The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Urban and Regional Planning

John Browder, Chair Wendy Jacobson Paul Knox

April , 1998 Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords: urban social pattern, Navi Mumbai, Bombay, urban planning - India Copyright 1998, Malathi Ananthakrishnan

The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India Malathi Ananthakrishnan (ABSTRACT) This research thesis examines the emerging trends in urban social patterns in Navi Mumbai, India. Unlike the other planned cities of India, Navi Mumbai was specifically built as a planned decentralization of a large metropolitan city. The research focuses on explaining the urban social pattern of this particular case study. An urban social pattern reflects the social characteristics of the urban setting. In the case of Navi Mumbai, the government had a social agenda of promoting a social pattern based on socioeconomic distribution rather than an ethnic one. Analysis of the data provides an insight to the results of this social agenda, and provides a basis to frame new ones. Thus, the study not only addresses a basic research question, but also has policy implications. The research involves a comprehensive review of secondary source material to establish the theoretical framework for the research. The review also involves an extensive inspection of urban social patterns across the world to better contextualize this particular case study. The research puts forth a model that explains the social pattern of Navi Mumbai by social area analysis using variables, which are drawn from social aspects of any city and indigenous factors of Indian settlements. The model depends not only on statistical analysis but also on interpretation of local conditions. This research situates the emerging social pattern in geographic literature in developing countries. This research was supported in part, by a grant from the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Tech.

Acknowledgment

I would like to take this opportunity to thank my Advisor and Chair of my committee, Dr. John Browder. He was supportive of all my efforts to successfully complete this thesis. It would not have been possible without his help. Thank you also to my committee members, Dr. Jacobson and Dr. Knox, for the time and effort they contributed.

Thanks also due to everyone in Navi Mumbai who helped me collect the data and all relevant information. Special thanks to Ms. Adusumilli, Senior planner, CIDCO, Mrs. Raje, Chief statistician, CIDCO, Dr. Venkatachalam and Dr. Sengupta at IIT-Bombay and Dr. BanerjeeGuha at the University of Bombay. I would also like to thank Prachi and Avesh Tapde for their hospitality in Navi Mumbai.

Dr. Dyck and Dr. Bohland clarified many of my conceptual and analytical queries. I would like to give my appreciation for their support. I would also like to thank Dr. Randolph and Dr. Schubert for having made a grant available for me to carry out the field research.

I am also grateful to my good friends Inga, Maneesha and Elda for not only helping me out with proof reading and other mundane things, but also for being there during the ups and downs of the entire process. I would like to thank my family for always encouraging me to think and my fiancé for his patience.

The Conceptual Framework…………………………………………………. 1.5.5 Sociocultural Factors 3.1 Research Problem Statement 1.4 Data Collection 4. Introduction…………………………………………………………………. 20 3.3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai 2.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities 3.8.2 Cluster Analysis .8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework 2. Research Design……………………………………………………………… 38 4.1 Descriptive Analysis 4.7.5 Implications of the Sociocultural factors 3.1 Social Area Analysis 4.7.3 Multiple Nuclei Theory 3..8 Case Study of Urban Social Patterns 3.1 Caste 3.2 Sector Theory 3.5 Methodology 4.2 Third World Cities 3.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan 2.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern 3.5 Development Potential of the Site 2.9 Conclusion 4. 3 2.Table of Contents 1..1 Introduction 3.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns 3.5.1 Western Cities 3.10 Conclusion 3. The Research Setting………………………………………………………….3 Organization of the Thesis 1 2.1 Concentric Zone Theory 3.2 Significance of Thesis 1.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai 2.3 Religion 3.5.5.4 Language 3.6 The Built Form 3.7.2 Class 3.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 2.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region 2.5.2 Hypothesis 4.3 Factors influencing Urban Form 3.8.5.3 Indian Cities 3.1 Introduction 2.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai 2.3 Operationalization 4.5.8.

6 Data Analysis 5.2 Descriptive Analysis 5. Presentation of Data………………………………………………………….4.4 mapping and Overlays 4.3 Regional Scale – nodes 5.3.3 Discussion 5.4.4.2.3 Principal Component Analysis 4.2 Cluster Analysis 5.3 Summary 6.5 Conclusion 6. 5.2 Cluster Analysis 5.1 Introduction 5.4 Sub-regional Scale – sectors 5..1 Regional Scale 6..2 Sub-regional Scale 6.5.3.2.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory 6.3 Discussion 5. Interpretation / Discussion…………………………………………………… 6. Glossary of Terms Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G 77 .1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory 6. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 74 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………….4 Potential Utility of the Research 43 65 7.5.4.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory 6.2.1 Principal Components Analysis 5.3.1 Principal Components Analysis 5.

6 4.2 2.1 4.20 5.17 5.10 5.3 5.11 5.13 5.7 5.16 5.14 5.18 5.19 5.5 5.6 5.3 2.4 5.1 5.9 5.15 5.21 Title Population Density of Bombay Immigrant population of Bombay Land Fragmentation in 1970 Household Income and Capacity to Pay Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay Land Use of Navi Mumbai Constructs and Variables Survey Sampling Constructs and Variables Work Force Number of Earners Occupational Classification of Workforce Household Income Location of Education Institutions Level of Education Male Population Female Population Family Size Type of Housing Ownership of House Housing built by CIDCO Housing built by Private Enterprise Year of Occupation Previous Place of Residence Religion Language Spatial Pattern of Variables Attributes of Principal Components Attributes of Principal Components page 4 5 6 8 16 17 39 40 43 44 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 50 51 52 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 60 61 .12 5.2 5.2 5.4 2.8 5.5 2.List of Tables Table number 2.1 2.

5 3.3 2.2 6.7 3.6 3.9 5.15 5.9 3.13 5.3 5.16 5.5 2.11 5.1 5.2 3.1 2.4 3.List of Figure Figure Number 2.1 6.18 5.12 5.4 5.5 5.4 2.4 6.1 3.7 5.17 5.3 6.6 3.6 5.8 5. 2651-4450 Frequency of Families with at least one individual with Secondary Education Frequency of Male Population in the age group 25-45 Frequency of Households with 4 or 5 members Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO Frequency of Housing built by CIDCO Frequency of Houses built by Private Enterprise Frequency of Tenure Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence Frequency of Hindus Frequency of Muslims Frequency of Marathi Frequency of Malayalam Components in Rotated Space Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai Average Linkage between Factor Scores Average Linkage between Variables Clustering of Sectors of Vashi Average Linkage between Factor Scores Page 2 5 7 11 15 18 26 28 29 29 31 32 32 33 34 36 45 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 56 57 57 59 59 60 62 63 65 66 66 67 68 .10 5.5 Title Expansion of Bombay Twin City Across the Harbor Development Potential of the Site Nodes of Navi Mumbai Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai Land Use of Navi Mumbai Circle and Swastika Town Plans Concentric Zone Theory Sector Theory Multiple Nuclei Theory Urban Social Patterns Plan of Delhi and New Delhi Asian Ports Latin American Cities Pattern of Indian Cities Theories of Urban Social Patterns and Corresponding Case Studies Distribution of Single-earner Families Frequency of Families with Income range Rs.10 5.14 5.19 6.8 3.3 3.2 5.2 2.

11 6.6.8 6.7 6.13 6.6 6.9 6.18 Average Linkage between Variables Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic variables Distribution of Number of Earners Distribution of Income Hypothetical Concentric Pattern for Family Status variables Distribution of Ownership of Apartment Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic variables Distribution of Households speaking Marathi Distribution of Households which follow Islam Clustering of Sectors Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 .10 6.17 6.12 6.16 6.14 6.15 6.

