly in organized sector have taken adequate environmental protection measures. These proposed mines are bound to have same or better environment management system than Panchapatmalu bauxite mines. (viii) Zone-8 Gandhamardhan & adjacent areas of iron ore in Keonjhar . These mines are fulfilling their social and environment responsibility. Only large-scale mine operating in Panchapatmali hill. (v) Zone-5 Koraput Rayagada Kalahandi Bauxite area. The points dealt in d. In reclamation of mined out area. However. Air pollution is of localized nature and not very serious. its rehabilitation and afforestation this mine has achieved significant success and has received various awards of state and even Indira Gandhi Paryavaran Puraskar. of zone-1. has excellent environmental management system. This area is likely to be a major mining belt for the newly proposed industries and hence adequate pollution control measures need to be 214 (vi) Zone-6 Biramitrapur Limestone & Dolomite belt (vii) Zone-7 Baula-Nuasahi chromite belt of Keonjhar and adjacent Balasore district.f in zone 1 are also applicable to this zone. water drainage.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING Jajpur. The hexavalent chromite problem is not a serious issue in this area. This zone has very small iron ore mines with no reported pollution or environment issue so far. Much increase in impact is not expected in future.Dhenkanal & Keonjhar Chromite area. Biramitrapur limestone and dolomite area being the oldest mining area of the state with recent stress on environment care and plantation activities. the areas can be developed into well grown forests. Hence environmental impact of bauxite mines may not pose any serious problem.f.e.
With the limitations of manpower & infrastructure of OSPCB.e. Major mines obtaining environment clearance from MOEF are also inspected and monitored by this office. Large scale working in future and mostly mining in Gopalpur area is not considered to have serious impact in future. The dimensional stone quarries being very small mines away from habitational areas have very little impact. Similarly certain aspects of environment are being inspected by officers of Directorate General Mine Safety (DGMS) and Directorate of Mines Orissa. However the point’s d. Iron ore & China clay area. Regarding forest i. Though this is one of the oldest mining area in this state. It has been working with pollution free environment and has been meeting desired norms of Pollution Control Board.4 Environmental Impact Status The zones from 1 to 16 in Table 8. first ten zones (1-10) deserve serious consideration. Future development potential is very less.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING district. In this context. IBM through its regional office at Bhubaneswar also looks into the environment management of mines. present day activities are of limited scale in small open cast mines of iron ore & china clay dispersed distance apart.4 are in decreasing order considering environmental impacts today and in future years.e. Further. while remaining six zones may not pose much environmental impact even in next 10 to 15 years. 215 . enforced. Government of India (MOEF) at Bhubaneswar. this huge task is also not possible to be taken up. 8. Besides there are many small quarries in unorganized sector and do not come under environmental supervision/monitoring. Nearly 50% of the operating mines in the state are yet to come under the consent administration of the State Pollution Control Board. The OSCOM mine of Indian Rare Earths Limited is the only large-scale mine. Meeting the stipulated standards these mines do not pose much of problem in future. & district level state government officers have watch over impacts of mining sector in the locality. local bodies. deforestations and afforstations in acquired forest areas for mining is seen by the State Forest Department and Regional office of Ministry of Environment & Forests.f of zone 1 is to be considered. NGOs. (x) Zone-10 Beach sand mining area of Ganjam district and adjacent Puri district. (ix) Zone-9 Mayurbhanj district.
State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING 9 1 6 3 7 4 8 2 14 11 12 13 5 16 10 15 Figure – 216 .
