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Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Urban and Regional Planning
John Browder, Chair Wendy Jacobson Paul Knox
April , 1998 Blacksburg, Virginia
Keywords: urban social pattern, Navi Mumbai, Bombay, urban planning - India Copyright 1998, Malathi Ananthakrishnan
The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India Malathi Ananthakrishnan (ABSTRACT) This research thesis examines the emerging trends in urban social patterns in Navi Mumbai, India. Unlike the other planned cities of India, Navi Mumbai was specifically built as a planned decentralization of a large metropolitan city. The research focuses on explaining the urban social pattern of this particular case study. An urban social pattern reflects the social characteristics of the urban setting. In the case of Navi Mumbai, the government had a social agenda of promoting a social pattern based on socioeconomic distribution rather than an ethnic one. Analysis of the data provides an insight to the results of this social agenda, and provides a basis to frame new ones. Thus, the study not only addresses a basic research question, but also has policy implications. The research involves a comprehensive review of secondary source material to establish the theoretical framework for the research. The review also involves an extensive inspection of urban social patterns across the world to better contextualize this particular case study. The research puts forth a model that explains the social pattern of Navi Mumbai by social area analysis using variables, which are drawn from social aspects of any city and indigenous factors of Indian settlements. The model depends not only on statistical analysis but also on interpretation of local conditions. This research situates the emerging social pattern in geographic literature in developing countries. This research was supported in part, by a grant from the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Tech.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank my Advisor and Chair of my committee, Dr. John Browder. He was supportive of all my efforts to successfully complete this thesis. It would not have been possible without his help. Thank you also to my committee members, Dr. Jacobson and Dr. Knox, for the time and effort they contributed.
Thanks also due to everyone in Navi Mumbai who helped me collect the data and all relevant information. Special thanks to Ms. Adusumilli, Senior planner, CIDCO, Mrs. Raje, Chief statistician, CIDCO, Dr. Venkatachalam and Dr. Sengupta at IIT-Bombay and Dr. BanerjeeGuha at the University of Bombay. I would also like to thank Prachi and Avesh Tapde for their hospitality in Navi Mumbai.
Dr. Dyck and Dr. Bohland clarified many of my conceptual and analytical queries. I would like to give my appreciation for their support. I would also like to thank Dr. Randolph and Dr. Schubert for having made a grant available for me to carry out the field research.
I am also grateful to my good friends Inga, Maneesha and Elda for not only helping me out with proof reading and other mundane things, but also for being there during the ups and downs of the entire process. I would like to thank my family for always encouraging me to think and my fiancé for his patience.
1 Western Cities 3.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region 2.5.10 Conclusion 3.1 Caste 3.4 Data Collection 4.2 Sector Theory 3.5 Methodology 4. Research Design……………………………………………………………… 38 4.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai 2.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns 3.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan 2.9 Conclusion 4.5.2 Cluster Analysis ..2 Significance of Thesis 1.5.1 Introduction 3. The Research Setting………………………………………………………….5 Sociocultural Factors 3. The Conceptual Framework………………………………………………….1 Research Problem Statement 1.6 The Built Form 3.3 Indian Cities 3.4 Language 3.8. 1.2 Third World Cities 3.5 Implications of the Sociocultural factors 3.2 Hypothesis 4.1 Concentric Zone Theory 3.3 Religion 3.1 Introduction 2.1 Social Area Analysis 4.5.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai 2.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern 3.7. Introduction………………………………………………………………….8 Case Study of Urban Social Patterns 3..8. 3 2.5.5 Development Potential of the Site 2.3 Factors influencing Urban Form 3.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities 3.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 2.3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai 2.7.3 Multiple Nuclei Theory 3.8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework 2.1 Descriptive Analysis 4.7.2 Class 3.5.Table of Contents 1.3 Operationalization 4.8.3 Organization of the Thesis 1 2.5. 20 3.
5 Conclusion 6.5. Interpretation / Discussion…………………………………………………… 6.1 Principal Components Analysis 5.1 Principal Components Analysis 5.2 Cluster Analysis 5.5.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory 6.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory 6.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory 6.4 Potential Utility of the Research 43 65 7.3.1 Regional Scale 6.2.1 Introduction 5..2.6 Data Analysis 184.108.40.206 Cluster Analysis 5.3 Discussion 5.4 Sub-regional Scale – sectors 5.3 Principal Component Analysis 4.4. 5. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 74 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………….2 Sub-regional Scale 6.3 Summary 6.2. Presentation of Data…………………………………………………………. Glossary of Terms Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G 77 .4 mapping and Overlays 4.4.3 Regional Scale – nodes 5..4.4.2 Descriptive Analysis 5.3 Discussion 5.
2 5.6 4.2 2.20 5.3 2.4 2.6 5.5 2.15 5.16 5.1 4.18 5.7 5.4 5.2 5.1 2.3 5.13 5.11 5.List of Tables Table number 2.9 5.19 5.5 5.21 Title Population Density of Bombay Immigrant population of Bombay Land Fragmentation in 1970 Household Income and Capacity to Pay Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay Land Use of Navi Mumbai Constructs and Variables Survey Sampling Constructs and Variables Work Force Number of Earners Occupational Classification of Workforce Household Income Location of Education Institutions Level of Education Male Population Female Population Family Size Type of Housing Ownership of House Housing built by CIDCO Housing built by Private Enterprise Year of Occupation Previous Place of Residence Religion Language Spatial Pattern of Variables Attributes of Principal Components Attributes of Principal Components page 4 5 6 8 16 17 39 40 43 44 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 50 51 52 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 60 61 .10 5.14 5.12 5.17 5.8 5.1 5.
3 5.12 5.8 3.4 2.10 5.4 6. 2651-4450 Frequency of Families with at least one individual with Secondary Education Frequency of Male Population in the age group 25-45 Frequency of Households with 4 or 5 members Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO Frequency of Housing built by CIDCO Frequency of Houses built by Private Enterprise Frequency of Tenure Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence Frequency of Hindus Frequency of Muslims Frequency of Marathi Frequency of Malayalam Components in Rotated Space Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai Average Linkage between Factor Scores Average Linkage between Variables Clustering of Sectors of Vashi Average Linkage between Factor Scores Page 2 5 7 11 15 18 26 28 29 29 31 32 32 33 34 36 45 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 56 57 57 59 59 60 62 63 65 66 66 67 68 .8 5.5 5.17 5.2 6.List of Figure Figure Number 2.5 Title Expansion of Bombay Twin City Across the Harbor Development Potential of the Site Nodes of Navi Mumbai Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai Land Use of Navi Mumbai Circle and Swastika Town Plans Concentric Zone Theory Sector Theory Multiple Nuclei Theory Urban Social Patterns Plan of Delhi and New Delhi Asian Ports Latin American Cities Pattern of Indian Cities Theories of Urban Social Patterns and Corresponding Case Studies Distribution of Single-earner Families Frequency of Families with Income range Rs.18 5.9 3.3 6.5 3.2 5.9 5.13 5.1 2.6 3.6 3.1 5.14 5.10 5.1 6.1 3.4 5.3 2.7 3.11 5.15 5.5 2.3 3.6 5.19 6.16 5.2 2.7 5.2 3.4 3.
14 6.17 6.18 Average Linkage between Variables Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic variables Distribution of Number of Earners Distribution of Income Hypothetical Concentric Pattern for Family Status variables Distribution of Ownership of Apartment Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic variables Distribution of Households speaking Marathi Distribution of Households which follow Islam Clustering of Sectors Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 .6 6.9 6.6.12 6.16 6.13 6.15 6.10 6.8 6.7 6.11 6.
Therefore.2 Significance of Research A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between their constituent elements at a certain period of time.Chapter 1: Introduction 1. planning regulations. The urban form of a city is primarily the result of the characteristics of its physical and social design as well as socioeconomic and political forces. exist in the urban social pattern of planned towns in India. Physical and economic landscapes. 1990). and the housing market. This research aspires to contribute to basic research in social geography. and their social pattern is characterized by residential segregation based on ethnic. middle class population in India. The pattern of Navi Mumbai will be studied at different hierarchical spatial levels: regional (node / township) and sub-regional (sector / neighborhood). Urban patterns occur because of repetition of these elements. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. if any. Why is such a study significant? The urban form of the city influences behavioral. Thus. This research determines how the present social pattern relates to various theoretical frameworks. land use and ownership. The literature review shows that a specific study of Navi Mumbai has not been previously documented. land use pattern and ethnic classifications will be used as key variables to study the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. this paper will augment existing knowledge about social configurations of planned urban development in Asian regions. It is a synthesis of the spatial relationships of various elements. The basic research here involves the search for an urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. the study of human settlements has an encompassing view of all the activities it supports. race. street patterns. An interpretation of the emerging social pattern reveals something of the social character of the city. Socioeconomic factors.1 Research Problem Statement The overall objective of this thesis is to determine what common patterns. Navi Mumbai (New Bombay) is one of the first planned new town developments built for a diverse. migration. Various processes influence the social pattern of the city. These include the ethnic composition of the city. The pattern suggests not only the outcome of . A policy emphasizing a uniform distribution of the population is the ideological orientation of the government. The urban social pattern is one of the many aspects of the urban form. economic and social processes within it (Vance. The purpose of this thesis is to delineate and interpret the social pattern of Navi Mumbai. religion. and political events may influence the physical design and pattern of a city. religious and linguistic classes. 1. housing characteristics. Different characteristics are drawn from the factors influencing the physical design and cultural aspect of the city. Traditional Indian cities have evolved over the centuries.
its contextual framework. which provides the problem statement and the broader objectives of the thesis. but also variables that influence this pattern. Thus. This first chapter is the introduction. analysis and interpretation and the broad outcomes of the thesis. methodology.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 1: Introduction 2 the policy. the research setting. The presentation of data and its analysis is in the fifth chapter. The fourth chapter outlines the methodology used for analysis of data and explains the data source and method of data collection. The second chapter provides the background to the particular case study used in the research. 1. Interpretation and discussion of the analysis and its relationship to the theories discussed in the third chapter is done in the sixth chapter. The third chapter is a comprehensive review of the secondary sources to establish a context of the research question. Chapter seven draws to conclusion the thesis with a review of the problem statement. the basic research has many applications in longrange planning in Navi Mumbai.3 Organization of the Thesis This thesis is divided into seven chapters. . The urban social pattern also serves as a framework for further research.
The East India Company encouraged Indian and East India Company merchants to settle in Bombay. especially to the middle and lower class of people. and providing efficient infrastructure (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. 1965 Bombay’s high concentration of docks. By the 1780s. 1995). the shipyard modernized and the city fortified. the King of Portugal gifted the Bombay islands to King Charles II of England when King Charles married Catherine Braganza. Figure 2. was interested in developing the town in a methodical manner. The geographical area of Bombay is an island.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region Bombay is not a city built on Indian traditional planning ideas.1 Expansion of Bombay The East India Company. This planned decentralization was the outcome of efforts by the government to make Bombay more “sustainable” (Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board. a Portuguese princess. 1995). the East India Company had taken on the new role of ruler (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. In 1661. In 1668. South Bombay is the center of India’s 1950 banking and service industries. This range of activities led to crowding at an BOMBAY NAVI unprecedented scale. the Crown rented Bombay to the East India Company.1). 1995. established in 1972. In Bombay. for Arabian MUMBAI Sea those who could not afford to make the 1910 long commutes. Bombay was then established as a trading post. 1973).1 Introduction Navi Mumbai (New Bombay). Urbanization and subsequent suburbanization of Bombay have created a linear city such that the central business district (CBD) and residential areas have become further and further apart (Figure 2. The harbor was strengthened. Bombay had its beginnings in a series of fishing villages until it was taken over by the Portuguese in the 16th century. 2. Navi Mumbai was designed to provide a better quality of life. 1957 trading posts. squatter settlements all over Bombay became the way of life. The first settlement was established in the southern most tip of the island. The city of Source: Dwivedi and Mehrotra. India. There was a . textile mills and government offices have made it the preeminent port of Western India. now as rulers. is a new planned city across the harbor (of Bombay) from Bombay.Chapter 2: The Research Setting 2.
The 1967 development plan estimated a housing shortage of 131. In the 1960s. This enclosed the Town and Island of Bombay. . and 24 percent of the one and two room tenements were over crowded. 1995). Housing deficits are ever widening and slums like a cancerous growth can be seen anywhere and everywhere. The development acts of 1954 and 1964 emphasized the need to relocate industrial activity from the island to the mainland (CIDCO. Modak influenced the development of Greater Bombay for the next two decades (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. 1995). However. 1965).000 houses. 1995). This committee appointed the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board to develop the concept further (Gadgil Committee. the Gadgil Committee strongly recommended a multi-nuclear growth using the creation of a new town across the harbor. In 1865. the Bombay Municipal Corporation was established. 1995). (BMRPB. The Post-War development Committee of 1945 and the ’Master Plan in Outline’ prepared by Albert Mayer and N. 1992). Land use zoning and the concept of floor space index were incorporated for the first time. some thought was given to ’Greater Bombay’.2). various planning committees were formed to develop a regional plan for Bombay. Greater Bombay came into existence only after the Bombay High Court Act of 1945. By the early 1900s. which would encompass the Fort area as well as the suburbs of Bombay. the Port of Bombay. Many parts of it are not even tolerably clean and healthy.1 Population Density of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Area in acres 14247 14281 14342 14575 15066 15480 16751 16720 Persons / Acre 54 56 54 67 78 75 165 184 (Various Census Reports for Bombay in Kosambi. Transportation is threatening to break down…. in 1896. the suburbs and 42 villages within the definition of the new city limit (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board set up two committees to study the development of Bombay. They recommended: i the creation of a new town on the mainland across the harbor i develop the suburbs of Bombay further Bombay had reached a level of unmanageable growth by the 1960s. In 1967. Commercial and residential areas were mixed because many merchants carried on business from home (Tindall. and. These formal government bodies were the beginning of a conscientious effort to regulate the growth of Bombay (Banerjee-Guha. Commuter distances had become larger because of increased suburbanization with no change in location of the CBD. 1986) The Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board in its report wrote Bombay the Beautiful is no more beautiful. The large migrant influx contributed to the overcrowding (Table 2. the Bombay Improvement Trust was created. Bombay’s infrastructure facilities were stretched to the limit. concentration of industries and offices in certain pockets of Bombay. 1973) Population increase. lack of housing and infrastructure and high land values were the major problems identified. V. Table 2.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 4 strong development of mixed land use settlements. Adequate water is a serious problem. In 1966.
1993). It is a narrow piece of land bounded by the Western Ghat mountain ranges on the north. rocketing land prices prevented the acquisition of land for public purposes (BMPRB. This was in the form of the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board’s recommendation that a new city be designed within the Bombay Metropolitan region to facilitate the decongestion of Bombay (Correa. 1973).3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai The prominent authors of the ’twin city concept’ were Charles Correa1. 1 2 Charles Correa is a prominent architect and urban designer in Bombay. If the new city was too far away.2). 1997). 1986) The concentration of industries and offices at the CBD and suburbs like Chembur and Andheri created unequal development. engineer and planner. Pravina Mehta2 and Shirish Patel3 who presented to the government a proposal in 1964 for constructing new growth centers across Bombay harbor on the mainland (Figure 2. 3 Sirish Patel.2 Immigrant Population of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Population 773196 821764 776006 979445 1175914 1161383 2771933 3070378 % 72 75 77 80 84 75 72 63 Immigrants Males per 151 171 162 189 191 181 160 149 100 Females (Various Census Reports of Bombay in Kosambi. .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 5 Table 2. air pollution and mixed land use (UNCHS. Unhealthy and insanitary conditions for 1 million slum dwellers was the result of inadequate housing stock. Pravina Mehta (late) was a structural engineer.2 Twin City Across the Harbor Source: CIDCO. and New Growth Centers Growth Centers of Bombay Town Center Arabian Sea Harbor of Bombay Figure 2. Lack of adequate water supply and sewage facilities worsened conditions. 2. then this would not be possible (BMRPB. was incharge of the planning and design of Navi Mumbai (1970-75). The site that was finally chosen was across the harbor from Bombay island. the Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board recommended considering a twin city across the harbor. Also. The implementation occurred through ’correct’ political and bureaucratic channels in 1969. 1973. 1973). south and east. In a final attempt.
The regional plan was approved in 1970. was designed to accommodate new industrial and commercial activity as well as for secure and affordable housing to workers. Owners were notified about the government’s proposal. m. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act (MR&TP Act). 2.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 The task of planning and developing Navi Mumbai was entrusted to the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO). 1973). and improving Bombay by drawing off pressures for growth into the new area (Patel. m. The land notified for acquisition for Navi Mumbai was under private and government ownership (Table 2. >4000 sq. It is a self-contained city independent of Bombay although there is still a visual connection to Bombay. 1973). The new town. Section 31(6) under the same act gives the government the power to specify land use and proceed with development. 1973): i polycentric pattern of development i acquisition of all land to have better control of the environment and to use land as the main resource for development. Navi Mumbai covers an area of 344 sq.3 Land Fragmentation in 1970 Ownership Area (sq. >500 sq. km. They were (CIDCO. The finality of the approved Development Plan ensures that the pressure and friction which would develop to obtain land use changes for particular land holdings would be largely eliminated . CIDCO is a limited company. a government agency explicitly set up for this purpose. The government would acquire land under its power of eminent domain under Section 22. The first task of CIDCO was to prepare a development plan for the new town.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 6 the Arabian Sea on the west (CIDCO.3) Table 2. financing physical and social infrastructure through land sales. Correa. 1985). It was hoped that the nearness to Bombay would facilitate the relocation of people from Bombay (CIDCO. m. The plan hoped to reduce homelessness in Bombay and provide slum dwellers a better life as well as absorb migration from the countryside (Correa. The first step was to identify all the land that needed to be acquired for Navi Mumbai. 1995) CIDCO notified all private owners about the compulsory acquisition. Patel and Mehta designed this regional plan based on three basic objectives: a planned new development. >1000 sq. comprising of a number of nodes (townships). CIDCO used certain development principles in its design. km) (number) (number) (number) Government 10137 All Private 16677 18412 3338 1579 90 Marsh(wetlands) 84 (CIDCO. >10000 sq. 1973). m. 1997). 1966. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board created the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) in 1970 to implement its ideas. wholly owned by the State Government of Maharashtra (CIDCO.
5 Development Potential of the Site The chosen site had various development potentials (Figure 2. which are commonly associated with urban living. This was not entirely true. The Draft Development Plan gave only broad guidelines. 2. 1995). Nevertheless. The success of Navi Mumbai was thought to depend on the adequate creation of jobs (CIDCO. The objectives were (CIDCO. Although the main objective of the design of Navi Mumbai was to create a selfsufficient urban environment. no new document was ever prepared. 1995). • the plan for a modern. CIDCO acquired all the land after settling disputes about compensation (CIDCO. To provide an environment which would permit the residents of New Bombay to live fuller and richer lives in so far this is possible. 4. To provide physical and social services. and major law and order problems did occur. and also attract some of Bombay’s present population. • the newly commissioned bridge across the Thane creek. it also hoped to improve the quality of life of Bombay. 1973: 10): 1. To provide a physical infrastructure which prevents ethnic enclaves among the population.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 7 (CIDCO. The development plan took into account the Figure 2. 3. Although five minor amendments were made to this Draft Plan. leaving enough room for flexibility. free from the physical and social tensions. 1995): • the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) Estates at Turbhe and Taloja. raise the living standards and reduce the disparities in the amenities available to the different sections of the population. container port at Nhava-Sheva. • the existence of two municipal corporations at Panvel and Uran. The Draft Development Plan remains the guiding document in use even today. Reduce the growth of population in Bombay city by creating a center that would absorb immigrants. 2. To support a statewide Industrial Location Policy which will lead eventually to an efficient and rational distribution of industries over the State and a balanced development of urban centers in the hinterland. and transport corridors along Thane-Belapur. These were (CIDCO. Panvel-Uran rail and road links.3). • the Thane-Pune National Highway 4.3 Development Potential of the Site Turbhe MIDC Industrial Estates Arabian Sea Creek bridge Taloja Panvel Nhava-sheva . 5. 1973).
the availability of cheaper. 1995): i make Navi Mumbai self-contained and not a dormitory. 1995). large industries. A CBD was planned in Navi Mumbai with the aim of creating 40. trade and commerce (wholesale and warehousing).4 Household Income and Capacity to Pay (Figures estimated in 1971 income where $1~Rs. Per month) (% of income) rupees) (in sq. 1975). Table 2. Only small-scale industries were allowed in place of old.) Less than 200 20 10 1200 3 201-300 16 11 2580 5 301-400 15 12 4140 8 401-500 14 13 5940 12 501-600 12 14 7800 16 601-800 9 15 10800 22 801-1000 7 17 15600 31 Threshold of affordability 1001-1200 3 19 21000 43 1201-1500 2 22 30000 60 1501+ 2 25 37800 75 . 400. Almost 87% of the office jobs of Greater Bombay are located on Bombay island with 62% in South Bombay.000 office jobs. 1997). No new. 1973). better quality houses was the biggest incentive (CIDCO. i to decongest Bombay by shifting jobs that are concentrated in the southern part of Bombay.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 8 provision of 750.4 shows CIDCO’s estimates on the capacity to pay for housing by different income groups. The authors of the regional plan cited the case of New Delhi to emphasize their idea (Patel. assuming a family size of five. To accommodate a population of 2 million. i to use the job centers with matching infrastructure provision as engines of growth for the new city.000 houses needed to be built. as well as service sector (office) jobs.7) Household % of Monthly Capacity to pay Affordable size Income Population capacity to pay for housing (in of housing unit (Rs. large or medium industrial units were permitted on Bombay island. Although job opportunities were the driving force behind Navi Mumbai’s success. A series of controls were made for various regions within Bombay. The plan called for the shifting of government offices from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai. Table 2. m.000 jobs for a population of 2 million (CIDCO. This was necessary to (CIDCO. Industrial growth was encouraged only in the MIDC industrial estates of Navi Mumbai (CIDCO. The Industrial Location Policy issued in December 1974 posed various restrictions on the start of new industrial units on Bombay island. The employment base of Navi Mumbai was planned to encompass manufacturing (industry).
