The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Urban and Regional Planning

John Browder, Chair Wendy Jacobson Paul Knox

April , 1998 Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords: urban social pattern, Navi Mumbai, Bombay, urban planning - India Copyright 1998, Malathi Ananthakrishnan

The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India Malathi Ananthakrishnan (ABSTRACT) This research thesis examines the emerging trends in urban social patterns in Navi Mumbai, India. Unlike the other planned cities of India, Navi Mumbai was specifically built as a planned decentralization of a large metropolitan city. The research focuses on explaining the urban social pattern of this particular case study. An urban social pattern reflects the social characteristics of the urban setting. In the case of Navi Mumbai, the government had a social agenda of promoting a social pattern based on socioeconomic distribution rather than an ethnic one. Analysis of the data provides an insight to the results of this social agenda, and provides a basis to frame new ones. Thus, the study not only addresses a basic research question, but also has policy implications. The research involves a comprehensive review of secondary source material to establish the theoretical framework for the research. The review also involves an extensive inspection of urban social patterns across the world to better contextualize this particular case study. The research puts forth a model that explains the social pattern of Navi Mumbai by social area analysis using variables, which are drawn from social aspects of any city and indigenous factors of Indian settlements. The model depends not only on statistical analysis but also on interpretation of local conditions. This research situates the emerging social pattern in geographic literature in developing countries. This research was supported in part, by a grant from the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Tech.


I would like to take this opportunity to thank my Advisor and Chair of my committee, Dr. John Browder. He was supportive of all my efforts to successfully complete this thesis. It would not have been possible without his help. Thank you also to my committee members, Dr. Jacobson and Dr. Knox, for the time and effort they contributed.

Thanks also due to everyone in Navi Mumbai who helped me collect the data and all relevant information. Special thanks to Ms. Adusumilli, Senior planner, CIDCO, Mrs. Raje, Chief statistician, CIDCO, Dr. Venkatachalam and Dr. Sengupta at IIT-Bombay and Dr. BanerjeeGuha at the University of Bombay. I would also like to thank Prachi and Avesh Tapde for their hospitality in Navi Mumbai.

Dr. Dyck and Dr. Bohland clarified many of my conceptual and analytical queries. I would like to give my appreciation for their support. I would also like to thank Dr. Randolph and Dr. Schubert for having made a grant available for me to carry out the field research.

I am also grateful to my good friends Inga, Maneesha and Elda for not only helping me out with proof reading and other mundane things, but also for being there during the ups and downs of the entire process. I would like to thank my family for always encouraging me to think and my fiancé for his patience.

4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities 3.10 Conclusion 3.1 Concentric Zone Theory 3.5 Implications of the Sociocultural factors 3..2 Third World Cities 3.5.5 Methodology 4. Introduction…………………………………………………………………. 3 2.1 Caste 3.4 Data Collection 4.8.5 Sociocultural Factors 3.3 Religion 3.1 Research Problem Statement 1.4 Language 3.8 Case Study of Urban Social Patterns 3. 20 3.1 Descriptive Analysis Multiple Nuclei Theory 3.1 Introduction 2.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai 2.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 2.3 Organization of the Thesis 1 2.9 Conclusion 4.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai 2.7.2 Sector Theory 3.Table of Contents 1.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern 3.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region 2. Research Design……………………………………………………………… 38 4.3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai 2..3 Operationalization 4.5.2 Class 3.5 Development Potential of the Site 2.1 Introduction 3.3 Indian Cities 3.7. The Conceptual Framework………………………………………………….1 Social Area Analysis 4.5.8. 1.1 Western Cities 3.8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework 2.6 The Built Form 3.5.2 Significance of Thesis 1.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan 2.2 Cluster Analysis .7.2 Hypothesis 4. The Research Setting………………………………………………………….5.5.3 Factors influencing Urban Form 3.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns 3.

3 Discussion 5.3 Principal Component Analysis 4.3 Summary 6. Presentation of Data………………………………………………………….2 Cluster Analysis 5.3 Regional Scale – nodes 5.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory 6.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory 6.5.1 Principal Components Analysis 5.1 Introduction 5.. Potential Utility of the Research 43 65 7..4.4.5 Conclusion 6.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory Sub-regional Scale – sectors 5.1 Principal Components Analysis Data Analysis 5.2 Cluster Analysis 5.2 Sub-regional Scale 6. Glossary of Terms Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G 77 . Interpretation / Discussion…………………………………………………… 6. 5.2 Descriptive Analysis 5.4 mapping and Overlays 4.1 Regional Scale 6. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 74 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………….2.3 Discussion 5.

11 5.1 2.4 5.4 2.19 5.14 5.2 2.1 5.20 5.2 5.5 2.5 5.1 4.2 5.15 5.9 5.3 5.6 4.13 5.List of Tables Table number 2.17 5.18 5.7 5.8 5.21 Title Population Density of Bombay Immigrant population of Bombay Land Fragmentation in 1970 Household Income and Capacity to Pay Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay Land Use of Navi Mumbai Constructs and Variables Survey Sampling Constructs and Variables Work Force Number of Earners Occupational Classification of Workforce Household Income Location of Education Institutions Level of Education Male Population Female Population Family Size Type of Housing Ownership of House Housing built by CIDCO Housing built by Private Enterprise Year of Occupation Previous Place of Residence Religion Language Spatial Pattern of Variables Attributes of Principal Components Attributes of Principal Components page 4 5 6 8 16 17 39 40 43 44 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 50 51 52 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 60 61 .3 2.12 5.10 5.16 5.6 5.

19 6.3 5.13 5.11 5.9 3.16 5.10 5.18 5.6 5. 2651-4450 Frequency of Families with at least one individual with Secondary Education Frequency of Male Population in the age group 25-45 Frequency of Households with 4 or 5 members Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO Frequency of Housing built by CIDCO Frequency of Houses built by Private Enterprise Frequency of Tenure Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence Frequency of Hindus Frequency of Muslims Frequency of Marathi Frequency of Malayalam Components in Rotated Space Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai Average Linkage between Factor Scores Average Linkage between Variables Clustering of Sectors of Vashi Average Linkage between Factor Scores Page 2 5 7 11 15 18 26 28 29 29 31 32 32 33 34 36 45 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 56 57 57 59 59 60 62 63 65 66 66 67 68 .1 5.7 3.8 5.7 5.12 5.6 3.15 5.1 2.5 5.2 6.3 2.14 5.8 3.3 3.6 3.10 5.4 5.1 6.4 3.2 3.4 6.5 3.4 2.2 2.17 5.5 Title Expansion of Bombay Twin City Across the Harbor Development Potential of the Site Nodes of Navi Mumbai Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai Land Use of Navi Mumbai Circle and Swastika Town Plans Concentric Zone Theory Sector Theory Multiple Nuclei Theory Urban Social Patterns Plan of Delhi and New Delhi Asian Ports Latin American Cities Pattern of Indian Cities Theories of Urban Social Patterns and Corresponding Case Studies Distribution of Single-earner Families Frequency of Families with Income range Rs.5 2.3 6.List of Figure Figure Number 2.1 3.9 5.2 5.

17 6.6 6.13 6.7 6.18 Average Linkage between Variables Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic variables Distribution of Number of Earners Distribution of Income Hypothetical Concentric Pattern for Family Status variables Distribution of Ownership of Apartment Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic variables Distribution of Households speaking Marathi Distribution of Households which follow Islam Clustering of Sectors Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 .14 6.9 6.8 6.10 6.6.16 6.15 6.11 6.12 6.

This research determines how the present social pattern relates to various theoretical frameworks. The pattern of Navi Mumbai will be studied at different hierarchical spatial levels: regional (node / township) and sub-regional (sector / neighborhood). The basic research here involves the search for an urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Navi Mumbai (New Bombay) is one of the first planned new town developments built for a diverse. A policy emphasizing a uniform distribution of the population is the ideological orientation of the government. Traditional Indian cities have evolved over the centuries. 1. Urban patterns occur because of repetition of these elements. The purpose of this thesis is to delineate and interpret the social pattern of Navi Mumbai.1 Research Problem Statement The overall objective of this thesis is to determine what common patterns. migration. and their social pattern is characterized by residential segregation based on ethnic.2 Significance of Research A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between their constituent elements at a certain period of time. The urban social pattern is one of the many aspects of the urban form. Different characteristics are drawn from the factors influencing the physical design and cultural aspect of the city. Physical and economic landscapes. housing characteristics. race. It is a synthesis of the spatial relationships of various elements. The urban form of a city is primarily the result of the characteristics of its physical and social design as well as socioeconomic and political forces. This research aspires to contribute to basic research in social geography. and the housing market. Various processes influence the social pattern of the city. exist in the urban social pattern of planned towns in India. if any. religion. These include the ethnic composition of the city. The pattern suggests not only the outcome of . land use and ownership. 1990). planning regulations. Therefore.Chapter 1: Introduction 1. The literature review shows that a specific study of Navi Mumbai has not been previously documented. Why is such a study significant? The urban form of the city influences behavioral. religious and linguistic classes. Thus. economic and social processes within it (Vance. middle class population in India. An interpretation of the emerging social pattern reveals something of the social character of the city. and political events may influence the physical design and pattern of a city. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. this paper will augment existing knowledge about social configurations of planned urban development in Asian regions. the study of human settlements has an encompassing view of all the activities it supports. street patterns. Socioeconomic factors. land use pattern and ethnic classifications will be used as key variables to study the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai.

but also variables that influence this pattern. The third chapter is a comprehensive review of the secondary sources to establish a context of the research question. The second chapter provides the background to the particular case study used in the research.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 1: Introduction 2 the policy. its contextual framework. The urban social pattern also serves as a framework for further research. Thus. The presentation of data and its analysis is in the fifth chapter. the research setting. Chapter seven draws to conclusion the thesis with a review of the problem statement. Interpretation and discussion of the analysis and its relationship to the theories discussed in the third chapter is done in the sixth chapter. . 1. analysis and interpretation and the broad outcomes of the thesis. methodology. The fourth chapter outlines the methodology used for analysis of data and explains the data source and method of data collection. which provides the problem statement and the broader objectives of the thesis. This first chapter is the introduction.3 Organization of the Thesis This thesis is divided into seven chapters. the basic research has many applications in longrange planning in Navi Mumbai.

The harbor was strengthened. 2. 1973).1 Introduction Navi Mumbai (New Bombay). the East India Company had taken on the new role of ruler (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. South Bombay is the center of India’s 1950 banking and service industries. the Crown rented Bombay to the East India Company. There was a . The city of Source: Dwivedi and Mehrotra. 1995). now as rulers. In Bombay. This range of activities led to crowding at an BOMBAY NAVI unprecedented scale. Bombay had its beginnings in a series of fishing villages until it was taken over by the Portuguese in the 16th century. and providing efficient infrastructure (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. textile mills and government offices have made it the preeminent port of Western India. a Portuguese princess. 1965 Bombay’s high concentration of docks. In 1661. for Arabian MUMBAI Sea those who could not afford to make the 1910 long commutes.1). is a new planned city across the harbor (of Bombay) from Bombay. Bombay was then established as a trading post. The first settlement was established in the southern most tip of the island. the King of Portugal gifted the Bombay islands to King Charles II of England when King Charles married Catherine Braganza. By the 1780s. Navi Mumbai was designed to provide a better quality of life.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region Bombay is not a city built on Indian traditional planning ideas. Figure 2. The geographical area of Bombay is an island. Urbanization and subsequent suburbanization of Bombay have created a linear city such that the central business district (CBD) and residential areas have become further and further apart (Figure 2. 1995).Chapter 2: The Research Setting 2. the shipyard modernized and the city fortified. established in 1972. This planned decentralization was the outcome of efforts by the government to make Bombay more “sustainable” (Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board. In 1668. 1995. India. 1957 trading posts. squatter settlements all over Bombay became the way of life. The East India Company encouraged Indian and East India Company merchants to settle in Bombay. especially to the middle and lower class of people. was interested in developing the town in a methodical manner.1 Expansion of Bombay The East India Company.

the Gadgil Committee strongly recommended a multi-nuclear growth using the creation of a new town across the harbor. some thought was given to ’Greater Bombay’. Transportation is threatening to break down…. Table 2. the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board set up two committees to study the development of Bombay. lack of housing and infrastructure and high land values were the major problems identified.1 Population Density of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Area in acres 14247 14281 14342 14575 15066 15480 16751 16720 Persons / Acre 54 56 54 67 78 75 165 184 (Various Census Reports for Bombay in Kosambi. Commercial and residential areas were mixed because many merchants carried on business from home (Tindall. the Bombay Improvement Trust was created. in 1896. 1973) Population increase. . The 1967 development plan estimated a housing shortage of 131. The development acts of 1954 and 1964 emphasized the need to relocate industrial activity from the island to the mainland (CIDCO. Modak influenced the development of Greater Bombay for the next two decades (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. In 1967. and 24 percent of the one and two room tenements were over crowded. This committee appointed the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board to develop the concept further (Gadgil Committee. 1992). However. Bombay’s infrastructure facilities were stretched to the limit. In 1865. Adequate water is a serious problem.2). These formal government bodies were the beginning of a conscientious effort to regulate the growth of Bombay (Banerjee-Guha. Many parts of it are not even tolerably clean and healthy. Housing deficits are ever widening and slums like a cancerous growth can be seen anywhere and everywhere.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 4 strong development of mixed land use settlements. Land use zoning and the concept of floor space index were incorporated for the first time. V. The large migrant influx contributed to the overcrowding (Table 2. Greater Bombay came into existence only after the Bombay High Court Act of 1945. the Bombay Municipal Corporation was established. This enclosed the Town and Island of Bombay. In 1966. which would encompass the Fort area as well as the suburbs of Bombay. 1995). They recommended: i the creation of a new town on the mainland across the harbor i develop the suburbs of Bombay further Bombay had reached a level of unmanageable growth by the 1960s. 1995). 1995). the Port of Bombay. and. 1995). (BMRPB. 1965). the suburbs and 42 villages within the definition of the new city limit (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. 1986) The Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board in its report wrote Bombay the Beautiful is no more beautiful. Commuter distances had become larger because of increased suburbanization with no change in location of the CBD. In the 1960s. various planning committees were formed to develop a regional plan for Bombay.000 houses. The Post-War development Committee of 1945 and the ’Master Plan in Outline’ prepared by Albert Mayer and N. By the early 1900s. concentration of industries and offices in certain pockets of Bombay.

2. 1973). Lack of adequate water supply and sewage facilities worsened conditions. The site that was finally chosen was across the harbor from Bombay island. then this would not be possible (BMRPB.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 5 Table 2. and New Growth Centers Growth Centers of Bombay Town Center Arabian Sea Harbor of Bombay Figure 2. was incharge of the planning and design of Navi Mumbai (1970-75). It is a narrow piece of land bounded by the Western Ghat mountain ranges on the north. Unhealthy and insanitary conditions for 1 million slum dwellers was the result of inadequate housing stock. Pravina Mehta (late) was a structural engineer. 1 2 Charles Correa is a prominent architect and urban designer in Bombay. rocketing land prices prevented the acquisition of land for public purposes (BMPRB. In a final attempt. the Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board recommended considering a twin city across the harbor. The implementation occurred through ’correct’ political and bureaucratic channels in 1969.2 Immigrant Population of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Population 773196 821764 776006 979445 1175914 1161383 2771933 3070378 % 72 75 77 80 84 75 72 63 Immigrants Males per 151 171 162 189 191 181 160 149 100 Females (Various Census Reports of Bombay in Kosambi. This was in the form of the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board’s recommendation that a new city be designed within the Bombay Metropolitan region to facilitate the decongestion of Bombay (Correa. 1993). air pollution and mixed land use (UNCHS. 1997).3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai The prominent authors of the ’twin city concept’ were Charles Correa1. south and east.2 Twin City Across the Harbor Source: CIDCO. If the new city was too far away.2). 1973. 3 Sirish Patel. . 1973). 1986) The concentration of industries and offices at the CBD and suburbs like Chembur and Andheri created unequal development. Also. engineer and planner. Pravina Mehta2 and Shirish Patel3 who presented to the government a proposal in 1964 for constructing new growth centers across Bombay harbor on the mainland (Figure 2.

1985). The finality of the approved Development Plan ensures that the pressure and friction which would develop to obtain land use changes for particular land holdings would be largely eliminated . Patel and Mehta designed this regional plan based on three basic objectives: a planned new development. The plan hoped to reduce homelessness in Bombay and provide slum dwellers a better life as well as absorb migration from the countryside (Correa. CIDCO is a limited company. 1973). a government agency explicitly set up for this purpose. 1995) CIDCO notified all private owners about the compulsory acquisition. CIDCO used certain development principles in its design. m. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act (MR&TP Act). The first task of CIDCO was to prepare a development plan for the new town. m.3) Table 2. The first step was to identify all the land that needed to be acquired for Navi Mumbai. 1997). Section 31(6) under the same act gives the government the power to specify land use and proceed with development.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 6 the Arabian Sea on the west (CIDCO. wholly owned by the State Government of Maharashtra (CIDCO. 1966. >500 sq. >4000 sq.3 Land Fragmentation in 1970 Ownership Area (sq. 2. The new town. >1000 sq. They were (CIDCO. was designed to accommodate new industrial and commercial activity as well as for secure and affordable housing to workers. 1973). m. km) (number) (number) (number) Government 10137 All Private 16677 18412 3338 1579 90 Marsh(wetlands) 84 (CIDCO. The regional plan was approved in 1970. >10000 sq. It is a self-contained city independent of Bombay although there is still a visual connection to Bombay. Navi Mumbai covers an area of 344 sq. m. km. The land notified for acquisition for Navi Mumbai was under private and government ownership (Table 2. The government would acquire land under its power of eminent domain under Section 22. and improving Bombay by drawing off pressures for growth into the new area (Patel. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board created the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) in 1970 to implement its ideas. It was hoped that the nearness to Bombay would facilitate the relocation of people from Bombay (CIDCO. comprising of a number of nodes (townships). financing physical and social infrastructure through land sales. Correa. 1973): i polycentric pattern of development i acquisition of all land to have better control of the environment and to use land as the main resource for development. Owners were notified about the government’s proposal.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 The task of planning and developing Navi Mumbai was entrusted to the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO). 1973).

To provide physical and social services. These were (CIDCO. • the plan for a modern. To support a statewide Industrial Location Policy which will lead eventually to an efficient and rational distribution of industries over the State and a balanced development of urban centers in the hinterland. and transport corridors along Thane-Belapur. 2. it also hoped to improve the quality of life of Bombay. Panvel-Uran rail and road links. To provide a physical infrastructure which prevents ethnic enclaves among the population. This was not entirely true.3). and major law and order problems did occur. leaving enough room for flexibility. The success of Navi Mumbai was thought to depend on the adequate creation of jobs (CIDCO. raise the living standards and reduce the disparities in the amenities available to the different sections of the population. 1995). The Draft Development Plan gave only broad guidelines. and also attract some of Bombay’s present population. 4. Reduce the growth of population in Bombay city by creating a center that would absorb immigrants. 1973: 10): 1.5 Development Potential of the Site The chosen site had various development potentials (Figure 2. 1995): • the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) Estates at Turbhe and Taloja. The objectives were (CIDCO. no new document was ever prepared. Although five minor amendments were made to this Draft Plan. • the newly commissioned bridge across the Thane creek. 1973). CIDCO acquired all the land after settling disputes about compensation (CIDCO. Nevertheless. 1995). container port at Nhava-Sheva. 2. 3. 5. free from the physical and social tensions. The Draft Development Plan remains the guiding document in use even today. To provide an environment which would permit the residents of New Bombay to live fuller and richer lives in so far this is possible. Although the main objective of the design of Navi Mumbai was to create a selfsufficient urban environment.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 7 (CIDCO. • the existence of two municipal corporations at Panvel and Uran. The development plan took into account the Figure 2. which are commonly associated with urban living.3 Development Potential of the Site Turbhe MIDC Industrial Estates Arabian Sea Creek bridge Taloja Panvel Nhava-sheva . • the Thane-Pune National Highway 4.