Large scale mechanized iron ore mines (zone-1) having beneficiation plants have developed tailing dams and adopt zero discharge practice. Panchpatmali (NALCO). Environmental degradations associated with mining. all mines out of 154 being monitored by their regional offices comply to sanction conditions of clearance and consent. which cannot be fully recovered. Various projects to assess environmental impact of mining have been initiated like regional impact studies. over burden and low-grade ores in a planned way while contaminated water containing hexavalent chromium is treated effectively before discharged to natural watercourse. loss of soil. The major achievements so far in this process of strict monitoring by OSPCB & IBM are: Chromite mines of Sukinda area (zone-4) conserve nickeliferous laterite. Nandira river which was highly polluted a decade back is now having clear water of class-C river quality. Valuable topsoil and usable land is lost forever. Impact of ground water table by mining is also being monitored. Many mines of state have received state and even national awards. 217 .State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING As per records of OSPCB. Thakurani mines of OMDC etc. haulage and handling and also combustion of coal in working faces and stockpiles. etc.5 Unlike other industrial sectors. On the other hand certain improvement in environment management by the mines have been achieved due to efforts of OSPCB. socioeconomic impact on tribal community around mining zones. Dungri limestone mines (ACC) and most of the coal mines of MCL. Barsua & Bolani mines (SAIL). Besides air and water pollutions. limestone mines (zone-6) & bauxite mine (zone-5) is under control and the mines adopt zero discharge system. Dust pollution of all the major iron ore mines of (zone-1). Serious violation/impact and pollutions have not been reported in recent past. Large scale mechanized coalmines of MCL in Talcher and Ib valley area (Zones 2 &3) adopt water sprinkling to prevent air pollutions from dust generated during mining. degradation/disfiguring of surface area and deforestation. mining activity particularly opencast mines draw special attention from environmental degradation point of view. ground water monitoring. Reclamation and rehabilitation along with afforestations have been generally practised with commendable achievements by Joda East (TISCO). Natural drainage system and ground water table is disturbed which not only affects the inhabitants in close proximity but also people living in faraway places. it involves excavations of land. - - - - - 8.
Often they do not come under notice of statutory agencies. pollutions in the major water sources or rivers. and regional impact of concentrated mining activities in a locality deserve greater attention. Loss of topsoil in the process from extensive areas is a great loss. the impact is not perceived to be serious. surrounding areas are also affected due to changes in surface drainage pattern. 218 . These locations being away from habitational areas. Help of satellite imagery can be taken for periodical assessment & planning. The new forests do not have branches. There are pockets having SPM level much above the standards.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING Rehabilitation has been a serious issue in coal mining areas of Talcher. haulage roads. and stockpiles will help in dust suppression. Besides individual mines. There are many small mines and crushers in the major mining belts causing air pollution. fruits & flowers to attract the fauna. In the regional scale. if planned growth of mining activities with dust control measures are not envisaged. research and attention are required in this front. washouts and new gullies formed. transfer points. The impact on ground water table. There is no mechanism to monitor that these are being strictly followed. This is more important particularly in zones 1 to 10 where the future growth of mining activity is expected. surplus water can be used for sprinkling and plantation activities. Dusts generated can be segregated & handled immediately. Land degradation & surface distortions due to mining activity is not taken very seriously. rehabilitation and afforestations cannot bring back normalcy for sustaining the local habitat. Similar is the case of land degradation. Air pollutions can be easily controlled by reducing dust generation at the time of mining operation through controlled blasting. Adequate monitoring. Even the measures taken for reclamation. Sprinkling at dust generation points. use of ripper dozer& surface miners etc. as it may differ from zone to zone. the active mining area. it may be alarming in future. which disturb the land use pattern. land use and land reclamation of mining areas. this aspect should be planned and executed in regional scale. IBM approves the mining plan with scheme for mine closure. Similarly water pollution can also be easily controlled by garland drains around the mines to prevent surface runoff water entering mines to get polluted. Periphery barriers and green belts may protect the surrounding areas from dusts. Besides. Drainage control within the mines and then adopting zero discharge system. Covers can be used in drills and handling areas. Angul and Jharsuguda.