Many of the sectors were residential in character. community centers and residential areas. In Navi Mumbai. 550 per square meter and the cost of development of land was Rs.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai The conceptual design of Navi Mumbai was developed at the height of Modernism. 1977). hierarchy of roads and important buildings of a gargantuan scale (Fry. Many of these principles of Modernism were used in the planning of Navi Mumbai. In India the square was used as the basic unit in the layout of traditional cities. 1973). 2. CIDCO decided to use a maximum surcharge of 15% on housing for highest income group to compensate for a maximum subsidy of 45% to the lowest income group (CIDCO. Capacity to pay for housing divided by cost of construction shows a very small (or no) house could be owned by most families. The total land of Navi Mumbai was divided into thirteen townships. m. i single-use zoning as opposed to the traditional multiple-use zoning The result was a single-use zoning pattern with distinct areas for industrial. commercial. Each township had several sectors. V4 roads were designed for shopping and commercial activity. Otherwise. it was proposed to use cross subsidies. houses or larger (CIDCO. The square had a significance in Hinduism as this perfect geometric shape was thought to be . residential and institutional activity. Each of these cuadras was a self-contained unit with primary schools. Le Corbusier explained "the plan is based on the main features of the 7V rule (Appendix B) determining an essential function: the creation of sectors. 40 in 1970. The sector is the container of family life" (Le Corbusier. Some of the highlights of the design elements of this plan were sector planning. The sector was based on the Spanish cuadra of 110 to 100 meters. land would be leased under a 30-year repayment system to private cooperative housing schemes and private owners. At the same time. 1973). 1973) The table shows the ability of each income group to contribute towards owned accommodation. The cuadra had a detailed zoning plan with single-use zoning on all lots.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 9 (CIDCO. Children were able to walk to school on the V7 through green belts (Sarin. This would have a great drain on the financial resources of the government. The higher income groups would pay a surcharge for housing. A sector centrally located within each node took on commercial activities. Le Corbusier had played an important role in the design of Chandigarh in Punjab in the mid1950s (Le Corbusier. The Government of India’s policy on publicly financed housing has been to build 21 sq. 1977). each family could own only developed land. The sector planning of Modernism is very similar to the grid planning of traditional Indian cities. 1961). These were: i decentralization by the design of self-sufficient townships(nodes). which would subsidize housing for the lower income groups. i residential neighborhoods (sector). The housing has to be heavily subsidized to make it affordable. 1961). No fast traffic was allowed in the sectors. CIDCO decided to build a large part of the housing as public housing. The average cost of construction was Rs. The neighborhoods were self-sufficient and had their grocery store and primary school.
amenities and utilities with segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic (Banerjee. The task of designing and detailing the physical design was carried out by CIDCO. 1973). 1973). 1997). There would be no rich or poor nodes (CIDCO. In India. swadeshi (fullest utilization of local resources. The goal has been to create a city based on Gandhian principles of swavalamban (self-reliance). Many cities still reflect this street pattern. the four castes are Brahmin. 1991). and progressively moved outward depending on the natural landscape. So each sector had mixed use. each neighborhood was known as a sector (CIDCO. warrior/king. Neighborhoods could be placed near each other to form a larger urban framework. Vashi is the center of Navi Mumbai's wholesale market. This was a model layout for an area with specifications for residences. Each node was planned to accommodate a range of income groups.). The functionality of the city is based on the principle of neighborhood design as seen all over the Western world. All houses in a neighborhood were occupied by a particular caste.4). Navi Mumbai consists of thirteen townships (or nodes). merchant and peasant.000 to 200. Mr. Gandhi would have urged: If nature chooses not to accommodate us. This is the vision that is the traditional Indian design inspiration for Navi Mumbai. larger amenities by contiguous neighborhoods. 1973). Some of the nodes have special features. Even in the planning of Mohenjadaro (7th century B. 1929). "Arguing to turn any weaknesses into strength. was the Chief Planner of CIDCO for 20 years (1970-90) (Engel. an American designer of the 1920s. Under his leadership. Neighborhood planning in the West was a concept put forth by Clarence Perry. nodes share some common facilities such as water reservoirs and transport facilities. The neighborhood unit is used as a building block to build New Towns across the world (Perry. 1991). The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board put forth the broad conceptual regional plan of Navi Mumbai. Here in Navi Mumbai the idea of a large “urban village” has been nurtured. 1969). which corresponds to the professions priest. This also facilitated the sharing of other. The nodes contain residential. let us accommodate nature!" (Gandhi in Engel. As the residential classification was based on the caste. infrastructure and recreational uses (Figure 2. Each node is self-contained for 100. both materials and human) and swatantrya (self-motivation and mutual self-help) (Ganguli.000 people. a true Gandhian. Each neighborhood unit was within a one square mile radius. streets. The size of the node depends . Kshatriya. 1984). commercial. This principle of neighborhood planning and its derivative from Modernism was used in Navi Mumbai. people were forced to work within that particular neighborhood. The indigenous plans all started with a central focal point (either of political or religious symbolism). In the case of Navi Mumbai. Commercial and residential uses were adjacent to each other or one above the other. Airoli and Kopar-Khairane have industrial estates. the main philosophical design principles of Navi Mumbai are based on Gandhian ideology (Parab.C. Each node is divided into neighborhoods (or sectors). Vaishya and Sudra. This is significantly different from the single-use planning of Modernism. At a larger scale. Parab. while Nhava-Sheva houses the new container port. main streets formed perfect rectangles dividing the city into separate residential areas based on caste.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 10 the abode of the gods (Henn.
for its success. Private industries would not invest in this particular region unless they were assured of workers and so on. and then unused portions would Nhava-Sheva be recycled. The streams Source: CIDCO. which would be used in the dry seasons. Holding ponds would be used for pisciculture and recreation. The primary concerns were related . only activities. which were closely linked. As financial and economic considerations depended on the government in office. This was partly because of the scale and complexity of the project. the plan had a very important political component. Politicians use the creation of jobs and better living environments as a common strategy for getting votes. The Development Plan of Navi Mumbai is an example of the new consciousness for sustainable Kharghar Nerul settlements (CIDCO. The node should be large enough to provide schools. which had been independent for only 20 years. 2. This would also ensure reduction of soil erosion and the development of woodlands for both Figure 2. For example. 1995). Any change in political power would affect the policies and development strategies of this new town. a migration of population would not occur. Hence. One of the ideas of putting the environmental city into Dronagiri practice was the creation of woodland corridors (Parab. The plan called for the construction of holding ponds to retain excess monsoon run-off. The design concept of Navi Mumbai was very idealistic.4 Nodes of Navi Mumbai recreation and timber. 1997). would be strongly supported. The plan Jui Belapur Arabian envisioned an ecologically friendly Sea city where products of nature would be Panvel used. 1997). which ensured their re-election. For industrial growth large finances were required.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 11 BOMBAY Airoli Ghansoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada on walking distances to the mass transit stop. shopping areas and other facilities. The Development Plan for Navi Mumbai called for the planting of one hundred thousand trees every year! (Engel. 1991). 1973. Water treated from industrial and sewage waste would be used to develop green areas (Parab. flowing from the Western Ghats mountain ranges would irrigate these trees. unless sufficient industrial growth existed. It depended very heavily on external factors.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai Considerations of social equity were very important in all aspects of development in a country. There was also a high degree of uncertainty attached to some of the policies and physical developments.
cheap material." (CIDCO. In planned towns and cities this should be avoided to a great extent by allocating housing in neighborhoods to members of different communities. economic and political equity. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion. The Gandhian principle of self-help would be used to implement this agenda. 1973). Construction would be made with locally available. The remaining two-thirds of the population could afford more expensive housing. Incremental housing was suggested as the solution. Housing for the middle income and high income groups would be in the form of CIDCO housing. medical care and social welfare. using bamboo instead of steel reinforcements and setting up of local retail shops where residents would be able to buy inexpensive building materials for building their homes (swadeshi) (CIDCO.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 12 to providing better quality of housing. The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice . education and job opportunities. 1973). To aid residents further. The planners of Navi Mumbai thought this was a fortuitous occasion to provide social justice to the millions of migrants and pavement dwellers of Bombay (CIDCO. In 1970. 1973). ground floor houses would be possible initially. The sites-and-services plots would have services such as roads. walk-up apartments of three to four floors would be designed. I). it was proposed that housing should be constructed so that this income group could afford it. Thus.shall inform all the institutions of the national life (Article 38). The plan took into account the fact that one-third of the housing in New Bombay would be sites-and-services plots (CIDCO. water. place of birth or any of them (Article 15. The Constitution of India also spells out the need for the government machinery to facilitate social. More durable material could be used in the course of time. Individual families would then have to build their own homes (swavalamban). race. economic and political .social. It recommended construction using cheaper concrete. enclaves or ghettos of age long tradition of ’birds of the same feather flocking together’. 1973). For them. cost-effective. electricity and sanitation (CIDCO. more than 30% of the population of greater Bombay could not afford a pucca (durable) house (CIDCO. CIDCO would sell the plot at a highly subsidized rate and with a twenty-year repayment period. cooperative housing groups or private builders. For the lower income group. 1973). Navi Mumbai’s founders saw the construction of large amounts of new housing as an opportunity to break down demographic divisions and to enhance social equity. caste. The Draft Development Plan spelled out "there is a tendency in India that induces people to live in like groups. 1973) . Housing would be built for the various income groups. sex. The residents could design and implement their construction in any way they chose (swatantrya). The design of a completely new city was a very good opportunity to implement these national concerns.
The planners of Navi Mumbai did not intend to create an identity for the city related to physical objects. The planning was for a comprehensive coverage by taking the services to households. The Development Plan says (CIDCO. water supply and sanitation. handicapped children. It is expected that this accommodation of residents from various social and income groups within the same physical area will not only make for a healthier environment. one high school for 12. "In each node it is proposed that accommodation be made available for the entire range of income groups expected in the city. Other private institutions would be encouraged also. Establishment of ethnic enclaves has led to a number of problems in India. 1973). A large hospital for intensive care and for teaching and research purposes would be set up (CIDCO. This further contributed to the creation of ethnic enclaves within the settlement. These were the education facilities to be provided by the government. These are discussed further in the next chapter. The Greater Bombay region had some of the best social welfare programs in India. Institutions for juvenile delinquents. schools and colleges and making health education a part of classroom education. medical care. 1995). This led to the development of ethnic enclaves.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 13 To justify this consideration. It would be a small hospital and polyclinic where specialized health care would be provided to cases referred by the community health care center and general practitioners. 1973: 17): "CIDCO is anxious that the new city develop its own identity as quickly as possible. Mobile health care units would operate from this community health center. shopping. The medical center would provide secondary health service. The Governor of Bombay also encouraged this development because it reinforced the traditional panchayati (selfgovernment) system of administration by which the council of elders settled religious. but will also ensure a uniform standard of social and physical infrastructure and see that no one class of residents is better served than another" (CIDCO 1973: 17-18)." . Health planning was undertaken as public health projects. planners cited the segregation of Bombay as an example. recreational and other social facilities an should not become a dormitory for Greater Bombay. When the East India Company encouraged merchants to establish residence in Bombay. 1973). It would have out-patient department. Minimum standards for building construction were developed by CIDCO. It should contain its own jobs. The community health care center would primary health care. 1973). diagnostic and investigation services. recreation and afforestation projects (CIDCO. 1973).000 population (CIDCO. exploited women and leprosyaffected persons would be developed in Navi Mumbai to accommodate the growing population (CIDCO. Provision of schools and colleges was a priority in the planning of Navi Mumbai.500 population and one college for 50. and law and order problems of the community (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. The nodes (townships) were designed to provide one primary school per 5000 population. merchants from neighboring districts migrated into Bombay and constructed homes inside and outside the Fort walls.
It appears that the monumental style of Corbusier was not an influence on this design. CIDCO has a more narrow and defined role. In the very beginning. electricity. It is more of a philosophical identity . CIDCO undertook the task of (CIDCO. there was no aim to create a monumental city. CIDCO had to coordinate all planning and development programs. However. 1992). i Bombay Electric and State Transport (BEST). Before the creation of these different institutions. i Specialized services provided by Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA). The city of Navi Mumbai was planned to address the issue of social equality through its physical design. i involving Government agencies for developing public transport and telecommunications.an identity based on the Gandhian value of social equality. planned cities of India such as Chandigarh. 1995): i developing land and providing infrastructure such as roads. CIDCO has executed the implementation of the plan in various stages (CIDCO. the allotment of residential apartments would be governed by a policy. In particular. on the institutions responsible for the plan.Visualizing the future i Action Plans . 1992): i Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA) in 1975 i Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) in 1992. largely. i promoting commercial and other employment activity. New.Other agencies .Objectives . 1991). Other institutions have also been set up in the Greater Bombay region to facilitate planning efforts in the region. the Gadgil Committee Report (1965) had recommended the setting up of a New Town Development Authority (NTDA). the identity of Navi Mumbai is subtler.Data base . Its identity is only that of a spreading inkblot (Engel. water supply. CIDCO was appointed as the NTDA. The physical design would be the instrument to implement this objective. drainage. However.8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework The government authorities of Bombay realized that the effectiveness of regional planning depended. Gandhinagar can be described by their grid system or monumental scales.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 14 Thus. i developing residential plots for different income groups. which would help implement the objective. With the creation of these other agencies. a strong institutional framework was required for its success. These stages include: i Draft Development Plan (programs and policies) . 2. The role of CIDCO is to implement the plan of Navi Mumbai. These are (CIDCO.
Chapter 2: The Research Setting
- Land use plans - Residential layout plans - Infrastructure plans - Industrial location plans - Environmental assessment i Implementation - Acquisition of land - Finance - Construction - Relocation strategies BMRDA took over such functions as coordination of metropolitan planning, funding, execution of programs, development control and maintenance of the entire Greater Bombay region including Navi Mumbai (UNCHS, 1993). Financial responsibilities and investment decisions are made by a large number of agencies including the Government of India, State Government of Maharashtra, CIDCO and firms in the private sector, but coordinated by BMRDA.
Macro-level Regional Planning Inputs
Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA)
Micro-level Sub-regional Planning Inputs
Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation
Plan Implementation of Navi Mumbai
City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) Figure 2.5 Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai In 1992, an amendment of the Constitution of India affected the functioning of CIDCO. The 74th Amendment of the Constitution of India (the 1992 Amendment Act on Municipalities) spells out the devolution of power to the local bodies and democratization of development planning. This Act emphasizes that the management must be done by elected representatives of the people who will account for two-thirds of the board. This committee is responsible for the preparation of the draft development plan. This ensures a bottom-up process with direct inputs from the citizens (UNCHS, 1993). These municipal corporations will be responsible for their economic development and incorporate all ideas within the
Chapter 2: The Research Setting
Comprehensive Plan. The direct result of this Act is the creation, in 1992, of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation. This allowed CIDCO to give up its role as New Town Development Authority (CIDCO, 1995). A heavy-handed approach was used by the government to implement its social policy. As most of the housing was built by CIDCO, a government agency, the government could control, if not regulate, the distribution of the population on socioeconomic basis. Households desirous of buying a house built by CIDCO had to submit an application that stated the dwelling size they preferred. CIDCO allotted these houses, depending on when construction was completed, on a rolling basis. This was intended to ensure a random distribution of the various linguistic and religious groups of the population. The pattern expected would now be one based predominantly on income. 2.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan The planning of Navi Mumbai began in 1971. The results of each of the planning objectives can be studied now. The first objective of the Development Plan of Navi Mumbai was to reduce congestion of Bombay by absorbing immigrants and attracting some of the present population of Bombay. Table 2.5 Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay(BMRDA, 1978 in UNCHS, 1993) 1971 1981 1991 Population Density Population Density Population Density (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) CBD 1120 1659 1031 1527 849 1258 Central Bombay 1950 1349 2254 1559 2309 1597 Bombay Island 3070 1447 3285 1549 3158 1489 Bombay Suburbs 2900 544 4958 930 6751 1266 Navi Mumbai1 128 600 328 617 Over the 1981-91 period, there was a considerable decline in the population of the CBD and Bombay island. The increase in the population of the suburbs and Navi Mumbai accounts for the decline in the CBD and Bombay island. Outmigration to other cities and countries is negligible (BMRDA, 1978). The main reason for the shift was because of (UNCHS, 1993): i dilapidation of older buildings in Bombay i cheaper and better housing facilities in Navi Mumbai i better employment opportunities in Navi Mumbai i lesser commuter distances involved The second objective of the development plan was to bring maximum jobs consistent with the Gandhian principle of self-sufficiency (swavalambhan). CIDCO’s support of the Industrial Location Policy brought more jobs to Navi Mumbai. The sectors that had maximum growth in Navi Mumbai, were trade (39%), finance and services (27%) and manufacturing (18%) (BMRDA, 1992 in UNCHS, 1993). The wholesale agriculture produce
residential area increased from 213 hectares in 1981 to 531 hectares in 1991.
Chapter 2: The Research Setting
market for vegetables, foodgrains, oil seeds, sugar and spices was moved from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai (CIDCO, 1973). A separate railway siding and truck terminal were constructed to facilitate effective relocation. This involved the relocation of 30,000 jobs from Bombay and the reduction of 5000 truck trips per day. A new iron and steel stockyard complex has been developed in Navi Mumbai. This means the relocation of 25,000 jobs and a reduction of 1000 truck trips per day to Bombay. However, the economic agenda, which was based on agriculture and cottage industries, is no longer effective because of the government’s redoubled commitment to a policy of industrialization. Navi Mumbai continues to be exploited as a major industrial zone (Engel, 1991). CIDCO's third objective was to provide physical and social amenities in Navi Mumbai. The land use of Navi Mumbai shows these amenities (Table 2.6 and Figure 2.6). Table 2.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai, 1993 (in sq. km.) Land-use Zone 1979 1985 1986 1991 Residential 101.15 133.99 127.08 129.87 Commercial 6.51 6.51 6.51 5.75 Industrial 43.21 43.14 43.14 43.14 Port 12.00 22.7 22.7 22.7 Wholesale market 6.08 4.54 4.54 4.6 Woodlands / Park 90.26 61.24 68.15 69.35 Institutional .76 1.09 1.09 1.09 Fishing and allied 6.14 3.44 3.44 3.44 Transportation 30.86 30.35 30.35 29.73 No development 46.73 36.70 36.70 34.03 Total 343.70 343.70 343.70 343.70
1993 127.61 5.75 43.14 22.70 6.86 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70 (CIDCO, 1997) Primary, secondary and high schools have been provided in all sectors of Navi Mumbai. All primary schools are within walking distance. This eliminates the need of expensive transport for small children. There is at least one college in every node and Vashi node has both medical and engineering colleges (CIDCO, 1995). Medical facilities are provided by private medical practitioners. Every node has a hospital run by the Mahatma Gandhi Medical Trust. Community health car centers are also there (CIDCO, 1995). In its fourth objective to provide an ecologically friendly environment, CIDCO has not been entirely successful. The area of woodlands has been constantly decreasing (CIDCO, 1995). Most woodlands are in the form of mango groves which form a part of neighborhood parks. In the conceptual plan, streams flowing from the hillsides were to irrigate the woodland corridors. No significant effort has been made to utilize this resource. However, holding ponds have been constructed. Promenades have been built along them and they are being used as recreation areas (Parab, 1997). The fifth objective is the primary focus of this thesis. The objective to prevent ethnic enclaves and to promote a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics was fairly ambitious. In order for its success, a perfect control of the market is required. The analysis of the data will show the outcome of the objective.
