The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Urban and Regional Planning

John Browder, Chair Wendy Jacobson Paul Knox

April , 1998 Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords: urban social pattern, Navi Mumbai, Bombay, urban planning - India Copyright 1998, Malathi Ananthakrishnan

The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India Malathi Ananthakrishnan (ABSTRACT) This research thesis examines the emerging trends in urban social patterns in Navi Mumbai, India. Unlike the other planned cities of India, Navi Mumbai was specifically built as a planned decentralization of a large metropolitan city. The research focuses on explaining the urban social pattern of this particular case study. An urban social pattern reflects the social characteristics of the urban setting. In the case of Navi Mumbai, the government had a social agenda of promoting a social pattern based on socioeconomic distribution rather than an ethnic one. Analysis of the data provides an insight to the results of this social agenda, and provides a basis to frame new ones. Thus, the study not only addresses a basic research question, but also has policy implications. The research involves a comprehensive review of secondary source material to establish the theoretical framework for the research. The review also involves an extensive inspection of urban social patterns across the world to better contextualize this particular case study. The research puts forth a model that explains the social pattern of Navi Mumbai by social area analysis using variables, which are drawn from social aspects of any city and indigenous factors of Indian settlements. The model depends not only on statistical analysis but also on interpretation of local conditions. This research situates the emerging social pattern in geographic literature in developing countries. This research was supported in part, by a grant from the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Tech.

Acknowledgment

I would like to take this opportunity to thank my Advisor and Chair of my committee, Dr. John Browder. He was supportive of all my efforts to successfully complete this thesis. It would not have been possible without his help. Thank you also to my committee members, Dr. Jacobson and Dr. Knox, for the time and effort they contributed.

Thanks also due to everyone in Navi Mumbai who helped me collect the data and all relevant information. Special thanks to Ms. Adusumilli, Senior planner, CIDCO, Mrs. Raje, Chief statistician, CIDCO, Dr. Venkatachalam and Dr. Sengupta at IIT-Bombay and Dr. BanerjeeGuha at the University of Bombay. I would also like to thank Prachi and Avesh Tapde for their hospitality in Navi Mumbai.

Dr. Dyck and Dr. Bohland clarified many of my conceptual and analytical queries. I would like to give my appreciation for their support. I would also like to thank Dr. Randolph and Dr. Schubert for having made a grant available for me to carry out the field research.

I am also grateful to my good friends Inga, Maneesha and Elda for not only helping me out with proof reading and other mundane things, but also for being there during the ups and downs of the entire process. I would like to thank my family for always encouraging me to think and my fiancé for his patience.

5.5.1 Introduction 3.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai 2.3 Factors influencing Urban Form 3.7.3 Indian Cities 3.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern 3.5 Sociocultural Factors 3.8.4 Language 3. 3 2.5.Table of Contents 1. Introduction………………………………………………………………….3 Religion 3.1 Research Problem Statement 1.2 Third World Cities 3.3 Multiple Nuclei Theory 3.1 Descriptive Analysis 4.2 Cluster Analysis .5 Development Potential of the Site 2.2 Sector Theory 3.9 Conclusion 4. Research Design……………………………………………………………… 38 4.2 Class 3.8.8.1 Caste 3.5. 1.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 2.5 Methodology 4.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns 3.2 Significance of Thesis 1.7.8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework 2.1 Western Cities 3.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai 2.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan 2..4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities 3.5 Implications of the Sociocultural factors 3.2 Hypothesis 4.3 Operationalization 4..3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai 2.5.8 Case Study of Urban Social Patterns 3. 20 3.10 Conclusion 3.5. The Research Setting…………………………………………………………. The Conceptual Framework………………………………………………….3 Organization of the Thesis 1 2.1 Introduction 2.6 The Built Form 3.4 Data Collection 4.1 Social Area Analysis 4.1 Concentric Zone Theory 3.5.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region 2.7.

4 Sub-regional Scale – sectors 5.1 Principal Components Analysis 5.. Presentation of Data………………………………………………………….3 Regional Scale – nodes 5.2.4.4.4 Potential Utility of the Research 43 65 7..5.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory 6.1 Principal Components Analysis 5. 5.2.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory 6.4.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory 6.2 Cluster Analysis 5.3 Principal Component Analysis 4.3.2. Interpretation / Discussion…………………………………………………… 6.2 Sub-regional Scale 6.4 mapping and Overlays 4. Glossary of Terms Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G 77 . Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 74 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………….3 Summary 6.2 Cluster Analysis 5.5.3 Discussion 5.1 Regional Scale 6.1 Introduction 5.6 Data Analysis 5.3.3.5 Conclusion 6.3 Discussion 5.4.2 Descriptive Analysis 5.

9 5.4 2.3 5.1 2.7 5.19 5.2 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.2 5.4 5.21 Title Population Density of Bombay Immigrant population of Bombay Land Fragmentation in 1970 Household Income and Capacity to Pay Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay Land Use of Navi Mumbai Constructs and Variables Survey Sampling Constructs and Variables Work Force Number of Earners Occupational Classification of Workforce Household Income Location of Education Institutions Level of Education Male Population Female Population Family Size Type of Housing Ownership of House Housing built by CIDCO Housing built by Private Enterprise Year of Occupation Previous Place of Residence Religion Language Spatial Pattern of Variables Attributes of Principal Components Attributes of Principal Components page 4 5 6 8 16 17 39 40 43 44 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 50 51 52 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 60 61 .8 5.5 2.15 5.2 2.18 5.List of Tables Table number 2.11 5.1 5.20 5.3 2.6 4.5 5.6 5.16 5.1 4.17 5.10 5.

9 5. 2651-4450 Frequency of Families with at least one individual with Secondary Education Frequency of Male Population in the age group 25-45 Frequency of Households with 4 or 5 members Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO Frequency of Housing built by CIDCO Frequency of Houses built by Private Enterprise Frequency of Tenure Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence Frequency of Hindus Frequency of Muslims Frequency of Marathi Frequency of Malayalam Components in Rotated Space Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai Average Linkage between Factor Scores Average Linkage between Variables Clustering of Sectors of Vashi Average Linkage between Factor Scores Page 2 5 7 11 15 18 26 28 29 29 31 32 32 33 34 36 45 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 56 57 57 59 59 60 62 63 65 66 66 67 68 .6 3.2 2.5 Title Expansion of Bombay Twin City Across the Harbor Development Potential of the Site Nodes of Navi Mumbai Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai Land Use of Navi Mumbai Circle and Swastika Town Plans Concentric Zone Theory Sector Theory Multiple Nuclei Theory Urban Social Patterns Plan of Delhi and New Delhi Asian Ports Latin American Cities Pattern of Indian Cities Theories of Urban Social Patterns and Corresponding Case Studies Distribution of Single-earner Families Frequency of Families with Income range Rs.17 5.4 3.1 5.5 5.8 5.1 2.10 5.1 6.5 3.10 5.7 5.8 3.3 3.4 5.6 5.2 6.2 5.6 3.2 3.7 3.15 5.11 5.3 2.List of Figure Figure Number 2.4 2.3 5.13 5.5 2.9 3.3 6.12 5.1 3.16 5.14 5.18 5.4 6.19 6.

6 6.6.7 6.8 6.14 6.16 6.17 6.13 6.15 6.18 Average Linkage between Variables Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic variables Distribution of Number of Earners Distribution of Income Hypothetical Concentric Pattern for Family Status variables Distribution of Ownership of Apartment Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic variables Distribution of Households speaking Marathi Distribution of Households which follow Islam Clustering of Sectors Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 .11 6.10 6.12 6.9 6.

2 Significance of Research A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between their constituent elements at a certain period of time. It is a synthesis of the spatial relationships of various elements. Thus. An interpretation of the emerging social pattern reveals something of the social character of the city. The urban form of a city is primarily the result of the characteristics of its physical and social design as well as socioeconomic and political forces. and political events may influence the physical design and pattern of a city. These include the ethnic composition of the city. land use pattern and ethnic classifications will be used as key variables to study the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. This research aspires to contribute to basic research in social geography. this paper will augment existing knowledge about social configurations of planned urban development in Asian regions. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. and their social pattern is characterized by residential segregation based on ethnic. religious and linguistic classes. street patterns. exist in the urban social pattern of planned towns in India. Navi Mumbai (New Bombay) is one of the first planned new town developments built for a diverse. The urban social pattern is one of the many aspects of the urban form. Different characteristics are drawn from the factors influencing the physical design and cultural aspect of the city. middle class population in India. 1. race.Chapter 1: Introduction 1. and the housing market. Physical and economic landscapes. The pattern of Navi Mumbai will be studied at different hierarchical spatial levels: regional (node / township) and sub-regional (sector / neighborhood).1 Research Problem Statement The overall objective of this thesis is to determine what common patterns. The pattern suggests not only the outcome of . The basic research here involves the search for an urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. planning regulations. Traditional Indian cities have evolved over the centuries. land use and ownership. religion. A policy emphasizing a uniform distribution of the population is the ideological orientation of the government. Socioeconomic factors. economic and social processes within it (Vance. This research determines how the present social pattern relates to various theoretical frameworks. the study of human settlements has an encompassing view of all the activities it supports. 1990). The purpose of this thesis is to delineate and interpret the social pattern of Navi Mumbai. housing characteristics. The literature review shows that a specific study of Navi Mumbai has not been previously documented. migration. Why is such a study significant? The urban form of the city influences behavioral. Various processes influence the social pattern of the city. if any. Urban patterns occur because of repetition of these elements. Therefore.

the basic research has many applications in longrange planning in Navi Mumbai.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 1: Introduction 2 the policy. methodology. The fourth chapter outlines the methodology used for analysis of data and explains the data source and method of data collection. . This first chapter is the introduction. which provides the problem statement and the broader objectives of the thesis. the research setting. The presentation of data and its analysis is in the fifth chapter. 1. Thus. Interpretation and discussion of the analysis and its relationship to the theories discussed in the third chapter is done in the sixth chapter. The urban social pattern also serves as a framework for further research. but also variables that influence this pattern. its contextual framework. analysis and interpretation and the broad outcomes of the thesis.3 Organization of the Thesis This thesis is divided into seven chapters. The second chapter provides the background to the particular case study used in the research. The third chapter is a comprehensive review of the secondary sources to establish a context of the research question. Chapter seven draws to conclusion the thesis with a review of the problem statement.

textile mills and government offices have made it the preeminent port of Western India. 2. The East India Company encouraged Indian and East India Company merchants to settle in Bombay. The harbor was strengthened.Chapter 2: The Research Setting 2. 1995). is a new planned city across the harbor (of Bombay) from Bombay. especially to the middle and lower class of people. There was a . Figure 2. the East India Company had taken on the new role of ruler (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. now as rulers. 1995).1 Expansion of Bombay The East India Company. 1973). Bombay had its beginnings in a series of fishing villages until it was taken over by the Portuguese in the 16th century. was interested in developing the town in a methodical manner. Navi Mumbai was designed to provide a better quality of life. the shipyard modernized and the city fortified. 1965 Bombay’s high concentration of docks. Bombay was then established as a trading post. Urbanization and subsequent suburbanization of Bombay have created a linear city such that the central business district (CBD) and residential areas have become further and further apart (Figure 2. squatter settlements all over Bombay became the way of life. By the 1780s. The first settlement was established in the southern most tip of the island.1). In 1661. In Bombay. India. The geographical area of Bombay is an island. and providing efficient infrastructure (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. 1995.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region Bombay is not a city built on Indian traditional planning ideas. The city of Source: Dwivedi and Mehrotra. This range of activities led to crowding at an BOMBAY NAVI unprecedented scale. This planned decentralization was the outcome of efforts by the government to make Bombay more “sustainable” (Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board. the King of Portugal gifted the Bombay islands to King Charles II of England when King Charles married Catherine Braganza.1 Introduction Navi Mumbai (New Bombay). In 1668. 1957 trading posts. established in 1972. for Arabian MUMBAI Sea those who could not afford to make the 1910 long commutes. South Bombay is the center of India’s 1950 banking and service industries. the Crown rented Bombay to the East India Company. a Portuguese princess.

1995). and. . and 24 percent of the one and two room tenements were over crowded. Table 2.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 4 strong development of mixed land use settlements.1 Population Density of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Area in acres 14247 14281 14342 14575 15066 15480 16751 16720 Persons / Acre 54 56 54 67 78 75 165 184 (Various Census Reports for Bombay in Kosambi. V. 1992). Land use zoning and the concept of floor space index were incorporated for the first time. These formal government bodies were the beginning of a conscientious effort to regulate the growth of Bombay (Banerjee-Guha. By the early 1900s. 1995). Bombay’s infrastructure facilities were stretched to the limit. Transportation is threatening to break down…. Commercial and residential areas were mixed because many merchants carried on business from home (Tindall. the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board set up two committees to study the development of Bombay. the Bombay Improvement Trust was created. The large migrant influx contributed to the overcrowding (Table 2. The 1967 development plan estimated a housing shortage of 131. some thought was given to ’Greater Bombay’. Greater Bombay came into existence only after the Bombay High Court Act of 1945. They recommended: i the creation of a new town on the mainland across the harbor i develop the suburbs of Bombay further Bombay had reached a level of unmanageable growth by the 1960s. the Port of Bombay. concentration of industries and offices in certain pockets of Bombay. In 1865. lack of housing and infrastructure and high land values were the major problems identified. Adequate water is a serious problem. This enclosed the Town and Island of Bombay. Modak influenced the development of Greater Bombay for the next two decades (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. Housing deficits are ever widening and slums like a cancerous growth can be seen anywhere and everywhere. 1995). various planning committees were formed to develop a regional plan for Bombay. In 1967. 1973) Population increase. 1986) The Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board in its report wrote Bombay the Beautiful is no more beautiful. The development acts of 1954 and 1964 emphasized the need to relocate industrial activity from the island to the mainland (CIDCO. the suburbs and 42 villages within the definition of the new city limit (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. Many parts of it are not even tolerably clean and healthy. In 1966. (BMRPB. the Gadgil Committee strongly recommended a multi-nuclear growth using the creation of a new town across the harbor. the Bombay Municipal Corporation was established. Commuter distances had become larger because of increased suburbanization with no change in location of the CBD. The Post-War development Committee of 1945 and the ’Master Plan in Outline’ prepared by Albert Mayer and N. 1965).000 houses. which would encompass the Fort area as well as the suburbs of Bombay. in 1896. In the 1960s. This committee appointed the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board to develop the concept further (Gadgil Committee. 1995). However.2).

2).2 Twin City Across the Harbor Source: CIDCO. 1993).3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai The prominent authors of the ’twin city concept’ were Charles Correa1. It is a narrow piece of land bounded by the Western Ghat mountain ranges on the north. and New Growth Centers Growth Centers of Bombay Town Center Arabian Sea Harbor of Bombay Figure 2. This was in the form of the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board’s recommendation that a new city be designed within the Bombay Metropolitan region to facilitate the decongestion of Bombay (Correa. The site that was finally chosen was across the harbor from Bombay island. 1973. If the new city was too far away.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 5 Table 2. 1 2 Charles Correa is a prominent architect and urban designer in Bombay. Unhealthy and insanitary conditions for 1 million slum dwellers was the result of inadequate housing stock. 3 Sirish Patel. Pravina Mehta (late) was a structural engineer. Also. 1986) The concentration of industries and offices at the CBD and suburbs like Chembur and Andheri created unequal development. Lack of adequate water supply and sewage facilities worsened conditions. south and east. Pravina Mehta2 and Shirish Patel3 who presented to the government a proposal in 1964 for constructing new growth centers across Bombay harbor on the mainland (Figure 2. 1997). engineer and planner. . 2. 1973). 1973).2 Immigrant Population of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Population 773196 821764 776006 979445 1175914 1161383 2771933 3070378 % 72 75 77 80 84 75 72 63 Immigrants Males per 151 171 162 189 191 181 160 149 100 Females (Various Census Reports of Bombay in Kosambi. The implementation occurred through ’correct’ political and bureaucratic channels in 1969. was incharge of the planning and design of Navi Mumbai (1970-75). In a final attempt. rocketing land prices prevented the acquisition of land for public purposes (BMPRB. then this would not be possible (BMRPB. air pollution and mixed land use (UNCHS. the Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board recommended considering a twin city across the harbor.

The new town.3) Table 2. and improving Bombay by drawing off pressures for growth into the new area (Patel. 1995) CIDCO notified all private owners about the compulsory acquisition. The regional plan was approved in 1970. Owners were notified about the government’s proposal. 1985). It is a self-contained city independent of Bombay although there is still a visual connection to Bombay. Navi Mumbai covers an area of 344 sq. m. It was hoped that the nearness to Bombay would facilitate the relocation of people from Bombay (CIDCO. m. Correa. The first task of CIDCO was to prepare a development plan for the new town. >10000 sq. 1997). 2. CIDCO is a limited company. km) (number) (number) (number) Government 10137 All Private 16677 18412 3338 1579 90 Marsh(wetlands) 84 (CIDCO. >4000 sq. The finality of the approved Development Plan ensures that the pressure and friction which would develop to obtain land use changes for particular land holdings would be largely eliminated . financing physical and social infrastructure through land sales. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act (MR&TP Act). >1000 sq. The land notified for acquisition for Navi Mumbai was under private and government ownership (Table 2. 1966. 1973). 1973): i polycentric pattern of development i acquisition of all land to have better control of the environment and to use land as the main resource for development. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board created the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) in 1970 to implement its ideas. m. Section 31(6) under the same act gives the government the power to specify land use and proceed with development. CIDCO used certain development principles in its design.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 6 the Arabian Sea on the west (CIDCO.3 Land Fragmentation in 1970 Ownership Area (sq. 1973). comprising of a number of nodes (townships). m.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 The task of planning and developing Navi Mumbai was entrusted to the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO). a government agency explicitly set up for this purpose. The government would acquire land under its power of eminent domain under Section 22. 1973). km. was designed to accommodate new industrial and commercial activity as well as for secure and affordable housing to workers. >500 sq. Patel and Mehta designed this regional plan based on three basic objectives: a planned new development. wholly owned by the State Government of Maharashtra (CIDCO. The first step was to identify all the land that needed to be acquired for Navi Mumbai. The plan hoped to reduce homelessness in Bombay and provide slum dwellers a better life as well as absorb migration from the countryside (Correa. They were (CIDCO.

Reduce the growth of population in Bombay city by creating a center that would absorb immigrants. 1973). 2. 1995). 1973: 10): 1.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 7 (CIDCO. raise the living standards and reduce the disparities in the amenities available to the different sections of the population. To provide an environment which would permit the residents of New Bombay to live fuller and richer lives in so far this is possible.3). To support a statewide Industrial Location Policy which will lead eventually to an efficient and rational distribution of industries over the State and a balanced development of urban centers in the hinterland. To provide a physical infrastructure which prevents ethnic enclaves among the population. and major law and order problems did occur. Although five minor amendments were made to this Draft Plan. free from the physical and social tensions. 3. container port at Nhava-Sheva. Nevertheless. it also hoped to improve the quality of life of Bombay. These were (CIDCO. Although the main objective of the design of Navi Mumbai was to create a selfsufficient urban environment. no new document was ever prepared.5 Development Potential of the Site The chosen site had various development potentials (Figure 2. The success of Navi Mumbai was thought to depend on the adequate creation of jobs (CIDCO. and transport corridors along Thane-Belapur. The objectives were (CIDCO. and also attract some of Bombay’s present population. 4. To provide physical and social services. 2. • the newly commissioned bridge across the Thane creek. Panvel-Uran rail and road links. 1995). • the existence of two municipal corporations at Panvel and Uran.3 Development Potential of the Site Turbhe MIDC Industrial Estates Arabian Sea Creek bridge Taloja Panvel Nhava-sheva . The Draft Development Plan gave only broad guidelines. leaving enough room for flexibility. 1995): • the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) Estates at Turbhe and Taloja. • the plan for a modern. 5. CIDCO acquired all the land after settling disputes about compensation (CIDCO. The Draft Development Plan remains the guiding document in use even today. which are commonly associated with urban living. • the Thane-Pune National Highway 4. The development plan took into account the Figure 2. This was not entirely true.

i to decongest Bombay by shifting jobs that are concentrated in the southern part of Bombay. Almost 87% of the office jobs of Greater Bombay are located on Bombay island with 62% in South Bombay. assuming a family size of five.000 houses needed to be built. 400.7) Household % of Monthly Capacity to pay Affordable size Income Population capacity to pay for housing (in of housing unit (Rs. 1995): i make Navi Mumbai self-contained and not a dormitory. The employment base of Navi Mumbai was planned to encompass manufacturing (industry).000 office jobs. trade and commerce (wholesale and warehousing). better quality houses was the biggest incentive (CIDCO. as well as service sector (office) jobs. 1997). the availability of cheaper. Table 2. A CBD was planned in Navi Mumbai with the aim of creating 40.4 Household Income and Capacity to Pay (Figures estimated in 1971 income where $1~Rs. 1973).4 shows CIDCO’s estimates on the capacity to pay for housing by different income groups. large industries. m.) Less than 200 20 10 1200 3 201-300 16 11 2580 5 301-400 15 12 4140 8 401-500 14 13 5940 12 501-600 12 14 7800 16 601-800 9 15 10800 22 801-1000 7 17 15600 31 Threshold of affordability 1001-1200 3 19 21000 43 1201-1500 2 22 30000 60 1501+ 2 25 37800 75 . large or medium industrial units were permitted on Bombay island. 1995). 1975). The plan called for the shifting of government offices from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai. The authors of the regional plan cited the case of New Delhi to emphasize their idea (Patel. To accommodate a population of 2 million. This was necessary to (CIDCO.000 jobs for a population of 2 million (CIDCO. Industrial growth was encouraged only in the MIDC industrial estates of Navi Mumbai (CIDCO. The Industrial Location Policy issued in December 1974 posed various restrictions on the start of new industrial units on Bombay island. Only small-scale industries were allowed in place of old.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 8 provision of 750. Table 2. i to use the job centers with matching infrastructure provision as engines of growth for the new city. Per month) (% of income) rupees) (in sq. Although job opportunities were the driving force behind Navi Mumbai’s success. No new. A series of controls were made for various regions within Bombay.