The plan called for the shifting of government offices from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai. 1995): i make Navi Mumbai self-contained and not a dormitory. Although job opportunities were the driving force behind Navi Mumbai’s success. 1997). Only small-scale industries were allowed in place of old. 1975).000 houses needed to be built. The authors of the regional plan cited the case of New Delhi to emphasize their idea (Patel. i to decongest Bombay by shifting jobs that are concentrated in the southern part of Bombay. Industrial growth was encouraged only in the MIDC industrial estates of Navi Mumbai (CIDCO. large or medium industrial units were permitted on Bombay island. Almost 87% of the office jobs of Greater Bombay are located on Bombay island with 62% in South Bombay. Per month) (% of income) rupees) (in sq. 400. Table 2. The Industrial Location Policy issued in December 1974 posed various restrictions on the start of new industrial units on Bombay island. the availability of cheaper. trade and commerce (wholesale and warehousing).4 shows CIDCO’s estimates on the capacity to pay for housing by different income groups. The employment base of Navi Mumbai was planned to encompass manufacturing (industry). This was necessary to (CIDCO.) Less than 200 20 10 1200 3 201-300 16 11 2580 5 301-400 15 12 4140 8 401-500 14 13 5940 12 501-600 12 14 7800 16 601-800 9 15 10800 22 801-1000 7 17 15600 31 Threshold of affordability 1001-1200 3 19 21000 43 1201-1500 2 22 30000 60 1501+ 2 25 37800 75 .000 jobs for a population of 2 million (CIDCO. m. A series of controls were made for various regions within Bombay. Table 2.7) Household % of Monthly Capacity to pay Affordable size Income Population capacity to pay for housing (in of housing unit (Rs. assuming a family size of five. large industries. To accommodate a population of 2 million. 1995).4 Household Income and Capacity to Pay (Figures estimated in 1971 income where $1~Rs. No new. as well as service sector (office) jobs. better quality houses was the biggest incentive (CIDCO. A CBD was planned in Navi Mumbai with the aim of creating 40. i to use the job centers with matching infrastructure provision as engines of growth for the new city.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 8 provision of 750.000 office jobs. 1973).

Each of these cuadras was a self-contained unit with primary schools. The higher income groups would pay a surcharge for housing. 550 per square meter and the cost of development of land was Rs. In India the square was used as the basic unit in the layout of traditional cities. The housing has to be heavily subsidized to make it affordable. 1973). i single-use zoning as opposed to the traditional multiple-use zoning The result was a single-use zoning pattern with distinct areas for industrial. residential and institutional activity. Capacity to pay for housing divided by cost of construction shows a very small (or no) house could be owned by most families. commercial. The average cost of construction was Rs.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai The conceptual design of Navi Mumbai was developed at the height of Modernism. Otherwise. i residential neighborhoods (sector).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 9 (CIDCO. In Navi Mumbai. CIDCO decided to use a maximum surcharge of 15% on housing for highest income group to compensate for a maximum subsidy of 45% to the lowest income group (CIDCO. 2. This would have a great drain on the financial resources of the government. Many of these principles of Modernism were used in the planning of Navi Mumbai. A sector centrally located within each node took on commercial activities. CIDCO decided to build a large part of the housing as public housing. The square had a significance in Hinduism as this perfect geometric shape was thought to be . Some of the highlights of the design elements of this plan were sector planning. The sector was based on the Spanish cuadra of 110 to 100 meters. The total land of Navi Mumbai was divided into thirteen townships. V4 roads were designed for shopping and commercial activity. hierarchy of roads and important buildings of a gargantuan scale (Fry. 1973). 1973) The table shows the ability of each income group to contribute towards owned accommodation. 1977). At the same time. Children were able to walk to school on the V7 through green belts (Sarin. 40 in 1970. m. 1961). Many of the sectors were residential in character. 1961). land would be leased under a 30-year repayment system to private cooperative housing schemes and private owners. These were: i decentralization by the design of self-sufficient townships(nodes). houses or larger (CIDCO. it was proposed to use cross subsidies. Each township had several sectors. The cuadra had a detailed zoning plan with single-use zoning on all lots. The sector planning of Modernism is very similar to the grid planning of traditional Indian cities. each family could own only developed land. The Government of India’s policy on publicly financed housing has been to build 21 sq. The neighborhoods were self-sufficient and had their grocery store and primary school. The sector is the container of family life" (Le Corbusier. 1977). Le Corbusier explained "the plan is based on the main features of the 7V rule (Appendix B) determining an essential function: the creation of sectors. No fast traffic was allowed in the sectors. Le Corbusier had played an important role in the design of Chandigarh in Punjab in the mid1950s (Le Corbusier. community centers and residential areas. which would subsidize housing for the lower income groups.

merchant and peasant. The indigenous plans all started with a central focal point (either of political or religious symbolism). a true Gandhian. This is significantly different from the single-use planning of Modernism. main streets formed perfect rectangles dividing the city into separate residential areas based on caste. the four castes are Brahmin. 1991). The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board put forth the broad conceptual regional plan of Navi Mumbai. 1991).000 people. Some of the nodes have special features. 1969). Each neighborhood unit was within a one square mile radius. each neighborhood was known as a sector (CIDCO. Airoli and Kopar-Khairane have industrial estates. 1984). 1973). Vashi is the center of Navi Mumbai's wholesale market.). nodes share some common facilities such as water reservoirs and transport facilities. people were forced to work within that particular neighborhood. This was a model layout for an area with specifications for residences. The task of designing and detailing the physical design was carried out by CIDCO. Each node was planned to accommodate a range of income groups. 1973). Each node is self-contained for 100. There would be no rich or poor nodes (CIDCO. This principle of neighborhood planning and its derivative from Modernism was used in Navi Mumbai. while Nhava-Sheva houses the new container port. swadeshi (fullest utilization of local resources. The size of the node depends . Kshatriya. Mr. the main philosophical design principles of Navi Mumbai are based on Gandhian ideology (Parab. 1997). 1973).4). This also facilitated the sharing of other. Vaishya and Sudra. commercial.000 to 200. The goal has been to create a city based on Gandhian principles of swavalamban (self-reliance). Even in the planning of Mohenjadaro (7th century B. "Arguing to turn any weaknesses into strength. Each node is divided into neighborhoods (or sectors). As the residential classification was based on the caste. Parab. Neighborhoods could be placed near each other to form a larger urban framework.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 10 the abode of the gods (Henn. In India. larger amenities by contiguous neighborhoods. Neighborhood planning in the West was a concept put forth by Clarence Perry. streets. an American designer of the 1920s. infrastructure and recreational uses (Figure 2. Commercial and residential uses were adjacent to each other or one above the other. warrior/king. So each sector had mixed use. Many cities still reflect this street pattern. All houses in a neighborhood were occupied by a particular caste. 1929). amenities and utilities with segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic (Banerjee. Under his leadership.C. and progressively moved outward depending on the natural landscape. let us accommodate nature!" (Gandhi in Engel. Gandhi would have urged: If nature chooses not to accommodate us. The nodes contain residential. Here in Navi Mumbai the idea of a large “urban village” has been nurtured. This is the vision that is the traditional Indian design inspiration for Navi Mumbai. At a larger scale. Navi Mumbai consists of thirteen townships (or nodes). both materials and human) and swatantrya (self-motivation and mutual self-help) (Ganguli. The neighborhood unit is used as a building block to build New Towns across the world (Perry. which corresponds to the professions priest. was the Chief Planner of CIDCO for 20 years (1970-90) (Engel. The functionality of the city is based on the principle of neighborhood design as seen all over the Western world. In the case of Navi Mumbai.

One of the ideas of putting the environmental city into Dronagiri practice was the creation of woodland corridors (Parab. the plan had a very important political component. The plan Jui Belapur Arabian envisioned an ecologically friendly Sea city where products of nature would be Panvel used. As financial and economic considerations depended on the government in office. for its success. Politicians use the creation of jobs and better living environments as a common strategy for getting votes. unless sufficient industrial growth existed. 2. The primary concerns were related . which would be used in the dry seasons. and then unused portions would Nhava-Sheva be recycled. which ensured their re-election. which were closely linked. 1991). 1973. This was partly because of the scale and complexity of the project. There was also a high degree of uncertainty attached to some of the policies and physical developments. Private industries would not invest in this particular region unless they were assured of workers and so on. Holding ponds would be used for pisciculture and recreation. The Development Plan for Navi Mumbai called for the planting of one hundred thousand trees every year! (Engel.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai Considerations of social equity were very important in all aspects of development in a country. The streams Source: CIDCO. which had been independent for only 20 years. The node should be large enough to provide schools. The Development Plan of Navi Mumbai is an example of the new consciousness for sustainable Kharghar Nerul settlements (CIDCO. Any change in political power would affect the policies and development strategies of this new town. a migration of population would not occur. shopping areas and other facilities. 1997). Hence. only activities. Water treated from industrial and sewage waste would be used to develop green areas (Parab. 1997). For example. It depended very heavily on external factors. The plan called for the construction of holding ponds to retain excess monsoon run-off.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 11 BOMBAY Airoli Ghansoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada on walking distances to the mass transit stop. flowing from the Western Ghats mountain ranges would irrigate these trees. 1995). The design concept of Navi Mumbai was very idealistic. This would also ensure reduction of soil erosion and the development of woodlands for both Figure 2.4 Nodes of Navi Mumbai recreation and timber. would be strongly supported. For industrial growth large finances were required.

The remaining two-thirds of the population could afford more expensive housing. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion. The residents could design and implement their construction in any way they chose (swatantrya). Incremental housing was suggested as the solution. caste. The plan took into account the fact that one-third of the housing in New Bombay would be sites-and-services plots (CIDCO. economic and political equity. The planners of Navi Mumbai thought this was a fortuitous occasion to provide social justice to the millions of migrants and pavement dwellers of Bombay (CIDCO. race. 1973). The Constitution of India also spells out the need for the government machinery to facilitate social. Individual families would then have to build their own homes (swavalamban). I). To aid residents further.shall inform all the institutions of the national life (Article 38). For them. using bamboo instead of steel reinforcements and setting up of local retail shops where residents would be able to buy inexpensive building materials for building their homes (swadeshi) (CIDCO. more than 30% of the population of greater Bombay could not afford a pucca (durable) house (CIDCO. It recommended construction using cheaper concrete. More durable material could be used in the course of time." (CIDCO. In 1970. electricity and sanitation (CIDCO. The Gandhian principle of self-help would be used to implement this agenda. For the lower income group. water. Housing would be built for the various income groups. it was proposed that housing should be constructed so that this income group could afford it.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 12 to providing better quality of housing. 1973).social. Thus. sex. walk-up apartments of three to four floors would be designed. The sites-and-services plots would have services such as roads. 1973). 1973). ground floor houses would be possible initially. 1973) . education and job opportunities. economic and political . Housing for the middle income and high income groups would be in the form of CIDCO housing. enclaves or ghettos of age long tradition of ’birds of the same feather flocking together’. The design of a completely new city was a very good opportunity to implement these national concerns. 1973). cooperative housing groups or private builders. Construction would be made with locally available. place of birth or any of them (Article 15. CIDCO would sell the plot at a highly subsidized rate and with a twenty-year repayment period. cheap material. The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice . cost-effective. Navi Mumbai’s founders saw the construction of large amounts of new housing as an opportunity to break down demographic divisions and to enhance social equity. The Draft Development Plan spelled out "there is a tendency in India that induces people to live in like groups. In planned towns and cities this should be avoided to a great extent by allocating housing in neighborhoods to members of different communities. medical care and social welfare.

The Greater Bombay region had some of the best social welfare programs in India. The Governor of Bombay also encouraged this development because it reinforced the traditional panchayati (selfgovernment) system of administration by which the council of elders settled religious. handicapped children.500 population and one college for 50. A large hospital for intensive care and for teaching and research purposes would be set up (CIDCO. Provision of schools and colleges was a priority in the planning of Navi Mumbai. The nodes (townships) were designed to provide one primary school per 5000 population.000 population (CIDCO. Other private institutions would be encouraged also. and law and order problems of the community (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. 1973). Institutions for juvenile delinquents. Mobile health care units would operate from this community health center. 1973). The community health care center would primary health care. 1973). merchants from neighboring districts migrated into Bombay and constructed homes inside and outside the Fort walls. one high school for 12. The Development Plan says (CIDCO. "In each node it is proposed that accommodation be made available for the entire range of income groups expected in the city. but will also ensure a uniform standard of social and physical infrastructure and see that no one class of residents is better served than another" (CIDCO 1973: 17-18). 1973: 17): "CIDCO is anxious that the new city develop its own identity as quickly as possible. This led to the development of ethnic enclaves. 1973). It is expected that this accommodation of residents from various social and income groups within the same physical area will not only make for a healthier environment." . Minimum standards for building construction were developed by CIDCO. The planners of Navi Mumbai did not intend to create an identity for the city related to physical objects. When the East India Company encouraged merchants to establish residence in Bombay. The planning was for a comprehensive coverage by taking the services to households. It should contain its own jobs. These were the education facilities to be provided by the government. This further contributed to the creation of ethnic enclaves within the settlement. recreation and afforestation projects (CIDCO. These are discussed further in the next chapter. Health planning was undertaken as public health projects. The medical center would provide secondary health service. water supply and sanitation. recreational and other social facilities an should not become a dormitory for Greater Bombay. Establishment of ethnic enclaves has led to a number of problems in India. shopping. It would be a small hospital and polyclinic where specialized health care would be provided to cases referred by the community health care center and general practitioners. medical care. planners cited the segregation of Bombay as an example. 1995). exploited women and leprosyaffected persons would be developed in Navi Mumbai to accommodate the growing population (CIDCO.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 13 To justify this consideration. diagnostic and investigation services. It would have out-patient department. schools and colleges and making health education a part of classroom education.

These stages include: i Draft Development Plan (programs and policies) . 1992): i Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA) in 1975 i Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) in 1992. With the creation of these other agencies. Before the creation of these different institutions. CIDCO has a more narrow and defined role.Visualizing the future i Action Plans . water supply.Data base . drainage. The physical design would be the instrument to implement this objective. However.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 14 Thus. i involving Government agencies for developing public transport and telecommunications. The city of Navi Mumbai was planned to address the issue of social equality through its physical design. 1992). the identity of Navi Mumbai is subtler.Other agencies . largely. In particular. i Bombay Electric and State Transport (BEST). These are (CIDCO. Other institutions have also been set up in the Greater Bombay region to facilitate planning efforts in the region. It is more of a philosophical identity . CIDCO had to coordinate all planning and development programs. i developing residential plots for different income groups. New. there was no aim to create a monumental city. It appears that the monumental style of Corbusier was not an influence on this design. CIDCO was appointed as the NTDA. 1991). the Gadgil Committee Report (1965) had recommended the setting up of a New Town Development Authority (NTDA). planned cities of India such as Chandigarh. a strong institutional framework was required for its success.8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework The government authorities of Bombay realized that the effectiveness of regional planning depended. Its identity is only that of a spreading inkblot (Engel. the allotment of residential apartments would be governed by a policy. i Specialized services provided by Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA). However. CIDCO has executed the implementation of the plan in various stages (CIDCO. i promoting commercial and other employment activity. The role of CIDCO is to implement the plan of Navi Mumbai.Objectives . 1995): i developing land and providing infrastructure such as roads. In the very beginning. 2. on the institutions responsible for the plan. Gandhinagar can be described by their grid system or monumental scales. CIDCO undertook the task of (CIDCO. which would help implement the objective. identity based on the Gandhian value of social equality.

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- Land use plans - Residential layout plans - Infrastructure plans - Industrial location plans - Environmental assessment i Implementation - Acquisition of land - Finance - Construction - Relocation strategies BMRDA took over such functions as coordination of metropolitan planning, funding, execution of programs, development control and maintenance of the entire Greater Bombay region including Navi Mumbai (UNCHS, 1993). Financial responsibilities and investment decisions are made by a large number of agencies including the Government of India, State Government of Maharashtra, CIDCO and firms in the private sector, but coordinated by BMRDA.

Macro-level Regional Planning Inputs
Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA)

Micro-level Sub-regional Planning Inputs
Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation

Plan Implementation of Navi Mumbai
City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) Figure 2.5 Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai In 1992, an amendment of the Constitution of India affected the functioning of CIDCO. The 74th Amendment of the Constitution of India (the 1992 Amendment Act on Municipalities) spells out the devolution of power to the local bodies and democratization of development planning. This Act emphasizes that the management must be done by elected representatives of the people who will account for two-thirds of the board. This committee is responsible for the preparation of the draft development plan. This ensures a bottom-up process with direct inputs from the citizens (UNCHS, 1993). These municipal corporations will be responsible for their economic development and incorporate all ideas within the

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Comprehensive Plan. The direct result of this Act is the creation, in 1992, of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation. This allowed CIDCO to give up its role as New Town Development Authority (CIDCO, 1995). A heavy-handed approach was used by the government to implement its social policy. As most of the housing was built by CIDCO, a government agency, the government could control, if not regulate, the distribution of the population on socioeconomic basis. Households desirous of buying a house built by CIDCO had to submit an application that stated the dwelling size they preferred. CIDCO allotted these houses, depending on when construction was completed, on a rolling basis. This was intended to ensure a random distribution of the various linguistic and religious groups of the population. The pattern expected would now be one based predominantly on income. 2.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan The planning of Navi Mumbai began in 1971. The results of each of the planning objectives can be studied now. The first objective of the Development Plan of Navi Mumbai was to reduce congestion of Bombay by absorbing immigrants and attracting some of the present population of Bombay. Table 2.5 Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay(BMRDA, 1978 in UNCHS, 1993) 1971 1981 1991 Population Density Population Density Population Density (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) CBD 1120 1659 1031 1527 849 1258 Central Bombay 1950 1349 2254 1559 2309 1597 Bombay Island 3070 1447 3285 1549 3158 1489 Bombay Suburbs 2900 544 4958 930 6751 1266 Navi Mumbai1 128 600 328 617 Over the 1981-91 period, there was a considerable decline in the population of the CBD and Bombay island. The increase in the population of the suburbs and Navi Mumbai accounts for the decline in the CBD and Bombay island. Outmigration to other cities and countries is negligible (BMRDA, 1978). The main reason for the shift was because of (UNCHS, 1993): i dilapidation of older buildings in Bombay i cheaper and better housing facilities in Navi Mumbai i better employment opportunities in Navi Mumbai i lesser commuter distances involved The second objective of the development plan was to bring maximum jobs consistent with the Gandhian principle of self-sufficiency (swavalambhan). CIDCO’s support of the Industrial Location Policy brought more jobs to Navi Mumbai. The sectors that had maximum growth in Navi Mumbai, were trade (39%), finance and services (27%) and manufacturing (18%) (BMRDA, 1992 in UNCHS, 1993). The wholesale agriculture produce

residential area increased from 213 hectares in 1981 to 531 hectares in 1991.

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market for vegetables, foodgrains, oil seeds, sugar and spices was moved from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai (CIDCO, 1973). A separate railway siding and truck terminal were constructed to facilitate effective relocation. This involved the relocation of 30,000 jobs from Bombay and the reduction of 5000 truck trips per day. A new iron and steel stockyard complex has been developed in Navi Mumbai. This means the relocation of 25,000 jobs and a reduction of 1000 truck trips per day to Bombay. However, the economic agenda, which was based on agriculture and cottage industries, is no longer effective because of the government’s redoubled commitment to a policy of industrialization. Navi Mumbai continues to be exploited as a major industrial zone (Engel, 1991). CIDCO's third objective was to provide physical and social amenities in Navi Mumbai. The land use of Navi Mumbai shows these amenities (Table 2.6 and Figure 2.6). Table 2.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai, 1993 (in sq. km.) Land-use Zone 1979 1985 1986 1991 Residential 101.15 133.99 127.08 129.87 Commercial 6.51 6.51 6.51 5.75 Industrial 43.21 43.14 43.14 43.14 Port 12.00 22.7 22.7 22.7 Wholesale market 6.08 4.54 4.54 4.6 Woodlands / Park 90.26 61.24 68.15 69.35 Institutional .76 1.09 1.09 1.09 Fishing and allied 6.14 3.44 3.44 3.44 Transportation 30.86 30.35 30.35 29.73 No development 46.73 36.70 36.70 34.03 Total 343.70 343.70 343.70 343.70

1993 127.61 5.75 43.14 22.70 6.86 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70 (CIDCO, 1997) Primary, secondary and high schools have been provided in all sectors of Navi Mumbai. All primary schools are within walking distance. This eliminates the need of expensive transport for small children. There is at least one college in every node and Vashi node has both medical and engineering colleges (CIDCO, 1995). Medical facilities are provided by private medical practitioners. Every node has a hospital run by the Mahatma Gandhi Medical Trust. Community health car centers are also there (CIDCO, 1995). In its fourth objective to provide an ecologically friendly environment, CIDCO has not been entirely successful. The area of woodlands has been constantly decreasing (CIDCO, 1995). Most woodlands are in the form of mango groves which form a part of neighborhood parks. In the conceptual plan, streams flowing from the hillsides were to irrigate the woodland corridors. No significant effort has been made to utilize this resource. However, holding ponds have been constructed. Promenades have been built along them and they are being used as recreation areas (Parab, 1997). The fifth objective is the primary focus of this thesis. The objective to prevent ethnic enclaves and to promote a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics was fairly ambitious. In order for its success, a perfect control of the market is required. The analysis of the data will show the outcome of the objective.