An interpretation of the emerging social pattern reveals something of the social character of the city. This research aspires to contribute to basic research in social geography. Therefore. exist in the urban social pattern of planned towns in India. Various processes influence the social pattern of the city. The basic research here involves the search for an urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. religious and linguistic classes. The urban form of a city is primarily the result of the characteristics of its physical and social design as well as socioeconomic and political forces. migration. The pattern of Navi Mumbai will be studied at different hierarchical spatial levels: regional (node / township) and sub-regional (sector / neighborhood). Navi Mumbai (New Bombay) is one of the first planned new town developments built for a diverse. religion. this paper will augment existing knowledge about social configurations of planned urban development in Asian regions. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. and their social pattern is characterized by residential segregation based on ethnic. Physical and economic landscapes. Socioeconomic factors. Different characteristics are drawn from the factors influencing the physical design and cultural aspect of the city. if any. land use and ownership.2 Significance of Research A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between their constituent elements at a certain period of time. The literature review shows that a specific study of Navi Mumbai has not been previously documented. and the housing market. Thus. street patterns.Chapter 1: Introduction 1. A policy emphasizing a uniform distribution of the population is the ideological orientation of the government. 1990). This research determines how the present social pattern relates to various theoretical frameworks. Traditional Indian cities have evolved over the centuries. The urban social pattern is one of the many aspects of the urban form. the study of human settlements has an encompassing view of all the activities it supports. middle class population in India. The purpose of this thesis is to delineate and interpret the social pattern of Navi Mumbai.1 Research Problem Statement The overall objective of this thesis is to determine what common patterns. 1. housing characteristics. land use pattern and ethnic classifications will be used as key variables to study the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. These include the ethnic composition of the city. economic and social processes within it (Vance. It is a synthesis of the spatial relationships of various elements. The pattern suggests not only the outcome of . Urban patterns occur because of repetition of these elements. and political events may influence the physical design and pattern of a city. race. Why is such a study significant? The urban form of the city influences behavioral. planning regulations.

but also variables that influence this pattern. The presentation of data and its analysis is in the fifth chapter.3 Organization of the Thesis This thesis is divided into seven chapters. . which provides the problem statement and the broader objectives of the thesis. The second chapter provides the background to the particular case study used in the research. Interpretation and discussion of the analysis and its relationship to the theories discussed in the third chapter is done in the sixth chapter. The fourth chapter outlines the methodology used for analysis of data and explains the data source and method of data collection. the research setting. The third chapter is a comprehensive review of the secondary sources to establish a context of the research question. Chapter seven draws to conclusion the thesis with a review of the problem statement. analysis and interpretation and the broad outcomes of the thesis. its contextual framework.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 1: Introduction 2 the policy. 1. the basic research has many applications in longrange planning in Navi Mumbai. The urban social pattern also serves as a framework for further research. Thus. methodology. This first chapter is the introduction.

and providing efficient infrastructure (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. the East India Company had taken on the new role of ruler (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. 1995). In 1661. Bombay had its beginnings in a series of fishing villages until it was taken over by the Portuguese in the 16th century. By the 1780s. the shipyard modernized and the city fortified. Urbanization and subsequent suburbanization of Bombay have created a linear city such that the central business district (CBD) and residential areas have become further and further apart (Figure 2. 1995. 1957 trading posts. This planned decentralization was the outcome of efforts by the government to make Bombay more “sustainable” (Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board.1). is a new planned city across the harbor (of Bombay) from Bombay.1 Introduction Navi Mumbai (New Bombay). especially to the middle and lower class of people. This range of activities led to crowding at an BOMBAY NAVI unprecedented scale. In 1668. India.1 Expansion of Bombay The East India Company. 1995). 1973).Chapter 2: The Research Setting 2. In Bombay. The harbor was strengthened. The geographical area of Bombay is an island. The first settlement was established in the southern most tip of the island. for Arabian MUMBAI Sea those who could not afford to make the 1910 long commutes. 2. The East India Company encouraged Indian and East India Company merchants to settle in Bombay. now as rulers. There was a . The city of Source: Dwivedi and Mehrotra. Navi Mumbai was designed to provide a better quality of life. 1965 Bombay’s high concentration of docks. established in 1972. the King of Portugal gifted the Bombay islands to King Charles II of England when King Charles married Catherine Braganza. a Portuguese princess. textile mills and government offices have made it the preeminent port of Western India. the Crown rented Bombay to the East India Company. Bombay was then established as a trading post.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region Bombay is not a city built on Indian traditional planning ideas. Figure 2. squatter settlements all over Bombay became the way of life. was interested in developing the town in a methodical manner. South Bombay is the center of India’s 1950 banking and service industries.

The development acts of 1954 and 1964 emphasized the need to relocate industrial activity from the island to the mainland (CIDCO. The 1967 development plan estimated a housing shortage of 131. lack of housing and infrastructure and high land values were the major problems identified.000 houses. 1986) The Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board in its report wrote Bombay the Beautiful is no more beautiful. concentration of industries and offices in certain pockets of Bombay. in 1896. 1995). the Bombay Municipal Corporation was established. some thought was given to ’Greater Bombay’. Adequate water is a serious problem. Many parts of it are not even tolerably clean and healthy. Table 2. the suburbs and 42 villages within the definition of the new city limit (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. The large migrant influx contributed to the overcrowding (Table 2. The Post-War development Committee of 1945 and the ’Master Plan in Outline’ prepared by Albert Mayer and N. which would encompass the Fort area as well as the suburbs of Bombay.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 4 strong development of mixed land use settlements. the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board set up two committees to study the development of Bombay. Commercial and residential areas were mixed because many merchants carried on business from home (Tindall. 1995). This enclosed the Town and Island of Bombay. By the early 1900s. Transportation is threatening to break down…. In 1966. Commuter distances had become larger because of increased suburbanization with no change in location of the CBD. . Greater Bombay came into existence only after the Bombay High Court Act of 1945. Modak influenced the development of Greater Bombay for the next two decades (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. (BMRPB. 1995). They recommended: i the creation of a new town on the mainland across the harbor i develop the suburbs of Bombay further Bombay had reached a level of unmanageable growth by the 1960s. 1995). 1965). the Port of Bombay. These formal government bodies were the beginning of a conscientious effort to regulate the growth of Bombay (Banerjee-Guha. In 1865. various planning committees were formed to develop a regional plan for Bombay. Housing deficits are ever widening and slums like a cancerous growth can be seen anywhere and everywhere. the Gadgil Committee strongly recommended a multi-nuclear growth using the creation of a new town across the harbor. and 24 percent of the one and two room tenements were over crowded.2). Land use zoning and the concept of floor space index were incorporated for the first time. In the 1960s. 1992). In 1967. and. 1973) Population increase. the Bombay Improvement Trust was created. Bombay’s infrastructure facilities were stretched to the limit. V. This committee appointed the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board to develop the concept further (Gadgil Committee. However.1 Population Density of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Area in acres 14247 14281 14342 14575 15066 15480 16751 16720 Persons / Acre 54 56 54 67 78 75 165 184 (Various Census Reports for Bombay in Kosambi.