The housing has to be heavily subsidized to make it affordable. 1973). The sector was based on the Spanish cuadra of 110 to 100 meters. land would be leased under a 30-year repayment system to private cooperative housing schemes and private owners. CIDCO decided to use a maximum surcharge of 15% on housing for highest income group to compensate for a maximum subsidy of 45% to the lowest income group (CIDCO. CIDCO decided to build a large part of the housing as public housing. m. commercial. This would have a great drain on the financial resources of the government. Le Corbusier had played an important role in the design of Chandigarh in Punjab in the mid1950s (Le Corbusier. which would subsidize housing for the lower income groups. The total land of Navi Mumbai was divided into thirteen townships. The higher income groups would pay a surcharge for housing. The cuadra had a detailed zoning plan with single-use zoning on all lots. V4 roads were designed for shopping and commercial activity. At the same time. The sector planning of Modernism is very similar to the grid planning of traditional Indian cities. No fast traffic was allowed in the sectors. In Navi Mumbai. Many of the sectors were residential in character. In India the square was used as the basic unit in the layout of traditional cities. 2. each family could own only developed land. A sector centrally located within each node took on commercial activities. it was proposed to use cross subsidies. 1973) The table shows the ability of each income group to contribute towards owned accommodation. Otherwise. The average cost of construction was Rs.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 9 (CIDCO. The neighborhoods were self-sufficient and had their grocery store and primary school. Many of these principles of Modernism were used in the planning of Navi Mumbai. 1977). 550 per square meter and the cost of development of land was Rs. The Government of India’s policy on publicly financed housing has been to build 21 sq. Each of these cuadras was a self-contained unit with primary schools. hierarchy of roads and important buildings of a gargantuan scale (Fry. 40 in 1970. 1973). Capacity to pay for housing divided by cost of construction shows a very small (or no) house could be owned by most families. Le Corbusier explained "the plan is based on the main features of the 7V rule (Appendix B) determining an essential function: the creation of sectors. Children were able to walk to school on the V7 through green belts (Sarin. The sector is the container of family life" (Le Corbusier. community centers and residential areas. 1977). residential and institutional activity. i single-use zoning as opposed to the traditional multiple-use zoning The result was a single-use zoning pattern with distinct areas for industrial. i residential neighborhoods (sector). Some of the highlights of the design elements of this plan were sector planning. The square had a significance in Hinduism as this perfect geometric shape was thought to be . 1961).6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai The conceptual design of Navi Mumbai was developed at the height of Modernism. Each township had several sectors. 1961). These were: i decentralization by the design of self-sufficient townships(nodes). houses or larger (CIDCO.

Kshatriya. Mr. Many cities still reflect this street pattern. the four castes are Brahmin. commercial. Even in the planning of Mohenjadaro (7th century B. warrior/king. 1973). This principle of neighborhood planning and its derivative from Modernism was used in Navi Mumbai. The size of the node depends . Some of the nodes have special features. 1929). The indigenous plans all started with a central focal point (either of political or religious symbolism). each neighborhood was known as a sector (CIDCO. Vaishya and Sudra. The nodes contain residential. streets. The functionality of the city is based on the principle of neighborhood design as seen all over the Western world.000 to 200. Neighborhood planning in the West was a concept put forth by Clarence Perry. an American designer of the 1920s. infrastructure and recreational uses (Figure 2. This also facilitated the sharing of other. while Nhava-Sheva houses the new container port. At a larger scale. Airoli and Kopar-Khairane have industrial estates. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board put forth the broad conceptual regional plan of Navi Mumbai. There would be no rich or poor nodes (CIDCO. The goal has been to create a city based on Gandhian principles of swavalamban (self-reliance). As the residential classification was based on the caste.000 people. the main philosophical design principles of Navi Mumbai are based on Gandhian ideology (Parab. 1991). Here in Navi Mumbai the idea of a large “urban village” has been nurtured. amenities and utilities with segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic (Banerjee. This is the vision that is the traditional Indian design inspiration for Navi Mumbai. 1991). In India. So each sector had mixed use. Each node is self-contained for 100. 1973). 1984). "Arguing to turn any weaknesses into strength. swadeshi (fullest utilization of local resources. and progressively moved outward depending on the natural landscape. This was a model layout for an area with specifications for residences. 1973). 1969). The task of designing and detailing the physical design was carried out by CIDCO. All houses in a neighborhood were occupied by a particular caste. Parab. In the case of Navi Mumbai. a true Gandhian. Each node is divided into neighborhoods (or sectors). Gandhi would have urged: If nature chooses not to accommodate us. larger amenities by contiguous neighborhoods. Commercial and residential uses were adjacent to each other or one above the other. This is significantly different from the single-use planning of Modernism. nodes share some common facilities such as water reservoirs and transport facilities.C. 1997). was the Chief Planner of CIDCO for 20 years (1970-90) (Engel. The neighborhood unit is used as a building block to build New Towns across the world (Perry. main streets formed perfect rectangles dividing the city into separate residential areas based on caste. people were forced to work within that particular neighborhood. Under his leadership. Navi Mumbai consists of thirteen townships (or nodes). Each neighborhood unit was within a one square mile radius. both materials and human) and swatantrya (self-motivation and mutual self-help) (Ganguli.). let us accommodate nature!" (Gandhi in Engel.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 10 the abode of the gods (Henn. merchant and peasant. Each node was planned to accommodate a range of income groups. Vashi is the center of Navi Mumbai's wholesale market. Neighborhoods could be placed near each other to form a larger urban framework.4). which corresponds to the professions priest.

Holding ponds would be used for pisciculture and recreation. 1995). Politicians use the creation of jobs and better living environments as a common strategy for getting votes. The plan called for the construction of holding ponds to retain excess monsoon run-off. For industrial growth large finances were required. The primary concerns were related . As financial and economic considerations depended on the government in office. which ensured their re-election. Private industries would not invest in this particular region unless they were assured of workers and so on. The node should be large enough to provide schools. which would be used in the dry seasons. 1973. The design concept of Navi Mumbai was very idealistic. flowing from the Western Ghats mountain ranges would irrigate these trees. The Development Plan of Navi Mumbai is an example of the new consciousness for sustainable Kharghar Nerul settlements (CIDCO. One of the ideas of putting the environmental city into Dronagiri practice was the creation of woodland corridors (Parab. For example. which were closely linked. would be strongly supported. a migration of population would not occur. It depended very heavily on external factors.4 Nodes of Navi Mumbai recreation and timber. There was also a high degree of uncertainty attached to some of the policies and physical developments. This was partly because of the scale and complexity of the project. The streams Source: CIDCO. Hence. for its success. and then unused portions would Nhava-Sheva be recycled. only activities. This would also ensure reduction of soil erosion and the development of woodlands for both Figure 2. 1997). 1997). the plan had a very important political component. which had been independent for only 20 years. shopping areas and other facilities. Water treated from industrial and sewage waste would be used to develop green areas (Parab.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 11 BOMBAY Airoli Ghansoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada on walking distances to the mass transit stop.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai Considerations of social equity were very important in all aspects of development in a country. Any change in political power would affect the policies and development strategies of this new town. unless sufficient industrial growth existed. The plan Jui Belapur Arabian envisioned an ecologically friendly Sea city where products of nature would be Panvel used. 2. 1991). The Development Plan for Navi Mumbai called for the planting of one hundred thousand trees every year! (Engel.

ground floor houses would be possible initially. electricity and sanitation (CIDCO. The remaining two-thirds of the population could afford more expensive housing. For the lower income group." (CIDCO. 1973). race. Navi Mumbai’s founders saw the construction of large amounts of new housing as an opportunity to break down demographic divisions and to enhance social equity. To aid residents further. place of birth or any of them (Article 15. Thus. cooperative housing groups or private builders. It recommended construction using cheaper concrete.social. Individual families would then have to build their own homes (swavalamban).shall inform all the institutions of the national life (Article 38). using bamboo instead of steel reinforcements and setting up of local retail shops where residents would be able to buy inexpensive building materials for building their homes (swadeshi) (CIDCO. more than 30% of the population of greater Bombay could not afford a pucca (durable) house (CIDCO. The sites-and-services plots would have services such as roads. 1973). The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice . The Constitution of India also spells out the need for the government machinery to facilitate social. The residents could design and implement their construction in any way they chose (swatantrya). walk-up apartments of three to four floors would be designed. The planners of Navi Mumbai thought this was a fortuitous occasion to provide social justice to the millions of migrants and pavement dwellers of Bombay (CIDCO. In planned towns and cities this should be avoided to a great extent by allocating housing in neighborhoods to members of different communities. Construction would be made with locally available. 1973). In 1970. water. More durable material could be used in the course of time. sex. caste. education and job opportunities. 1973) .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 12 to providing better quality of housing. Housing would be built for the various income groups. it was proposed that housing should be constructed so that this income group could afford it. The Draft Development Plan spelled out "there is a tendency in India that induces people to live in like groups. cost-effective. For them. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion. 1973). economic and political equity. Incremental housing was suggested as the solution. The design of a completely new city was a very good opportunity to implement these national concerns. enclaves or ghettos of age long tradition of ’birds of the same feather flocking together’. CIDCO would sell the plot at a highly subsidized rate and with a twenty-year repayment period. I). cheap material. medical care and social welfare. The plan took into account the fact that one-third of the housing in New Bombay would be sites-and-services plots (CIDCO. Housing for the middle income and high income groups would be in the form of CIDCO housing. The Gandhian principle of self-help would be used to implement this agenda. economic and political . 1973).

recreation and afforestation projects (CIDCO. Minimum standards for building construction were developed by CIDCO. It should contain its own jobs. Provision of schools and colleges was a priority in the planning of Navi Mumbai. 1995). A large hospital for intensive care and for teaching and research purposes would be set up (CIDCO. Establishment of ethnic enclaves has led to a number of problems in India.000 population (CIDCO.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 13 To justify this consideration. water supply and sanitation. schools and colleges and making health education a part of classroom education. one high school for 12. These were the education facilities to be provided by the government. diagnostic and investigation services. It would be a small hospital and polyclinic where specialized health care would be provided to cases referred by the community health care center and general practitioners. Health planning was undertaken as public health projects. The nodes (townships) were designed to provide one primary school per 5000 population. planners cited the segregation of Bombay as an example. Other private institutions would be encouraged also. It is expected that this accommodation of residents from various social and income groups within the same physical area will not only make for a healthier environment. 1973: 17): "CIDCO is anxious that the new city develop its own identity as quickly as possible. handicapped children. This led to the development of ethnic enclaves. 1973). The Development Plan says (CIDCO. shopping. medical care. The planners of Navi Mumbai did not intend to create an identity for the city related to physical objects. and law and order problems of the community (Dwivedi and Mehrotra." . 1973). 1973). Institutions for juvenile delinquents. but will also ensure a uniform standard of social and physical infrastructure and see that no one class of residents is better served than another" (CIDCO 1973: 17-18). 1973). Mobile health care units would operate from this community health center. The Governor of Bombay also encouraged this development because it reinforced the traditional panchayati (selfgovernment) system of administration by which the council of elders settled religious. This further contributed to the creation of ethnic enclaves within the settlement. merchants from neighboring districts migrated into Bombay and constructed homes inside and outside the Fort walls. exploited women and leprosyaffected persons would be developed in Navi Mumbai to accommodate the growing population (CIDCO. The Greater Bombay region had some of the best social welfare programs in India. The planning was for a comprehensive coverage by taking the services to households.500 population and one college for 50. The medical center would provide secondary health service. The community health care center would primary health care. When the East India Company encouraged merchants to establish residence in Bombay. recreational and other social facilities an should not become a dormitory for Greater Bombay. It would have out-patient department. These are discussed further in the next chapter. "In each node it is proposed that accommodation be made available for the entire range of income groups expected in the city.

Data base . The role of CIDCO is to implement the plan of Navi Mumbai. i developing residential plots for different income groups. i involving Government agencies for developing public transport and telecommunications. However. i Bombay Electric and State Transport (BEST). on the institutions responsible for the plan.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 14 Thus. 1992): i Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA) in 1975 i Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) in 1992. These stages include: i Draft Development Plan (programs and policies) . largely.an identity based on the Gandhian value of social equality. Its identity is only that of a spreading inkblot (Engel.8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework The government authorities of Bombay realized that the effectiveness of regional planning depended. In particular. New. which would help implement the objective. However. CIDCO had to coordinate all planning and development programs. i promoting commercial and other employment activity. there was no aim to create a monumental city.Other agencies . The city of Navi Mumbai was planned to address the issue of social equality through its physical design. CIDCO undertook the task of (CIDCO. Before the creation of these different institutions. electricity. In the very beginning. water supply. the allotment of residential apartments would be governed by a policy. CIDCO has a more narrow and defined role. 1991). the Gadgil Committee Report (1965) had recommended the setting up of a New Town Development Authority (NTDA). the identity of Navi Mumbai is subtler. CIDCO has executed the implementation of the plan in various stages (CIDCO. 1995): i developing land and providing infrastructure such as roads. It is more of a philosophical identity . 1992). a strong institutional framework was required for its success. Other institutions have also been set up in the Greater Bombay region to facilitate planning efforts in the region. These are (CIDCO. 2. The physical design would be the instrument to implement this objective. Gandhinagar can be described by their grid system or monumental scales.Objectives .Visualizing the future i Action Plans . drainage. With the creation of these other agencies. i Specialized services provided by Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA). planned cities of India such as Chandigarh. It appears that the monumental style of Corbusier was not an influence on this design. CIDCO was appointed as the NTDA.

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- Land use plans - Residential layout plans - Infrastructure plans - Industrial location plans - Environmental assessment i Implementation - Acquisition of land - Finance - Construction - Relocation strategies BMRDA took over such functions as coordination of metropolitan planning, funding, execution of programs, development control and maintenance of the entire Greater Bombay region including Navi Mumbai (UNCHS, 1993). Financial responsibilities and investment decisions are made by a large number of agencies including the Government of India, State Government of Maharashtra, CIDCO and firms in the private sector, but coordinated by BMRDA.

Macro-level Regional Planning Inputs
Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA)

Micro-level Sub-regional Planning Inputs
Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation

Plan Implementation of Navi Mumbai
City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) Figure 2.5 Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai In 1992, an amendment of the Constitution of India affected the functioning of CIDCO. The 74th Amendment of the Constitution of India (the 1992 Amendment Act on Municipalities) spells out the devolution of power to the local bodies and democratization of development planning. This Act emphasizes that the management must be done by elected representatives of the people who will account for two-thirds of the board. This committee is responsible for the preparation of the draft development plan. This ensures a bottom-up process with direct inputs from the citizens (UNCHS, 1993). These municipal corporations will be responsible for their economic development and incorporate all ideas within the

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Comprehensive Plan. The direct result of this Act is the creation, in 1992, of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation. This allowed CIDCO to give up its role as New Town Development Authority (CIDCO, 1995). A heavy-handed approach was used by the government to implement its social policy. As most of the housing was built by CIDCO, a government agency, the government could control, if not regulate, the distribution of the population on socioeconomic basis. Households desirous of buying a house built by CIDCO had to submit an application that stated the dwelling size they preferred. CIDCO allotted these houses, depending on when construction was completed, on a rolling basis. This was intended to ensure a random distribution of the various linguistic and religious groups of the population. The pattern expected would now be one based predominantly on income. 2.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan The planning of Navi Mumbai began in 1971. The results of each of the planning objectives can be studied now. The first objective of the Development Plan of Navi Mumbai was to reduce congestion of Bombay by absorbing immigrants and attracting some of the present population of Bombay. Table 2.5 Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay(BMRDA, 1978 in UNCHS, 1993) 1971 1981 1991 Population Density Population Density Population Density (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) CBD 1120 1659 1031 1527 849 1258 Central Bombay 1950 1349 2254 1559 2309 1597 Bombay Island 3070 1447 3285 1549 3158 1489 Bombay Suburbs 2900 544 4958 930 6751 1266 Navi Mumbai1 128 600 328 617 Over the 1981-91 period, there was a considerable decline in the population of the CBD and Bombay island. The increase in the population of the suburbs and Navi Mumbai accounts for the decline in the CBD and Bombay island. Outmigration to other cities and countries is negligible (BMRDA, 1978). The main reason for the shift was because of (UNCHS, 1993): i dilapidation of older buildings in Bombay i cheaper and better housing facilities in Navi Mumbai i better employment opportunities in Navi Mumbai i lesser commuter distances involved The second objective of the development plan was to bring maximum jobs consistent with the Gandhian principle of self-sufficiency (swavalambhan). CIDCO’s support of the Industrial Location Policy brought more jobs to Navi Mumbai. The sectors that had maximum growth in Navi Mumbai, were trade (39%), finance and services (27%) and manufacturing (18%) (BMRDA, 1992 in UNCHS, 1993). The wholesale agriculture produce
1

residential area increased from 213 hectares in 1981 to 531 hectares in 1991.

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market for vegetables, foodgrains, oil seeds, sugar and spices was moved from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai (CIDCO, 1973). A separate railway siding and truck terminal were constructed to facilitate effective relocation. This involved the relocation of 30,000 jobs from Bombay and the reduction of 5000 truck trips per day. A new iron and steel stockyard complex has been developed in Navi Mumbai. This means the relocation of 25,000 jobs and a reduction of 1000 truck trips per day to Bombay. However, the economic agenda, which was based on agriculture and cottage industries, is no longer effective because of the government’s redoubled commitment to a policy of industrialization. Navi Mumbai continues to be exploited as a major industrial zone (Engel, 1991). CIDCO's third objective was to provide physical and social amenities in Navi Mumbai. The land use of Navi Mumbai shows these amenities (Table 2.6 and Figure 2.6). Table 2.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai, 1993 (in sq. km.) Land-use Zone 1979 1985 1986 1991 Residential 101.15 133.99 127.08 129.87 Commercial 6.51 6.51 6.51 5.75 Industrial 43.21 43.14 43.14 43.14 Port 12.00 22.7 22.7 22.7 Wholesale market 6.08 4.54 4.54 4.6 Woodlands / Park 90.26 61.24 68.15 69.35 Institutional .76 1.09 1.09 1.09 Fishing and allied 6.14 3.44 3.44 3.44 Transportation 30.86 30.35 30.35 29.73 No development 46.73 36.70 36.70 34.03 Total 343.70 343.70 343.70 343.70

1993 127.61 5.75 43.14 22.70 6.86 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70 (CIDCO, 1997) Primary, secondary and high schools have been provided in all sectors of Navi Mumbai. All primary schools are within walking distance. This eliminates the need of expensive transport for small children. There is at least one college in every node and Vashi node has both medical and engineering colleges (CIDCO, 1995). Medical facilities are provided by private medical practitioners. Every node has a hospital run by the Mahatma Gandhi Medical Trust. Community health car centers are also there (CIDCO, 1995). In its fourth objective to provide an ecologically friendly environment, CIDCO has not been entirely successful. The area of woodlands has been constantly decreasing (CIDCO, 1995). Most woodlands are in the form of mango groves which form a part of neighborhood parks. In the conceptual plan, streams flowing from the hillsides were to irrigate the woodland corridors. No significant effort has been made to utilize this resource. However, holding ponds have been constructed. Promenades have been built along them and they are being used as recreation areas (Parab, 1997). The fifth objective is the primary focus of this thesis. The objective to prevent ethnic enclaves and to promote a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics was fairly ambitious. In order for its success, a perfect control of the market is required. The analysis of the data will show the outcome of the objective.