1992 128.71 5.75 43.14 22.7 5.76 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70
but a living and working reality.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 18 NEW BOMBAY BOMBAY Arabian Sea Residential Woodlands Industrial Port Institutional Trucking Wholesale Fishing Wetlands Figure 2. CIDCO provides serviced sites for both government and private ownership. establishment of more industries and construction of more houses. 2. However. The poor transportation links between Bombay and Navi Mumbai has been the main contributing factor. housing requirements. recreation and commercial needs. development and implementation of ideas were done in an incremental manner. The design principles described in the Draft Development Plan were based on the philosophical reasoning of Mahatma Gandhi and the functionalistic approach of Modernism. While Modernism called for single-use zoning and a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics. The absence of a port and railway links slowed growth.10 Conclusion The Draft Development Plan of Navi Mumbai described many broad outlines for the development of a city for the common citizen. Many attributes of these two design principles are not necessarily harmonious. since 1990 there has been accelerated growth due to the commissioning of Nhava-Sheva port. Growth in other development sectors of Bombay has also had an adverse effect on Navi Mumbai’s growth. Designing. Commuter services have become operational since May 1992. and improvements made in the next phase of design. Social aspects of city planning were given importance with special attention given to considerations of employment opportunities. 1995. . utilities. and housing occupancy rates are high. Houses have been constructed for different sectors of society economically weaker section. Problems of design and development were identified. Though the Navi Mumbai project was begun in 1970. the Gandhian principles supported cultural heterogeneity and mixed use zoning. Hence. Periodic socioeconomic and household surveys were used to determine the status of constructed environment. lower income group.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai Source: CIDCO. the extension of the railway lines. middle-income group and high-income groups. the city is no longer a plan on paper. the development process has been slow.
Very little analysis has been done on the outcome of CIDCO's social agenda to ensure diffusion of ethnic groups and the urban social pattern that emerged. A heavy-handed implementation strategy of this objective was done by taking complete control of the residential allotment. The success of this strategy depended on maintaining this control.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 19 This design also strongly supported the need to use the government’s power and machinery to promote the uniform distribution of people and prevent ethnic enclaves. Navi Mumbai is a modern. planned city within the context of a specific historic and cultural setting. The aim of this research is to examine the present urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. . This also implies that the urban social pattern was predetermined. The research setting under consideration is the result of the hybridization of Indian and Western ideas.
1973). communication and socioeconomic relationships influence urban patterns. and those of Mahatma Gandhi. 1991). Education. The human-environment relationship is a two-way process termed as the socio-spatial dialectic (Knox. However. 1990). The aim of the thesis is to examine the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Land ownership patterns. 1968). The urban pattern is a result of the relationships between people and their social. 3. The pattern of spatial distribution is recognizable in most contemporary cities (Alexander. 1995). Navi Mumbai is one of the first cities in India built for the common citizen. changing and modifying it to suit their way of life (Lozano.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern Every human settlement consists of certain elements.1 Introduction A human settlement is an establishment created by people for their inhabitation. These design ideas seem to have a strong influence of Modernism (CIDCO. Buildings and spaces are created by people and quite often characterize them (Kostof. they are more generic and may not represent the lifestyles of every household. India. technology. but four-dimensional. religion. income is one of the most important determinants. and bear characteristics of western influence. A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between its elements within the temporal context. economic and physical environments. because it changes continuously in a temporal dimension. principles and existing theories for improving the design of cities (Doxiadis. 1990). Thus. people adapt to the physical environment around them. (New Bombay). occupation and values of housing influence the spatial character. then they reflect their lifestyles. The final outcome of a morphological study is the formulation of a theory which connects facts to form hypotheses. Simultaneously. 1968). Most cities in the Third World and India have been indigenous in origin and organic in growth.the urban pattern. Such a human settlement is not just threedimensional. Many of these cities have been under colonial rule. urban form is not merely the architectural form of the city (Lozano. Interaction of these elements form a pattern . transportation. Whatever the mode of construction. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. If the residents build the buildings themselves. Human settlements contain people and societies in a physical environment consisting of natural and man-made elements (Doxiadis. This literature review will first trace the human settlements in India. language and housing character. Where market forces work. It is a city designed with the design principles of the time. Socioeconomic factors have a very important contribution to the pattern. . residents soon influence their urban environment. It is also a cultural manifestation. if government agencies or contractors build them. 1987). Intricacies in relationships have increased the complexity of the urban form over time.Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 3. ethnicity. Urban social pattern is the pattern formed by the interaction of various social variables such as household characteristics.
linguistics and ethnic background also influence urban patterns.a fort or a religious building. and the ownership. Thus urban social patterns are complex manifestations of underlying cultural values intermingled with global economic forces (McGee. Urban patterns represent a continuity of time and space. and natural and manmade obstacles. Time and place may provide them with different characteristics making each city unique and dynamic. society. Since the characteristics are universal (within the frame of study) they may be studied by a spatial representative sector. buildings and infrastructure. 1987): i land ownership i street patterns i existing land use i economic considerations i planning regulations i political and historical events The physical expansion of the city is always bound and guided by land ownership. The built form is influenced by factors as (Alexander. Traditional cities have used physical forms to interpret cultural and religious beliefs (Lozano. a hill top site was the utilitarian response to any important building . They are the units of analysis of the morphological study (Knox. 1971). These features contributed to a particular urban and social pattern. every city has certain elements. 3. human beings. The physical form is a variable of the social and built pattern of the city. 1995). The change of land use from rural to urban depends on the existing land use. 1990). This representative sector is defined as the smallest area that exhibits the characteristics of the urban settlement. Although details may not be identical. A city replaces existing land use. Thus. 1990). it is necessary to determine existing land use as a pre-condition to urban growth and form.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 21 Demographics. The rural land may also have been .3 Factors Influencing Urban Form Many factors influence the form of cities. the node (township) and the sector (neighborhood) will be used as the study areas using aggregated household survey data. The patterns have similarities. Doxiadis defines five elements in the study of human settlements. Traditional settlements were shaped by (Lozano. Urban spatial patterns occur because of the repetitive spatial distribution of these elements. 1990): i the way in which nature and man-made features satisfy needs for protection and defense i the way in which physical and economic landscape allows for communication with other regions i the way in which the topography of a site suggests the construction of a human settlement i the way in which climate leads to building solutions These factors influence the cultural and spiritual form of the cities as well. They are nature. Some farmers may sell their land more easily than others may. “The typical sector represents the formal characteristics found throughout the area and thus acquires some universality” (Lozano. In the study of Navi Mumbai. For example. In most studies this unit is the neighborhood which displays both physical and social aspects of the whole urban development. which may be universal or local.
These factors are (Alexander. Kosambi. 1983).4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities The traditional theory of urban origin is generally attributed to Childe (Herbert. Clear differentiation between urban and rural existed. Domestication of animals and cultivation of land created villages. Pedestrian movement limited the size of the city. Soon. Planning controls influence development to a great extent. social and political circumstances influence the social pattern (Scargill. private rental and public sector housing operationalize housing sectors. 1992a). 1987. craftsmen and merchants were born. personal preferences and many institutional constraints. Priests. a city contained social distinctions in terms of class. Certain built forms encourage certain social patterns. The external .5 The Sociocultural Factors India is among the most stratified of all known societies in the world (Srinivas. People as food gatherers advanced to become farmers. Urbanization took place at different chronological periods. other scholars contend that it is doubtful that surplus can be attributed as the single factor which caused the emergence of urban settlements (Jacobs. 1986): i ethnic composition of the city i migration i religion i economic considerations i race i political and historical events The housing market also influences the social pattern of the city.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 22 subdivided. For thousands of years. 3. Reasons such as trade and defense have also been used to explain the formation of cities. Master plans and regional plans provide long-range strategies for development. A particular social pattern brings about a particular built form. 3. they supported a range of activities. Childe put forth a theory that urban centers were a result of agricultural change. Various economic. others are global in scope. However. A household’s choice of place to live is determined by its income level. cities were very simple although they rarely served single purposes. However. The factors influencing urbanization were also different. commercial buildings. 1995). surplus food production was achieved. The variation in influencing factors and historical circumstance gave rise to different urban forms in different parts of the world. The social pattern and the built form are interrelated and contribute to the urban morphology of a city. The caste system of India separates and hierarchies the Hindus. While some processes are culture-specific. The evolution of the urban pattern of Indian cities is divided into the social pattern and the built form. 1979). race and religion (Vance. and Thomas. Plots of varying sizes and shapes influence the layout of the streets and of individual buildings (Knox. This allowed some of the people to develop other professions. government offices and warehouses formed the built environment of the city. Owner-occupier. within. 1990). Housing. 1990). often because of a city wall. Instead.
and in the case of India. culture. marriage and death ceremonies distinguish one caste from another. vertical and horizontal systems of stratification exist. 1992). thighs and feet of the Creator. Hierarchy allows elements of the whole to be ranked with relation to each other (example: income and prestige). The characteristics caste. 1992). language. Berreman (1965) says "Caste systems rank people by birthascribed group membership rather than by individual attributes. The Indian theory of social stratification depends on caste. As many individual criteria are . 1992b). Repulsion between castes forced isolation and the creation of distinct residential enclaves (Bougle. 1992). Class systems by contrast define the rank of their members according to their individual attributes and behavior".Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 23 manifestation of the separation and hierarchy through particular attributes of the castes brings about social stratification of the urban social pattern (Marriott. The caste system varies from village to village and is a local phenomenon.2 Class "Class refers to a system of stratification which is economic in character" (Gupta. Stratification implies a differentiation based on a set of criteria. this popular caste hierarchy is not clear throughout the Indian subcontinent (Srinivas. The differences may also be placed in a horizontal system (example: language. Various combinations of the hierarchy have come about due to regional differentiation in certain attributes of social living.1 Caste Castes are the hierarchical divisions of people based on professional and family membership. The spirit of the caste system is determined by the attitudes of each caste to the other. all elements can not be arranged vertically. religious and ethnic diversity of the country (Gupta. religion or occupation (Bougle. territory. language. 1992a). However. Although no hierarchy is mentioned in the Sukta. 1992b:14). The term ethnic group refers broadly to people “with some similar characteristics which go beyond their mere place in a societal division of labor” (Brass. 1992). the forms of social stratification are many. Ethnic characteristics refer to language. 3. However. Clothing. sometimes reinforced by common work roles. Certain customs lower or raise the status of the caste. Along with the caste exist occupational stratification. 1992b). linguistic stratification and religious stratification. 3. 1974:8). Certain occupations such as butchery and cobblery lower the rank. a hierarchy from Brahman to Sudra has been interpreted (Bougle. unfortunately. class. In India.5. 1992). differentiates itself into only hierarchical status containing inequality (Gupta. The dominant caste legend is the Purushasukta legend whereby the Brahman. Vaishya and Sudra are said to have come from the mouth. linguistic. The population may be stratified based on income. However. The social stratification is very deep and varied. Vegetarian castes occupy higher positions. rituals.5. Kshatriya. these single criterion hierarchies can be misleading as they depend on cutoff points related to individual analysis (Gupta. theoretically. Thus. arms. The real world. The criteria for the differentiation can normally be translated into money or wealth. religion and language are discussed below. religion). diet and dress.
1974). After the decline of the Mughal Empire and the loss of political power to the British. Malayalam.3 Religion Religion and language have provided the motive power for nationalism in India (Brass. the Muslim League represented only the Muslim population (Brass. The wake of Independence brought with it violence and terror in the Indo-Pakistan borders in Punjab and Bengal. Islam was a religion that came to India from outside and is culturally very different from Hinduism. not subjects” (Hodson. “In most folk-memory the Muslims of India had been ruler. While the Congress party represented the majority of the Indian population. During the Mughal rule (16th to 18th century). Bengali. Hindi was chosen because it was the language spoken by the largest percent of the population while was a result of the British legacy. The League demanded for a separate electorate and for more employment in public service. 1977). 3. 1970). 1997). Anger and frustration broke out as violence as Hindus moved from Pakistan into India and Muslims moved from India to Pakistan (Hodson. which culminated in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. Tamil. Kannada. Jainism and Sikhism stemmed off from Hinduism and are very similar to Hinduism. 1985:11). 1985). However.5. absorbing other religious doctrines and never proselytizing. The linguistic distribution is not only diverse but also very complex (Das Gupta. A Hindu revival period in the late nineteenth century to arouse enthusiasm for political action made the Muslims more insecure. The Hindu religion has always been a pacifist and tolerant religion. At this time they felt the need for a political party of their own. degree of control over the language and relationship between the languages affect their social communication. it may be better to create a composite index of education.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 24 linked to other attributes.5. 1985). There are many religions in India. Marathi. In 1906 they formed the All-India Muslim League.Jainism and Sikhism. An overwhelming view of Hindu-Muslim relations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is that Hindus advanced due to their enthusiasm to take up western education and government employment (Kaura. Telugu. the Muslims were in power over most of India. A certain degree of animosity between Hindus and Muslims has existed since the first Muslim ruler of 1018 AD. The major languages of India are Hindi. Muslims became apprehensive of Hindu domination. From the beginning Islam has been a conquering and proselytizing faith (Hodson. The characteristics of the population regarding bilinguals. The framers of the Indian Constitution chose Hindi and English as the official languages of the government (King. Buddhism. Gujarati. prestige and income to form a socioeconomic status. 1974). The census of India 1951 (immediately after Independence) recorded a total of 179 languages and 544 dialects in India. 3. India is the birthplace of two major religions –Hinduism and Buddhism – and two minor religions . .4 Language A systematic inventory of Indian languages began in the mid-eighteenth century. Urdu and Punjabi. Hindus and Muslims drifted apart in the issue of independence from British rule. occupation.
Hindu-Muslim riots broke out even in Bombay which has normally been a very peaceful city. Although a majority of the rivalry has been for and against Hindi. many political leaders advocated for the use of Hindi as a national and official language. The South Indian state of Tamil Nadu was most vocal in the Anti-Hindi agitation. However. 1992a). In the early 1950s. This was not seen in more heterogeneous neighborhoods. 3.5 Implications of the Sociocultural Factors The implications of caste and class are closely related to those of power and wealth (Dumont.5. In many places. confusion has always existed about the status of Hindi as official or national language. Compromise was . The separatism movements seen all over India are all based on ethnicity and inter-caste rivalry (Bose. Traditionally these castes had either wealth or power. a synonym for official language and like state religion. Language conflicts have also occurred in India. the Brahman priests had more power because it was believed that they were the representatives of the Creator on earth. a demand for a national language also arose. This issue can not only be seen at the time of partition in 1947 but also was seen during the recent communal violence in 1993. In a multilingual society there may be a plurality of national languages. Repercussions were felt all over the country. 1988). The partition of United India into India and Pakistan came with many problems. had led them to better job opportunities. as it was difficult to isolate only one family. 1989). This rationale of composite nationalism influenced policies related to religion and language (Das Gupta. Agitation and violence broke out in many non-Hindi states over this issue. The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India declared the fourteen major languages listed as national language (Gumprez. they believed. Writers in Hindi commonly refer to Hindi as Rashtrabasha (state language) which may signify language used by the state.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 25 However. The inequality and economic differentiation cause conflict between the castes and classes. Certain castes are dominant in a society. ethnic conflicts are easily targeted towards these select neighborhoods. a state language with an unique status (Das Gupta. 1971). The union government declared that fifteen year deadline after Independence would be given for transition of official language from English and Hindi to only Hindi. The better control the Tamil people had over English. There was strong opposition from non-Hindi areas in general and South India in particular (Hindi is a IndoAryan language while the languages of South India belong to the Dravidian group). The Tamilnad Students’ Anti-Hindi Agitation Council objected to both the removal of English as an official language and the declaration of Hindi as the sole official language. and vice versa. all castes looked up to the farmer caste because they were important landowners and were wealthy (Srinivas. a majority of the leaders preferred a composite nationalism. 1970). The Babri Masjid in Ayodhya was broken down by Hindu fundamentalists. Small Muslim enclaves within a majority Hindu neighborhood were targeted. Although a minority of Hindu leaders in India felt that India should be declared as a Hindu state. 1970). there also been conflict between other regional languages. Pakistan officially declared itself as a Muslim state. This confusion in terminology is the basis for most language-related problems in Independent India. In some villages. When the ethnic groups occupy distinct neighborhoods.
The temple as the symbol of religion dominates the urban form. The Indian society was also stratified horizontally by language. The streets ran from north to south and from east to west. While some groups spoke of an all-India nationality other speaks of a regional nationality (Brass. 3. If it could not be a perfect square. The square was used in the creation of the vastupurusha mandala. padas. .1). orientation of buildings and arrangement of internal rooms based on astrological and religious criteria (Volwahsen. Vastushastra. 1969). The science of architecture and planning. However. and which had as many padas as there were to be residential sectors was selected. In the initial stages it was in the form of caste differentiation as prescribed by the Hindu/ Vedic texts. Related to castes. and four gateways were situated at the cardinal points. the creator. In planning the town a vastupurusha mandala which was most auspicious. Sikhism were born in India while Islam. the differentiation and assimilation in progress in a multi-ethnic society receives a prominent place in any political conflict.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 26 finally reached in 1963 under the Official Languages Act. 1986). a perfect rectangle was accepted. The mandala could be divided into smaller squares. which was the terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe inhabited by Brahma. The earliest is the Hindu phase (3000 B. These characteristics are derived from the need for defense and administration and the importance of religion (Kopardekara. The final shape of the town Figure 3. The multi-dimensional society was soon complicated by the emergence of other religions. Hinduism. Jainism. 1974). The ethnic segregation and conflict has existed from the beginning of the Indian Civilization. violence sparked off by language issues has continued to occur in India. which contributes many elements to the urban form. religion and language is the issue of group identity which is the cause of most ethnic conflicts. governed the alignment of roads. class. Buddhism. cyclical and swastika (Figure 3. Certain other shapes were also considered to be auspicious like the circle.6 The Built Form The historical evolution of the built form of Indian cities can be divided into three distinct phases. Despite the Act. C to 12th century AD). A number of languages coexisted in all parts of the country. Prime commercial and residential land was located near the temple. both from within and without the country. The temple also influences the siting of other land uses. Stratification of the society had to accommodate these religious factors. Judaism and Christianity found their way into India. Social assimilation and mobilization are a part of any evolving civilization.1 Circle and Swastika depended on the natural features of the site. The town wall enclosed the mandala. The caste system over the next ten to fifteen centuries became deeply rooted in the Hindu population and became a part of life. This does not imply that social assimilation does not occur.
As the built form depends on the social characteristics portrayed by its residents. 1978). Residential areas associated with the commercial area were contiguous or within the commercial area (Hall. and the apparent timelessness and permanence of village life” (Hall. 1988). the Brahmans worked and lived in the northern district. especially seen in the port cities associated with the East India Company (Mills. A generalization of these patterns has been made. many researchers have pointed to the lack of penetration of urban values into the countryside. The morphological components include buildings used for trade warehouses. At the time of independence in 1947. and Hindu elements of this period are not distinct from earlier ones. 1992). The characteristics of the social and built form of the city contribute to its pattern. the Hindu tradition continued. There was further subdivisions within each district depending on the sub-caste. counting houses. The colonial influence (17th to early 20th century A. 1989). and insufficient infrastructure in cities has led to the creation of slums and shantytowns (Misra.) was the third phase of historical urban form. D.).the cantonment . Vaishyas in the southern part and Sudras in the western district. and wood formed niches in the urban pattern. In India where occupation and caste are synonyms. 1986). Generally. jewelry.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 27 The residential districts were divided among the four castes. The residential character throughout this period was segregated. Areas for selling of specific goods – cloth. Many researchers have tried to fit Indian urban growth into a theoretical model. jali (carved screens) and projecting balconies (Kopardekara. “In the case of India. 3. The Islamic elements included the mosque and domestic architecture which emphasized the purdah through enclosed courtyards. 1980). India inherited a complex urban fabric. The urban segregation was based on function and occupation premises. Large migration of people from the rural area. but also on socioeconomic factors (Ramachandran. this has led to segregation and creation of enclaves within the city. During this time. D. These are the theories which pertain to the built and social form of the city. The Brahmans and Kshatriyas lived in the parts of the town which were climatically more comfortable sheltered from the hot sun.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns . military establishments . The three leading theories described below are based on the built form of the city. Kshatriyas in the eastern and southeastern part. Characteristics from medieval times are Islamic in nature (14th to 17th centuries A. It has been shown that rural values have penetrated the urban philosophy due to large-scale migration.were developed (Hall. and the south-west monsoon. Williamson and Mills. Residential segregation is no longer based only on occupation and caste. 1980). 1980). Diversification of professions due to industrialization in the post-independence era has resulted in further complexity (Becker. On the periphery of these urban centers. This led to the development of commercial centers and zoning based on Western market principles. the same theories are being used to describe the social patterns as well. metalware. pottery.