1973. 1 2 Charles Correa is a prominent architect and urban designer in Bombay. and New Growth Centers Growth Centers of Bombay Town Center Arabian Sea Harbor of Bombay Figure 2. 3 Sirish Patel. It is a narrow piece of land bounded by the Western Ghat mountain ranges on the north. 1986) The concentration of industries and offices at the CBD and suburbs like Chembur and Andheri created unequal development. Unhealthy and insanitary conditions for 1 million slum dwellers was the result of inadequate housing stock. . was incharge of the planning and design of Navi Mumbai (1970-75). 1993). Pravina Mehta2 and Shirish Patel3 who presented to the government a proposal in 1964 for constructing new growth centers across Bombay harbor on the mainland (Figure 2. 1997).2). In a final attempt. then this would not be possible (BMRPB. If the new city was too far away.2 Immigrant Population of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Population 773196 821764 776006 979445 1175914 1161383 2771933 3070378 % 72 75 77 80 84 75 72 63 Immigrants Males per 151 171 162 189 191 181 160 149 100 Females (Various Census Reports of Bombay in Kosambi. the Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board recommended considering a twin city across the harbor. 2.3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai The prominent authors of the ’twin city concept’ were Charles Correa1. air pollution and mixed land use (UNCHS.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 5 Table 2. Also.2 Twin City Across the Harbor Source: CIDCO. Pravina Mehta (late) was a structural engineer. engineer and planner. The site that was finally chosen was across the harbor from Bombay island. 1973). south and east. 1973). The implementation occurred through ’correct’ political and bureaucratic channels in 1969. rocketing land prices prevented the acquisition of land for public purposes (BMPRB. Lack of adequate water supply and sewage facilities worsened conditions. This was in the form of the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board’s recommendation that a new city be designed within the Bombay Metropolitan region to facilitate the decongestion of Bombay (Correa.

3) Table 2. The new town. financing physical and social infrastructure through land sales.3 Land Fragmentation in 1970 Ownership Area (sq. Correa. m. km. >10000 sq. It is a self-contained city independent of Bombay although there is still a visual connection to Bombay. The first step was to identify all the land that needed to be acquired for Navi Mumbai. m. 1973). m. >1000 sq. Navi Mumbai covers an area of 344 sq. The land notified for acquisition for Navi Mumbai was under private and government ownership (Table 2. The government would acquire land under its power of eminent domain under Section 22. m. Owners were notified about the government’s proposal. and improving Bombay by drawing off pressures for growth into the new area (Patel. The plan hoped to reduce homelessness in Bombay and provide slum dwellers a better life as well as absorb migration from the countryside (Correa. 1973).4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 The task of planning and developing Navi Mumbai was entrusted to the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO). The finality of the approved Development Plan ensures that the pressure and friction which would develop to obtain land use changes for particular land holdings would be largely eliminated . >500 sq. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board created the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) in 1970 to implement its ideas. It was hoped that the nearness to Bombay would facilitate the relocation of people from Bombay (CIDCO. 1973). was designed to accommodate new industrial and commercial activity as well as for secure and affordable housing to workers. The first task of CIDCO was to prepare a development plan for the new town. comprising of a number of nodes (townships). 1995) CIDCO notified all private owners about the compulsory acquisition. 1966. wholly owned by the State Government of Maharashtra (CIDCO. 1997). km) (number) (number) (number) Government 10137 All Private 16677 18412 3338 1579 90 Marsh(wetlands) 84 (CIDCO. 2. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act (MR&TP Act). >4000 sq. Patel and Mehta designed this regional plan based on three basic objectives: a planned new development. Section 31(6) under the same act gives the government the power to specify land use and proceed with development. a government agency explicitly set up for this purpose. CIDCO used certain development principles in its design. CIDCO is a limited company. The regional plan was approved in 1970. 1985).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 6 the Arabian Sea on the west (CIDCO. They were (CIDCO. 1973): i polycentric pattern of development i acquisition of all land to have better control of the environment and to use land as the main resource for development.

To provide physical and social services. 2.3 Development Potential of the Site Turbhe MIDC Industrial Estates Arabian Sea Creek bridge Taloja Panvel Nhava-sheva . To support a statewide Industrial Location Policy which will lead eventually to an efficient and rational distribution of industries over the State and a balanced development of urban centers in the hinterland. which are commonly associated with urban living. 1995). To provide an environment which would permit the residents of New Bombay to live fuller and richer lives in so far this is possible. The Draft Development Plan gave only broad guidelines. Reduce the growth of population in Bombay city by creating a center that would absorb immigrants. Although five minor amendments were made to this Draft Plan. 4. 3. container port at Nhava-Sheva. and transport corridors along Thane-Belapur. The success of Navi Mumbai was thought to depend on the adequate creation of jobs (CIDCO. no new document was ever prepared. This was not entirely true. 1995). The Draft Development Plan remains the guiding document in use even today.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 7 (CIDCO. • the newly commissioned bridge across the Thane creek. Nevertheless. 1973: 10): 1. Although the main objective of the design of Navi Mumbai was to create a selfsufficient urban environment. These were (CIDCO. CIDCO acquired all the land after settling disputes about compensation (CIDCO. • the plan for a modern. To provide a physical infrastructure which prevents ethnic enclaves among the population. and major law and order problems did occur. 2. • the Thane-Pune National Highway 4. Panvel-Uran rail and road links.5 Development Potential of the Site The chosen site had various development potentials (Figure 2. 1995): • the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) Estates at Turbhe and Taloja. free from the physical and social tensions. and also attract some of Bombay’s present population. raise the living standards and reduce the disparities in the amenities available to the different sections of the population. The development plan took into account the Figure 2. leaving enough room for flexibility. The objectives were (CIDCO.3). 1973). it also hoped to improve the quality of life of Bombay. • the existence of two municipal corporations at Panvel and Uran. 5.

Per month) (% of income) rupees) (in sq.7) Household % of Monthly Capacity to pay Affordable size Income Population capacity to pay for housing (in of housing unit (Rs. Although job opportunities were the driving force behind Navi Mumbai’s success. i to decongest Bombay by shifting jobs that are concentrated in the southern part of Bombay. Almost 87% of the office jobs of Greater Bombay are located on Bombay island with 62% in South Bombay. 1995): i make Navi Mumbai self-contained and not a dormitory. large or medium industrial units were permitted on Bombay island.000 houses needed to be built. Only small-scale industries were allowed in place of old. as well as service sector (office) jobs. Table 2. The employment base of Navi Mumbai was planned to encompass manufacturing (industry).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 8 provision of 750. 400. 1995). Industrial growth was encouraged only in the MIDC industrial estates of Navi Mumbai (CIDCO. trade and commerce (wholesale and warehousing). A series of controls were made for various regions within Bombay. 1975). To accommodate a population of 2 million. This was necessary to (CIDCO. 1973). No new. large industries.000 jobs for a population of 2 million (CIDCO. The Industrial Location Policy issued in December 1974 posed various restrictions on the start of new industrial units on Bombay island. 1997). assuming a family size of five.000 office jobs. A CBD was planned in Navi Mumbai with the aim of creating 40. The authors of the regional plan cited the case of New Delhi to emphasize their idea (Patel. better quality houses was the biggest incentive (CIDCO.) Less than 200 20 10 1200 3 201-300 16 11 2580 5 301-400 15 12 4140 8 401-500 14 13 5940 12 501-600 12 14 7800 16 601-800 9 15 10800 22 801-1000 7 17 15600 31 Threshold of affordability 1001-1200 3 19 21000 43 1201-1500 2 22 30000 60 1501+ 2 25 37800 75 . m. the availability of cheaper. The plan called for the shifting of government offices from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai. Table 2. i to use the job centers with matching infrastructure provision as engines of growth for the new city.4 shows CIDCO’s estimates on the capacity to pay for housing by different income groups.4 Household Income and Capacity to Pay (Figures estimated in 1971 income where $1~Rs.