1992 128.71 5.75 43.14 22.7 5.76 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70

housing requirements. Designing. recreation and commercial needs. lower income group. the city is no longer a plan on paper. The poor transportation links between Bombay and Navi Mumbai has been the main contributing factor. While Modernism called for single-use zoning and a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics. Social aspects of city planning were given importance with special attention given to considerations of employment opportunities. . Hence. and improvements made in the next phase of design. the development process has been slow. Many attributes of these two design principles are not necessarily harmonious. the Gandhian principles supported cultural heterogeneity and mixed use zoning.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai Source: CIDCO. and housing occupancy rates are high. Though the Navi Mumbai project was begun in 1970. 1995. Growth in other development sectors of Bombay has also had an adverse effect on Navi Mumbai’s growth. the extension of the railway lines. The design principles described in the Draft Development Plan were based on the philosophical reasoning of Mahatma Gandhi and the functionalistic approach of Modernism.10 Conclusion The Draft Development Plan of Navi Mumbai described many broad outlines for the development of a city for the common citizen.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 18 NEW BOMBAY BOMBAY Arabian Sea Residential Woodlands Industrial Port Institutional Trucking Wholesale Fishing Wetlands Figure 2. since 1990 there has been accelerated growth due to the commissioning of Nhava-Sheva port. middle-income group and high-income groups. Periodic socioeconomic and household surveys were used to determine the status of constructed environment. Commuter services have become operational since May 1992. establishment of more industries and construction of more houses. Houses have been constructed for different sectors of society economically weaker section. However. 2. utilities. The absence of a port and railway links slowed growth. but a living and working reality. development and implementation of ideas were done in an incremental manner. Problems of design and development were identified. CIDCO provides serviced sites for both government and private ownership.

Very little analysis has been done on the outcome of CIDCO's social agenda to ensure diffusion of ethnic groups and the urban social pattern that emerged. The success of this strategy depended on maintaining this control. A heavy-handed implementation strategy of this objective was done by taking complete control of the residential allotment. planned city within the context of a specific historic and cultural setting. Navi Mumbai is a modern. The research setting under consideration is the result of the hybridization of Indian and Western ideas. .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 19 This design also strongly supported the need to use the government’s power and machinery to promote the uniform distribution of people and prevent ethnic enclaves. This also implies that the urban social pattern was predetermined. The aim of this research is to examine the present urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai.

then they reflect their lifestyles. changing and modifying it to suit their way of life (Lozano. ethnicity. 1995). It is also a cultural manifestation.1 Introduction A human settlement is an establishment created by people for their inhabitation. Human settlements contain people and societies in a physical environment consisting of natural and man-made elements (Doxiadis.the urban pattern.Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 3. people adapt to the physical environment around them. However. Many of these cities have been under colonial rule. but four-dimensional. The aim of the thesis is to examine the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. 1991). Simultaneously. This literature review will first trace the human settlements in India. Where market forces work. Land ownership patterns. The urban pattern is a result of the relationships between people and their social. occupation and values of housing influence the spatial character. residents soon influence their urban environment. urban form is not merely the architectural form of the city (Lozano. because it changes continuously in a temporal dimension. Whatever the mode of construction. transportation. 1987). Education. and bear characteristics of western influence. if government agencies or contractors build them. communication and socioeconomic relationships influence urban patterns. 1968). Such a human settlement is not just threedimensional. income is one of the most important determinants. Navi Mumbai is one of the first cities in India built for the common citizen. Socioeconomic factors have a very important contribution to the pattern. language and housing character. (New Bombay). principles and existing theories for improving the design of cities (Doxiadis. Intricacies in relationships have increased the complexity of the urban form over time. Urban social pattern is the pattern formed by the interaction of various social variables such as household characteristics. and those of Mahatma Gandhi. Buildings and spaces are created by people and quite often characterize them (Kostof. 1990). These design ideas seem to have a strong influence of Modernism (CIDCO. 3.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern Every human settlement consists of certain elements. The human-environment relationship is a two-way process termed as the socio-spatial dialectic (Knox. It is a city designed with the design principles of the time. religion. Most cities in the Third World and India have been indigenous in origin and organic in growth. they are more generic and may not represent the lifestyles of every household. India. Interaction of these elements form a pattern . economic and physical environments. 1968). Thus. The final outcome of a morphological study is the formulation of a theory which connects facts to form hypotheses. If the residents build the buildings themselves. 1973). A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between its elements within the temporal context. 1990). The pattern of spatial distribution is recognizable in most contemporary cities (Alexander. . technology. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology.

Thus. human beings. Traditional settlements were shaped by (Lozano. 1990). In most studies this unit is the neighborhood which displays both physical and social aspects of the whole urban development. 1971). Urban spatial patterns occur because of the repetitive spatial distribution of these elements. Since the characteristics are universal (within the frame of study) they may be studied by a spatial representative sector. 3. 1990).3 Factors Influencing Urban Form Many factors influence the form of cities. linguistics and ethnic background also influence urban patterns. Time and place may provide them with different characteristics making each city unique and dynamic. These features contributed to a particular urban and social pattern. every city has certain elements. The physical form is a variable of the social and built pattern of the city. 1987): i land ownership i street patterns i existing land use i economic considerations i planning regulations i political and historical events The physical expansion of the city is always bound and guided by land ownership. it is necessary to determine existing land use as a pre-condition to urban growth and form. Thus urban social patterns are complex manifestations of underlying cultural values intermingled with global economic forces (McGee.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 21 Demographics. Traditional cities have used physical forms to interpret cultural and religious beliefs (Lozano. A city replaces existing land use. Doxiadis defines five elements in the study of human settlements. They are the units of analysis of the morphological study (Knox. The change of land use from rural to urban depends on the existing land use. The rural land may also have been . Urban patterns represent a continuity of time and space. society. Some farmers may sell their land more easily than others may. Although details may not be identical. For example. which may be universal or local. They are nature. The patterns have similarities. and the ownership. In the study of Navi Mumbai.a fort or a religious building. The built form is influenced by factors as (Alexander. “The typical sector represents the formal characteristics found throughout the area and thus acquires some universality” (Lozano. a hill top site was the utilitarian response to any important building . This representative sector is defined as the smallest area that exhibits the characteristics of the urban settlement. 1995). and natural and manmade obstacles. buildings and infrastructure. 1990): i the way in which nature and man-made features satisfy needs for protection and defense i the way in which physical and economic landscape allows for communication with other regions i the way in which the topography of a site suggests the construction of a human settlement i the way in which climate leads to building solutions These factors influence the cultural and spiritual form of the cities as well. the node (township) and the sector (neighborhood) will be used as the study areas using aggregated household survey data.

cities were very simple although they rarely served single purposes. within. Planning controls influence development to a great extent.5 The Sociocultural Factors India is among the most stratified of all known societies in the world (Srinivas. 1987. However. craftsmen and merchants were born. 3. The external . However. Childe put forth a theory that urban centers were a result of agricultural change. 1990). The variation in influencing factors and historical circumstance gave rise to different urban forms in different parts of the world. Soon. Clear differentiation between urban and rural existed. social and political circumstances influence the social pattern (Scargill. A household’s choice of place to live is determined by its income level. Domestication of animals and cultivation of land created villages. personal preferences and many institutional constraints. race and religion (Vance. private rental and public sector housing operationalize housing sectors. 1983). The factors influencing urbanization were also different. Kosambi. These factors are (Alexander.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities The traditional theory of urban origin is generally attributed to Childe (Herbert. For thousands of years. 3. 1979). 1990). The social pattern and the built form are interrelated and contribute to the urban morphology of a city. government offices and warehouses formed the built environment of the city. This allowed some of the people to develop other professions. Priests. 1986): i ethnic composition of the city i migration i religion i economic considerations i race i political and historical events The housing market also influences the social pattern of the city. a city contained social distinctions in terms of class. they supported a range of activities. 1995). Instead. Certain built forms encourage certain social patterns.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 22 subdivided. other scholars contend that it is doubtful that surplus can be attributed as the single factor which caused the emergence of urban settlements (Jacobs. 1992a). While some processes are culture-specific. People as food gatherers advanced to become farmers. commercial buildings. surplus food production was achieved. Master plans and regional plans provide long-range strategies for development. Housing. often because of a city wall. Plots of varying sizes and shapes influence the layout of the streets and of individual buildings (Knox. Urbanization took place at different chronological periods. and Thomas. The caste system of India separates and hierarchies the Hindus. Pedestrian movement limited the size of the city. A particular social pattern brings about a particular built form. The evolution of the urban pattern of Indian cities is divided into the social pattern and the built form. Owner-occupier. others are global in scope. Various economic. Reasons such as trade and defense have also been used to explain the formation of cities.

1992). religion).2 Class "Class refers to a system of stratification which is economic in character" (Gupta. The characteristics caste. Kshatriya. culture. Vegetarian castes occupy higher positions. the forms of social stratification are many.5. religion and language are discussed below. However. Although no hierarchy is mentioned in the Sukta. Clothing. arms. The caste system varies from village to village and is a local phenomenon. Ethnic characteristics refer to language. a hierarchy from Brahman to Sudra has been interpreted (Bougle. linguistic. these single criterion hierarchies can be misleading as they depend on cutoff points related to individual analysis (Gupta. As many individual criteria are . However. The criteria for the differentiation can normally be translated into money or wealth. Berreman (1965) says "Caste systems rank people by birthascribed group membership rather than by individual attributes. religious and ethnic diversity of the country (Gupta. this popular caste hierarchy is not clear throughout the Indian subcontinent (Srinivas. Along with the caste exist occupational stratification. Class systems by contrast define the rank of their members according to their individual attributes and behavior". all elements can not be arranged vertically.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 23 manifestation of the separation and hierarchy through particular attributes of the castes brings about social stratification of the urban social pattern (Marriott. The spirit of the caste system is determined by the attitudes of each caste to the other. marriage and death ceremonies distinguish one caste from another. 1992b). In India. language. The Indian theory of social stratification depends on caste. 1974:8). The social stratification is very deep and varied. 1992). and in the case of India. diet and dress. rituals. 1992). linguistic stratification and religious stratification. Certain customs lower or raise the status of the caste. theoretically. The dominant caste legend is the Purushasukta legend whereby the Brahman. Thus. 1992).1 Caste Castes are the hierarchical divisions of people based on professional and family membership. The differences may also be placed in a horizontal system (example: language. territory. Hierarchy allows elements of the whole to be ranked with relation to each other (example: income and prestige). The population may be stratified based on income. class.5. The term ethnic group refers broadly to people “with some similar characteristics which go beyond their mere place in a societal division of labor” (Brass. 3. Certain occupations such as butchery and cobblery lower the rank. The real world. Repulsion between castes forced isolation and the creation of distinct residential enclaves (Bougle. 3. thighs and feet of the Creator. 1992a). 1992b). Stratification implies a differentiation based on a set of criteria. religion or occupation (Bougle. unfortunately. Vaishya and Sudra are said to have come from the mouth. 1992b:14). Various combinations of the hierarchy have come about due to regional differentiation in certain attributes of social living. However. sometimes reinforced by common work roles. language. differentiates itself into only hierarchical status containing inequality (Gupta. 1992). vertical and horizontal systems of stratification exist.

There are many religions in India. degree of control over the language and relationship between the languages affect their social communication. 1970). After the decline of the Mughal Empire and the loss of political power to the British. Marathi. The Hindu religion has always been a pacifist and tolerant religion. 1997). Hindus and Muslims drifted apart in the issue of independence from British rule. the Muslims were in power over most of India. A Hindu revival period in the late nineteenth century to arouse enthusiasm for political action made the Muslims more insecure.5.Jainism and Sikhism.3 Religion Religion and language have provided the motive power for nationalism in India (Brass. . The characteristics of the population regarding bilinguals. prestige and income to form a socioeconomic status. 1974). A certain degree of animosity between Hindus and Muslims has existed since the first Muslim ruler of 1018 AD. However. 1974). absorbing other religious doctrines and never proselytizing. Hindi was chosen because it was the language spoken by the largest percent of the population while was a result of the British legacy. The framers of the Indian Constitution chose Hindi and English as the official languages of the government (King. Kannada.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 24 linked to other attributes. occupation. Malayalam. which culminated in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. Buddhism. The census of India 1951 (immediately after Independence) recorded a total of 179 languages and 544 dialects in India. not subjects” (Hodson. the Muslim League represented only the Muslim population (Brass. “In most folk-memory the Muslims of India had been ruler. 3. Anger and frustration broke out as violence as Hindus moved from Pakistan into India and Muslims moved from India to Pakistan (Hodson. The League demanded for a separate electorate and for more employment in public service. it may be better to create a composite index of education. 1985). Jainism and Sikhism stemmed off from Hinduism and are very similar to Hinduism. Tamil. Telugu. Bengali. From the beginning Islam has been a conquering and proselytizing faith (Hodson. 1985). During the Mughal rule (16th to 18th century). 3. In 1906 they formed the All-India Muslim League. The major languages of India are Hindi.5. Urdu and Punjabi. An overwhelming view of Hindu-Muslim relations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is that Hindus advanced due to their enthusiasm to take up western education and government employment (Kaura. Islam was a religion that came to India from outside and is culturally very different from Hinduism. India is the birthplace of two major religions –Hinduism and Buddhism – and two minor religions . The linguistic distribution is not only diverse but also very complex (Das Gupta. 1985:11). While the Congress party represented the majority of the Indian population. Gujarati.4 Language A systematic inventory of Indian languages began in the mid-eighteenth century. 1977). Muslims became apprehensive of Hindu domination. The wake of Independence brought with it violence and terror in the Indo-Pakistan borders in Punjab and Bengal. At this time they felt the need for a political party of their own.

there also been conflict between other regional languages. Language conflicts have also occurred in India. a state language with an unique status (Das Gupta. Agitation and violence broke out in many non-Hindi states over this issue. 1989). When the ethnic groups occupy distinct neighborhoods. The Babri Masjid in Ayodhya was broken down by Hindu fundamentalists. The union government declared that fifteen year deadline after Independence would be given for transition of official language from English and Hindi to only Hindi. Compromise was . 1970). 1970). The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India declared the fourteen major languages listed as national language (Gumprez. The better control the Tamil people had over English.5. had led them to better job opportunities. This was not seen in more heterogeneous neighborhoods. confusion has always existed about the status of Hindi as official or national language. and vice versa. a synonym for official language and like state religion. The Tamilnad Students’ Anti-Hindi Agitation Council objected to both the removal of English as an official language and the declaration of Hindi as the sole official language. Certain castes are dominant in a society.5 Implications of the Sociocultural Factors The implications of caste and class are closely related to those of power and wealth (Dumont. In a multilingual society there may be a plurality of national languages. Although a majority of the rivalry has been for and against Hindi. all castes looked up to the farmer caste because they were important landowners and were wealthy (Srinivas. 1992a). Pakistan officially declared itself as a Muslim state. many political leaders advocated for the use of Hindi as a national and official language. Hindu-Muslim riots broke out even in Bombay which has normally been a very peaceful city. ethnic conflicts are easily targeted towards these select neighborhoods. Small Muslim enclaves within a majority Hindu neighborhood were targeted. the Brahman priests had more power because it was believed that they were the representatives of the Creator on earth. a demand for a national language also arose. The inequality and economic differentiation cause conflict between the castes and classes. This issue can not only be seen at the time of partition in 1947 but also was seen during the recent communal violence in 1993. In many places. This confusion in terminology is the basis for most language-related problems in Independent India. This rationale of composite nationalism influenced policies related to religion and language (Das Gupta. Although a minority of Hindu leaders in India felt that India should be declared as a Hindu state. Writers in Hindi commonly refer to Hindi as Rashtrabasha (state language) which may signify language used by the state. In the early 1950s. 3. The partition of United India into India and Pakistan came with many problems.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 25 However. There was strong opposition from non-Hindi areas in general and South India in particular (Hindi is a IndoAryan language while the languages of South India belong to the Dravidian group). Traditionally these castes had either wealth or power. they believed. However. as it was difficult to isolate only one family. 1971). a majority of the leaders preferred a composite nationalism. 1988). The South Indian state of Tamil Nadu was most vocal in the Anti-Hindi agitation. The separatism movements seen all over India are all based on ethnicity and inter-caste rivalry (Bose. In some villages. Repercussions were felt all over the country.

padas. The science of architecture and planning. The square was used in the creation of the vastupurusha mandala. In the initial stages it was in the form of caste differentiation as prescribed by the Hindu/ Vedic texts. . Hinduism. Certain other shapes were also considered to be auspicious like the circle. If it could not be a perfect square. This does not imply that social assimilation does not occur.1 Circle and Swastika depended on the natural features of the site. 1986). a perfect rectangle was accepted. Related to castes. The ethnic segregation and conflict has existed from the beginning of the Indian Civilization. Judaism and Christianity found their way into India. religion and language is the issue of group identity which is the cause of most ethnic conflicts.1). violence sparked off by language issues has continued to occur in India. orientation of buildings and arrangement of internal rooms based on astrological and religious criteria (Volwahsen. The streets ran from north to south and from east to west. and four gateways were situated at the cardinal points. Jainism. The multi-dimensional society was soon complicated by the emergence of other religions. Sikhism were born in India while Islam. Vastushastra. Stratification of the society had to accommodate these religious factors. The temple as the symbol of religion dominates the urban form. which was the terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe inhabited by Brahma. Buddhism. Despite the Act. the creator. cyclical and swastika (Figure 3. Social assimilation and mobilization are a part of any evolving civilization. The town wall enclosed the mandala. The caste system over the next ten to fifteen centuries became deeply rooted in the Hindu population and became a part of life. However. In planning the town a vastupurusha mandala which was most auspicious.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 26 finally reached in 1963 under the Official Languages Act. and which had as many padas as there were to be residential sectors was selected. the differentiation and assimilation in progress in a multi-ethnic society receives a prominent place in any political conflict. C to 12th century AD). 3. While some groups spoke of an all-India nationality other speaks of a regional nationality (Brass. both from within and without the country.6 The Built Form The historical evolution of the built form of Indian cities can be divided into three distinct phases. 1969). Prime commercial and residential land was located near the temple. The final shape of the town Figure 3. 1974). The temple also influences the siting of other land uses. The Indian society was also stratified horizontally by language. The earliest is the Hindu phase (3000 B. These characteristics are derived from the need for defense and administration and the importance of religion (Kopardekara. governed the alignment of roads. The mandala could be divided into smaller squares. A number of languages coexisted in all parts of the country. class. which contributes many elements to the urban form.

The colonial influence (17th to early 20th century A. Residential segregation is no longer based only on occupation and caste. 1980). Generally. Diversification of professions due to industrialization in the post-independence era has resulted in further complexity (Becker. and insufficient infrastructure in cities has led to the creation of slums and shantytowns (Misra. 1989). Large migration of people from the rural area. As the built form depends on the social characteristics portrayed by its residents. On the periphery of these urban centers. Characteristics from medieval times are Islamic in nature (14th to 17th centuries A. jewelry. 1978).the cantonment .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 27 The residential districts were divided among the four castes. 1992). this has led to segregation and creation of enclaves within the city. The Islamic elements included the mosque and domestic architecture which emphasized the purdah through enclosed courtyards. and the south-west monsoon. metalware.). Vaishyas in the southern part and Sudras in the western district. During this time. the Hindu tradition continued. The three leading theories described below are based on the built form of the city. and wood formed niches in the urban pattern. The Brahmans and Kshatriyas lived in the parts of the town which were climatically more comfortable sheltered from the hot sun. Residential areas associated with the commercial area were contiguous or within the commercial area (Hall. It has been shown that rural values have penetrated the urban philosophy due to large-scale migration. the Brahmans worked and lived in the northern district. There was further subdivisions within each district depending on the sub-caste. Kshatriyas in the eastern and southeastern part. The characteristics of the social and built form of the city contribute to its pattern. The residential character throughout this period was segregated. Areas for selling of specific goods – cloth. In India where occupation and caste are synonyms. A generalization of these patterns has been made. military establishments . At the time of independence in 1947.were developed (Hall. “In the case of India. especially seen in the port cities associated with the East India Company (Mills. Williamson and Mills. The morphological components include buildings used for trade warehouses. 1988). Many researchers have tried to fit Indian urban growth into a theoretical model. This led to the development of commercial centers and zoning based on Western market principles. and the apparent timelessness and permanence of village life” (Hall. The urban segregation was based on function and occupation premises. 3. 1986). These are the theories which pertain to the built and social form of the city. jali (carved screens) and projecting balconies (Kopardekara. counting houses. but also on socioeconomic factors (Ramachandran.) was the third phase of historical urban form. D. 1980).7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns . many researchers have pointed to the lack of penetration of urban values into the countryside. and Hindu elements of this period are not distinct from earlier ones. the same theories are being used to describe the social patterns as well. 1980). pottery. India inherited a complex urban fabric. D.