In the process and with the influence of NGOs. simultaneous development of the area and generation of employment. The state is rich in mineral resources. b) Recently there has been sudden increase in demand of iron ore. power. New mines coming up would have to take adequate measures and develop EMS to meet the stringent stipulations of statutes. most of the mines have adopted environment management system. Hence Government desires to utilize mineral resources through mining and establishment of industries to produce value added items. Many mines.7 (i) DPSIR Elaboration Driving forces a) Orissa is considered as a poor state. There is awareness amongst both workers and management. 8. environment awareness is also growing within the community around the mines. As a result the mines are meeting the consent conditions. At the same time statutory authorities have to help in promotion of mining activities for achieving sustainable development. The only concern is the small mines and quarries operating in unorganized sector. In this situation available resources are to be utilized. This would also help in developing understanding between the mines and communities. The state as per industrial policies is attracting investment of multinational and national corporate houses for mining and establishing mineral based industries in steel. The objective is to generate income for the state. IBM is organizing Environment Awareness Programme every year and holds regional competition amongst mines where the best performing units are rewarded. because percentage in BPL category is high and the state does not have adequate resources to execute development projects for upliftment of people. Such rise in demand drives the local mines to 219 .6 Environmental Management in Mines Irrespective of mineral mined and the size. aluminum and infrastructure sectors. All the mines in organized sector are conscious that their survival depends on sound environmental management and community development programmes.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING 8. The air and water pollution and restoration of degraded land is never taken seriously by these units. State and Central Government have to take these activities into consideration. mostly large scale mechanized and medium scale semimechanized mines have gone for ISO 14000 certification of EMS and trying to improve their performance. Even there was demand of low-grade ores & fines due to growth of steel sector and export to China.
State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING increase production and dispatch even beyond the approved quantities. As a result. 3. the general points dealing with socio-economic aspects. Remaining zones 6 to 10 do not pose any serious problem today. drainage etc.5. Loss of soil. Hence. particularly large-scale mechanized mines. The heavy transport in roads not ready for this additional traffic had very adverse impact in the region. forest and agriculture would have serious impact for the future generation when the region would have to sustain a larger population. Old mines. impact on environment is very less. Lack of Infrastructure matching to mining and industrial activities has adverse impact in the locality. However.4. Regional impact assessment of these mining zones is immediately necessary before planning of future industrial activities. infrastructure development etc for these zones need to be examined and improved like the zones 1-10 indicated in the above table confining only to mining areas. would increase the pollution load. Movement of heavy vehicular traffic would bring disturbs the local life style. In the zones 11 to 16 the mining activities are confined to small pockets and are not concentrated at one place. Specific feature/resources and mines are compiled in Table 8. Mine owners. as the mining activities are in low key and are not expected to increase much in coming 10-15 years. c) Till date no facilities could be developed for rail movement and road is not suitable for heavy load and higher number of plying of trucks. 220 . iii) State and Impact State of environment of the mining zones 1 to 10 are considered to be important from environment point of view. pollution increases in mining areas by handling of fines. which may lead to increased water pollution. (ii) Pressure Increase in production and new mines. Local opposition to mining projects indicate such apprehensions by the communities in above zones. Out of these zones 1 to 5 are considered to be really alarming. dumps. Air pollution would be more. Zonewise mines. would be disturbed. This has been observed over last decade in many mining areas of zone 2. A summary of the state and impacts on environment are placed in Table 8. transporters and traders want immediate/short term benefit over looking environment impact and problems faced by others. 4 & 5.