1992 128.71 5.75 43.14 22.7 5.76 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70

2. CIDCO provides serviced sites for both government and private ownership. and improvements made in the next phase of design. the extension of the railway lines. Social aspects of city planning were given importance with special attention given to considerations of employment opportunities. The poor transportation links between Bombay and Navi Mumbai has been the main contributing factor. housing requirements. . development and implementation of ideas were done in an incremental manner. Periodic socioeconomic and household surveys were used to determine the status of constructed environment. the Gandhian principles supported cultural heterogeneity and mixed use zoning. The absence of a port and railway links slowed growth.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 18 NEW BOMBAY BOMBAY Arabian Sea Residential Woodlands Industrial Port Institutional Trucking Wholesale Fishing Wetlands Figure 2. While Modernism called for single-use zoning and a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics. middle-income group and high-income groups. recreation and commercial needs. since 1990 there has been accelerated growth due to the commissioning of Nhava-Sheva port. However. lower income group.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai Source: CIDCO. utilities. establishment of more industries and construction of more houses. the city is no longer a plan on paper. 1995. and housing occupancy rates are high. Growth in other development sectors of Bombay has also had an adverse effect on Navi Mumbai’s growth. but a living and working reality. Designing. Though the Navi Mumbai project was begun in 1970. Problems of design and development were identified.10 Conclusion The Draft Development Plan of Navi Mumbai described many broad outlines for the development of a city for the common citizen. The design principles described in the Draft Development Plan were based on the philosophical reasoning of Mahatma Gandhi and the functionalistic approach of Modernism. Houses have been constructed for different sectors of society economically weaker section. Many attributes of these two design principles are not necessarily harmonious. Hence. Commuter services have become operational since May 1992. the development process has been slow.

This also implies that the urban social pattern was predetermined. planned city within the context of a specific historic and cultural setting.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 19 This design also strongly supported the need to use the government’s power and machinery to promote the uniform distribution of people and prevent ethnic enclaves. Navi Mumbai is a modern. The research setting under consideration is the result of the hybridization of Indian and Western ideas. Very little analysis has been done on the outcome of CIDCO's social agenda to ensure diffusion of ethnic groups and the urban social pattern that emerged. The aim of this research is to examine the present urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. . A heavy-handed implementation strategy of this objective was done by taking complete control of the residential allotment. The success of this strategy depended on maintaining this control.

1968). ethnicity. Where market forces work. 1990). and those of Mahatma Gandhi. The human-environment relationship is a two-way process termed as the socio-spatial dialectic (Knox. Whatever the mode of construction. Intricacies in relationships have increased the complexity of the urban form over time. Urban social pattern is the pattern formed by the interaction of various social variables such as household characteristics. they are more generic and may not represent the lifestyles of every household. India. urban form is not merely the architectural form of the city (Lozano. because it changes continuously in a temporal dimension. if government agencies or contractors build them. Most cities in the Third World and India have been indigenous in origin and organic in growth. The pattern of spatial distribution is recognizable in most contemporary cities (Alexander. Thus. This literature review will first trace the human settlements in India. 1968). Human settlements contain people and societies in a physical environment consisting of natural and man-made elements (Doxiadis. . Simultaneously. If the residents build the buildings themselves. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern Every human settlement consists of certain elements. Education. language and housing character. The urban pattern is a result of the relationships between people and their social. religion. 1995). people adapt to the physical environment around them. residents soon influence their urban environment. and bear characteristics of western influence. then they reflect their lifestyles. occupation and values of housing influence the spatial character. Interaction of these elements form a pattern .the urban pattern. 1973). but four-dimensional. 1987). Land ownership patterns. Socioeconomic factors have a very important contribution to the pattern. It is a city designed with the design principles of the time. income is one of the most important determinants. The aim of the thesis is to examine the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between its elements within the temporal context. Buildings and spaces are created by people and quite often characterize them (Kostof. The final outcome of a morphological study is the formulation of a theory which connects facts to form hypotheses. 3. (New Bombay). Navi Mumbai is one of the first cities in India built for the common citizen. communication and socioeconomic relationships influence urban patterns. principles and existing theories for improving the design of cities (Doxiadis. technology.1 Introduction A human settlement is an establishment created by people for their inhabitation. economic and physical environments. transportation.Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 3. However. changing and modifying it to suit their way of life (Lozano. Such a human settlement is not just threedimensional. These design ideas seem to have a strong influence of Modernism (CIDCO. 1990). It is also a cultural manifestation. 1991). Many of these cities have been under colonial rule.

1990): i the way in which nature and man-made features satisfy needs for protection and defense i the way in which physical and economic landscape allows for communication with other regions i the way in which the topography of a site suggests the construction of a human settlement i the way in which climate leads to building solutions These factors influence the cultural and spiritual form of the cities as well. it is necessary to determine existing land use as a pre-condition to urban growth and form.a fort or a religious building. A city replaces existing land use. Doxiadis defines five elements in the study of human settlements. They are the units of analysis of the morphological study (Knox. Traditional settlements were shaped by (Lozano. Urban patterns represent a continuity of time and space. 1995). buildings and infrastructure. “The typical sector represents the formal characteristics found throughout the area and thus acquires some universality” (Lozano. They are nature. which may be universal or local. every city has certain elements. the node (township) and the sector (neighborhood) will be used as the study areas using aggregated household survey data.3 Factors Influencing Urban Form Many factors influence the form of cities.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 21 Demographics. Traditional cities have used physical forms to interpret cultural and religious beliefs (Lozano. The patterns have similarities. In the study of Navi Mumbai. For example. Thus urban social patterns are complex manifestations of underlying cultural values intermingled with global economic forces (McGee. The built form is influenced by factors as (Alexander. Since the characteristics are universal (within the frame of study) they may be studied by a spatial representative sector. 1971). Urban spatial patterns occur because of the repetitive spatial distribution of these elements. 1987): i land ownership i street patterns i existing land use i economic considerations i planning regulations i political and historical events The physical expansion of the city is always bound and guided by land ownership. Some farmers may sell their land more easily than others may. The rural land may also have been . a hill top site was the utilitarian response to any important building . society. The change of land use from rural to urban depends on the existing land use. linguistics and ethnic background also influence urban patterns. In most studies this unit is the neighborhood which displays both physical and social aspects of the whole urban development. 3. Although details may not be identical. and the ownership. The physical form is a variable of the social and built pattern of the city. 1990). Time and place may provide them with different characteristics making each city unique and dynamic. This representative sector is defined as the smallest area that exhibits the characteristics of the urban settlement. 1990). These features contributed to a particular urban and social pattern. Thus. human beings. and natural and manmade obstacles.

personal preferences and many institutional constraints. 1979). This allowed some of the people to develop other professions. Kosambi. For thousands of years. A particular social pattern brings about a particular built form. Urbanization took place at different chronological periods. social and political circumstances influence the social pattern (Scargill. 1986): i ethnic composition of the city i migration i religion i economic considerations i race i political and historical events The housing market also influences the social pattern of the city. 3. other scholars contend that it is doubtful that surplus can be attributed as the single factor which caused the emergence of urban settlements (Jacobs. 1995). within. These factors are (Alexander. Reasons such as trade and defense have also been used to explain the formation of cities. they supported a range of activities. Childe put forth a theory that urban centers were a result of agricultural change. 1983). government offices and warehouses formed the built environment of the city. A household’s choice of place to live is determined by its income level. Certain built forms encourage certain social patterns. Planning controls influence development to a great extent. Plots of varying sizes and shapes influence the layout of the streets and of individual buildings (Knox. a city contained social distinctions in terms of class. others are global in scope. Owner-occupier. and Thomas. People as food gatherers advanced to become farmers. surplus food production was achieved. Housing. cities were very simple although they rarely served single purposes.5 The Sociocultural Factors India is among the most stratified of all known societies in the world (Srinivas. Domestication of animals and cultivation of land created villages. commercial buildings. 1990). However. Various economic. While some processes are culture-specific. Pedestrian movement limited the size of the city. 1987. private rental and public sector housing operationalize housing sectors. The social pattern and the built form are interrelated and contribute to the urban morphology of a city. Priests. 1992a). The variation in influencing factors and historical circumstance gave rise to different urban forms in different parts of the world. The evolution of the urban pattern of Indian cities is divided into the social pattern and the built form. Master plans and regional plans provide long-range strategies for development. The caste system of India separates and hierarchies the Hindus. craftsmen and merchants were born. Clear differentiation between urban and rural existed.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities The traditional theory of urban origin is generally attributed to Childe (Herbert.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 22 subdivided. often because of a city wall. The factors influencing urbanization were also different. race and religion (Vance. 1990). Instead. Soon. However. 3. The external .

thighs and feet of the Creator. The social stratification is very deep and varied. culture. 3. linguistic. differentiates itself into only hierarchical status containing inequality (Gupta. 1992).5. However. religious and ethnic diversity of the country (Gupta. sometimes reinforced by common work roles. diet and dress. 1992b). 1992a). 1974:8). language. The differences may also be placed in a horizontal system (example: language. The characteristics caste. 1992). Hierarchy allows elements of the whole to be ranked with relation to each other (example: income and prestige). 1992b:14). The population may be stratified based on income. Berreman (1965) says "Caste systems rank people by birthascribed group membership rather than by individual attributes. all elements can not be arranged vertically. Along with the caste exist occupational stratification. Although no hierarchy is mentioned in the Sukta. linguistic stratification and religious stratification. class. religion).2 Class "Class refers to a system of stratification which is economic in character" (Gupta. As many individual criteria are . rituals. The caste system varies from village to village and is a local phenomenon. Stratification implies a differentiation based on a set of criteria. However. the forms of social stratification are many. 1992). vertical and horizontal systems of stratification exist. Vaishya and Sudra are said to have come from the mouth. Clothing. territory. 1992). Certain occupations such as butchery and cobblery lower the rank. The real world.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 23 manifestation of the separation and hierarchy through particular attributes of the castes brings about social stratification of the urban social pattern (Marriott. However. this popular caste hierarchy is not clear throughout the Indian subcontinent (Srinivas. 1992b). Certain customs lower or raise the status of the caste. The dominant caste legend is the Purushasukta legend whereby the Brahman. Vegetarian castes occupy higher positions. these single criterion hierarchies can be misleading as they depend on cutoff points related to individual analysis (Gupta. theoretically. unfortunately. Class systems by contrast define the rank of their members according to their individual attributes and behavior". The term ethnic group refers broadly to people “with some similar characteristics which go beyond their mere place in a societal division of labor” (Brass. 1992). The criteria for the differentiation can normally be translated into money or wealth. religion or occupation (Bougle. 3. religion and language are discussed below. Repulsion between castes forced isolation and the creation of distinct residential enclaves (Bougle. Ethnic characteristics refer to language. a hierarchy from Brahman to Sudra has been interpreted (Bougle. The spirit of the caste system is determined by the attitudes of each caste to the other. The Indian theory of social stratification depends on caste. Various combinations of the hierarchy have come about due to regional differentiation in certain attributes of social living. marriage and death ceremonies distinguish one caste from another.1 Caste Castes are the hierarchical divisions of people based on professional and family membership. arms. In India. language. Kshatriya. and in the case of India.5. Thus.

Hindi was chosen because it was the language spoken by the largest percent of the population while was a result of the British legacy. 1985). Islam was a religion that came to India from outside and is culturally very different from Hinduism. The League demanded for a separate electorate and for more employment in public service. “In most folk-memory the Muslims of India had been ruler. The major languages of India are Hindi. Telugu.Jainism and Sikhism. the Muslims were in power over most of India. The census of India 1951 (immediately after Independence) recorded a total of 179 languages and 544 dialects in India.4 Language A systematic inventory of Indian languages began in the mid-eighteenth century. Tamil. Muslims became apprehensive of Hindu domination. which culminated in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. Kannada.5. An overwhelming view of Hindu-Muslim relations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is that Hindus advanced due to their enthusiasm to take up western education and government employment (Kaura. 1977). From the beginning Islam has been a conquering and proselytizing faith (Hodson. Urdu and Punjabi. During the Mughal rule (16th to 18th century). A Hindu revival period in the late nineteenth century to arouse enthusiasm for political action made the Muslims more insecure. At this time they felt the need for a political party of their own. Hindus and Muslims drifted apart in the issue of independence from British rule. There are many religions in India. not subjects” (Hodson. Anger and frustration broke out as violence as Hindus moved from Pakistan into India and Muslims moved from India to Pakistan (Hodson. In 1906 they formed the All-India Muslim League. Gujarati. . prestige and income to form a socioeconomic status. 1974). Malayalam. While the Congress party represented the majority of the Indian population. occupation. The linguistic distribution is not only diverse but also very complex (Das Gupta. India is the birthplace of two major religions –Hinduism and Buddhism – and two minor religions . 1997). The Hindu religion has always been a pacifist and tolerant religion. Bengali. Buddhism. it may be better to create a composite index of education. Jainism and Sikhism stemmed off from Hinduism and are very similar to Hinduism. 1985:11). absorbing other religious doctrines and never proselytizing.3 Religion Religion and language have provided the motive power for nationalism in India (Brass. A certain degree of animosity between Hindus and Muslims has existed since the first Muslim ruler of 1018 AD.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 24 linked to other attributes. The wake of Independence brought with it violence and terror in the Indo-Pakistan borders in Punjab and Bengal. Marathi. 3. 1970). 1974). the Muslim League represented only the Muslim population (Brass.5. The framers of the Indian Constitution chose Hindi and English as the official languages of the government (King. However. degree of control over the language and relationship between the languages affect their social communication. The characteristics of the population regarding bilinguals. 1985). After the decline of the Mughal Empire and the loss of political power to the British. 3.

ethnic conflicts are easily targeted towards these select neighborhoods. all castes looked up to the farmer caste because they were important landowners and were wealthy (Srinivas. Traditionally these castes had either wealth or power. 3. there also been conflict between other regional languages. Agitation and violence broke out in many non-Hindi states over this issue. In the early 1950s. had led them to better job opportunities. Pakistan officially declared itself as a Muslim state. The separatism movements seen all over India are all based on ethnicity and inter-caste rivalry (Bose. In some villages. The South Indian state of Tamil Nadu was most vocal in the Anti-Hindi agitation. Although a minority of Hindu leaders in India felt that India should be declared as a Hindu state. This was not seen in more heterogeneous neighborhoods. Language conflicts have also occurred in India. There was strong opposition from non-Hindi areas in general and South India in particular (Hindi is a IndoAryan language while the languages of South India belong to the Dravidian group). Hindu-Muslim riots broke out even in Bombay which has normally been a very peaceful city. Small Muslim enclaves within a majority Hindu neighborhood were targeted. many political leaders advocated for the use of Hindi as a national and official language. a synonym for official language and like state religion. a demand for a national language also arose. However. 1970). Repercussions were felt all over the country. This issue can not only be seen at the time of partition in 1947 but also was seen during the recent communal violence in 1993. The better control the Tamil people had over English. 1971). The partition of United India into India and Pakistan came with many problems. as it was difficult to isolate only one family.5. The Babri Masjid in Ayodhya was broken down by Hindu fundamentalists. and vice versa. In a multilingual society there may be a plurality of national languages. 1988). Writers in Hindi commonly refer to Hindi as Rashtrabasha (state language) which may signify language used by the state. The inequality and economic differentiation cause conflict between the castes and classes. confusion has always existed about the status of Hindi as official or national language. Compromise was . a majority of the leaders preferred a composite nationalism. Certain castes are dominant in a society. In many places. 1992a). This confusion in terminology is the basis for most language-related problems in Independent India. a state language with an unique status (Das Gupta. 1989).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 25 However. The union government declared that fifteen year deadline after Independence would be given for transition of official language from English and Hindi to only Hindi. This rationale of composite nationalism influenced policies related to religion and language (Das Gupta. they believed. The Tamilnad Students’ Anti-Hindi Agitation Council objected to both the removal of English as an official language and the declaration of Hindi as the sole official language.5 Implications of the Sociocultural Factors The implications of caste and class are closely related to those of power and wealth (Dumont. 1970). the Brahman priests had more power because it was believed that they were the representatives of the Creator on earth. Although a majority of the rivalry has been for and against Hindi. The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India declared the fourteen major languages listed as national language (Gumprez. When the ethnic groups occupy distinct neighborhoods.

the differentiation and assimilation in progress in a multi-ethnic society receives a prominent place in any political conflict. In the initial stages it was in the form of caste differentiation as prescribed by the Hindu/ Vedic texts. The temple also influences the siting of other land uses. Social assimilation and mobilization are a part of any evolving civilization. The caste system over the next ten to fifteen centuries became deeply rooted in the Hindu population and became a part of life. Vastushastra. the creator. Despite the Act. The earliest is the Hindu phase (3000 B. The town wall enclosed the mandala.1). The science of architecture and planning. The ethnic segregation and conflict has existed from the beginning of the Indian Civilization. Jainism.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 26 finally reached in 1963 under the Official Languages Act. Judaism and Christianity found their way into India. and which had as many padas as there were to be residential sectors was selected. governed the alignment of roads. Prime commercial and residential land was located near the temple. padas. Sikhism were born in India while Islam. 1986). 1969). If it could not be a perfect square. cyclical and swastika (Figure 3. The streets ran from north to south and from east to west. These characteristics are derived from the need for defense and administration and the importance of religion (Kopardekara. and four gateways were situated at the cardinal points. Hinduism. 3. The temple as the symbol of religion dominates the urban form.6 The Built Form The historical evolution of the built form of Indian cities can be divided into three distinct phases. . This does not imply that social assimilation does not occur. While some groups spoke of an all-India nationality other speaks of a regional nationality (Brass. class. violence sparked off by language issues has continued to occur in India. C to 12th century AD). which was the terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe inhabited by Brahma. Related to castes. The multi-dimensional society was soon complicated by the emergence of other religions. A number of languages coexisted in all parts of the country. Certain other shapes were also considered to be auspicious like the circle. However. religion and language is the issue of group identity which is the cause of most ethnic conflicts. Buddhism. which contributes many elements to the urban form. orientation of buildings and arrangement of internal rooms based on astrological and religious criteria (Volwahsen.1 Circle and Swastika depended on the natural features of the site. Stratification of the society had to accommodate these religious factors. 1974). The mandala could be divided into smaller squares. a perfect rectangle was accepted. both from within and without the country. The square was used in the creation of the vastupurusha mandala. The Indian society was also stratified horizontally by language. The final shape of the town Figure 3. In planning the town a vastupurusha mandala which was most auspicious.

1980).7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns . The residential character throughout this period was segregated. The Brahmans and Kshatriyas lived in the parts of the town which were climatically more comfortable sheltered from the hot sun. These are the theories which pertain to the built and social form of the city. Williamson and Mills. jewelry. Kshatriyas in the eastern and southeastern part. Many researchers have tried to fit Indian urban growth into a theoretical model. Generally. India inherited a complex urban fabric. 1980). The colonial influence (17th to early 20th century A. and wood formed niches in the urban pattern. military establishments . There was further subdivisions within each district depending on the sub-caste. 1986). “In the case of India. The morphological components include buildings used for trade warehouses. Characteristics from medieval times are Islamic in nature (14th to 17th centuries A. jali (carved screens) and projecting balconies (Kopardekara. but also on socioeconomic factors (Ramachandran.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 27 The residential districts were divided among the four castes. and Hindu elements of this period are not distinct from earlier ones. In India where occupation and caste are synonyms. the Hindu tradition continued. 3. During this time. The three leading theories described below are based on the built form of the city. D. especially seen in the port cities associated with the East India Company (Mills. 1989). As the built form depends on the social characteristics portrayed by its residents. Diversification of professions due to industrialization in the post-independence era has resulted in further complexity (Becker. the Brahmans worked and lived in the northern district. This led to the development of commercial centers and zoning based on Western market principles. Vaishyas in the southern part and Sudras in the western district. and insufficient infrastructure in cities has led to the creation of slums and shantytowns (Misra. The urban segregation was based on function and occupation premises. The Islamic elements included the mosque and domestic architecture which emphasized the purdah through enclosed courtyards. 1992). counting houses. A generalization of these patterns has been made. It has been shown that rural values have penetrated the urban philosophy due to large-scale migration. On the periphery of these urban centers. and the apparent timelessness and permanence of village life” (Hall. 1988). the same theories are being used to describe the social patterns as well.were developed (Hall. 1978). Residential areas associated with the commercial area were contiguous or within the commercial area (Hall.the cantonment . D. The characteristics of the social and built form of the city contribute to its pattern. pottery. this has led to segregation and creation of enclaves within the city. Residential segregation is no longer based only on occupation and caste.) was the third phase of historical urban form. Large migration of people from the rural area. metalware. 1980). and the south-west monsoon. many researchers have pointed to the lack of penetration of urban values into the countryside. At the time of independence in 1947.). Areas for selling of specific goods – cloth.

