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personnel management

Submitted By : Shweta Nair Roll No : 29 PGD(HRM)

Q1) Define Personnel Management. Write the Philosophy of Personnel Management.


In all organizations, there should be someone concerned with the welfare and performance of persons who are a part of the operation. When an individual or a team of individuals takes on this task of seeing to programs and setting policies that impact everyone associated with the company, they are engaged in the process of personnel management. Personnel Management is the administrative discipline of hiring and developing employees so that they become more valuable to the organization. It includes (1) conducting job analyses, (2) planning personnel needs, and recruitment, (3) selecting the right people for the job, (4) orienting and training, (5) determining and managing wages and salaries, (6) providing benefits and incentives, (7) appraising performance, (8) resolving disputes, (9) communicating with all employees at all levels. Personnel Management is an important branch in Management of any business enterprise. It holds a key to all actions and successful management. It is also concerned with human and social implications of change in internal organization and methods of working and of economic and social changes in the community. The main aim is to establish a better coordination between all the members from top level management to down below the subordinates to have better cooperation, better focus to bring out innovative ideas, their objectives, understanding in the enterprise. Cooperative relationship is achieved within the enterprise by creating harmonious relations, genuine consultation and participation and system of effective communication. Personnel Management is the field of management which has to do with planning, organizing, directing and controlling various operative functions of procuring, developing, maintaining and utilizing a labour force such that the :Objectives for which the company is established are attained economically and effectively. Objectives of all the levels of personnel are served to the highest possible degree. Objectives of the community are duly considered and served. Personnel management should designed in such a way it will have the capability to respond to the changes. Maintain a good relationship within the organization; meet the enterprise social and legal responsibilities. Human relations have to be nurtured constantly in the enterprise. Only the enterprise, which is conscious of this need, can achieve their targets by efficiently handling their available resources for a particular process. The objectives of personnel management in any working organization are, to bring development of individuals, maintain a safe and effective environmental conditions, utilize the available resources, to ensure job satisfaction among workers. Characteristics of good personnel management are: Stability, to appoint or replace key personnel executives with minimal loss Flexibility, capability to handle problems encountered within the enterprise. Simplicity, balancing the perfect line of relationship among the workers. Objectivity, feature of having definite objectives for all the levels or units in the enterprise.

PHILOSOPHY OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Personnel actions in any company are guided by the philosophy which a company may profess for dealing with people. Personnel philosophy may tend in many directions. 1. Labour may be viewed as a technical factor which more or less passively or actively resists managerial leadership. Therefore it is necessary to mould, control and closely supervise the people so that company goals may be achieved in a manner beneficial for individuals, groups and even the organization itself. 2. The modern view is that labour is not a commodity of change but a precious asset which has inherent constructive potentials. These potentials may be utilized in an efficient manner if the management has an enlightened attitude towards labour and encourages participative management. 3. Management is getting work done by and through others.

FACTORS INFLUENCING MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY Top management philosophy Personnel management to some extent is based on experience, education and background of the top management. It may or may not be stated. It is usually communicated by their actions and permeate every level and department of the organization. Changing organization Fundamental changes occurring in the organization also influence personnel management philosophy. Such factors are Dissatisfaction among the workers due to their getting such employment for which they are over qualified. This not only affects the quality of the work but also compels the management to learn how to motivate a better educated worker. People are getting more interested in choosing a life style and career than just a job. This needs the personnel philosophy should be changed as to make their career development New changes in law require that no discrimination should be made in providing equal employment opportunity on the basis of age, sex, caste, religion etc. Influence of ones assumption about people Personnel management philosophy is also influenced by the basic assumptions one make about people.i.e whether one believes in Theory X OR Theory Y of Mcgregor. Accordingly the philosophy is formed. The need to motivate people Managers get things done through others and therefore if the y cannot motivate employees to get their job done, they are destined to fail as managers. So methods of motivation also influence management philosophy.

Q 2 ) What are the Principles of Personnel Management?


Personnel Management is an important branch in Management of any business enterprise. It holds a key to all actions and successful management. It is also concerned with human and social implications of change in internal organization and methods of working and of economic and social changes in the community. The main aim is to establish a better coordination between all the members from top level management to down below the subordinates to have better cooperation, better focus to bring out innovative ideas, their objectives, understanding in the enterprise. Cooperative relationship is achieved within the enterprise by creating harmonious relations, genuine consultation and participation and system of effective communication People are to be dealt with as complete individuals Persons are recruited because they posses the requisite technical, professional and other qualities. But they co-operate with one another with the group and wit the management is largely governed by their personnel feelings, cultural and social attitudes, ethical standards and family background. These and technical factors should be programmed into organizational operations. The management should be quick to understand hoe employees feel about contemplated work assignments, personnel policies and decision which affect their interests. Employees should be made to feel worthwhile Men do not live by bread alone. There is something other than money which motivated them to work towards organizational goals. Personal feeling of accomplishment, pride in ones work harmonious relation with co-workers and co-operation with the management- all these factors need to be taken into consideration by the management if the efficiency and productivity of the employees are to be maintained and increased Fairness and Justice These should guide a management policies and actions. Fairness in dealing with his employees would win for the employer the confidence of his employees. Rewards should be earned not given The rewards to be given should commensurate with the efforts put in to win themSuch rewards should be given to an employee because of what he has accomplished and not merely as a gift. Supply employees with relevant information. An organization should have a properly developed two-way communication channel so that the necessary information, instructions, orders and rules are passed on to employees and a proper response is evoked. Judge the strength or intelligence of the people properly Knowledge of the strength of its employees will always bring management their co-operation. If proper opportunities are not made available to employees, resentment and frustration may result or they may leave the organization or resort to coercion Sell the personnel programme Because if employees are not made aware of it they will learn from some other source. The selling of a programme should be done either orally or in writing.

Equal wage for equal work All the employees irrespective of their sex or community but doing similar type of work must be paid equally and the wages paid must be adequate. Set examples Preaching alone will not bring the desired results. Actions are louder than words. Convince the employees that the management eally does what it says or means.

Q 3) Write in detailed manner with examples the Objectives of Personnel Management.


Personnel Management is the field of management which has to do with planning, organizing, directing and controlling various operative functions of procuring, developing, maintaining and utilizing a labour force such that the :Objectives for which the company is established are attained economically and effectively. Objectives of all the levels of personnel are served to the highest possible degree. Objectives of the community are duly considered and served Personnel management should designed in such a way it will have the capability to respond to the changes. Maintain a good relationship within the organization; meet the enterprise social and legal responsibilities. Human relations have to be nurtured constantly in the enterprise. Only the enterprise, which is conscious of this need, can achieve their targets by efficiently handling their available resources for a particular process. The objectives of personnel management in any working organization are, to bring development of individuals, maintain a safe and effective environmental conditions, utilize the available resources, to ensure job satisfaction among workers. What are all the objective to be focused? Social. Personnel. Enterprise. Union. Social objective is concerned about how the enterprise creates new employment opportunities, how the productivity of the enterprise can be maximized, bring satisfaction to the work force, avoidance of wastage of resources and promote a healthy relationship between the human and the social welfare. Personnel objectives specifies the needs of the members by providing job security, maximizing the development of the members, provide proper working environmental conditions to workers. Enterprise objective is to bring a balance between demand and supply of the personnel and maintain competent workers in the enterprise. Union objective deals with formulation of personnel policies in consultation with unions and selfdiscipline within the enterprise. Financial and physical resources required for a particular process to be done, and the members of the organization. Personnel Management is responsible for both the enterprise operating system and the workers.

OBJECTIVES OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT. 1. To create and utilize an able and motivated workforce, to accomplish the basic organizational goals. 2. To establish and maintain sound organizational structure and desirable working relationships among all the members of the organization. 3. To secure the integration of individual or groups within the organization by co-ordination of the individual and group goals with those of the organization. 4. To create facilities and opportunities for individual or group development so as to match it with the growth of the organization. 5. To attain an effective utilization of human resources in the achievement of organizational goals. 6. To identify and satisfy individual and group needs by providing adequate and equitable wages, incentives, employee benefits and social security and measures for challenging work, prestige, recognition, security, status. 7. To maintain high employees morale and sound human relations by sustaining and improving the various conditions and facilities. 8. To strengthen and appreciate the human assets continuously by providing training and development programs. 9. To consider and contribute to the minimization of socio-economic evils such as unemployment, under-employment, inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth and to improve the welfare of the society by providing employment opportunities to women and disadvantaged sections of the society. 10. To provide an opportunity for expression and voice management. 11. To provide fair, acceptable and efficient leadership. 12. To provide facilities and conditions of work and creation of favorable atmosphere for maintaining stability of employment.