In the early 1920s. it is a descriptive framework to CBD analyze spatial organization of land use in a city Transition and its change over time. With affluence. This also forced an outward expansion. It also had older residential districts. Mobility and migrant influx were though of as the main cause of the social pattern (Hartshorn.2). 3. and successive zones had higher income residences (Burgess. 1979). they moved to better housing districts (Burgess. The next zone had lower income housing.1 Concentric Zone Theory This theory put forth by Burgess in 1925 related population mobility and societal organization to the physical expansion of the city (Burgess. The movement was towards the periphery. This was surrounded by a transition zone. 1929).7. 1992). some static.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 28 Various spatial theories of the social pattern of cities have been advanced. Figure 3. which were being taken over by the expanding CBD. 1990). The three leading Western models are: i Concentric zone model i Sector model i Multiple nuclei model These models have become frameworks for studying urban social patterns across the world (Hartshorn. The public transport system had also improved significantly and allowed the middle-class to . Thus. Burgess was interested in determining a pattern for the social structure of the city. political and social activities. Diversification in employment opportunities gave rise to the growth of mixed land use development. accessibility to a single-centered city. The same city may express different models at different time periods (Scargill. The basic premise in this model was that of succession and invasion whereby population groups gradually moved out as their economic and social status improved. others dynamic in nature. 1992). Families moved out into the next zone when their zone was invaded. 1929 various groups of society led him to conclude that the city was made up of concentric zones with the central business district (CBD) at the center (Figure 3. and studying how the city grew (Scargill. 1929). and especially in Chicago. which had factories and slums. These immigrants first found cheap housing in the inner city. It was partly based on Low income economic factors.2 Concentric Zone Theory Burgess’ research on the distributional pattern of Source: Burgess. High income heterogeneous population and a commercialindustrial base (Herbert and Thomas. The CBD core had all major commercial. This model was based on Burgess’ experience in the American mid-west cities. The model made many assumptions such as uniform land surface. 1979). most American cities in the mid-west absorbed many immigrant groups from Europe. free Middle income market. 1929).

empirical studies did not confirm his model one hundred percent (Herbert and Thomas. Hoyt studied the city as an economist concerned with how the housing market worked. industries may cluster around the railway line or lowincome housing along a riverbank. 1990). 1978). It gives strength to cities with original nucleus in the center. and subsequent decentralization (Figure 3. 1978). For example. 1939). Hence. 1979). 1992 . 1992). S (Hoyt. This is not a generalized model. However. It was intended to serve as a framework for studying urban growth and change (King and Golledge.3).3 Multiple Nuclei Theory The multiple nuclei theory was put forth by Harris and Ullman. Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. Rental value was the main criterion for studying the pattern (King. This is because concentration of certain activities may prove to be more beneficial. 1979). and Golledge. Concentric zones or sectors may emerge from these nuclei. It is more specific to some cities (King and Golledge.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 29 travel from outer zones to the CBD for work. This model also accommodates growth (Hartshorn. Neighborhoods for each income group are common. This model proposes that patterns in many cities be arranged around several centers (Scargill. Burgess has been criticized for not having considered topographical criteria. commercial ethnic group residential industrial Figure 3.7. It also did not explain the impact of transport networks on these zones (Scargill. 1979).7. The wedge pattern represents residential area growth (Scargill. Hoyt primarily studied residential land use. 1978).3 Sector Theory Source: Hoyt.2 Sector Theory Homer Hoyt put forth a land use theory after studying over 100 cities in the U. The real world is more complicated than what was represented by Burgess’ very general model.4 Multiple Nuclei Theory Source: Hartshorn. He said that residential sectors of similar rent are situated in wedges radiating from the center (Figure 3. These reasons complemented a concentric zone development model (Scargill. 1939 3. 1979).4). 3. The original model did not take into account specialized clusters of industry. The model also accounts for growth along transport routes. Hoyt also stressed the need to consider zoning laws and slum clearance laws in making models. The model is very simple and can be used to predict how urban land markets work.

As a family’s needs for space increase. 1992). The concept of neighborhood units became popular since the1920s in planned settlements (Perry. This concept. It is assumed that any planned city consists of neighborhood units. community and social and civic responsibilities such as aesthetics. 1990). 1979). The data source was census tracts. housing conditions and material possessions.8. It is only the most convenient one. 1971). Analysis of individual cities shows that the pattern is not uniform and is characterized by residential segregation. Hence. Individualistic frameworks. the neighborhood unit is used as the unit of analysis in the study of human settlements (Herbert and Thomas. but also an expression of socioeconomic and cultural values of the people. Social rank used the variables. The broad generalization of the social rank produced a sector model. 1971). value of home. employment. they move outwards. The main assumption here was that social rank is related to transportation links which influence residential location in a sectoral manner (Scargill. 3. 1929). social status and retirement (Scargill. It is not only a physical design concept. Family status in American cities shows a concentric distribution. 1990). The use of these three indices for analysis is a social area analysis. However.8 Case Studies of Urban social Patterns The study of the urban social pattern of a city primarily focuses on the residential land use (Herbert and Thomas. however. 1979). For example. has been under strong criticism (Hartshorn. 1971). every city has some constraints. parenthood. A neighborhood is the basis for formally organized residential space. The non-uniform pattern is consistent over many cities because similar households exert similar housing choices.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 30 3. neighborliness. are suitable modifications of the concept (Timms. In the built environment this corresponds to ethnic neighborhoods (Timms. education. safety. family status and ethnic status. housing choices may not be made on economic basis. The values are also related to family. A neighborhood unit is not the only model or universally appropriate unit of analysis. which analyze the physical environment under consideration.marriage. ethnic status used religion and social groups. 1990). These were social rank. Critics say that neighborhood unit strongly emphasizes physical environment. ethnic status and family status (Timms. Ethnicity causes the social phenomena of segregation. three indices were used. In Western cities the reasons for non-uniformity have been identified as socioeconomic status. The outward mobility is related to different stages of life .1 Western Cities Many studies of the social and physical urban pattern have been done. but on cultural ones. it does not address the needs of a social environment. In the analysis of urban social patterns. The city was viewed as a part of society. security and identity. This is . It serves as the building block to construct the whole town. and social change was expected to be reflected in studies which were repeated over a time period (Herbert and Thomas. This type of urbanization is also related to the housing market described by Hoyt (1939). family status used the variables related to demographics and type of house.

Public open spaces are generally found only . 1971). Cities in the Third World are frequently dual environments. but socially with more complex relations to one another. 1995) shows that the four important factors in the social pattern are underclass. youth/migrants and black poverty. does not always emerge as an independent component (Scargill. however. The changing pattern of family cycle reflects concentric zones while that of social rank is in sectors.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 31 predominant in cities where migration is high. socioeconomic status. Hartshorn. 1995. A study of Baltimore (Knox. 1992. Australia (Timms. Ethnicity. traditional and modern design elements juxtaposed in seemingly dichotomous ways.2 Third World Cities commercial ethnic group residential industrial Ethnic Status CBD Transition Low income Middle income High income Family Status Socioeconomic Status Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. Studies of Brisbane. 1990) showed similar results. Winnipeg. 1979). 3. Traditional places are typically more dense with narrow streets and housing spaces around central courtyards.8.5 Urban Social Patterns Source: Knox. Canada (Herbert and Thomas.

The center of the city was the plaza. Thus. which contribute significantly to the urban pattern (Kopardekara.7). and surrounds old Delhi (Figure 3. But. 1980. Even single cities. Around the plaza was the important buildings including a church. Source: Lowder. traditional commercial areas and modern commercial areas. Processes quite different from those in western cities govern the pattern of Third World cities. The more Figure 3.6 Plan of Delhi and New educated and professional classes followed the Delhi. which is adjacent to. 1986). Social morphological models constructed for the Third World cities show that there is a central concentration of commercial activity and a number of residential neighborhoods. 1974) found that social status. The modern place is more spacious. 1986). The morphological model of Asian port cities shows a multiple nucleus (Figure 3. the morphological pattern of each Third World city is different mainly because of the presence of an indigenous city enclosed by a colonial city. family ties.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 32 around religious buildings. A study of Colombo (Herbert and de Silva. ethnicity and literacy. The model shows that the indigenous elite were closely associated with the commercial area. substandard living conditions and ethnicity were the broad variables that defined the social pattern of the city. 1986 Literacy and ethnic patterns emerged in a sectoral form. along riverbanks). The nuclei are original village.6) (Herbert and Thomas. The social Figure 3. 1986). 1975). social and economic variables may not be the only factors. . The migrants and poor did not live in the core of the city. A large number of models of Third World cities have been made (Lowder. land use. 1990). 1986).7 Asian Ports pattern showed concentric zones for land use. The residences of the richer class formed the first concentric zone around the plaza. and subsequently surrounded by an industrial city (Lowder. An analysis of Calcutta showed a pattern based on land use. A classic example can be seen in the design of New Delhi. Western ideas of suburbanization and formed their Source: Drakakis-Smith own neighborhoods (Lowder. but formed shantytowns in the peri-urban fringes and in unserviced areas (under bridges. as opposed to conglomerations. The second and third concentric zones were occupied progressively by poorer people. The colonial cities in Latin America show a centralized social pattern (Portes. are very complex and have evolved over a very long time.

in rural areas. The outer ring bordered on farmland (Figure 3. The social ties are horizontal and vertical. i Symbolic functionalism is performed by religion and caste and buttressed by regional affiliations. and religious duties performed by the Brahmins.8. "Particularly in cosmopolitan cities cultural or linguistic diversity and regional associations develop to extol their culture and language and to participate in their own .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 33 Here. 1986 residential colonies moved from the center of the city to the urban periphery which were selected for their better geographic. A second indigenous factor suffusing urban society is that of regional affiliation. climatic and aesthetic factors. The greater complexity of urban life and the difficulty of maintaining caste identity through residential segregation alone. But.8 Latin American Cities America. Wealthier families began to move out of the center and settle in more isolated locations. The pattern was a creation of the lifestyle choices of the urban rich (Portes. many large cities became crowded. spatial segregation based on ethnicity. A consistent relationship existed between socioeconomic position of the household and their distance from the center of the city. The nature of traditional social status and the interdependence and spatial interpretation of diverse. In the 18th and 19th centuries. in general. Santiago and Chile Source: Lowder. religion and language rather than demographics and economics can be seen. status groups help to produce a very obscure patterning of social groups at the micro-level of analysis. In Lima. The horizontal relationships are between people of the same cultural background while vertical relationships are between caste and class. farming is done only by the Sudra caste. Soon. The pattern is similar to the one described by the sector model of North Figure 3. 1980): i Residences have not yet come to serve the symbolic function they do in the Western world. languages and customs. the Indian urban social scene essentially reflects two facets of non-western structure (Hall. 1986). new definitions had to be made. It has been found that Indian cities defy social modeling. the residences became smaller and public amenities were reduced. industrial and office workers belonged to all castes. Many studies have been done to study Indian urban areas. In the cities where new professions were created. 1975).8). Research findings point out that while caste is important in rural societies for its very functioning. For example.3 Indian Cities In cities of India. has created social organizations for each caste (Kopardekara. yet complementary. the poorer the household (Cornelius. 1977). caste. in urban environments the meaning of caste becomes more important in terms of identity rather than function. Soon socioeconomic status related to nearness to the center became related to distance away from the center. the farther away from the center. and especially to construct a structural model. 3.

Ahmad (1965) did a factor analysis of the socioeconomic characteristics of Indian cities.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 34 regional festivals if not usually celebrated in the region within which they live now" (Hall. colonial cities. Pune and Varanasi. Calcutta) has low-density commercial centers surrounded by high-density residential neighborhoods. Industrial towns like Jamshedpur were planned around their industrial core. and that the temple acted as the most meaningful focus for the spatial distribution of social characteristics. 1974 evolutionary pattern. Chandigarh) have low population densities with no concentration of industrial. it was found that multiple nuclei were present. Temple Bazaar Centroid Fort Brush (1977) studied 24 cities in India and discerned four types of gradients of population directly related to their Figure 3. low literacy. He postulated three dimensions as being important contributors to residential segregation. 1968). Madras. i South Indian cities had higher female employment rate. Although the neighborhoods that result are not corporate groups in the sense in which they are defined. i The modern planned cities (Jamshedpur. higher literacy. had western style CBDs. higher migration and equal male to female ratio. Weinstein (1974) made an attempt to produce a conceptual model for the social segregation of an Indian city. These three dimensions would form concentric zones (Figure 3. had retained their residential core (Mehta. cities that were well developed even before the colonial period. Their influence and interplay causes residential segregation. Instead. i North Indian cities had low female employment rates. These three dimensions were i socioeconomic dimension symbolized by the bazaar i political dimension represented by an administrative symbol i prestige dimension derived from the religious function of a temple. . real case studies did not prove this theory. commercial or administrative areas. Certain areas are known for their residents speaking a particular language only. Bombay. The centroid of the system represents the optimum location for accessibility to all three functions. low migration and equal male to female ratio. 1980:35). i Metropolitan cities (Bombay. Calcutta and Madras. such neighborhoods are the source for the development of the corporate groups. He had the following conclusions.9). Hyderabad had two nuclei – the old city and the colonial city. However.9 Pattern of Indian Cities Source: Weinstein.

Analysis at the level of a single city gave patterns that are more complex. 1986). The social patterns were also strongly influenced by the age of the city. . British cities and industrial towns within the boundary of the urban area. commercialism. Census data from 1881.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 35 Such broad conclusions are results of regional analyses. The presence of many religions. The existence of multiple physical urban patterns caused by the presence of indigenous settlements. A systematic analysis of census data for Bombay was done (Kosambi. 1831 and 1961 was used to determine the evolution and change of the social pattern. 1901. languages. religious polarity. The patterns were attributed to Europeanism. castes and classes produces a more heterogeneous pattern. 1986). These examples show that the urban social pattern of Indian cities is very complex due to the influence of a variety of factors. transportation and socioeconomic status (Kosambi.

Hartshorn. Source: Lowder. 1992.10 Urban Social Patterns and Relevant Case Studies. .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 36 C oncentric Z one T h eory S ector T heory Incom e g rou p 1 M ultiple N uclei T heory commercial ethnic group CBD Tran sitio n L ow incom e M iddle inco m e H igh inco m e In com e g roup 2 residential industrial In com e g rou p 3 D elhi Latin A m erica A sian P orts C oncentric + S ector T heories C hicago C alcutta C oncentric + S ector + M ultiple N uclei T h eories Figure 2. 1986.

In the American cities. Status in Third World cities is based on family membership or socioeconomic class. Migration may also be restricted to the men of the family. The growth of cities across the world has been studied. The reasons for migration are also varied – they may be migrating as a result of natural calamities. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. In the case of Navi Mumbai. the researcher’s knowledge of the local environment is important to contextualize the pattern more appropriately. Stratification causes social inequality in terms of wealth. class. Male dominance. Three leading western theories describing the urban social pattern of cities dominate the literature on urban social patterns (Hartshorn. A market economy strongly influences the lifestyle of the citizens of Navi Mumbai. Social area analysis assumes that a few independent factors can explain the spatial patterning of a city. The households are generally large with a range of ages.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 37 3. Here. the components derived from social area analysis were termed as socioeconomic status. The lifestyle factor in North American cities relates small nuclear families with higher education achievements and better employment opportunities. this is not evident due to the existence of multi-generational families. the residential neighborhoods have been designed using the neighborhood principle as those designed in America. religion and language. family status and ethnic status. The residential neighborhoods of such cities are not as well defined as they are in the American cities. The historical evolution of cities has supported this stratification. the sociocultural factors are related to caste. These characteristics stratify the society into vertical and horizontal systems. power and status. migration or ethnic group represent the ethnic factor. this social area analysis must take into consideration the indigenous factors. In the design of Navi Mumbai. or in search of opportunities in the city. In the case of India. Traditional Indian cities have grown over a very long period of time. an effort was made to prevent this social stratification and use residential allotments to fulfill this objective. The urban social pattern of these cities has been generalized. The lifestyle depends on ethnicity and migration. In Third World cities. . The components of the analysis of American cities are not entirely apparent in the Third World cities. However. These theories have been combined in a social area analysis to describe the social pattern based on a few social variables. Land-use is also similar in that it is predominantly single-use zoning. These are concentric zone theory. 1992). skills and professions.9 Conclusion The urban social pattern is the complex manifestation of the underlying cultural values of the population within a particular built environment. it is appropriate to use a social area analysis to delineate the urban social pattern. In such a case study.

1 Social Area Analysis Social area analysis provides a broad framework for analyzing the social patterns of a city. immigration of rural population leads to segregation based on language. the urbanization component showed a concentric ring pattern. 1985). This analysis classifies census tract data into three main constructs . Better transportation systems increase mobility and lead to a greater sorting of population (Cadwallader. family status and ethnic status. Under these conditions. The study involves the categorization of a city based on social rank. The aim is to identify key combinations of different measures that provide an adequate basis on which to differentiate the sub-areas from one another (King and Golledge. mapping of social area analysis for a large sample of cities showed that socioeconomic status. However. Thus. Although these analyses have been more effective for studying North American cities. 1955). A set of variables describing the social structure of the city can be used in the statistical analysis. studies in Calcutta. It was first put forth by Shevky and Williams (1949) in a study of Los Angeles. the city was analyzed as a composite made up of three layers. 1978). They were considered to be very narrow and not universally applicable. and Harris and Ullman will be the theoretical framework for the conceptualization of the social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Social area analysis shows how family characteristics. economic. Earlier. urbanization and segregation. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. It is a .Chapter 4: Research Design Determining the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai is the primary research objective of this thesis. The analysis looks at the variables at once and at their respective locations in their distribution. The basic premise of social area analysis is that a city cannot be studied in isolation from the overall society (Shevky and Bell. The family as a unit becomes weaker. and housing characteristics. The increase in industrialization creates an occupational status system (Timms.socioeconomic status. Generally the economic model showed a sectored pattern. economic status and ethnic background produce a certain spatial pattern in the city. The research investigates the relationship between the spatial pattern of Navi Mumbai and the different theories of urban social patterns discussed in the literature review. These factors are taken into consideration in social area analysis. Cairo and Helsinki showed some useful generalization. 4. urbanization index. religion and ethnic background. The general issue of social areas will be accomplished through social area analysis. there was considerable criticism about the choice of variables. These involve population. 1971). The issue of spatial distribution of different kinds of people in Navi Mumbai is of primary interest. Hoyt. These three factors also corresponded to the theoretical models proposed by Burgess. The pattern of the city may be determined by statistical analysis or by discerning people’s mental images of the city. The theories put forth by Burgess. The social area analysis may be done statistically by a factor analysis. Cities are complex entities that have many different functions performed by many different people. Hoyt and Harris and Ullman. and ethnicity confirmed the validity of the analysis.

religious and historic development with both horizontal (kinship. 4. mapping of social patterns in many cities across the world show that the socioeconomic status. 1990). The sectors (neighborhoods) are identical to census block tracts.2 Hypotheses As discussed in the literature review. is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social patterning will occur. 1980). concentric zone theory and multiple nuclei theory.4 Data Collection The data required for the analysis can be obtained from census tracts of Navi Mumbai. religion. This database provides aggregated information about each node (township). language) and vertical (occupation. Variables that arise from such cultural determinants need to be used in the factor analysis. education. 4.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Socioeconomic status Profession Number of earning members Income Education Family status Demographics Women at home Family size Dwelling size Type of house Year of occupation Ethnic status Religion Language 4. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. H0. The data available is based on a . Social area analysis based on western thinking can not be naively applied to the study of urban social patterns in India. caste) dimensions (Hall. my null hypothesis. family status and ethnic status correspond respectively to the sector theory. In this case study of Navi Mumbai. Social structure in India is a result of cultural.3 Operationalization Certain variables will be used to operationalize the social area analysis to obtain the urban social pattern.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 39 device that seeks interrelationships among the set of input variables (Herbert and Thomas. This provides a spatial hierarchical data set. and each sector (neighborhood) of the nodes. The variables are tabulated below: Table 4. then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. If H0 is false.

The cluster analysis puts together cases which are similar based on the relationship between the variables. the units of analysis are not identical. The descriptive analysis helps understand the finer dimensions of the data. The only data source that provides this information. 4. the sector is the unit of analysis. The single variable from that data set is selected and a histogram of it at the . cartographic mapping. The survey was carried out on a ~22% sample basis for each node. Finally.283 Nerul 16.5. although variables are related.1 Descriptive Analysis The first stage of analysis describes the data at both the regional and sub-regional scale.338 Belapur 9. In this research. Statistics are weighted for spatial data because.2 Survey Sampling Node Total Number of Dwellings Vashi 27. All data is standardized. and compare it to other cities. and GIS overlay techniques are used to determine the social pattern at the regional and sub-regional levels. The principal components analysis draws out the relationship between the variables. The variables are expected to cluster based on the constructs described above.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 40 socioeconomic survey done by CIDCO in December 1995.378 Kopar-khairane 14. The second is a principal components analysis. is census data. Table 4. An error of 5-8% is expected.357 Survey Coverage 6656 4219 2125 2034 2282 2530 2506 544 % of total 24 26 23 22 25 19 18 23 The issues of validity and reliability arise in the use of census data for testing the hypothesis. At the regional scale the data is tabulated. These are techniques in multivariate analysis.161 Sanpada 2. and at the sub-regional scale attached as Appendix C. The census data is not 100% reliable. Although principal components analysis is no longer considered the most favorable mode of analysis to delineate patterns. 4.056 New Panvel 9. For a social area analysis. data covering a large area is required.109 Kalamboli 9. The first is a descriptive analysis of the data setting out the parameters that need to be considered to define the meaning of heterogeneity. The third is cluster analysis of the cases to see which variables are closely associated.007 Airoli 13. These four methods are collectively used to analyze the data. for the purpose of this thesis it shall be used.5 Methodology Four methodologies are used to analyze the data. This is a detailed stage of analysis. The GIS and mapping techniques convert all the statistical information into a graphic representation.