1992). free Middle income market. The movement was towards the periphery. 1990). and studying how the city grew (Scargill. These immigrants first found cheap housing in the inner city. others dynamic in nature. it is a descriptive framework to CBD analyze spatial organization of land use in a city Transition and its change over time.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 28 Various spatial theories of the social pattern of cities have been advanced. some static. 3. This also forced an outward expansion. Thus. The model made many assumptions such as uniform land surface. 1929). 1929). High income heterogeneous population and a commercialindustrial base (Herbert and Thomas. Diversification in employment opportunities gave rise to the growth of mixed land use development. It also had older residential districts. 1929). The next zone had lower income housing. they moved to better housing districts (Burgess. and especially in Chicago. which had factories and slums. The three leading Western models are: i Concentric zone model i Sector model i Multiple nuclei model These models have become frameworks for studying urban social patterns across the world (Hartshorn. This was surrounded by a transition zone. most American cities in the mid-west absorbed many immigrant groups from Europe. Families moved out into the next zone when their zone was invaded. In the early 1920s. and successive zones had higher income residences (Burgess. 1979). This model was based on Burgess’ experience in the American mid-west cities.7. 1992). The basic premise in this model was that of succession and invasion whereby population groups gradually moved out as their economic and social status improved. The public transport system had also improved significantly and allowed the middle-class to . accessibility to a single-centered city. political and social activities. Mobility and migrant influx were though of as the main cause of the social pattern (Hartshorn. With affluence. The CBD core had all major commercial.1 Concentric Zone Theory This theory put forth by Burgess in 1925 related population mobility and societal organization to the physical expansion of the city (Burgess. Figure 3. The same city may express different models at different time periods (Scargill. 1979). It was partly based on Low income economic factors.2).2 Concentric Zone Theory Burgess’ research on the distributional pattern of Source: Burgess. Burgess was interested in determining a pattern for the social structure of the city. 1929 various groups of society led him to conclude that the city was made up of concentric zones with the central business district (CBD) at the center (Figure 3. which were being taken over by the expanding CBD.

It also did not explain the impact of transport networks on these zones (Scargill. 1978). The wedge pattern represents residential area growth (Scargill. For example. Hoyt primarily studied residential land use.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 29 travel from outer zones to the CBD for work. It is more specific to some cities (King and Golledge. However. It gives strength to cities with original nucleus in the center. S (Hoyt.4). Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. This model also accommodates growth (Hartshorn. Hoyt also stressed the need to consider zoning laws and slum clearance laws in making models. 3. 1939 3. Concentric zones or sectors may emerge from these nuclei. commercial ethnic group residential industrial Figure 3. Rental value was the main criterion for studying the pattern (King.2 Sector Theory Homer Hoyt put forth a land use theory after studying over 100 cities in the U. industries may cluster around the railway line or lowincome housing along a riverbank. These reasons complemented a concentric zone development model (Scargill.3 Multiple Nuclei Theory The multiple nuclei theory was put forth by Harris and Ullman. Neighborhoods for each income group are common.4 Multiple Nuclei Theory Source: Hartshorn. 1939). 1978).7. The model is very simple and can be used to predict how urban land markets work. This model proposes that patterns in many cities be arranged around several centers (Scargill. 1979). Hoyt studied the city as an economist concerned with how the housing market worked. The original model did not take into account specialized clusters of industry. 1978). He said that residential sectors of similar rent are situated in wedges radiating from the center (Figure 3. This is because concentration of certain activities may prove to be more beneficial. 1990). empirical studies did not confirm his model one hundred percent (Herbert and Thomas.3 Sector Theory Source: Hoyt. 1979). and subsequent decentralization (Figure 3. Hence. Burgess has been criticized for not having considered topographical criteria. and Golledge. This is not a generalized model. The model also accounts for growth along transport routes. 1979). 1992 . 1979).7. 1992).3). It was intended to serve as a framework for studying urban growth and change (King and Golledge. The real world is more complicated than what was represented by Burgess’ very general model.

but also an expression of socioeconomic and cultural values of the people. The broad generalization of the social rank produced a sector model. These were social rank.8 Case Studies of Urban social Patterns The study of the urban social pattern of a city primarily focuses on the residential land use (Herbert and Thomas. security and identity. As a family’s needs for space increase. parenthood. every city has some constraints. family status and ethnic status. This concept. The non-uniform pattern is consistent over many cities because similar households exert similar housing choices. 1990). social status and retirement (Scargill. The main assumption here was that social rank is related to transportation links which influence residential location in a sectoral manner (Scargill. 1971). are suitable modifications of the concept (Timms. 1979). The concept of neighborhood units became popular since the1920s in planned settlements (Perry. 3. It is only the most convenient one. 1929). the neighborhood unit is used as the unit of analysis in the study of human settlements (Herbert and Thomas. has been under strong criticism (Hartshorn. Social rank used the variables.marriage. The data source was census tracts. Critics say that neighborhood unit strongly emphasizes physical environment. three indices were used. The values are also related to family. ethnic status and family status (Timms.1 Western Cities Many studies of the social and physical urban pattern have been done. The use of these three indices for analysis is a social area analysis. community and social and civic responsibilities such as aesthetics. safety. family status used the variables related to demographics and type of house. education. Individualistic frameworks. it does not address the needs of a social environment. ethnic status used religion and social groups. However. employment. It serves as the building block to construct the whole town. Analysis of individual cities shows that the pattern is not uniform and is characterized by residential segregation. This is . 1979). which analyze the physical environment under consideration. housing choices may not be made on economic basis. In the built environment this corresponds to ethnic neighborhoods (Timms. they move outwards. A neighborhood is the basis for formally organized residential space.8. In Western cities the reasons for non-uniformity have been identified as socioeconomic status. neighborliness. but on cultural ones. The city was viewed as a part of society. however. 1971). A neighborhood unit is not the only model or universally appropriate unit of analysis. Hence. It is assumed that any planned city consists of neighborhood units. 1990). For example. It is not only a physical design concept. housing conditions and material possessions. 1971). The outward mobility is related to different stages of life . value of home.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 30 3. 1990). Family status in American cities shows a concentric distribution. 1992). In the analysis of urban social patterns. and social change was expected to be reflected in studies which were repeated over a time period (Herbert and Thomas. This type of urbanization is also related to the housing market described by Hoyt (1939). Ethnicity causes the social phenomena of segregation.

Winnipeg. traditional and modern design elements juxtaposed in seemingly dichotomous ways.5 Urban Social Patterns Source: Knox. A study of Baltimore (Knox. 1971). Ethnicity.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 31 predominant in cities where migration is high. Traditional places are typically more dense with narrow streets and housing spaces around central courtyards. Cities in the Third World are frequently dual environments. Australia (Timms. 1995) shows that the four important factors in the social pattern are underclass. Hartshorn. 1990) showed similar results. youth/migrants and black poverty. 1995. 1979).2 Third World Cities commercial ethnic group residential industrial Ethnic Status CBD Transition Low income Middle income High income Family Status Socioeconomic Status Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. Public open spaces are generally found only . however.8. The changing pattern of family cycle reflects concentric zones while that of social rank is in sectors. but socially with more complex relations to one another. Canada (Herbert and Thomas. Studies of Brisbane. socioeconomic status. does not always emerge as an independent component (Scargill. 3. 1992.

The colonial cities in Latin America show a centralized social pattern (Portes. A large number of models of Third World cities have been made (Lowder. and subsequently surrounded by an industrial city (Lowder. 1975). Thus. which is adjacent to. The more Figure 3. as opposed to conglomerations. Processes quite different from those in western cities govern the pattern of Third World cities. traditional commercial areas and modern commercial areas. The residences of the richer class formed the first concentric zone around the plaza. 1986). The social Figure 3. Source: Lowder. 1986). The nuclei are original village. and surrounds old Delhi (Figure 3.6 Plan of Delhi and New educated and professional classes followed the Delhi. Around the plaza was the important buildings including a church. ethnicity and literacy. are very complex and have evolved over a very long time. 1980. 1986 Literacy and ethnic patterns emerged in a sectoral form. Even single cities. Western ideas of suburbanization and formed their Source: Drakakis-Smith own neighborhoods (Lowder. An analysis of Calcutta showed a pattern based on land use. the morphological pattern of each Third World city is different mainly because of the presence of an indigenous city enclosed by a colonial city.6) (Herbert and Thomas. The model shows that the indigenous elite were closely associated with the commercial area. along riverbanks). 1986). The modern place is more spacious. The second and third concentric zones were occupied progressively by poorer people. social and economic variables may not be the only factors. but formed shantytowns in the peri-urban fringes and in unserviced areas (under bridges. Social morphological models constructed for the Third World cities show that there is a central concentration of commercial activity and a number of residential neighborhoods. The morphological model of Asian port cities shows a multiple nucleus (Figure 3. substandard living conditions and ethnicity were the broad variables that defined the social pattern of the city. family ties.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 32 around religious buildings. But.7). . land use. A classic example can be seen in the design of New Delhi. 1990). The center of the city was the plaza. 1986). The migrants and poor did not live in the core of the city. which contribute significantly to the urban pattern (Kopardekara. A study of Colombo (Herbert and de Silva. 1974) found that social status.7 Asian Ports pattern showed concentric zones for land use.

1986 residential colonies moved from the center of the city to the urban periphery which were selected for their better geographic. 1980): i Residences have not yet come to serve the symbolic function they do in the Western world. in general. i Symbolic functionalism is performed by religion and caste and buttressed by regional affiliations. The horizontal relationships are between people of the same cultural background while vertical relationships are between caste and class.8. 1977). The pattern is similar to the one described by the sector model of North Figure 3. yet complementary. climatic and aesthetic factors. 1986). "Particularly in cosmopolitan cities cultural or linguistic diversity and regional associations develop to extol their culture and language and to participate in their own . In the 18th and 19th centuries. A consistent relationship existed between socioeconomic position of the household and their distance from the center of the city. the Indian urban social scene essentially reflects two facets of non-western structure (Hall. It has been found that Indian cities defy social modeling. spatial segregation based on ethnicity. Research findings point out that while caste is important in rural societies for its very functioning. The outer ring bordered on farmland (Figure 3. The social ties are horizontal and vertical. A second indigenous factor suffusing urban society is that of regional affiliation. has created social organizations for each caste (Kopardekara.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 33 Here. But. In the cities where new professions were created.3 Indian Cities In cities of India. languages and customs. new definitions had to be made. and religious duties performed by the Brahmins. Wealthier families began to move out of the center and settle in more isolated locations. industrial and office workers belonged to all castes. in rural areas. 1975). For example. status groups help to produce a very obscure patterning of social groups at the micro-level of analysis. farming is done only by the Sudra caste. In Lima. religion and language rather than demographics and economics can be seen.8 Latin American Cities America. Soon. The greater complexity of urban life and the difficulty of maintaining caste identity through residential segregation alone. Soon socioeconomic status related to nearness to the center became related to distance away from the center. Santiago and Chile Source: Lowder. The pattern was a creation of the lifestyle choices of the urban rich (Portes. the farther away from the center. Many studies have been done to study Indian urban areas. many large cities became crowded. 3. The nature of traditional social status and the interdependence and spatial interpretation of diverse. caste.8). the poorer the household (Cornelius. the residences became smaller and public amenities were reduced. in urban environments the meaning of caste becomes more important in terms of identity rather than function. and especially to construct a structural model.

and that the temple acted as the most meaningful focus for the spatial distribution of social characteristics.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 34 regional festivals if not usually celebrated in the region within which they live now" (Hall. Temple Bazaar Centroid Fort Brush (1977) studied 24 cities in India and discerned four types of gradients of population directly related to their Figure 3. had western style CBDs. low migration and equal male to female ratio. real case studies did not prove this theory. Madras. 1974 evolutionary pattern. commercial or administrative areas. Bombay. i South Indian cities had higher female employment rate. cities that were well developed even before the colonial period. Their influence and interplay causes residential segregation. These three dimensions were i socioeconomic dimension symbolized by the bazaar i political dimension represented by an administrative symbol i prestige dimension derived from the religious function of a temple. These three dimensions would form concentric zones (Figure 3. i North Indian cities had low female employment rates. He postulated three dimensions as being important contributors to residential segregation. He had the following conclusions. Calcutta) has low-density commercial centers surrounded by high-density residential neighborhoods. higher migration and equal male to female ratio. i The modern planned cities (Jamshedpur. However. Chandigarh) have low population densities with no concentration of industrial. Instead. such neighborhoods are the source for the development of the corporate groups. The centroid of the system represents the optimum location for accessibility to all three functions. Certain areas are known for their residents speaking a particular language only. Weinstein (1974) made an attempt to produce a conceptual model for the social segregation of an Indian city. 1968).9). Ahmad (1965) did a factor analysis of the socioeconomic characteristics of Indian cities. colonial cities. higher literacy. had retained their residential core (Mehta. Hyderabad had two nuclei – the old city and the colonial city. Calcutta and Madras.9 Pattern of Indian Cities Source: Weinstein. Industrial towns like Jamshedpur were planned around their industrial core. it was found that multiple nuclei were present. Although the neighborhoods that result are not corporate groups in the sense in which they are defined. 1980:35). low literacy. . Pune and Varanasi. i Metropolitan cities (Bombay.

Census data from 1881.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 35 Such broad conclusions are results of regional analyses. 1986). The patterns were attributed to Europeanism. castes and classes produces a more heterogeneous pattern. The existence of multiple physical urban patterns caused by the presence of indigenous settlements. A systematic analysis of census data for Bombay was done (Kosambi. . These examples show that the urban social pattern of Indian cities is very complex due to the influence of a variety of factors. languages. The presence of many religions. transportation and socioeconomic status (Kosambi. The social patterns were also strongly influenced by the age of the city. 1901. 1831 and 1961 was used to determine the evolution and change of the social pattern. British cities and industrial towns within the boundary of the urban area. 1986). commercialism. Analysis at the level of a single city gave patterns that are more complex. religious polarity.

Hartshorn.10 Urban Social Patterns and Relevant Case Studies.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 36 C oncentric Z one T h eory S ector T heory Incom e g rou p 1 M ultiple N uclei T heory commercial ethnic group CBD Tran sitio n L ow incom e M iddle inco m e H igh inco m e In com e g roup 2 residential industrial In com e g rou p 3 D elhi Latin A m erica A sian P orts C oncentric + S ector T heories C hicago C alcutta C oncentric + S ector + M ultiple N uclei T h eories Figure 2. 1992. Source: Lowder. 1986. .

Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 37 3. The components of the analysis of American cities are not entirely apparent in the Third World cities. The residential neighborhoods of such cities are not as well defined as they are in the American cities. In Third World cities. Status in Third World cities is based on family membership or socioeconomic class. or in search of opportunities in the city. Migration may also be restricted to the men of the family. it is appropriate to use a social area analysis to delineate the urban social pattern. this is not evident due to the existence of multi-generational families. The households are generally large with a range of ages. Three leading western theories describing the urban social pattern of cities dominate the literature on urban social patterns (Hartshorn. migration or ethnic group represent the ethnic factor. religion and language. class. In such a case study. Land-use is also similar in that it is predominantly single-use zoning. These are concentric zone theory. an effort was made to prevent this social stratification and use residential allotments to fulfill this objective. the sociocultural factors are related to caste. family status and ethnic status. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. Stratification causes social inequality in terms of wealth. In the design of Navi Mumbai. the researcher’s knowledge of the local environment is important to contextualize the pattern more appropriately. These theories have been combined in a social area analysis to describe the social pattern based on a few social variables.9 Conclusion The urban social pattern is the complex manifestation of the underlying cultural values of the population within a particular built environment. In the case of India. skills and professions. In the case of Navi Mumbai. The lifestyle depends on ethnicity and migration. power and status. the residential neighborhoods have been designed using the neighborhood principle as those designed in America. Traditional Indian cities have grown over a very long period of time. 1992). In the American cities. Here. The reasons for migration are also varied – they may be migrating as a result of natural calamities. . The lifestyle factor in North American cities relates small nuclear families with higher education achievements and better employment opportunities. The historical evolution of cities has supported this stratification. this social area analysis must take into consideration the indigenous factors. A market economy strongly influences the lifestyle of the citizens of Navi Mumbai. These characteristics stratify the society into vertical and horizontal systems. Male dominance. the components derived from social area analysis were termed as socioeconomic status. However. The growth of cities across the world has been studied. Social area analysis assumes that a few independent factors can explain the spatial patterning of a city. The urban social pattern of these cities has been generalized.

1 Social Area Analysis Social area analysis provides a broad framework for analyzing the social patterns of a city. studies in Calcutta. The analysis looks at the variables at once and at their respective locations in their distribution. 1955). They were considered to be very narrow and not universally applicable. 1971). there was considerable criticism about the choice of variables. The theories put forth by Burgess.Chapter 4: Research Design Determining the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai is the primary research objective of this thesis. This analysis classifies census tract data into three main constructs . Although these analyses have been more effective for studying North American cities. Social area analysis shows how family characteristics. The study involves the categorization of a city based on social rank. urbanization index. The social area analysis may be done statistically by a factor analysis. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. religion and ethnic background. Generally the economic model showed a sectored pattern. Cairo and Helsinki showed some useful generalization. Under these conditions. and ethnicity confirmed the validity of the analysis. economic status and ethnic background produce a certain spatial pattern in the city. The research investigates the relationship between the spatial pattern of Navi Mumbai and the different theories of urban social patterns discussed in the literature review. 1978). and housing characteristics. 4. It is a . the urbanization component showed a concentric ring pattern. family status and ethnic status. Hoyt and Harris and Ullman. The general issue of social areas will be accomplished through social area analysis. Thus. immigration of rural population leads to segregation based on language. These involve population. The aim is to identify key combinations of different measures that provide an adequate basis on which to differentiate the sub-areas from one another (King and Golledge. The pattern of the city may be determined by statistical analysis or by discerning people’s mental images of the city.socioeconomic status. mapping of social area analysis for a large sample of cities showed that socioeconomic status. The family as a unit becomes weaker. These factors are taken into consideration in social area analysis. Better transportation systems increase mobility and lead to a greater sorting of population (Cadwallader. It was first put forth by Shevky and Williams (1949) in a study of Los Angeles. and Harris and Ullman will be the theoretical framework for the conceptualization of the social pattern of Navi Mumbai. The increase in industrialization creates an occupational status system (Timms. However. Earlier. Cities are complex entities that have many different functions performed by many different people. The basic premise of social area analysis is that a city cannot be studied in isolation from the overall society (Shevky and Bell. the city was analyzed as a composite made up of three layers. 1985). A set of variables describing the social structure of the city can be used in the statistical analysis. Hoyt. economic. urbanization and segregation. The issue of spatial distribution of different kinds of people in Navi Mumbai is of primary interest. These three factors also corresponded to the theoretical models proposed by Burgess.

1990). is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social patterning will occur.3 Operationalization Certain variables will be used to operationalize the social area analysis to obtain the urban social pattern. education. If H0 is false. religion. The data available is based on a . mapping of social patterns in many cities across the world show that the socioeconomic status. 1980). Social structure in India is a result of cultural. H0.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Socioeconomic status Profession Number of earning members Income Education Family status Demographics Women at home Family size Dwelling size Type of house Year of occupation Ethnic status Religion Language 4. language) and vertical (occupation. family status and ethnic status correspond respectively to the sector theory. 4. This database provides aggregated information about each node (township). The sectors (neighborhoods) are identical to census block tracts. concentric zone theory and multiple nuclei theory. then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. This provides a spatial hierarchical data set. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. Social area analysis based on western thinking can not be naively applied to the study of urban social patterns in India.2 Hypotheses As discussed in the literature review.4 Data Collection The data required for the analysis can be obtained from census tracts of Navi Mumbai. The variables are tabulated below: Table 4. my null hypothesis. 4. and each sector (neighborhood) of the nodes. caste) dimensions (Hall. religious and historic development with both horizontal (kinship.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 39 device that seeks interrelationships among the set of input variables (Herbert and Thomas. Variables that arise from such cultural determinants need to be used in the factor analysis. In this case study of Navi Mumbai.

and GIS overlay techniques are used to determine the social pattern at the regional and sub-regional levels. All data is standardized. Table 4.007 Airoli 13. The principal components analysis draws out the relationship between the variables. This is a detailed stage of analysis.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 40 socioeconomic survey done by CIDCO in December 1995. An error of 5-8% is expected. These four methods are collectively used to analyze the data. cartographic mapping. the units of analysis are not identical. The cluster analysis puts together cases which are similar based on the relationship between the variables. Although principal components analysis is no longer considered the most favorable mode of analysis to delineate patterns.5. and compare it to other cities. the sector is the unit of analysis. is census data. The descriptive analysis helps understand the finer dimensions of the data. In this research. The first is a descriptive analysis of the data setting out the parameters that need to be considered to define the meaning of heterogeneity. These are techniques in multivariate analysis. The second is a principal components analysis.283 Nerul 16. The variables are expected to cluster based on the constructs described above.338 Belapur 9. The third is cluster analysis of the cases to see which variables are closely associated. The census data is not 100% reliable. for the purpose of this thesis it shall be used. The survey was carried out on a ~22% sample basis for each node. 4.161 Sanpada 2. At the regional scale the data is tabulated. The only data source that provides this information. The GIS and mapping techniques convert all the statistical information into a graphic representation. although variables are related.1 Descriptive Analysis The first stage of analysis describes the data at both the regional and sub-regional scale.109 Kalamboli 9.5 Methodology Four methodologies are used to analyze the data. 4. For a social area analysis.2 Survey Sampling Node Total Number of Dwellings Vashi 27. Finally. Statistics are weighted for spatial data because. and at the sub-regional scale attached as Appendix C. The single variable from that data set is selected and a histogram of it at the . data covering a large area is required.056 New Panvel 9.378 Kopar-khairane 14.357 Survey Coverage 6656 4219 2125 2034 2282 2530 2506 544 % of total 24 26 23 22 25 19 18 23 The issues of validity and reliability arise in the use of census data for testing the hypothesis.