Q 4. What are the features of an organization? Explain the organization process?


An organization is a group of people intentionally organized to accomplish common goals, set of goals and overall goal. An organization is a group of people working together cooperatively under authority for towards achieving goals and objectives that mutually benefit the participants and the organization. FEATURES OF AN ORGANISATION Identifiable Aggregate of Human Beings Deliberate and conscious creation Purposive Creation Coordination of Activities Structure Rationality ORGAISATION PROCESS The organization is the forming of structural interpersonal relationship. This involves eight steps. Formation of Organisation Mission and Objectives. Determine the organizational goals or objectives to be strives well in advance. Conduct Job Analysis Once the objectives are defined the task requirements necessary to achieve the goals/objectives must be determined. Manpower Planning & Selection Division of tasks into different jobs to find out how many personnel will be needed for the complete tasks and selection of personnel to fill jobs is conducted so that right person should be selected for the right work at the right time. Departmentation Integration of jobs into departments or work groups to take advantage of specialization so that conduction of all necesssary activities effectively and duplication and overlapping of work is avoided and work will be performed in a synchronized and coordinated way. Linking Departments After creating different departments the management is to decide how various departments of the organization will linked together so that they can operate in a coordinated manner and can give shape to overall organization structure and produce synergy result Delegate the task/work Assignment of work position to the individual and groups should be delegated according to their skills and capabilities.

Defining authority and responsibility When an individual or a group is assigned activity the performance of that activity becomes the responsibility and the authority to the people to carry out thr duties should be delegated. Prescribing Authority Relationships Superior Subordinate relationships and their authorities must be prescribed well in advance that facilitates overall working of the organization and performance can be evaluated according to the standards effectively.

Q5) What are the types of organization structure. Organizational structure refers to the way that an organization arranges people and jobs so that its work can be performed and its goals can be met. When a work group is very small and face-to-face communication is frequent, formal structure may be unnecessary, but in a larger organization decisions have to be made about the delegation of various tasks. Thus, procedures are established that assign responsibilities for various functions. It is these decisions that determine the organizational structure. Types of Organization Structure. Formal and Informal Organisation Structure Vertical and Horizontal organizational structure Tall and Flat Organization Structure Line Organization Line and Staff Organization Functional Organization Divisional Organsiation

FORMAL ORGANISATION STRUCTURE The formal organisation refers to the formal relationships of authority and subordination within a company. The primary focus of the formal organisation is the position the employee/manager holds. Power is delegated from the top levels of the management down the organisation. Each position has rules governing what can and cannot be done. There are rewards and penalties for complying with these rules and performing duties well. Formal organization is a fixed set of rules of intra-organization procedures and structures. As such, it is usually set out in writing, with a language of rules that ostensibly leave little discretion for interpretation. In some societies and in some organization, such rules may be strictly followed; in others, they may be little more than an empty formalism. Reasons for the existence of the formal organization To facilitate the accomplishment of the goals of the organization: In a formal organization the work is delegated to each individual of the organization. He/She works towards the attainment of definite goals, which are in compliance with the goals of the organisation. To facilitate the co-ordination of various activities: The authority, responsibility and accountability of individuals in the organization is very well defined. Hence, facilitating the co-ordination of various activities of the organization very effectively. To aid the establishment of logical authority relationship: The responsibilities of the individuals in the organization are well defined. They have a definite place in the organization due to a well defined hierarchical structure which is inherent in any formal organization. Permit the application of the concept of specialization and division of Labour, division of work amongst individuals according to their capabilities helps in greater specializations and division of work.

Characteristics of a formal organisation Well defined rules and regulation Arbitrary structure Determined objectives and policies Status Symbol Limitation on the activities of the individual Strict observance of the principle of Co-ordination

INFORMAL ORGANISATION STRUCTURE The informal organization refers to the network of personal and social relations that develop spontaneously between people associated with each other. The primary focus of the informal organization is the employee as an individual person. Power is derived from membership of informal groups within the organization. The conduct of individuals within these groups is governed by norms - that is, social rules of behaviour. When individuals break these norms, other members of the group impose sanctions on them. Clearly, the informal structure can be either beneficial or detrimental to the functioning of the company or both. People who work in an organization are only human and their effectiveness may depend on their personal relations with those around them. An obvious illustration is that if a manager is aware of a personality clash between employees he must respond. An informal organization is one which is not reliant on a hierarchical structure, typical of largescale companies. It is not typical for an entire organization to be informal, as this could cause problems which are discussed in a moment, but formal organisations do tend to have informal ones within them. Informal organsations have very loose structures. People can become members freely and sometimes spontaenously; relationships are undefined and the sharing of responsibility and involvement of members will vary considerably. The advantages of informal organisations are that they create strong relationships between their members. There is no theoretical "boss" and this makes all members feel like a larger part of the organisation as a whole. The disadvantages, which explain why there are few purely informal organisations, are that a lack of structure can result in a reduction in professionalism. The company cannot benefit from different people managing different areas easily. Finally, the members cannot look to the futureafter all, with no-one above them, they cannot look for promotion and therefore find themselves stuck with the same job.

VERTICAL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Vertical organizational structure means a strict top down or bottom up structure. Typically, a rigid top down vertical organizational structure has been a favored form for many business and other type organizations. In such an organization, the chain of command is usually very important and breaking it is considered very wrong. In faster moving, dynamic conditions, a vertical organizational structure can become very inefficient, for example, requiring decisions to slowly go through many people along the vertical chain of command before actions can be made by those who need permission to act. Vertical organizational structures also tend to create boundaries between departments or branches in a larger organization, because for a person down one branch must go up the chain of command on his branch and then down the chain of command on the other branch in order to interact with someone down the chain of command on a different branch. Having to do this tends to make such inter group interaction so hard as to strongly discourage it. Principles of Vertical Structure Scalar principle Relates to the chain of command and asserts that authority and responsibility in an organization should flow in a clear unbroken line from the point of ultimate authority to the bottom of the hierarchy. Unity of command Each worker should have only one boss with no other conflicting lines of command.This vertical organization structure also determines the social standing status of the individuals. HORIZONTAL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE It indicates the relation between peers, colleagues and fellow workers across the organization. Individuals are located on the same level and have no authority over each other. They are rather equal in terms of the amount of the authoeity and formal influence they have. They are more or less equal in social status also. Such structure helps to clarify authority relationships. To have a more horizontal organizational structure means cutting out levels of mid-management which results in allowing more horizontal level of authority. It does grant more authority to various horizontal layers of employees. This can help improve communication, remove inefficient bureaucratic steps, reduce unnecessary work and speed up the whole process. The problem with this can be whether or not the employees given this extra responsibility are in fact capable of handling it.

TALL ORGANIZATION An organization structure with many levels of management. A tall organization contrasts with a flat organization, since it has an extended vertical structure with well-defined but long reporting lines. The number of different levels may cause communication problems and slow decision making. It is for this reason that many companies are converting to flatter structures more suited to the fast responses needed in a rapidly-changing business environment. A tall organizational structure has many levels of management, with well-defined but long reporting lines. A tall organisation has a larger number of managers with a narrow span of control whilst a flat organisation has few managers with a wide span of control. A tall organisation can suffer from having too many managers (a huge expense) and decisions can take a long time to reach the bottom of the hierarchy BUT, a tall organisation can provide good opportunities for promotion and the manager does not have to spend so much time managing the staff In a tall structure each manager has a small/narrro span of control and there are many ranks A tall organization has a larger number of managers with a narrow span of control

Tall structures are more 'military' in style, and might have the advantages of a well-run army. But being in a business is not quite like being in an army and people do not always accept the same level of authority and coordination; they can resent the military style of administration.

FLAT STRUCTURE Aflat organizational structure has relatively fewer layers of management, resulting in a more effective and simpler communication process. Flat organizational structures provide increased flexibility when coping with changing circumstances on account of their less bureaucratic nature. In a flat structure, span-of-control is greater and there are fewer levels of management.A flat organisation has few managers with a wide span of control.

