You are on page 1of 17

CHAPTER 1: Overview of Global Energy and Environmental Issues Environmental milestones, landmarks Vedas ( love and respect for

r nature )
Ancient civilisations - self imposed restrictions to avoid pollution,

degradation ..spiritual means .. )

Rachel Carson and the Silent Spring: When Rachel Carson's Silent Spring was

published in 1962; it generated a storm of controversy over the use of chemical pesticides. Miss Carson's intent in writing Silent Spring was to warn the public of the dangers associated with pesticide use. Throughout her book are numerous case studies documenting the harmful effects that chemical pesticides have had on the environment? Along with these facts, she explains how in many instances the pesticides have done more harm than good in eradicating the pests they were designed to destroy. In addition to her reports on pesticide use, Miss Carson points out that many of the long-term effects that these chemicals may have on the environment, as well as on humans, are still unknown. Her book as one critic wrote, "dealt pesticides a sharp blow" (Senior Scholastic 1962). The controversy sparked by Silent Spring led to the enactment of environmental legislation and the establishment of government agencies to better regulate the use of these chemicals UNCED Stockholm 1972
Indira Gandhi and the environment (Project Tiger , Silent valley . )

Bhopal Gas disaster - 1984 Rio -1992: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known
as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, Earth Summit(Portuguese: Eco '92) was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 June to 14 June 1992. The issues addressed included: systematic scrutiny of patterns of production particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smog the growing scarcity of water

Emerging trends in the new economy era

Information revolution Traditional supply chains to virtual markets

Change in Stakeholder relationships (client ,customer, supplier , manufacturers

etc..) Extended enterprises ( large corporates, diversification ) Environmental performance, reporting practices

Responsible behaviour towards environment , CSR etc.

Environment management Environment as part of survival, ,sustainability and welfare (Management of activities , within tolerable frameworks, guidelines keeping in mind ecological factors, natural processes ) Environment as a strategic decision making tool Integration into Business, daily life What is Environment ?
Manager external environment in which an organisation functions Ecologist - Sum of all external conditions and influences affecting the life and

development of organisms
Human - Abiotic factors - land water, atmosphere, climate, sound etc - Biotic -

animals, plants, bacteria , viruses

Academician An area of study which is a conglomerate of basic and applied sciences, engineering , socio economic aspects, management and law Economist natural environment is an asset or capital commodity that

directly or indirectly provides man with economic beneifits.

How does the Business and Industry therefore interpret the environment ?

Environment = Pollution = Hazardous substances = Safety regulations COMPLIANCE ----------------------------------------------------Environmental policy statement Causes of major environmental Problems Intensive agriculture practices (soil degradation, overuse of chemicals, ground water ) Population explosion pressure on land and resources Industrialisation and urbanisation Developmental policies depletion of water table, increased floods and drought, water logging and salinity, atmospheric emissions, water pollution, loss of biodiversity, traditional knowledge systems Less environmentally friendly technologies e.g. river systems Informal manufacturing sector growth in urban centres Introduction to Environment Management Environment as part of survival, sustainability and welfare Environment management is not Managing the environment ?? (Management of activities, within tolerable frameworks, guidelines keeping in mind ecological factors, natural processes)

Environment as a strategic decision making tool Integration into Business, daily life Human dependency on the natural environment Two commonly used theories to define EM Process of utilising natural and artificial resources for optimal use of the environment in order to satisfy minimum basic human needs and possibly on a sustainable basis
Generic description of a process undertaken by systems oriented professionals with (natural science, social science or technical backgrounds, law ) involved in monitoring human altered environments in an interdisciplinary manner through quantitative and /or futuristic viewpoint

Characteristics of EM Very generic Supports sustainable development World affected by human beings as central to an issue Multidisciplinary or inter-disciplinary approaches Integrate development planning/ scenarios Integrate science ,social science, policy making and planning Meeting requirements of human needs Time scale and issues ranging from local to global SWOT Stewardship rather than exploitation Interface with ecology, economics, law, politics , people etc. Goals of EM Preventing and resolving environmental problems Establishing limits Establishing and nurturing institutions that effectively support environmental research, monitoring and management Identifying threats and opportunities Improving existing resources Improving quality of life Identifying environmentally sound technologies/practices Developmental context and approaches Sustainable development -To achieve a reasonable and equitable distribution of economic wellbeing that can be perpetuated continuously for many human generations through use of natural resources in a renewable manner. Development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs ( WCED,1987) Max rate of resource consumption and waste discharge for a selected development portfolio to be sustained indefinitely without progressively impairing its bioproductivity and ecological integrity Challenge to technologists to balance economic growth, industrial development without causing any significant environmental harm or degradation and preserving environmental resource for perpetuity Approaches