Each original observation is converted into a principal component score.5. The rotation normally removes the negative loadings. the matrix of component scores is computed. Characteristics of the urban social pattern can be revealed by considering the relationship within groups. The . The data is interpreted in terms of its mean and standard deviation. The data matrix is converted into a correlation matrix. 1986). 1986). the second component accounts for as much of the residual variance left unexplained by the first factor. and results in a simpler pattern. Generally variables with communalities less than 0. These loadings indicate the strength of the relationships between variables and underlying components.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 41 sub-regional scale is drawn. Patterns can be delineated from mapping these components. The eigenvalue criterion (eigenvalue greater than or equal to 1) helps eliminate components which are not meaningful. In order to interpret this descriptive statistics for homogeneity. These restrictions are (1) there are k common components (2) underlying components are orthogonal to each other (3) the first component accounts for as much variance as possible. A variation greater than thirty percent of the total population from the mean (15% on either side of mean) is used here to show unequal distribution. It has very little theory and depends largely on experience. Corresponding communalities are also estimated. it is necessary to provide a permissible range of variation. Cluster analysis classifies the groups according to the observations into moreor-less homogenous and distinct groups (Davis. The elements of the eigenvectors that are used to compute the scores are called principal component loadings. Rotating the axis more closely intersects the clusters of variables. 1978). 4.5. The first step of principal components analysis is to obtain an initial solution. Comparative figures at the national scale are also given.3 Cluster Analysis Classification of data places objects in one or more homogenous groups. If the standard deviation at the 95% confidence interval is within 15% of the mean. The second step is to rotate the axis to get a simpler solution. Principal components are the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix (Davis. The initial solution is based on the orthogonal solution. then the pattern shall be interpreted as homogeneous.7 are not significant in the correlation matrix. This matrix contains components that represent a group of interrelated variables. Finally. and so on" (Kim and Mueller. The cases are the rows and the variables are the columns. The axis has been rotated orthogonally (assuming the factors are uncorrelated). "To obtain the initial solution. The N by M matrix is standardized in terms of standard deviation. Principal components analysis can be thought of as four matrices. 4. The first matrix is a simple data matrix. This approach to classification is very subjective. This solution determines whether a small number of the components can be used to explain the covariance between a large number of variables. This is varimax rotation. This matrix is next converted into a factor matrix. certain restrictions are imposed.2 Principal Components Analysis A principal components analysis reduces a large number of variables to a smaller number of underlying components.

The levels of similarity are used to construct the dendrogram. and so produces better dendrograms. The aim of these two kinds of analysis was to determine if the data set clustered into the three constructs given above. 4.5. Analysis was then done of one particular node of Navi Mumbai.0 to -1. The criteria for clustering is that both observations mutually have the highest correlation with each other. The distance coefficient is not constrained within the range of +1. The regional scale was comparisons between the eight nodes of Navi Mumbai. Distance coefficients are linked at low values. namely Vashi. A measure of similarity between every pair of objects is computed using Euclidean distance.6 Data Analysis Descriptive analysis of the data was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. and the statistical analysis to determine an interpretation of the pattern.4 Mapping and Overlays The final stage is the mapping of the descriptive analysis.0. Mapping of the principal components determined if any pattern exists in the social characteristics of Navi Mumbai at the regional and sub-regional scales. A low distance would indicate that two objects are similar and a large distance would indicate that the two objects are dissimilar. principal components analysis and cluster analysis. Both the analyses were done at a regional and sub-regional scale. This method joins similar observations. The SPSS program was also used to perform a principal component analysis and a cluster analysis on this data set. This mapping helps explain the statistics through a easily interpretable graphic representation. as is the correlation coefficient. . 4.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 42 classification procedure used here is hierarchical clustering. A correlation coefficient or distance coefficient may be used to evaluate similarities. then connects the next most similar observations to these. This stage of analysis integrates the theoretical framework.

Then the data set was studied at a sub-regional level by analyzing the neighborhoods of Vashi node. Airoli and Sanpada. Panvel. m. it was used for analysis. only then would they bring out the characteristics of the construct. 2651-4450 Education high school Family status Demographics Male pop. The criteria used to select the variables were based on the expectations of the hypothesis. unskilled status Number of earning members 1 earning member Income Rs. 5. and has fully developed residential sectors. As the 1995 survey data was the most recent data. This spatial scale is • regional scale (nodes). Belapur.1) with the actual variable from the data set. • sub-regional scale (sectors of a node) The study areas at the regional level of analysis are those of the nodes of Navi Mumbai including Vashi. The methodological reason for selecting these eight nodes out of the total of thirteen is because data was available for only these eight nodes. Vashi is the oldest node. The variables needed to explain the constructs as well as possible.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Name Variable from data set Socioeconomic Profession highly skilled. age 25-45. Muslim Language Marathi. Type of housing CIDCO Tenure 1980s Last place of residence Bombay Ethnic status Religion Hindu. Kopar-khairane.2 Descriptive Analysis of Data The different constructs and variable names described in the methodology section are tabulated below (Table 5.Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 5. Nerul. As this node had the most complete data. The analysis is divided into descriptive analysis of variables and detailed analysis at the regional and sub-regional.1 Introduction The aim of this research is to study the urban social pattern of the population across a hierarchical scale. Kalamboli. female pop. it was selected out of the eight nodes. One or two variables from each set was selected for this study. only one or two representative variables from each set was selected. All the variables belonged to closed sets. age 25-45 Family size 4 to 5 members Dwelling size 26-35 sq. Hence. Table 5. Malayalam . Data for the regional and sub-regional scale was collected from the 1995 socioeconomic survey conducted by CIDCO.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 44 All data tables are for the regional scale while the histograms are from the sub-regional scale. All these variables are closely correlated.75 8. Table 5.2Work Force Percent of male Percent of female population in work population in work force force Vashi 53 10 Nerul 55 7 Belapur 52 12 Kalamboli 54 6 Panvel 57 8 Kopar-khairane 56 10 Airoli 53 7 Sanpada 58 9 Mean 54.3 Number of Earners Single 2 3 4+ Vashi 68 23 6 2 Nerul 78 16 3 1 Belapur 68 22 4 2 Kalamboli 79 15 4 1 Panvel 78 17 3 1 Kopar-khairane 76 17 5 1 Airoli 74 20 4 1 Sanpada 70 19 7 2 Mean 74 19 5 1 Standard deviation 5 3 1 1 .99 The average number of earners per household is 1.2 and the number of earners in Table 5.2. Data tables for the sub-regional scale are given in Appendix C.8% recorded in the 1987 survey) of the population makes up the workforce of Navi Mumbai. and form the socioeconomic indicator.15% (a slight increase from 32. while it is 1. Number of earning members: Out of the total population of 91787 recorded in the survey.3). Table 5. Seventy-five percent of families had one earning member and twenty percent of families had two earning members (Table 5.35. 33. 30430 are the working population. 5.1 Socioeconomic Status The socioeconomic status is an indicator of social class. An increase in the number of earning members increases family income and the socioeconomic class. A profession brings with it a certain prestige and social class.67 in Greater Bombay. Better education facilitates getting better jobs and higher income.62 Standard Deviation 2.2.12 1. The percent of males and females is shown in Table 5.

They form 17% of the workforce.96 Mean = 66.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 45 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. while service professions such as shops and hotels employ 7% of the workforce. The distribution of the single earner families is shown in Figure 5.0 80.0 70.1. The main reason is that this node is presently under construction and has a large workforce of construction workers. Table 5.4 Occupational Classification of Workforce Highly skilled unskilled office selfteacher other skilled worker worker assistant employed Vashi 45 12 12 15 9 4 3 Nerul 38 23 13 15 4 4 3 Belapur 47 12 8 20 3 6 4 Kalamboli 24 31 20 12 8 3 2 Panvel 43 19 9 16 4 7 2 Kopar-khairane 20 9 41 9 9 0 12 Airoli 34 18 44 12 5 1 4 Sanpada 49 9 20 14 3 3 2 Mean 38 17 19 14 6 4 4 Standard Deviation 11 8 11 3 3 2 3 Frequency . carpenters.1 Distribution of Single-earner families For the analysis. contractors and consultants. single earning member. In Navi Mumbai this economic class constitutes 38% of the work force. The mean is 74 with a very low standard deviation of 5.96 (mean=66.0 75.00 45. Professional workers in teaching and medical institutions are 7% of the workforce.0 50. The distribution of the singleearner family at the regional level shows a standard deviation of only 5 (mean=74). Small businesses account for 15% of the employees.3 N = 19127. Both the values are within 15% of the mean.0 65. Dev = 7.4). the variable. they are 19% of the work force and the standard deviation is 11. On an average. Unskilled persons are construction laborers and housemaids.3). Highly skilled professionals hold higher level managerial and supervisory jobs or are professional business persons. The standard deviation is 11.3).0 55. Skilled workers are factory workers. At the sub-regional scale the standard deviation is 7. The pattern is homogeneous. This means that the distribution is homogeneous. Government offices including banks and public sector enterprises employ 21% of the workforce. Profession: Good employment opportunities are offered by the manufacturing industries of Navi Mumbai. Kopar-khairane has a low number of highly skilled workers and a large number of unskilled workers (Table 5. construction workers and trainees. 25% of the workforce is employed there. was selected. For this analysis classification based on skills is tabulated (Table 5. and has a normal distribution over eight cases. This is most representative of the entire population.0 60.

Thus.75 4. 2651-4450 The income range of Rs.13 1.88 16.0 10.5). 4900 and the monthly average per capita income is Rs. The monthly average household income is Rs.9 N = 19127. Table 5.0 30.45) and the sub-regional scale.63 6. 2650 • middle income group (MIG) earning between Rs. Frequency . Both cases do not show a homogeneous distribution of people based on income as the standard deviation is greater than 15% of the mean.0 35. 4451 and Rs 7500 and • higher income group (HIG) earning more than Rs.5 Household Income upto 12511250 2650 Vashi 2 14 Nerul 3 27 Belapur 2 12 Kalamboli 2 26 Panvel 2 24 Kopar-khairane 2 9 Airoli 1 14 Sanpada 1 5 Mean 1.46 44517500 30 21 35 21 31 36 34 42 31.2 Frequency of Families with income range Rs.46 (mean=33.26 26514450 27 36 27 46 31 32 39 31 33.0 15.0 45.0 20.0 25. 1230. and the standard deviation is 6. The proportion of EWS:LIG:MIG:HIG is 2:16:34:48.64 8.46. 2651-4450 was selected for the principal components analysis because the median income of Rs.29 750110000 15 6 12 3 5 9 8 12 8.38 Standard deviation 0. This shows a proportionately large middle and higher income groups. 7500 per month.0 50.0 40.2 15000+ 3 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 1.98 (mean=27.9) (Figure 5. Income: The income groups are defined by the Government of India’s household income classification into: • economically weaker section (EWS) earning less than Rs1250 per month • lower income group (LIG) earning between Rs.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 46 The corresponding data was not available at the sub-regional scale. 4200 fell within this range. Dev = 10 Mean = 27.13 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5. 1251 and Rs. The regional scale shows a standard deviation of 6.2).0 Std. in Navi Mumbai it appears that the four income groups have to be redefined based on the median and/or mean income of this region rather than using the national urban averages (Table 5. Almost 34% of the population falls within this category.06 1000115000 7 3 5 1 3 7 2 4 4 2.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.25 7. the standard deviation is 10.

38 6.Airoli Sanpada Bombay khairane Vashi 88 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 Nerul 9 77 2 1 1 0 0 0 10 Belapur 10 12 67 1 1 0 0 0 9 Kalamboli 1 0 1 90 4 0 0 0 4 Panvel 2 1 2 8 76 0 0 0 11 Kopar-khairane 17 0 0 0 0 81 0 0 2 Airoli 7 0 0 0 0 0 83 0 10 Sanpada 47 8 1 1 0 0 16 0 27 In the Bombay region literacy rates are seventy-five percent for adult population. Most students attend school and college within their node (township). and 35% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is Marathi (12% did not specify their medium of instruction). technical education. 76% of the students walk to their school or college.07 high school 22 17 21 16 19 15 18 25 19.75 1.38 3.7 Level of Education illiterate Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 4 3 5 7 3 4 4 4 4.13 3. secondary school education.6 Location of Education Institutions Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar.25 1. Sanpada is the only node without any education facilities. 12% use public transport. Table 5. The value given represents the highest level of education achieved by at least one member of the family (Table 5.25 2.6). high school education. 51% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is English.5 5. Table 5.7).63 1. Bachelors and Masters degrees.30 . children.28 Children Primary secondary 9 5 8 10 8 6 7 8 7.04 BS MS 22 4 24 5 15 2 9 1 22 4 29 4 13 3 21 4 19.36 technical 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 2 1. Hence. the column titled Vashi shows that some students from all other nodes also go there to attend school or college (Table 5. primary school education.66 27 27 30 34 25 27 37 21 28.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 47 Education: The survey shows that 27% of the total population is children going to school. The level of education is categorized into illiterate.52 1. while 4% of the population is going to college. 10% use bicycles and only 2% go by school bus. Vashi has all the major colleges.60 14 15 18 20 14 13 16 12 15.

Dev = 7.9). and at the sub-regional scale is 7. 5. The age group 16 to 24 is 10% of the 2000 population.13 (mean=40.2.0 30. 28.0 35.8 Male Population below 3 4-5 6 . Table 5.9 10 -15 16 . Table 5. 1991) The standard deviation of this variable at the regional scale is 5.21 22 -24 25 -44 45 -59 60+ Vashi 4 3 7 15 12 5 34 14 5 Nerul 7 5 10 12 8 5 41 8 3 Belapur 6 4 8 14 12 5 37 11 4 Kalamboli 8 6 11 13 8 5 43 6 1 Panvel 8 4 8 11 9 5 44 9 3 Kopar-khairane 10 6 10 10 8 5 43 6 1 Airoli 7 5 10 14 11 4 39 8 2 Sanpada 7 4 6 10 10 5 43 10 4 Mean 7 5 9 12 10 5 41 9 3 Standard deviation 2 1 2 2 2 0 3 3 1 6000 Frequency .3 Frequency of Families with at least one a younger population with a high individual with Secondary Education percentage of children. This level of education is provided to everyone by the government free of cost.07 (mean=28. The national average for this variable is 16.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 48 The variable ’secondary school’ was selected under level of education. The working age group of 25 to 44 is 39% of the 1000 Std.0 45.0 50.5).3).2 Family Status Demographics: The nodes of Navi Mumbai have a female to 5000 male ratio of 848 to 1000 (comparative figures for Bombay 4000 are 819 to 1000).07.00 0 45 to 59.0 population are in the 60+ range.13 population.6 population are in the age group of N = 19127. Secondary school means an education of up to Grade 10 and the passing of a government examination (matriculation).8.6 (Census of India. Children up to the age of 15 constitute 33% of 3000 the total population.0 40.0 25. About 9% of the Mean = 40.0 20. This age group was selected because it is a subset of the population and it makes most of the decision regarding social choices (Table 5. and only 3% of the 15.6). Cases weighted by population The present pattern clearly shows Figure 5. The demographic indicators used are male and female population of the age group 25-45.5% of the population falls under this category with a standard deviation of 5. The variation is not homogeneous at either scale (Figure 5.

0 50. The reason for this is not only marriage and children.0 46. and 3. average family size has increased from 3. Family size: The average family size is 4. The comparative family size for Bombay is 4.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.0 34.0 42.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 49 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation of the population is 3 (mean=41) at the regional level. In Vashi.4). .9 Female Population below 3 4-5 Vashi 5 3 Nerul 7 5 Belapur 5 4 Kalamboli 15 10 Panvel 8 4 Kopar-khairane 9 6 Airoli 6 5 Sanpada 6 4 Mean 8 5 Standard deviation 3 2 6 -9 8 10 8 16 8 10 10 8 10 3 10 -15 14 13 14 20 11 9 15 10 13 3 16 -21 11 9 11 13 10 12 10 13 11 1 22 -24 5 7 6 12 9 10 6 9 8 2 25 -44 39 40 40 6 40 37 39 39 35 12 45 -59 10 6 8 6 6 5 6 9 7 2 60+ 4 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 The female population of the age group 25-45 is also uniformly distributed over the study area.10). The population age structure is uniformly distributed over the whole region.21 in 1985.4 Frequency of male population in the age group 25-45 Figure 5.0 48.39 Mean = 38.76 and the national average is 5.0 38.0 Std. but also the need to accommodate older parents.0 44.0 N = 19127.0 52. 3000 2000 Frequency 1000 0 32.0 36.0 40.01 for all the nodes (Table 5.39 (mean=38) at the sub-regional level (Figure 5. Dev = 3.52. A descriptive analysis of the data over the last 20 years shows that household size has been constantly increasing.73 in 1987 to 4.

Later.1 (mean=50. Since Vashi is the oldest node.0 62.00 0 42. CIDCO began all construction in Navi Mumbai. Dev = 5. .5 The variation of the data is minimal.0 47.4 Average family size 4.81 4.8 6.0 67.03 3. the data shows more diversification of the housing stock.10 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0.5 50.0 N = 19127.0 57.9 5. Frequency Cases weighted by population Figure 5.4 8.0 52. and 5.10 Family Size Single Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 6000 2.9.4 1.11).7 14 10 13 14 8 10 15 12 12 2. The variable has a standard deviation of 5. private builders and cooperative housing began developing residential sectors.5 Frequency of households with 4 or 5 members Type of Housing: Initially CIDCO built ninety percent of the housing stock.5).99 3.67 3.0 4.5 45. At the regional scale the standard deviation is 5.9 0.22 3.3 26 34 31 31 41 41 27 39 33. 3000 2000 1000 Std.9).85 Mean = 56.6 1 2 1 3 5 3 1 3 2.85 5000 4000 The families with a size of 4 or 5 members was chosen as 50% of the population belongs to this category.85 (mean=56) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.87 4.1.1 6.21 3.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 50 Table 5.5 55.5 60. All other nodes show a dominance of CIDCO housing (Table 5.5 57 54 53 52 45 45 56 45 50.5 65.

Houses built by CIDCO are 90% of the houses available. Frequency . This is a very significant result.88 0.0 30. House 2 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 1.12 shows present ownership of the house.77 Pvt.76 0. private ownership. CIDCO’s aim to promote heterogeneity was to be implemented by having a strong hold over the housing market.24 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 Pvt.24 (mean=89. CIDCO is still the major owner.24. the strong control is no longer evident.0 70.4 N = 19127. Some houses are mortgage through CIDCO.38 9.0 100. The standard deviation at the regional scale is 12.0 10.35 1000 0 0.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 51 Table 5. The categories. the oldest node.0 20.13 0. At Vashi.11 Type of Housing CIDCO Vashi 64 Nerul 95 Belapur 91 Kalamboli 99 Panvel 80 Kopar-khairane 98 Airoli 100 Sanpada 88 Mean 89.0 80.62 (mean=66.0 60.4) (Figure 5. Most government offices that provide housing for their employees obtain long term lease from CIDCO. The large deviation shows that private construction has taken place.62 Mean = 66.74 Other 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.38) while at the sub-regional scale it is 35.0 50. Co-op Commercial 29 2 5 0 9 0 0 1 15 0 2 0 0 0 11 0 8.38 Standard Deviation 12. The standard deviation is 12. Table 5. This may be one of the main reasons for the greater variability in the pattern at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale.6). resale and rental fall under private ownership. only houses built by CIDCO was selected.6 Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO For this variable.00 1.0 90.0 Std.00 Cases weighted by POP Figure 5. Dev = 35.0 40.

63 9. Dev = 21.0 70.88 34.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.12 Ownership of House Mortgage CIDCO Vashi 11 23 Nerul 21 36 Belapur 8 40 Kalamboli 25 25 Panvel 7 33 Kopar-khairane 0 34 Airoli 0 51 Sanpada 15 32 Mean 10.75 Private 17 3 4 1 9 1 0 7 5.52 14.5 4.25 5.25 18.68 Resale 21 16 0 0 0 14 0 18 8.85 Mean = 14.50 36.14).0 90.0 50.7 Frequency of Housing Built by CIDCO .5 8.13 Housing built by CIDCO <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 51-75 76-100 101-150 150+ Vashi 11 30 22 14 15 3 2 0 Nerul 7 57 18 8 7 2 1 0 Belapur 0 26 10 33 20 11 0 0 Kalamboli 24 37 24 5 7 2 0 0 Panvel 10 33 16 18 22 1 0 0 Kopar-khairane 0 20 10 42 18 9 1 0 Airoli 0 30 28 17 18 6 0 0 Sanpada 0 61 18 12 9 0 0 0 Mean 6.36 12.65 6.0 80. Table 5.0 30.00 0. the private builders are predominantly building for the HIG.25 while the mean was 14.2 N = 19127.75 18. 6000 4000 Frequency 2000 Std.02 3.0 20.0 60.25 0.50 0 Standard deviation 8.0 40.7).13.64 6.64 Dwelling size: The average size of dwelling units constructed by CIDCO is less than that built by private builders (Table 5.09 8. Table 5.2 (Figure 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 52 Table 5.99 0. While CIDCO is building houses for the EWS/LIG/MIG.0 10.76 0 10000 8000 The standard deviation of the data was 21.25 Standard Deviation 9.43 Rental 23 36 37 43 36 49 42 26 36.63 14.