Figure 3. Diversification in employment opportunities gave rise to the growth of mixed land use development. free Middle income market. In the early 1920s. With affluence. 1979). Thus. 1979). The model made many assumptions such as uniform land surface. This model was based on Burgess’ experience in the American mid-west cities. The basic premise in this model was that of succession and invasion whereby population groups gradually moved out as their economic and social status improved. they moved to better housing districts (Burgess. 1929). The public transport system had also improved significantly and allowed the middle-class to .2). political and social activities. This was surrounded by a transition zone. It also had older residential districts. 1990). The next zone had lower income housing.7. This also forced an outward expansion. 3. The CBD core had all major commercial. The three leading Western models are: i Concentric zone model i Sector model i Multiple nuclei model These models have become frameworks for studying urban social patterns across the world (Hartshorn. accessibility to a single-centered city. These immigrants first found cheap housing in the inner city. 1929 various groups of society led him to conclude that the city was made up of concentric zones with the central business district (CBD) at the center (Figure 3. The same city may express different models at different time periods (Scargill.1 Concentric Zone Theory This theory put forth by Burgess in 1925 related population mobility and societal organization to the physical expansion of the city (Burgess.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 28 Various spatial theories of the social pattern of cities have been advanced. Burgess was interested in determining a pattern for the social structure of the city. most American cities in the mid-west absorbed many immigrant groups from Europe. some static. which were being taken over by the expanding CBD. and studying how the city grew (Scargill. High income heterogeneous population and a commercialindustrial base (Herbert and Thomas. and successive zones had higher income residences (Burgess. it is a descriptive framework to CBD analyze spatial organization of land use in a city Transition and its change over time. others dynamic in nature. which had factories and slums. 1992). The movement was towards the periphery. 1992). It was partly based on Low income economic factors.2 Concentric Zone Theory Burgess’ research on the distributional pattern of Source: Burgess. and especially in Chicago. Families moved out into the next zone when their zone was invaded. Mobility and migrant influx were though of as the main cause of the social pattern (Hartshorn. 1929). 1929).
Hence. 1939).4 Multiple Nuclei Theory Source: Hartshorn. 1990). The real world is more complicated than what was represented by Burgess’ very general model. He said that residential sectors of similar rent are situated in wedges radiating from the center (Figure 3.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 29 travel from outer zones to the CBD for work.3). This is not a generalized model. It is more specific to some cities (King and Golledge. and Golledge. empirical studies did not confirm his model one hundred percent (Herbert and Thomas. S (Hoyt. commercial ethnic group residential industrial Figure 3. This is because concentration of certain activities may prove to be more beneficial. 1939 3.7. 1992). The model also accounts for growth along transport routes.2 Sector Theory Homer Hoyt put forth a land use theory after studying over 100 cities in the U.7. industries may cluster around the railway line or lowincome housing along a riverbank. 1979). It also did not explain the impact of transport networks on these zones (Scargill. 1978). This model also accommodates growth (Hartshorn. It gives strength to cities with original nucleus in the center. 1978).3 Multiple Nuclei Theory The multiple nuclei theory was put forth by Harris and Ullman. Hoyt primarily studied residential land use. Hoyt studied the city as an economist concerned with how the housing market worked. However. These reasons complemented a concentric zone development model (Scargill. Burgess has been criticized for not having considered topographical criteria. Concentric zones or sectors may emerge from these nuclei. and subsequent decentralization (Figure 3. For example. This model proposes that patterns in many cities be arranged around several centers (Scargill.3 Sector Theory Source: Hoyt. 1979). The model is very simple and can be used to predict how urban land markets work. 1979). It was intended to serve as a framework for studying urban growth and change (King and Golledge. The wedge pattern represents residential area growth (Scargill. Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. 1978). 1992 .4). Hoyt also stressed the need to consider zoning laws and slum clearance laws in making models. Rental value was the main criterion for studying the pattern (King. 1979). Neighborhoods for each income group are common. 3. The original model did not take into account specialized clusters of industry.
Family status in American cities shows a concentric distribution. are suitable modifications of the concept (Timms. The main assumption here was that social rank is related to transportation links which influence residential location in a sectoral manner (Scargill. The data source was census tracts. and social change was expected to be reflected in studies which were repeated over a time period (Herbert and Thomas. 1979). In Western cities the reasons for non-uniformity have been identified as socioeconomic status. housing conditions and material possessions. social status and retirement (Scargill. It is not only a physical design concept. housing choices may not be made on economic basis. Social rank used the variables. For example. 1929). It is assumed that any planned city consists of neighborhood units. ethnic status and family status (Timms. every city has some constraints. which analyze the physical environment under consideration. The outward mobility is related to different stages of life . employment. In the analysis of urban social patterns.marriage. Ethnicity causes the social phenomena of segregation. Individualistic frameworks. 1971). Analysis of individual cities shows that the pattern is not uniform and is characterized by residential segregation. A neighborhood unit is not the only model or universally appropriate unit of analysis. 1979). This is . the neighborhood unit is used as the unit of analysis in the study of human settlements (Herbert and Thomas. has been under strong criticism (Hartshorn. It is only the most convenient one. A neighborhood is the basis for formally organized residential space. three indices were used. 1971). 1990). community and social and civic responsibilities such as aesthetics. It serves as the building block to construct the whole town. As a family’s needs for space increase. however. it does not address the needs of a social environment.8 Case Studies of Urban social Patterns The study of the urban social pattern of a city primarily focuses on the residential land use (Herbert and Thomas. 1990). The city was viewed as a part of society. ethnic status used religion and social groups. This type of urbanization is also related to the housing market described by Hoyt (1939). they move outwards. education. 1992).8. The use of these three indices for analysis is a social area analysis. safety. However. Hence. The values are also related to family. family status used the variables related to demographics and type of house. The broad generalization of the social rank produced a sector model. 1971).1 Western Cities Many studies of the social and physical urban pattern have been done. security and identity. family status and ethnic status. but also an expression of socioeconomic and cultural values of the people. The concept of neighborhood units became popular since the1920s in planned settlements (Perry. but on cultural ones. neighborliness. 3. 1990). These were social rank. value of home. Critics say that neighborhood unit strongly emphasizes physical environment. In the built environment this corresponds to ethnic neighborhoods (Timms.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 30 3. This concept. The non-uniform pattern is consistent over many cities because similar households exert similar housing choices. parenthood.
1990) showed similar results. 1995) shows that the four important factors in the social pattern are underclass.2 Third World Cities commercial ethnic group residential industrial Ethnic Status CBD Transition Low income Middle income High income Family Status Socioeconomic Status Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. socioeconomic status.5 Urban Social Patterns Source: Knox. 3. A study of Baltimore (Knox. Hartshorn.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 31 predominant in cities where migration is high. Australia (Timms. 1979). youth/migrants and black poverty. 1971). however. Traditional places are typically more dense with narrow streets and housing spaces around central courtyards. Public open spaces are generally found only . 1995. Ethnicity. 1992.8. traditional and modern design elements juxtaposed in seemingly dichotomous ways. Winnipeg. but socially with more complex relations to one another. Studies of Brisbane. Cities in the Third World are frequently dual environments. The changing pattern of family cycle reflects concentric zones while that of social rank is in sectors. does not always emerge as an independent component (Scargill. Canada (Herbert and Thomas.
which is adjacent to. A classic example can be seen in the design of New Delhi. 1986). The nuclei are original village. An analysis of Calcutta showed a pattern based on land use. The center of the city was the plaza. Around the plaza was the important buildings including a church. Source: Lowder. 1980. 1986 Literacy and ethnic patterns emerged in a sectoral form. Even single cities. Social morphological models constructed for the Third World cities show that there is a central concentration of commercial activity and a number of residential neighborhoods. The residences of the richer class formed the first concentric zone around the plaza. The second and third concentric zones were occupied progressively by poorer people. and subsequently surrounded by an industrial city (Lowder. along riverbanks). are very complex and have evolved over a very long time. substandard living conditions and ethnicity were the broad variables that defined the social pattern of the city. Western ideas of suburbanization and formed their Source: Drakakis-Smith own neighborhoods (Lowder. The morphological model of Asian port cities shows a multiple nucleus (Figure 3. But. The more Figure 3.7). A study of Colombo (Herbert and de Silva. 1986). The model shows that the indigenous elite were closely associated with the commercial area.7 Asian Ports pattern showed concentric zones for land use. traditional commercial areas and modern commercial areas. and surrounds old Delhi (Figure 3. 1975). 1990). the morphological pattern of each Third World city is different mainly because of the presence of an indigenous city enclosed by a colonial city. 1986). social and economic variables may not be the only factors. Thus.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 32 around religious buildings. The colonial cities in Latin America show a centralized social pattern (Portes. 1986).6) (Herbert and Thomas. The migrants and poor did not live in the core of the city. Processes quite different from those in western cities govern the pattern of Third World cities. ethnicity and literacy. but formed shantytowns in the peri-urban fringes and in unserviced areas (under bridges. 1974) found that social status. The social Figure 3. land use. The modern place is more spacious. . which contribute significantly to the urban pattern (Kopardekara. as opposed to conglomerations. family ties. A large number of models of Third World cities have been made (Lowder.6 Plan of Delhi and New educated and professional classes followed the Delhi.
industrial and office workers belonged to all castes. The greater complexity of urban life and the difficulty of maintaining caste identity through residential segregation alone. in general. status groups help to produce a very obscure patterning of social groups at the micro-level of analysis. farming is done only by the Sudra caste. Soon. 1986 residential colonies moved from the center of the city to the urban periphery which were selected for their better geographic. In the 18th and 19th centuries. and especially to construct a structural model. climatic and aesthetic factors. Santiago and Chile Source: Lowder. Soon socioeconomic status related to nearness to the center became related to distance away from the center.8 Latin American Cities America.3 Indian Cities In cities of India. in urban environments the meaning of caste becomes more important in terms of identity rather than function. A second indigenous factor suffusing urban society is that of regional affiliation.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 33 Here. 3. In Lima. and religious duties performed by the Brahmins. spatial segregation based on ethnicity. The outer ring bordered on farmland (Figure 3. 1980): i Residences have not yet come to serve the symbolic function they do in the Western world. "Particularly in cosmopolitan cities cultural or linguistic diversity and regional associations develop to extol their culture and language and to participate in their own .8. In the cities where new professions were created. the poorer the household (Cornelius. many large cities became crowded. Wealthier families began to move out of the center and settle in more isolated locations. religion and language rather than demographics and economics can be seen. Many studies have been done to study Indian urban areas. The social ties are horizontal and vertical. the farther away from the center. The horizontal relationships are between people of the same cultural background while vertical relationships are between caste and class. The nature of traditional social status and the interdependence and spatial interpretation of diverse. Research findings point out that while caste is important in rural societies for its very functioning. in rural areas. new definitions had to be made. For example. The pattern is similar to the one described by the sector model of North Figure 3. languages and customs. But.8). 1977). 1986). yet complementary. 1975). the residences became smaller and public amenities were reduced. caste. the Indian urban social scene essentially reflects two facets of non-western structure (Hall. The pattern was a creation of the lifestyle choices of the urban rich (Portes. has created social organizations for each caste (Kopardekara. It has been found that Indian cities defy social modeling. i Symbolic functionalism is performed by religion and caste and buttressed by regional affiliations. A consistent relationship existed between socioeconomic position of the household and their distance from the center of the city.
Calcutta) has low-density commercial centers surrounded by high-density residential neighborhoods. These three dimensions were i socioeconomic dimension symbolized by the bazaar i political dimension represented by an administrative symbol i prestige dimension derived from the religious function of a temple. Hyderabad had two nuclei – the old city and the colonial city. i North Indian cities had low female employment rates. Madras.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 34 regional festivals if not usually celebrated in the region within which they live now" (Hall. He postulated three dimensions as being important contributors to residential segregation.9).9 Pattern of Indian Cities Source: Weinstein. Chandigarh) have low population densities with no concentration of industrial. Pune and Varanasi. Instead. However. These three dimensions would form concentric zones (Figure 3. Their influence and interplay causes residential segregation. such neighborhoods are the source for the development of the corporate groups. Calcutta and Madras. higher literacy. higher migration and equal male to female ratio. real case studies did not prove this theory. . Weinstein (1974) made an attempt to produce a conceptual model for the social segregation of an Indian city. i The modern planned cities (Jamshedpur. 1968). commercial or administrative areas. had western style CBDs. The centroid of the system represents the optimum location for accessibility to all three functions. i Metropolitan cities (Bombay. and that the temple acted as the most meaningful focus for the spatial distribution of social characteristics. had retained their residential core (Mehta. Certain areas are known for their residents speaking a particular language only. i South Indian cities had higher female employment rate. Although the neighborhoods that result are not corporate groups in the sense in which they are defined. cities that were well developed even before the colonial period. Ahmad (1965) did a factor analysis of the socioeconomic characteristics of Indian cities. low migration and equal male to female ratio. colonial cities. Temple Bazaar Centroid Fort Brush (1977) studied 24 cities in India and discerned four types of gradients of population directly related to their Figure 3. Bombay. Industrial towns like Jamshedpur were planned around their industrial core. low literacy. 1980:35). He had the following conclusions. it was found that multiple nuclei were present. 1974 evolutionary pattern.
transportation and socioeconomic status (Kosambi. commercialism. 1986). . The patterns were attributed to Europeanism. Analysis at the level of a single city gave patterns that are more complex. 1901.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 35 Such broad conclusions are results of regional analyses. British cities and industrial towns within the boundary of the urban area. These examples show that the urban social pattern of Indian cities is very complex due to the influence of a variety of factors. Census data from 1881. castes and classes produces a more heterogeneous pattern. The presence of many religions. languages. The existence of multiple physical urban patterns caused by the presence of indigenous settlements. 1986). A systematic analysis of census data for Bombay was done (Kosambi. 1831 and 1961 was used to determine the evolution and change of the social pattern. religious polarity. The social patterns were also strongly influenced by the age of the city.
. Hartshorn. 1992.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 36 C oncentric Z one T h eory S ector T heory Incom e g rou p 1 M ultiple N uclei T heory commercial ethnic group CBD Tran sitio n L ow incom e M iddle inco m e H igh inco m e In com e g roup 2 residential industrial In com e g rou p 3 D elhi Latin A m erica A sian P orts C oncentric + S ector T heories C hicago C alcutta C oncentric + S ector + M ultiple N uclei T h eories Figure 2. 1986.10 Urban Social Patterns and Relevant Case Studies. Source: Lowder.
Traditional Indian cities have grown over a very long period of time. Three leading western theories describing the urban social pattern of cities dominate the literature on urban social patterns (Hartshorn. Stratification causes social inequality in terms of wealth. or in search of opportunities in the city. The historical evolution of cities has supported this stratification. The components of the analysis of American cities are not entirely apparent in the Third World cities. The reasons for migration are also varied – they may be migrating as a result of natural calamities. power and status. class. Status in Third World cities is based on family membership or socioeconomic class. The urban social pattern of these cities has been generalized. family status and ethnic status. These are concentric zone theory. Migration may also be restricted to the men of the family. Social area analysis assumes that a few independent factors can explain the spatial patterning of a city.9 Conclusion The urban social pattern is the complex manifestation of the underlying cultural values of the population within a particular built environment. skills and professions. Here. These characteristics stratify the society into vertical and horizontal systems. . sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. The households are generally large with a range of ages. the researcher’s knowledge of the local environment is important to contextualize the pattern more appropriately. The growth of cities across the world has been studied. The lifestyle depends on ethnicity and migration.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 37 3. These theories have been combined in a social area analysis to describe the social pattern based on a few social variables. In such a case study. 1992). an effort was made to prevent this social stratification and use residential allotments to fulfill this objective. the residential neighborhoods have been designed using the neighborhood principle as those designed in America. this social area analysis must take into consideration the indigenous factors. A market economy strongly influences the lifestyle of the citizens of Navi Mumbai. Male dominance. migration or ethnic group represent the ethnic factor. it is appropriate to use a social area analysis to delineate the urban social pattern. In the American cities. In the design of Navi Mumbai. this is not evident due to the existence of multi-generational families. the components derived from social area analysis were termed as socioeconomic status. The lifestyle factor in North American cities relates small nuclear families with higher education achievements and better employment opportunities. religion and language. In Third World cities. In the case of India. The residential neighborhoods of such cities are not as well defined as they are in the American cities. However. the sociocultural factors are related to caste. Land-use is also similar in that it is predominantly single-use zoning. In the case of Navi Mumbai.
It is a .1 Social Area Analysis Social area analysis provides a broad framework for analyzing the social patterns of a city. The theories put forth by Burgess. 1971). and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. 1955). and ethnicity confirmed the validity of the analysis. and Harris and Ullman will be the theoretical framework for the conceptualization of the social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Hoyt and Harris and Ullman. They were considered to be very narrow and not universally applicable. urbanization and segregation. economic status and ethnic background produce a certain spatial pattern in the city. economic. The social area analysis may be done statistically by a factor analysis.socioeconomic status. studies in Calcutta. The issue of spatial distribution of different kinds of people in Navi Mumbai is of primary interest. Cairo and Helsinki showed some useful generalization. The basic premise of social area analysis is that a city cannot be studied in isolation from the overall society (Shevky and Bell. Hoyt. mapping of social area analysis for a large sample of cities showed that socioeconomic status. 1985). 1978). Thus. Earlier. immigration of rural population leads to segregation based on language. Generally the economic model showed a sectored pattern. the urbanization component showed a concentric ring pattern. The analysis looks at the variables at once and at their respective locations in their distribution. These three factors also corresponded to the theoretical models proposed by Burgess. A set of variables describing the social structure of the city can be used in the statistical analysis. and housing characteristics. The increase in industrialization creates an occupational status system (Timms. Cities are complex entities that have many different functions performed by many different people. The general issue of social areas will be accomplished through social area analysis. 4. The research investigates the relationship between the spatial pattern of Navi Mumbai and the different theories of urban social patterns discussed in the literature review. The study involves the categorization of a city based on social rank. Social area analysis shows how family characteristics.Chapter 4: Research Design Determining the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai is the primary research objective of this thesis. These involve population. The family as a unit becomes weaker. urbanization index. the city was analyzed as a composite made up of three layers. religion and ethnic background. Better transportation systems increase mobility and lead to a greater sorting of population (Cadwallader. Although these analyses have been more effective for studying North American cities. It was first put forth by Shevky and Williams (1949) in a study of Los Angeles. This analysis classifies census tract data into three main constructs . Under these conditions. The aim is to identify key combinations of different measures that provide an adequate basis on which to differentiate the sub-areas from one another (King and Golledge. However. family status and ethnic status. These factors are taken into consideration in social area analysis. there was considerable criticism about the choice of variables. The pattern of the city may be determined by statistical analysis or by discerning people’s mental images of the city.
1980). mapping of social patterns in many cities across the world show that the socioeconomic status. then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. religious and historic development with both horizontal (kinship. This provides a spatial hierarchical data set. H0. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. my null hypothesis. The variables are tabulated below: Table 4. caste) dimensions (Hall.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 39 device that seeks interrelationships among the set of input variables (Herbert and Thomas.3 Operationalization Certain variables will be used to operationalize the social area analysis to obtain the urban social pattern. religion. 1990). The sectors (neighborhoods) are identical to census block tracts. If H0 is false. Variables that arise from such cultural determinants need to be used in the factor analysis. The data available is based on a . This database provides aggregated information about each node (township). language) and vertical (occupation. In this case study of Navi Mumbai. family status and ethnic status correspond respectively to the sector theory. Social area analysis based on western thinking can not be naively applied to the study of urban social patterns in India. Social structure in India is a result of cultural.2 Hypotheses As discussed in the literature review.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Socioeconomic status Profession Number of earning members Income Education Family status Demographics Women at home Family size Dwelling size Type of house Year of occupation Ethnic status Religion Language 4. education. concentric zone theory and multiple nuclei theory. 4. 4. and each sector (neighborhood) of the nodes.4 Data Collection The data required for the analysis can be obtained from census tracts of Navi Mumbai. is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social patterning will occur.
Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 40 socioeconomic survey done by CIDCO in December 1995.2 Survey Sampling Node Total Number of Dwellings Vashi 27. An error of 5-8% is expected. The cluster analysis puts together cases which are similar based on the relationship between the variables. The GIS and mapping techniques convert all the statistical information into a graphic representation. the sector is the unit of analysis. the units of analysis are not identical. The variables are expected to cluster based on the constructs described above. The second is a principal components analysis. and at the sub-regional scale attached as Appendix C.007 Airoli 13. 4.283 Nerul 16.378 Kopar-khairane 14. Statistics are weighted for spatial data because. The single variable from that data set is selected and a histogram of it at the .056 New Panvel 9.1 Descriptive Analysis The first stage of analysis describes the data at both the regional and sub-regional scale. At the regional scale the data is tabulated. This is a detailed stage of analysis. In this research. These four methods are collectively used to analyze the data. These are techniques in multivariate analysis.161 Sanpada 2.5 Methodology Four methodologies are used to analyze the data. for the purpose of this thesis it shall be used. Finally. The descriptive analysis helps understand the finer dimensions of the data.357 Survey Coverage 6656 4219 2125 2034 2282 2530 2506 544 % of total 24 26 23 22 25 19 18 23 The issues of validity and reliability arise in the use of census data for testing the hypothesis. cartographic mapping. For a social area analysis. and GIS overlay techniques are used to determine the social pattern at the regional and sub-regional levels. Table 4. The survey was carried out on a ~22% sample basis for each node. The census data is not 100% reliable. The first is a descriptive analysis of the data setting out the parameters that need to be considered to define the meaning of heterogeneity. 4.109 Kalamboli 9.338 Belapur 9. and compare it to other cities. data covering a large area is required. Although principal components analysis is no longer considered the most favorable mode of analysis to delineate patterns.5. All data is standardized. is census data. although variables are related. The third is cluster analysis of the cases to see which variables are closely associated. The principal components analysis draws out the relationship between the variables. The only data source that provides this information.