Ad hoc/Short term or reactive approach: Reactive response to specific situation,

mitigation efforts e.g. Problem Solving: Series of logical steps to identify problems, needs and solutions. Systems approach Natural processes or ecosystems e.g. agro - ecosystems, mountains, deserts, islands, lakes, forests, urban centres, mega cities etc. Regional approach: Approaches which focus on biogeophysical units such as watershed , river basins, large landscapes , Can be linked to interstate or trans boundary /cross border situations e.g. ??? Specialist discipline approach: Approaches where professionals specialised in certain disciplines utilise their expertise to arrive at a solution e.g. air quality management , water quality management , urban management , land management etc Civil society approach: Actions and responses developed by individuals, NGOs, policy think tanks, voluntary sector groups ,pressure groups etc. EM tools
An environmental impact assessment is an assessment of the possible positive or negative impact that a proposed project may have on the environment, together consisting of the environmental, social and economic aspects. The purpose of the assessment is to ensure that decision makers consider the ensuing environmental impacts when deciding whether to proceed with a project. The International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) defines an environmental impact assessment as "the process of identifying, predicting, evaluating and mitigating the biophysical, social, and other relevant effects of development proposals prior to major decisions being taken and commitments made.

Environment assessment Economic assessment Environment impact statements Environment audits Waste minimisation programmes and EMS Life Cycle assessments Environmental design


Renewable resources forests , RE, water Non Renewable resources fossil fuels, minerals Forests Water Minerals Food and Agriculture Energy Land Atmosphere Forest resources Important renewable resource Centres of biodversity Biological , economic, historical, cultural, recreational, aesthetic, religious value Resource value wood , timber, NTFP(Non-timber forest products (NTFP) are considered as any commodity obtained from the forest that does not

necessitate harvesting trees. It includes game animals, furbearers, nuts and seeds,berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat, fuelwood, forage, etc), soil and forest carbon, Ecotourism Useful functions of Forest resources Watershed protection Clean water Land erosion control Clean air Economic benefits - Timber production, fuel, fodder, small scale industries , medicines Deforestation: is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use Changing demographic profile Fuel wood consumption Industrial development Infrastructure projects Over grazing Agriculture Cultivation of cash crops like rubber , tobacco, oil palm etc Developmental Projects- mining, industrialisation , dams , hydroelectric projects Tourism Larger issue of Climate change Three areas hit the most by deforestation are Amazon rainforest, Africa, and Indonesia. In these three areas condition is really no longer alarming, it is really already in critical zone Water resources Watery planet - 97 % of earths water supply in Oceans 2 % in Polar icecaps- almost perennially frozen 1 % available to mankind as Freshwater as a resource for use and exploitation; Lakes, rivers, wetlands, underground water, subterranean systems Water demand Global water, land and energy demands increasing Demand for land , energy destruction of wetlands and flood plains Water the India story Dams and irrigation canals on rivers Changes in Environmental flows of river systems Deforestation Over exploitation of water resources - Surface water - Ground water - Rural India - Urban India Conflicts over water Indus water dispute

Ganga water sharing mechanism Interstate water disputes - Cauvery water dispute - Yamuna water dispute - Krishna- Godavari water dispute Mines and Minerals Prospecting Exploration Development Exploitation Mining Resources Iron Ore - 2nd Largest in the world Coal Manganese Chromites Bauxite Nearly 75 % of world production Mica, Gypsum Petroleum Environmental impacts of mining Land erosion Forest cover loss Air Pollution fine particulate matter Usage of Timber in underground mining Damage to terrestrial vegetation and ecosystems Contamination of surface, ground water Waste disposal Social Impacts - resettlement, health, social relationships, migration Food and Agriculture World food supply mainly from land resources Only 1 % from oceans and other aquatic habitats Serious food and grain shortage projected across the world Per capita availability of food grains declining continuously for last 15 years Human population growth and declining food productivity !! Living Planet Index It describes the changing state of global biodiversity and the pressure on the biosphere arising from human consumption of natural resources. It is built around two indicators: The Living Planet Index, which reflects the health of the planets ecosystems; and The Ecological Footprint, which shows the extent of human demand on these ecosystems. These measures are tracked over several decades to reveal past trends. Scenarios show how the choices we make might lead to a sustainable society living in harmony with robust ecosystems, or to the collapse of these same ecosystems, resulting in a permanent loss of biodiversity and erosion of the planets ability to support people.