8).0 can be divided into three stages: early.67 que groups.75 2.0 20. Kalamboli.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 53 Table 5.86 3.88 Standard Deviation 3. Mean = 16.41 150+ 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 14.94 10.99 5.16 51-75 14 8 33 5 18 42 17 12 5. Panvel and Airoli in the latter 1980s and in Kopar-khairane and Sanpada only in the 1990s.09 13.38 Standard Deviation 10.00 0 Tenure: The growth of Navi Mumbai 0. Dwelling size was selected 8000 based on type of house.14 Housing built by Private Enterprise <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 Vashi 4 2 2 14 Nerul 0 6 6 6 Belapur 0 1 2 2 Kalamboli 0 8 0 0 Panvel 0 0 1 1 Kopar-khairane 0 91 5 5 Airoli 0 0 0 0 Sanpada 13 60 2 2 Mean 37.88 9.15 Year of Occupation before 1980 1981-85 1986-90 1991-92 1993 1994 1995 Vashi 11 28 24 8 9 14 5 Nerul 0 6 29 10 6 35 14 Belapur 4 23 24 11 13 18 7 Kalamboli 0 5 31 10 11 37 6 Panvel 0 11 14 15 14 34 12 Kopar-khairane 0 0 0 20 18 34 28 Airoli 0 0 47 14 12 16 11 Sanpada 0 0 0 0 8 48 44 Mean 1.75 3.12 101-150 8 5 5 0 8 0 0 2 3.67 and mean 10000 16.0 50.2 ncy N = 19127. corresponding to middle income Fre 2000 Std. There is a great variation in the Figure 5. Table 5.0 The frequency distribution of houses built by private enterprise shows a 12000 standard deviation of 18.83 3.13 21. Families began to reside in Nerul. Cases weighted by population slow phase in the 1970s.38 29.50 16.0 6.76 7.63 18.69 10.67 76-100 24 23 9 0 24 1 0 5 3. m.2 (Figure 5.15). the dwelling sizes 4000 selected was 26-35 sq.13 11.8 Frequency of Houses built by Private number of houses occupied between Enterprise nodes (Table 5.0 40.0 10.88 15.50 2. For both CIDCO-built houses and privately 6000 built houses.50 14.50 . Dev = 18.0 60. Only Vashi and Belapur had a household population in the 1980s.78 12. middle phase in 1980s and accelerated phase in the 1990s.50 15.0 30.00 11.

25 place of residence are Bombay and 1000 Mean = 52.28 55.23 49.25) and 18.25 0.55 23.79 deviation Frequency Thane 3.25 (mean=52.05 4.85 0 6.23 Kalamboli 5.44 2.2 2.26 5.83 5.14 5. These N = 19127.82 4.0 30.0 10.0 60.5 2.0 80.39 Within state 3. However.34 66. Dev = 18. This is because any house in Navi Mumbai would be better than the existing living conditions in Bombay.65 10.19 Navi Mumbai 35.53 2.4 0.17 .45 Standard 5.57 5. Cases weighted by population Migration from Bombay is usually Figure 5.04 2.54 7. which can be attributed to the pace of construction.36 0. not entirely accurate as families may have shifted after their first place of residence.9).8) (Figure 5.94 Nerul 13.05 1.28 3.0 20.58 4.94 0.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 54 The three time periods of 1970s.18 5.36 17.9 Frequency of Tenure the first stage of relocation where the choice of house is not very important.11 2.16 Previous Place of Residence Island City Western Eastern suburbs suburbs Vashi 18. 2000 Table 5.07 19.42 0. 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation at the regional scale is 20.78 39.29 4.45 0.94 11.2 2. It is thus.15 24.46 3. 1980s and 1990s account for the entire span of growth of the city.53 32.63 9. There is a very large variability.58 13.3 68.06 6.0 40.19 26.0 70.1 5.23 4.16 Airoli 8.75 2.27 Kopar 14.25 (mean=30.0 movement within Navi Mumbai.54 0.79 2.8 0.56 Belapur 10. Movement within Navi Mumbai shows desire to move to a house of the homeowner’s choice.20 2.16).51 3.4 4.34 49.51 20.63 Mean 11.82 3.62 2.34 13.43 Sanpada 17.63 17.25 1.32 5.39 Panvel 3.04 6.58 5. this table only indicates the year of occupation of the present accommodation.89 47.78 0.8 Navi Mumbai (Table 5.00 0 describe migration from Bombay and 0.26 6. Only the middle phase was selected as a representative variable.0 50. 3000 Previous Place of Residence: The two variables describing previous Std.54 Outside Outside state India 4.

0 75.00 0 35.54 (mean=53) at the sub-regional scale. An analysis of the other minority populations also show very large standard deviations.60 Others 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.56 Mean = 53.33 Buddhist 1 0 2 1 0 2 5 1 1.35 Sikh 2 3 7 6 1 1 1 3 3.17).13 0.0 70.0 40.17 Religion Hindu Vashi 84 Nerul 88 Belapur 79 Kalamboli 84 Panvel 94 Kopar-khairane 89 Airoli 88 Sanpada 80 Mean 85.0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. Bombay.75% of the total and has a standard deviation of 1.0 55.98 Christian 6 3 6 4 2 2 3 9 4.50 1.98. The means of the religion variable correspond with the national averages. The standard deviation of the families whose previous place of residence was Bombay is 9.0 45.01) at the regional scale and 9.0 65. 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 55 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std.25 0. The mean is 85.38 2. from Bombay and within Navi Mumbai.10 Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence The variables. Ethnic enclaves are formed mainly by religious and linguistic groups. Religion: This variable is very important for this analysis because India has a number of well-defined religions.0 50. eastern suburbs and Thane have been summed up to obtain the variable.00 2.0 60.75% and the standard deviation is only 4. island city. There is a large variation because there has been migration from the rural areas.67.75 Standard deviation 4. However.2. it is more important to analyze the minority religions to see if they are forming ethnic enclaves.42 (mean=26. The Muslim population is 4.0 N = 19127. western suburbs.75 1.45 Islam 6 5 4 5 2 6 3 7 4. This variable shows diversification of the population based on a cultural variable (Table 5. Frequency .46 The variables Hindu and Muslim were selected for analysis. Table 5.67 Jain 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. The Hindu population is the majority and is homogenous. Dev = 9. This variable shows the families whose most immediate place of origin is Bombay.3 Ethnic Status This construct is very important because it is the construct that creates segregation in India.

37 2.18 Language Marathi Vashi 42.27 2.13 13. Punjabi is a northern language.92 5.98 (mean=85.65 2. Gujarati is the language of the adjoining state.96 5.26 2.98 8.91 2.83 6.34 3.08 11.53 9. Marathi is the local language.80 5.57 3.82 3.66 2.31 3.93 Airoli 42. Hindi is the dominant language of the country.68 4.08 3.66 2.35 3.23 7.78 Kopar 67.00 0 0 Figure 5.68 1.4 N = 19127.48 5.04 3.72 1.99 10.43 8. This has been used to study if there are any ethnic neighborhoods formed due to linguistic considerations.60 5.16 16.33 2.46 Sanpada 63. Dev = 4.41 Nerul 45.76 Kalamboli 55.75 Belapur 40.50 3.99 1.12 1.50 2.11 Frequency of Hindus Figure 5.97 1.11 6.74 2. Marathi is the local language.19 5.6 12.22 Std.17 13.33 5.87 Panvel 66. and there is a large population of Malayalam-speaking people in the greater Bombay region.50 1.Malathi Ananthakrishnan 5000 Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 10000 56 4000 8000 3000 6000 2000 4000 Frequency Std.74 3.27 16.32 0. dev 11.79 Mean 53. This forms a major minority language.20 0.04 1.13 14. Bengali an eastern one and Tamil.56 3.47 3.59 12.12 Frequency of Muslims The Hindu population is spread uniformly over the study are with standard deviation 4.19 8.31 9. Dev = 3.72 1. .01 9.73 Hindi Gujarati Malayalam Punjabi Tamil Kannada Bengali Other 13. 54% of the population speaks this language.29 2.81 7.48 3.53 16.14 2.32 7.72 0.69 5.75).9 N = 19127.77 1.44 2.32 3.64 2.36 4. Language: The variable language is very important in the Indian context because civil violence due to language has taken place across India.67 1. Malayalam and Kannada southern ones Table 5.41 4.29 2. Malayalam is the language of the state 1000 miles away.34 3.5 14.11 6.49 11. Mean = 82. The Muslim population and other minority religions show a nonuniform distribution over the study area.91 Mean = 6.50 3.90 2.00 Frequency 1000 2000 Std.22 The two languages selected are Marathi and Malayalam.

00 0 10.5 20.68) at the regional scale and 3.19).0 50.13). The descriptive analysis suggests that the urban social pattern is not defined by homogeneous socioeconomic classes.6 N = 19127.73 (mean=46.0 22. There is a non-uniform pattern in socioeconomic variables as well as in the ethnic variables.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 57 6000 6000 5000 5000 4000 4000 3000 3000 2000 2000 Frequency Frequency 1000 Std. The distribution of families with Marathi as their native language is not very uniform (Figure 5.0 12.26 (mean=7.0 20. Dev = 15.77 (mean=7.0 60.0 30.6) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.00 1000 Std.0 7. The standard deviation is very large showing some areas have more Malayalamspeaking persons than others leading to the conclusion that ethnic enclaves do exist.13 Frequency of Marathi Figure 5.0 17.14).14 Frequency of Malayalam The standard deviation of Marathi is 11.6).19 Spatial Pattern of Variables Variable Regional scale Number of earning members Uniform Income Non-uniform Education Non-uniform Demographics Uniform Family size Uniform Type of housing Non-uniform Tenure Non-uniform Last place of residence Non-uniform Hindu Uniform Muslim Non-uniform Marathi Non-uniform Malayalam Non-uniform .0 80.73 Mean = 46. which have formed their own enclaves. Dev = 3.5 25.0 0 2.5 15. The standard deviation of Malayalam is 3.22) at the regional scale and 15. This pattern is more apparent at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale (Table 5.9 N = 19127.73 (mean=53. Table 5.5 5.5 10.0 40.77 Mean = 6. This is probably the result of the many other linguistic groups.0 Cases weighted by population Cases weighted by population Figure 5.0 70.

A PCA was run.3 Regional Scale . The communalities of all the variables are very high. Hence. The constructs described on page 1 suggest the need for 12 variables. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 1.3. and three components were obtained. the variables selected were number of earning members. nearly 90% of the variance of the 8 nodes lies within a 3-dimensional space. the assumption can be made that all the variables are significant and are useful for the study. religion and language. migration. family size. The principal components obtained from the rotated component matrix are used as they are more simple to interpret. tenure. The use of PCA as a method of analysis was limited by the small number of cases. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix D). However. explaining 90% of the variance.18.347% of the variation. Thus.845% of the variation. The number of variables used in the analysis could not be more than the number of cases.985.728%. . or principle components. The outputs obtained from the SPSS program are used to determine which variables. as PCA limited the number of variables to 8.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 58 5. The components with eigenvalues greater than 1 will be used to explain the variance.818 explains a variation of 22.771% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 1. Cumulatively these three components explain 89.824 and 0. and in a range of 0.468 explains 43.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the regional scale uses the eight nodes (townships) as the cases for the study. are needed for the complete explanation of the difference in the data. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 3.902 explains 23. The total of the communality is 7. secondary school education. income. The variables were weighted by the total population of each node.Nodes 5.

components contribute more or less to the overall data association MIGRATN TENURE .0 Component 3 0.5 0.5 Component 1 Analysis weighted by population of each node .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 59 Figure 5.0 education income earner family size tenure religion language migration -.5 1.15 Components in Rotated Space 1.0 .0 .5 -. It does not directly express which. 5 -1 FAM.16 Loadings of Principal Components The eight original variables are combined linearly to define principal components.0 1.5 C o m p o n e n ts 1. The loadings produced by the principal components analysis for the variables is used to create bar charts to better visualize the magnitude of the loading. if any.0 -.5 RELIGION 0 EARNER EDUCATN INCOME -0 . These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component.5 1 loading 0.5 Component 2 0.SIZE LANGUAGE va r i a b l e s Figure 5.

only two clusters were formed. Cluster analysis of the scores from PCA ensured that the data was standardized in the same manner for both types of analysis. The three components correspond to family status. As the analysis was constrained by the reduced number of variables. Nerul.17 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) . The cluster analysis shows that the two of the Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine Cluster 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ Node Panvel Kopar Sanpada Nerul Airoli Vashi Belapur Kalamboli -+-----------------+ Cluster 1 -+ +-------------------------+ -------------------+ +---+ -------------+-------+ I I -------------+ +-----------------------+ I ---------------------+ I ---------------------------------------+---------+ ---------------------------------------+ Figure 5. Analysis of the raw data was not carried out because the SPSS program did not weight the raw data while running a cluster analysis. Vashi.3. This analysis does not show any differentiation based on variables of ethnicity.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 60 The three components are (Table 5. Panvel. Sanpada. As the number of cases was only 8.20): Table 5.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three components with eigenvalues above 1.2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis was done using the scores obtained from the principal components analysis. this PCA does not directly correspond to the descriptive analysis.20 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Family size Previous place of residence Tenure Component 2 Education Income Component 3 Number of earners Language Religion Name Family status Socioeconomic status Ethnic status with high number of earners.3. Kopar-khairane. socioeconomic status and ethnic status. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had the nodes Belapur and Kalamboli while the second cluster (Cluster 2) had the rest of the nodes. Airoli (Appendix E). 5. 5.

463%. The PCA shows the communality of the 11 variables to be 8. Hindus and Muslims. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix F).453% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 2. . household income range of Rs. A PCA was run.581 explains a variation of 23. male and female population of the age group 25-45. high school education.4 Sub-regional Scale .690 explains 24. From the data. but interpretation would have been more difficult.01. families with 4 or 5 members. The attributes of the principal components are (Table 5. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 2. 13 variables were selected for the analysis. migration from Bombay. linguistic groups speaking Marathi and Malayalam.75 explains 25.001% of the variation. 5. The extracted sums of squared loadings of the first three components is cumulatively 72.917%.21) Table 5. explaining 73% of the variance.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the sub-regional scale uses the 23 sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi as the cases for the study.Sectors of Vashi 5.4. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 2. These were: families with one earning member.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 61 nodes are different from the other six. The variables were weighted by the total population of each node. The main reason for this is the high variability in the language data set for Belapur. and three components were obtained. 2651-4450. and the high percentage of families in the selected income range for Kalamboli. houses built by CIDCO.21 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Education Income Ownership of house Previous place of residence Muslim Component 2 Marathi Component 3 Number of earners Malayalam Demographics Hindu Name Socioeconomic status and Muslim enclave Ethnic status Ethnic status with high number of earners. tenure of house in the 1980s. More components could have been used.

17.6 0.18 Loadings of Principal Components The bar chart explains the loadings of each variable on the component. These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component. Three clusters were formed using the 23 cases.2 0 -0 .4. 28 and 29. and the third cluster (Cluster 3) had all the rest of the 16 sectors (Appendix G). 8 -1 loadings EDUCATN MIGRATN RELGION1 LANGUAG1 LANGUAG2 OWNRSHIP RELGION2 EARNER INCOME MEN va r i a bl e s Figure 5. 5.8 0. The second cluster (Cluster 2) had sectors 12.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 62 C o m po ne nts 1 0. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had had only sector 5.4 0. 4 -0 . 14. 6 -0 . 16A. These define which values contribute more or less significance to that particular component. WOMEN . 2 -0 .2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis of the scores obtained from PCA was done.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 63 Figure 5. The cluster analysis shows a segregation in Cluster 1 caused by high number of earners with a high percentage of households speaking Marathi and a low percentage of . Each of the three components have an ethnic variable in them. it represents a majority of the population. All the components are equally important and separated only by ethnic variables. this component also describes the general population. As the Marathi population is 53% of the total population.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three equally important components with eigenvalues in the range of 2. Again. The third component is the economically active age group dominated by the Hindu population.19 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine 0 5 10 15 20 +---------+---------+---------+---------+----Sector 2 6 1 4 16 20 9 10 15 26 21 3 7 9A 8 10A 14 29 12 17 16A 28 5 -+ -+---+ -+ +-+ -----+ +-----+ ---+---+ I ---+ +---+ -+-+ I I -+ +---+ I +-----------+ ---+ +-----+ I I Cluster 3 -------+ I I -----------------+ +---------+ ---+---+ I I ---+ +---------+ I I -------+ +-----------+ I ---------+-------+ +---------+ ---------+ I I -------+---------------+ I I -------+ I I I -+---+ +---------------+ I Cluster 2 -+ +-------------+ I I -----+ +---+ I -------------------+ I Cluster 1 -------------------------------------------------+ 5. The first component is one which has a high socioeconomic component dominated by a Muslim population. The second component has only the population speaking Marathi.75 to 2. as Hindus are 83% of the population. This can be translated into a middle-class population.4. It appears that there is a segregation based on the ethnic component.58.

individual households have exercised their choice. 5. At the sub-regional scale as there is a smaller percentage of CIDCO-built houses.6 Conclusion The analysis of the data shows that the urban social pattern appears to be non-uniform at the regional scale. In summary. the outcome of the implementation strategy shows otherwise. Cluster 2 shows a dominance of households speaking Marathi. . The descriptive analysis of individual variables also shows this non-uniform pattern.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 64 households speaking Malayalam. PCA and cluster analysis brings forth the variability of the data and shows which variables and which cases cluster together. and distinctly driven by an ethnic component at the sub-regional scale. and a strong ethnic component is seen. although the government policy was to prevent the formation of ethnic enclaves.

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion A preliminary interpretation of the data analysis in the previous chapter shows the details of the social urban pattern are best seen in the sub-regional scale. Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Figure 6. However. All the other nodes are in the second cluster. Cluster 1 has two nodes close to each other and BOMBAY Airoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada Nerul Arabian Sea Belapur Panvel possibly influenced by one another. a brief interpretation of the regional scale is described here before proceeding to the detailed interpretation at the sub-regional scale.1 Regional Scale Figure 6. 6.1 Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai .1 shows the spatial distribution of the clusters.

100 Panvel 80 EARNER EDUCATN 60 FAM. Cluster 1 is influenced by family size. previous place of residence and tenure while cluster 2 is affected by income. Figure 6. number of earners and religion.3 shows the strength of variables. 1 2 Figure 6. have an equal influence on the two clusters. Cluster 1 is linked to Factor score 1 0 score 1 and cluster 2 to score 2 -1 Factor score 2 -2 while score 3 exerts almost equal Factor score 3 67116 67116 67116 14543 14543 14543 -3 N= influence on both cluster.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 66 3 Figure 6.2 shows that different factor scores influence the two Airoli 2 1 clusters.SIZE 40 INCOME Kopar-khaira 20 LANGUAGE MIGRATN 0 -20 1 Sanpada Kopar-khaira RELIGION TENURE 2 Figure 6.3 Average Linkage between Variables Analysis weighted by population . The variables. which are contributing to the clustering. education and language.2 Average Linkage between Factor Scores Analysis weighted by population Further.

17. and 26. . 21. 8.4 Clustering of the Sectors of Vashi Cluster 3 (red) has sectors 1. More variables could also be used to study these cases. 9. there were twenty-three sectors. 20. 10A.4. 28 12 29 26 10 15 9 10A 9A 8 7 5 6 4 1 3 2 17 16 14 20 16A 21 Figure 6. 3. 4. 16. 9A. and Cluster 1 (yellow) has only sector 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 67 6. The grouping of the sectors into three clusters is shown in Figure 6.2 Sub-regional Scale At the sub-regional scale. 28 and 29. 10. 12. 16A. 6. 14. 15. Cluster 2 (green) has sectors 2.

This is a socioeconomic construct. Cluster 1 is also differentiated by Malayalam.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 68 Figure 6. Ownership. . income and the language Marathi dominate it. 1 2 3 Figure 6. Factor Score 2 -4 cluster 2 more strongly by score 2 Factor Score 3 1892 1892 1892 738 738 738 -6 N = 16497 1649716497 and cluster 3 by score 3.6 shows the average linkage between the variables. but dominated by an ethnic variable.5 shows that the 4 2 three clusters are influenced by different factor scores. another ethnic variable.5 Average Linkage between Groups Analysis weighted by population 120 EARNER 100 80 EDUCATION INCOME MARATHI 60 40 20 0 -20 1 2 3 MALAYALAM MEN MIGRATION OWNRSHIP HINDU MUSLIM WOMEN Figure 6.6 Average Linkage between Variables Figure 6. Cluster 3 is an outlier. Cluster 2 is the most significant. Cluster 1 is Factor Score 1 8 0 -2 influenced by all three scores.