In contrast to a tall organisation, a flat organisation will have relatively few layers or just one layer of management. This means that the Chain of Command from top to bottom is short and the span of control is wide. Due to the small number of management layers, flat organisations are often Advantages of flat Organisations More/Greater communication between management and workers. Better team sprit. Less bureaucracy and easier decision making. Fewer levels of management which includes benefits such as lower costs as managers are generally paid more than worker. Disadvantages of flat Organisations Workers may have more than one manager/boss. May limit/hinder the growth of the organisation. Structure limited to small organisations such as partnerships, co-operatives and some private limited companies. Function of each department/person could be blurred and merge into the job roles of others.

LINE STRUCTURE This is the kind of structure that has a very specific line of command. The approvals and orders in this kind of structure come from top to bottom in a line. Hence the name line structure. This kind of structure is suitable for smaller organizations like small accounting firms and law offices. This is the sort of structure that allows for easy decision making, and also very informal in nature. The y have fewer departments, which makes the entire organization a very decentralized one.The line structure is defined by its clear chain of command, with final approval on decisions affecting the operations of the company still coming from the top down. Because the line structure is most often used in small organizationssuch as small accounting offices and law firms, hair salons, and "mom-and-pop" storesthe president or CEO can easily provide information and direction to subordinates, thus allowing decisions to be made quickly.Line structures by nature are fairly informal and involve few departments, making the organizations highly decentralized. Employees are generally on a first-name basis with the president, who is often available throughout the day to answer questions and/or to respond to situations as they arise Types of Line Organisation Pure line Organsiation Similar activities at performed at a particular level. Each group of activities is a self contained unit and can perform the activities without the assistance of others. Departmental Line Organization Entire activites are divided into different departments on the basis of similarity of activities. Each department is placed under one department superintendent and all persons in the department are subject to control by the department head. Merits of Line Organisation Simplicity Discipline Prompt Decision Orderly Communication Easy supervision and control Economical Overall development of the managers

Demerits of Line Organisation Lack of Specialization Autocratic Approach Problem of coordination Lack of groundwork for subordinate training

LINE-AND-STAFF STRUCTURE: While the line structure would not be appropriate for larger companies, the line-and-staff structure is applicable because it helps to identify a set of guidelines for the people directly involved in completing the organization's work. This type of structure combines the flow of information from the line structure with the staff departments that service, advise, and support them .Line departments are involved in making decisions regarding the operation of the organization, while staff areas provide specialized support. The line-and-staff organizational structure "is necessary to provide specialized, functional assistance to all managers, to ensure adequate checks and balances, and to maintain accountability for end results. Merits of Line Staff structure Planned Specialisation Quality Decision Prospect for personal growth Training ground for personnel Demerits of Line Staff structure Lack of well defined authority Line and Staff conflicts FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE This kind of organizational structure classifies people according to the function they perform in their professional life or according to the functions performed by them in the organization. The organization chart for a functional based organization consists of Vice President, Sales department, Customer Service Department, Engineering or production department, Accounting department and Administrative department. Functional organizational structures are concerned with matching a propensity for a skill set with a functional department; for example, placing employees displaying excellent interpersonal skills in a customer service department. Characteristics of Functional organizational structures Specialization by functions Emphasis on sub goals Pyramidal growth of the orgnaisation Line and Staff Division Functional authority relationship among various departments Limited span of management and tall structure.

DIVISIONAL STRUCTURES This is the kind of structure that is based on the different divisions in the organization. These structures can be further divided into: Product structure a product structure is based on organizing employees and work on the basis of the different types of products. If the company produces three different types of products, they will have three different divisions for these products. Market Structure market structure is used to group employees on the basis of specific market the company sells in. a company could have 3 different markets they use and according to this structure, each would be a separate division in the structure. Geographic structure large organizations have offices at different place, for example there could be a north zone, south zone, west and east zone. The organizational structure would then follow a zonal region structure. . Merits of Divisional Structure Emphasis on end results through which revenue was generated Higher level of managerial motivation. Organisational size can be increased without any problem. Each product or customer is able to receive specilaised services because the attention is focused by the division exclusively for it. Demerits of Divisional Structure Divisional Structure is quite costly. Lack of emphasis on functional specilaisation. Lack of managerial personnel. Control system is a major problem of divisionalisation.

Q6) What is Manpower Planning? Write the Characteristics and Objectives of Manpower Planning.
Manpower Planning which is also called as Human Resource Planning consists of putting right number of people, right kind of people at the right place, right time, doing the right things for which they are suited for the achievement of goals of the organization. Human Resource Planning has got an important place in the arena of industrialization. Human Resource Planning has to be a systems approach and is carried out in a set procedure It is the development of strategies to match the supply of workers to the availability of jobs at organizational, regional, or national level. Manpower planning involves reviewing current manpower resources, forecasting future requirements and availability, and taking steps to ensure that the supply of people and skills meets demand. At a national level, this may be conducted by government or industry bodies, and at an organizational level, by human resource managers. Manpower Planning is the process by which management determines how an organization should move from its current manpower position to desired manpower position. It is the strategy for acquisition , utilization , improvement and preservation of an organization human resource. It is aimed at coordinating the requirements for and the availability of different types of employees. It is a procedure used in organizations to balance future requirements for all levels of employee with the availability of such employees Advantages of manpower planning: Manpower planning ensures optimum use of available human resources. 1. It is useful both for organization and nation. 2. It generates facilities to educate people in the organization. 3. It brings about fast economic developments. 4. It boosts the geographical mobility of labor. 5. It provides smooth working even after expansion of the organization. 6. It opens possibility for workers for future promotions, thus providing incentive. 7. It creates healthy atmosphere of encouragement and motivation in the organization. 8. Training becomes effective. 9. It provides help for career development of the employees. Characteristics of manpower planning. HRP involves forecasting as all planning is forward planning or future oriented. HRP is an ongoing or continuous process because the demand for and supply of human resource undergoes frequent changes. HRP is an integral part of corporate planning. HRP makes optimum utilization of an organizations current and future human resource in order to maximize the return investment in human resource. HRP has both quantitative and qualitative aspects. Former implies right number of employees and latter implies right talent.

HRP is a system approach to human resources. HRP can be short term or long term. HRP involves study of manpower environment. Objectives of Manpower Planning To ensure optimum use of existing human resources. To forecast future requirement human resource. To link human resource planning with organizational planning. To assess the surplus & shortage of human resources. To anticipate the impact of technology on jobs and human resource. To determine levels to recruitment & training. To estimate the cost of human resource and housing needs of employees. To facilitate productivity bargaining. To meet the needs of expansion & diversification program.

Q7) Explain the Manpower Planning Process with the help of a diagram.

1.Analysing Organisational Plans The objectives and strategic plans of the company are analysed. Plans concerning technology, production, marketing , finance gives an idea about future work activity. Each plan is further analyzed into sub plans and a detailed program to prepare out the human resource plan.

2.Forecating demand for human resource. On the basis of corporate and functional plans and future activity levels the human resources in the organization is anticipated. It is necessary to make projections for new positions to be created and vacancies arising in current manpower. Techniques of Manpower Planning a. Managerial Judgement. Experienced managers estimate the manpower requirement for their department on the basis of their knowledge of expected future work load and employee efficiency. b.Ratio Trend Analysis Ratios are calculated on the basis of past data. Future ratios are calculated on the basis of time series extrapolation after making allowances for expected changes in the organization, method and jobs. On the basis of established ratios the demand for human resources is estimated. c.Mathematical Models A mathematical model expresses the relationship between independent variables and dependent variables. Various factors influencing manpower needs are expressed in form of formulae like regression, Optimization, Probabilistic model. These rae complex and appropriate for large organizations. 3.Forecasting Supply of Human resources Each organsiation has two sources of supply of human resources internal and external. Internally manpower planning can be obtained through promotions and transfers. Manpower flow in and out of the organization due to several reasons as shpwn in below figure policies relating to these aspects need to be reviewed regularly to judge their impact of the internal supply of human resource. To judge inside supply of manpower planning for future Human Resource Inventory / Manpower inventory or human Resource Audit or Manpower Audit is conducted by the company as they contain the data ofpresent or current human resources. Manpower inventory helps in determining and evaluating thr quality and quantity of internal human resources. It reveals what exists in stock and what can be expected in the future and indicated the possible shortfalls in comparison with expansion requirement for which some organizations maintain a Manning table which is a job wise list of employees and some organizations use Manpower Replacement Charts which shows present performance of each employee together with their potential for future performance. Future Internal Supply of Mnapower = Present Inventory of manpower + Potential Additions Potential Losses.

