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# Purpose: 1) Compare the theoretical and experimental velocities of a marble on a loop track.

2) Compare the theoretical and experimental minimum heights required for a marble to complete a loop on a loop track. Background: Potential energy on Earth is mathematically related by the equation U=mgh (U = potential energy in Joules, m = mass in kilograms, g = acceleration due to gravity & h = height in meters). The minimum height that an object must be released from to complete the loop can be related with the equation h = 2.5r (h = height in meters, r = radius of the loop in meters). Materials: y CPO Science Timer y CPO Science Loop Track y (1) CPO Science Photogate y Marble Procedure: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Data: Diameter of marble: 0.0191 cm Mass of marble: 0.0282 kg 20cm 1 0.0132s 2 0.0132s 3 0.0132s Average of trials 0.0132s 1.45m/s Velocity Trial 40cm 0.0091s 0.0091s 0.0091s 0.0091s 2.10m/s 60cm 0.0077s 0.0076s 0.0077s 0.0077s 2.48m/s 68cm 0.0076s 0.0076s 0.0076s 0.0076s 2.513m/s 84cm 0.0090s 0.0090s 0.0091s 0.0090s 2.10m/s 99cm 0.0114s 0.0112s 0.0111s 0.0112s 1.705m/s Clamp the end of the looped ramp to the stand mount. Measure vertical distance from top of loop to lab table. Set up photogate at 20 cm. Attach cables from photogate to CPO Science Timer. Release the marble at the top of the ramp. Record the time elapsed as measured by the photogate. Reset the screen by clearing the time. Repeat Steps 5-7 for (3) trials. Repeat Steps 4-8 with photogate set at 40cm, 68cm, 84cm, AND 99cm.

y y

## Cambridge Physics Outlet Physics Stand Ruler

Position on loop track (cm) 0 20 40 60 68 (Bottom of loop) 84 (Halfway up loop) 99 (Top of loop)

Distance from lab table (m) 0.547 0.405 0.264 0.123 0.087 0.205 0.308

60 68 84 99 Position on loop track (cm) 20 40 Theoretical Velocity (m/s) 1.67 2.36 2.88 3.0 2.59 2.16 Potential Energy (J) Theoretical Minimum Height (m) 0.35 0.39 Experiment Height (m) WorkFRICTION (Potential Energy) 0.011 J Analysis/Observations: Part I: The velocity was greatest at the bottom of the loop because the majority of the marbles potential energy had been converted to kinetic energy at that point. Conversely, the velocity was least at the 20cm mark of the track because the marble had the greatest potential energy compared to all the other points where velocity was measured. The theoretical velocities were higher than the experimentally measured velocities due to the neglect of friction in the respective calculations. Part II: Friction slowed the speed of the marble so that releasing marble at the theoretical height needed to complete the loop did not result in the marble actually completing the loop. Conclusion: The experimental velocity of a marble in a loop was compared to its theoretical velocity by using the law of conservation of energy, which assures that the potential energy of an object at the loop of a loop will be fully converted into kinetic energy at the bottom of the loop. 0.097 0.108

The theoretical minimum height that the marble needed to be released was calculated by using the equation h=2.5r, where as the actual height was determined through trial and error. The work done by friction is the differences in potential energy of the marble at select points on the loop, as the law of conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy in an isolated system remains constant over time.