Balkundi and Bhadrasahi mines of OMDC Joda East. Joda west & Khandbandh mines of TISCO Dalki. Katasahi. Kolmong. Gonua mines of Maitri Sukla Balda mines of M/s. Badamgarh pahar. Malda. Manmora Tiringpahar. SGBK. c) Bauxite Small pockets of bauxite occurs with reserves around 10 million tones around Kuanar & Tensa. Dalki & Thakurani in Keonjhar district with reserves of about 20 million tonnes Patamunda. Sakradihi. Katamati Joda East Bolani.S Alluwalia Thakurani mines of SL & ML Sarada Patabeda mines of MG Mohanty Raikela & Jorani mines of G. j. Katamati & Khandbandh mines of TISCO Bolani Barsua and Kalta mines of SAIL Jilling Langlota.Thakurani. Patraposi Group & others in Sundergarh district with known reserves of about 742 million tones. KantherKoira. Joda West. b) Manganese ore . Kyanite 221 Major/ important mines Iron ore Thakurani. Malda. Bhadresahi & SG BK mines of OMC Dalki mines of OMDC Silijora-Kalamati. d. Lainjar Kiora Bhanja Kusum and many other small mines. Deojhar mines of Tarini Minerals. Podadih & Sarakanda of Sundergarh district with known reserves of about 12 million tones. a) Iron Ore . Silijora-Kalimati. k. Serenda. d) Other minerals present are quartzite. Sirajuddin Nuagoan Mines of K. c. khandbandh. Specific features. Ghoriajor-lainger. Dubna. Manganese ore Bamebari. Orahari. Baliapathar. Orghat. Small quantities of bauxite is also produced. Rungta & sons. Jorrudi. f. Sakradihi. i. n. BasadaDiringburu-Mithurda. Balda-Palsa.5 Zone wise Mines and Deposits Zone Zone-1 Keonjhar Sundergarh Iron & Manganese belt. l. Mahulsuka.N. Joribahal. h. e. Malangtoli. Mohanty & mines of OCL & others . Khandabour. Bauxite f) Small mines of bauxite at San-Indupur of Rungata. S. Goniajhar. Mankarnacha and others in Keonjhar district with known reserves of about 2327 million tones of iron ore .BarsuaKalta. SeremndaBhadrasahi. m.Dubna. g. Jajang mines of Rungta bothers Patamunda. Deposits/Resources Major mining area of the state for iron and manganese ores. b.Jajang. SerendaBhadrasahi. San-Indupur mines of M/s. Orahuri. Kasia.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING TABLE: 8.Jilling. Khandadhar. khandbandh. mines of OMC TRB iron ore mines Jindal Jajanga. Barapada Koira & Roida of ESSEL mining BPJ iron ore. Belkundi. Roida. Bhadrasahi.K Mohanty a. Mohulsuka Nuagaon.
Quartzite & Lime stone. k) This zone is already considered to be highly polluted areas because of coalmines and Thermal Power Plants located in the areas.iii.Under ground Talcher-Under ground Handidhua-Under ground Hingula. while all these belong to MCL.Private sector captive coalmines with Thermal power plants are proposed with coal reserves of about 21310 million tonnes in the area.Open cast Bharatpur. l) Private sector mines & coal washeries may come in near future.iv U.Open cast South Balanda.open cast Hirakhand-Bundia. volume/quantity handled is higher including waste. j) Small occurrences of quartzite. Dolomite & Limestone reserves of Baragarh are 50 & 60 million tones respectively. This would enhance mining and power generation in the area.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING Zone –2 Angul.Open cast Lingaraj. g) Though numbers of mines are less compared to zone-1. It is a critical area from environmental consideration for Hirakud Kalinga-Open cast Ananta. Coal mines of MCL Belpahad-open cast Lajkura-open cast Lilari-open cast Lakhanpur-open cast Samaleswari. beryl etc are reported but not being worked.ii.Talcher Coal field area Zone-3 Sambalpur.Open cast Deulbera-Under ground Nandira.Under ground Himgiri-under ground Orient-i. Substantial quantity of other minerals produced are Fireclay.open cast Utkal & Adjacent areas New private mines for captive power plants are being developed.Open cast Jagannath. i) Besides coal other small workings are of fireclay.G Basundhara-(E) Coal mines of Indal -Talabira.open cast Fire clay mines of Belpahar of TRL Quartzite Chuimpal Quartzite Jharsuguda-TRL Lime stone. h) The local mines are mostly open cast of large sizes and mechanized. Coal reserves of 26579 million tones open prospects of further development of mining activities. Pyrophyllite etc with less reserves and small operating mines. except few under ground mines.This zone comes after Talcher area because of less production of coal.Open cast Chendipada-open cast Kaniha. Jharsuguda and Baragarh area around Hirakud Reservoir & IB river valley.Dungri-ACC Zinc-Sargipalli of HZL (closed) 222 . . .open cast Natraj.