4.Estimating Manpower Gaps Net manpower requirement / gap can be identified by comparing demand forecast / supply forecast. Comparision will reveal a deficit or a surplus of personnel in future. Deficit indicates the number of persons to be recruited from outside or internally. Surplus implies redundant to be deployed or terminated. Gaps can be occurred in terms of knowledge, skill or gaps. Employees termed as deficit are given training while employees with higher skills may be given more enriched jobs. 5.Action Planning Once manpower gaps are identified plans are made to bridge these gaps. Plans to meet the surplus manpower may be redeployed in other departments/ units and so on. Deficit can be met through recruitment , selection, transfer, promotion and training plans. Realistic plans for the procurement, development of manpower should be made after analyzing the environment which affects the manpower objectives of the organization. 6.Monitoring and Control Once the actions plans are implemented the human resource in the organizations needs to be reviewed and regulated regularly and should be changed as per required by the organsiation. Monitoring control phase involves allocation and utilization of personnels overtime. Review of manpower plans and programs helps to reveal deficiencies. Corrective actions at the right time to remove the deficiencies should be taken.

Q8) What information will you get by doing Job Analysis?


A job analysis is the process used to collect information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills, outcomes, and work environment of a particular job. The main purpose of conducting job analysis is to prepare job description and job specification which in turn helps to hire the right quality of workforce into the organization. The general purpose of job analysis is to document the requirements of a job and the work performed. Job and task analysis is performed as a basis for later improvements, including: definition of a job domain; describing a job; developing performance appraisals, selection systems, promotion criteria, training needs assessment, and compensation plans. Job analysis is a systematic approach to defining the job role, description, requirements, responsibilities, evaluation, etc. It helps in finding out required level of education, skills, knowledge, training, etc for the job position. It also depicts the job worth i.e. measurable effectiveness of the job and contribution of job to the organization. Thus, it effectively contributes to setting up the compensation package for the job position. Importance of Job Analysis Job analysis helps in analyzing the resources and establishing the strategies to accomplish the business goals and strategic objectives. It forms the basis for demand-supply analysis, recruitments, compensation management, and training need assessment and performance appraisal. CONTENTS OF JOB ANALYSIS Job Identification: Identity of the job in terms of its title and code number. Job Task: Operations and Tasks involved in the job. Significant Characteristics of the Job: Location, physical setting, hazards involved, supervison given received and received. Duties and Tasks The basic unit of a job is the performance of specific tasks and duties. Information to be collected about these items may include: frequency, duration, effort, skill, complexity, equipment, standards, etc. Environment: This may have a significant impact on the physical requirements to be able to perform a job. The work environment may include unpleasant conditions such as offensive odors and temperature extremes. There may also be definite risks to the incumbent such as noxious fumes, radioactive substances, hostile and aggressive people, and dangerous explosives. Tools and Equipment: Some duties and tasks are performed using specific equipment and tools. Equipment may include protective clothing. These items need to be specified in a Job Analysis. Relationships: Supervision given and received. Relationships with internal or external people. Requirements: The knowledges, skills, and abilities (KSA's) required to perform the job.

Q9) What Steps are involved in Job Analysis?

1. Organizational Analysis Overall jobs in the organization is obtained to judge the linkage between jobs and the organizational goals, interrelationship among various jobs and contribution of various jobs to the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization. For this purpose background information is collected in the form of organizational Charts, Class Specifications and Work flow charts. 2. Organizing Job Analysis Program It is necessary to plan and orgaanise the program of job analysis like who will be in charge of the program and assign responsibility. Proper time schedule and budget should be framed out. 3. Deciding the uses of Job analysis. Job analysis is used for almost every function of human resource. How the job information will be used and for what purpose will determine the extend to which jobs are to be analysed.

4.Selecting Representative Jobs for analysis. More time and cost is required to analyse all the jobs. It is desireable to select the representative sample of jobs for detailed analysis. Priorities for various jobs needing analysis can also be determined 5. Understand Job Design The job analyst should obtain information concerning the current design of the representative jobs. Current Job Decscription and job specification, prcocedure manual, systems flow chart etc studied. 6. Collection of Data. In this step data on the characteristics of the job and qualification and behavior required to do the job effectively is collected by different techniquesfrom the current employees who are actually performing the job or from superior. 7. Developing a Job Description The information collected in the previous step is used to prepare a Job Description. A Job Description is a statement which describes in brief the tasks, duties and responsibilities which needs to be discharged for effective job performance. 8. Preparing a Job Specification. The last step is to prepare a Job Specification It is a statement which specifies the job attributes in terms of education, training, experience required to perform the job.

Q10) Explain about Recruitment Process. What Factor effects Recruitment?


Recruitment is an important part of an organizations human resource planning and their competitive strength. Competent human resources at the right positions in the organisation are a vital resource and can be a core competency or a strategic advantage for it. The objective of the recruitment process is to obtain the number and quality of employees that can be selected in order to help the organisation to achieve its goals and objectives. With the same objective, recruitment helps to create a pool of prospective employees for the organisation so that the management can select the right candidate for the right job from this pool. Recruitment acts as a link between the employers and the job seekers and ensures the placement of right candidate at the right place at the right time. Using and following the right recruitment processes can facilitate the selection of the best candidates for the organisation.

Factors Affecting Recruitment The recruitment function of the organisations is affected and governed by a mix of various internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be controlled by the organisation. And the external factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the organisation. The internal and external forces affecting recruitment function of an organisation are:

INTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT The internal factors or forces which affecting recruitment and can be controlled by the organisation are RECRUITMENT POLICY Recruitment policy of an organisation specifies the objectives of recruitment and provides a framework for implementation of recruitment programme. It may involve organizational system to be developed for implementing recruitment programmes and procedures by filling up vacancies with best qualified people. Factors Affecting Recruitment Policy Organizational objectives Personnel policies of the organization and its competitors. Government policies on reservations. Preferred sources of recruitment. Need of the organization. Recruitment costs and financial implications.

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING Effective human resource planning helps in determining the gaps present in the existing manpower of the organization. It also helps in determining the number of employees to be recruited and what qualification they must possess. SIZE OF THE FIRM The size of the firm is an important factor in recruitment process. If the organization is planning to increase its operations and expand its business, it will think of hiring more personnel, which will handle its operations. COST Recruitment incur cost to the employer, therefore, organizations try to employ that source of recruitment which will bear a lower cost of recruitment to the organization for each candidate. GROWTH AND EXPANSION Organization will employ or think of employing more personnel if it is expanding its operations. EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING RECRUITMENT The external factors which affecting recruitment are the forces which cannot be controlled by the organisation. The major external forces are:

SUPPLY AND DEMAND The availability of manpower both within and outside the organization is an important determinant in the recruitment process. If the company has a demand for more professionals and there is limited supply in the market for the professionals demanded by the company, then the company will have to depend upon internal sources by providing them special training and development programs. LABOUR MARKET Employment conditions in the community where the organization is located will influence the recruiting efforts of the organization. If there is surplus of manpower at the time of recruitment, even informal attempts at the time of recruiting like notice boards display of the requisition or announcement in the meeting etc will attract more than enough applicants. IMAGE / GOODWILL Image of the employer can work as a potential constraint for recruitment. An organization with positive image and goodwill as an employer finds it easier to attract and retain employees than an organization with negative image. Image of a company is based on what organization does and affected by industry. For example finance was taken up by fresher MBAs when many finance companies were coming up.

POLITICAL-SOCIAL- LEGAL ENVIRONMENT Various government regulations prohibiting discrimination in hiring and employment have direct impact on recruitment practices. For example, Government of India has introduced legislation for reservation in employment for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, physically handicapped etc. Also, trade unions play important role in recruitment. This restricts management freedom to select those individuals who it believes would be the best performers. If the candidate cant meet criteria stipulated by the union but union regulations can restrict recruitment sources. UNEMPLOYMENT RATE One of the factors that influence the availability of applicants is the growth of the economy (whether economy is growing or not and its rate). When the company is not creating new jobs, there is often oversupply of qualified labour which in turn leads to unemployment. COMPETITORS The recruitment policies of the competitors also effect the recruitment function of the organisations. To face the competition, many a times the organisations have to change their recruitment policies according to the policies being followed by the competitors.