each family could own only developed land. commercial. The higher income groups would pay a surcharge for housing. CIDCO decided to build a large part of the housing as public housing. Otherwise. Many of the sectors were residential in character. land would be leased under a 30-year repayment system to private cooperative housing schemes and private owners. residential and institutional activity. Capacity to pay for housing divided by cost of construction shows a very small (or no) house could be owned by most families. The housing has to be heavily subsidized to make it affordable. No fast traffic was allowed in the sectors. The total land of Navi Mumbai was divided into thirteen townships. Many of these principles of Modernism were used in the planning of Navi Mumbai. In India the square was used as the basic unit in the layout of traditional cities. Each township had several sectors. houses or larger (CIDCO. The average cost of construction was Rs. 40 in 1970. The square had a significance in Hinduism as this perfect geometric shape was thought to be . Children were able to walk to school on the V7 through green belts (Sarin. The Government of India’s policy on publicly financed housing has been to build 21 sq. Each of these cuadras was a self-contained unit with primary schools. At the same time. CIDCO decided to use a maximum surcharge of 15% on housing for highest income group to compensate for a maximum subsidy of 45% to the lowest income group (CIDCO. community centers and residential areas. The sector planning of Modernism is very similar to the grid planning of traditional Indian cities. 1961). This would have a great drain on the financial resources of the government. These were: i decentralization by the design of self-sufficient townships(nodes). Some of the highlights of the design elements of this plan were sector planning. The cuadra had a detailed zoning plan with single-use zoning on all lots. 1973) The table shows the ability of each income group to contribute towards owned accommodation. i single-use zoning as opposed to the traditional multiple-use zoning The result was a single-use zoning pattern with distinct areas for industrial. 2. The sector was based on the Spanish cuadra of 110 to 100 meters. A sector centrally located within each node took on commercial activities. Le Corbusier explained "the plan is based on the main features of the 7V rule (Appendix B) determining an essential function: the creation of sectors. 1977). 1973). 550 per square meter and the cost of development of land was Rs.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai The conceptual design of Navi Mumbai was developed at the height of Modernism. 1961). Le Corbusier had played an important role in the design of Chandigarh in Punjab in the mid1950s (Le Corbusier. hierarchy of roads and important buildings of a gargantuan scale (Fry. i residential neighborhoods (sector). V4 roads were designed for shopping and commercial activity. In Navi Mumbai. The sector is the container of family life" (Le Corbusier. which would subsidize housing for the lower income groups. 1973). it was proposed to use cross subsidies. 1977). The neighborhoods were self-sufficient and had their grocery store and primary school. m.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 9 (CIDCO.

let us accommodate nature!" (Gandhi in Engel. swadeshi (fullest utilization of local resources. 1973).). 1984). merchant and peasant. 1973). larger amenities by contiguous neighborhoods. This is significantly different from the single-use planning of Modernism. In India. Parab. both materials and human) and swatantrya (self-motivation and mutual self-help) (Ganguli. Under his leadership. All houses in a neighborhood were occupied by a particular caste. the main philosophical design principles of Navi Mumbai are based on Gandhian ideology (Parab. Many cities still reflect this street pattern. the four castes are Brahmin. 1997). while Nhava-Sheva houses the new container port. The goal has been to create a city based on Gandhian principles of swavalamban (self-reliance). At a larger scale.4). Each neighborhood unit was within a one square mile radius. This was a model layout for an area with specifications for residences. warrior/king. Mr. a true Gandhian. and progressively moved outward depending on the natural landscape. which corresponds to the professions priest. Vaishya and Sudra. The indigenous plans all started with a central focal point (either of political or religious symbolism). Even in the planning of Mohenjadaro (7th century B. 1991). Commercial and residential uses were adjacent to each other or one above the other. Each node was planned to accommodate a range of income groups. There would be no rich or poor nodes (CIDCO. Each node is self-contained for 100. Navi Mumbai consists of thirteen townships (or nodes). 1991). main streets formed perfect rectangles dividing the city into separate residential areas based on caste. So each sector had mixed use. The nodes contain residential.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 10 the abode of the gods (Henn. 1969). "Arguing to turn any weaknesses into strength. streets. In the case of Navi Mumbai. Here in Navi Mumbai the idea of a large “urban village” has been nurtured. Some of the nodes have special features. Airoli and Kopar-Khairane have industrial estates.C. infrastructure and recreational uses (Figure 2. each neighborhood was known as a sector (CIDCO. This is the vision that is the traditional Indian design inspiration for Navi Mumbai.000 to 200. This principle of neighborhood planning and its derivative from Modernism was used in Navi Mumbai. 1929). nodes share some common facilities such as water reservoirs and transport facilities. Vashi is the center of Navi Mumbai's wholesale market. an American designer of the 1920s. The functionality of the city is based on the principle of neighborhood design as seen all over the Western world. commercial. This also facilitated the sharing of other. Gandhi would have urged: If nature chooses not to accommodate us. The size of the node depends . Each node is divided into neighborhoods (or sectors). was the Chief Planner of CIDCO for 20 years (1970-90) (Engel. people were forced to work within that particular neighborhood. The task of designing and detailing the physical design was carried out by CIDCO. Neighborhoods could be placed near each other to form a larger urban framework. As the residential classification was based on the caste. Neighborhood planning in the West was a concept put forth by Clarence Perry. Kshatriya. 1973). The neighborhood unit is used as a building block to build New Towns across the world (Perry. amenities and utilities with segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic (Banerjee. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board put forth the broad conceptual regional plan of Navi Mumbai.000 people.

would be strongly supported. This was partly because of the scale and complexity of the project.4 Nodes of Navi Mumbai recreation and timber. The plan Jui Belapur Arabian envisioned an ecologically friendly Sea city where products of nature would be Panvel used. The plan called for the construction of holding ponds to retain excess monsoon run-off. and then unused portions would Nhava-Sheva be recycled. As financial and economic considerations depended on the government in office. which ensured their re-election. Holding ponds would be used for pisciculture and recreation. which would be used in the dry seasons. The streams Source: CIDCO. 1991). only activities. Any change in political power would affect the policies and development strategies of this new town. 1997). which had been independent for only 20 years. There was also a high degree of uncertainty attached to some of the policies and physical developments. the plan had a very important political component.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai Considerations of social equity were very important in all aspects of development in a country. One of the ideas of putting the environmental city into Dronagiri practice was the creation of woodland corridors (Parab. flowing from the Western Ghats mountain ranges would irrigate these trees. Politicians use the creation of jobs and better living environments as a common strategy for getting votes. For industrial growth large finances were required.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 11 BOMBAY Airoli Ghansoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada on walking distances to the mass transit stop. 1997). The design concept of Navi Mumbai was very idealistic. 1973. It depended very heavily on external factors. a migration of population would not occur. 2. The node should be large enough to provide schools. unless sufficient industrial growth existed. shopping areas and other facilities. 1995). The primary concerns were related . This would also ensure reduction of soil erosion and the development of woodlands for both Figure 2. Hence. For example. The Development Plan of Navi Mumbai is an example of the new consciousness for sustainable Kharghar Nerul settlements (CIDCO. which were closely linked. Private industries would not invest in this particular region unless they were assured of workers and so on. Water treated from industrial and sewage waste would be used to develop green areas (Parab. for its success. The Development Plan for Navi Mumbai called for the planting of one hundred thousand trees every year! (Engel.

