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# PHYSICS 357S - Problem Set #2 - February 2012

Distributed 1st February be handed in by 17th February before 17:00. Please have a look at the problem set when it comes out. Decide whether it is going to cause you trouble or not…. And ask questions well before the due date. The problem sets are supposed to give you an opportunity to ask questions. There are SEVEN questions. As usual, keep an eye out for typos! I am not a very good typist. The first two questions are just standard bookwork. BUT make sure you understand them! 1) In class we discussed how some of the kinetic energy of a beam particle colliding with a target particle can be transformed into the masses of new particles in the final state. Assume that a beam particle A of total energy E collides with a target particle B (remember the LAB is defined as the frame where the target is at rest.) New particles C1 , C2 ... are produced in the final state. We write this according to the notation: A + B → C1 + C2 + ... + Cn a) Show that the minimum energy E for A is E=

2 2 M 2 − mA − mB 2 c , where M ≡ m1 + m2 + ... + mn 2mB

This minimum energy is known as the Threshold Energy for producing the final state C1 + C2 + ... + Cn . b) We can imagine producing new particles by firing a beam of protons or pions into a target of liquid hydrogen. A liquid hydrogen target is just a target of stationary protons. Many new bound states of the various quarks were discovered in this way. Use the result above to determine the minimum momentum for the beam particles in the following experiments. Note that I miss out the "+" signs between the lists of particles in the initial and final states. a) pp → ppπ 0 b) pp → ppπ +π − c) π − p → ppn d) π − p → K 0 Σ 0 e) pp → pΣ + K 0 You can look particle masses and other properties at http://pdg.lbl.gov/ . I give a summary at the end of this assignment. It’s the same table you will get on the exam. To help, I also give them here: p is the symbol for the proton , mass = 938 MeV c 2 . n is the symbol for the neutron, mass = 939.6 MeV c 2 .

1

consider the particle in its rest-frame. and is massless. known as the anti-proton. it is like a heavy proton. mass = 498 MeV c 2 . y. p is the anti-particle of the proton. mass = 135 MeV c 2 π ± is the symbol for a charged pion. Σ is the sigma particle. the mass is 1189 MeV c 2 if it is charged. mass = 140 MeV c 2 K 0 is the symbol for a neutral Kaon. The Kaon is a meson. So the p has the same mass as the proton. or CM {centre-ofmass. mB . and rapidly decay.e. Anti-particles have the same masses as particles. and 1193 MeV c 2 if it is neutral. mC ) 2mA c λ ( x.. or centre-of-momentum} frame) decaying according to the scheme: A → BC Show that the energy of B is: EB = 2 2 2 mA + mB − mC 2 c 2mA and also show that the outgoing momentum are given by pb = pc = where 2 2 2 λ ( mA . 2 . z ) ≡ x 2 + y 2 + z 2 − 2 xy − 2 xz − 2 yz Use these results to find the energy in the CM frame of each decay product in the following reactions.π 0 is the symbol for the neutral pion. like the pion. Consider a particle A at rest (i. but opposite electric charges. a) D + → μ +ν μ b) π 0 → γγ c) K + → π 0π + d) Δ ++ → pπ + c) Ω − → ΛK + The μ has a mass of 106 MeV c 2 The photon γ is the quantum of light. but has a negative electric charge 2) The new particles produced in these experiments are often unstable.