Baphlimali of Utkal Alumina. Pottangi. Karlpat of another alumina plant are likely to be developed very soon.Increase in production of coal and proposed thermal Power Plants and aluminium smelters in the areas would increase the pollution load. 223 .open cast (OC) Facor Sukinda. Limestone of Sunki area with 63 million tonnes has potential for increasing mining activities. Includes Daitari and Tomka iron ore area. Number of small graphite mines of various companies. Chrome and iron ore resources are around 158 million tonnes 46 million tonnes respectively. With high chromite potential due to continuation at depth mining would continue for a long time with Under ground working. this zone has scope for development of number of large mechanized Bauxite mines along with alumina plants.open cast (OC) IDC Saruabil.open cast (OC) Ispact alloy Iron ore Daitari opon cast OMC Tomka. Zone-4 Jajpur. Potential of graphite has not been established in detail while manganese resources are about 17 million tonnes. Nishikhal Manganese mine of OMC Umpavalli limestone mines of OMC & IDC etc.open cast (OC) OMC Sukrangi.open cast (OC) -B.open cast (OC) OMC Kathpal. Sukinda Chromite belt and adjacent mines of quartzite & fireclay. Maliparbat Kisunali & other small bauxite deposits are also likely to be mined soon.open cast (OC) -OMC Kalrangi. only bauxite mine at panchaptmali.open cast (OC) OMC Kathpal. Accordingly this zone with much resource is of concern from environmental point of view.open cast (OC) –OMC Kamarda. . Available bauxite resources are more than 1 billion tones. Kodinga mali of Aditya aluminium. limestone and graphite are being mined in small quantities. Besides. Other resources of manganese. The chromite mines as source of hexavalent chromite is considered to be environmentally hazardous. Chromite mines Kaliapani-open cast (OC) -OMC South Kaliapani. Dhenkanal and Keonjhar Trijunctian area. This zone has high potential for nickel and platinum group.C Mohanty Ostapal.Imfa Kaliapani chromite-Jindal Sukinda.Open cast OMC Quartzite in Jajpur area small mines Zone-5 Koraput Rayagada kalahandi Bauxite area Panchapatmali bauxite mine of Nalco.Tisco Sukinda-Imfa Chingudipal. Pyroxenite is mined in the chromite area. Lanjgarh of Vedanta. Kutrumali Sijimali of L&T.open cast (OC) Facor Tailangi.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING reservoir.
K. a. Local opposition to bauxite mine development and socio economic upliftment of the poor tribal people of the locality has been of serious concern. Lal Small mines of limestone and dolomite & working quarries of quartz/quartzites also exist. Large ore body has potential for developing large mechanized operation linked with proposed steel plants & export. Khandikunia soapstone mine. e. Zone-8 Gandhamardhan and adjacent areas of Keonjhar district. 224 . Resources of gold and other not assessed. Pandupani Jadunathpur. Bangur chromite OMC Nuasahi chromite IMFA Baula chromite. Soapstone is being locally worked in the area. b. Gandhamardan iron our deposit as a single with more than 250 million tonnes reserves.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING Zone-6 Biramitrapur Limestone & Dolomite belt Zone-7 Baula-Nuasahi chromite belt of Keonjhar and adjacent Balasore district. Gandhamardan iron ore mines of OMC Besides gold. It is one of the oldest mining area of the state b. Small quartzite quarries are operating in the zone while resources are not properly assessed. Gomordih limestone/dolomite mine TISCO Bisra stone & Lime-OMDC Lanjiberna Lime stone & dolomite-OCL Purnapani limestone.SAIL Kathakhurbahal-Siva cement Jalangbira Lime stone & dolomite mine Tanmura limestone & dolomite areas V. c. d. Chanchabani and other small china clay mines.OMC Baula Chromite-Facor N\Bangur chromite. Pollution of mines and industrial activity in the zone is considered to be significant. There is potential for vanadiferrous magnetite. d. Joshipur. Available resources of dolomite and limestone are about 360 and 400 million tonnes respectively. c. All the mines are open case and being captive would continue for long time Expansion of capacities is most likely to increase production. Kyanite and small mines of minor minerals are worked locally. It has potential for Nickel and Platinum group of elements. Zone-9 Northern part of the state in Mayurbhanj district. Ghusuria. Baghajhumpa quartz/quartzite mines. Gorumahisani.ICCL Small quarries of soapstone. Rugudi Jaslipur. Chromite was first worked out Baula and total resources of chromite in this zone is around 10 million tones. Sulaipat and Badampahar iron ore mines. a.