For them. water.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 12 to providing better quality of housing. CIDCO would sell the plot at a highly subsidized rate and with a twenty-year repayment period. The Draft Development Plan spelled out "there is a tendency in India that induces people to live in like groups. Navi Mumbai’s founders saw the construction of large amounts of new housing as an opportunity to break down demographic divisions and to enhance social equity. 1973).shall inform all the institutions of the national life (Article 38). In planned towns and cities this should be avoided to a great extent by allocating housing in neighborhoods to members of different communities. economic and political equity. The planners of Navi Mumbai thought this was a fortuitous occasion to provide social justice to the millions of migrants and pavement dwellers of Bombay (CIDCO. using bamboo instead of steel reinforcements and setting up of local retail shops where residents would be able to buy inexpensive building materials for building their homes (swadeshi) (CIDCO. The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice . ground floor houses would be possible initially. walk-up apartments of three to four floors would be designed. Construction would be made with locally available. The sites-and-services plots would have services such as roads. medical care and social welfare. 1973). it was proposed that housing should be constructed so that this income group could afford it. Individual families would then have to build their own homes (swavalamban). The design of a completely new city was a very good opportunity to implement these national concerns. The remaining two-thirds of the population could afford more expensive housing. Housing for the middle income and high income groups would be in the form of CIDCO housing. enclaves or ghettos of age long tradition of ’birds of the same feather flocking together’. place of birth or any of them (Article 15. The residents could design and implement their construction in any way they chose (swatantrya). cooperative housing groups or private builders. education and job opportunities. The Gandhian principle of self-help would be used to implement this agenda. Thus. sex. In 1970. More durable material could be used in the course of time. For the lower income group.social." (CIDCO. cost-effective. 1973). cheap material. caste. The Constitution of India also spells out the need for the government machinery to facilitate social. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion. 1973). The plan took into account the fact that one-third of the housing in New Bombay would be sites-and-services plots (CIDCO. It recommended construction using cheaper concrete. economic and political . 1973). electricity and sanitation (CIDCO. race. I). more than 30% of the population of greater Bombay could not afford a pucca (durable) house (CIDCO. To aid residents further. Housing would be built for the various income groups. Incremental housing was suggested as the solution. 1973) .

Provision of schools and colleges was a priority in the planning of Navi Mumbai. and law and order problems of the community (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. Health planning was undertaken as public health projects. one high school for 12. Establishment of ethnic enclaves has led to a number of problems in India. 1973). 1995).500 population and one college for 50. exploited women and leprosyaffected persons would be developed in Navi Mumbai to accommodate the growing population (CIDCO. 1973). Mobile health care units would operate from this community health center. water supply and sanitation. The community health care center would primary health care. These were the education facilities to be provided by the government. planners cited the segregation of Bombay as an example. The nodes (townships) were designed to provide one primary school per 5000 population. The planners of Navi Mumbai did not intend to create an identity for the city related to physical objects. This led to the development of ethnic enclaves. The planning was for a comprehensive coverage by taking the services to households. Minimum standards for building construction were developed by CIDCO. schools and colleges and making health education a part of classroom education.000 population (CIDCO. This further contributed to the creation of ethnic enclaves within the settlement. but will also ensure a uniform standard of social and physical infrastructure and see that no one class of residents is better served than another" (CIDCO 1973: 17-18). The Development Plan says (CIDCO. diagnostic and investigation services. shopping. recreation and afforestation projects (CIDCO. When the East India Company encouraged merchants to establish residence in Bombay. "In each node it is proposed that accommodation be made available for the entire range of income groups expected in the city. The Greater Bombay region had some of the best social welfare programs in India. The medical center would provide secondary health service. It is expected that this accommodation of residents from various social and income groups within the same physical area will not only make for a healthier environment. medical care. 1973). It would be a small hospital and polyclinic where specialized health care would be provided to cases referred by the community health care center and general practitioners." . handicapped children. Other private institutions would be encouraged also. A large hospital for intensive care and for teaching and research purposes would be set up (CIDCO. It should contain its own jobs. These are discussed further in the next chapter. 1973). merchants from neighboring districts migrated into Bombay and constructed homes inside and outside the Fort walls. recreational and other social facilities an should not become a dormitory for Greater Bombay.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 13 To justify this consideration. 1973: 17): "CIDCO is anxious that the new city develop its own identity as quickly as possible. The Governor of Bombay also encouraged this development because it reinforced the traditional panchayati (selfgovernment) system of administration by which the council of elders settled religious. It would have out-patient department. Institutions for juvenile delinquents.

1991). i promoting commercial and other employment activity. CIDCO undertook the task of (CIDCO.8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework The government authorities of Bombay realized that the effectiveness of regional planning depended. The city of Navi Mumbai was planned to address the issue of social equality through its physical design. 1995): i developing land and providing infrastructure such as roads. New. It appears that the monumental style of Corbusier was not an influence on this design. drainage. water supply. largely.Objectives .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 14 Thus. However. planned cities of India such as Chandigarh. a strong institutional framework was required for its success.Visualizing the future i Action Plans .Other agencies . i developing residential plots for different income groups. electricity. CIDCO was appointed as the NTDA. i Specialized services provided by Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA). These stages include: i Draft Development Plan (programs and policies) . In particular. 2. The role of CIDCO is to implement the plan of Navi Mumbai. With the creation of these other agencies. the allotment of residential apartments would be governed by a policy. It is more of a philosophical identity . on the institutions responsible for the plan. the Gadgil Committee Report (1965) had recommended the setting up of a New Town Development Authority (NTDA). However.Data base . Its identity is only that of a spreading inkblot (Engel. Gandhinagar can be described by their grid system or monumental scales.an identity based on the Gandhian value of social equality. i involving Government agencies for developing public transport and telecommunications. i Bombay Electric and State Transport (BEST). CIDCO has executed the implementation of the plan in various stages (CIDCO. CIDCO had to coordinate all planning and development programs. there was no aim to create a monumental city. These are (CIDCO. Other institutions have also been set up in the Greater Bombay region to facilitate planning efforts in the region. Before the creation of these different institutions. the identity of Navi Mumbai is subtler. 1992). which would help implement the objective. The physical design would be the instrument to implement this objective. CIDCO has a more narrow and defined role. 1992): i Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA) in 1975 i Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) in 1992. In the very beginning.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 2: The Research Setting

15

- Land use plans - Residential layout plans - Infrastructure plans - Industrial location plans - Environmental assessment i Implementation - Acquisition of land - Finance - Construction - Relocation strategies BMRDA took over such functions as coordination of metropolitan planning, funding, execution of programs, development control and maintenance of the entire Greater Bombay region including Navi Mumbai (UNCHS, 1993). Financial responsibilities and investment decisions are made by a large number of agencies including the Government of India, State Government of Maharashtra, CIDCO and firms in the private sector, but coordinated by BMRDA.

