The Gray's Ferry Proieet

by Irisitc Azcry

With the Gray's Ferry Project, the MidAtlantic Solar Energy Association brought solar energy into the city for all to see. The Grayts Ferry Project d.emonstrates the use on a Philadelphia rowhouse of a variety of conservation and solar energy systems, includ.ing t.he f irst urban Trombe wa11. The Project has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Appropriate Technology. Thousands of people have toured the building in its first two years. Hundreds of thousands more saw it featured in May 1981 on the popular television nev/s show, "Evening Mag:azine", hear about it on radio talk shows, and read about it in numerous publications. The building itself, located aE 2233 Gray's Ferry Avenue in Philadelphia, houses the headquarters of the Mid-Atlantic Solar Energy Association (MASEA) on the first fIoor. The offices of South Street Design, the architectural and research firm that designed the project, are upstairs. The conservation and solar energy systems in the building include: a three-storey stagnating Trombe wa1I, an attached sunspace or greenhouse, a solar domestic hot water system, an air-to-air heat exchanger, five types of moveable window insulation, and several other conservation strategies. They are illustrated and discussed on the following pages. Estimates of their cost and the energy use of the building are given on the fourth pa9e, along with sources of further information. The building that houses the Grayts Ferry Project was built in the earty 1890's, an age without electricity, telephones, or microprocessors. The building probably relied on coal for space heating. At that time coal had recently surpassed

the dominant fuel source used in the country. Technological evolutions i_n structural steel and concrete, elevators, and central air conditioning, among other things, made possible the skyscrapers that changed PhJ-ladelphia's skyline and urban character. Eventually the use of oil_ and natural gas also became wi_despread and the adaptable Grayrs Ferry rowhouse was heated ior many years by unitary room gas heaters, each with an individual fuel and chimney. In 1978 a central gas fired, hot air system was installed and some conservation measures were taken. In 1980 the solar energy systems were added representing the arrival of yet another technological revolution. The Gray's Ferry Project has converted an ordinary rowhouse into a significant urban building. By its existence and successful performance, it proves that solar energy and conservation work j_n the city, in rowhouses. Solar energy is not just for single-fami1y, detached houses i-n suburban or rural areas. The Philadelphia Solar Planning project found that there are almost 400,000 rowhouses in Philade1phia. Thatrs about 758 of the homes in the city. All of them could benefit from the use of at least some of the conservation and solar energy strategies demonstrated in the Grayrs Ferry Project. The Gray's Ferry Project is also significant because it demonstrates solai energy and conservation strategies whose time is now; and they also embody a promise for the future. They are buildable. They make economic and.ecological sense. They can be applied to your building.
wood as

They work.

Trombe waI1 is on the rear, south-facing wall of the buiIding. The wall itself is two rows of brick thick, was covered with stucco, painted a flat black to absorb as much energy as possible. A frame of 3" x 4t' wood supports and 5/4" x 3/4" wood clamping bars is bolted to the brick wall. The frame holds the ExoliteR, Acrylic double-Iayer glazing three inches from the brick. ExoliteR was chosen because it is lightweight and unbreakable. Operable vents are installed at the top and bottom of the Trombe wal1, enabling the air space between the glazing and the brick wafl to be vented in the summer. The Trombe wa1l is considered in the same category as aluminum siding by ehiladelphia building code officials.

Trombe Wqll The three-storey

South

Wa77

Attcched Sunspcce The attached sunspace addition to the Mid-Atlantic Solar Energy Assocj-ation headquarters is a greenhouse, except in name. The loca1 building codes require sprinkler complete, fire-extinguishing systems in all "commercial greenhouses." Although the bui-lding is a conmercial one, a sprinkler system is obviously unnecessary in this approximately 160 square foot addition. The attached sunspace uses ExolllsR glazing and roof vents for summer cooling. In retrospect, more summer ventilation would be desirable to lower temperatures and humidity leve1s. The lowest temperature, 46oF, vras recorded on a record-breaking December day when the building had been unoccupied over a
weekend.