The φ has a mass of 1020 GeV c 2 . Say we suspected. The proton is a familiar baryon. and assume that the K + and the K − . in the final state. π + p → K + K −π + p We would then reconstruct the invariant masses of the oppositely charged K mesons. The Ω − is also a baryon. independent of its electric charge. What is the invariant mass of the K + K − system? In fact there is a particle known as the φ meson. Very short lived particles can be produced. or predicted. The η 0 is in some way a heavy version of the π 0 The Δ ++ particle is in some way like a heavy proton. we could conclude that we had discovered the particle. We could search for this particle by firing pions into a liquid hydrogen target. and we detect their presence by looking for a peak in the invariant mass of the products of the decay. and that they have momenta 10. but it is a strange baryon. and 5. it’s so small that you can assume that it is zero). 3 . A state made of three quarks is called a baryon. It has a mass of 1672 MeV c 2 . In fact it can be considered as an excited state of the proton.ν μ is massless (well. It carries three units of this strangeness quantum number.3° between them . and build up a histogram of the invariant mass distribution over many events. Take the mass of the K meson to be 493 MeV/c2. is necessarily conserved in a relativistic collision. So neither the number of particles. The K + is distinguished from the π + not only by being heavier. The K + and π + are mesons. If the invariant mass showed an enhancement at some mass. Do you think this one event would persuade you of the existence of the φ ? Explain why or why not.0 GeV/c. Consider one event. that there was a particle which decayed to an oppositely charged pair of K mesons.0 GeV/c respectively. but it also carries one unit of a quantum number called strangeness. in the LAB. 3) In relativistic collisions the kinetic energy of the colliding particles can be transformed into the mass of new particles. nor the total mass. The mass is 1232 MeV c 2 . which consists of a s-quark and an anti-s quark bound together by the colour force. are produced so that they have an angle of 6. It has the quark structure (uuu). we will learn that this means they are made up of a quark and an anti-quark.

what structure size could we resolve? How does that compare with the present limits on the size of a quark? c) Calculate the velocity of the electrons as they exit from the accelerator. the Ω − . if the proton is at rest? (b) Suppose the K 0 travels at 0. The Ω − was discovered in the reaction. However. Hint: use a Lorentz transformation to take the pions from the K 0 rest frame to the LAB. e) How far would the electrons have to travel in this field in order to reach the same velocity if Newtonian mechanics applied? f) Estimate the length of the one “arm” of this accelerator as seen in the electron rest frame 5) The discovery of the heavy strangeness = -3 baryon. Essentially this theory was that baryons are made of three quarks. K − p → Ω− K + K 0 .8c. what is the threshold kinetic energy for the reaction to occur. The bubble chamber event of the first observation of the Ω − is on page 7 of the text book. (a) In terms of the masses of the various particles. If you want to jump ahead a bit you can read pages 471 – 482 of the text book (you don’t have to). The machine will collide electrons with positrons. was extremely important. 4 . Then get the tan of the angle required and find its maximum. although it was not originally realized that this was what it meant. Express your answer in terms of the π and K masses. a) What is the mass of the most massive new particle one could produce with this machine? What would the momentum of this particle be in the LAB frame? b) If we use these electrons from one beam to probe for structures inside the proton. find the effective accelerating field E. plans are afoot to build a linear collider with momentum in each beam of 500 GeV c . The accelerator produced electrons of 40GeV c momentum.4) The largest linear accelerator in the world was the SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center) electron LINAC. Find the maximum angle in the LAB frame that the pions can make with the K 0 line of flight. It then decays in flight into two neutral pions. d) If the electrons experience a constant accelerating force eE and are accelerated over 15 km. We now call this theory “ SU ( 3) of flavour”. It confirmed a theory originated by Gell-Mann and Ne’eman which they called The Eightfold Way.

although it has an energy advantage over a fixed target machine. a proton synchrotron.F. The Large Hadron Collider at CERN is such a machine. when the beams are circulating at 7 TeV/c? Note that we keep the R. It does not collide particles of the same masses. (hint: the Higgs is not produced alone. What is the frequency of the R.7 T. It will accelerate counter rotating beams of protons to an energy of 7 TeV per beam (at the moment it only reaches 3 TeV) a) If the bending magnets in the LHC have an field of 8.6) An accelerator which I worked in Germany at called HERA. and the beams are not of equal and opposite momenta. Imagine that you wanted to reach the same centre of mass energy by constructing a giant accelerator to reach the same centre of mass energy as the SSC. the LAB and CM frames are not identical. but with an energy of 20 TeV per beam. In fact. I discussed colliding particles of equal masses and equal and opposite momenta head on. and that the tunnel is full of bending magnets. what is the radius of the machine? Assume that the machine is circular. What would be the diameter of this machine if the bending magnets were limited to a field of 6 T? e) What is the frequency needed for the R. HERA collides electron with a momentum of 30GeV c with protons of 800GeV c . This ensures beam stability. on even at maximum energy.F. as they are in the LHC.F. and is 20 cm in diameter. but with a stationary proton target. b) Why is the machine designed to have a CM energy much greater than the supposed mass of the Higgs? All I want is an explanation in words. it’s too technical for this course. f) A little cyclotron has a magnetic field of 1 Tesla. and it is not at rest) c) The (now canceled) Superconducting SuperCollider was designed to be similar to the LHC. system in the LHC. What is the momentum and kinetic energy of the protons it accelerates when the reach the periphery of the machine? 5 . oscillator needed. a) What is the available center of mass energy for the production of new particles? b) What is the velocity of the centre of mass system as seen in the laboratory frame? c) What is the momentum of either particle in the centre of mass system? d) What was the name of Hera’s husband? 7) In our discussion of colliding beam machines. So.