Macro-level Regional Planning Inputs
Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA)

Micro-level Sub-regional Planning Inputs
Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation

Plan Implementation of Navi Mumbai
City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) Figure 2.5 Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai In 1992, an amendment of the Constitution of India affected the functioning of CIDCO. The 74th Amendment of the Constitution of India (the 1992 Amendment Act on Municipalities) spells out the devolution of power to the local bodies and democratization of development planning. This Act emphasizes that the management must be done by elected representatives of the people who will account for two-thirds of the board. This committee is responsible for the preparation of the draft development plan. This ensures a bottom-up process with direct inputs from the citizens (UNCHS, 1993). These municipal corporations will be responsible for their economic development and incorporate all ideas within the

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 2: The Research Setting

16

Comprehensive Plan. The direct result of this Act is the creation, in 1992, of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation. This allowed CIDCO to give up its role as New Town Development Authority (CIDCO, 1995). A heavy-handed approach was used by the government to implement its social policy. As most of the housing was built by CIDCO, a government agency, the government could control, if not regulate, the distribution of the population on socioeconomic basis. Households desirous of buying a house built by CIDCO had to submit an application that stated the dwelling size they preferred. CIDCO allotted these houses, depending on when construction was completed, on a rolling basis. This was intended to ensure a random distribution of the various linguistic and religious groups of the population. The pattern expected would now be one based predominantly on income. 2.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan The planning of Navi Mumbai began in 1971. The results of each of the planning objectives can be studied now. The first objective of the Development Plan of Navi Mumbai was to reduce congestion of Bombay by absorbing immigrants and attracting some of the present population of Bombay. Table 2.5 Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay(BMRDA, 1978 in UNCHS, 1993) 1971 1981 1991 Population Density Population Density Population Density (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) CBD 1120 1659 1031 1527 849 1258 Central Bombay 1950 1349 2254 1559 2309 1597 Bombay Island 3070 1447 3285 1549 3158 1489 Bombay Suburbs 2900 544 4958 930 6751 1266 Navi Mumbai1 128 600 328 617 Over the 1981-91 period, there was a considerable decline in the population of the CBD and Bombay island. The increase in the population of the suburbs and Navi Mumbai accounts for the decline in the CBD and Bombay island. Outmigration to other cities and countries is negligible (BMRDA, 1978). The main reason for the shift was because of (UNCHS, 1993): i dilapidation of older buildings in Bombay i cheaper and better housing facilities in Navi Mumbai i better employment opportunities in Navi Mumbai i lesser commuter distances involved The second objective of the development plan was to bring maximum jobs consistent with the Gandhian principle of self-sufficiency (swavalambhan). CIDCO’s support of the Industrial Location Policy brought more jobs to Navi Mumbai. The sectors that had maximum growth in Navi Mumbai, were trade (39%), finance and services (27%) and manufacturing (18%) (BMRDA, 1992 in UNCHS, 1993). The wholesale agriculture produce
1

residential area increased from 213 hectares in 1981 to 531 hectares in 1991.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 2: The Research Setting

17

market for vegetables, foodgrains, oil seeds, sugar and spices was moved from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai (CIDCO, 1973). A separate railway siding and truck terminal were constructed to facilitate effective relocation. This involved the relocation of 30,000 jobs from Bombay and the reduction of 5000 truck trips per day. A new iron and steel stockyard complex has been developed in Navi Mumbai. This means the relocation of 25,000 jobs and a reduction of 1000 truck trips per day to Bombay. However, the economic agenda, which was based on agriculture and cottage industries, is no longer effective because of the government’s redoubled commitment to a policy of industrialization. Navi Mumbai continues to be exploited as a major industrial zone (Engel, 1991). CIDCO's third objective was to provide physical and social amenities in Navi Mumbai. The land use of Navi Mumbai shows these amenities (Table 2.6 and Figure 2.6). Table 2.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai, 1993 (in sq. km.) Land-use Zone 1979 1985 1986 1991 Residential 101.15 133.99 127.08 129.87 Commercial 6.51 6.51 6.51 5.75 Industrial 43.21 43.14 43.14 43.14 Port 12.00 22.7 22.7 22.7 Wholesale market 6.08 4.54 4.54 4.6 Woodlands / Park 90.26 61.24 68.15 69.35 Institutional .76 1.09 1.09 1.09 Fishing and allied 6.14 3.44 3.44 3.44 Transportation 30.86 30.35 30.35 29.73 No development 46.73 36.70 36.70 34.03 Total 343.70 343.70 343.70 343.70

1993 127.61 5.75 43.14 22.70 6.86 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70 (CIDCO, 1997) Primary, secondary and high schools have been provided in all sectors of Navi Mumbai. All primary schools are within walking distance. This eliminates the need of expensive transport for small children. There is at least one college in every node and Vashi node has both medical and engineering colleges (CIDCO, 1995). Medical facilities are provided by private medical practitioners. Every node has a hospital run by the Mahatma Gandhi Medical Trust. Community health car centers are also there (CIDCO, 1995). In its fourth objective to provide an ecologically friendly environment, CIDCO has not been entirely successful. The area of woodlands has been constantly decreasing (CIDCO, 1995). Most woodlands are in the form of mango groves which form a part of neighborhood parks. In the conceptual plan, streams flowing from the hillsides were to irrigate the woodland corridors. No significant effort has been made to utilize this resource. However, holding ponds have been constructed. Promenades have been built along them and they are being used as recreation areas (Parab, 1997). The fifth objective is the primary focus of this thesis. The objective to prevent ethnic enclaves and to promote a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics was fairly ambitious. In order for its success, a perfect control of the market is required. The analysis of the data will show the outcome of the objective.

1992 128.71 5.75 43.14 22.7 5.76 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70

The design principles described in the Draft Development Plan were based on the philosophical reasoning of Mahatma Gandhi and the functionalistic approach of Modernism. Social aspects of city planning were given importance with special attention given to considerations of employment opportunities. and housing occupancy rates are high. and improvements made in the next phase of design. Problems of design and development were identified. recreation and commercial needs. establishment of more industries and construction of more houses. Many attributes of these two design principles are not necessarily harmonious. 2. .10 Conclusion The Draft Development Plan of Navi Mumbai described many broad outlines for the development of a city for the common citizen. housing requirements. the extension of the railway lines. Houses have been constructed for different sectors of society economically weaker section. Designing. Hence. The poor transportation links between Bombay and Navi Mumbai has been the main contributing factor. lower income group.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai Source: CIDCO. utilities. the Gandhian principles supported cultural heterogeneity and mixed use zoning.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 18 NEW BOMBAY BOMBAY Arabian Sea Residential Woodlands Industrial Port Institutional Trucking Wholesale Fishing Wetlands Figure 2. since 1990 there has been accelerated growth due to the commissioning of Nhava-Sheva port. 1995. development and implementation of ideas were done in an incremental manner. Though the Navi Mumbai project was begun in 1970. The absence of a port and railway links slowed growth. the city is no longer a plan on paper. middle-income group and high-income groups. the development process has been slow. CIDCO provides serviced sites for both government and private ownership. Commuter services have become operational since May 1992. However. Periodic socioeconomic and household surveys were used to determine the status of constructed environment. While Modernism called for single-use zoning and a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics. Growth in other development sectors of Bombay has also had an adverse effect on Navi Mumbai’s growth. but a living and working reality.

Navi Mumbai is a modern.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 19 This design also strongly supported the need to use the government’s power and machinery to promote the uniform distribution of people and prevent ethnic enclaves. planned city within the context of a specific historic and cultural setting. Very little analysis has been done on the outcome of CIDCO's social agenda to ensure diffusion of ethnic groups and the urban social pattern that emerged. . The aim of this research is to examine the present urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. The success of this strategy depended on maintaining this control. This also implies that the urban social pattern was predetermined. The research setting under consideration is the result of the hybridization of Indian and Western ideas. A heavy-handed implementation strategy of this objective was done by taking complete control of the residential allotment.