Q 11) What are the latest Sources for Recruitment? The following trends are being seen in recruitment: OUTSOURCING A company may draw required personnel from outsourcing firms. The outsourcing firms help the organisation by the initial screening of the candidates according to the needs of the organisation and creating a suitable pool of talent for the final selection by the organisation. Outsourcing firms develop their human resource pool by employing people for them and make available personnel to various companies as per their needs. In turn, the outsourcing firms or the intermediaries charge the organisations for their services. Advantages of outsourcing are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Company need not plan for human resources much in advance. Value creation, operational flexibility and competitive advantage Turning the management's focus to strategic level processes of HRM Company is free from salary negotiations, weeding the unsuitable resumes/candidates. Company can save a lot of its resources and time

POACHING/RAIDING Buying talent (rather than developing it) is the latest mantra being followed by the organisations today. Poaching means employing a competent and experienced person already working with another reputed company in the same or different industry; the organisation might be a competitor in the industry. A company can attract talent from another firm by offering attractive pay packages and other terms and conditions, better than the current employer of the candidate. But it is seen as an unethical practice and not openly talked about. Indian software and the retail sector are the sectors facing the most severe brunt of poaching today. It has become a challenge for human resource managers to face and tackle poaching, as it weakens the competitive strength of the firm.

E-RECRUITMENT Many big organizations use Internet as a source of recruitment. E-recruitment is the use of technology to assist the recruitment process. They advertise job vacancies through worldwide web. The job seekers send their applications or curriculum vitae i.e. CV through e mail using the Internet. Alternatively job seekers place their CVs in worldwide web, which can be drawn by prospective employees depending upon their requirements. WALK IN A new method which has come into being is the walk in method. Comapanies advertise for a particular position. They give the details of the job/work position and the required job specification and the venue where the interviews are held. The candidate can directly approach the venue to appear for the interview. The candidates are generally short listed by an aptitude /written test prior to the interview.

Q 12) Explain Recruitment Problems in India.


THE PROBLEM OF SON OF THE SOIL The question of preference to the son of the soil that is local population for employment within the local area assumed a complex character. The problem was considered by the National Commission on Labour in 1969 and the solution was given in terms of primacy of the common citizenship, gepgraphic mobility and economic feasibility of locating industrial units on one hand and local aspirations on the other. The young individuals from families whose land has been acquired for industrial use should be provided training opportunities for employment likely to be created in new units to be established in these lands. JOB SPECIFICATION PROBLEM There are many situations where the executive is not sure about the kind of executive /person he needs to do a given job at a certain phase of organsiation growth. The kind of person an orgaisation requires fro the same position variers with the following situational factors. Life Cycle Whether an organization is starting up or is growing or has achieved maturity or is threatenedby decline. Nature Proprietary, private, public, cooperartive and government Marketing Profile Customers Profile, Markets Profile, Products Profile, pricing policies, distribution system, promotion and advertising profile. Historical Factor Organsiation culture as it has been developed, past history and future plans, kind of persons who have been and are at control of affairs.

Q 13) What are the steps involved in Selection Procedure?


Selection is a process of choosing the most suitable persons out of all the applicants. Selection is a process of matching the qualifications of applicant with the job requirements. It is the process of weeding out unsuitable candidates& finally identify the most suitable candidates.
'

So, Selection is described as a process of rejection because generally more candidates are
turned away than are hired. , - ,.-- ---

Because of above reason Selection is known as "Negative Process"& Recruitment is known as "Positive Process" as it aims at increasing the number of application for wider choice or for increasing the selection ratio. Selection is negative as it rejects a large number of applicants to identify the few who are suitable for the job. Selection is the process of choosing the best out of those recruited.

STEPS IN SELECTION PROCESS 1. Preliminary Interview: Initial screening is done to weed out totally undesirable/unqualified candidates at the outset. Preliminary interview is a sorting process in which the candidates are give the necessary information about the nature if the job & about the organization & also the necessary information is elicited from the candidate about their education, skills, experiences, salary expectations etc. from which suitable candidate is selected. Preliminary interview saves time & efforts of both the company & the candidate So, preliminary interview is the first contact of an individual with the organization. 2. Application Blank: It is a traditional & widely used method for collecting information from candidates. The application form should provide all the information relevant to selection. Generally application form contains the following information: Identifying information- Name, address, telephoneno, etc. Personal information- Age, sex, place of birth, marital status,dependants. Physical characteristics-height, weight, eyesight,etc. Family background Education- Academic, Technical, & Professional. Education- Academic, Technical, & Professional. Experiences- Job held, employers, duties performed, salary drawn, Miscellaneous- Extra curricular activities, hobbies, games & sports, etc. Application forms help to serve several objectives: (i) (ii) (iii) Scrutiny of forms helps to weed out candidates who are lacking in education, experience or in some other traits. Helps in formulating questions to be asked in the interview Data contained in application forms can be stored for future references.

3.Selection Tests: Tests are based on the assumptions that individuals are differing in their job related traits which can be measured. Tests are helpful in better matching of candidate and the job as it reduces biasness in selection by serving supplementary screening device. It provides a systematic basis for comparing the behaviour, performance, attitude & other related traits as selection tests are different kind & are differ from job to job. At best it reveals that the candidates who have scored above the predetermined cutoff points are likely to be more successful than those scoring below the cutoff point. 4.Employment Interview: An interview a conversation between two & more persons. Interview is an essential element of selection & no selection procedure is complete without one or more personal interviews. As by the interview information collected through application & test can be crosschecked in the interview

A selection interview serves various purpose: Obtaining information about the background, education, training, work history & interests of the candidate Giving information to candidates about the company, the specific job & policies Establishing the friendly relationship between the employer & the candidate to motivate the successful applicants to work for the organization. 5.Medical Examination: Applicants who have crossed the above stages are sent for the physical medical examination either to the company's physician or to a medical officer approved for the purpose. Medical examination serves the following purpose: Determine whether the candidate is physically fit to perform the job or not It reveals existing disabilities & provides a record of the employee's health at the time of selection. This record helps in settling company's liability under the various for claims& for injuries etc. Prevents the employment of people suffering from contagious disease . Identifies candidates who are otherwise suitable but require specific jobs due to physical handicaps & allergies. 6.Reference Checks: In this stage the applicant is asked to mention in his application form, the name & addresses of two or more persons who know him well. They may be his/her previous employers or public figures. The organization can contact with if it wish by mail or telephone & these person are requested to provide true opinion about the candidates. The opinion of references can be useful in judging the future behaviour and performance candidate. But one can't rely on them fully as they might be biased in favor of the candidate.

7.Final Approval: In most of the organizations, selection process is carried out by the Human Resource Department. The decision of this department is recommendatory. The candidates short listed are finally approved by the executives of these departments/units. Employment is offered in the form of an appointment letter mentioning the designation, the status, the salary grade, the joining date, & the other terms & conditions. Final approval is generally made on a probation of one or two year & is differing from organization to organization. After a satisfactory performance the candidate is finally confirmed in the job on permanent basis or regularized.

Q 14) Write the types of Selection Tests.


SELECTION TEST (PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST) A psychological test is an objective & standardized measure of a sample behavior from which inferences about future behavior & performance of the candidate are drawn. Tests provide a systematic procedure for sampling human behavior. These test are based on the assumption that no two individuals are equal in terms of intelligence, attitudes, personality, & other relate traits ones characteristics with others are measured through these tests. Types of Selection tests Aptitude Test Achievement Test Personality Test Interest Test

1. Aptitude Tests or Potential Ability Tests: These tests measure the latent ability or potential of a candidate. Peculiarities or defects in a person's or intellectual capacity can be detected through these tests. These focus attention on a particular type of talent such as reasoning, learning, mechanical bent of mind. They are totally depending on the nature of job as the criteria of these are differing from job to job. Types of Aptitude Tests Mental / Intelligence Tests: These tests measure the overall intellectual capacity (IQ) of the candidates. These reveals an individual is capable to deal with the new problems. Intelligence tests measure the ability to understand instructions & to make decisions. They determine a candidate's word fluency. memory, inductive reasoning, comprehension, speed and perception & visualization. Mechanical Tests: These tests measure a candidate's capacity to do a particular type of mechanical work. These are useful for selecting apprentices, machinists, mechanics, maintenance workers, & technicians. So, these are for lower level personnel's who are with the jobs of operating jobs. Perceptual speed, manual dexterity, visual insights, specialized knowledge for techniques, problem solving ability, technical vocabulary, etc are judged in these tests.