2.7 shows a scenario that could be expected from the mapping of any of the socioeconomic variables. Figure 6. Figure 6.9 Distribution of Income The pattern that emerges on mapping of the number of earners and income variables does not show any particular pattern (Figure 6. Figure 6. The colors red and orange are immediately above. the study of many cities across the world shows that the socioeconomic construct displays a sector pattern.9). .8 Distribution of Number of Earners Figure 6.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory As discussed in the literature review.8. The two variables selected were income and number of earners.7 Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic Variables Figure 6.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 69 6. and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes. In both maps the median range is represented by the color purple.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion


6.2.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory The study of many cities across the world shows that the family status construct displays a concentric pattern. Figure 6.10 shows a possible scenario in Vashi for a variable representing the family status. The variable selected to describe the family status is ownership of apartment. In the descriptive analysis, this variable showed a great degree of variability. The purple color represents the range within which the mean falls. The colors red and orange are immediately above, and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes. Figure 6.10 Hypothetical Concentric Zone Pattern for Family Status Variables The number of sectors which falls within the mean range is very small. Sectors which have slightly more or slightly less percentage of apartments built by CIDCO are represented by red and orange. It is important to note that five sectors are colored green while one sector is yellow (Figure 6.11). This shows a high degree of variability in the data.

Figure 6.11 Distribution of Ownership of Apartment

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion


6.2.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory Multiple Nuclei theory supports the spatial pattern of the ethnic factor. A possible solution is mapped for any ethnic variable in Figure 6.12. A language variable and a religion variable were selected from the data set for mapping. The mapping of language and religion variables shows a segregation of both of them. Yellow and green colors, which represent the extremes in the data set, are present in both the variables (Figure 6.13, Figure 6.14). This is especially true of the variable Muslim, which shows a largely non-uniform distribution.

Figure 6.12 Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic Variables

Figure 6.13 Distribution of Households speaking Marathi

Figure 6.14 Distribution of Households which follow Islam

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion


6.3 Summary The set of figures below shows the mapping of the cluster analysis as well as the individual factor scores.

Figure 6.15 Clustering of Sectors

Figure 6.16 Score 1

Figure 6.17 Score 2

Figure 6.18 Score 3

Although the four maps above (Figure 6.15, Figure 6.16, Figure 6.17, Figure 6.18) show that there is a different colored sector within a group of one color, the multiple nuclei pattern is not very obvious. However, looking at the descriptive analysis, principal components analysis, cluster analysis and the mapping collectively, the multiple nuclei pattern can be inferred. The descriptive analysis brought out the fact that the spatial pattern is

examining the policy instruments and policy goals. a pattern did emerge at this present stage. scaling down the study to stories of individual households to reach a more detailed level of interpretation. as the pattern is not uniform. The mapping of individual variables and factor scores verifies that within a fairly homogeneous group of sectors there exists a dissimilar sector. Future research could involve: • • Delineating the pattern at intervals of time to study the change in pattern. In conclusion. This is the multiple nuclei pattern of an ethnically driven spatial organization. As Navi Mumbai has been constructed over the last 25 years.4 Potential Utility of the Research This research is a starting point for further studies in spatial patterns in Navi Mumbai. • • putting forth a new theory to generalize social pattern in planned cities in India. The policy of the government to promote social heterogeneity influenced the type of residential construction in Navi Mumbai. The aggregation of household data at the sector scale has limited this research from drawing out the finer details of the spatial pattern. The principal components analysis shows that the cause of this spatial pattern is ethnicity. The clustering indicates that some sectors are dissimilar from others.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 73 not uniform or heterogeneous. the pattern is strongly influenced by factors as year of occupation of the house and reasons for moving. the policy has not been successful. . However. 6.

It was hoped that a majority of the residential construction could be achieved though a policy of swavalambhan (self-reliance) and swatantrya (mutual selfhelp). India. raise the standard of living and reduce social inequalities. This particular case study was chosen for two reasons: Navi Mumbai is the first planned city that is not a capital city or industrial township. and formulated a policy to support it. The Muslims came to India as invaders. The government also decided to take up most of the initial building construction. The draft development plan of Navi Mumbai had very strong functional and social objectives. Traditional Indian cities have always had a strong ethnic component in their urban social pattern. Navi Mumbai is separated from the metropolis of Bombay only by the Thane Creek. Political and administrative boundaries in independent India were decided on linguistic lines. The thesis addresses this social objective. It was also influenced by the concept of the city as a melting pot (Engel. Planning policies in Navi Mumbai were strongly influenced by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. The government had a very practical interest in avoiding ethnic confrontation. The other feature that is unique to India is the existence of many languages. The review of secondary source material shows that urban social patterns have been studied across the world. religion and language. thus. Every effort was taken by the government to make Navi Mumbai an independent city and not a suburb or satellite city to Bombay. The government hoped that this would distribute people based on socioeconomics and break barriers based on religion and language.Chapter 7: Conclusion The purpose of this thesis is to delineate the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. The Hindu laws and treatises specified residential locations for different castes. support an aggressive industrialization policy. Religious tensions have always existed in India. This was the first cause of separation in residential neighborhoods. and the government had a specific social and political agenda. Areas dominated by Muslims are common in most cities in India. The important objectives of Navi Mumbai were: attract some of the immigrant population. 1991). sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. Households would normally place this preference based on how much they can pay. However. The segregation is attributed to the ethnic variables. The culture of this race of people is very different from the Hindus. and provide an infrastructure which would promote ethnic heterogeneity. Housing would be allotted according to the preference of size of dwelling provided by applicants. The religious divide was used in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. Ethnic enclaves have always characterized traditional settlements in India. Bombay is the financial and economic capital of India. One of the social objectives in the planning of Navi Mumbai was to use the government machinery to diversify the spatial distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. Navi Mumbai is still dependent on Bombay for much of its activity. Partition and the first years of independence were. strongly influenced by ethnic variables. Three leading theories put forth were concentric zone theory. These theories explain the urban social pattern . caste.

then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. The variables selected are reduced into a smaller number of constructs. special emphasis has to be given to the ethnic components. Social area analysis broadly classifies variables into three constructs. and the sub-regional scale of the sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi node. is an analysis primarily of economic variables. family status and ethnic status. Succession and invasion based on social and economic status is the basic assumption of this theory. The methodologies were techniques of multivariate analysis. family size and type of house under family status. The PCA reduces the dimensionality of the data into a more interpretable form. A variation in the data greater than 15% on each side of the mean is considered as unequal distribution. The constructs of the social area analysis have been found to correspond to the three theories. family status and ethnic status. The data at both scales is tabulated. These scales were the regional scale of the nodes (townships). The other variables selected were number of earning members. and demographics. Since. Generally the socioeconomic model showed a sectored pattern. the family component showed a concentric ring pattern. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. The hypothesis put forth in this study is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social segregation will occur. These are socioeconomic construct. Heterogeneity of the population is detected if these three constructs emerge from the analysis. The software package SPSS was used to do the analysis. Using the secondary source material as reference. Next. Analysis of data was done at two scales. That would indicate that enclaves have not been caused by individual variables. The concentric zone theory relates the pattern of cities to population mobility. the analysis allowed a more detailed interpretation.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 75 and its change over time. Two religion variables and two language variables have been selected representing the ethnic construct. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. The variables selected under each construct were drawn out of experience of the researchers. The first methodology is a descriptive analysis. If H0 is false. The similarity between the . sector theory. In Navi Mumbai. In the case of Navi Mumbai this is important because of the policy to prevent segregation based on ethnic variables. Analysis was done to map the urban social pattern of many cities across the world. At the regional scale the analysis was done between the eight nodes to study their similarity. and histogram drawn of the variable selected from each data set. income and education under the socioeconomic construct. Mobility and immigration are the key variables of this theory. Twenty-three sectors of Vashi were then analyzed. The second methodology is principal components analysis (PCA). The second theory. socioeconomic. the scale was smaller. grouping of variables is expected to be under the three constructs. The methodology used was that of social area analysis. The multiple nuclei theory proposes that patterns could be arranged around several centers. Wedge patterns representing income groups are the outcome of the theory. a cluster analysis was done of the cases of the data set. Four methods were used to analyze the data.

The policy has not facilitated the distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. . Distribution was originally controlled through allotment of government-built houses based only on purchasing power (and indirectly socioeconomic status). None of the variables selected display a uniform distribution. This is especially true of the ethnic variables. As the socioeconomic variables are expected to take a sectored pattern. they were mapped under expected and observed conditions. the socioeconomic variables also show separation. The research brings to the fore many questions than answers. In conclusion. The interpretation of the descriptive analysis shows that the distribution of most of the variables is not uniform. The extreme value range in the mapping is important because it represents the dissimilarity in the distribution. This can be attributed to two reasons: 1. The urban social pattern is best explained as one of multiple nuclei. be explained using the theories of urban social patterns. How important is it to promote integration when self-sorting has been the natural process? • Can the Modernist synthesis seeking homogeneity in heterogeneity be used as a template for the Indian culture? • This leads to the question: is the objective valid? Does it have to be redefined or is the implementation strategy to be modified? At this stage it appears that a detailed analysis of the policy instrument and policy goals must be undertaken. The objective. allotment procedure. All three new constructs are dominated by an ethnic variable. however. • Was this an experiment in enhancing quality of life or is it a method for the government to exert social control? • The concept of the melting pot has to be re-examined. Even in the houses built by the government resale has taken place. The hypothesis was proved false. The principal components analysis shows that the variables are not grouping under the three constructs. In Vashi only 64% of the houses were built and allotted by the government. and clustering to the urban social patterns detailed in the secondary source material. The interpretation of the analysis also involves comparing the descriptive analysis. 2. physical design and the institutional framework need to be examined closely to realize their full impact and to understand the results in their context. The spatial distribution of households is still characterized by traditional Indian values of ethnic segregation. it has not succeeded at this stage. The pattern could. However.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 76 nodes and sectors is determined from this. Redistribution shows that people have aligned themselves based on ethnic variables. graphically representing the analysis. The distribution of these variables shows segregation. The final stage was mapping of the clusters. thereby. The overall pattern of Navi Mumbai is one of multiple nuclei. although the policy is noble in its aims and aspiration. The center is an ethnic enclave surrounded by socioeconomic variables. A moral analysis of segregation has to be done in the context of the Indian culture. Control is maximum when the government owns all the houses. This indicates that the urban social pattern is strongly influenced by ethnicity. family status variables concentric zones and the ethnicity variables a multiple nuclei arrangement.

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Glossary of Terms Term Cuadra Jali Masjid Padas Panchayati Pucca Purdahs Purushasukta Rashtrabasha Swadeshi Swatantrya Swavalambhan Vastupurusha mandala Vastushastra Meaning Spanish measurement Carved screens Mosque Subdivisions of the cosmic universe Self-government Durable Enclosure Hindu treatise Language of the State Fullest utilization of local resources Self-motivation and self-help Self-reliance Terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe Science of architecture and planning .

CIDCO published its Draft Development Plan. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act 1966 was passed. Bombay Metropolitan and Regional Planning Board was constituted. State government notified privately owned land in Navi Mumbai for acquisition. A Committee under Dr. D. The Gadgil Committee recommended regional planning legislation and regional planning boards. The study group on Greater Bombay recommended a rail-cum-road bridge across the Thane creek. The Board published the Draft Plan with recommendations to set up a twin city. Development plan for greater Bombay was submitted to the State Government. CIDCO was designated as New Town Development Authority for Navi Mumbai. Bombay Municipal Corporation decided to prepare a development plan for Greater Bombay.Appendix A March 1958 July 1958 February 1959 July 1964 March 1965 March 1966 January 1967 July 1967 January 1970 February 1970 March 1970 March 1971 August 1973 October 1973 Study group on Greater Bombay set up under the chairmanship of Mr. Barve. The Bombay Metropolitan regional Plan was approved by the State government. . G. S. Gadgil was appointed to formulate broad principles of regional planning for Bombay and Poona. R. CIDCO was formed.

Appendix B The 7Vs (les sept voies) The 7V Rule was studied in 1950 at the UNESCO’s request (Le Corbusier. the man of the mechanical civilization could: cross continents: V1 arrive in town: V1 go to essential public services: V2 cross at full speed. where schools and sports grounds are located: V7. . 1961). One discovered that with 7 types of roads. the territory of the town: V3 dispose of immediate accesses to daily needs: V4 reach the door of his dwelling: V5 and V6 send youths to the green areas of each sector. without interruption.

25 .68 16.48 2.00 0.08 5.83 17 61.62 mean 66.43 2.85 3.43 9.31 20.89 4.79 4 1.57 15 72.59 27.Appendix C Number of earning members Sector 1 2 3 no.13 6.64 5 46.83 0.81 7.42 2.01 6 65.16 10A 50.43 12 65.67 28.99 3 68.64 3.38 38.60 24.00 35.60 16A 71.33 6.48 7 62.07 30.44 2.58 20.16 30.39 2.51 26 77.76 9A 74.10 0.58 9.09 8.37 11.01 25.17 8.26 23.00 29 82.77 10 74.35 7.79 40.31 3.57 8.70 14 77.96 27.54 0.49 3.81 4 70.15 9.06 5.73 0.89 5.28 3.19 19.08 8 52.26 4.63 2.09 16 65.72 2.23 20 69.52 18.41 6.26 2 57.71 11.69 29.40 6.00 0.89 2.29 4.42 5.86 0.57 23.22 26.38 3.15 5.16 1.92 9 73. 1 64.25 11.64 3.86 28 52.52 1.81 1.76 2.28 21.23 21.22 std dev 9.29 22.77 21 63.76 1.03 1.04 26.

49 22.27 7.97 0.29 8.45 38.67 7.87 30.22 3.00 0.84 18.51 5.07 35.77 12 13.61 16.45 5.35 8.00 17.09 39.41 37.76 8 0.28 18.00 28 0.92 30.18 6.92 3.26 16A 0.57 1.00 20.94 4 0.20 3.07 13.16 12.40 8.59 9.92 21.19 16.62 7.41 12.14 10.57 25.13 3.65 0.94 37.48 27.45 mean 2.2651.47 28.74 5 2.37 11.97 28.33 11.49 23.81 16.75 26.00 16.14 25.26 12.07 18.00 0.63 4.39 4.58 0.99 23.11 1.38 10.90 14.04 4.48 0.00 10.7500.46 8.16 24.87 0. Rs.63 40.76 0.28 4.11 24.77 22.42 .45 6.56 7.15 1.46 17.78 17.82 36.41 8.59 18.10 23.15000+ no.02 4.18 15 0.39 34.59 2.89 45.90 2 1.00 24.53 1.00 4.72 0.15 16 1.68 34.30 7 11.55 30.00 35.55 42.73 47.82 2.39 31.18 25.48 39.00 29 0.47 26 0.51 24.66 9.46 21.4451.64 6.36 26.86 21.80 5.78 10A 0.36 36.125 2650 4450 7500 10000 15000 0 1 3.49 3.26 1.10 27.97 7.47 0.00 0.Household Income Sector upto 1251.90 24.19 20 6.45 12.21 stddev 3.70 17.15 8.49 4.76 23.00 2.53 1.09 2.35 14 0.72 44.02 7.10 15.00 21 2.77 26.97 9 2.00 4.90 11.15 15.47 12.88 17 0.79 18.39 20.86 10.89 37.10001.09 13.08 32.75 6 2.00 10.15 9.06 9A 1.38 7.00 25.74 28.70 3.71 34.77 14.17 22.48 6.20 4.52 11.00 35.47 15.23 10 1.62 3 1.52 4.07 0.18 10.96 33.

16 2.69 31.00 5.68 12.03 34.65 1.06 4.54 2.08 13.81 42.95 2.68 1.32 5.03 44.71 34.44 37.13 51.26 48.18 3.71 3.46 5.24 4.97 1.81 5.50 14.15 1.39 35.28 10.67 4.27 10.02 4.90 32.30 1. e n y ary school 1 3.11 2.00 26 3.24 10.27 12.43 4.59 3.90 22.30 0.64 0.52 1.96 3.80 17.12 1.25 2.01 11.41 14.09 46.14 0.88 9.58 9.82 15.41 0.97 0.37 .92 5.61 9.63 1.01 0.48 5 3.41 8 4.73 2.87 15 4.73 3.31 10 3.00 5.42 2.32 3.00 29 1.94 43.81 0.91 17.72 9.35 2.65 4.14 7.92 3 2.19 0.60 17.12 0.00 21 13.24 8.77 2.57 12.18 21.75 4.11 34.24 0.64 4.73 2.95 8.80 2.55 9.18 7.74 2.15 13.43 22.07 8.09 5.59 29.27 47.98 31.89 6.85 5.89 20.37 2.06 8.19 4.35 10.07 9.94 7.34 16.64 0.23 3.47 8.05 2.03 4.82 1.78 5.60 9.40 1.45 0.07 1.15 3.45 11.81 4.01 45.42 23.34 16 3.06 2.38 8.91 17 1.55 3.98 7.44 7 1.30 59.83 2.74 40.81 5.14 0.38 4.72 30.97 9.18 27.48 16A 2.01 15.21 3.64 2.11 12.68 5.92 36.06 1.09 11.80 12 0.95 9.60 6 2.50 20.26 9A 1.05 0.64 0.75 27.38 37.87 9.47 2.15 2 3.63 20 19.45 7.00 14 2.79 3.51 7.43 2.Highest Level of Education Sector illiterat childre primar second high vo-tech BS MS PhD no.26 1.95 13.90 12.91 32.94 4.45 6.25 28 0.87 5.92 2.98 29.47 28.52 31.28 11.44 1.12 stddev 4.69 26.54 33.06 2.82 30.94 3.40 0.68 4 1.54 25.65 0.38 3.61 2.71 9.50 11.63 4.58 2.03 9.28 7.80 9 3.03 50.55 2.00 mean 3.64 4.71 7.49 16.81 19.23 3.85 34.25 11.68 4.44 2.29 1.35 10A 1.08 0.81 14.24 44.91 5.48 0.

76 12.94 21.66 8.59 4.84 19.81 2 4.13 3.80 4.35 3.42 6.30 5.89 12.38 17.12 2.84 17 3.83 34.93 13.52 9.61 4.69 11.91 5.12 7.00 27.89 29 4.19 6.12 2.21 9.78 29.29 6.04 10.86 10.34 20.46 2.46 42.44 2.07 6.05 2.49 19.95 2.73 9.14 4.40 7 2.12 8.35 16 3. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 4.84 8.35 3.42 11.32 37.62 0.97 5.59 7.87 7.48 17.81 2.43 7.36 32.24 5 2.99 11.97 37.99 1.29 6.37 8.00 8.77 5.60 4.17 20 8.43 9.93 2.20 11.Male Population Sector below 4.60 12.63 3.40 20.60 23.26 2.02 3.97 35.44 15.60 8 3.88 28 5.71 18.90 10A 2.12 3.47 13.08 12.35 29.67 3.56 8.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.15 7.98 1.93 28.75 12.45 14.40 4.65 5.60 6.87 3.67 12.39 4.00 21 4.96 8.38 11.59 4.51 15.74 4.66 1.12 14 5.14 5.25 3.73 14.80 3.19 11.96 4.34 3.32 13.23 2.35 26 6.65 7.87 9.00 8.29 3.52 15.55 35.67 12.68 10 5.32 9.04 4.59 12 6.85 16.20 12.42 14.29 2.91 14.02 17.10 2.40 stddev 1.87 4.66 6.82 16.24 12.60 4.18 30.54 3.54 4.27 3.18 33.32 2.93 10.46 4.11 6.38 12.25 10.45 8.80 30.79 33.48 15.43 4.59 5.24 6.73 9 5.56 3.40 34.71 9A 4.62 8.36 16.41 16A 3.34 3.88 17.41 1.77 15 3.65 46.02 1.26 9.82 10.02 5.57 27.59 5.70 3.04 7.87 5.22 4.89 11.82 29.12 36.60 13.89 21.74 16.57 mean 4.84 12.56 14.56 4 3.39 5.69 6 2.25 6.01 10.57 20.28 31.80 1.77 34.83 12.82 16.58 16.98 8.02 3.68 7.90 11.03 31.86 3 4.78 6.87 8.51 2.16 31.11 16.91 2.78 3.90 .97 5.52 2.76 13.74 17.42 10.57 10.26 3.04 4.48 12.20 14.