-t
',t

in the basement. A non-Loxic anti-freeze is used in the fluid pumped through a cl-osed loop from the collectors to the heat exchanger coil in the bottom of the storage tank. The tank itself holds potable water and serves as a preheater for the 20 ga11on, electric water heater. On a clear day collector temperatures range between 160oF to 180oF, with a maximum of 190oF. The storage tank on a clear day would be between 1l0oF and 130oF, with a maximum of 140oF.
Vestibules

Solcr DIIW System The MASEA demonstration hot water system has three Sunearth collector panels mounted on the roof. The collectors are double glazed and three by eight feet each. An B0 gallon, stone-Iined storage tank is

Sunspace

pTanting beds/ bicgcLe storage design and Thetmoshade in upper Left corner.

shows buil-t-in

interior

Both front and rear vestibules were integrated into the renovation design for the MASEA headquarters to significantly reduce cold air infiltration in the winter.

SoJ-ar hot water sgstem

Ttonbe wa77 framing

Window QuiTt

posely left uninsulated in order to compare the wall surface temperature of the north wa1l with that of the Trombe wall on the south. The small west wa1l and the south waIl below the Trombe wall and sunspace glazing are insulated on the exterj-or with the DryvitR insulation and finish system. This consisls of two inches of rigid insulation board, reinforcing fabric, adhesive and a synthetj_c plaster exterior surface and provides approximately an R-9 with the brick wall.
Movecble Insulction WINDOW QUILT (TM) from the Appropriate Technology Corporation is a five layer quilted shade. rt has an air seal on all four sj-des and runs up and down in a track attached to the window frame. It can be used for windows, slidi-ng glass doors, and sloped greenhouse glazing. THE IS HfcH "R" SHADE (TM) from the rn@ in the Grayts Ferry Project is a five layer shade. It rolls up compactly and has an air sealing frame. When it is rolled down, the five layers are separated by spaces, creat.ing insulating dead air spaces. The exterior surface reflects summer sun. It can also be used for windows or sliding glass doors. THERMOISHADE (TM) by Systems for Energy Conservation-Ts used in Lhe uasra solar room. It provides an air seal at the top valence and side tracks. The plastic ribs making up the shade, enclose

, air spaces. An automatic control is available to raise and lower the shades. The MASEA conference room has two SITEBII-ILI moveable insulation systems. BoEF are constructed of one inch rigid insulation board covered with ptywood. The upper one fits t.ightly in place and remains there all winter. The other is made up of four panels hinged in sets of two that can be opened each day. They are also built to tight specificati-ons and seal well against infiltration when closed and latched.
Air-to-Air Hect Exchcnger The MASEA solar room also boasts an airto-air heat exchanger for winter ventilation. It consumes very little power (on the order of 55 watts) and needs no duct

Wall Insulction The north wa1l of the Gray's Ferry project was insulated with 3L" of Fiberglas by building a new stud wal1 inside the existing brick. One small area was pur-

Site-bui7t sgstems

High "R"

Shade

Insulation beTow Tronbe waLl

Air-to-air

heat exchanger

work. Although there is always a smal1 amount of infiltration even when the unit is turned off, the air coming in has absorbed. most of the heat of the outgoing air. Both latent and sensible heat are
exchanged.

Performcnce

BEFORE RENOVATION:

Bill

1979-80 Gas Heating (at 1982 rates)
=$645.

AFTER RENOVATION:

l9B1-82 Gas Heating Bill
=$306.

2233 Grag's Ferzg Avenue before tenovation

The Gtag's Feng Project in 7980

Whcrt

ccn I do?

Impodcmt Note on Perlormcnce Data Because the Grayrs Ferry project is a demonstration project, its focus has always been i-ts use as an educational too1. While every rowhouse can make use of some of the systems shown on the building, probably none could appropriately use all

For suggestions on what energy-saving measures can be easily taken in your
home:

Associ-ates.