Psycho-motor or Skill Tests: These tests measure a candidate's ability to perform specific job. These are primarily used for selecting workers who have to perform semi-skilled & repetitive jobs -like assembly work, packing, testing & inspection. These tests help to determine mental dexterity or motor - ability, & similar attributes involving muscular movement. 2. Achievement or Proficiency Tests These tests measure what a person can do. These determine the skill or knowledge already acquired through training & on the job experience. Types of achievement Test Job Knowledge Tests: Also known as "Trade Tests". These are used to judge proficiency in typing, shorthand & in operating calculating, adding machines, dictating & transcribing machines or simple mechanical equipments. These can be both oral & written. Such tests are useful n selection of stenographers, typists, office workers, supervisors, salespersons, public utility employees ,etc. Work Sample Tests: In these tests, a candidate is given a piece of work to judge how efficiently he does it. For Example, a typing test provides the material to be typed & notes the time taken & mistakes committed. 3. Personality Tests These are "Pen & Paper Tests" used to judge the psychological makeup of candidates. These help in assessing a candidate's motivation & interests, his ability to adjust himself to the stress of every day life, his capacity of/for interpersonal relations& for projecting an impressive image of himself. Traits like Self confidence, Ambition, Tact, emotional control (EQ), optimism, decisiveness, sociability, objectivity, conformity, patience, fear, distrust, initiative, judgment, dominance, sympathy, integrity emotional reactions, individual's values, maturity etc. are judged by these type of tests. These tests provide all round picture of a candidate's personality. Types of Personality Test: Objective Tests: These tests measures neurotic tendencies, self- sufficiency, dominancesubmission & self confidence. These traits are scored objectively. . Projective Tests: In these tests, a candidate's is asked to project his interpretation on to certain stimuli like ambiguous pictures, figures etc. The ways in which he responds to these stimuli reflect his own values, motives & personality. Situational Tests: These tests measure a candidate's reactions when placed in a peculiar situation, his ability to undergo stress & hi", creativity & initiates to handle pressure. These usually relate to group situation in which some problems are posed to a group & its members are asked to reach some conclusions without the help of a leader. Group discussions & In-basket methods are used to conduct this type of tests. 4. Interest Tests: These tests are inventories of a candidate's like& dislikes in relation to work. These are used to discover a candidate's area of interest & to identify kind of work that will satisfy
him. These are used for vocational guidance. questionnaire is used to assess the likes& dislikes.

Q 15) What do you understand about Induction? Write the Objectives.


Induction: Induction or Orientation is the process of receiving & welcoming an employee when he first joins a company & giving him the basic information he needs to settle down quickly & happily & start work. The new employee is to introduce to the job & the organization. The purpose of orientation is to explain the duties, responsibilities, company policies, rules & other relevant information to newly placed employee's to make them feel at home & develop a sense of pride in the organization & commitment to the job. Orientation is therefore, a process of indoctrination, welcoming, acclimatization, acculturalization & socialization. Objectives of Induction: Orientation program is design to achieve the following objectives: To help newcomer overcome his natural shyness & nervousness in meeting new people in a new environment. To build up the new employee's confidence in the organization & in himself so that he may become an efficient employee. To develop among the newcomers a sense of belonging& loyalty to the organization. To foster a close & cordial relationship between the newcomers & the old employees & their supervisors. To ensure that the newcomers don't from false impression & negative attitude towards the organization or the job because first impression is the last impression.

Q 16) What are the Requirements to be followed for a Good Transfer Policy?
Every organization has a policy concerning transfer of employees. A policy should be formulated to govern all types of employee transfer& will ensure uniformity of treatment\& avoid transfers for petty reasons. . A good transfer policy should satisfy the following requirements: 1. Transfer policy should clearly specify the types of transfers & the circumstances under which transfer will be made. 2. Should prescribe the basis of transfers. 3. Should indicate the executives responsible for initiating & approving the Transfer. 4. Should tell whether the transfer can be made only within the department or also between the departments. 5. Should specify the effect of transfer on the seniority& pay of the employees. 6. Should be put in writing. 7. Should be communicated & explained to the employees. 8. Facilities (like leave, special allowances for shifting to new place etc) to be Extended to the transferred employee should be prescribed.

Q 17) Explain the difference between Transfer, Promotion and Up gradation.


A transfer refers to a horizontal or lateral movement of an employee from one job to another in the same organization without any significant change in status & pay. A Transfer is define as- "A lateral shift causing movement of individual's from one position to another usually without involving any marked change in duties, responsibilities, skills needed or compensation. Transfer may be: Temporary Permanent Temporary transfer arises due to ill health, absenteeism, etc Permanent transfer due to change in work load, or death, retirement, resignation, etc. of some employee. Promotion refers to advancement of an employee to a higher post carrying greater responsibilities, higher status & better salary. It is the upward movement of an employee in the organization hierarchy, to another job commanding graeter authority, higher status & better working conditions. Promotion may be permanent or temporary, depending upon the needs of the organization. When an employee is assigned to a higher level job without increase in pay, it is called a Dry Promotion ". Difference between Promotion, Up-gradation, & Transfer Promotion Vs Up-gradation Up-gradation implies movement of an employee to a higher pay scale without change of job. The job itself is elevated to a higher grade without increase in status & authority. On the other hand, promotion involves change of job with increase in status, authority & salary. Both are used to reward the employees for better performance & to motivate them for greater effort. Promotion Vs Transfer Transfer implies movement of an employee to another job at the same level pay scale without increase in authority & status. On the other hand, promotion means movement of an employee to higher level job with increase in authority, status, & pay. Transfer is a horizontal shift of an emplvyee whereas promotion is a vertical movement. Promotion is a tool of motivating employees but transfer has little motivating value.

Q18) What are the main Features of Promotion Policy?


Promotion Policy: Every organisation should formulate a sound policy regarding promotion of its employees. The main features of a good promotion policy arc as follow: Must provide a uniform distribution of promotional opportunities' throughout the company. Must tell employees the avenues of advancement available to them. Multiple chain promotion charts may be prepared for this purpose. Basis of promotion should be clearly specified. Suitable training & development opportunity should be provided so that employees can prepare themselves for advancement.

Q19) What measures will you implement for Control over Absenteeism
Absenteeism means the failure of a employees to report for worker when is schedule to work. Absenteeism is unauthorized, avoidable & willful absence from duty. As absence of a employees on account of strike or lockout, or layoff, i.e. involuntary absence is not considered absenteeism. The rate of absenteeism is defined as the percentage of man days lost due to absence to the total number of man days scheduled in a a given time period. Causes of Absenteeism: Employees remain absent due to several factors which are given below: Nature of Work (A employee is likely to absent when the job is tough or monotonous & employee gets tired physically & mentally) Poor working condition (When work environment is unsatisfactory) Sickness (Sickness is the major cause of absenteeism in India) Accidents (Industrial & load accidents lead to physical & mental injuries which results in absenteeism of employees) Lack of Interest (Due to lack of interest in their jobs &no sense of responsibilities) Absence of Housing & Transport Facilities. Control over Absenteeism: Absenteeism cannot be eliminated altogether. Effective measures should be taken to Proper Hiring Good Working Condition Safety Program Incentives Effective Supervision Disciplinary Action Employees counseling Regular Leave Provision Proper Records

Q 20) Draw and Explain about Employee Turnover.