5.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 41 sub-regional scale is drawn. Comparative figures at the national scale are also given. The cases are the rows and the variables are the columns. A variation greater than thirty percent of the total population from the mean (15% on either side of mean) is used here to show unequal distribution. 1986).7 are not significant in the correlation matrix. it is necessary to provide a permissible range of variation. Characteristics of the urban social pattern can be revealed by considering the relationship within groups. This matrix contains components that represent a group of interrelated variables. The N by M matrix is standardized in terms of standard deviation. The data matrix is converted into a correlation matrix. The elements of the eigenvectors that are used to compute the scores are called principal component loadings. Each original observation is converted into a principal component score. In order to interpret this descriptive statistics for homogeneity. certain restrictions are imposed. These loadings indicate the strength of the relationships between variables and underlying components. The rotation normally removes the negative loadings. This solution determines whether a small number of the components can be used to explain the covariance between a large number of variables. 4. Generally variables with communalities less than 0. Corresponding communalities are also estimated. The .5. These restrictions are (1) there are k common components (2) underlying components are orthogonal to each other (3) the first component accounts for as much variance as possible. It has very little theory and depends largely on experience. The eigenvalue criterion (eigenvalue greater than or equal to 1) helps eliminate components which are not meaningful. and so on" (Kim and Mueller. and results in a simpler pattern. Finally. This approach to classification is very subjective. If the standard deviation at the 95% confidence interval is within 15% of the mean.3 Cluster Analysis Classification of data places objects in one or more homogenous groups. Patterns can be delineated from mapping these components. Principal components are the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix (Davis. This is varimax rotation. This matrix is next converted into a factor matrix. Rotating the axis more closely intersects the clusters of variables. The axis has been rotated orthogonally (assuming the factors are uncorrelated). the matrix of component scores is computed. the second component accounts for as much of the residual variance left unexplained by the first factor. 1978). The first matrix is a simple data matrix. "To obtain the initial solution.2 Principal Components Analysis A principal components analysis reduces a large number of variables to a smaller number of underlying components. 4. then the pattern shall be interpreted as homogeneous. The initial solution is based on the orthogonal solution. The data is interpreted in terms of its mean and standard deviation. 1986). Principal components analysis can be thought of as four matrices. Cluster analysis classifies the groups according to the observations into moreor-less homogenous and distinct groups (Davis. The first step of principal components analysis is to obtain an initial solution. The second step is to rotate the axis to get a simpler solution.
6 Data Analysis Descriptive analysis of the data was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. A measure of similarity between every pair of objects is computed using Euclidean distance. namely Vashi. 4. This mapping helps explain the statistics through a easily interpretable graphic representation. Both the analyses were done at a regional and sub-regional scale. and so produces better dendrograms.0.4 Mapping and Overlays The final stage is the mapping of the descriptive analysis.5. A low distance would indicate that two objects are similar and a large distance would indicate that the two objects are dissimilar. The criteria for clustering is that both observations mutually have the highest correlation with each other. Distance coefficients are linked at low values. and the statistical analysis to determine an interpretation of the pattern. The SPSS program was also used to perform a principal component analysis and a cluster analysis on this data set. as is the correlation coefficient. 4. This stage of analysis integrates the theoretical framework. The aim of these two kinds of analysis was to determine if the data set clustered into the three constructs given above. The regional scale was comparisons between the eight nodes of Navi Mumbai.0 to -1. then connects the next most similar observations to these. The levels of similarity are used to construct the dendrogram. A correlation coefficient or distance coefficient may be used to evaluate similarities. Mapping of the principal components determined if any pattern exists in the social characteristics of Navi Mumbai at the regional and sub-regional scales. principal components analysis and cluster analysis. Analysis was then done of one particular node of Navi Mumbai. This method joins similar observations. . The distance coefficient is not constrained within the range of +1.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 42 classification procedure used here is hierarchical clustering.
The criteria used to select the variables were based on the expectations of the hypothesis. Airoli and Sanpada. • sub-regional scale (sectors of a node) The study areas at the regional level of analysis are those of the nodes of Navi Mumbai including Vashi. Belapur. it was selected out of the eight nodes. 5. One or two variables from each set was selected for this study.1) with the actual variable from the data set. female pop. Hence. Malayalam . Type of housing CIDCO Tenure 1980s Last place of residence Bombay Ethnic status Religion Hindu. The analysis is divided into descriptive analysis of variables and detailed analysis at the regional and sub-regional. 2651-4450 Education high school Family status Demographics Male pop. age 25-45.Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 5. All the variables belonged to closed sets. unskilled status Number of earning members 1 earning member Income Rs. Vashi is the oldest node.1 Introduction The aim of this research is to study the urban social pattern of the population across a hierarchical scale. only then would they bring out the characteristics of the construct. Nerul. This spatial scale is • regional scale (nodes). Data for the regional and sub-regional scale was collected from the 1995 socioeconomic survey conducted by CIDCO. Panvel. Kalamboli. age 25-45 Family size 4 to 5 members Dwelling size 26-35 sq.2 Descriptive Analysis of Data The different constructs and variable names described in the methodology section are tabulated below (Table 5. Kopar-khairane.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Name Variable from data set Socioeconomic Profession highly skilled. As this node had the most complete data. As the 1995 survey data was the most recent data. and has fully developed residential sectors. m. The methodological reason for selecting these eight nodes out of the total of thirteen is because data was available for only these eight nodes. it was used for analysis. Table 5. Then the data set was studied at a sub-regional level by analyzing the neighborhoods of Vashi node. The variables needed to explain the constructs as well as possible. Muslim Language Marathi. only one or two representative variables from each set was selected.
75 8.99 The average number of earners per household is 1. 30430 are the working population.62 Standard Deviation 2. while it is 1.2.35. Data tables for the sub-regional scale are given in Appendix C. 5.12 1. A profession brings with it a certain prestige and social class.2 and the number of earners in Table 5. All these variables are closely correlated. Table 5. Better education facilitates getting better jobs and higher income. Seventy-five percent of families had one earning member and twenty percent of families had two earning members (Table 5. Number of earning members: Out of the total population of 91787 recorded in the survey. An increase in the number of earning members increases family income and the socioeconomic class.8% recorded in the 1987 survey) of the population makes up the workforce of Navi Mumbai.2. and form the socioeconomic indicator.2Work Force Percent of male Percent of female population in work population in work force force Vashi 53 10 Nerul 55 7 Belapur 52 12 Kalamboli 54 6 Panvel 57 8 Kopar-khairane 56 10 Airoli 53 7 Sanpada 58 9 Mean 54. The percent of males and females is shown in Table 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 44 All data tables are for the regional scale while the histograms are from the sub-regional scale.3 Number of Earners Single 2 3 4+ Vashi 68 23 6 2 Nerul 78 16 3 1 Belapur 68 22 4 2 Kalamboli 79 15 4 1 Panvel 78 17 3 1 Kopar-khairane 76 17 5 1 Airoli 74 20 4 1 Sanpada 70 19 7 2 Mean 74 19 5 1 Standard deviation 5 3 1 1 .67 in Greater Bombay. Table 5.1 Socioeconomic Status The socioeconomic status is an indicator of social class.3). 33.15% (a slight increase from 32.
carpenters. At the sub-regional scale the standard deviation is 7. They form 17% of the workforce.3).96 (mean=66.4 Occupational Classification of Workforce Highly skilled unskilled office selfteacher other skilled worker worker assistant employed Vashi 45 12 12 15 9 4 3 Nerul 38 23 13 15 4 4 3 Belapur 47 12 8 20 3 6 4 Kalamboli 24 31 20 12 8 3 2 Panvel 43 19 9 16 4 7 2 Kopar-khairane 20 9 41 9 9 0 12 Airoli 34 18 44 12 5 1 4 Sanpada 49 9 20 14 3 3 2 Mean 38 17 19 14 6 4 4 Standard Deviation 11 8 11 3 3 2 3 Frequency . contractors and consultants. while service professions such as shops and hotels employ 7% of the workforce.1. On an average. Dev = 7. and has a normal distribution over eight cases.0 60. The pattern is homogeneous.0 50. Skilled workers are factory workers. construction workers and trainees. This is most representative of the entire population.0 65. Highly skilled professionals hold higher level managerial and supervisory jobs or are professional business persons. The standard deviation is 11. For this analysis classification based on skills is tabulated (Table 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 45 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std. Table 5. In Navi Mumbai this economic class constitutes 38% of the work force.3).0 80. Both the values are within 15% of the mean.0 70. the variable.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. Professional workers in teaching and medical institutions are 7% of the workforce. Small businesses account for 15% of the employees. was selected.96 Mean = 66. 25% of the workforce is employed there. The distribution of the single earner families is shown in Figure 5.4). they are 19% of the work force and the standard deviation is 11.0 55.3 N = 19127. The main reason is that this node is presently under construction and has a large workforce of construction workers.0 75.00 45. Government offices including banks and public sector enterprises employ 21% of the workforce. single earning member. The distribution of the singleearner family at the regional level shows a standard deviation of only 5 (mean=74). Kopar-khairane has a low number of highly skilled workers and a large number of unskilled workers (Table 5. Unskilled persons are construction laborers and housemaids. Profession: Good employment opportunities are offered by the manufacturing industries of Navi Mumbai.1 Distribution of Single-earner families For the analysis. The mean is 74 with a very low standard deviation of 5. This means that the distribution is homogeneous.
46 44517500 30 21 35 21 31 36 34 42 31. The regional scale shows a standard deviation of 6.0 20. 1230. Table 5.98 (mean=27.46 (mean=33.63 6.9 N = 19127. in Navi Mumbai it appears that the four income groups have to be redefined based on the median and/or mean income of this region rather than using the national urban averages (Table 5.26 26514450 27 36 27 46 31 32 39 31 33. Almost 34% of the population falls within this category.06 1000115000 7 3 5 1 3 7 2 4 4 2.13 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5. the standard deviation is 10. and the standard deviation is 6. 2650 • middle income group (MIG) earning between Rs.88 16.0 50.75 4. 2651-4450 was selected for the principal components analysis because the median income of Rs.2 15000+ 3 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 1.0 15. 1251 and Rs.0 10.0 30. The monthly average household income is Rs. 4900 and the monthly average per capita income is Rs. Income: The income groups are defined by the Government of India’s household income classification into: • economically weaker section (EWS) earning less than Rs1250 per month • lower income group (LIG) earning between Rs.38 Standard deviation 0. Thus. The proportion of EWS:LIG:MIG:HIG is 2:16:34:48. This shows a proportionately large middle and higher income groups.25 7.45) and the sub-regional scale. 2651-4450 The income range of Rs.9) (Figure 5. 7500 per month.13 1.0 25.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.64 8.5 Household Income upto 12511250 2650 Vashi 2 14 Nerul 3 27 Belapur 2 12 Kalamboli 2 26 Panvel 2 24 Kopar-khairane 2 9 Airoli 1 14 Sanpada 1 5 Mean 1. Dev = 10 Mean = 27. Frequency .2 Frequency of Families with income range Rs. 4451 and Rs 7500 and • higher income group (HIG) earning more than Rs. 4200 fell within this range.46.5).2).0 45. Both cases do not show a homogeneous distribution of people based on income as the standard deviation is greater than 15% of the mean.0 Std.0 35.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 46 The corresponding data was not available at the sub-regional scale.0 40.29 750110000 15 6 12 3 5 9 8 12 8.
12% use public transport.38 6.38 3. The value given represents the highest level of education achieved by at least one member of the family (Table 5. Table 5. while 4% of the population is going to college. Vashi has all the major colleges.66 27 27 30 34 25 27 37 21 28. Hence.5 5. and 35% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is Marathi (12% did not specify their medium of instruction).75 1. Bachelors and Masters degrees. technical education.6). high school education. the column titled Vashi shows that some students from all other nodes also go there to attend school or college (Table 5.25 1.13 3.36 technical 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 2 1. primary school education.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 47 Education: The survey shows that 27% of the total population is children going to school. The level of education is categorized into illiterate.6 Location of Education Institutions Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar. secondary school education.7). Table 5.28 Children Primary secondary 9 5 8 10 8 6 7 8 7.04 BS MS 22 4 24 5 15 2 9 1 22 4 29 4 13 3 21 4 19. children.60 14 15 18 20 14 13 16 12 15.52 1. 76% of the students walk to their school or college.63 1. 10% use bicycles and only 2% go by school bus. Most students attend school and college within their node (township). 51% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is English.7 Level of Education illiterate Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 4 3 5 7 3 4 4 4 4.07 high school 22 17 21 16 19 15 18 25 19.Airoli Sanpada Bombay khairane Vashi 88 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 Nerul 9 77 2 1 1 0 0 0 10 Belapur 10 12 67 1 1 0 0 0 9 Kalamboli 1 0 1 90 4 0 0 0 4 Panvel 2 1 2 8 76 0 0 0 11 Kopar-khairane 17 0 0 0 0 81 0 0 2 Airoli 7 0 0 0 0 0 83 0 10 Sanpada 47 8 1 1 0 0 16 0 27 In the Bombay region literacy rates are seventy-five percent for adult population.25 2.30 . Sanpada is the only node without any education facilities.
13 (mean=40.0 40. 5.3 Frequency of Families with at least one a younger population with a high individual with Secondary Education percentage of children. and only 3% of the 15. This age group was selected because it is a subset of the population and it makes most of the decision regarding social choices (Table 5.8 Male Population below 3 4-5 6 .00 0 45 to 59.0 45.0 20.3). Children up to the age of 15 constitute 33% of 3000 the total population.0 30. This level of education is provided to everyone by the government free of cost. The age group 16 to 24 is 10% of the 2000 population.6 (Census of India. 28.2 Family Status Demographics: The nodes of Navi Mumbai have a female to 5000 male ratio of 848 to 1000 (comparative figures for Bombay 4000 are 819 to 1000). Dev = 7. About 9% of the Mean = 40.8.0 35.9 10 -15 16 .5).21 22 -24 25 -44 45 -59 60+ Vashi 4 3 7 15 12 5 34 14 5 Nerul 7 5 10 12 8 5 41 8 3 Belapur 6 4 8 14 12 5 37 11 4 Kalamboli 8 6 11 13 8 5 43 6 1 Panvel 8 4 8 11 9 5 44 9 3 Kopar-khairane 10 6 10 10 8 5 43 6 1 Airoli 7 5 10 14 11 4 39 8 2 Sanpada 7 4 6 10 10 5 43 10 4 Mean 7 5 9 12 10 5 41 9 3 Standard deviation 2 1 2 2 2 0 3 3 1 6000 Frequency .9).6). Table 5.07.5% of the population falls under this category with a standard deviation of 5. The national average for this variable is 16.2. 1991) The standard deviation of this variable at the regional scale is 5.0 population are in the 60+ range. The demographic indicators used are male and female population of the age group 25-45. Cases weighted by population The present pattern clearly shows Figure 5. The working age group of 25 to 44 is 39% of the 1000 Std. The variation is not homogeneous at either scale (Figure 5.07 (mean=28.13 population.0 25. Table 5.0 50. and at the sub-regional scale is 7. Secondary school means an education of up to Grade 10 and the passing of a government examination (matriculation).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 48 The variable ’secondary school’ was selected under level of education.6 population are in the age group of N = 19127.
0 44.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.4 Frequency of male population in the age group 25-45 Figure 5. A descriptive analysis of the data over the last 20 years shows that household size has been constantly increasing.0 52.39 (mean=38) at the sub-regional level (Figure 5.0 34.76 and the national average is 5. Family size: The average family size is 4. In Vashi. average family size has increased from 3.0 36. and 3.39 Mean = 38.0 46.0 40. .10).73 in 1987 to 4. The reason for this is not only marriage and children. The population age structure is uniformly distributed over the whole region. The comparative family size for Bombay is 4.0 50.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 49 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation of the population is 3 (mean=41) at the regional level.0 38.0 Std.9 Female Population below 3 4-5 Vashi 5 3 Nerul 7 5 Belapur 5 4 Kalamboli 15 10 Panvel 8 4 Kopar-khairane 9 6 Airoli 6 5 Sanpada 6 4 Mean 8 5 Standard deviation 3 2 6 -9 8 10 8 16 8 10 10 8 10 3 10 -15 14 13 14 20 11 9 15 10 13 3 16 -21 11 9 11 13 10 12 10 13 11 1 22 -24 5 7 6 12 9 10 6 9 8 2 25 -44 39 40 40 6 40 37 39 39 35 12 45 -59 10 6 8 6 6 5 6 9 7 2 60+ 4 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 The female population of the age group 25-45 is also uniformly distributed over the study area.4).0 N = 19127.0 42.21 in 1985.52.01 for all the nodes (Table 5.0 48. Dev = 3. but also the need to accommodate older parents. 3000 2000 Frequency 1000 0 32.
5).85 Mean = 56.0 67.10 Family Size Single Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 6000 2.03 3.1 (mean=50.0 47. At the regional scale the standard deviation is 5. and 5.00 0 42.10 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0.3 26 34 31 31 41 41 27 39 33.11). the data shows more diversification of the housing stock.5 The variation of the data is minimal.22 3.4 1.9 0.85 (mean=56) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.1 6.81 4.9 5.99 3.4 Average family size 4.21 3.9).8 6.67 3.4 8.0 52.5 60.5 Frequency of households with 4 or 5 members Type of Housing: Initially CIDCO built ninety percent of the housing stock. Dev = 5.0 62.0 4. CIDCO began all construction in Navi Mumbai. . Later.5 65.87 4. Since Vashi is the oldest node.5 50.7 14 10 13 14 8 10 15 12 12 2.85 5000 4000 The families with a size of 4 or 5 members was chosen as 50% of the population belongs to this category.1. The variable has a standard deviation of 5. All other nodes show a dominance of CIDCO housing (Table 5.5 45.0 57. Frequency Cases weighted by population Figure 5. private builders and cooperative housing began developing residential sectors.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 50 Table 5.9.6 1 2 1 3 5 3 1 3 2.5 55. 3000 2000 1000 Std.0 N = 19127.5 57 54 53 52 45 45 56 45 50.
62 Mean = 66.38 Standard Deviation 12.6 Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO For this variable. Co-op Commercial 29 2 5 0 9 0 0 1 15 0 2 0 0 0 11 0 8.4 N = 19127. Houses built by CIDCO are 90% of the houses available. The large deviation shows that private construction has taken place.0 90.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 51 Table 5.0 30. the strong control is no longer evident. House 2 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 1.6).0 40.24 (mean=89.0 60.00 1. CIDCO’s aim to promote heterogeneity was to be implemented by having a strong hold over the housing market. This is a very significant result.0 50.74 Other 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 80.38) while at the sub-regional scale it is 35.62 (mean=66. This may be one of the main reasons for the greater variability in the pattern at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale. At Vashi. the oldest node. The categories.24. The standard deviation is 12.77 Pvt. only houses built by CIDCO was selected. Frequency . resale and rental fall under private ownership.4) (Figure 5.0 10. CIDCO is still the major owner. Some houses are mortgage through CIDCO.0 100.0 Std.35 1000 0 0.76 0. Table 5. Dev = 35.88 0.24 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 Pvt. The standard deviation at the regional scale is 12. private ownership.12 shows present ownership of the house.0 70.38 9. Most government offices that provide housing for their employees obtain long term lease from CIDCO.0 20.00 Cases weighted by POP Figure 5.13 0.11 Type of Housing CIDCO Vashi 64 Nerul 95 Belapur 91 Kalamboli 99 Panvel 80 Kopar-khairane 98 Airoli 100 Sanpada 88 Mean 89.
0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.68 Resale 21 16 0 0 0 14 0 18 8.43 Rental 23 36 37 43 36 49 42 26 36.85 Mean = 14.25 0.00 0.0 70. While CIDCO is building houses for the EWS/LIG/MIG.25 while the mean was 14.75 Private 17 3 4 1 9 1 0 7 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 52 Table 5.52 14.76 0 10000 8000 The standard deviation of the data was 21. the private builders are predominantly building for the HIG.63 14.14).88 34.0 60.65 6.0 30.0 40.75 18.2 N = 19127. 6000 4000 Frequency 2000 Std.25 18.50 0 Standard deviation 8.64 Dwelling size: The average size of dwelling units constructed by CIDCO is less than that built by private builders (Table 5.13 Housing built by CIDCO <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 51-75 76-100 101-150 150+ Vashi 11 30 22 14 15 3 2 0 Nerul 7 57 18 8 7 2 1 0 Belapur 0 26 10 33 20 11 0 0 Kalamboli 24 37 24 5 7 2 0 0 Panvel 10 33 16 18 22 1 0 0 Kopar-khairane 0 20 10 42 18 9 1 0 Airoli 0 30 28 17 18 6 0 0 Sanpada 0 61 18 12 9 0 0 0 Mean 6.36 12.09 8.64 6.12 Ownership of House Mortgage CIDCO Vashi 11 23 Nerul 21 36 Belapur 8 40 Kalamboli 25 25 Panvel 7 33 Kopar-khairane 0 34 Airoli 0 51 Sanpada 15 32 Mean 10. Dev = 21.0 20.63 9.13.50 36.25 Standard Deviation 9.0 90.2 (Figure 5.02 3.7).5 8.7 Frequency of Housing Built by CIDCO .0 50. Table 5.0 80.5 4. Table 5.0 10.99 0.25 5.