The cases are the rows and the variables are the columns. Finally. These restrictions are (1) there are k common components (2) underlying components are orthogonal to each other (3) the first component accounts for as much variance as possible. Principal components analysis can be thought of as four matrices. 4. Characteristics of the urban social pattern can be revealed by considering the relationship within groups. These loadings indicate the strength of the relationships between variables and underlying components. Rotating the axis more closely intersects the clusters of variables. This is varimax rotation. the matrix of component scores is computed. the second component accounts for as much of the residual variance left unexplained by the first factor.2 Principal Components Analysis A principal components analysis reduces a large number of variables to a smaller number of underlying components. 1986). "To obtain the initial solution.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 41 sub-regional scale is drawn. and so on" (Kim and Mueller.3 Cluster Analysis Classification of data places objects in one or more homogenous groups. The elements of the eigenvectors that are used to compute the scores are called principal component loadings. The initial solution is based on the orthogonal solution. This approach to classification is very subjective. Patterns can be delineated from mapping these components.7 are not significant in the correlation matrix. The . This solution determines whether a small number of the components can be used to explain the covariance between a large number of variables. it is necessary to provide a permissible range of variation. The eigenvalue criterion (eigenvalue greater than or equal to 1) helps eliminate components which are not meaningful. This matrix is next converted into a factor matrix. Cluster analysis classifies the groups according to the observations into moreor-less homogenous and distinct groups (Davis.5. The second step is to rotate the axis to get a simpler solution. Corresponding communalities are also estimated. In order to interpret this descriptive statistics for homogeneity. then the pattern shall be interpreted as homogeneous. The N by M matrix is standardized in terms of standard deviation.5. Comparative figures at the national scale are also given. The first matrix is a simple data matrix. Principal components are the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix (Davis. 4. Each original observation is converted into a principal component score. The first step of principal components analysis is to obtain an initial solution. 1978). and results in a simpler pattern. Generally variables with communalities less than 0. The data is interpreted in terms of its mean and standard deviation. This matrix contains components that represent a group of interrelated variables. The data matrix is converted into a correlation matrix. The rotation normally removes the negative loadings. A variation greater than thirty percent of the total population from the mean (15% on either side of mean) is used here to show unequal distribution. If the standard deviation at the 95% confidence interval is within 15% of the mean. It has very little theory and depends largely on experience. 1986). certain restrictions are imposed. The axis has been rotated orthogonally (assuming the factors are uncorrelated).

This mapping helps explain the statistics through a easily interpretable graphic representation. This method joins similar observations. The criteria for clustering is that both observations mutually have the highest correlation with each other.5.0. A correlation coefficient or distance coefficient may be used to evaluate similarities. as is the correlation coefficient. The aim of these two kinds of analysis was to determine if the data set clustered into the three constructs given above. The levels of similarity are used to construct the dendrogram. A low distance would indicate that two objects are similar and a large distance would indicate that the two objects are dissimilar. namely Vashi. and so produces better dendrograms. 4. 4. and the statistical analysis to determine an interpretation of the pattern. This stage of analysis integrates the theoretical framework.4 Mapping and Overlays The final stage is the mapping of the descriptive analysis. The SPSS program was also used to perform a principal component analysis and a cluster analysis on this data set. A measure of similarity between every pair of objects is computed using Euclidean distance. then connects the next most similar observations to these.6 Data Analysis Descriptive analysis of the data was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. Both the analyses were done at a regional and sub-regional scale. Distance coefficients are linked at low values.0 to -1. .Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 42 classification procedure used here is hierarchical clustering. Analysis was then done of one particular node of Navi Mumbai. Mapping of the principal components determined if any pattern exists in the social characteristics of Navi Mumbai at the regional and sub-regional scales. principal components analysis and cluster analysis. The distance coefficient is not constrained within the range of +1. The regional scale was comparisons between the eight nodes of Navi Mumbai.

Airoli and Sanpada. it was used for analysis. only then would they bring out the characteristics of the construct. age 25-45 Family size 4 to 5 members Dwelling size 26-35 sq. The methodological reason for selecting these eight nodes out of the total of thirteen is because data was available for only these eight nodes. One or two variables from each set was selected for this study. age 25-45. 5.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Name Variable from data set Socioeconomic Profession highly skilled. only one or two representative variables from each set was selected. Malayalam . As this node had the most complete data. Kalamboli. This spatial scale is • regional scale (nodes). Table 5. The variables needed to explain the constructs as well as possible. Data for the regional and sub-regional scale was collected from the 1995 socioeconomic survey conducted by CIDCO. unskilled status Number of earning members 1 earning member Income Rs. • sub-regional scale (sectors of a node) The study areas at the regional level of analysis are those of the nodes of Navi Mumbai including Vashi. Then the data set was studied at a sub-regional level by analyzing the neighborhoods of Vashi node. it was selected out of the eight nodes.1) with the actual variable from the data set.2 Descriptive Analysis of Data The different constructs and variable names described in the methodology section are tabulated below (Table 5. The analysis is divided into descriptive analysis of variables and detailed analysis at the regional and sub-regional. Vashi is the oldest node. All the variables belonged to closed sets. female pop. Kopar-khairane. 2651-4450 Education high school Family status Demographics Male pop. and has fully developed residential sectors. Panvel. m. Muslim Language Marathi.Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 5. As the 1995 survey data was the most recent data. Hence.1 Introduction The aim of this research is to study the urban social pattern of the population across a hierarchical scale. Belapur. Nerul. Type of housing CIDCO Tenure 1980s Last place of residence Bombay Ethnic status Religion Hindu. The criteria used to select the variables were based on the expectations of the hypothesis.

Better education facilitates getting better jobs and higher income.3). Data tables for the sub-regional scale are given in Appendix C. 5.8% recorded in the 1987 survey) of the population makes up the workforce of Navi Mumbai.2. All these variables are closely correlated.12 1.75 8. A profession brings with it a certain prestige and social class. The percent of males and females is shown in Table 5.62 Standard Deviation 2.35.3 Number of Earners Single 2 3 4+ Vashi 68 23 6 2 Nerul 78 16 3 1 Belapur 68 22 4 2 Kalamboli 79 15 4 1 Panvel 78 17 3 1 Kopar-khairane 76 17 5 1 Airoli 74 20 4 1 Sanpada 70 19 7 2 Mean 74 19 5 1 Standard deviation 5 3 1 1 .99 The average number of earners per household is 1.2Work Force Percent of male Percent of female population in work population in work force force Vashi 53 10 Nerul 55 7 Belapur 52 12 Kalamboli 54 6 Panvel 57 8 Kopar-khairane 56 10 Airoli 53 7 Sanpada 58 9 Mean 54.15% (a slight increase from 32. Seventy-five percent of families had one earning member and twenty percent of families had two earning members (Table 5.2 and the number of earners in Table 5.1 Socioeconomic Status The socioeconomic status is an indicator of social class. Number of earning members: Out of the total population of 91787 recorded in the survey.67 in Greater Bombay. 33. An increase in the number of earning members increases family income and the socioeconomic class. 30430 are the working population. Table 5.2. and form the socioeconomic indicator. while it is 1.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 44 All data tables are for the regional scale while the histograms are from the sub-regional scale. Table 5.

Highly skilled professionals hold higher level managerial and supervisory jobs or are professional business persons. In Navi Mumbai this economic class constitutes 38% of the work force.0 80. Kopar-khairane has a low number of highly skilled workers and a large number of unskilled workers (Table 5.3).0 60.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. was selected. At the sub-regional scale the standard deviation is 7. The distribution of the single earner families is shown in Figure 5. Professional workers in teaching and medical institutions are 7% of the workforce.0 50. This means that the distribution is homogeneous. Skilled workers are factory workers. They form 17% of the workforce.0 65.3). The pattern is homogeneous. Unskilled persons are construction laborers and housemaids.96 (mean=66. The main reason is that this node is presently under construction and has a large workforce of construction workers. The standard deviation is 11. Profession: Good employment opportunities are offered by the manufacturing industries of Navi Mumbai. they are 19% of the work force and the standard deviation is 11. contractors and consultants. This is most representative of the entire population. Small businesses account for 15% of the employees. The distribution of the singleearner family at the regional level shows a standard deviation of only 5 (mean=74).4). The mean is 74 with a very low standard deviation of 5. construction workers and trainees.0 75. Both the values are within 15% of the mean. 25% of the workforce is employed there.96 Mean = 66. while service professions such as shops and hotels employ 7% of the workforce. Government offices including banks and public sector enterprises employ 21% of the workforce. and has a normal distribution over eight cases. For this analysis classification based on skills is tabulated (Table 5.0 55.1. Dev = 7. Table 5.4 Occupational Classification of Workforce Highly skilled unskilled office selfteacher other skilled worker worker assistant employed Vashi 45 12 12 15 9 4 3 Nerul 38 23 13 15 4 4 3 Belapur 47 12 8 20 3 6 4 Kalamboli 24 31 20 12 8 3 2 Panvel 43 19 9 16 4 7 2 Kopar-khairane 20 9 41 9 9 0 12 Airoli 34 18 44 12 5 1 4 Sanpada 49 9 20 14 3 3 2 Mean 38 17 19 14 6 4 4 Standard Deviation 11 8 11 3 3 2 3 Frequency . single earning member.00 45. carpenters. the variable.3 N = 19127.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 45 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std.0 70. On an average.1 Distribution of Single-earner families For the analysis.

5 Household Income upto 12511250 2650 Vashi 2 14 Nerul 3 27 Belapur 2 12 Kalamboli 2 26 Panvel 2 24 Kopar-khairane 2 9 Airoli 1 14 Sanpada 1 5 Mean 1. The regional scale shows a standard deviation of 6.2 15000+ 3 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 1. 4200 fell within this range.0 15.0 10.0 30. 1251 and Rs. 7500 per month. Almost 34% of the population falls within this category. Thus.0 Std.13 1.46 (mean=33.0 50.13 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5.75 4.25 7. 2651-4450 The income range of Rs.2). and the standard deviation is 6.46.38 Standard deviation 0. 4451 and Rs 7500 and • higher income group (HIG) earning more than Rs. 2650 • middle income group (MIG) earning between Rs.45) and the sub-regional scale.2 Frequency of Families with income range Rs. the standard deviation is 10. The proportion of EWS:LIG:MIG:HIG is 2:16:34:48. Both cases do not show a homogeneous distribution of people based on income as the standard deviation is greater than 15% of the mean.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.64 8.9 N = 19127. This shows a proportionately large middle and higher income groups.0 40. 4900 and the monthly average per capita income is Rs.9) (Figure 5. 1230.26 26514450 27 36 27 46 31 32 39 31 33. Frequency . in Navi Mumbai it appears that the four income groups have to be redefined based on the median and/or mean income of this region rather than using the national urban averages (Table 5.98 (mean=27.0 25. Dev = 10 Mean = 27.63 6.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 46 The corresponding data was not available at the sub-regional scale.0 45. Table 5. 2651-4450 was selected for the principal components analysis because the median income of Rs.06 1000115000 7 3 5 1 3 7 2 4 4 2.0 35.29 750110000 15 6 12 3 5 9 8 12 8. Income: The income groups are defined by the Government of India’s household income classification into: • economically weaker section (EWS) earning less than Rs1250 per month • lower income group (LIG) earning between Rs.88 16.46 44517500 30 21 35 21 31 36 34 42 31.0 20. The monthly average household income is Rs.5).

secondary school education. technical education.75 1. the column titled Vashi shows that some students from all other nodes also go there to attend school or college (Table 5.Airoli Sanpada Bombay khairane Vashi 88 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 Nerul 9 77 2 1 1 0 0 0 10 Belapur 10 12 67 1 1 0 0 0 9 Kalamboli 1 0 1 90 4 0 0 0 4 Panvel 2 1 2 8 76 0 0 0 11 Kopar-khairane 17 0 0 0 0 81 0 0 2 Airoli 7 0 0 0 0 0 83 0 10 Sanpada 47 8 1 1 0 0 16 0 27 In the Bombay region literacy rates are seventy-five percent for adult population.30 . Vashi has all the major colleges. while 4% of the population is going to college. Hence. Sanpada is the only node without any education facilities. 10% use bicycles and only 2% go by school bus.36 technical 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 2 1. children.28 Children Primary secondary 9 5 8 10 8 6 7 8 7. Table 5.25 2.6).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 47 Education: The survey shows that 27% of the total population is children going to school.7).25 1.38 3. Most students attend school and college within their node (township).63 1. primary school education. 51% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is English. The level of education is categorized into illiterate.52 1.04 BS MS 22 4 24 5 15 2 9 1 22 4 29 4 13 3 21 4 19. Bachelors and Masters degrees.6 Location of Education Institutions Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar.66 27 27 30 34 25 27 37 21 28. and 35% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is Marathi (12% did not specify their medium of instruction). Table 5.13 3.7 Level of Education illiterate Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 4 3 5 7 3 4 4 4 4. 12% use public transport. 76% of the students walk to their school or college.60 14 15 18 20 14 13 16 12 15. high school education.07 high school 22 17 21 16 19 15 18 25 19.5 5.38 6. The value given represents the highest level of education achieved by at least one member of the family (Table 5.

The national average for this variable is 16.07 (mean=28. and at the sub-regional scale is 7.3).0 20.0 population are in the 60+ range. The demographic indicators used are male and female population of the age group 25-45.5). The variation is not homogeneous at either scale (Figure 5. Dev = 7. Table 5.9). 1991) The standard deviation of this variable at the regional scale is 5.13 (mean=40.6 population are in the age group of N = 19127.0 35.3 Frequency of Families with at least one a younger population with a high individual with Secondary Education percentage of children.0 40.6).5% of the population falls under this category with a standard deviation of 5.13 population.6 (Census of India. and only 3% of the 15. Cases weighted by population The present pattern clearly shows Figure 5. The working age group of 25 to 44 is 39% of the 1000 Std. Children up to the age of 15 constitute 33% of 3000 the total population.00 0 45 to 59. Secondary school means an education of up to Grade 10 and the passing of a government examination (matriculation).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 48 The variable ’secondary school’ was selected under level of education.0 25.9 10 -15 16 .07. Table 5.21 22 -24 25 -44 45 -59 60+ Vashi 4 3 7 15 12 5 34 14 5 Nerul 7 5 10 12 8 5 41 8 3 Belapur 6 4 8 14 12 5 37 11 4 Kalamboli 8 6 11 13 8 5 43 6 1 Panvel 8 4 8 11 9 5 44 9 3 Kopar-khairane 10 6 10 10 8 5 43 6 1 Airoli 7 5 10 14 11 4 39 8 2 Sanpada 7 4 6 10 10 5 43 10 4 Mean 7 5 9 12 10 5 41 9 3 Standard deviation 2 1 2 2 2 0 3 3 1 6000 Frequency .2. The age group 16 to 24 is 10% of the 2000 population.2 Family Status Demographics: The nodes of Navi Mumbai have a female to 5000 male ratio of 848 to 1000 (comparative figures for Bombay 4000 are 819 to 1000).0 45.8 Male Population below 3 4-5 6 . About 9% of the Mean = 40. 28. This age group was selected because it is a subset of the population and it makes most of the decision regarding social choices (Table 5. This level of education is provided to everyone by the government free of cost.8.0 30. 5.0 50.

0 48. 3000 2000 Frequency 1000 0 32. but also the need to accommodate older parents.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.0 52. The population age structure is uniformly distributed over the whole region. average family size has increased from 3. The reason for this is not only marriage and children.01 for all the nodes (Table 5. .9 Female Population below 3 4-5 Vashi 5 3 Nerul 7 5 Belapur 5 4 Kalamboli 15 10 Panvel 8 4 Kopar-khairane 9 6 Airoli 6 5 Sanpada 6 4 Mean 8 5 Standard deviation 3 2 6 -9 8 10 8 16 8 10 10 8 10 3 10 -15 14 13 14 20 11 9 15 10 13 3 16 -21 11 9 11 13 10 12 10 13 11 1 22 -24 5 7 6 12 9 10 6 9 8 2 25 -44 39 40 40 6 40 37 39 39 35 12 45 -59 10 6 8 6 6 5 6 9 7 2 60+ 4 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 The female population of the age group 25-45 is also uniformly distributed over the study area.0 40. In Vashi. The comparative family size for Bombay is 4.0 42.52.39 Mean = 38.39 (mean=38) at the sub-regional level (Figure 5.4 Frequency of male population in the age group 25-45 Figure 5. and 3.0 N = 19127.0 46.0 38.10).21 in 1985.73 in 1987 to 4.76 and the national average is 5.0 44.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 49 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation of the population is 3 (mean=41) at the regional level.4).0 Std.0 50. Dev = 3.0 34. A descriptive analysis of the data over the last 20 years shows that household size has been constantly increasing. Family size: The average family size is 4.0 36.

85 (mean=56) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.9. All other nodes show a dominance of CIDCO housing (Table 5.0 4.1 (mean=50.8 6. The variable has a standard deviation of 5.0 N = 19127.5 60.9).0 67.0 47. the data shows more diversification of the housing stock.87 4.0 57.5 50.10 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0.5 65.10 Family Size Single Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 6000 2.6 1 2 1 3 5 3 1 3 2.5 45. Dev = 5. private builders and cooperative housing began developing residential sectors.67 3.5).1.4 Average family size 4.00 0 42.22 3. and 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 50 Table 5.0 62.9 5.85 5000 4000 The families with a size of 4 or 5 members was chosen as 50% of the population belongs to this category. Later.5 57 54 53 52 45 45 56 45 50.5 Frequency of households with 4 or 5 members Type of Housing: Initially CIDCO built ninety percent of the housing stock.4 8. Since Vashi is the oldest node.7 14 10 13 14 8 10 15 12 12 2. CIDCO began all construction in Navi Mumbai. At the regional scale the standard deviation is 5.99 3. 3000 2000 1000 Std. . Frequency Cases weighted by population Figure 5.1 6.03 3.5 55.85 Mean = 56.11).21 3.9 0.81 4.0 52.5 The variation of the data is minimal.3 26 34 31 31 41 41 27 39 33.4 1.

4) (Figure 5. House 2 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 1.0 60.74 Other 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.00 Cases weighted by POP Figure 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 51 Table 5.00 1.24 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 Pvt.4 N = 19127.24 (mean=89. The categories. Frequency . the strong control is no longer evident.12 shows present ownership of the house.0 40.24.76 0.6 Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO For this variable. Table 5.62 (mean=66.0 100.0 80. CIDCO is still the major owner. The large deviation shows that private construction has taken place.0 Std. Houses built by CIDCO are 90% of the houses available.0 50. the oldest node.0 30. At Vashi. The standard deviation at the regional scale is 12.38 9. Most government offices that provide housing for their employees obtain long term lease from CIDCO.77 Pvt. Dev = 35. Some houses are mortgage through CIDCO.38 Standard Deviation 12.0 90.0 20.0 70.35 1000 0 0.62 Mean = 66. Co-op Commercial 29 2 5 0 9 0 0 1 15 0 2 0 0 0 11 0 8. only houses built by CIDCO was selected.11 Type of Housing CIDCO Vashi 64 Nerul 95 Belapur 91 Kalamboli 99 Panvel 80 Kopar-khairane 98 Airoli 100 Sanpada 88 Mean 89. resale and rental fall under private ownership. The standard deviation is 12.38) while at the sub-regional scale it is 35.88 0.6). This is a very significant result.0 10. private ownership. This may be one of the main reasons for the greater variability in the pattern at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale. CIDCO’s aim to promote heterogeneity was to be implemented by having a strong hold over the housing market.13 0.

75 18.50 0 Standard deviation 8.5 4.0 10. the private builders are predominantly building for the HIG.65 6.52 14. Dev = 21.63 9.88 34.09 8.75 Private 17 3 4 1 9 1 0 7 5.85 Mean = 14.12 Ownership of House Mortgage CIDCO Vashi 11 23 Nerul 21 36 Belapur 8 40 Kalamboli 25 25 Panvel 7 33 Kopar-khairane 0 34 Airoli 0 51 Sanpada 15 32 Mean 10.13.0 40.76 0 10000 8000 The standard deviation of the data was 21.13 Housing built by CIDCO <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 51-75 76-100 101-150 150+ Vashi 11 30 22 14 15 3 2 0 Nerul 7 57 18 8 7 2 1 0 Belapur 0 26 10 33 20 11 0 0 Kalamboli 24 37 24 5 7 2 0 0 Panvel 10 33 16 18 22 1 0 0 Kopar-khairane 0 20 10 42 18 9 1 0 Airoli 0 30 28 17 18 6 0 0 Sanpada 0 61 18 12 9 0 0 0 Mean 6.25 while the mean was 14.7).0 90.0 70. Table 5.25 18.25 Standard Deviation 9.2 (Figure 5.25 0.14). Table 5.36 12.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 52 Table 5. 6000 4000 Frequency 2000 Std.64 6.64 Dwelling size: The average size of dwelling units constructed by CIDCO is less than that built by private builders (Table 5.99 0.0 50.43 Rental 23 36 37 43 36 49 42 26 36.7 Frequency of Housing Built by CIDCO .2 N = 19127.02 3.63 14.25 5.50 36.00 0.68 Resale 21 16 0 0 0 14 0 18 8.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.5 8.0 80.0 30. While CIDCO is building houses for the EWS/LIG/MIG.0 60.0 20.