The Living Planet Index measures trends in the Earths biological diversity Since 1970 the index has fallen by about 30%. This global trend suggests that we are degrading natural ecosystems at a rate unprecedented in human history The Living Planet Index and the Ecological Footprint help to establish baselines, set targets, and monitor achievements and failures. Biodiversity suffers when the planet's biocapacity cannot keep pace with human consumption and waste generation The Ecological Footprint tracks this in terms of the area of biologically productive land and water needed to provide ecological resources and services food, fibre, and timber, land on which to build, and land to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2) released by burning fossil fuels. The Earths biocapacity is the amount of biologically productive area cropland, pasture, forest, and fisheries that is available to meet humanitys needs. Since the late 1980s, we have been in overshoot - the Ecological Footprint has exceeded the Earths biocapacity - by about 25%. Effectively, the Earths regenerative capacity can no longer keep up with demand people are turning resources into waste faster than nature can turn waste back into resources. Humanity is no longer living off natures interest, but drawing down its capital. This growing pressure on ecosystems is causing habitat destruction or degradation and permanent loss of productivity, threatening both biodiversity and human well-being. For how long can this go on? A moderate business-as-usual scenario, based on United Nations projections of slow, steady growth of economies and populations, suggests that by 2050, humanitys demand on nature will be twice the biospheres productive capacity.

At this level of ecological deficit, exhaustion of ecological assets and large-scale ecosystem collapse become increasingly likely. Effects of modern agriculture
Soil pollution Use of fertilisers

Contamination of water - pesticides Water scarcity - over exploitation water energy nexus, ground water table Water intensive crops Global climate change Water logging Soil salinity Loss of genetic diversity- transgenic products , GMOs etc. Energy resources Global demand for energy use increasing rapidly

Rate of energy consumption a standard for economic growth and development of a country Renewable and Nonrenewable resources Land resources Cumulative use of all the resources mentioned earlier Land use planning Land degradation Soil erosion Desertification Agriculture

CHAPTER 3: Ecosystems and Biodiversity Conservation

Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a

given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regions support fewer species. Genetic diversity: the level of biodiversity, refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. It is distinguished from genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary. Genetic diversity serves as a way for populations to adapt to changing environments. With more variation, it is more likely that some individuals in a population will possess variations of alleles that are suited for the environment. Species diversity is the effective number of different species that are represented in a collection of individuals (a dataset). The effective number of species refers to the number of equally-abundant species needed to obtain the same mean proportional species abundance as that observed in the dataset of interest (where all species may not be equally abundant). Species diversity consists of two components, species richness and species evenness. Species richness is a simple count of species, whereas species evenness quantifies how equal the abundances of the species are. Ecosystem diversity: refers to the diversity of a place at the level of ecosystems. The term differs from biodiversity, which refers to variation in species rather than ecosystems. Ecosystem diversity can also refer to the variety of ecosystems present in a biosphere, the variety of species and ecological processes that occur in different physical settings. Classification of ecosystems

Bio geographical classification of India Biogeography deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals. Communities of plants and animals in different geographical areas of the world differ widely from each other. Biogeography is divided into branches: i] Phyto-geography and ii] Zoogeography. India a mega biodiversity nation One amongst 17 countries worldwide, mostly tropical One of four countries in Asia India divided into ten phytogeographical regions based on geographical features - Trans Himalayan zone - Himalayan zone - Desert zone - Semiarid zone - Western ghat zone - Deccan plateau zone - Gangetic plain zone - North east zone - Coastal zone - Islands present near the shore line Grasslands and deserts Grassland is an area where the annual rainfall is insufficient to support a luxuriant growth of trees, but is still high enough so that deserts are not formed. Grasslands are however not restricted to low rainfall areas. Several grassland types form either clearings in different forest types or are located on hill slopes with patches of forests along rivers/stream courses and depressions. Grassland ecosystems form Himalayan pastures, the terai grassland of the foothills, semi-arid grasslands of Western and Central Inndia, in scrublands of the Deccan Plateau and in the Shola forests of the Western Ghats, Nilgiri and Annamalai ranges. Thus depending on the quantity of rain, there are tall, medium and short grasses.