0 The frequency distribution of houses built by private enterprise shows a 12000 standard deviation of 18.38 29.99 5. There is a great variation in the Figure 5.15 Year of Occupation before 1980 1981-85 1986-90 1991-92 1993 1994 1995 Vashi 11 28 24 8 9 14 5 Nerul 0 6 29 10 6 35 14 Belapur 4 23 24 11 13 18 7 Kalamboli 0 5 31 10 11 37 6 Panvel 0 11 14 15 14 34 12 Kopar-khairane 0 0 0 20 18 34 28 Airoli 0 0 47 14 12 16 11 Sanpada 0 0 0 0 8 48 44 Mean 1.75 2. Kalamboli.15).13 11. Cases weighted by population slow phase in the 1970s.83 3. middle phase in 1980s and accelerated phase in the 1990s. Panvel and Airoli in the latter 1980s and in Kopar-khairane and Sanpada only in the 1990s.38 Standard Deviation 10.0 can be divided into three stages: early.16 51-75 14 8 33 5 18 42 17 12 5.00 0 Tenure: The growth of Navi Mumbai 0.88 9.8).67 que groups.8 Frequency of Houses built by Private number of houses occupied between Enterprise nodes (Table 5.0 30.88 15. Dwelling size was selected 8000 based on type of house.14 Housing built by Private Enterprise <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 Vashi 4 2 2 14 Nerul 0 6 6 6 Belapur 0 1 2 2 Kalamboli 0 8 0 0 Panvel 0 0 1 1 Kopar-khairane 0 91 5 5 Airoli 0 0 0 0 Sanpada 13 60 2 2 Mean 37.76 7. Dev = 18. Only Vashi and Belapur had a household population in the 1980s.69 10.0 60.75 3.50 15.67 and mean 10000 16. For both CIDCO-built houses and privately 6000 built houses.0 20.88 Standard Deviation 3.0 6.2 ncy N = 19127.41 150+ 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 14.63 18.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 53 Table 5. Mean = 16.50 2.0 10. the dwelling sizes 4000 selected was 26-35 sq.13 21.78 12. Table 5.2 (Figure 5.67 76-100 24 23 9 0 24 1 0 5 3.50 .09 13.12 101-150 8 5 5 0 8 0 0 2 3.50 14.0 50.50 16. m.00 11. corresponding to middle income Fre 2000 Std.86 3. Families began to reside in Nerul.94 10.0 40.
16 Airoli 8.53 2.18 5.55 23.4 4.34 66.62 2. Dev = 18.23 Kalamboli 5.58 4.46 3.39 Panvel 3.06 6.19 26.04 2.28 3.82 3.63 9.26 6.2 2.0 30.94 0.42 0. 2000 Table 5. which can be attributed to the pace of construction.58 13.0 50. This is because any house in Navi Mumbai would be better than the existing living conditions in Bombay.89 47.79 deviation Frequency Thane 3.9 Frequency of Tenure the first stage of relocation where the choice of house is not very important.23 4.5 2.04 6.8 Navi Mumbai (Table 5.26 5.45 Standard 5.36 0.25 (mean=52. 3000 Previous Place of Residence: The two variables describing previous Std.63 17.29 4.58 5.25 1.19 Navi Mumbai 35. 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation at the regional scale is 20.27 Kopar 14.0 movement within Navi Mumbai.15 24.16 Previous Place of Residence Island City Western Eastern suburbs suburbs Vashi 18.1 5.0 10.11 2.51 3.8 0.4 0.14 5.0 70. this table only indicates the year of occupation of the present accommodation.17 .34 13. Movement within Navi Mumbai shows desire to move to a house of the homeowner’s choice.3 68.44 2.53 32.23 49.25) and 18.83 5.36 17. There is a very large variability.57 5.45 0.00 0 describe migration from Bombay and 0.94 Nerul 13.8) (Figure 5.75 2.05 1.54 0. Only the middle phase was selected as a representative variable.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 54 The three time periods of 1970s.39 Within state 3.56 Belapur 10.43 Sanpada 17. It is thus.63 Mean 11.82 4. These N = 19127.79 2.9).34 49. However. not entirely accurate as families may have shifted after their first place of residence.0 20.85 0 6.25 (mean=30.2 2.07 19.0 80.65 10.51 20.54 Outside Outside state India 4. Cases weighted by population Migration from Bombay is usually Figure 5.0 40.32 5.94 11.0 60. 1980s and 1990s account for the entire span of growth of the city.78 39.25 0.20 2.54 7.28 55.25 place of residence are Bombay and 1000 Mean = 52.78 0.16).05 4.
0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. western suburbs.0 65.17 Religion Hindu Vashi 84 Nerul 88 Belapur 79 Kalamboli 84 Panvel 94 Kopar-khairane 89 Airoli 88 Sanpada 80 Mean 85.38 2.3 Ethnic Status This construct is very important because it is the construct that creates segregation in India. However.75 Standard deviation 4.33 Buddhist 1 0 2 1 0 2 5 1 1.25 0. This variable shows the families whose most immediate place of origin is Bombay.0 75.98 Christian 6 3 6 4 2 2 3 9 4.00 2.00 0 35.42 (mean=26.01) at the regional scale and 9. Dev = 9. Religion: This variable is very important for this analysis because India has a number of well-defined religions.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 55 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std.75% and the standard deviation is only 4. An analysis of the other minority populations also show very large standard deviations.10 Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence The variables.17).67.0 55. eastern suburbs and Thane have been summed up to obtain the variable.75 1. The standard deviation of the families whose previous place of residence was Bombay is 9.45 Islam 6 5 4 5 2 6 3 7 4.2. Frequency . Ethnic enclaves are formed mainly by religious and linguistic groups. The Muslim population is 4.0 60. it is more important to analyze the minority religions to see if they are forming ethnic enclaves.54 (mean=53) at the sub-regional scale.46 The variables Hindu and Muslim were selected for analysis.56 Mean = 53.0 N = 19127. Bombay. 5. island city. There is a large variation because there has been migration from the rural areas.13 0. Table 5.0 45. The Hindu population is the majority and is homogenous. The mean is 85. The means of the religion variable correspond with the national averages.60 Others 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.0 50. from Bombay and within Navi Mumbai.35 Sikh 2 3 7 6 1 1 1 3 3.0 70.67 Jain 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.50 1. This variable shows diversification of the population based on a cultural variable (Table 5.98.0 40.75% of the total and has a standard deviation of 1.
Malathi Ananthakrishnan 5000 Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 10000 56 4000 8000 3000 6000 2000 4000 Frequency Std.75).66 2.33 5.72 1.35 3.27 2.69 5. Dev = 4.01 9.04 1.19 8.32 0.36 4.98 (mean=85.11 6.22 Std.00 0 0 Figure 5.97 1. Language: The variable language is very important in the Indian context because civil violence due to language has taken place across India.44 2. and there is a large population of Malayalam-speaking people in the greater Bombay region.56 3.77 1.74 2.91 Mean = 6.12 Frequency of Muslims The Hindu population is spread uniformly over the study are with standard deviation 4.50 3. 54% of the population speaks this language. Dev = 3.9 N = 19127.14 2.59 12.29 2.91 2. Marathi is the local language.32 7.6 12.08 11.53 16.00 Frequency 1000 2000 Std.49 11.60 5.72 1.99 1.41 Nerul 45.87 Panvel 66.11 6.13 14.4 N = 19127. .80 5.66 2. Mean = 82. Marathi is the local language.48 5. Malayalam is the language of the state 1000 miles away.98 8.76 Kalamboli 55.08 3.37 2.34 3.68 4.26 2.19 5.29 2.73 Hindi Gujarati Malayalam Punjabi Tamil Kannada Bengali Other 13.53 9. Bengali an eastern one and Tamil.93 Airoli 42.83 6.16 16.5 14.50 2.50 3.46 Sanpada 63.11 Frequency of Hindus Figure 5. The Muslim population and other minority religions show a nonuniform distribution over the study area.96 5.78 Kopar 67.74 3.68 1.81 7.32 3. This has been used to study if there are any ethnic neighborhoods formed due to linguistic considerations.33 2.50 1.22 The two languages selected are Marathi and Malayalam. Punjabi is a northern language.20 0.17 13.72 0.27 16.92 5.31 9. Hindi is the dominant language of the country.79 Mean 53.31 3.41 4.65 2. This forms a major minority language.18 Language Marathi Vashi 42.43 8.57 3.99 10.23 7.12 1. dev 11. Gujarati is the language of the adjoining state.64 2.75 Belapur 40. Malayalam and Kannada southern ones Table 5.48 3.04 3.13 13.90 2.82 3.47 3.34 3.67 1.
0 40.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 57 6000 6000 5000 5000 4000 4000 3000 3000 2000 2000 Frequency Frequency 1000 Std. The descriptive analysis suggests that the urban social pattern is not defined by homogeneous socioeconomic classes.6) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.00 0 10.0 0 2.0 22.9 N = 19127.26 (mean=7. The distribution of families with Marathi as their native language is not very uniform (Figure 5. This pattern is more apparent at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale (Table 5.0 80.0 Cases weighted by population Cases weighted by population Figure 5. The standard deviation of Malayalam is 3.5 25.14 Frequency of Malayalam The standard deviation of Marathi is 11.0 20. The standard deviation is very large showing some areas have more Malayalamspeaking persons than others leading to the conclusion that ethnic enclaves do exist.5 15.0 50.5 20.22) at the regional scale and 15. Dev = 15.6 N = 19127.19).73 (mean=53.6).0 60.19 Spatial Pattern of Variables Variable Regional scale Number of earning members Uniform Income Non-uniform Education Non-uniform Demographics Uniform Family size Uniform Type of housing Non-uniform Tenure Non-uniform Last place of residence Non-uniform Hindu Uniform Muslim Non-uniform Marathi Non-uniform Malayalam Non-uniform .5 10. This is probably the result of the many other linguistic groups.77 Mean = 6.13).0 12. Dev = 3.14).5 5.73 Mean = 46.0 30. Table 5.0 7.0 17.13 Frequency of Marathi Figure 5. which have formed their own enclaves.00 1000 Std.0 70.77 (mean=7.68) at the regional scale and 3. There is a non-uniform pattern in socioeconomic variables as well as in the ethnic variables.73 (mean=46.
Nodes 5.18. Cumulatively these three components explain 89. the variables selected were number of earning members.818 explains a variation of 22.3 Regional Scale . nearly 90% of the variance of the 8 nodes lies within a 3-dimensional space. The constructs described on page 1 suggest the need for 12 variables. The outputs obtained from the SPSS program are used to determine which variables. explaining 90% of the variance. Thus. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix D). A PCA was run. tenure. The use of PCA as a method of analysis was limited by the small number of cases.845% of the variation.347% of the variation. and three components were obtained. income. the assumption can be made that all the variables are significant and are useful for the study. as PCA limited the number of variables to 8. religion and language. and in a range of 0.771% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 1.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the regional scale uses the eight nodes (townships) as the cases for the study. The variables were weighted by the total population of each node.902 explains 23. The communalities of all the variables are very high. are needed for the complete explanation of the difference in the data. The principal components obtained from the rotated component matrix are used as they are more simple to interpret. Hence. . The total of the communality is 7. However.3. family size.824 and 0.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 58 5.468 explains 43.985. The number of variables used in the analysis could not be more than the number of cases. The components with eigenvalues greater than 1 will be used to explain the variance.728%. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 1. secondary school education. migration. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 3. or principle components.
5 -. It does not directly express which. These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component. The loadings produced by the principal components analysis for the variables is used to create bar charts to better visualize the magnitude of the loading.5 Component 2 0. 5 -1 FAM.5 0.5 1 loading 0.5 RELIGION 0 EARNER EDUCATN INCOME -0 .15 Components in Rotated Space 1.0 -.SIZE LANGUAGE va r i a b l e s Figure 5. if any.0 Component 3 0.0 .0 education income earner family size tenure religion language migration -.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 59 Figure 5.0 .0 1.5 C o m p o n e n ts 1.5 Component 1 Analysis weighted by population of each node .5 1.16 Loadings of Principal Components The eight original variables are combined linearly to define principal components. components contribute more or less to the overall data association MIGRATN TENURE .
2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis was done using the scores obtained from the principal components analysis.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 60 The three components are (Table 5. Airoli (Appendix E). Vashi. As the number of cases was only 8. 5.3.17 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) . The cluster analysis shows that the two of the Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine Cluster 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ Node Panvel Kopar Sanpada Nerul Airoli Vashi Belapur Kalamboli -+-----------------+ Cluster 1 -+ +-------------------------+ -------------------+ +---+ -------------+-------+ I I -------------+ +-----------------------+ I ---------------------+ I ---------------------------------------+---------+ ---------------------------------------+ Figure 5.20): Table 5. only two clusters were formed. Cluster analysis of the scores from PCA ensured that the data was standardized in the same manner for both types of analysis.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three components with eigenvalues above 1. This analysis does not show any differentiation based on variables of ethnicity. Nerul. Panvel.20 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Family size Previous place of residence Tenure Component 2 Education Income Component 3 Number of earners Language Religion Name Family status Socioeconomic status Ethnic status with high number of earners. Analysis of the raw data was not carried out because the SPSS program did not weight the raw data while running a cluster analysis. As the analysis was constrained by the reduced number of variables. socioeconomic status and ethnic status.3. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had the nodes Belapur and Kalamboli while the second cluster (Cluster 2) had the rest of the nodes. Sanpada. 5. this PCA does not directly correspond to the descriptive analysis. The three components correspond to family status. Kopar-khairane.
The variables were weighted by the total population of each node. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 2. but interpretation would have been more difficult. Hindus and Muslims. From the data.21) Table 5.75 explains 25. 2651-4450. .4. and three components were obtained. household income range of Rs. tenure of house in the 1980s.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the sub-regional scale uses the 23 sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi as the cases for the study. linguistic groups speaking Marathi and Malayalam. The extracted sums of squared loadings of the first three components is cumulatively 72.21 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Education Income Ownership of house Previous place of residence Muslim Component 2 Marathi Component 3 Number of earners Malayalam Demographics Hindu Name Socioeconomic status and Muslim enclave Ethnic status Ethnic status with high number of earners. More components could have been used.917%. 13 variables were selected for the analysis. These were: families with one earning member. families with 4 or 5 members.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 61 nodes are different from the other six. migration from Bombay.4 Sub-regional Scale .453% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 2.581 explains a variation of 23. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix F).690 explains 24. and the high percentage of families in the selected income range for Kalamboli. explaining 73% of the variance. The main reason for this is the high variability in the language data set for Belapur.463%.001% of the variation.Sectors of Vashi 5. houses built by CIDCO.01. A PCA was run. The attributes of the principal components are (Table 5. high school education. 5. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 2. male and female population of the age group 25-45. The PCA shows the communality of the 11 variables to be 8.
The first cluster (Cluster 1) had had only sector 5. 14.4.2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis of the scores obtained from PCA was done. 28 and 29. These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component. 5. 8 -1 loadings EDUCATN MIGRATN RELGION1 LANGUAG1 LANGUAG2 OWNRSHIP RELGION2 EARNER INCOME MEN va r i a bl e s Figure 5. 6 -0 .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 62 C o m po ne nts 1 0. These define which values contribute more or less significance to that particular component.6 0. 4 -0 . and the third cluster (Cluster 3) had all the rest of the 16 sectors (Appendix G). Three clusters were formed using the 23 cases. The second cluster (Cluster 2) had sectors 12. 16A.4 0. WOMEN . 2 -0 .2 0 -0 .8 0. 17.18 Loadings of Principal Components The bar chart explains the loadings of each variable on the component.
Each of the three components have an ethnic variable in them.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three equally important components with eigenvalues in the range of 2.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 63 Figure 5. Again. As the Marathi population is 53% of the total population. This can be translated into a middle-class population. The second component has only the population speaking Marathi. it represents a majority of the population. this component also describes the general population.4.58. All the components are equally important and separated only by ethnic variables.19 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine 0 5 10 15 20 +---------+---------+---------+---------+----Sector 2 6 1 4 16 20 9 10 15 26 21 3 7 9A 8 10A 14 29 12 17 16A 28 5 -+ -+---+ -+ +-+ -----+ +-----+ ---+---+ I ---+ +---+ -+-+ I I -+ +---+ I +-----------+ ---+ +-----+ I I Cluster 3 -------+ I I -----------------+ +---------+ ---+---+ I I ---+ +---------+ I I -------+ +-----------+ I ---------+-------+ +---------+ ---------+ I I -------+---------------+ I I -------+ I I I -+---+ +---------------+ I Cluster 2 -+ +-------------+ I I -----+ +---+ I -------------------+ I Cluster 1 -------------------------------------------------+ 5. It appears that there is a segregation based on the ethnic component. The first component is one which has a high socioeconomic component dominated by a Muslim population. The cluster analysis shows a segregation in Cluster 1 caused by high number of earners with a high percentage of households speaking Marathi and a low percentage of .75 to 2. The third component is the economically active age group dominated by the Hindu population. as Hindus are 83% of the population.
and a strong ethnic component is seen. In summary.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 64 households speaking Malayalam. The descriptive analysis of individual variables also shows this non-uniform pattern. At the sub-regional scale as there is a smaller percentage of CIDCO-built houses. and distinctly driven by an ethnic component at the sub-regional scale. 5. PCA and cluster analysis brings forth the variability of the data and shows which variables and which cases cluster together. . the outcome of the implementation strategy shows otherwise. although the government policy was to prevent the formation of ethnic enclaves.6 Conclusion The analysis of the data shows that the urban social pattern appears to be non-uniform at the regional scale. Cluster 2 shows a dominance of households speaking Marathi. individual households have exercised their choice.
However. Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Figure 6.1 Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai .Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion A preliminary interpretation of the data analysis in the previous chapter shows the details of the social urban pattern are best seen in the sub-regional scale.1 shows the spatial distribution of the clusters. 6.1 Regional Scale Figure 6. Cluster 1 has two nodes close to each other and BOMBAY Airoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada Nerul Arabian Sea Belapur Panvel possibly influenced by one another. All the other nodes are in the second cluster. a brief interpretation of the regional scale is described here before proceeding to the detailed interpretation at the sub-regional scale.
The variables. previous place of residence and tenure while cluster 2 is affected by income.2 shows that different factor scores influence the two Airoli 2 1 clusters.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 66 3 Figure 6. number of earners and religion. education and language. Figure 6. Cluster 1 is influenced by family size. Cluster 1 is linked to Factor score 1 0 score 1 and cluster 2 to score 2 -1 Factor score 2 -2 while score 3 exerts almost equal Factor score 3 67116 67116 67116 14543 14543 14543 -3 N= influence on both cluster.SIZE 40 INCOME Kopar-khaira 20 LANGUAGE MIGRATN 0 -20 1 Sanpada Kopar-khaira RELIGION TENURE 2 Figure 6. which are contributing to the clustering.3 shows the strength of variables.2 Average Linkage between Factor Scores Analysis weighted by population Further. 100 Panvel 80 EARNER EDUCATN 60 FAM.3 Average Linkage between Variables Analysis weighted by population . 1 2 Figure 6. have an equal influence on the two clusters.
Cluster 2 (green) has sectors 2. The grouping of the sectors into three clusters is shown in Figure 6. 16. and 26. 6. 28 and 29. 10A. 21. 8. 4.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 67 6. 12. there were twenty-three sectors. 14. 3. .4. 9. 28 12 29 26 10 15 9 10A 9A 8 7 5 6 4 1 3 2 17 16 14 20 16A 21 Figure 6. 20.4 Clustering of the Sectors of Vashi Cluster 3 (red) has sectors 1. and Cluster 1 (yellow) has only sector 5. More variables could also be used to study these cases. 9A. 15. 17. 16A.2 Sub-regional Scale At the sub-regional scale. 10.