Intricacies in relationships have increased the complexity of the urban form over time. urban form is not merely the architectural form of the city (Lozano. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. It is also a cultural manifestation. 1973). 1995). 1987). Simultaneously. These design ideas seem to have a strong influence of Modernism (CIDCO. Buildings and spaces are created by people and quite often characterize them (Kostof. 1968). The final outcome of a morphological study is the formulation of a theory which connects facts to form hypotheses. principles and existing theories for improving the design of cities (Doxiadis. The pattern of spatial distribution is recognizable in most contemporary cities (Alexander. Navi Mumbai is one of the first cities in India built for the common citizen. However. Many of these cities have been under colonial rule. communication and socioeconomic relationships influence urban patterns. changing and modifying it to suit their way of life (Lozano. language and housing character. income is one of the most important determinants. Human settlements contain people and societies in a physical environment consisting of natural and man-made elements (Doxiadis. The human-environment relationship is a two-way process termed as the socio-spatial dialectic (Knox. It is a city designed with the design principles of the time. 1990). Socioeconomic factors have a very important contribution to the pattern. This literature review will first trace the human settlements in India. 1968).1 Introduction A human settlement is an establishment created by people for their inhabitation. India. . Where market forces work. and those of Mahatma Gandhi. Urban social pattern is the pattern formed by the interaction of various social variables such as household characteristics. religion. Land ownership patterns. A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between its elements within the temporal context. (New Bombay). The urban pattern is a result of the relationships between people and their social. because it changes continuously in a temporal dimension. residents soon influence their urban environment. Interaction of these elements form a pattern . Such a human settlement is not just threedimensional. economic and physical environments. The aim of the thesis is to examine the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. people adapt to the physical environment around them. 1990). and bear characteristics of western influence. if government agencies or contractors build them. transportation. Thus. ethnicity. If the residents build the buildings themselves. 3. Most cities in the Third World and India have been indigenous in origin and organic in growth.Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 3. Whatever the mode of construction. but four-dimensional. technology. occupation and values of housing influence the spatial character. Education. they are more generic and may not represent the lifestyles of every household.the urban pattern. 1991). then they reflect their lifestyles.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern Every human settlement consists of certain elements.

Doxiadis defines five elements in the study of human settlements. which may be universal or local. society. Traditional cities have used physical forms to interpret cultural and religious beliefs (Lozano. a hill top site was the utilitarian response to any important building . Since the characteristics are universal (within the frame of study) they may be studied by a spatial representative sector. Some farmers may sell their land more easily than others may. The built form is influenced by factors as (Alexander. In the study of Navi Mumbai. every city has certain elements.3 Factors Influencing Urban Form Many factors influence the form of cities. In most studies this unit is the neighborhood which displays both physical and social aspects of the whole urban development. human beings. 1990). 1987): i land ownership i street patterns i existing land use i economic considerations i planning regulations i political and historical events The physical expansion of the city is always bound and guided by land ownership. the node (township) and the sector (neighborhood) will be used as the study areas using aggregated household survey data.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 21 Demographics. 1990): i the way in which nature and man-made features satisfy needs for protection and defense i the way in which physical and economic landscape allows for communication with other regions i the way in which the topography of a site suggests the construction of a human settlement i the way in which climate leads to building solutions These factors influence the cultural and spiritual form of the cities as well. A city replaces existing land use. The patterns have similarities. Thus urban social patterns are complex manifestations of underlying cultural values intermingled with global economic forces (McGee. They are nature. buildings and infrastructure. Although details may not be identical. Urban spatial patterns occur because of the repetitive spatial distribution of these elements. The change of land use from rural to urban depends on the existing land use. 1971). These features contributed to a particular urban and social pattern. it is necessary to determine existing land use as a pre-condition to urban growth and form. For example. and the ownership. “The typical sector represents the formal characteristics found throughout the area and thus acquires some universality” (Lozano. Time and place may provide them with different characteristics making each city unique and dynamic. Traditional settlements were shaped by (Lozano. They are the units of analysis of the morphological study (Knox.a fort or a religious building. 3. The physical form is a variable of the social and built pattern of the city. 1995). Urban patterns represent a continuity of time and space. The rural land may also have been . linguistics and ethnic background also influence urban patterns. This representative sector is defined as the smallest area that exhibits the characteristics of the urban settlement. and natural and manmade obstacles. Thus. 1990).

Certain built forms encourage certain social patterns. The factors influencing urbanization were also different. Soon. Urbanization took place at different chronological periods. The caste system of India separates and hierarchies the Hindus. 1992a). 1990). Pedestrian movement limited the size of the city. This allowed some of the people to develop other professions. Plots of varying sizes and shapes influence the layout of the streets and of individual buildings (Knox. Priests. For thousands of years. A particular social pattern brings about a particular built form. often because of a city wall. People as food gatherers advanced to become farmers. 1983). 3. personal preferences and many institutional constraints. While some processes are culture-specific. within. they supported a range of activities. Childe put forth a theory that urban centers were a result of agricultural change. Various economic. private rental and public sector housing operationalize housing sectors. commercial buildings. a city contained social distinctions in terms of class. cities were very simple although they rarely served single purposes. 1986): i ethnic composition of the city i migration i religion i economic considerations i race i political and historical events The housing market also influences the social pattern of the city. 3. 1990). 1995). Domestication of animals and cultivation of land created villages.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities The traditional theory of urban origin is generally attributed to Childe (Herbert. others are global in scope. Housing. and Thomas. However. Planning controls influence development to a great extent. 1979). 1987. The external . These factors are (Alexander. Kosambi. surplus food production was achieved. A household’s choice of place to live is determined by its income level. The variation in influencing factors and historical circumstance gave rise to different urban forms in different parts of the world. government offices and warehouses formed the built environment of the city.5 The Sociocultural Factors India is among the most stratified of all known societies in the world (Srinivas. Clear differentiation between urban and rural existed. The evolution of the urban pattern of Indian cities is divided into the social pattern and the built form. The social pattern and the built form are interrelated and contribute to the urban morphology of a city. Owner-occupier. Master plans and regional plans provide long-range strategies for development. Instead. social and political circumstances influence the social pattern (Scargill. However.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 22 subdivided. craftsmen and merchants were born. race and religion (Vance. Reasons such as trade and defense have also been used to explain the formation of cities. other scholars contend that it is doubtful that surplus can be attributed as the single factor which caused the emergence of urban settlements (Jacobs.

3. arms. theoretically. The differences may also be placed in a horizontal system (example: language. The Indian theory of social stratification depends on caste. the forms of social stratification are many. Certain occupations such as butchery and cobblery lower the rank. vertical and horizontal systems of stratification exist. Stratification implies a differentiation based on a set of criteria. 3. However. a hierarchy from Brahman to Sudra has been interpreted (Bougle. Along with the caste exist occupational stratification. As many individual criteria are .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 23 manifestation of the separation and hierarchy through particular attributes of the castes brings about social stratification of the urban social pattern (Marriott. Repulsion between castes forced isolation and the creation of distinct residential enclaves (Bougle. The dominant caste legend is the Purushasukta legend whereby the Brahman. Ethnic characteristics refer to language. Vegetarian castes occupy higher positions. 1974:8). linguistic. Kshatriya. In India. The real world. Vaishya and Sudra are said to have come from the mouth. The caste system varies from village to village and is a local phenomenon. The spirit of the caste system is determined by the attitudes of each caste to the other. 1992b:14). 1992b). language. territory. 1992b). However. 1992a). However.2 Class "Class refers to a system of stratification which is economic in character" (Gupta. Clothing. religion and language are discussed below. religious and ethnic diversity of the country (Gupta. religion). linguistic stratification and religious stratification.5. Although no hierarchy is mentioned in the Sukta. Various combinations of the hierarchy have come about due to regional differentiation in certain attributes of social living. 1992). Certain customs lower or raise the status of the caste. The characteristics caste. class. and in the case of India.1 Caste Castes are the hierarchical divisions of people based on professional and family membership. differentiates itself into only hierarchical status containing inequality (Gupta. Class systems by contrast define the rank of their members according to their individual attributes and behavior". 1992). marriage and death ceremonies distinguish one caste from another.5. Berreman (1965) says "Caste systems rank people by birthascribed group membership rather than by individual attributes. Hierarchy allows elements of the whole to be ranked with relation to each other (example: income and prestige). The social stratification is very deep and varied. these single criterion hierarchies can be misleading as they depend on cutoff points related to individual analysis (Gupta. sometimes reinforced by common work roles. all elements can not be arranged vertically. this popular caste hierarchy is not clear throughout the Indian subcontinent (Srinivas. Thus. rituals. language. The term ethnic group refers broadly to people “with some similar characteristics which go beyond their mere place in a societal division of labor” (Brass. 1992). The criteria for the differentiation can normally be translated into money or wealth. unfortunately. 1992). thighs and feet of the Creator. 1992). culture. religion or occupation (Bougle. diet and dress. The population may be stratified based on income.