0 50.86 3.0 The frequency distribution of houses built by private enterprise shows a 12000 standard deviation of 18.88 15. For both CIDCO-built houses and privately 6000 built houses.2 (Figure 5.88 9. Only Vashi and Belapur had a household population in the 1980s.12 101-150 8 5 5 0 8 0 0 2 3. Cases weighted by population slow phase in the 1970s.00 0 Tenure: The growth of Navi Mumbai 0.63 18.69 10.67 and mean 10000 16. corresponding to middle income Fre 2000 Std.13 11.88 Standard Deviation 3. the dwelling sizes 4000 selected was 26-35 sq.94 10.38 Standard Deviation 10.50 16.41 150+ 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 14.78 12.16 51-75 14 8 33 5 18 42 17 12 5.0 can be divided into three stages: early.75 3.50 2.99 5.67 que groups. Table 5.8 Frequency of Houses built by Private number of houses occupied between Enterprise nodes (Table 5.50 .76 7.0 6. m.15).0 60. Dwelling size was selected 8000 based on type of house. Families began to reside in Nerul.0 10.09 13. Dev = 18.50 14.50 15. Mean = 16.83 3.0 20.67 76-100 24 23 9 0 24 1 0 5 3.8).15 Year of Occupation before 1980 1981-85 1986-90 1991-92 1993 1994 1995 Vashi 11 28 24 8 9 14 5 Nerul 0 6 29 10 6 35 14 Belapur 4 23 24 11 13 18 7 Kalamboli 0 5 31 10 11 37 6 Panvel 0 11 14 15 14 34 12 Kopar-khairane 0 0 0 20 18 34 28 Airoli 0 0 47 14 12 16 11 Sanpada 0 0 0 0 8 48 44 Mean 1. Kalamboli.0 30.00 11. Panvel and Airoli in the latter 1980s and in Kopar-khairane and Sanpada only in the 1990s.75 2.2 ncy N = 19127.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 53 Table 5.38 29.0 40.13 21. There is a great variation in the Figure 5.14 Housing built by Private Enterprise <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 Vashi 4 2 2 14 Nerul 0 6 6 6 Belapur 0 1 2 2 Kalamboli 0 8 0 0 Panvel 0 0 1 1 Kopar-khairane 0 91 5 5 Airoli 0 0 0 0 Sanpada 13 60 2 2 Mean 37. middle phase in 1980s and accelerated phase in the 1990s.

25) and 18.0 40. However.16 Airoli 8.58 13.28 55.85 0 6.4 4.94 0.05 4.11 2.9).9 Frequency of Tenure the first stage of relocation where the choice of house is not very important.42 0.89 47.94 Nerul 13. These N = 19127.8 Navi Mumbai (Table 5.00 0 describe migration from Bombay and 0.45 Standard 5.62 2. Cases weighted by population Migration from Bombay is usually Figure 5.34 49.0 20.0 70. There is a very large variability.53 32.04 6.78 39.19 Navi Mumbai 35.29 4.58 5.25 (mean=52. Dev = 18.34 66.25 place of residence are Bombay and 1000 Mean = 52.32 5.05 1.8) (Figure 5.18 5.63 Mean 11.0 movement within Navi Mumbai. which can be attributed to the pace of construction.2 2.23 Kalamboli 5.46 3.16 Previous Place of Residence Island City Western Eastern suburbs suburbs Vashi 18. 2000 Table 5.0 10. This is because any house in Navi Mumbai would be better than the existing living conditions in Bombay. 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation at the regional scale is 20.26 6.39 Panvel 3.57 5.26 5.65 10.43 Sanpada 17. Movement within Navi Mumbai shows desire to move to a house of the homeowner’s choice.16).58 4.63 17.23 49.36 17.34 13.20 2.55 23.07 19.25 0.63 9.79 2.0 60. this table only indicates the year of occupation of the present accommodation.2 2.51 20.28 3.0 50.23 4.94 11.4 0.0 30. 1980s and 1990s account for the entire span of growth of the city.44 2.19 26.04 2.14 5. Only the middle phase was selected as a representative variable.78 0.17 .82 4.53 2.1 5.83 5.06 6.27 Kopar 14.36 0. It is thus.39 Within state 3. 3000 Previous Place of Residence: The two variables describing previous Std.15 24.79 deviation Frequency Thane 3.51 3.5 2.45 0.25 1.56 Belapur 10.54 7.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 54 The three time periods of 1970s.82 3.54 0.3 68.75 2.0 80.8 0.54 Outside Outside state India 4. not entirely accurate as families may have shifted after their first place of residence.25 (mean=30.

The standard deviation of the families whose previous place of residence was Bombay is 9.0 N = 19127.98.75% of the total and has a standard deviation of 1.54 (mean=53) at the sub-regional scale.46 The variables Hindu and Muslim were selected for analysis.0 40.38 2.25 0.13 0. However.00 0 35.10 Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence The variables. island city.0 55.45 Islam 6 5 4 5 2 6 3 7 4.50 1.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 55 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std. Bombay. 5. The mean is 85. western suburbs.67 Jain 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.56 Mean = 53.01) at the regional scale and 9.17).0 70.0 60.0 65. eastern suburbs and Thane have been summed up to obtain the variable. The Muslim population is 4.0 75. This variable shows diversification of the population based on a cultural variable (Table 5.42 (mean=26.75 1. Ethnic enclaves are formed mainly by religious and linguistic groups.75% and the standard deviation is only 4.33 Buddhist 1 0 2 1 0 2 5 1 1.0 50. it is more important to analyze the minority religions to see if they are forming ethnic enclaves. An analysis of the other minority populations also show very large standard deviations. There is a large variation because there has been migration from the rural areas. Dev = 9. Table 5.0 45.17 Religion Hindu Vashi 84 Nerul 88 Belapur 79 Kalamboli 84 Panvel 94 Kopar-khairane 89 Airoli 88 Sanpada 80 Mean 85.35 Sikh 2 3 7 6 1 1 1 3 3.98 Christian 6 3 6 4 2 2 3 9 4. Religion: This variable is very important for this analysis because India has a number of well-defined religions. Frequency .0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.60 Others 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.00 2. This variable shows the families whose most immediate place of origin is Bombay. The means of the religion variable correspond with the national averages.3 Ethnic Status This construct is very important because it is the construct that creates segregation in India.2.67. The Hindu population is the majority and is homogenous. from Bombay and within Navi Mumbai.75 Standard deviation 4.

22 Std.11 6.53 16.04 1.18 Language Marathi Vashi 42.96 5.29 2.19 5. Mean = 82.91 2. and there is a large population of Malayalam-speaking people in the greater Bombay region.72 1.27 2. .36 4.20 0.35 3.97 1.78 Kopar 67.76 Kalamboli 55.41 Nerul 45.48 3.13 14.11 Frequency of Hindus Figure 5.74 2.98 8.32 7.4 N = 19127.13 13.66 2.68 4.34 3.75).6 12. Malayalam and Kannada southern ones Table 5.43 8.50 3.47 3.22 The two languages selected are Marathi and Malayalam. This forms a major minority language. The Muslim population and other minority religions show a nonuniform distribution over the study area.80 5.93 Airoli 42.33 5. Dev = 4.34 3. dev 11.32 3. This has been used to study if there are any ethnic neighborhoods formed due to linguistic considerations.33 2.00 0 0 Figure 5.73 Hindi Gujarati Malayalam Punjabi Tamil Kannada Bengali Other 13. Hindi is the dominant language of the country. Language: The variable language is very important in the Indian context because civil violence due to language has taken place across India.17 13.75 Belapur 40.72 1.31 3. Malayalam is the language of the state 1000 miles away.49 11.81 7.32 0.92 5.29 2.69 5. Punjabi is a northern language.01 9.53 9.77 1.00 Frequency 1000 2000 Std.Malathi Ananthakrishnan 5000 Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 10000 56 4000 8000 3000 6000 2000 4000 Frequency Std. Gujarati is the language of the adjoining state.72 0.99 10. Dev = 3. Marathi is the local language.67 1.99 1.50 2.57 3.14 2.26 2.08 11.04 3.68 1.41 4.50 3.27 16.31 9.08 3.83 6.9 N = 19127. Bengali an eastern one and Tamil.37 2.50 1.19 8.44 2.56 3.82 3.46 Sanpada 63.66 2.23 7.12 Frequency of Muslims The Hindu population is spread uniformly over the study are with standard deviation 4.79 Mean 53. Marathi is the local language.74 3.91 Mean = 6.98 (mean=85.11 6.59 12.12 1.48 5.90 2.16 16. 54% of the population speaks this language.60 5.87 Panvel 66.64 2.5 14.65 2.

The descriptive analysis suggests that the urban social pattern is not defined by homogeneous socioeconomic classes.6).0 40.13 Frequency of Marathi Figure 5.00 0 10.6) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.0 50.5 25.77 (mean=7.0 70.0 7.5 5.6 N = 19127.19 Spatial Pattern of Variables Variable Regional scale Number of earning members Uniform Income Non-uniform Education Non-uniform Demographics Uniform Family size Uniform Type of housing Non-uniform Tenure Non-uniform Last place of residence Non-uniform Hindu Uniform Muslim Non-uniform Marathi Non-uniform Malayalam Non-uniform .73 (mean=53.0 30.73 (mean=46.00 1000 Std. Dev = 3. There is a non-uniform pattern in socioeconomic variables as well as in the ethnic variables. which have formed their own enclaves.13).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 57 6000 6000 5000 5000 4000 4000 3000 3000 2000 2000 Frequency Frequency 1000 Std.73 Mean = 46. The standard deviation of Malayalam is 3.14). Table 5.9 N = 19127.14 Frequency of Malayalam The standard deviation of Marathi is 11.5 10.0 17.0 0 2.26 (mean=7. This pattern is more apparent at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale (Table 5. The standard deviation is very large showing some areas have more Malayalamspeaking persons than others leading to the conclusion that ethnic enclaves do exist.19).0 60. Dev = 15.0 80.0 12. This is probably the result of the many other linguistic groups.77 Mean = 6.5 15.0 Cases weighted by population Cases weighted by population Figure 5.0 22.68) at the regional scale and 3.0 20. The distribution of families with Marathi as their native language is not very uniform (Figure 5.22) at the regional scale and 15.5 20.

religion and language. and three components were obtained. The variables were weighted by the total population of each node. the variables selected were number of earning members.347% of the variation. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 3.985. or principle components. tenure. secondary school education.3 Regional Scale .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 58 5. The use of PCA as a method of analysis was limited by the small number of cases. and in a range of 0. The principal components obtained from the rotated component matrix are used as they are more simple to interpret.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the regional scale uses the eight nodes (townships) as the cases for the study. The constructs described on page 1 suggest the need for 12 variables.824 and 0. A PCA was run.902 explains 23. The total of the communality is 7. The outputs obtained from the SPSS program are used to determine which variables.3. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 1. migration.728%. explaining 90% of the variance. The number of variables used in the analysis could not be more than the number of cases.Nodes 5. Hence.771% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 1. family size.818 explains a variation of 22. . nearly 90% of the variance of the 8 nodes lies within a 3-dimensional space. the assumption can be made that all the variables are significant and are useful for the study. Cumulatively these three components explain 89.468 explains 43. The components with eigenvalues greater than 1 will be used to explain the variance. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix D). income. However. as PCA limited the number of variables to 8.18. The communalities of all the variables are very high. Thus.845% of the variation. are needed for the complete explanation of the difference in the data.

5 Component 2 0.15 Components in Rotated Space 1. The loadings produced by the principal components analysis for the variables is used to create bar charts to better visualize the magnitude of the loading. components contribute more or less to the overall data association MIGRATN TENURE .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 59 Figure 5.0 -. These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component.0 1. if any.0 .5 C o m p o n e n ts 1.5 -.5 1 loading 0. It does not directly express which.0 .5 1. 5 -1 FAM.SIZE LANGUAGE va r i a b l e s Figure 5.16 Loadings of Principal Components The eight original variables are combined linearly to define principal components.5 Component 1 Analysis weighted by population of each node .0 Component 3 0.5 RELIGION 0 EARNER EDUCATN INCOME -0 .0 education income earner family size tenure religion language migration -.5 0.

As the analysis was constrained by the reduced number of variables. Nerul. Kopar-khairane.3.3. Cluster analysis of the scores from PCA ensured that the data was standardized in the same manner for both types of analysis. Vashi. 5.20 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Family size Previous place of residence Tenure Component 2 Education Income Component 3 Number of earners Language Religion Name Family status Socioeconomic status Ethnic status with high number of earners. 5.17 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) .2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis was done using the scores obtained from the principal components analysis.20): Table 5. This analysis does not show any differentiation based on variables of ethnicity. Airoli (Appendix E). Analysis of the raw data was not carried out because the SPSS program did not weight the raw data while running a cluster analysis. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had the nodes Belapur and Kalamboli while the second cluster (Cluster 2) had the rest of the nodes. Sanpada. As the number of cases was only 8. socioeconomic status and ethnic status. Panvel.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three components with eigenvalues above 1. this PCA does not directly correspond to the descriptive analysis. only two clusters were formed. The three components correspond to family status.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 60 The three components are (Table 5. The cluster analysis shows that the two of the Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine Cluster 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ Node Panvel Kopar Sanpada Nerul Airoli Vashi Belapur Kalamboli -+-----------------+ Cluster 1 -+ +-------------------------+ -------------------+ +---+ -------------+-------+ I I -------------+ +-----------------------+ I ---------------------+ I ---------------------------------------+---------+ ---------------------------------------+ Figure 5.

Sectors of Vashi 5. More components could have been used. families with 4 or 5 members.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 61 nodes are different from the other six. 13 variables were selected for the analysis.21 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Education Income Ownership of house Previous place of residence Muslim Component 2 Marathi Component 3 Number of earners Malayalam Demographics Hindu Name Socioeconomic status and Muslim enclave Ethnic status Ethnic status with high number of earners. 2651-4450. Hindus and Muslims. linguistic groups speaking Marathi and Malayalam.001% of the variation.581 explains a variation of 23.75 explains 25. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix F). Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 2. The PCA shows the communality of the 11 variables to be 8.690 explains 24. high school education. The attributes of the principal components are (Table 5. but interpretation would have been more difficult. household income range of Rs.4 Sub-regional Scale . male and female population of the age group 25-45. The main reason for this is the high variability in the language data set for Belapur. migration from Bombay. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 2.21) Table 5. tenure of house in the 1980s.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the sub-regional scale uses the 23 sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi as the cases for the study. From the data. 5. and three components were obtained. and the high percentage of families in the selected income range for Kalamboli. houses built by CIDCO. .917%. The extracted sums of squared loadings of the first three components is cumulatively 72. The variables were weighted by the total population of each node. explaining 73% of the variance.463%.453% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 2. A PCA was run. These were: families with one earning member.01.4.

18 Loadings of Principal Components The bar chart explains the loadings of each variable on the component. 17.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 62 C o m po ne nts 1 0. 28 and 29. The second cluster (Cluster 2) had sectors 12. and the third cluster (Cluster 3) had all the rest of the 16 sectors (Appendix G).8 0. Three clusters were formed using the 23 cases. 5. 14. 4 -0 .2 0 -0 . 8 -1 loadings EDUCATN MIGRATN RELGION1 LANGUAG1 LANGUAG2 OWNRSHIP RELGION2 EARNER INCOME MEN va r i a bl e s Figure 5. These define which values contribute more or less significance to that particular component.6 0. 2 -0 .4 0. 6 -0 .2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis of the scores obtained from PCA was done. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had had only sector 5.4. WOMEN . These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component. 16A.

as Hindus are 83% of the population.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 63 Figure 5. it represents a majority of the population. The first component is one which has a high socioeconomic component dominated by a Muslim population.58.4. All the components are equally important and separated only by ethnic variables. The cluster analysis shows a segregation in Cluster 1 caused by high number of earners with a high percentage of households speaking Marathi and a low percentage of .3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three equally important components with eigenvalues in the range of 2. Again. The second component has only the population speaking Marathi. It appears that there is a segregation based on the ethnic component. The third component is the economically active age group dominated by the Hindu population. this component also describes the general population. This can be translated into a middle-class population. As the Marathi population is 53% of the total population.75 to 2. Each of the three components have an ethnic variable in them.19 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine 0 5 10 15 20 +---------+---------+---------+---------+----Sector 2 6 1 4 16 20 9 10 15 26 21 3 7 9A 8 10A 14 29 12 17 16A 28 5 -+ -+---+ -+ +-+ -----+ +-----+ ---+---+ I ---+ +---+ -+-+ I I -+ +---+ I +-----------+ ---+ +-----+ I I Cluster 3 -------+ I I -----------------+ +---------+ ---+---+ I I ---+ +---------+ I I -------+ +-----------+ I ---------+-------+ +---------+ ---------+ I I -------+---------------+ I I -------+ I I I -+---+ +---------------+ I Cluster 2 -+ +-------------+ I I -----+ +---+ I -------------------+ I Cluster 1 -------------------------------------------------+ 5.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 64 households speaking Malayalam. . and distinctly driven by an ethnic component at the sub-regional scale. PCA and cluster analysis brings forth the variability of the data and shows which variables and which cases cluster together. individual households have exercised their choice. In summary. the outcome of the implementation strategy shows otherwise. 5. At the sub-regional scale as there is a smaller percentage of CIDCO-built houses. The descriptive analysis of individual variables also shows this non-uniform pattern. although the government policy was to prevent the formation of ethnic enclaves. Cluster 2 shows a dominance of households speaking Marathi. and a strong ethnic component is seen.6 Conclusion The analysis of the data shows that the urban social pattern appears to be non-uniform at the regional scale.

1 Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai .Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion A preliminary interpretation of the data analysis in the previous chapter shows the details of the social urban pattern are best seen in the sub-regional scale.1 shows the spatial distribution of the clusters. Cluster 1 has two nodes close to each other and BOMBAY Airoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada Nerul Arabian Sea Belapur Panvel possibly influenced by one another. 6. All the other nodes are in the second cluster. However. a brief interpretation of the regional scale is described here before proceeding to the detailed interpretation at the sub-regional scale. Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Figure 6.1 Regional Scale Figure 6.

have an equal influence on the two clusters. 100 Panvel 80 EARNER EDUCATN 60 FAM.SIZE 40 INCOME Kopar-khaira 20 LANGUAGE MIGRATN 0 -20 1 Sanpada Kopar-khaira RELIGION TENURE 2 Figure 6.2 Average Linkage between Factor Scores Analysis weighted by population Further.3 shows the strength of variables.3 Average Linkage between Variables Analysis weighted by population . Cluster 1 is linked to Factor score 1 0 score 1 and cluster 2 to score 2 -1 Factor score 2 -2 while score 3 exerts almost equal Factor score 3 67116 67116 67116 14543 14543 14543 -3 N= influence on both cluster. Cluster 1 is influenced by family size. previous place of residence and tenure while cluster 2 is affected by income. education and language. Figure 6. number of earners and religion. which are contributing to the clustering. 1 2 Figure 6. The variables.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 66 3 Figure 6.2 shows that different factor scores influence the two Airoli 2 1 clusters.

there were twenty-three sectors. The grouping of the sectors into three clusters is shown in Figure 6.2 Sub-regional Scale At the sub-regional scale. 10. 14. 20. 9A. 16A. 4. 9. 21. 6. 17.4 Clustering of the Sectors of Vashi Cluster 3 (red) has sectors 1. Cluster 2 (green) has sectors 2. . 28 and 29. 28 12 29 26 10 15 9 10A 9A 8 7 5 6 4 1 3 2 17 16 14 20 16A 21 Figure 6. 8. More variables could also be used to study these cases. 12. 3. and Cluster 1 (yellow) has only sector 5. 16.4.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 67 6. and 26. 10A. 15.