Cluster 1 is also differentiated by Malayalam. 1 2 3 Figure 6. This is a socioeconomic construct. but dominated by an ethnic variable. income and the language Marathi dominate it.5 shows that the 4 2 three clusters are influenced by different factor scores. Cluster 3 is an outlier. Cluster 2 is the most significant. Ownership. Cluster 1 is Factor Score 1 8 0 -2 influenced by all three scores.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 68 Figure 6. another ethnic variable.6 Average Linkage between Variables Figure 6. . Factor Score 2 -4 cluster 2 more strongly by score 2 Factor Score 3 1892 1892 1892 738 738 738 -6 N = 16497 1649716497 and cluster 3 by score 3.5 Average Linkage between Groups Analysis weighted by population 120 EARNER 100 80 EDUCATION INCOME MARATHI 60 40 20 0 -20 1 2 3 MALAYALAM MEN MIGRATION OWNRSHIP HINDU MUSLIM WOMEN Figure 6.6 shows the average linkage between the variables.
Figure 6.2. The colors red and orange are immediately above.8.9).7 shows a scenario that could be expected from the mapping of any of the socioeconomic variables. Figure 6.7 Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic Variables Figure 6.8 Distribution of Number of Earners Figure 6.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory As discussed in the literature review. and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes. . the study of many cities across the world shows that the socioeconomic construct displays a sector pattern. In both maps the median range is represented by the color purple. Figure 6.9 Distribution of Income The pattern that emerges on mapping of the number of earners and income variables does not show any particular pattern (Figure 6.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 69 6. The two variables selected were income and number of earners.
Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion
6.2.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory The study of many cities across the world shows that the family status construct displays a concentric pattern. Figure 6.10 shows a possible scenario in Vashi for a variable representing the family status. The variable selected to describe the family status is ownership of apartment. In the descriptive analysis, this variable showed a great degree of variability. The purple color represents the range within which the mean falls. The colors red and orange are immediately above, and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes. Figure 6.10 Hypothetical Concentric Zone Pattern for Family Status Variables The number of sectors which falls within the mean range is very small. Sectors which have slightly more or slightly less percentage of apartments built by CIDCO are represented by red and orange. It is important to note that five sectors are colored green while one sector is yellow (Figure 6.11). This shows a high degree of variability in the data.
Figure 6.11 Distribution of Ownership of Apartment
Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion
6.2.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory Multiple Nuclei theory supports the spatial pattern of the ethnic factor. A possible solution is mapped for any ethnic variable in Figure 6.12. A language variable and a religion variable were selected from the data set for mapping. The mapping of language and religion variables shows a segregation of both of them. Yellow and green colors, which represent the extremes in the data set, are present in both the variables (Figure 6.13, Figure 6.14). This is especially true of the variable Muslim, which shows a largely non-uniform distribution.
Figure 6.12 Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic Variables
Figure 6.13 Distribution of Households speaking Marathi
Figure 6.14 Distribution of Households which follow Islam
Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion
6.3 Summary The set of figures below shows the mapping of the cluster analysis as well as the individual factor scores.
Figure 6.15 Clustering of Sectors
Figure 6.16 Score 1
Figure 6.17 Score 2
Figure 6.18 Score 3
Although the four maps above (Figure 6.15, Figure 6.16, Figure 6.17, Figure 6.18) show that there is a different colored sector within a group of one color, the multiple nuclei pattern is not very obvious. However, looking at the descriptive analysis, principal components analysis, cluster analysis and the mapping collectively, the multiple nuclei pattern can be inferred. The descriptive analysis brought out the fact that the spatial pattern is
However. • • putting forth a new theory to generalize social pattern in planned cities in India.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 73 not uniform or heterogeneous. examining the policy instruments and policy goals. The principal components analysis shows that the cause of this spatial pattern is ethnicity. the pattern is strongly influenced by factors as year of occupation of the house and reasons for moving. As Navi Mumbai has been constructed over the last 25 years. The clustering indicates that some sectors are dissimilar from others. scaling down the study to stories of individual households to reach a more detailed level of interpretation. The aggregation of household data at the sector scale has limited this research from drawing out the finer details of the spatial pattern. This is the multiple nuclei pattern of an ethnically driven spatial organization. The policy of the government to promote social heterogeneity influenced the type of residential construction in Navi Mumbai. the policy has not been successful.4 Potential Utility of the Research This research is a starting point for further studies in spatial patterns in Navi Mumbai. as the pattern is not uniform. . Future research could involve: • • Delineating the pattern at intervals of time to study the change in pattern. In conclusion. The mapping of individual variables and factor scores verifies that within a fairly homogeneous group of sectors there exists a dissimilar sector. 6. a pattern did emerge at this present stage.
Traditional Indian cities have always had a strong ethnic component in their urban social pattern. The segregation is attributed to the ethnic variables. thus. One of the social objectives in the planning of Navi Mumbai was to use the government machinery to diversify the spatial distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. India. Housing would be allotted according to the preference of size of dwelling provided by applicants. It was also influenced by the concept of the city as a melting pot (Engel. The thesis addresses this social objective. The government hoped that this would distribute people based on socioeconomics and break barriers based on religion and language.Chapter 7: Conclusion The purpose of this thesis is to delineate the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Religious tensions have always existed in India. and formulated a policy to support it. This was the first cause of separation in residential neighborhoods. and the government had a specific social and political agenda. The other feature that is unique to India is the existence of many languages. religion and language. The important objectives of Navi Mumbai were: attract some of the immigrant population. caste. Areas dominated by Muslims are common in most cities in India. Navi Mumbai is still dependent on Bombay for much of its activity. It was hoped that a majority of the residential construction could be achieved though a policy of swavalambhan (self-reliance) and swatantrya (mutual selfhelp). The Hindu laws and treatises specified residential locations for different castes. The culture of this race of people is very different from the Hindus. This particular case study was chosen for two reasons: Navi Mumbai is the first planned city that is not a capital city or industrial township. The government had a very practical interest in avoiding ethnic confrontation. raise the standard of living and reduce social inequalities. Every effort was taken by the government to make Navi Mumbai an independent city and not a suburb or satellite city to Bombay. The review of secondary source material shows that urban social patterns have been studied across the world. Ethnic enclaves have always characterized traditional settlements in India. These theories explain the urban social pattern . strongly influenced by ethnic variables. and provide an infrastructure which would promote ethnic heterogeneity. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. Navi Mumbai is separated from the metropolis of Bombay only by the Thane Creek. However. Political and administrative boundaries in independent India were decided on linguistic lines. Households would normally place this preference based on how much they can pay. Partition and the first years of independence were. 1991). support an aggressive industrialization policy. Planning policies in Navi Mumbai were strongly influenced by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. The Muslims came to India as invaders. The government also decided to take up most of the initial building construction. The religious divide was used in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. Bombay is the financial and economic capital of India. The draft development plan of Navi Mumbai had very strong functional and social objectives. Three leading theories put forth were concentric zone theory.
is an analysis primarily of economic variables. and the sub-regional scale of the sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi node. These are socioeconomic construct. Four methods were used to analyze the data. The constructs of the social area analysis have been found to correspond to the three theories. special emphasis has to be given to the ethnic components. At the regional scale the analysis was done between the eight nodes to study their similarity. The variables selected are reduced into a smaller number of constructs. The methodologies were techniques of multivariate analysis.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 75 and its change over time. Two religion variables and two language variables have been selected representing the ethnic construct. The other variables selected were number of earning members. Succession and invasion based on social and economic status is the basic assumption of this theory. and histogram drawn of the variable selected from each data set. The second theory. The PCA reduces the dimensionality of the data into a more interpretable form. The methodology used was that of social area analysis. Wedge patterns representing income groups are the outcome of the theory. The hypothesis put forth in this study is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social segregation will occur. Generally the socioeconomic model showed a sectored pattern. Mobility and immigration are the key variables of this theory. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. Since. The software package SPSS was used to do the analysis. the scale was smaller. The first methodology is a descriptive analysis. Social area analysis broadly classifies variables into three constructs. The concentric zone theory relates the pattern of cities to population mobility. If H0 is false. a cluster analysis was done of the cases of the data set. Using the secondary source material as reference. and demographics. Analysis of data was done at two scales. sector theory. family size and type of house under family status. The variables selected under each construct were drawn out of experience of the researchers. The similarity between the . income and education under the socioeconomic construct. Next. family status and ethnic status. A variation in the data greater than 15% on each side of the mean is considered as unequal distribution. family status and ethnic status. the family component showed a concentric ring pattern. Twenty-three sectors of Vashi were then analyzed. The multiple nuclei theory proposes that patterns could be arranged around several centers. That would indicate that enclaves have not been caused by individual variables. Analysis was done to map the urban social pattern of many cities across the world. In the case of Navi Mumbai this is important because of the policy to prevent segregation based on ethnic variables. These scales were the regional scale of the nodes (townships). grouping of variables is expected to be under the three constructs. In Navi Mumbai. the analysis allowed a more detailed interpretation. The data at both scales is tabulated. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. socioeconomic. Heterogeneity of the population is detected if these three constructs emerge from the analysis. The second methodology is principal components analysis (PCA).
This indicates that the urban social pattern is strongly influenced by ethnicity. • Was this an experiment in enhancing quality of life or is it a method for the government to exert social control? • The concept of the melting pot has to be re-examined. The interpretation of the descriptive analysis shows that the distribution of most of the variables is not uniform. thereby. . The spatial distribution of households is still characterized by traditional Indian values of ethnic segregation. The urban social pattern is best explained as one of multiple nuclei. In conclusion. This is especially true of the ethnic variables. This can be attributed to two reasons: 1. Even in the houses built by the government resale has taken place. The interpretation of the analysis also involves comparing the descriptive analysis. The overall pattern of Navi Mumbai is one of multiple nuclei. be explained using the theories of urban social patterns. The hypothesis was proved false. physical design and the institutional framework need to be examined closely to realize their full impact and to understand the results in their context. however. Control is maximum when the government owns all the houses. they were mapped under expected and observed conditions. As the socioeconomic variables are expected to take a sectored pattern. How important is it to promote integration when self-sorting has been the natural process? • Can the Modernist synthesis seeking homogeneity in heterogeneity be used as a template for the Indian culture? • This leads to the question: is the objective valid? Does it have to be redefined or is the implementation strategy to be modified? At this stage it appears that a detailed analysis of the policy instrument and policy goals must be undertaken. A moral analysis of segregation has to be done in the context of the Indian culture. allotment procedure. The extreme value range in the mapping is important because it represents the dissimilarity in the distribution. The final stage was mapping of the clusters. and clustering to the urban social patterns detailed in the secondary source material. The center is an ethnic enclave surrounded by socioeconomic variables. Distribution was originally controlled through allotment of government-built houses based only on purchasing power (and indirectly socioeconomic status). None of the variables selected display a uniform distribution. although the policy is noble in its aims and aspiration. The principal components analysis shows that the variables are not grouping under the three constructs. All three new constructs are dominated by an ethnic variable. family status variables concentric zones and the ethnicity variables a multiple nuclei arrangement. 2. Redistribution shows that people have aligned themselves based on ethnic variables. the socioeconomic variables also show separation.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 76 nodes and sectors is determined from this. graphically representing the analysis. it has not succeeded at this stage. The research brings to the fore many questions than answers. The objective. In Vashi only 64% of the houses were built and allotted by the government. The policy has not facilitated the distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. However. The pattern could. The distribution of these variables shows segregation.
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Glossary of Terms Term Cuadra Jali Masjid Padas Panchayati Pucca Purdahs Purushasukta Rashtrabasha Swadeshi Swatantrya Swavalambhan Vastupurusha mandala Vastushastra Meaning Spanish measurement Carved screens Mosque Subdivisions of the cosmic universe Self-government Durable Enclosure Hindu treatise Language of the State Fullest utilization of local resources Self-motivation and self-help Self-reliance Terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe Science of architecture and planning .
The Gadgil Committee recommended regional planning legislation and regional planning boards. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act 1966 was passed. D. Bombay Metropolitan and Regional Planning Board was constituted. The study group on Greater Bombay recommended a rail-cum-road bridge across the Thane creek. CIDCO was designated as New Town Development Authority for Navi Mumbai. R. . Development plan for greater Bombay was submitted to the State Government. Barve. CIDCO was formed. The Bombay Metropolitan regional Plan was approved by the State government. S. A Committee under Dr. The Board published the Draft Plan with recommendations to set up a twin city. CIDCO published its Draft Development Plan.Appendix A March 1958 July 1958 February 1959 July 1964 March 1965 March 1966 January 1967 July 1967 January 1970 February 1970 March 1970 March 1971 August 1973 October 1973 Study group on Greater Bombay set up under the chairmanship of Mr. Bombay Municipal Corporation decided to prepare a development plan for Greater Bombay. State government notified privately owned land in Navi Mumbai for acquisition. G. Gadgil was appointed to formulate broad principles of regional planning for Bombay and Poona.
1961).Appendix B The 7Vs (les sept voies) The 7V Rule was studied in 1950 at the UNESCO’s request (Le Corbusier. without interruption. the man of the mechanical civilization could: cross continents: V1 arrive in town: V1 go to essential public services: V2 cross at full speed. . where schools and sports grounds are located: V7. the territory of the town: V3 dispose of immediate accesses to daily needs: V4 reach the door of his dwelling: V5 and V6 send youths to the green areas of each sector. One discovered that with 7 types of roads.
89 4.29 22.76 9A 74.51 26 77.43 2.00 0.28 3.26 23.83 17 61.06 5.37 11.64 5 46.54 0.58 9.62 mean 66.40 6.29 4.79 4 1.09 8.89 5.48 7 62.23 20 69.33 6.86 28 52.07 30.13 6.22 26.00 0.64 3.Appendix C Number of earning members Sector 1 2 3 no.68 16.16 1.52 18.72 2.42 5.81 4 70.83 0.42 2.00 35.77 21 63.99 3 68.38 38.10 0.15 9.01 25.89 2.31 20.16 30.23 21.08 5.60 24.16 10A 50.59 27.96 27.48 2.26 2 57.86 0.52 1.60 16A 71.81 1.43 12 65.26 4.67 28.92 9 73.17 8.58 20.31 3.71 11.43 9.08 8 52. 1 64.57 8.38 3.01 6 65.39 2.77 10 74.76 2.64 3.49 3.85 3.22 std dev 9.76 1.57 15 72.57 23.00 29 82.44 2.15 5.73 0.19 19.63 2.09 16 65.25 .81 7.28 21.25 11.69 29.70 14 77.03 1.04 26.41 6.79 40.35 7.
46 21.76 23.47 12.28 18.99 23.81 16.19 16.00 24.00 17.15 9.10 23.72 44.92 3.00 25.92 21.87 0.4451.48 0.18 15 0.56 7.29 8.39 4.48 6.00 35.48 39.94 4 0.82 36.86 10.72 0.14 10.49 4.Household Income Sector upto 1251.20 3.15000+ no.92 30.39 31.77 26.84 18.41 8.94 37.11 1.02 4.45 6.78 17.14 25.51 5.15 16 1.00 20.90 24.00 0.00 4.00 35.64 6.51 24.15 8.13 3.36 36.59 18.57 1.45 mean 2.74 5 2.96 33.00 10.71 34.63 4.7500.79 18.49 3.04 4.55 30.90 2 1.90 14.33 11.15 1.86 21.00 0.00 28 0.58 0.09 2.97 0.21 stddev 3.00 29 0.18 6.07 35.77 12 13.97 9 2.70 3.49 23.63 40.11 24.41 37.15 15.74 28.49 22.38 7.62 3 1.09 13.39 34.18 25.30 7 11.45 12.26 1.16 12.66 9.06 9A 1.39 20.77 22.80 5.88 17 0.38 10.18 10.36 26.27 7.46 17.22 3. Rs.62 7.53 1.70 17.42 .59 2.40 8.65 0.76 8 0.90 11.00 21 2.02 7.00 16.07 13.59 9.77 14.67 7.10 27.47 26 0.87 30.35 8.61 16.125 2650 4450 7500 10000 15000 0 1 3.28 4.45 5.47 15.26 16A 0.45 38.35 14 0.41 12.52 4.07 0.19 20 6.82 2.78 10A 0.47 0.00 0.10001.75 6 2.52 11.55 42.73 47.20 4.89 45.17 22.00 10.76 0.37 11.2651.89 37.10 15.53 1.97 28.48 27.08 32.97 7.46 8.47 28.57 25.00 4.75 26.16 24.07 18.00 2.26 12.68 34.23 10 1.09 39.
73 2.08 0.89 6.87 5.74 2.03 9.00 5.75 27.12 stddev 4.38 4.03 44.24 44.77 2.37 .45 11.58 9.41 0.94 4.97 0.73 3.82 30.63 4.72 9.47 28.24 4.43 4.68 4.00 5.55 9.64 2.08 13.47 2.69 26.90 12.92 5.88 9.50 11.21 3.91 17 1.15 1.73 2.51 7.42 2.64 4.28 7.98 7.23 3.11 2.13 51.98 29. e n y ary school 1 3.48 5 3.06 2.52 31.81 5.44 37.09 11.45 6.55 3.03 34.37 2.71 9.25 28 0.64 0.95 9.48 16A 2.54 25.60 9.31 10 3.68 4 1.27 47.00 14 2.05 2.80 17.34 16.81 0.68 5.65 0.38 8.95 8.00 mean 3.81 5.95 2.85 5.61 2.40 0.87 15 4.12 1.59 29.54 33.46 5.07 9.67 4.01 45.06 2.01 11.65 4.18 7.27 10.30 1.98 31.58 2.59 3.19 0.25 2.90 32.35 10.14 0.24 8.30 0.61 9.00 21 13.44 2.40 1.47 8.03 4.63 1.03 50.92 36.97 1.60 17.23 3.80 2.79 3.35 10A 1.29 1.68 1.44 7 1.90 22.32 5.71 3.01 15.94 7.35 2.09 46.60 6 2.19 4.57 12.39 35.11 34.25 11.11 12.05 0.92 3 2.52 1.97 9.78 5.48 0.83 2.15 3.15 13.64 0.91 17.06 4.32 3.18 21.07 8.82 1.80 9 3.89 20.50 20.28 11.85 34.00 26 3.43 2.82 15.81 19.06 8.30 59.38 3.26 48.69 31.15 2 3.02 4.63 20 19.92 2.81 42.54 2.41 8 4.96 3.41 14.65 1.34 16 3.24 10.01 0.64 4.00 29 1.26 9A 1.Highest Level of Education Sector illiterat childre primar second high vo-tech BS MS PhD no.80 12 0.44 1.81 14.94 3.27 12.49 16.24 0.28 10.07 1.91 32.18 27.42 23.91 5.12 0.68 12.94 43.43 22.87 9.38 37.14 0.18 3.64 0.14 7.72 30.16 2.55 2.71 34.26 1.75 4.50 14.81 4.45 0.06 1.09 5.74 40.45 7.71 7.95 13.
77 34.52 9.79 33.02 3.12 36.80 4.71 18.65 46.87 5.29 6.42 14.84 12.87 3.40 stddev 1.86 3 4.26 9.35 29.11 6.27 3.38 12.26 2.04 10.75 12.48 12.59 5.56 3.35 3.16 31.12 2.69 6 2.40 20.12 14 5.00 27.56 14.59 7.55 35.69 11.60 8 3.57 20.88 17.46 2.24 5 2.99 11.12 3.54 4.42 6.97 35.46 4.60 4.65 7.30 5.45 14.00 8.78 29.40 4.61 4.29 6.81 2.02 17.48 17.59 4.83 12.76 12.62 0.23 2.47 13.58 16.63 3.97 5.67 3.26 3.35 16 3.02 5.18 30.01 10.74 4.02 3.66 1.05 2.93 2.81 2 4.60 23.42 11.49 19.10 2.14 4.98 1.91 5.25 6.29 3.20 14.98 8.70 3.07 6.18 33.59 4.11 16.12 2.04 4.52 15.77 5.22 4.51 2.86 10.35 26 6.97 37.78 6.25 10.74 17.14 5.96 4.89 11.60 13.65 5.04 4.25 3.84 8.67 12.78 3.03 31.99 1.46 42.32 9.60 4.39 4.83 34.44 2.59 5.38 11.73 9 5.87 4.57 27.76 13.93 13.90 11.12 8.85 16.57 10.51 15.48 15.41 1.67 12.34 3.82 29.94 21.43 9.66 8.90 10A 2.82 16.34 20.91 2.34 3.73 14.60 12.44 15.04 7.93 10.82 10.74 16.19 6.71 9A 4.43 7.84 19.Male Population Sector below 4.40 34.39 5.90 .95 2.38 17.87 8.20 11.40 7 2.36 32.52 2.13 3.56 8.32 13.02 1.57 mean 4.17 20 8.87 7.87 9.12 7.43 4.80 30.08 12.24 12.21 9.89 29 4.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.15 7.84 17 3.93 28.19 11.60 6.42 10.35 3.66 6.89 12.32 2.73 9.59 12 6.80 1.37 8.20 12.91 14.29 2.54 3.68 7.62 8.28 31.89 21.80 3.82 16. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 4.41 16A 3.24 6.96 8.36 16.32 37.00 8.56 4 3.68 10 5.88 28 5.97 5.45 8.00 21 4.77 15 3.