Mining activities are confined to small operations of graphite and quartzite. Besides Dudkanal graphite mine there are numbers of small graphite operations. It has the only beach sand mining in the state with adequate resources not assessed so far. c. Sillimanite. There are small quarries of china clay in pockets small dimensional stone quarries exist in the Ganjam. Sekamal & Nuapara quartizite mines are operating producing small quantities. Besides graphite there are potential for manganese. a. a) OSCOM beach sand mine of Indian Rare Earth Limited producing ilmenite/rutile. Development of Gandhramardan bauxite mine by Balco has been stopped due to local opposition Buramal. Zone-11 Tumudibandh Graphite area Zone-12 Bolangir Baragarh areas There are number of small open cast manual mines. Graphite is being worked in small quarries. Graphite mines of Tumudibandh area is being worked by 3 to 4 parties for last 20 years. Small operating quarries are not reported and recorded from environmental consideration. which occur in small pockets. Gandhamardhan bauxite with reserves of over 200 million tones is the most potential mining area. b) Dimensional stone mines are being developed. This may bring TiO2 & allied industries in future. Iron ore of this area was first worked by TISCO. 225 . The mining activity is in low key today. It has potential for lead and limestone. Granite is also obtained from small quarries. Dimensional stones are also mined. Forest conservation has limited mining activities for last 10-15 years. garnet besides zircon & Monazite. Gajapati & adjacent areas.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING Zone-10 Gopalpur coastal area of Ganjam district and adjacent Puri district. Zone-13 Kalahandi district around Titlagarh Graphite and gemstones are worked in number of small quarries for which resources are not yet assessed. it has potential for gold. Similarly soap stones & quartz is also being mined. b. The resources are not assessed. copper vanadiferrous magnetite and asbestos. Besides left out iron ore of about 15 million tones China clay is being exploited in small quarries.
besides gold. Very less mining activities so far and would also not increases as the area does not have much of mineral potential. Regional Impact Assessment is to be periodically taken up in zones 1 to 5. where land use and forest cover in mining areas need to be assessed by satellite imagery. Reclamation. gemstones and dimensional stones Kalasulia quartzite is the only operating small open cast mine of ICCL. Nuapara district. tin ores of Malkangiri bauxite of Khariar. diamond and gold besides gems stones and dimensional stones Mining activities continued in the past for fire clay and china clay. It has potential for coal. afforestation. Carrying capacity study is essential before any new mine or industry comes up in zones 1 to 5. has potential. It has been good potential for limestone & dolomite mining with resources of Nuapara 10 million tonnes. graphite. Response and Recommendations • • Attention for small mines & quarries in unorganized sector is urgently required. Nawarangapur 14 million tonnes & Malkangiri 250 million tonnes. Resources are very less. Small occurrences of graphite. Sonepur & Phulbani area Zone-15 Cuttack adjacent Dhenkanal areas & Khurda district Zone-16 Western Orissa. was quarried for some time. Stone and murrom quarries and crushers are in good numbers. It has small bauxite deposits like Anamanipahar. drainage control. China clay of Nawarangapur iron ore of Hirapur. Malkalgiri & Nawarangapur. Fire clay Talabasta Gopalpur quarry is mines mines do not operate except & Telesinga fire clay mine. diamond. This cluster approach of environment management can be planned & executed collectively by the mines of the area under supervision and monitoring of statutory agencies. Quartzite & dolomite is mined today. 226 • • . Tin exploitation at Malkangiri has stopped. which have to be taken jointly by group of mines of a locality.State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING Zone-14 Boudh. waste dumping. mine closure and land use planning are essential. rehabilitation. Quartzite & Banki dolomite operating in small open cast No significant mining activities except china clay and dimensional stones in small quarries & gemstones by trial and error method.
e. • • 227 .State of Environment Report Orissa CHAPTER – VIII MINING • Poor health. road. education and infrastructure i. Old abandoned areas of mines and quarries can be effectively planned for reclamation and converting into forest with water bodies and appropriate form of land use as per National Mineral Policy (1993) of Government of India. water and power supply in the mining areas of tribal belt need immediate attention for improvement. Occupational health aspects need to be monitored in major mines and mining zones.