6 Average Linkage between Variables Figure 6. 1 2 3 Figure 6.5 Average Linkage between Groups Analysis weighted by population 120 EARNER 100 80 EDUCATION INCOME MARATHI 60 40 20 0 -20 1 2 3 MALAYALAM MEN MIGRATION OWNRSHIP HINDU MUSLIM WOMEN Figure 6. Cluster 2 is the most significant. Cluster 1 is also differentiated by Malayalam.6 shows the average linkage between the variables. Cluster 3 is an outlier. Factor Score 2 -4 cluster 2 more strongly by score 2 Factor Score 3 1892 1892 1892 738 738 738 -6 N = 16497 1649716497 and cluster 3 by score 3. Ownership. Cluster 1 is Factor Score 1 8 0 -2 influenced by all three scores. income and the language Marathi dominate it.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 68 Figure 6. another ethnic variable. This is a socioeconomic construct. .5 shows that the 4 2 three clusters are influenced by different factor scores. but dominated by an ethnic variable.

the study of many cities across the world shows that the socioeconomic construct displays a sector pattern.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 69 6. The two variables selected were income and number of earners.8 Distribution of Number of Earners Figure 6. Figure 6.7 Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic Variables Figure 6. and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes. In both maps the median range is represented by the color purple. Figure 6. The colors red and orange are immediately above.8.9 Distribution of Income The pattern that emerges on mapping of the number of earners and income variables does not show any particular pattern (Figure 6.7 shows a scenario that could be expected from the mapping of any of the socioeconomic variables. .9).2.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory As discussed in the literature review. Figure 6.

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6.2.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory The study of many cities across the world shows that the family status construct displays a concentric pattern. Figure 6.10 shows a possible scenario in Vashi for a variable representing the family status. The variable selected to describe the family status is ownership of apartment. In the descriptive analysis, this variable showed a great degree of variability. The purple color represents the range within which the mean falls. The colors red and orange are immediately above, and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes. Figure 6.10 Hypothetical Concentric Zone Pattern for Family Status Variables The number of sectors which falls within the mean range is very small. Sectors which have slightly more or slightly less percentage of apartments built by CIDCO are represented by red and orange. It is important to note that five sectors are colored green while one sector is yellow (Figure 6.11). This shows a high degree of variability in the data.

Figure 6.11 Distribution of Ownership of Apartment

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6.2.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory Multiple Nuclei theory supports the spatial pattern of the ethnic factor. A possible solution is mapped for any ethnic variable in Figure 6.12. A language variable and a religion variable were selected from the data set for mapping. The mapping of language and religion variables shows a segregation of both of them. Yellow and green colors, which represent the extremes in the data set, are present in both the variables (Figure 6.13, Figure 6.14). This is especially true of the variable Muslim, which shows a largely non-uniform distribution.

Figure 6.12 Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic Variables

Figure 6.13 Distribution of Households speaking Marathi

Figure 6.14 Distribution of Households which follow Islam

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6.3 Summary The set of figures below shows the mapping of the cluster analysis as well as the individual factor scores.

Figure 6.15 Clustering of Sectors

Figure 6.16 Score 1

Figure 6.17 Score 2

Figure 6.18 Score 3

Although the four maps above (Figure 6.15, Figure 6.16, Figure 6.17, Figure 6.18) show that there is a different colored sector within a group of one color, the multiple nuclei pattern is not very obvious. However, looking at the descriptive analysis, principal components analysis, cluster analysis and the mapping collectively, the multiple nuclei pattern can be inferred. The descriptive analysis brought out the fact that the spatial pattern is

the pattern is strongly influenced by factors as year of occupation of the house and reasons for moving.4 Potential Utility of the Research This research is a starting point for further studies in spatial patterns in Navi Mumbai. Future research could involve: • • Delineating the pattern at intervals of time to study the change in pattern. scaling down the study to stories of individual households to reach a more detailed level of interpretation. the policy has not been successful. • • putting forth a new theory to generalize social pattern in planned cities in India. The principal components analysis shows that the cause of this spatial pattern is ethnicity. The aggregation of household data at the sector scale has limited this research from drawing out the finer details of the spatial pattern. . as the pattern is not uniform. 6. As Navi Mumbai has been constructed over the last 25 years. examining the policy instruments and policy goals. However. In conclusion. The mapping of individual variables and factor scores verifies that within a fairly homogeneous group of sectors there exists a dissimilar sector. The clustering indicates that some sectors are dissimilar from others. This is the multiple nuclei pattern of an ethnically driven spatial organization.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 73 not uniform or heterogeneous. a pattern did emerge at this present stage. The policy of the government to promote social heterogeneity influenced the type of residential construction in Navi Mumbai.

1991). strongly influenced by ethnic variables. The government had a very practical interest in avoiding ethnic confrontation. Planning policies in Navi Mumbai were strongly influenced by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. support an aggressive industrialization policy. These theories explain the urban social pattern . This particular case study was chosen for two reasons: Navi Mumbai is the first planned city that is not a capital city or industrial township. Households would normally place this preference based on how much they can pay. Traditional Indian cities have always had a strong ethnic component in their urban social pattern. raise the standard of living and reduce social inequalities. This was the first cause of separation in residential neighborhoods. The Hindu laws and treatises specified residential locations for different castes. Ethnic enclaves have always characterized traditional settlements in India. Areas dominated by Muslims are common in most cities in India. One of the social objectives in the planning of Navi Mumbai was to use the government machinery to diversify the spatial distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. caste. thus. Three leading theories put forth were concentric zone theory. and the government had a specific social and political agenda. The other feature that is unique to India is the existence of many languages. Navi Mumbai is still dependent on Bombay for much of its activity. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. It was also influenced by the concept of the city as a melting pot (Engel. Housing would be allotted according to the preference of size of dwelling provided by applicants. Religious tensions have always existed in India. Every effort was taken by the government to make Navi Mumbai an independent city and not a suburb or satellite city to Bombay. Bombay is the financial and economic capital of India. religion and language. However. and formulated a policy to support it. Partition and the first years of independence were. It was hoped that a majority of the residential construction could be achieved though a policy of swavalambhan (self-reliance) and swatantrya (mutual selfhelp). Political and administrative boundaries in independent India were decided on linguistic lines. The draft development plan of Navi Mumbai had very strong functional and social objectives. The thesis addresses this social objective. The important objectives of Navi Mumbai were: attract some of the immigrant population. The government also decided to take up most of the initial building construction. The segregation is attributed to the ethnic variables. The government hoped that this would distribute people based on socioeconomics and break barriers based on religion and language. The religious divide was used in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. The Muslims came to India as invaders. Navi Mumbai is separated from the metropolis of Bombay only by the Thane Creek. The review of secondary source material shows that urban social patterns have been studied across the world.Chapter 7: Conclusion The purpose of this thesis is to delineate the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. India. The culture of this race of people is very different from the Hindus. and provide an infrastructure which would promote ethnic heterogeneity.

Heterogeneity of the population is detected if these three constructs emerge from the analysis. family size and type of house under family status. Wedge patterns representing income groups are the outcome of the theory. sector theory. The methodologies were techniques of multivariate analysis. The data at both scales is tabulated. At the regional scale the analysis was done between the eight nodes to study their similarity. The constructs of the social area analysis have been found to correspond to the three theories. In the case of Navi Mumbai this is important because of the policy to prevent segregation based on ethnic variables. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. If H0 is false. Mobility and immigration are the key variables of this theory. The PCA reduces the dimensionality of the data into a more interpretable form. and histogram drawn of the variable selected from each data set. the family component showed a concentric ring pattern. and demographics. The variables selected are reduced into a smaller number of constructs.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 75 and its change over time. Two religion variables and two language variables have been selected representing the ethnic construct. Four methods were used to analyze the data. The second methodology is principal components analysis (PCA). The first methodology is a descriptive analysis. The methodology used was that of social area analysis. The hypothesis put forth in this study is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social segregation will occur. The variables selected under each construct were drawn out of experience of the researchers. income and education under the socioeconomic construct. special emphasis has to be given to the ethnic components. The concentric zone theory relates the pattern of cities to population mobility. family status and ethnic status. Succession and invasion based on social and economic status is the basic assumption of this theory. In Navi Mumbai. and the sub-regional scale of the sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi node. The other variables selected were number of earning members. Twenty-three sectors of Vashi were then analyzed. is an analysis primarily of economic variables. The multiple nuclei theory proposes that patterns could be arranged around several centers. These scales were the regional scale of the nodes (townships). These are socioeconomic construct. The software package SPSS was used to do the analysis. Since. grouping of variables is expected to be under the three constructs. family status and ethnic status. Next. A variation in the data greater than 15% on each side of the mean is considered as unequal distribution. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. the analysis allowed a more detailed interpretation. Social area analysis broadly classifies variables into three constructs. The similarity between the . Using the secondary source material as reference. then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. a cluster analysis was done of the cases of the data set. socioeconomic. That would indicate that enclaves have not been caused by individual variables. Analysis of data was done at two scales. the scale was smaller. The second theory. Generally the socioeconomic model showed a sectored pattern. Analysis was done to map the urban social pattern of many cities across the world.

The objective. thereby. graphically representing the analysis. they were mapped under expected and observed conditions. All three new constructs are dominated by an ethnic variable. it has not succeeded at this stage. The urban social pattern is best explained as one of multiple nuclei. family status variables concentric zones and the ethnicity variables a multiple nuclei arrangement. be explained using the theories of urban social patterns.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 76 nodes and sectors is determined from this. The overall pattern of Navi Mumbai is one of multiple nuclei. The research brings to the fore many questions than answers. The interpretation of the analysis also involves comparing the descriptive analysis. physical design and the institutional framework need to be examined closely to realize their full impact and to understand the results in their context. The hypothesis was proved false. The final stage was mapping of the clusters. How important is it to promote integration when self-sorting has been the natural process? • Can the Modernist synthesis seeking homogeneity in heterogeneity be used as a template for the Indian culture? • This leads to the question: is the objective valid? Does it have to be redefined or is the implementation strategy to be modified? At this stage it appears that a detailed analysis of the policy instrument and policy goals must be undertaken. However. A moral analysis of segregation has to be done in the context of the Indian culture. The center is an ethnic enclave surrounded by socioeconomic variables. Redistribution shows that people have aligned themselves based on ethnic variables. This can be attributed to two reasons: 1. • Was this an experiment in enhancing quality of life or is it a method for the government to exert social control? • The concept of the melting pot has to be re-examined. The extreme value range in the mapping is important because it represents the dissimilarity in the distribution. Distribution was originally controlled through allotment of government-built houses based only on purchasing power (and indirectly socioeconomic status). however. As the socioeconomic variables are expected to take a sectored pattern. This is especially true of the ethnic variables. None of the variables selected display a uniform distribution. Control is maximum when the government owns all the houses. The spatial distribution of households is still characterized by traditional Indian values of ethnic segregation. The interpretation of the descriptive analysis shows that the distribution of most of the variables is not uniform. The principal components analysis shows that the variables are not grouping under the three constructs. In Vashi only 64% of the houses were built and allotted by the government. although the policy is noble in its aims and aspiration. the socioeconomic variables also show separation. The policy has not facilitated the distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. Even in the houses built by the government resale has taken place. allotment procedure. and clustering to the urban social patterns detailed in the secondary source material. The pattern could. This indicates that the urban social pattern is strongly influenced by ethnicity. 2. In conclusion. . The distribution of these variables shows segregation.

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Glossary of Terms Term Cuadra Jali Masjid Padas Panchayati Pucca Purdahs Purushasukta Rashtrabasha Swadeshi Swatantrya Swavalambhan Vastupurusha mandala Vastushastra Meaning Spanish measurement Carved screens Mosque Subdivisions of the cosmic universe Self-government Durable Enclosure Hindu treatise Language of the State Fullest utilization of local resources Self-motivation and self-help Self-reliance Terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe Science of architecture and planning .

G. . Barve. CIDCO was formed. CIDCO was designated as New Town Development Authority for Navi Mumbai. D. The Board published the Draft Plan with recommendations to set up a twin city. R. Bombay Municipal Corporation decided to prepare a development plan for Greater Bombay. Gadgil was appointed to formulate broad principles of regional planning for Bombay and Poona. Bombay Metropolitan and Regional Planning Board was constituted. State government notified privately owned land in Navi Mumbai for acquisition. A Committee under Dr.Appendix A March 1958 July 1958 February 1959 July 1964 March 1965 March 1966 January 1967 July 1967 January 1970 February 1970 March 1970 March 1971 August 1973 October 1973 Study group on Greater Bombay set up under the chairmanship of Mr. CIDCO published its Draft Development Plan. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act 1966 was passed. The Gadgil Committee recommended regional planning legislation and regional planning boards. The study group on Greater Bombay recommended a rail-cum-road bridge across the Thane creek. The Bombay Metropolitan regional Plan was approved by the State government. Development plan for greater Bombay was submitted to the State Government. S.

Appendix B The 7Vs (les sept voies) The 7V Rule was studied in 1950 at the UNESCO’s request (Le Corbusier. where schools and sports grounds are located: V7. without interruption. One discovered that with 7 types of roads. the man of the mechanical civilization could: cross continents: V1 arrive in town: V1 go to essential public services: V2 cross at full speed. 1961). . the territory of the town: V3 dispose of immediate accesses to daily needs: V4 reach the door of his dwelling: V5 and V6 send youths to the green areas of each sector.

76 1.42 5.86 0.15 9.60 16A 71.83 17 61.28 21.43 9.38 3.77 21 63.44 2.06 5.25 .40 6.76 2.03 1.81 1. 1 64.31 3.58 9.26 23.28 3.41 6.10 0.67 28.69 29.62 mean 66.08 5.00 35.37 11.08 8 52.49 3.81 4 70.51 26 77.33 6.77 10 74.60 24.04 26.70 14 77.71 11.64 3.85 3.76 9A 74.09 16 65.96 27.54 0.59 27.16 1.72 2.52 1.07 30.26 4.89 4.16 30.52 18.92 9 73.39 2.13 6.25 11.01 6 65.17 8.22 26.73 0.48 2.57 15 72.00 29 82.81 7.01 25.86 28 52.00 0.16 10A 50.48 7 62.43 12 65.79 40.19 19.58 20.57 8.89 2.35 7.43 2.79 4 1.Appendix C Number of earning members Sector 1 2 3 no.63 2.83 0.89 5.57 23.23 20 69.42 2.29 4.31 20.23 21.00 0.15 5.68 16.99 3 68.64 3.22 std dev 9.29 22.26 2 57.38 38.64 5 46.09 8.

15 15.19 20 6.88 17 0.96 33.00 29 0.51 24.45 12.65 0.27 7.53 1.09 2.20 4.00 17.36 36.18 25.75 26.63 40.49 22.07 18.77 12 13.06 9A 1.10 23.29 8.7500.22 3.74 28.07 35.08 32.10 27.02 4.46 21.15 8.77 26.13 3.53 1.52 11.00 24.79 18.76 0.89 45.00 4.89 37.Household Income Sector upto 1251.00 35.19 16.97 7.81 16.86 10.99 23.16 12.63 4.00 20.15 16 1.90 2 1.78 10A 0.49 4.94 4 0.41 12.57 25.84 18.39 4.48 39.66 9.45 5.10 15.90 11.26 16A 0.39 31.49 23.48 0.33 11.71 34.23 10 1.16 24.47 0.21 stddev 3.70 3.73 47.47 15.00 2.125 2650 4450 7500 10000 15000 0 1 3.26 12.28 4.09 39.94 37.55 30.11 1.00 35.70 17.39 34.47 28.57 1.78 17.87 30.74 5 2.47 12.75 6 2.92 30.77 22.45 mean 2.92 21.97 0.39 20.36 26.62 3 1.92 3.82 36.45 38.41 8.10001.35 14 0.15 9.00 0.72 44.58 0.00 21 2.90 14.90 24.38 10.56 7.38 7.00 0.47 26 0.59 9.86 21.48 27.00 16.97 28.4451.00 10.02 7.77 14.45 6.00 10.00 25.97 9 2.72 0.2651. Rs.59 2.15 1.17 22.26 1.00 0.62 7.46 8.18 6.30 7 11.87 0.49 3.37 11.46 17.40 8.55 42.76 23.80 5.09 13.14 25.18 15 0.28 18.51 5.07 13.00 28 0.14 10.64 6.52 4.82 2.15000+ no.04 4.18 10.41 37.11 24.00 4.67 7.20 3.61 16.42 .59 18.76 8 0.35 8.68 34.07 0.48 6.

72 9.00 21 13.15 13.98 31.83 2.09 11.48 0.30 0.45 7.06 1.07 9.11 2.44 2.00 5.37 2.89 20.95 8.58 9.32 5.38 3.05 0.03 34.60 9.87 5.71 34.63 20 19.35 2.95 2.80 17.64 4.26 48.80 2.81 19.00 26 3.38 37.18 7.41 8 4.08 0.43 2.55 9.26 9A 1.28 7.03 50.91 17.77 2.65 4.01 45.21 3.24 10.51 7.19 4.45 11.81 5.39 35.91 32.46 5.44 37.15 1.47 28.80 9 3.18 27.64 0.Highest Level of Education Sector illiterat childre primar second high vo-tech BS MS PhD no.06 2.63 4.45 6.18 3.68 12.47 8.25 11.24 8.85 34.72 30.29 1.13 51.44 7 1.91 17 1.59 3.00 5.03 9.01 15.27 47.82 30.24 0.98 7.79 3.59 29.52 1.09 46.26 1.97 1.30 59.73 3.11 34.81 4.94 3.97 9.71 9.92 3 2.12 1.32 3.15 2 3.74 40.24 44.45 0.14 0.02 4.50 11.88 9.47 2.40 1.81 5.81 14.43 4.64 0.35 10A 1.94 4.87 9.55 2.27 12.09 5.00 14 2.64 2.64 0.61 2.92 2.37 .44 1.90 22.03 44.68 4.73 2.87 15 4.48 16A 2.74 2.92 36.03 4.94 7.85 5.12 0.78 5.73 2.06 4.41 14.16 2.14 0.38 8.98 29.00 29 1.15 3.68 1.95 13.06 2.63 1.50 14.71 7.19 0.23 3.52 31.05 2.07 8.12 stddev 4.42 2.28 11.25 28 0.82 1.01 11.90 12.69 31.24 4.07 1.82 15.54 2.38 4.96 3.61 9.94 43.31 10 3.95 9.89 6.43 22.65 1.54 25.55 3.35 10.14 7.11 12.41 0.75 4.57 12.49 16.97 0.08 13.69 26.92 5.06 8.80 12 0.50 20.90 32.65 0.71 3.67 4.40 0.42 23.60 6 2.54 33.68 4 1.28 10.23 3.91 5.64 4.34 16.00 mean 3.30 1.60 17.34 16 3.81 42.18 21.81 0.68 5.75 27.25 2.58 2.48 5 3. e n y ary school 1 3.01 0.27 10.

80 3.41 1.74 16.03 31.60 6.52 15.99 1.17 20 8.48 12.36 32.98 8.02 3.30 5.82 16.12 2.40 7 2.62 8.05 2.86 3 4.60 4.45 14.79 33.59 5.11 6.80 1.42 6.18 30.81 2 4.84 17 3.04 4.91 5.44 2.00 27.25 6.02 5.60 23.24 5 2.61 4.24 6.00 8.97 37.54 4.89 11.80 4.67 12.78 6.89 12.59 4.90 11.98 1.69 6 2.46 4.89 29 4.63 3.08 12.20 14.39 5.12 7.35 3.93 28.57 20.42 14.88 17.43 9.90 .12 14 5.29 6.07 6.13 3.45 8.59 12 6.76 12.74 17.58 16.78 29.40 stddev 1.32 37.15 7.57 27.56 14.43 4.12 8.51 2.82 10.87 9.14 4.57 mean 4.95 2.75 12.19 11.34 3.71 18.82 16.23 2.69 11.66 1.35 3.29 3.49 19.27 3.00 21 4.28 31.12 3.59 5.32 9.68 7.10 2.Male Population Sector below 4.11 16.56 3.59 7.35 16 3.87 7.73 9.65 7.87 3.73 9 5.67 3.02 1.35 29.91 14.65 46.18 33.20 11.70 3.96 8.41 16A 3.04 7.26 9.48 15.73 14.94 21.60 13.52 2.59 4.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.84 19.32 2.42 11.54 3.38 12.67 12.77 5.26 3.39 4.81 2.37 8.44 15.21 9.78 3.66 8.85 16.80 30.46 42.55 35.25 10.26 2.93 10.83 12.87 4.99 11.38 17.12 2.02 17.32 13.71 9A 4.82 29.93 13.97 5.56 8.86 10.87 8.29 6.90 10A 2.76 13.29 2.66 6.87 5.43 7.77 15 3.34 20.93 2.84 8.38 11.48 17.83 34.46 2.34 3.40 4.91 2.60 4.77 34.42 10.97 5.22 4.02 3.57 10.60 8 3.36 16.62 0.88 28 5.74 4.40 20.12 36.56 4 3. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 4.25 3.20 12.14 5.97 35.35 26 6.04 4.00 8.01 10.19 6.84 12.51 15.89 21.16 31.68 10 5.60 12.40 34.47 13.04 10.65 5.24 12.96 4.52 9.