"Low Cost/No Costr " a pamphlet available free at MASEA, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy; "Buyer's Guide to Saving Energy in the Homer" available free at the Grass Roots Alliance for a Solar pennsylvania, 3500 Lancaster Avenue, philadelphia, PA 19104, produced by the philadelphia Solar Planning Project/Burnette and

of them. The Mid-Atlantic Solar Energy Association based. its d.ecisions about which systems to instalt first primarily on the relative educational value of eaLh project. A homeowner's decisions will be different depending on both their house and budget and what conservation or solar measures will save the most energy at least cost.
Credits
ARCHITECT: South Street Design PROJECT DIRECTOR: Jay White

for Residential Retrofit. is avaiTabTe from MASEA for onTg $70. It is the first book to give homeowners a total picture of what theit options are for curing the specific infirmjties of their present
homes.

HOME REMEDIES:

A Guidebook

philatech, Inc. PROGRAM MANAGER: Linda Knapp The project funding \^/as provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, Appropriate Technology Small Grant program, Region III.
GENERAL CONTRACTOR:

The MASEA bookstore and library also have many books, pamphlets, and newsletters on a wide rangie of energy related topics. You are welcome to visit our facilities, but we do reguest that you call in advance to make an appointment.

Irisita Azarg has been involved in MASEA since 1979. ,She js currenXlg finishing her I4asters in Architectute at the Whaxton
SchoaT.

Related Interests

, air spaces. An automatic control is available to raise and lower the shades. The MASEA conference room has two SITEBII-ILI moveable insulation systems. BoEF are constructed of one inch rigid insulation board covered with ptywood. The upper one fits t.ightly in place and remains there all winter. The other is made up of four panels hinged in sets of two that can be opened each day. They are also built to tight specificati-ons and seal well against infiltration when closed and latched.
Air-to-Air Hect Exchcnger The MASEA solar room also boasts an airto-air heat exchanger for winter ventilation. It consumes very little power (on the order of 55 watts) and needs no duct

Wall Insulction The north wa1l of the Gray's Ferry project was insulated with 3L" of Fiberglas by building a new stud wal1 inside the existing brick. One small area was pur-

Site-bui7t sgstems

High "R"

Shade

Insulation beTow Tronbe waLl

Air-to-air

heat exchanger

work. Although there is always a smal1 amount of infiltration even when the unit is turned off, the air coming in has absorbed. most of the heat of the outgoing air. Both latent and sensible heat are
exchanged.

Performcnce

BEFORE RENOVATION:

Bill

1979-80 Gas Heating (at 1982 rates)
=$645.

AFTER RENOVATION:

l9B1-82 Gas Heating Bill
=$306.

2233 Grag's Ferzg Avenue before tenovation

The Gtag's Feng Project in 7980

Whcrt

ccn I do?

Impodcmt Note on Perlormcnce Data Because the Grayrs Ferry project is a demonstration project, its focus has always been i-ts use as an educational too1. While every rowhouse can make use of some of the systems shown on the building, probably none could appropriately use all

For suggestions on what energy-saving measures can be easily taken in your
home:

Associ-ates.

"Low Cost/No Costr " a pamphlet available free at MASEA, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy; "Buyer's Guide to Saving Energy in the Homer" available free at the Grass Roots Alliance for a Solar pennsylvania, 3500 Lancaster Avenue, philadelphia, PA 19104, produced by the philadelphia Solar Planning Project/Burnette and

of them. The Mid-Atlantic Solar Energy Association based. its d.ecisions about which systems to instalt first primarily on the relative educational value of eaLh project. A homeowner's decisions will be different depending on both their house and budget and what conservation or solar measures will save the most energy at least cost.
Credits
ARCHITECT: South Street Design PROJECT DIRECTOR: Jay White

for Residential Retrofit. is avaiTabTe from MASEA for onTg $70. It is the first book to give homeowners a total picture of what theit options are for curing the specific infirmjties of their present
homes.

HOME REMEDIES:

A Guidebook

philatech, Inc. PROGRAM MANAGER: Linda Knapp The project funding \^/as provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, Appropriate Technology Small Grant program, Region III.
GENERAL CONTRACTOR:

The MASEA bookstore and library also have many books, pamphlets, and newsletters on a wide rangie of energy related topics. You are welcome to visit our facilities, but we do reguest that you call in advance to make an appointment.

Irisita Azarg has been involved in MASEA since 1979. ,She js currenXlg finishing her I4asters in Architectute at the Whaxton
SchoaT.

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