83 5.00 5.07 6.29 17.35 3.16 3 4.14 20.29 12.78 29 2.89 4.06 28 2.74 41.35 3.06 15.53 7.21 14.96 3.13 5.86 7.90 38.11 11.57 1.09 1.81 11.56 47.Female Population Sector below 4.34 4.09 2.13 38.86 12.49 16.64 6.31 5.57 0.33 3.09 16A 4.94 8.61 10.79 6.09 1.29 9.15 13.98 9.58 19.68 12.20 5.43 4.46 18.60 4.71 38.58 15 4.62 3.29 6.71 12 6.07 10.14 7.63 9.82 9.57 3.85 9.14 26 7.18 22.60 7.80 2.39 3.55 7.57 13.46 1.32 15.27 7.43 12.96 7.84 34.04 10.55 4.07 12.91 10.78 2.01 10A 6.55 12.82 5.28 stddev 1.76 9.57 3.39 11.29 4.22 40.65 12.46 8 4.00 5.22 39.82 10.44 4.80 5.14 4.74 36.79 34.82 2.01 9.01 10.77 17 4.99 11.32 12.03 6.72 10.93 3.22 7.71 5.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.21 32.39 13.15 3.06 5.76 33.09 2.97 21 5.43 4.42 12.88 6.72 38.14 6.17 37.45 15.50 1.03 14 4.84 3.45 17.27 41.32 12.40 11.18 52.78 11.03 20 8.60 11.06 2.99 3.13 14.83 5.11 2.88 2 4.87 2.59 8.98 3.87 7.86 7.36 9.68 3.86 6.95 10.29 5.52 6.13 16 4.35 3.19 5.92 4.86 40.06 3.35 1.48 mean 4.58 42.66 2.08 2.71 6.87 17.77 3.93 11.07 6.35 5.83 .48 1.72 10.00 13.07 7 2.66 17.39 11.77 9A 3.28 5.22 14. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 3.32 3.35 38.06 45.55 9 5.89 2.80 5 4.29 4 3.44 5.06 0.87 8.96 10.30 33.66 4.83 4.35 2.25 16.51 10.78 5.96 11.32 1.71 8.98 10 5.31 3.64 6.97 14.90 9.14 32.49 6.88 16.31 12.72 2.43 13.41 4.16 37.56 5.77 6 3.38 3.17 4.40 2.00 3.25 9.11 11.29 12.08 5.54 39.15 6.39 13.22 13.23 4.

53 .91 11.56 50.23 0.87 52.07 12.93 16 0.82 12.49 5.88 10 0.58 1.83 14.34 2.73 20.85 66.46 2.04 20.Family Size Sector single 2 to 3 4 to 5 6 to 7 8 to 10 no.30 44.50 7.16 9.36 0.45 1.92 55.00 0.29 50.23 46.07 28.63 15.30 61.90 17 1.30 9A 1.68 0.99 8 0.00 mean 1.51 59.02 2.05 stddev 0.23 36.51 30.49 64.40 9.67 0.14 4 0.21 54.35 13.37 54.29 54.43 44.29 7.45 62.99 26 2.19 55.00 15.71 24.82 9.56 25.48 9 1.86 12 0. 1 2.82 51.15 20 0.95 1.55 23.47 20.33 41.71 14.57 11.16 44.46 15 1.68 0.09 1.11 1.23 12.93 32.40 7 0.52 62.14 2.67 47.46 54.95 10A 1.90 4.87 2 1.66 22.29 0.57 57.00 29 1.83 22.00 1.26 8.24 16A 0.18 2.00 14 1.23 28.00 28 0.19 20.64 19.17 54.38 14.92 1.79 33.98 2.19 3 1.43 34.67 14.97 19.64 1.05 66.41 63.99 0.00 26.00 19.86 11.86 1.82 6 3.72 15.57 19.14 14.88 36.92 12.00 58.95 1.53 6.28 21 0.03 5 0.64 10.18 26.

19 3 61.73 0.13 2.36 0.62 0.00 2 48.77 0.00 97.82 7.74 13.58 .00 53.00 0.00 10A 2.86 0.62 0.21 46.02 mean 53.00 0.82 0.00 92.00 0.00 92.00 0.00 0.00 0.77 0.10 0.13 0.00 2.13 28.67 0. House op comme society rcial 1 100.46 9 98.16 4.15 85.18 0.60 19.00 14 53.00 0.17 2.84 36.68 2.19 0.82 0.00 38.01 1.00 8 35.96 12.00 28 0.00 12 17.00 17 0.97 0.52 0.00 29 42.07 0.47 0.00 0.00 15 82.56 0. Pvt co.00 4 45.61 13.00 0.13 39.38 9A 2.21 6.83 35.00 0.58 8.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 6 92.78 12.00 5.00 7 89.00 0.12 3.Pvt Other no.14 0.81 0.18 0.31 20 100.00 0.33 0.00 0.40 6.25 62.12 0.68 0.40 1.75 stddev 37.38 0.00 1.00 0.35 39.00 0.86 0.00 0.00 0.23 26 100.30 0.00 0.91 76.00 0.90 0.80 0.00 23.00 16 83.00 0.72 0.81 76.12 23.00 21 99.87 20.02 5 22.00 0.00 10 83.07 3.39 4.15 17.00 0.00 16.00 16A 7.00 0.96 0.00 0.Type of Housing Sector CIDCO Pvt.

16 5.21 0.95 3 11.95 8 24.57 14.03 75.61 6.54 24.40 95 1.42 0.64 27.00 0.13 11.62 6.52 1.61 12.82 24.02 44.82 5.31 16.00 28 0.00 31.22 52.00 0.56 4.60 1.18 31.28 26 0.35 5.88 4.19 8.82 48.37 7.00 13.05 6.85 5.00 6.57 18.68 20 0.64 10.38 56.86 33.56 6.05 20.45 6.87 6.88 3.86 7 42.53 20.91 6.74 6.09 25.06 1.09 16 27.63 3.00 0.56 16.94 4.36 21.64 15 8.00 31.94 12.57 stddev 18.49 32.39 14.33 9A 0.50 12.86 mean 12.07 4 5.49 21 13.00 20.71 2 39.29 41.00 0.82 4.08 93 3.60 94 13.26 28.35 28.87 10 0.26 7.19 9.50 12.38 37.02 17.83 26.16 7.49 12.17 14 0.56 16A 0.75 7.06 13.71 11.00 0.00 0.07 8.11 17 0.46 36.00 0.92 2.82 8.54 6.82 5.43 20.80 39.33 18.57 12.30 6.17 12.00 4.56 9 0.83 8.38 15.74 4.95 5.50 16.42 7.60 7.10 40.87 1.67 36.27 1.87 0.38 10A 0.34 13.82 2.87 1.33 6.59 38.66 14.73 6.66 0.82 12.52 7.81 6.76 5 49.63 1.42 12.88 0.15 18.62 4.19 5.72 3.43 32.29 12 0.14 1.44 48.00 29 0.87 7.Tenure Sector before1 81-85 86-90 91-92 no.24 3.00 35.17 6.00 47.13 11.61 6 51.00 48.93 10.61 18. 980 1 43.15 .16 9.86 4.11 15.65 17.92 11.32 6.09 29.52 12.03 10.73 4.85 4.23 22.65 31.99 12.00 0.30 6.

69 2.32 8.73 4.26 7.52 1.10 4.54 1.42 4.14 0.25 4.00 4.30 14.57 28.00 39.67 7.58 9.52 22.60 2.26 0.27 0.00 19.38 2.53 0.30 2.07 3.17 5.74 28.00 0.02 47.39 2.32 27.33 0.88 1.10 16.45 21.45 2.31 5.03 15.42 8.17 8.00 0.29 8.00 33.25 31.15 2.99 7.80 37.58 14.69 5.02 22.43 17.90 2.91 2.10 16.17 25.51 6.50 27.23 18.00 0.64 0.24 7.62 0.83 2.00 30.03 24.26 23.46 0.09 5.08 0.09 0.00 28.48 20.00 6.05 19.83 8.77 6.29 .26 19.77 2.74 31.26 2.36 4.45 0.57 1. city suburbs suburbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10A 12 14 15 16 16A 17 20 21 26 28 29 9A mean stddev 21.00 0.73 25.95 12.38 5.15 0.61 12.00 0.63 0.13 26.54 5.00 23.62 0.26 12.92 4.63 5.80 4.76 11.00 45.Previous Place of Residence Sector Island Wn En Thane Vashi no.33 7.07 5.33 4.55 3.53 2.62 29.58 0.87 3.47 36.33 0.20 8.00 2.19 27.33 0.37 1.51 7.39 4.52 2.76 3.40 8.88 2.23 12.98 0.12 7.83 3.79 0.00 32.67 25.00 24.92 7.30 34.29 0.24 5.42 26.85 33.58 2.76 3.05 18.51 10.00 26. Mumba state state i 24.62 4.96 18.39 0.14 6.02 9.29 20.31 0.05 30.93 3.84 2.94 28.83 18.64 2.23 3.94 5.48 15.53 2.45 3.42 3.00 20.30 4.64 7.58 0.71 20.93 8.85 47.68 3.03 6.74 36.35 21.19 17.33 4.54 3.35 15.60 0.00 38.69 35.95 9.98 3.90 10.10 17.17 5.76 0.00 21.69 4.00 31.01 Navi Inside Out of Intl.63 2.24 23.03 1.54 8.47 6.37 10.90 7.44 5.15 2.55 8.60 4.71 5.82 3.09 27.67 3.26 3.33 8.67 8.67 2.63 15.25 12.88 12.81 0.20 6.30 0.46 1.82 6.00 4.00 30.33 8.48 17.00 1.00 1.50 6.24 1.81 4.

76 4.67 0.69 28 28.17 16.47 2.05 2.00 0.67 4.81 5. i hi lam a 1 51.37 4.71 1.61 1.71 8.00 11.57 20.96 6.57 4 46.77 3.14 1.20 4.49 9.28 24.57 1.13 20.73 2.52 19.36 11.76 14.43 16.62 7.91 2.61 14.89 4.22 3.29 15.29 29 25.62 1.36 6.84 12.09 8.85 0.17 16.45 2.13 4.19 2.86 4.26 5 77.05 9.00 9.72 5.23 2.57 15.00 7.Language Sector Marath Hindi Gujarat Malaya Punjabi Tamil Kannad Bengali Other no.03 2.49 4.53 2.76 12.70 8.36 4.00 1.12 2.74 4.87 12.32 9A 20.57 14.32 7.29 3.30 4.83 14 19.64 3.26 13.10 4.93 9.48 mean 39.38 14.21 9 50.17 9.49 10.30 9.63 16 54.61 5.09 6.54 7.40 2.66 10.54 27.10 2.92 20 60.22 2.10 5.53 9.95 4.55 8.82 3.00 1.54 4.81 4.00 12.00 4.03 16.90 3.85 5.92 1.29 2.79 16A 51.75 14.00 12.72 12.76 3.67 15 57.73 stddev 17.43 14.98 6.36 10 44.92 3.08 4.90 2 44.38 0.86 8.99 3.33 29.37 4.85 5.43 7.03 17.82 4.76 5.26 3.50 10.71 1.32 1.19 3.43 4.54 21 61.34 12.36 6.99 16.23 9.70 6.29 2.31 3.92 14.44 2.52 0.13 7 37.46 5.54 1.44 5.08 7.27 2.49 10A 24.56 8 22.98 4.87 17.96 5.59 1.33 13.93 1.24 7.09 15.77 8.73 2.93 4.66 8.00 6.17 20.66 10.29 0.15 2.27 7.90 17.63 2.97 10.96 2.73 0.21 0.34 4.60 2.97 3.57 17.29 2.43 24.18 10.83 8.29 .73 3.56 5.55 3.39 4.46 17.58 2.27 7.97 4.21 21.03 9.51 3.91 6 33.63 1.32 2.70 10.30 1.15 18.47 2.79 12.83 7.00 4.90 26 48.89 3.42 3 32.26 2.33 6.98 3.27 0.27 5.84 4.55 32.75 4.85 1.71 12 8.00 0.64 10.90 3.32 17 21.44 7.15 16.

20 8.55 4.72 4.Religion Sector Hindu Christi Islam Jain Sikh Buddhi Other no.85 7.17 0.42 5.31 0. an st 1 79.70 1.32 2.79 0.22 0.00 0.32 6.00 0.00 14 88.20 10.71 0.10 0.00 21 81.53 4.43 0.17 2.62 20 86.51 2.78 1.56 3.00 12 79.47 0.32 2 80.66 3.03 5.73 1.68 0.26 5.86 1.64 5.43 1.20 0.82 2.46 0.41 0.88 0.68 1.00 7.01 6.42 0.04 6.00 17 85.00 28 100.33 0.21 15.67 1.00 1.57 4.33 0.76 5.93 8.13 5.47 4.76 8.86 22.00 7 76.44 0.85 0.13 0.99 0.54 0.00 0.09 6.00 0.75 0.64 9 84.98 0.00 0.81 9.52 0.00 0.64 0.16 0.95 0.28 4.00 29 86.36 mean 82.42 1.23 0.24 0.00 0.00 15 83.00 0.85 0.16 15.29 9.36 1.60 1.05 0.57 4 84.32 1.04 5.00 1.47 0.34 6.62 0.73 1.92 1.75 5.02 0.21 0.13 8.55 1.52 3.00 26 86.18 11.92 7.70 0.17 0.70 2.03 0.00 0.69 0.88 0.43 1.00 4.61 1.68 0.50 4.09 0.40 0.02 0.40 2.00 0.00 5 81.80 3.00 2.00 16 88.00 0.36 0.61 4.26 6.65 9.53 3.00 6 83.11 10 80.37 0.19 5.74 1.82 7.62 0.60 8.43 1.46 1.00 6.15 0.00 9A 73.82 0.60 0.00 0.00 1.88 0.45 2.78 3.91 0.17 12.42 0.82 10.00 0.53 1.45 2.59 3 75.00 16A 91.00 0.66 8 72.25 stddev 6.51 0.49 .00 10A 72.

.890 3 .824 RELIGION 1.005 99.000 .926 EDUCATN 1. Deviation Analysis N 73.879 TENURE 1.Appendix D Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics EARNER EDUCATN FAM.293 3.862 6 8.1087 9.7870 81659 37.314E-16 100. Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 4.356 95.8863 81659 28.6486 81659 86.851E-17 .2670 81659 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.571 55.000 .660 98.6076 81659 8.SIZE INCOME LANGUAGE MIGRATN RELIGION TENURE Mean Std.985 INCOME 1.133 100.SIZE 1.064E-02 .955 89.000 .867 7 1.000 8 5.875 FAM.202 5 .000 .039E-02 1.845 4 .571 2 1.446 55.8271 8.320 79.6705 5.0814 4.796 .9974 81659 49.4115 81659 32.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.2091 4.8538 81659 53.000 .832 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.429 5.7800 3.0403 3.939 MIGRATN 1.946 24.928 LANGUAGE 1.000 .9885 16.000 .000 .

878 -.107 INCOME -.202 -1.862 LANGUAGE .766E-02 MIGRATN .SIZE .468E-03 RELIGION .317E-02 -8.925E-02 TENURE -.293 INCOME .937 -.383E-02 .902 -.136 .881 LANGUAGE -.101 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.818 % of Variance Cumulative % 43. 3 .822 .634 4. 3 .951 .796E-04 TENURE .926 .347 43.728 89.347 23.156 .278 .230 MIGRATN -.455 .888 -7.255 4.702 -.379 -2.SIZE -.484 EDUCATN .898E-02 .230 RELIGION -.900 FAM.446 .785 -7.244 -.685 8.155 -.845 Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER .430 .381 .468 1.771 67.118 22.902 1.201 .Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings 1 2 3 Total 3.358 .236 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.470 EDUCATN -.804 .454E-02 Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER -.880 .882 FAM.264 .

946 4.919 9.581 2.0 Squared Euclidean Distance used Average Linkage (Between Groups) Average Linkage (Between Groups) Agglomeration Schedule Stage Cluster 1 1 5 2 2 3 5 4 1 5 3 6 1 7 1 Cluster 2 6 7 8 2 4 5 3 Coefficients .0 0 .299 10.0 8 100.108 Cluster Membership 1:Vashi 2:Nerul 3:Belapur 4:Kalamboli 5:Panvel 6:Kopar-khaira 7:Airoli 8:Sanpada 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 .174 4.Appendix E Cluster Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N 8 a b Missing Total Percent N Percent N Percent 100.617 7.

855 LANGUAG1 1.5535 LANGUAG2 6.000 .836 INCOME 1.7324 3.571 OWNRSHIP 1.7307 3.0375 Std.000 .3934 9.9142 3.0484 MIGRATN 52.5760 INCOME 27.856 EDUCATN 1.000 .3183 EDUCATN 40.000 .Appendix F Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics Mean EARNER 66.527 MEN 1.000 . Deviation 7.9114 MEN 38.5580 35.7719 3.9759 OWNRSHIP 66.6247 4. .889 LANGUAG2 1.721 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.8628 WOMEN 33.801 RELGION1 1.000 .9421 LANGUAG1 46.000 .000 .000 .000 .722 RELGION2 1.675 MIGRATN 1.568 WOMEN 1.9768 15.9628 7.3839 RELGION2 6.4424 RELGION1 82.5835 Analysis N 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.000 .1339 10.

359 3.200 8 .935 7 .937 34.937 2.093E-03 MIGRATN -.581 4 .734 10 9.Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % of Variance Cumulative % 25.127 -.436 100.257 87.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.265 95.453 49.688 6.803 8.880 -.690 3 1.915E-04 .448 .698 6 .657 -2.773 -.096 .794E-02 .427E-02 INCOME .917 Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total 1 3.564 11 4.638 97.071E-02 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.391 LANGUAG2 -.238 91.592 WOMEN .424 RELGION1 .001 25.854E-02 .831 99. .441 5 .246 .234 8.161 57.838 9 9.522 -.098 2.843 34.819 72.455 23.777 -.475 RELGION2 .373 -.136E-02 .816 -5.487 EDUCATN .001 24.473 .042E-02 .310 .612 .500 4.131 .750 2 2.523 81.438 22.239 MEN 0.290 2. Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .896 98.463 72.565 OWNRSHIP .748 .466 4.740 15.917 2.458 LANGUAG1 .538 .938 8.

524 .Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .869 .130 .246 LANGUAG1 .855 .804 MIGRATN 0.333 .231 -.647 9.575 5.141E-02 MEN -.704E-02 INCOME . Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.046 -.877 -9.774 EDUCATN .610E-02 LANGUAG2 -.658 RELGION2 .110 -.596 -.366 .240 .316 -.795 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.742 -.709 .210 .120 .399 WOMEN .113 RELGION1 -.136 OWNRSHIP . .351 -.214 .201 . a Rotation converged in 6 iterations.

918 .584 .052 11.032 1.449 8.904 2.515 1.114 .837 1.309 6.142 13.558 4.108 2.487 3.411 1.726 4.653 .751 .151 2.799 5.Appendix G Cluster Agglomeration Schedule Cluster Combined Stage Cluster 1 Cluster 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2 9 1 12 9 15 3 12 1 13 9 3 1 8 1 1 3 12 12 1 1 1 6 10 2 17 14 18 7 16 4 22 20 23 15 11 9 19 8 21 13 3 12 5 Stage Cluster First Appears Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Next Stage 0 0 3 0 0 5 0 1 9 0 0 8 2 0 11 0 0 13 0 0 12 4 0 18 3 0 13 0 0 19 5 0 15 7 0 17 9 6 15 0 0 17 13 11 16 15 0 20 12 14 20 8 0 19 18 10 21 16 17 21 20 19 22 21 0 0 Coefficients .840 1.574 .

Cluster Membership Case 3 Clusters 1:1 1 2:2 1 3:3 1 4:4 1 5:5 2 6:6 1 7:7 1 8:8 1 9:9 1 10:10 1 11:10A 1 12:12 3 13:14 3 14:15 1 15:16 1 16:16A 3 17:17 3 18:20 1 19:21 1 20:26 1 21:28 3 22:29 3 23:9A 1 .

New Delhi. • Won first prize (three member team) for Formica Interior design competition.July 1992 Honors and Affiliations • Invited to Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society. Aug. VA Bachelor of Architecture May 1996 University of Pune. J.July 1996 .May 1997 Worked as an Architect with Suyojan Architects. 1994 . Department of Urban Affairs and Planning. Pune. Dec. Knox. Virginia Tech. Associate Dean for Academic Affairs.May 1994 Worked as an intern at Historic Boulder. 1997 – May 1998 Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. USA. O. India. College of Architecture and Urban Studies. 1996 . October 1997. 1995. Pune. • Rank holder of the University of Pune. Professor. Worked as an intern with Narendra Dengle Architects. Blacksburg. April . • Won first prize (three member team) in a design competition . India Experience Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. . L. 1994. • Student member American Planning Association. May 1997. CO. • Awarded Virginia Citizens Planning Associate Fellowship . Browder.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Date of Birth: 30 June 1973 Education: Master of Urban and Regional Planning May 1998 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. P. Boulder.Outstanding First Year Graduate Student.Reclaiming a derelict river. India May .Mar. 1995 Worked with the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage May 1993 . Aug. India. • Registered Architect under Council of Architecture. Pune.

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