Biodiversity Conservation
Value of Biodiversity

Survival Health and healing Food security Productive value Ethical value Aesthetic pleasure Ecological services Hotspots of Biodiversity Concept developed in 1988 by Norman Myers to project earths biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions Priority areas for conservation 25 sites globally identified Two sites located in India Criteria : No. of species, number of species exclusive to the ecosystem, threats faced by the ecosystem Endangered species International Union for Conservation of Nature has identified eight categories to list endangered species - Extinct - Extinct -Critically endangered -Endangered -Vulnerable -Lower risk -Data deficient -Not evaluated 25,000 endangered species worldwide Endemism and endangered species Threatened and endemic Biodiversity Biodiversity of India Asiatic Lion Bengal Tiger Lion tailed Macaque Kashmir Hangul Brow antlered Deer Black necked crane Great Indian Bustard Pink headed Duck Mountain Quail Bengal Florican Pygmy Hog Great Indian Rhinoceros King cobra Star Tortoise Coral reefs Great Bird wing Marbled teal White winged wood Duck

Protected Areas Network Development and History The protection of wildlife has a long tradition in Indian history. Wise use of natural resources was a prerequisite for many hunter-gatherer societies which date back to at least 6000 BC. Extensive clearance of forests accompanied the advance of agricultural and pastoral societies in subsequent millennia, but an awareness of the need for ecological prudence emerged and many so-called pagan nature conservation practices were retained. As more and more land became settled or cultivated, so these hunting reserves increasingly became refuges for wildlife. Many of these reserves were subsequently declared as national parks or sanctuaries, mostly after Independence in 1947. Examples include Gir in Gujarat, Dachigam in Jammu & Kashmir, Bandipur in Karnataka, Eravikulum in Kerala, Madhav (now Shivpuri) in Madhya Pradesh, Simlipal in Orissa, and Keoladeo, Ranthambore and Sariska in Rajasthan. Wildlife, together with forestry, has traditionally been managed under a single administrative organisation within the forest departments of each state or union territory, with the role of central government being mainly advisory. There have been two recent developments. First, the Wildlife (Protection) Act has provided for the creation of posts of chief wildlife wardens and wildlife wardens in the states to exercise statutory powers under the Act. Under this Act, it is also mandatory for the states to set up state wildlife advisory boards. Secondly the inclusion of protection of wild animals and birds in the concurrent list of the constitution, has proved the union with some legislative control over the states in the conservation of wildlife (Pillai, 1982). The situation has since improved, all states and union territories with national parks or sanctuaries having set up wildlife wings. The adoption of a National Policy for Wildlife Conservation in 1970 and the enactment of the Wildlife (Protection) Act in 1972 lead to a significant growth in the protected areas network, from 5 national parks and 60 sanctuaries to 69 and 410 respectively, in 1990 (Panwar, 1990). The complete United Nations List of National Parks and Protected Areas for India (1993) is given in Appendix 8. These protected areas, shown in Figure 8, are distributed throughout mainland India and its islands. The network was further strengthened by a number of national conservation projects, notably Project Tiger, initiated in April 1973 by the Government of India with support from WWF (IBWL, 1972; Panwar, 1982), and the crocodile Breeding and Management Project, launched on 1 April, 1975 with technical assistance from UNDP/FAO (Bustard, 1982). Protected Areas of the Western Ghats The Western Ghats are a chain of highlands running along the western edge of the Indian subcontinent, from Bombay south to the southern tip of the peninsula, through the states of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Covering an estimated area of 159,000 sq. km, the Western Ghats are an area of exceptional biological diversity and conservation interest, and are "one of the major Tropical Evergreen Forest regions in India" (Rodgers and Panwar, 1988). As the zone has already lost a large part of its original forest cover (although timber extraction from the evergreen reserve forests in Kerala and Karnataka has now been halted) it must rank as a region of great conservation concern. The small remaining extent of natural forest, coupled with exceptional biological richness and ever increasing levels of threat (agriculture, reservoir flooding plantations, logging and over exploitation), are factors which necessitate major conservation inputs." There are currently seven national parks in the Western Ghats with a total area of 2,073 sq. km (equivalent to 1.3% of the region) and 39 wildlife sanctuaries covering

an area of about 13,862 sq. km (8.1%). The protected areas of Kerala State are shown in Figure 9. The management status of the wildlife sanctuaries in this part of India varies enormously. Tamil Nadu's Nilgiri wildlife sanctuary, for example, has no human inhabitants, small abandoned plantation areas and no produce exploitation, while the Parambikulam wildlife sanctuary in Kerala includes considerable areas of commercial plantations and privately owned estates with heavy resource exploitation. Summary sheets describing some of the protected areas in Kerala State are given in Appendix 9. International Programmes and Conventions India participates with many international agreements and programmes concerned with aspects of nature conservation and sustainable development. These range from legal instruments such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, which place obligations on those nations which become contracting parties, to scientific programmes such as the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Programme, a global programme of international scientific cooperation. Examples of agreements and programmes with which India is collaborating include: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) Since India became a party to CITES on 18th October 1976 it has provided data annually to the CITES secretariat on the trade of endangered species through its CITES Management Authority. The text of the CITES convention along with the CITES appendices are provided. World Heritage Convention India ratified the World Heritage Convention in 1977 and since then five natural sites have been inscribed as areas of 'outstanding universal value'. These sites are:

Kaziranga National Park Keoladeo National Park Manas National Park Sundarbans National Park Nanda Devi National Park

Convention on Biological Diversity India signed the Convention on Biological Diversity on 5th June 1992, ratified it on 18th February 1994 and brought it into force on 19th May 1994. This convention will provide a framework for the sustainable management and conservation of India's natural resources. Ramsar (Wetlands) Convention India has been a contracted party to the Ramsar Convention since 1st February 1982. India has now six sites covering some 192,973 hectares of important wetlands. These sites are;

Chilka Lake Keoladeo National Park Wular Lake Harike Lake Loktak Lake Sambhar Lake

Anthropogenic and human related threats to Biodiversity Poaching of Wildlife,Trade Overgrazing Environmental pollution Waste disposal Construction of dams, roads, infrastructure Exploitation of water resources Mining Forest fires Eutrophication Agricultural expansion Deforestation Urbanisation, unplanned development, habitat destruction


Greenhouse gases Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous Oxide (N2O)

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

Nitrogen Oxides (NOX) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) GHG sources Energy and Transformation Industrial Processes Agriculture Land Use, & Forestry Waste

Energy and Transformation Energy and transformation industries (Electric power generation, Petroleum refining, Manufacture of solid fuels Manufacturing industries and construction (Iron and steel, cement, non-ferrous metals, chemicals and fertilizer, pulp and paper, brick, sugar, food and beverages, other industries) Transport (Aviation, Road, Railways, Navigation/Shipping) Other sectors (commercial, residential, agriculture/forestry/ fishing) Fuel sources Primary fuels(Crude oil, Natural gas liquids) Secondary fuels (Gasoline, Jet kerosene,Other kerosene, Gas/Diesel, LPG, Ethane, Naphtha, Bitumen, Lubricants, Petroleum Coke, Refinery feed stocks Solid fossil Primary Fuels (Coal, Lignite, Peat) Secondary Fuels (Coke) Gaseous fossil [Natural Gas (dry) Biomass (Solid, Liquid, and Gas biomass) Industrial Processes Industrial Processes that release emissions during chemical or physical transform of materials. e.g. Clinker formation from lime releases CO2 Industrial Process Sources Cement production Lime stone consumption in iron and steel plants Calcium Carbide and Silicon Carbide production Adipic acid production Nitric acid production Asphalt roofing manufacturing and Road paving with asphalt Glass manufacturing Ammonia production Production of other chemicals (Sulfuric acid, Styrene etc.) Production of Ferroalloys (of Silicon, Manganese, Chromium etc)

Aluminium production and Manganese foundries

Pulp and paper industry Production of beverages and food products Emissions of Halocarbons (HFCs and PFCs) and SF6 from bulk production Refrigeration, foam production, extinguishers, aerosols, solvents and other applications Agriculture Sector Enteric Fermentation (CH4) Manure management (CH4 and N2O) Rice Cultivation (CH4) Field burning of Agricultural crop residue (non-CO2 gases) Agricultural soils (N2O) Rice cultivation Anaerobic decomposition of organic material in the soil under submerged conditions in rice fields produces methane and is transported to the atmosphere by diffusive transport through rice plants during the growing season. CH4 emission is dependent upon: agricultural practices - water regimes cultivar types soil characteristics - organic content of the soil climate etc. Field Burning of Agricultural Residue Non-CO2 gases estimated from this source are estimated Gases: CH4, N2O, NOX and CO Different types of crop residue quantities e.g. rice,wheat, maize, barley, etc. Direct emission from agricultural fields Amount of Nitrogen input Nitrogen fertilizer,Nitrogen-fixing by crops Nitrogen input from crop residue Indirect emissions due to atmospheric decomposition of NH3 and NOX Indirect emissions from leaching Land Use practices, Forestry Changes in forest and other woody biomass Annual forest and grass land conversion Abandonment of managed lands CO2 emission or uptake from soils Deforestation, logging of wood Waste Sector CH4 emission from municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal (as per IPCC guidelines, only urban areas considered) CH4 emission from waste water handling Domestic/Commercial waste water and sludge Industrial waste water

Contribution of GHG from sectors

Energy and Transformation

Industrial Processes Agriculture Land Use, & Forestry Waste

- 65 % - 5.3 % -13.9 % -12.2 % - 3.2 %