3 Structure & function of organelles

(k) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (j) (i) (f) (g) (h)

Controls the cell activity…


Only present in eukaryotic cell. Usually one nucleus per cell. Contains chromosome (DNA).
– Enclosed by nuclear membrane



6 . The chromosome contains genetic codes to control synthesis of protein and enzymes.Controls the cellular activity and cell division.

The most dense part in the nucleus. RNA & protein 7 . Compose of DNA.

Ribosomal subunit pass through nuclear pores to the cytoplasm 8 . Ribosome protein imported from the cytoplasm then combined with rRNA in nucloelus to form ribosomal subunits 3. Starting with production of rRNA 2.1.

Double membrane Inner membrane Outer membrane • continuous with ER and covered with ribosome. 9 .

10 .Have numerous pore (nuclear pore) Regulates exchange of material between nucleoplasm and cytoplasm.

11 .

12 . Semiautonomous organelle – grow and reproduced in cell.Abundant in metabolically active cell.

Contains DNA.Enclosed by inner membrane of mitochondria. enzymes used for Krebs cycle. ribosomes. Highly permeable to small solutes. folded Also known as cristae. Contain enzymes involved in cellular 13 respiration. Narrow region. Reflects the solutes composition in cytosol. Smooth. .

14 .

15 .

16 .

17 .within the cell little net Network of membranous tubules and flattened sacs (cisternae) The ER membrane separate the internal compartment of ER lumen (cisternal space) from cytosol.

18 .

RER is the site for protein synthesis which are packaged up in membranous vesicles prominent in cells that manufacture proteins for export 19 .

metabolism of carbohydrate. detoxification of drugs and poison. 20 .Smooth endoplasmic reticulum invloved in synthesis of lipids.

Detoxification – especially in liver cells. Store Ca+ ion for muscle contractionspecialized form of smooth ER known as sarcoplasmic reticulum 21 .Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Enzymes – important for lipid synthesis.

sorts and ships cells products … 22 .modifies.

cisternae Have two polar – cis face and trans face.Single membrane organelle Consist of stacked flattened membranous sacs . Sacs are not physically connected. Present in all cells. but is most prominent in those that are metabolically active 23 .

Located near endoplasmic reticulum. End of trans face. Receive vesicles from ER. cisternae pinched off to form secretory vesicle.Close to plasma membrane. 24 .

Function: The Golgi body modifies. sorts and ships cells products -Collects protein & lipids made in ER -The site of biochemicals synthesis: . repackaged into fresh vesicles 25 .additional substances are added to the products.

vesicles that contain material to form the cell plate 26 . 1. digestive enzymes of pancreatic juice 2..Produce..



Site of protein synthesis… 29 .

30 .

Consists of large subunit and small subunit. 31 .

proteins subsequently secreted outside the cell 32 . .Free ribosomes : suspended in cytosol. .site of synthesis of the protein retained within the cell Bound ribosome : attached to the cytoplasmic surface of RER and nuclear envelope.

Site of photosynthesis… 33 .

A type of plastids. 34 . Responsible for photosynthesis process. found in plants and algae Have double membrane.

Contains DNA.CHLOROPLAST … Integranal lamella structures inner membrane outer membrane Connects one granum to another granum. Photosynthetic pigment located on the membrane. enzymes and ribosomes. DNA Make the chloroplast has ability to replicate. 35 Flattened and interconnected sacs. . granum thylakoid Stacks of thylakoids stroma Fluid filled space.

CHLOROPLAST … functions Involved in photosynthesis process. 36 . Stroma is the site for light independent reaction process. -convert solar energy to chemical energy and synthesize new organic compounds Thylakoid captures light energy in light dependent reaction.

5 pH they require.Lysosome… Modified Membrane STRUCTURE Hydrolytic Enzyme  Lysosomes are cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes to break down waste materials and cellular debris. .  The membrane around a lysosome allows the digestive enzymes to work at the 4.

FUNCTION Contains digestive enzymes which can be used to digest invading cells or break down worn-out organelles (Autophagy) .

. Lysosome dispense their enzymes into the vacuoles. and digesting the contents.How its works! 1. Primary lysosome fuse with food vacuoles and form secondary Lysosome 2.

How its works! .

Digest the foreign particles engulf through phagocytosis 3.FUNCTION  Cellular digestion the digestion of macromolecules from phagocytosis  Phagocytosis 1. Example: WBC • cell's waste disposal system and can break up anything. digest foreign protens. or 2. . bacteria and virus which invaded the cell.

Example: the breakdown of the tail of tadpoles • cell's waste disposal system and can break up anything. allows an organism to eliminate worn-out cells or unwanted cell. Breakdown the old or damaged organelle. lysosome ruptures in a cell. a process in which a cell selfdestructs. it causes all of the cell's internal proteins to be digested. 2. 4. reused in the synthesis of new organelles.  Autolysis 1. . 3.FUNCTION  Autophagy 1.



Replicate during cell division. but must not be mandatory for this function since plants lack centrioles. May organize microtubule (spindle fibre) assembly during cell division. . composed of nine sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring.CENTRIOLE Pair of cylindrical structures located in the centrosome of in animal cells.

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