99 11.82 10.88 16.06 3.82 9.44 5.58 42.22 40.07 10.49 16.89 2.31 12.03 20 8.08 5.31 3.97 14.52 6.55 4.29 4.90 38.77 9A 3.61 10.13 16 4.99 3.35 38.81 11.71 12 6.09 2.22 39.71 38.80 2.97 21 5.60 11.86 7.88 6.08 2.01 9.35 3.98 10 5.19 5.57 1.13 38.57 3.53 7.87 2.32 1.68 3.96 10.09 1.96 3.06 2.80 5 4.18 52.16 37.06 0.87 7.23 4.29 12.07 6.06 28 2.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.87 8.57 0.09 1.39 11.22 7.89 4.66 4.00 13. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 3.57 3.28 5.32 12.98 9.62 3.29 17.56 5.01 10.46 18.48 1.76 9.35 5.64 6.78 29 2.64 6.55 9 5.43 13.25 16.83 5.36 9.00 3.55 12.04 10.72 10.15 13.11 2.93 11.41 4.06 5.85 9.58 15 4.87 17.54 39.22 13.32 3.86 7.80 5.03 14 4.25 9.07 6.78 11.13 5.83 .09 16A 4.77 3.51 10.78 5.71 5.18 22.03 6.17 4.22 14.31 5.32 12.32 15.39 3.86 40.71 8.39 13.40 2.59 8.38 3.79 34.82 5.34 4.Female Population Sector below 4.95 10.83 5.14 20.09 2.17 37.72 38.82 2.14 6.29 4 3.30 33.49 6.83 4.06 15.84 34.46 8 4.91 10.45 17.01 10A 6.40 11.27 41.66 2.77 17 4.14 26 7.90 9.86 6.35 3.92 4.39 13.48 mean 4.16 3 4.21 32.00 5.50 1.07 7 2.76 33.35 2.43 4.45 15.72 10.29 5.60 7.88 2 4.27 7.86 12.43 12.29 9.29 6.43 4.35 3.35 1.96 7.77 6 3.55 7.93 3.29 12.13 14.42 12.60 4.39 11.28 stddev 1.96 11.44 4.63 9.07 12.65 12.74 41.78 2.94 8.46 1.06 45.98 3.58 19.00 5.71 6.21 14.14 7.15 3.14 4.20 5.33 3.68 12.79 6.57 13.14 32.11 11.56 47.15 6.74 36.66 17.72 2.11 11.84 3.
04 20.05 66.99 26 2.17 54.67 0.57 19.29 50.34 2.92 12.51 30.48 9 1.37 54.30 44.38 14.00 26.82 9.86 11.03 5 0.71 14.36 0. 1 2.18 26.63 15.82 6 3.29 7.35 13.28 21 0.19 20.16 9.47 20.00 0.64 19.52 62.50 7.09 1.51 59.53 6.56 25.14 2.53 .92 1.90 4.87 52.29 0.45 1.23 36.23 28.46 15 1.00 28 0.68 0.23 12.19 55.07 12.98 2.82 51.16 44.30 61.23 46.67 14.43 44.05 stddev 0.07 28.Family Size Sector single 2 to 3 4 to 5 6 to 7 8 to 10 no.99 8 0.79 33.46 54.92 55.29 54.95 1.67 47.68 0.91 11.23 0.00 mean 1.90 17 1.00 58.57 57.87 2 1.56 50.82 12.95 1.71 24.57 11.14 4 0.41 63.86 1.46 2.93 16 0.40 9.97 19.49 5.99 0.19 3 1.30 9A 1.26 8.72 15.00 19.85 66.58 1.49 64.73 20.83 22.00 1.24 16A 0.88 10 0.64 1.00 15.86 12 0.83 14.33 41.45 62.55 23.43 34.00 29 1.64 10.88 36.21 54.40 7 0.02 2.93 32.66 22.00 14 1.11 1.95 10A 1.15 20 0.18 2.14 14.
00 7 89.00 4 45.00 15 82.21 6.96 12.87 20.00 10 83.00 1.96 0.13 28.00 21 99.86 0.13 39.07 3.40 1.00 29 42.00 28 0.33 0.02 mean 53.00 0.56 0.81 0.51 0.00 14 53.74 13.00 0.23 26 100.82 7.00 0.00 0.60 19.62 0.00 0.00 17 0.17 2.00 6 92.00 0.31 20 100.00 0.00 0.00 0.30 0.36 0.18 0. Pvt co.Pvt Other no.00 5.00 16.00 23.00 2 48.80 0.00 0.00 2.21 46.46 9 98.19 0.01 1.00 0.38 9A 2.72 0.18 0.86 0.67 0.91 76.07 0.58 8.00 0.39 4.77 0.00 53.38 0.82 0.00 10A 2.90 0.52 0.19 3 61.12 23.12 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 62.16 4.00 8 35.00 0.68 0.61 13.14 0.00 0.97 0.02 5 22.00 0.40 6.00 0.10 0.82 0.00 97.12 0.00 92.00 0.00 0.Type of Housing Sector CIDCO Pvt.00 92.62 0.75 stddev 37.00 0.00 0.73 0.15 85.47 0.00 0.35 39.81 76.15 17.13 2.00 38.58 .00 0.00 12 17.83 35.00 16A 7.00 16 83. House op comme society rcial 1 100.00 0.77 0.68 2.84 36.78 12.13 0.
42 7.39 14.26 28.35 28.73 4.33 6.80 39.56 9 0.88 0.23 22.28 26 0.15 18.21 0.87 0.60 1.95 3 11.72 3.87 7.34 13.00 28 0.57 14.40 95 1.42 0.82 8.00 29 0.42 12.30 6.00 0.61 12.16 7.87 1.54 24.56 16A 0.82 5.82 5.09 16 27.91 6.73 6.35 5.50 16.15 .14 1.65 31.29 12 0.64 27.95 8 24.87 6.75 7.17 12.56 4.85 4.63 1.59 38.83 8.00 0.27 1.86 7 42.87 10 0.52 7.10 40.82 2.43 20.43 32.19 9.13 11.92 11.86 4.66 0.57 12.56 16.62 6.24 3.02 44.71 2 39.16 9.86 mean 12.16 5.00 13.83 26.93 10.61 18.09 25.30 6.18 31.32 6.19 8.88 3.71 11.31 16.57 stddev 18.49 12.26 7.94 12.57 18.87 1.38 10A 0.74 4.74 6.00 47.00 0.82 48.86 33.06 13.64 15 8.99 12.82 24.00 0.03 10.00 31.17 6.50 12.45 6.38 37.00 0.37 7.52 12.46 36.05 20.54 6.53 20.50 12.33 18.00 35.36 21.60 7.95 5.19 5.92 2.03 75.08 93 3.52 1.81 6.65 17.00 0.33 9A 0.13 11.61 6 51. 980 1 43.02 17.00 0.38 56.00 6.68 20 0.94 4.00 20.07 4 5.82 12.09 29.00 4.49 32.61 6.82 4.00 0.67 36.76 5 49.88 4.62 4.49 21 13.64 10.56 6.05 6.38 15.07 8.11 17 0.17 14 0.00 31.11 15.85 5.Tenure Sector before1 81-85 86-90 91-92 no.44 48.60 94 13.63 3.29 41.06 1.66 14.00 48.22 52.
44 5.00 6.76 11.43 17.19 27.62 0.00 2.00 32.85 33.48 20.62 0.42 8.00 24. Mumba state state i 24.00 4.26 23.00 1.93 8.94 5.76 3.45 0.42 3.03 24.52 1.25 12.03 15.42 26.74 28.30 4.98 3.53 2.60 0.13 26.15 2.23 18.69 4.30 2.69 5.58 9.83 3.52 22.27 0.23 12.74 36.00 38.81 4.00 30.33 8.46 0.00 26.51 7.33 0.32 27.26 3.54 5.10 16.07 3.02 22.37 1.48 15.64 0.50 6.00 0.31 0.05 18.76 3.00 33.57 28.90 2.00 0.00 31.87 3.83 18.83 2.26 12.09 0.63 0.82 3.00 1.92 7.30 14.91 2.29 8.69 2.38 2.26 0.62 29.60 2.77 6.00 0.29 20.33 4.47 36.88 12.00 28.01 Navi Inside Out of Intl.00 45.52 2.62 4.90 7.29 0.64 2.92 4.26 19.14 0.24 7.05 19.94 28.90 10.88 2.63 15.69 35.00 39.33 0.93 3.48 17.24 23.53 2.58 0.47 6.33 8.80 4.32 8.30 0.67 3.81 0.57 1.42 4.15 0.17 25.03 1.60 4.33 7.71 20.36 4.73 4.33 0.88 1.24 1.14 6.26 7.39 4.96 18.10 4.68 3.00 30.00 4.00 0.Previous Place of Residence Sector Island Wn En Thane Vashi no.08 0.37 10.79 0.55 8. city suburbs suburbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10A 12 14 15 16 16A 17 20 21 26 28 29 9A mean stddev 21.95 9.84 2.10 17.58 0.55 3.00 20.54 8.00 19.54 3.38 5.77 2.03 6.12 7.80 37.67 8.74 31.39 0.61 12.30 34.17 5.54 1.29 .82 6.71 5.46 1.73 25.67 7.98 0.20 6.00 0.95 12.24 5.83 8.67 25.53 0.39 2.58 14.40 8.67 2.15 2.45 21.64 7.85 47.35 15.63 2.50 27.02 47.25 31.99 7.58 2.07 5.76 0.10 16.02 9.51 10.09 27.17 8.63 5.31 5.51 6.17 5.19 17.45 3.23 3.00 23.26 2.00 21.35 21.33 4.25 4.20 8.45 2.09 5.05 30.
77 3.85 5.22 3.48 mean 39.92 20 60.29 15.32 7.31 3.98 6.26 3.17 9.24 7.83 8.53 9.73 2.54 7.90 3.22 2.73 stddev 17.66 8.55 32.99 16.10 2.72 5.43 24.56 8 22.27 0.28 24.70 10.93 1.19 3.12 2.71 1.26 13.81 4.00 1.36 11.21 9 50.14 1.00 12.15 2.13 20.85 5.76 3.54 27.70 6.84 4.27 7.00 11.90 3.15 16.49 10.57 14.93 9.97 3.57 15.95 4.03 2.75 4.64 3.51 3.92 14.70 8.85 1.67 0.21 21.49 10A 24.00 7.00 0.36 6.97 4.61 5.92 1.26 5 77.96 5.36 6.00 4.32 9A 20.27 2.03 17.63 16 54.08 7.71 8.97 10.54 21 61.23 9.44 2.00 9.09 15.89 3.26 2.55 3.76 5.67 15 57.79 12.90 26 48.00 12.38 0.67 4.09 8.09 6.53 2.36 10 44.30 4.33 6.37 4.10 5.10 4.91 6 33.52 0.44 7.00 0.55 8.20 4.90 17.66 10.57 4 46.45 2.73 2.89 4.Language Sector Marath Hindi Gujarat Malaya Punjabi Tamil Kannad Bengali Other no.79 16A 51.93 4.29 3.83 7.43 4.43 7.32 1.83 14 19.17 16.58 2.86 8.54 1.76 12.42 3 32.61 14.43 16.82 3.49 9.27 5.29 0.81 5.23 2.29 2.54 4.47 2.05 9.87 17.62 7.66 10.13 4.91 2.49 4.32 2.82 4.61 1.30 9.63 1.00 1.36 4.71 1.32 17 21.73 0.38 14.63 2.19 2.43 14.44 5.00 4.47 2.59 1.57 1.84 12.98 3.87 12.96 2.39 4.29 29 25.21 0.37 4.03 9.29 2.92 3.27 7.18 10.33 29.90 2 44.29 . i hi lam a 1 51.86 4.08 4.60 2.17 20.13 7 37.00 6.72 12.62 1.57 17.98 4.74 4.77 8.75 14.52 19.30 1.99 3.05 2.29 2.57 20.40 2.46 5.17 16.69 28 28.76 14.50 10.73 3.34 12.03 16.34 4.85 0.15 18.64 10.46 17.96 6.56 5.33 13.76 4.71 12 8.
66 8 72.00 15 83.71 0.00 1.47 4.82 2.04 5.16 0.00 4.68 1.76 5.92 7.40 0.00 0.60 1.73 1.43 1.17 2.64 0.36 mean 82.56 3.67 1.00 0.70 0.13 8.82 0.78 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.19 5.74 1.33 0.70 1.68 0.86 1.43 0.66 3.70 2.00 0.46 0.53 4.13 0.00 0.99 0.55 4.62 20 86.51 2.00 6 83.32 6.69 0.03 0.20 10.60 0.34 6.95 0.00 26 86.53 3.26 6.88 0.61 4.00 7.02 0.51 0.00 1.02 0.65 9.36 1.88 0.55 1.42 5.57 4 84.47 0.11 10 80.40 2.21 0.00 0.00 0.88 0.64 9 84.82 7.93 8.75 0.32 2.62 0.00 10A 72.00 16 88.49 .20 0. an st 1 79.00 5 81.75 5.18 11.04 6.86 22.98 0.00 16A 91.32 2 80.52 0.15 0.00 0.72 4.00 17 85.44 0.43 1.00 21 81.26 5.53 1.45 2.00 29 86.00 1.60 8.00 2.31 0.01 6.43 1.00 0.23 0.00 28 100.52 3.68 0.85 0.16 15.91 0.73 1.00 0.46 1.03 5.10 0.42 0.85 0.00 0.57 4.62 0.20 8.09 0.17 0.47 0.79 0.82 10.13 5.78 1.92 1.00 7 76.42 1.61 1.41 0.24 0.64 5.09 6.28 4.80 3.59 3 75.17 12.Religion Sector Hindu Christi Islam Jain Sikh Buddhi Other no.50 4.00 14 88.00 12 79.05 0.00 6.42 0.00 9A 73.85 7.00 0.36 0.17 0.32 1.45 2.37 0.25 stddev 6.22 0.21 15.54 0.76 8.81 9.33 0.29 9.
000 .000 .000 .000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.064E-02 .660 98.7870 81659 37.000 8 5.446 55.9974 81659 49.039E-02 1.939 MIGRATN 1.000 .8538 81659 53.6076 81659 8.320 79.832 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.202 5 .6486 81659 86.133 100.985 INCOME 1.571 2 1.6705 5.851E-17 .928 LANGUAGE 1.4115 81659 32.824 RELIGION 1. Deviation Analysis N 73.875 FAM.867 7 1.0403 3.862 6 8.955 89.000 .926 EDUCATN 1.9885 16.SIZE INCOME LANGUAGE MIGRATN RELIGION TENURE Mean Std.1087 9.571 55.0814 4.293 3.SIZE 1. Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 4.845 4 .000 .879 TENURE 1. .000 .796 .2091 4.314E-16 100.356 95.8271 8.429 5.7800 3.890 3 .000 .Appendix D Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics EARNER EDUCATN FAM.8863 81659 28.2670 81659 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.946 24.005 99.
468E-03 RELIGION . 3 .728 89.446 .347 23.862 LANGUAGE .951 .244 -.634 4.107 INCOME -.796E-04 TENURE .SIZE -.902 -.201 .926 .455 .317E-02 -8.264 .358 .818 % of Variance Cumulative % 43.845 Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER .278 .347 43. 3 .SIZE .383E-02 .155 -.925E-02 TENURE -.236 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.230 RELIGION -.881 LANGUAGE -.230 MIGRATN -.702 -.766E-02 MIGRATN .888 -7.156 .882 FAM.785 -7.878 -.118 22.430 .101 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.822 .255 4.898E-02 .771 67.Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings 1 2 3 Total 3.468 1.880 .454E-02 Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER -.902 1.484 EDUCATN .685 8.470 EDUCATN -.937 -.804 .202 -1.136 .379 -2.381 .293 INCOME .900 FAM.
0 0 .617 7.174 4.946 4.0 Squared Euclidean Distance used Average Linkage (Between Groups) Average Linkage (Between Groups) Agglomeration Schedule Stage Cluster 1 1 5 2 2 3 5 4 1 5 3 6 1 7 1 Cluster 2 6 7 8 2 4 5 3 Coefficients .0 8 100.108 Cluster Membership 1:Vashi 2:Nerul 3:Belapur 4:Kalamboli 5:Panvel 6:Kopar-khaira 7:Airoli 8:Sanpada 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 .581 2.299 10.Appendix E Cluster Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N 8 a b Missing Total Percent N Percent N Percent 100.919 9.
721 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.801 RELGION1 1.9421 LANGUAG1 46.5835 Analysis N 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.9114 MEN 38.7324 3. .9628 7.856 EDUCATN 1.9142 3.000 .3183 EDUCATN 40.5580 35.000 .855 LANGUAG1 1.568 WOMEN 1.000 .9768 15.000 .6247 4.1339 10.0484 MIGRATN 52.4424 RELGION1 82.9759 OWNRSHIP 66.Appendix F Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics Mean EARNER 66.722 RELGION2 1.7719 3.000 .000 .571 OWNRSHIP 1.8628 WOMEN 33.889 LANGUAG2 1.675 MIGRATN 1.3839 RELGION2 6.000 .836 INCOME 1.527 MEN 1.0375 Std.5760 INCOME 27.5535 LANGUAG2 6.3934 9.000 .7307 3. Deviation 7.000 .000 .000 .
436 100.748 .427E-02 INCOME .592 WOMEN .359 3.538 .127 -.843 34.310 .734 10 9. Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .042E-02 .131 .794E-02 .161 57.917 Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total 1 3.093E-03 MIGRATN -.473 . .136E-02 .455 23.001 25.487 EDUCATN .098 2.239 MEN 0.915E-04 .458 LANGUAG1 .391 LANGUAG2 -.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.880 -.803 8.438 22.937 2.448 .816 -5.246 .564 11 4.238 91.690 3 1.698 6 .523 81.657 -2.750 2 2.773 -.740 15.500 4.938 8.200 8 .071E-02 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.896 98.935 7 .777 -.688 6.234 8.290 2.522 -.257 87.917 2.937 34.819 72.373 -.638 97.838 9 9.441 5 .265 95.001 24.424 RELGION1 .581 4 .096 .466 4.453 49.Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % of Variance Cumulative % 25.475 RELGION2 .854E-02 .463 72.831 99.612 .565 OWNRSHIP .
231 -. .246 LANGUAG1 .046 -. a Rotation converged in 6 iterations.877 -9.240 .704E-02 INCOME .804 MIGRATN 0.869 .366 . Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.120 .110 -.774 EDUCATN .210 .855 .658 RELGION2 .399 WOMEN .524 .596 -.136 OWNRSHIP .214 .113 RELGION1 -.333 .709 .130 .141E-02 MEN -.795 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .575 5.351 -.201 .647 9.742 -.316 -.610E-02 LANGUAG2 -.
052 11.837 1.799 5.032 1.449 8.558 4.574 .653 .751 .108 2.904 2.726 4.142 13.487 3.114 .840 1.918 .Appendix G Cluster Agglomeration Schedule Cluster Combined Stage Cluster 1 Cluster 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2 9 1 12 9 15 3 12 1 13 9 3 1 8 1 1 3 12 12 1 1 1 6 10 2 17 14 18 7 16 4 22 20 23 15 11 9 19 8 21 13 3 12 5 Stage Cluster First Appears Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Next Stage 0 0 3 0 0 5 0 1 9 0 0 8 2 0 11 0 0 13 0 0 12 4 0 18 3 0 13 0 0 19 5 0 15 7 0 17 9 6 15 0 0 17 13 11 16 15 0 20 12 14 20 8 0 19 18 10 21 16 17 21 20 19 22 21 0 0 Coefficients .584 .515 1.411 1.309 6.151 2.
Cluster Membership Case 3 Clusters 1:1 1 2:2 1 3:3 1 4:4 1 5:5 2 6:6 1 7:7 1 8:8 1 9:9 1 10:10 1 11:10A 1 12:12 3 13:14 3 14:15 1 15:16 1 16:16A 3 17:17 3 18:20 1 19:21 1 20:26 1 21:28 3 22:29 3 23:9A 1 .
• Registered Architect under Council of Architecture. October 1997. • Awarded Virginia Citizens Planning Associate Fellowship . Pune.May 1997 Worked as an Architect with Suyojan Architects. May 1997.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Date of Birth: 30 June 1973 Education: Master of Urban and Regional Planning May 1998 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Dec. CO. . • Student member American Planning Association. Blacksburg. College of Architecture and Urban Studies. USA. O. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning. India Experience Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. 1994 .July 1992 Honors and Affiliations • Invited to Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society. India.Outstanding First Year Graduate Student. • Won first prize (three member team) for Formica Interior design competition. Pune. 1996 . Pune. J. Associate Dean for Academic Affairs.Mar. 1995 Worked with the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage May 1993 . Browder. Virginia Tech. Knox. 1995. VA Bachelor of Architecture May 1996 University of Pune. Boulder.Reclaiming a derelict river. Worked as an intern with Narendra Dengle Architects. India May . New Delhi. L. 1997 – May 1998 Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. April . • Rank holder of the University of Pune. 1994. P. Aug. India.July 1996 . Aug.May 1994 Worked as an intern at Historic Boulder. • Won first prize (three member team) in a design competition . Professor.
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