Employee turnover refers to the rate of change in the workforce of an enterprise during a given period of time. Employee Turnover is define as - "the time to time changes in the composition of the workforce that result from hiring, release & replacement of employees. " It is the measure to the extend to which old employees leave & new employees enter the service of a concern. Turnover is differ from absenteeism as former measures the extend of change in the composition of working force whereas the latter indicates the extend to which employees fails to attend to their regular work. Causes of Employee Turnover:

Employees either leave a company on their own or they are terminated. So, employee turnover arises due to avoidable & unavoidable reasons. 1. Avoidable Causes: Redundancy is the most significant avoidable cause of employee turnover. Employees may become redundant or surplus & have to be discharged due to lack of demand, shortage of raw material, nature of business, defective management planning etc. Dissatisfaction with the job, poor working condition, low salary, long working hours, bad relations, with peers, subordinates, superiors, etc are few avoidable reason of employee turnover. 2. Unavoidable Causes: Employee turnover also arises due to reasons which are beyond the control of management like:

Better prospects oui'side the concern. Domestic affairs like marriage & pregnancy in case of women employees. Illness & accidents causing physical disability. Retirement & Death. Departure from the city. Housing & transport problem. Effect of Employee Turnover: Some degree of employee turnover is inevitable as well as desirable in all organization. High rate of turnover is a .vaming to management that some thing is wrung with the organization. High turnover is a sign of low morale & instability & is harmful to both for employer as well as employees. Costs to Employer: High employee turnover is costly to employer in the following reasons: Hiring cost involved in repeat recruitment, selection& their placements. Expenditure incurred on orientation & training of employees goes waste. Loss of production in the time interval between separation replacement by new. Overtime costs have to be incurred to meet delivery schedule. Smooth working & quality of organization suffers. Accident rates of new employees will be higher. Scarps &waste rates increase due to inexperience of new employees. Market reputations of the company suffer due to high turnover. Human resources are under utilized & under estimated. Costs to Employees High turnover is harmful to employees in following reasons: Due to shifting a employee losses the benefits of previous service like pay increment leave, provident fund, etc. . An employee can losses the opportunity to promotion if on the basis of seniority. Special skills, & experience developed in an organization may become meaningless in another organization. Work environment differs from one to another organizationwhich again can be a problem for an employeeto shift in. Control of Employee Turnover: The following steps can be taken to reduce employee turnover: Proper planning of manpower requirements to avoid redundancy. Improvement in Recruitment & selection policies & practices. Proper orientation & training of employees. Better pay & good working environment. Promotion from within & other career opportunities. Security of services Impartial transfer & promotion policies & practices. Introduction to incentives plans.

Employee's welfare schemes. Adequate machinery for satisfactory redressal& grievances. Provision of retirement benefits. Employee consultation, suggestions, schemes, & employees participation in management. Conflicts resolutions &team building techniques to improve humanrelations. Proper job designing with job enrichment & work scheduling to match skills with job requirements.

Q 21) Define Personnel Policy. Explain Aims and Objectives of Personnel Policy. A policy", says Flippo, "is a man-made rule of pre-determined course of action that is established to guide the performance of work toward the organization objectives. It is a type of standing plan that serves to guide subordinates in 'the execution of their tasks." According to Calhoon Personnel policies constitute guide to action. They furnish the general standards or bases on which decisions aie reached. Their genesis lies in an organization's values, philosophy, concepts and principles." "Policies are statements of the organization's over-all purposes and its objectives in the various areas with which its operations are concerned - personnel, finance, production, marketing and so on." A policy is a pre-determined, selected course established as a guide to accepted goals and objectives. - they (policies) establish the framework of guiding principles that facilitate delegation to lower levels and permit individual managers to select appropriate tactics o( programmes In contrast to these, personnel policies are those that individuals have developed to keep them on the track towards their personnel objectives.... Management policies are developed by working organization to keep them on course headed and directed toward their organizational objectives. These define the intentions of the organization and serve as guidelines to give consistency and continuity to total operations. They provide base for management by principle as contrasted with management by expediency. "He adds" "Personnel or labour or industrial relations policy provides guidelines for a wide variety of employment relationships in the organization. These guidelines identify the organization's intentions in recruitment, selection, promotion, development, compensation, organization, motivation and otherwise leading and directing people in working organization. Personnel policies serve as a road map for manage. Thus {personnel policies refer to principles and rules of conduct which "formulate, redefine into details and decide a number of actions" that govern the relationship with employees in the attainment of the organization objectives. The aim of personnel policies should be / are: To enable an organization to fulfil or carry out the main objectives which have been llaid down as the desirable minima of general employment policy; To enable that its employees are informed of these items of policy and to secure their cooperation for their attainment; To provide such conditions of employment and procedures as will enable all the employees to develop a sincere sense of unity with the enterprise and to carry out their duties in the most willing and effective manner; To provide an adequate, competent and trained personnel for all levels and types of management; To protect the common interests of all the parties and recognize the role of trade unions in the organization; To provide for a consultative participation by employees in the management of an organization and the framing of conditions for this participation, which, however, shall not take part in technical, financial of trading policy; To provide an efficient consultative service, which aims at creating mutual faith among those who work in the enterprise; a) by developing management leadership which is bold and imaginative and guided by moral values;

b) by effectively delegating the human relations aspects of personnel functions to line managers; c) by enforcing discipline on the basis of co-operative understanding and a humane application of rules and regulations; and d) by providing for a happy relationship at all levels. To establish the conditions for mutual confidence and avoid confusion and misunderstanding between the management and the workers, by developing suggestion plans, joint management councils, work committees, etc and by performance appraisal discussions To provide security of employment to workers so the they may not be distracted by the uncertainties of their future; To provide an opportunity for growth within the organization to persons who are wi1ling to learn and undergo training to improve their future prospects; To provide for the payment of fair and adequate wages and salary to workers so that their healthy co-operation may be ensured for an efficient working of the undertaking; To recognize the work and accomplishments of the employees, by offering non-monetary incentives.

Q 22) What is the Significance of Employee Turnover?


Employee turnover refers to the rate of change in the workforce of an enterprise during a give n period of time. Employee Turnover is define as - "the time to time changes in the composition of the workforce that result from hiring, release & replacement of employees. " It is the measure to the extend to which old employees leave & new employees enter the service of a concern. Effect of Employee Turnover: Some degree of employee turnover is inevitable as well as desirable in all organization. High rate of turnover is a .vaming to management that some thing is wrung with the organization. High turnover is a sign of low morale & instability & is harmful to both for employer as well as employees. Costs to Employer: High employee turnover is costly to employer in the following reasons: Hiring cost involved in repeat recruitment, selection& their placements. Expenditure incurred on orientation & training of employees goes waste. Loss of production in the time interval between separation replacement by new. Overtime costs have to be incurred to meet delivery schedule. Smooth working & quality of organization suffers. Accident rates of new employees will be higher. Scarps &waste rates increase due to inexperience of new employees. Market reputations of the company suffer due to high turnover. Human resources are under utilized & under estimated. Costs to Employees High turnover is harmful to employees in following reasons: Due to shifting a employee losses the benefits of previous service like pay increment leave, provident fund, etc. . An employee can losses the opportunity to promotion if on the basis of seniority. Special skills, & experience developed in an organization may become meaningless in another organization. Work environment differs from one to another organizationwhich again can be a problem for an employeeto shift in. Control of Employee Turnover: The following steps can be taken to reduce employee turnover: Proper planning of manpower requirements to avoid redundancy. Improvement in Recruitment & selection policies & practices. Proper orientation & training of employees. Better pay & good working environment.

Promotion from within & other career opportunities. Security of services Impartial transfer & promotion policies & practices. Introduction to incentives plans. Employee's welfare schemes. Adequate machinery for satisfactory redressal& grievances. Provision of retirement benefits. Employee consultation, suggestions, schemes, & employees participation in management. Conflicts resolutions &team building techniques to improve humanrelations. Proper job designing with job enrichment & work scheduling to match skills with job requirements.

Q23) Explain Features and Causes of Grievances.


Grievance means any real or imaginary feelings of dissatisfaction & injustice which an employee has about his employment relationship. Grievance is any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice in connection with one's employment situation that is brought to the attention of management. A grievance is any discontent or dissatisfaction, whether expressed or not, whether valid or not, arising out of anything connected with the company that an employee thinks, believes or even feels, is unfair, unjust or inequitable." Features of Grievance 1. Reflects dissatisfaction or discontent or a feeling of injustice. 2. Dissatisfaction must arise out of employment & not from personal or family problems. 3. Dissatisfaction may be expressed or implied. 4. Dissatisfaction may be valid & legitimate or irrational & ridiculous or false. 5. A grievance arises only when on employee feels that injustice been done to him. 6. Grievance if not redressed in time tends to lower morale & productivity of employees. Causes of Grievances Grievances may arise due to the following reason: 1.Grievances arising out of Working Conditions: 1. Poor physical conditions of work place 2. Very tight production standards. 3. Non-availability of proper tools & machines 4. Unplanned changes In schedules & procedures. 5. Failure to maintain proper discipline 6. Mismatch of the worker with the job. 7. Poor relationship with the supervisor

2.Grievances arising from Management policy 1. Wage rate and methods of salary payment or wage payment 2. Overtime and incentive schemes 3. Seniority 4. Transfer 5. Promotion, demotion and discharge. 6. Lack of opportunities for career growth. 7. Penalties imposed for misconduct 8. Leave 9. Hostility towards trade union 10.