71 12 6.57 0.03 14 4.00 13.31 12.32 12.39 3.87 17.35 3.13 38.74 41.56 5.98 3.98 9.11 2.22 13.49 16.90 38.97 21 5.07 10.06 45.08 2.00 3.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.66 2.35 5.57 3.86 7.46 8 4.93 11.14 7.74 36.29 9.20 5.55 4.60 11.46 1.79 34.88 16.15 13.28 stddev 1.11 11.14 20.87 7.57 3.72 10.18 52.96 11.14 26 7.42 12.86 6.41 4.28 5.21 32.03 20 8.32 3.91 10.06 28 2.34 4.83 .77 17 4.29 12.83 5.55 9 5.17 37.89 2.61 10.53 7.46 18.16 37.86 40.40 11.06 5.14 4.52 6.22 7.01 10A 6.90 9.82 10.27 7.39 11.07 6. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 3.09 1.84 3.63 9.14 32.15 6.19 5.60 4.00 5.29 4.50 1.64 6.09 16A 4.23 4.88 2 4.68 3.35 2.71 38.76 33.13 16 4.87 8.01 9.09 1.45 15.15 3.45 17.80 5 4.93 3.35 38.76 9.25 9.09 2.96 7.87 2.07 12.58 15 4.66 17.99 3.27 41.58 19.04 10.33 3.39 11.86 12.31 3.55 12.89 4.29 17.18 22.17 4.14 6.32 15.85 9.32 12.83 5.72 10.80 5.39 13.68 12.83 4.65 12.09 2.21 14.55 7.31 5.96 10.58 42.07 6.97 14.Female Population Sector below 4.48 1.77 9A 3.59 8.13 14.54 39.82 5.40 2.77 3.96 3.94 8.06 15.06 2.29 4 3.07 7 2.44 4.64 6.78 5.13 5.84 34.60 7.22 14.71 5.56 47.22 39.88 6.81 11.66 4.86 7.30 33.77 6 3.11 11.43 4.25 16.79 6.38 3.22 40.06 3.29 5.82 9.00 5.03 6.08 5.57 1.43 4.35 1.44 5.57 13.32 1.62 3.78 29 2.71 8.35 3.92 4.01 10.99 11.06 0.78 2.95 10.29 6.72 2.51 10.98 10 5.43 13.80 2.48 mean 4.82 2.78 11.72 38.71 6.29 12.43 12.16 3 4.49 6.39 13.36 9.35 3.

48 9 1.36 0.19 3 1.53 .37 54.90 4.46 54.46 15 1.41 63.46 2.57 19.68 0.71 14.23 0.86 1.23 36.04 20.99 0.82 9.24 16A 0.14 4 0.21 54.51 30.29 7.83 14.63 15.86 11.23 46.00 1.43 44.33 41.49 5.00 58.30 9A 1.11 1.19 20.00 29 1.88 36.92 55.88 10 0.16 44.00 mean 1.19 55.79 33.50 7.67 14.71 24.52 62.99 26 2.45 1.30 61.29 0.56 25.23 28.97 19.03 5 0.85 66.00 15.64 10.53 6.00 26.57 57.64 1.07 28.67 0.17 54. 1 2.30 44.83 22.93 16 0.57 11.90 17 1.82 6 3.72 15.15 20 0.87 2 1.34 2.92 12.58 1.23 12.68 0.05 66.64 19.73 20.07 12.18 2.09 1.95 1.91 11.00 14 1.40 7 0.26 8.28 21 0.47 20.14 14.29 50.18 26.05 stddev 0.95 10A 1.35 13.82 12.02 2.93 32.29 54.86 12 0.56 50.51 59.Family Size Sector single 2 to 3 4 to 5 6 to 7 8 to 10 no.16 9.99 8 0.40 9.00 28 0.00 19.95 1.66 22.14 2.55 23.92 1.98 2.82 51.87 52.43 34.00 0.49 64.67 47.38 14.45 62.

73 0.21 6.30 0.74 13.Pvt Other no.00 0.00 0.00 7 89.21 46.17 2.81 0.13 2.19 0.07 3.01 1.00 0.00 0.78 12.68 0.00 0.00 92.77 0.23 26 100.00 38.00 14 53.00 53.91 76.82 7.02 mean 53.75 stddev 37.58 .Type of Housing Sector CIDCO Pvt.12 3.40 1.00 16A 7.00 92.00 0.31 20 100.00 2 48.00 0.60 19.96 0.38 0.00 6 92.00 0.33 0.00 0.00 16 83. House op comme society rcial 1 100.18 0.00 0.47 0.00 0.00 4 45.96 12.38 9A 2.13 28.62 0.00 0.07 0.51 0.00 0.00 28 0.16 4.81 76.36 0.90 0.67 0.00 97.82 0.00 16.13 0.00 0.86 0.00 5.00 0.83 35.00 0.00 15 82.39 4.97 0.00 12 17.18 0.62 0.00 0.77 0.02 5 22.87 20.00 21 99.00 10 83.10 0.15 85.84 36.80 0.12 23.46 9 98.61 13.00 0.00 0.00 0.13 39.52 0.72 0.00 0.82 0.58 8.86 0.40 6.56 0.00 0.00 0. Pvt co.00 0.68 2.19 3 61.12 0.35 39.00 0.00 0.00 17 0.25 62.00 29 42.00 2.15 17.00 1.00 10A 2.14 0.00 8 35.00 23.

35 5.65 17.56 6.85 4.00 6.00 0.56 16A 0.67 36.59 38.68 20 0.11 17 0.74 6.54 24.87 1.61 18.88 3.62 6.56 16.80 39.00 0.87 0.57 18.83 26.19 8.16 7.82 2.14 1.24 3.86 7 42.06 13.73 6.21 0.05 20.03 75.86 4.09 16 27.82 4.49 21 13.62 4.09 25.92 11.02 44.03 10.36 21.00 28 0.71 2 39.15 .52 12.00 0.43 20.56 9 0.64 27.82 8.37 7.75 7.42 12.40 95 1.83 8.13 11.63 1.65 31.66 0.38 56.93 10.09 29.85 5.38 15.29 41.46 36.19 9.11 15.61 12.43 32.50 12.05 6.61 6 51.95 5.33 6.35 28.31 16.07 8.10 40.49 32.16 9.72 3.57 14.53 20.42 7.30 6.64 15 8.54 6.22 52.00 13.30 6.99 12.Tenure Sector before1 81-85 86-90 91-92 no.13 11.17 12.73 4.82 5.52 7.76 5 49.00 0.95 8 24.60 94 13.87 7.56 4.87 1.17 14 0.00 0.38 37.00 48.64 10.74 4.92 2.49 12.86 33.87 10 0.15 18.82 5.26 7.00 29 0.82 12.60 1.08 93 3.00 35.23 22.63 3.88 4.57 stddev 18.19 5.16 5.42 0.60 7.34 13.57 12.32 6.18 31.91 6.66 14.33 18.39 14.29 12 0.02 17.38 10A 0.06 1.88 0.94 4.82 48.94 12.26 28.71 11.45 6.00 31.87 6.00 0.50 16.17 6.00 47.00 31.27 1.00 4.61 6. 980 1 43.44 48.07 4 5.95 3 11.33 9A 0.00 20.50 12.00 0.00 0.86 mean 12.82 24.52 1.81 6.28 26 0.

42 26.96 18.67 2.10 16.37 1.80 4.47 36.69 2.69 4.Previous Place of Residence Sector Island Wn En Thane Vashi no.00 19.24 23.27 0.95 12.45 3.90 2.62 29.00 38.61 12.00 0.26 3.67 7.42 4.45 2.94 5.58 9.00 30.87 3.52 2.00 28.30 4.60 0.26 23.47 6.55 3.07 5.84 2.15 2.85 33.30 14.02 9.81 4.20 8.83 2.30 34.88 12.44 5.62 4.33 7.00 33.00 0.93 3.32 27.68 3.03 6.00 23.25 31.64 2.05 19.25 4.33 0.00 4.50 6.51 10.48 17.74 28.09 0.01 Navi Inside Out of Intl.03 15.00 31.76 0.24 1.83 18.85 47.00 39.05 18.63 0.69 5.77 6.63 5.24 5.35 15.37 10.20 6.67 8.00 0.32 8.33 8.69 35.23 18.90 10.15 2.17 5.38 2.64 0.62 0.02 22.76 3.54 3.71 5.63 2.17 8.24 7.42 8.10 4.09 5.57 1.00 32.45 0.33 0.29 .38 5.00 24.25 12.54 1.46 0.82 3.10 17.52 22.35 21.98 0.51 6.33 8.39 2.13 26.54 8.00 45.09 27.14 6.64 7.33 0.63 15.57 28.67 25.58 14.48 20.00 6.43 17.93 8.92 7.19 17.54 5.46 1.79 0.45 21.00 30.53 2.26 2.00 4.60 2.48 15.00 2.76 11.29 0.50 27.58 0.90 7.03 24.30 2.26 7.92 4.98 3.39 0.23 12.12 7.14 0.29 20.60 4.62 0.53 0.83 3.05 30.83 8.17 5.40 8.31 0.26 12.00 20.30 0.74 31.07 3.00 0.88 2.58 0.15 0.91 2.00 1.00 26.99 7.02 47.52 1.53 2.42 3.81 0.26 19.74 36.77 2.51 7.10 16.00 21.73 25.58 2.26 0.39 4.00 0.88 1.17 25.19 27.03 1.82 6.33 4. city suburbs suburbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10A 12 14 15 16 16A 17 20 21 26 28 29 9A mean stddev 21.71 20.55 8.31 5.33 4.00 1.73 4.36 4. Mumba state state i 24.94 28.80 37.76 3.67 3.95 9.23 3.08 0.29 8.

28 24.49 4.62 7.00 7.29 2.92 14.97 10.76 5.75 14.29 0.85 5.82 3.26 5 77.36 11.90 3.09 15.39 4.64 10.43 14.27 0.00 0.17 20.92 3.12 2.90 17.67 0.86 4.89 4.13 20.57 20.26 13.09 6.87 12.89 3.93 1.77 8.36 10 44.71 8. i hi lam a 1 51.29 2.21 21.51 3.30 9.79 12.98 3.99 16.27 7.55 3.14 1.40 2.54 7.27 7.70 6.96 6.38 0.85 5.96 2.17 16.84 4.32 2.00 1.50 10.44 2.43 24.59 1.97 3.95 4.67 4.43 16.69 28 28.13 4.98 6.92 20 60.83 7.00 9.53 2.23 9.71 1.33 29.27 5.63 2.43 4.37 4.56 5.76 12.22 3.90 3.57 17.32 7.98 4.42 3 32.57 1.76 14.00 0.32 1.34 4.36 6.29 15.66 8.48 mean 39.99 3.32 9A 20.17 16.81 5.00 12.33 6.62 1.43 7.13 7 37.60 2.03 16.74 4.49 10.54 4.91 6 33.00 6.29 3.49 9.61 5.92 1.27 2.20 4.73 stddev 17.76 4.96 5.26 2.57 15.38 14.21 9 50.00 1.55 32.45 2.63 1.10 5.61 14.90 26 48.86 8.17 9.83 14 19.00 4.29 29 25.00 11.03 9.09 8.37 4.93 9.55 8.29 2.64 3.44 5.71 12 8.47 2.19 3.83 8.53 9.30 1.75 4.85 1.31 3.36 6.03 2.19 2.33 13.46 17.54 27.72 12.66 10.63 16 54.91 2.57 14.05 9.73 2.00 12.73 3.57 4 46.52 19.05 2.44 7.24 7.79 16A 51.97 4.21 0.82 4.47 2.30 4.15 16.58 2.71 1.81 4.32 17 21.26 3.54 21 61.18 10.70 10.52 0.15 18.08 7.23 2.Language Sector Marath Hindi Gujarat Malaya Punjabi Tamil Kannad Bengali Other no.34 12.22 2.87 17.90 2 44.73 2.76 3.77 3.72 5.36 4.70 8.56 8 22.08 4.49 10A 24.84 12.85 0.15 2.00 4.03 17.10 2.29 .73 0.10 4.93 4.54 1.67 15 57.46 5.66 10.61 1.

43 0.00 0.82 0.66 8 72.00 10A 72.99 0.00 9A 73.47 0.00 21 81.31 0.17 2.88 0.52 3.19 5.26 6.24 0.60 1.32 6.41 0.00 1.62 0.00 0.86 1.04 5.43 1.53 4.64 5.16 15.50 4.00 6.05 0.73 1.44 0.78 1.60 0.92 7.00 16 88.75 5.37 0.85 0.62 0.70 0.45 2.46 1.13 5.00 0.70 1.55 1.68 0.47 0.00 0.22 0.15 0.62 20 86.01 6.00 12 79.00 0.57 4.13 0.71 0.20 10.28 4.00 0.43 1.23 0.00 5 81.02 0.09 0.70 2.42 0.00 0.40 2.25 stddev 6.11 10 80.03 0.00 6 83.93 8.33 0.00 26 86.16 0.82 7.65 9.36 1.46 0.42 1.60 8.00 29 86.00 7.09 6.20 8.00 15 83.00 14 88.78 3.91 0.85 0.68 0.00 0.33 0.20 0.21 15.79 0.73 1.57 4 84.75 0.42 5.17 12.95 0.47 4.81 9.00 17 85.32 2.49 .04 6.52 0.66 3.76 8.55 4.53 3.43 1.82 10.32 2 80.92 1.32 1.00 16A 91.00 0.80 3.82 2.17 0.00 4.86 22.03 5.68 1.54 0.00 0.53 1.59 3 75.45 2.74 1.61 4.67 1.64 9 84.36 mean 82.21 0.00 2.36 0.00 0.98 0.88 0.56 3.88 0.85 7.00 0.42 0.10 0.00 1.02 0.00 1.18 11.64 0. an st 1 79.26 5.17 0.34 6.00 28 100.13 8.72 4.00 7 76.51 2.00 0.00 0.76 5.69 0.51 0.Religion Sector Hindu Christi Islam Jain Sikh Buddhi Other no.29 9.61 1.40 0.

000 .8863 81659 28.879 TENURE 1.824 RELIGION 1.000 .000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.928 LANGUAGE 1.356 95.000 .133 100.Appendix D Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics EARNER EDUCATN FAM.000 .6076 81659 8.0814 4.890 3 .6486 81659 86.0403 3.9974 81659 49.875 FAM.6705 5.314E-16 100.SIZE INCOME LANGUAGE MIGRATN RELIGION TENURE Mean Std.2091 4.1087 9.939 MIGRATN 1.4115 81659 32.862 6 8.7870 81659 37.946 24.005 99.446 55.000 8 5.320 79.8271 8.955 89.571 2 1.571 55.429 5.2670 81659 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.000 . .867 7 1. Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 4.985 INCOME 1.7800 3.039E-02 1.9885 16.660 98.832 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.851E-17 . Deviation Analysis N 73.926 EDUCATN 1.845 4 .202 5 .796 .SIZE 1.000 .293 3.000 .064E-02 .8538 81659 53.000 .

900 FAM.155 -.818 % of Variance Cumulative % 43.484 EDUCATN .101 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.796E-04 TENURE .634 4.236 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.937 -.880 .317E-02 -8.136 .902 -.SIZE -.702 -.785 -7.881 LANGUAGE -.951 .358 .Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings 1 2 3 Total 3.822 .902 1.230 RELIGION -.347 43.468E-03 RELIGION .766E-02 MIGRATN .882 FAM.107 INCOME -.201 .255 4.118 22.264 .878 -.156 .845 Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER .771 67.383E-02 .455 .230 MIGRATN -. 3 .728 89.SIZE .381 .470 EDUCATN -.898E-02 .446 .454E-02 Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER -.685 8.468 1.888 -7.925E-02 TENURE -.202 -1.347 23.804 .278 .862 LANGUAGE .430 . 3 .244 -.379 -2.926 .293 INCOME .

0 Squared Euclidean Distance used Average Linkage (Between Groups) Average Linkage (Between Groups) Agglomeration Schedule Stage Cluster 1 1 5 2 2 3 5 4 1 5 3 6 1 7 1 Cluster 2 6 7 8 2 4 5 3 Coefficients .108 Cluster Membership 1:Vashi 2:Nerul 3:Belapur 4:Kalamboli 5:Panvel 6:Kopar-khaira 7:Airoli 8:Sanpada 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 .946 4.919 9.299 10.174 4.581 2.0 8 100.617 7.Appendix E Cluster Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N 8 a b Missing Total Percent N Percent N Percent 100.0 0 .

5835 Analysis N 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.571 OWNRSHIP 1.9768 15.675 MIGRATN 1.3934 9.856 EDUCATN 1.9421 LANGUAG1 46.6247 4.9142 3.0484 MIGRATN 52.9628 7.Appendix F Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics Mean EARNER 66.000 .000 .527 MEN 1.000 .7719 3.5580 35.889 LANGUAG2 1.000 .000 .7324 3.0375 Std.9759 OWNRSHIP 66.1339 10.000 .000 .721 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.3839 RELGION2 6.000 .836 INCOME 1.855 LANGUAG1 1. Deviation 7.5535 LANGUAG2 6.722 RELGION2 1.3183 EDUCATN 40.5760 INCOME 27.7307 3.4424 RELGION1 82.000 .9114 MEN 38.000 .568 WOMEN 1.000 .8628 WOMEN 33. .801 RELGION1 1.

473 .523 81.592 WOMEN .880 -.522 -.794E-02 .917 Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total 1 3.071E-02 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.831 99.463 72.161 57.098 2.455 23.Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % of Variance Cumulative % 25.257 87.475 RELGION2 .565 OWNRSHIP .612 .657 -2.234 8.638 97.854E-02 .246 .310 .937 34.096 .200 8 .131 .740 15.093E-03 MIGRATN -.777 -.896 98.436 100.136E-02 .290 2.750 2 2.698 6 .001 25.819 72.938 8.127 -.265 95.803 8.935 7 .581 4 .427E-02 INCOME .458 LANGUAG1 .748 .937 2.373 -.734 10 9.448 .500 4.773 -.453 49.359 3.564 11 4.441 5 .001 24.838 9 9. .688 6.690 3 1.915E-04 .238 91.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.917 2.487 EDUCATN .391 LANGUAG2 -.438 22.466 4.239 MEN 0. Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .424 RELGION1 .816 -5.843 34.538 .042E-02 .

110 -.524 .774 EDUCATN .877 -9.046 -.210 .246 LANGUAG1 .804 MIGRATN 0.647 9.113 RELGION1 -.231 -. .869 .610E-02 LANGUAG2 -.130 .742 -.120 .366 .658 RELGION2 .399 WOMEN .316 -.795 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.201 . Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.351 -.333 .596 -.855 .709 .214 .141E-02 MEN -.Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER . a Rotation converged in 6 iterations.575 5.704E-02 INCOME .136 OWNRSHIP .240 .

799 5.751 .558 4.726 4.837 1.Appendix G Cluster Agglomeration Schedule Cluster Combined Stage Cluster 1 Cluster 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2 9 1 12 9 15 3 12 1 13 9 3 1 8 1 1 3 12 12 1 1 1 6 10 2 17 14 18 7 16 4 22 20 23 15 11 9 19 8 21 13 3 12 5 Stage Cluster First Appears Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Next Stage 0 0 3 0 0 5 0 1 9 0 0 8 2 0 11 0 0 13 0 0 12 4 0 18 3 0 13 0 0 19 5 0 15 7 0 17 9 6 15 0 0 17 13 11 16 15 0 20 12 14 20 8 0 19 18 10 21 16 17 21 20 19 22 21 0 0 Coefficients .449 8.411 1.904 2.487 3.515 1.151 2.840 1.309 6.574 .653 .142 13.052 11.114 .108 2.584 .032 1.918 .

Cluster Membership Case 3 Clusters 1:1 1 2:2 1 3:3 1 4:4 1 5:5 2 6:6 1 7:7 1 8:8 1 9:9 1 10:10 1 11:10A 1 12:12 3 13:14 3 14:15 1 15:16 1 16:16A 3 17:17 3 18:20 1 19:21 1 20:26 1 21:28 3 22:29 3 23:9A 1 .

Pune.Reclaiming a derelict river. VA Bachelor of Architecture May 1996 University of Pune. • Registered Architect under Council of Architecture. L. Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. P. India. Professor. India May . 1996 . O.July 1996 . . Department of Urban Affairs and Planning. Aug. • Won first prize (three member team) for Formica Interior design competition. • Won first prize (three member team) in a design competition . • Student member American Planning Association. • Awarded Virginia Citizens Planning Associate Fellowship . • Rank holder of the University of Pune.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Date of Birth: 30 June 1973 Education: Master of Urban and Regional Planning May 1998 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.May 1994 Worked as an intern at Historic Boulder.July 1992 Honors and Affiliations • Invited to Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society. May 1997. Pune. J. April .Mar. 1994. Boulder. College of Architecture and Urban Studies. Virginia Tech. Worked as an intern with Narendra Dengle Architects. 1995. Knox. India Experience Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. USA. October 1997. 1995 Worked with the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage May 1993 . 1997 – May 1998 Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. Dec. New Delhi. 1994 . CO. Pune. Blacksburg. Browder.May 1997 Worked as an Architect with Suyojan Architects. India. Aug.Outstanding First Year Graduate Student.