6 ×10−19 Joules 1 eV c 2 = 1.005 α = e2 GF = 1.0005 BR Z → e + e − = 3.6 ×10−22 MeV ⋅ s c = 197 MeV .2319 ± 0.Possibly Useful Physical Constants: Avogadro No: pi speed of light: 6 ×1023 mole−1 π = 3.22 sin 2 θW ( M Z ) = 0.116 ± 0.07% BR ( Z → hadrons ) = 71 ± 1% ( ) ________________________________________________________________________ 6 .8 × 10−36 kg 1 fm = 10−15 m 1 mb = 10−27 cm 2 1 year electron charge: electron magnetic moment: fine structure constant: strong coupling constant: Fermi coupling constant: Cabibbo angle: Weak mixing angle: Branching Ratios 1 year ≈ π × 107 s e = 1.166 ×10−5 GeV −2 sin θ C = 0.0 × 108 m s = 6.4 GeV 2 ⋅ mb 1 eV = 1. fm Plank's constant: ( c )2 = 0.1416 c = 3.0360 α s ( M Z ) = 0.21 ± 0.602 × 10−19 C μ e = 9.3 ×10−24 Joules ⋅ Tesla −1 ( c ) = 1 137.

187 > 116 γ gluon W± ( ) Lepton Mass MeV c 2 < 10−5 0. cu dc .7 938. udd .Particle Properties Boson Mass GeV c 2 < 3 ×10−36 ~0 80. du 139. Σ − Ξ0 . uds. Σ0 . Δ ++ Λ0 D0 . Δ + . ub udc ⎛ 1+ ⎞ 0⎜ ⎟ ⎜2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 − 0 2 1 − 0 2 ( ) ( ) ( ) 1+ 2 0 ( 0− ) 1 − 0 2 ⎛ 1+ ⎞ 0⎜ ⎟ ⎜2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ B+ .n Δ − .27. 139. D0 D− . K 0 us .57.22 91. D+ + − DS . Ξ− Ω− Λb uus. 939. ( uu + dd ) uud . dss sss udb 1⎛1 ⎜ 2⎜2 ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 1672 5624 ⎛3 ⎞ 0⎜ ⎟ ⎝2 ⎠ ⎛ 1+ ⎞ 0⎜ ⎟ ⎜2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 7 . DS 1(1−− ) 1 ⎛ 1+ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2⎜2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 3⎛3 ⎜ 2⎜2 ⎝ + 1 − 0 2 ( ) ddd .658 < 10 1777 ( ) νe e Z 0 νμ μ ντ τ Mass MeV c 2 H0 Hadron Quark Content π .510999 < 0. cs ub .67 2 . K− K0. sd ud . ρ0.27 105. su ds . dds 1 ( ) + + uss.π + 0 − ud . B− + Λc Σ + . ρ− p .65 497.π .6 1863 1869 1968 5279 2285 1189 1315 ( ) ρ+. ( uu − dd ) ( ) I J PC −+ 2 . uuu uds ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ uc . Δ 0 . ud 775. udd 493.57 1232 1115. cd cs .97.134. uud .57 ( ) 1( 0 ) 1 − 0 2 K+.