3. Grievances arising from alleged violation of 1. The collective bargaining agreement 2. Company rules& regulations. 3. Past Practices. 4. Central or State laws. . . 5. Responsibilities of management. 4. Grievances arising outt of Personal Maladjustment: 1. Over-ambition. 2. Excessive self- esteem. 3. Impractical attitude to life.

Q24) Write the procedure to be followed for Grievance Redressal.

STEPS FOR GRIEVANCE REDRESSAL


1.An aggrieved employee shall present his grievance verbally in person to the officer nominated / appointed by the management foe this purpose. The officer must give his answers within 48 hours of the presentation of the complaint. 2. If the employee does not rective an answer within the stipulated time or he is not satisfied with the answer, b2 shall, either in person or with his departmental (or any representative) present his grievance to the head of the department designated for this purpose. The departmental head is required to furnish his answer within 3 days of the. presentation of the grievance. 3. If the employee is not satisfied with the answer, he can approach Grievance Committee which shall evaluate the case & make its recommendations to management within 7 days of presentation of the case. The employee will be communicated the recommendation within 3 days. . 4. If the committee fails to take decision within the stipulated period or the employee is not satisfied with the decision he can make a appeal for revision to management. Management is supposed to communicate its decision within 7 days of the employees revised petition. 5. If the employee is unsatisfied within the management's decision, union & management may refer to grievance to voluntary arbitration within a week of the receipt of management's decision by the aggrieved employee

Q25) What are the Important Steps you will consider in Industrial Health Programme?
Health is a state of complete physical, mental,& social well being& not the absence of disease. It is the outcome of the interaction between the individual& his environment. According to Joint ILO& WHO Committee on organization health, Industrial health is: a. Promotion and maintenance of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations. b. Prevention of worker's ill health caused by working conditions. c. Protection of workers in their employment from physical risks. d. Maintenance of healthy environment for physical and psychological well being of the workers. Industrial Health Programme: Every industrial establishment should formulate & implement a positive policy & program to maintain the good health of its employees. Such programme should consist of the following 1. Maintenance & supervision of satisfactory sanitation & hygiene in the factory/office. 2. Inoculation & after programmes or e prevention of communicable diseases. 3. Cooperation with public health agencies & accident prevention authorities. 4. Maintenance of adequate & confidential medical records. 5. Health education & information services for employees. 6. Proper medical examination of every new employee. 7. Annual medical check up of those exposed to occupational hazards/diseases. 8. Employment of professional physicians & nurses. 9. Proper first aid treatment for occupational injuries & diseases. STATUATORY PROVISIONS REGARDING HEALTH Cleanliness: Every factory shall be kept clean and free from effluvia arising from any drain, privy or other nuisance, and in particular(a) Accumulation of dirt and refuse shall be removed daily by sweeping or by any other effective method from the floors and benches of workrooms and from staircases and passages, and disposed of in a suitable manner. (b) The floor of every workroom shall be cleaned at least once in every week by washing, using disinfectant, where necessary, or by some other effective method. Disposal of wastes and effluents: Effective arrangements shall be made in every factory for the treatment of wastes and effluents due to the manufacturing process carried on therein, so as to render them innocuous and for their disposal. Ventilation and temperature : Effective and suitable provision shall be made in every factory for securing and maintaining in every workroom

(a) Adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air, and (b) A temperature which will provide reasonable conditions of comfort to the worker and prevent injury to health. Dust and fume.: In every factory on account of the manufacturing process carried on, there is given off any dust or fume or other impurity of such a nature and to such an extent as is likely to be injurious or offensive to the workers employed then effective measures shall be taken to prevent its inhalation and accumulation in any workroom, and if any exhaust appliance is necessary for this purpose, it shall be applied as near as possible to the point of origin of the dust, fume or other impurity. Artificial humidification: In respect of all factories in which the humidity of the air is artificially increased, the State Government may make rules, (a) prescribing standards of humidification; (b) regulating the methods used for artificially increasing the humidity of the air Overcrowding: In a factory no room is allowed to be overcrowded to the extent injurious to the health of the workers employed therein. Every worker will have to be provided with 350 cubic feet of space if a factory is in existence of the commencement of the act and atleast 500 cubic feet space after the commencement of the Act. Lighting: The working place and the passage must be provided with suitable and sufficient light, which may be natural or artificial. At the place of work, glazed windows and sky lights have to be kept clean and formation of shadows have to be prevented. Drinking water: In every factory effective arrangements shall be made to provide and maintain at suitable points for all workers employed a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. (a) All such points shall be legibly marked "drinking water" in a language understood by majority of the workers employed. (b) No such point shall be situated within six meters of any washing place, urinal, latrine, spittoon, open drain carrying sullage or effluent Latrines & Urinals: Sufficient and adequate number of urinals and latrines have to be provided separately for men and women. The latrines / urinals have to well lighted and ventilated. The latrines and urinals should be in a clean and sanitary condition at all times. Spitoons: In every factory there shall be provided a sufficient number of spittoons in convenient places and they shall be maintained in a clean and hygienic condition.Any person found spitting at any place other than spittoons in the factory is liable for punishment.

Q26) What are the Objectives of wages and salary admin?


A sound wages & salary administration seeks to achieve the following objectives: 1. To establish a fair & equitable remuneration: There should be internal & external equity in remuneration paid to employees. Internal equity means similar pay for similar work. External equity implies pay for a job should be equal to pay for a similar in other organizations. 2. To attract competent personnel: A sound wages & salary administration helps to attract qualified& hard working people by ensuring an adequate payment for a jobs. 3. To retain the present employees: By paying a competitive level, the company can retain its personnel. It can minimizethe incidence of quitting & increase employee loyalty . 4. To improve productivity: Sound wages & salary administration helps to improve the motivation & morale of employees which in turn lead to higher productivity. 5. To cost control: Through sound wages & salary administration labor administrative costs can be kept in line with the ability of the company to pay. It facilitates administration & control of payroll. The company can systematically plan (payroll budgeting) & control labor costs. 6. To establish job sequences & lines of promotion wherever applicable. 7. To improve union management relations: Wages & salaries based on systematic analysis of jobs & prevailing pay levels are more acceptable to trade unions. Therefore, sound wage & salary administration simplifies collective bargaining & negotiations over pay. It reduces grievances arising out of wage inequities. 8. To improve public image of the company: Wages & salary programme also seeks to project the image of a progressive employer & to comply with legal requirements relating to wages salaries.

Q27) Write the essentials of Sound Wage and Salary Structure.


The main requirements of a sound structure of base compensation are as follows: 1. Internal Equity. It implies a proper relationship between wages paid for different jobs within the company. Pay differentials should be related directly to differentials in job requirements. Fair pay differentials between jobs can be established with the job evaluation. Thus, the relationship of wages & salaries paid for different jobs is just as important good personnel relations as is the firm's general level of wages. 2. External Competitiveness. Wages & salaries in their organization should be in the line with wages & salaries for comparable jobs in other organizations. Otherwise the organization may not be able to attract & retain competent personnel. 3. Built-in incentive. Wage or salary plan should contain a built - in incentive so as to motivate employees to perform better. Such an incentive can be developed through performance based payment. 4. Link with productivity. Some part of the total pay should be linked to productivity. Such linkage is necessary because workers expect a share in productivity gains. This will also help to control labor cost. 5. Maintain real wages. Atleast a part of the increase in the cost of living should be neutralized so as to protect the real wages of labor. 6. Increments. Compensation policy can be good motivator if pay increases are linked with the merit. 7. Miscellaneous. The degree of skill, strain of work, experience, training, responsibility undertaken, mental and physical requirements, disagreeableness of the task, hazard attendant of the work and Fatigue will also determine the wage & salary.