The framers of the Indian Constitution chose Hindi and English as the official languages of the government (King. 1997).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 24 linked to other attributes. 1977). Buddhism. absorbing other religious doctrines and never proselytizing. 1985:11). The major languages of India are Hindi. . However. occupation. which culminated in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. A certain degree of animosity between Hindus and Muslims has existed since the first Muslim ruler of 1018 AD. 1974). 1985). Jainism and Sikhism stemmed off from Hinduism and are very similar to Hinduism.Jainism and Sikhism. 3. 1974). After the decline of the Mughal Empire and the loss of political power to the British. An overwhelming view of Hindu-Muslim relations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is that Hindus advanced due to their enthusiasm to take up western education and government employment (Kaura. Bengali. Tamil. Muslims became apprehensive of Hindu domination. Gujarati. the Muslim League represented only the Muslim population (Brass.3 Religion Religion and language have provided the motive power for nationalism in India (Brass. it may be better to create a composite index of education. prestige and income to form a socioeconomic status.5. Hindi was chosen because it was the language spoken by the largest percent of the population while was a result of the British legacy. At this time they felt the need for a political party of their own. Marathi. Malayalam. 1970). The League demanded for a separate electorate and for more employment in public service. Hindus and Muslims drifted apart in the issue of independence from British rule.4 Language A systematic inventory of Indian languages began in the mid-eighteenth century. While the Congress party represented the majority of the Indian population. The wake of Independence brought with it violence and terror in the Indo-Pakistan borders in Punjab and Bengal. The characteristics of the population regarding bilinguals. Kannada. 3. A Hindu revival period in the late nineteenth century to arouse enthusiasm for political action made the Muslims more insecure. not subjects” (Hodson. degree of control over the language and relationship between the languages affect their social communication. India is the birthplace of two major religions –Hinduism and Buddhism – and two minor religions . 1985). During the Mughal rule (16th to 18th century). The census of India 1951 (immediately after Independence) recorded a total of 179 languages and 544 dialects in India. the Muslims were in power over most of India. Telugu. Anger and frustration broke out as violence as Hindus moved from Pakistan into India and Muslims moved from India to Pakistan (Hodson. There are many religions in India. Urdu and Punjabi. Islam was a religion that came to India from outside and is culturally very different from Hinduism. The linguistic distribution is not only diverse but also very complex (Das Gupta. The Hindu religion has always been a pacifist and tolerant religion. In 1906 they formed the All-India Muslim League. From the beginning Islam has been a conquering and proselytizing faith (Hodson.5. “In most folk-memory the Muslims of India had been ruler.

There was strong opposition from non-Hindi areas in general and South India in particular (Hindi is a IndoAryan language while the languages of South India belong to the Dravidian group). and vice versa. they believed. In many places. a state language with an unique status (Das Gupta.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 25 However. Hindu-Muslim riots broke out even in Bombay which has normally been a very peaceful city. 1989). Traditionally these castes had either wealth or power. a demand for a national language also arose.5. Language conflicts have also occurred in India. The Babri Masjid in Ayodhya was broken down by Hindu fundamentalists. had led them to better job opportunities. 3. 1988). The Tamilnad Students’ Anti-Hindi Agitation Council objected to both the removal of English as an official language and the declaration of Hindi as the sole official language. The South Indian state of Tamil Nadu was most vocal in the Anti-Hindi agitation. In a multilingual society there may be a plurality of national languages.5 Implications of the Sociocultural Factors The implications of caste and class are closely related to those of power and wealth (Dumont. This confusion in terminology is the basis for most language-related problems in Independent India. The better control the Tamil people had over English. The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India declared the fourteen major languages listed as national language (Gumprez. However. a majority of the leaders preferred a composite nationalism. The union government declared that fifteen year deadline after Independence would be given for transition of official language from English and Hindi to only Hindi. Small Muslim enclaves within a majority Hindu neighborhood were targeted. 1992a). The partition of United India into India and Pakistan came with many problems. Compromise was . Although a majority of the rivalry has been for and against Hindi. Repercussions were felt all over the country. When the ethnic groups occupy distinct neighborhoods. 1971). 1970). there also been conflict between other regional languages. This issue can not only be seen at the time of partition in 1947 but also was seen during the recent communal violence in 1993. confusion has always existed about the status of Hindi as official or national language. Pakistan officially declared itself as a Muslim state. as it was difficult to isolate only one family. Certain castes are dominant in a society. a synonym for official language and like state religion. Although a minority of Hindu leaders in India felt that India should be declared as a Hindu state. The inequality and economic differentiation cause conflict between the castes and classes. Agitation and violence broke out in many non-Hindi states over this issue. all castes looked up to the farmer caste because they were important landowners and were wealthy (Srinivas. 1970). The separatism movements seen all over India are all based on ethnicity and inter-caste rivalry (Bose. ethnic conflicts are easily targeted towards these select neighborhoods. This rationale of composite nationalism influenced policies related to religion and language (Das Gupta. the Brahman priests had more power because it was believed that they were the representatives of the Creator on earth. In some villages. This was not seen in more heterogeneous neighborhoods. In the early 1950s. Writers in Hindi commonly refer to Hindi as Rashtrabasha (state language) which may signify language used by the state. many political leaders advocated for the use of Hindi as a national and official language.

The ethnic segregation and conflict has existed from the beginning of the Indian Civilization. The multi-dimensional society was soon complicated by the emergence of other religions. Hinduism. However. class. and four gateways were situated at the cardinal points. governed the alignment of roads. C to 12th century AD). and which had as many padas as there were to be residential sectors was selected. which was the terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe inhabited by Brahma. In planning the town a vastupurusha mandala which was most auspicious. padas. The streets ran from north to south and from east to west. religion and language is the issue of group identity which is the cause of most ethnic conflicts. Sikhism were born in India while Islam. The science of architecture and planning. 1969).1). cyclical and swastika (Figure 3.6 The Built Form The historical evolution of the built form of Indian cities can be divided into three distinct phases. Prime commercial and residential land was located near the temple. The caste system over the next ten to fifteen centuries became deeply rooted in the Hindu population and became a part of life.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 26 finally reached in 1963 under the Official Languages Act. The square was used in the creation of the vastupurusha mandala. both from within and without the country. Stratification of the society had to accommodate these religious factors. Related to castes. a perfect rectangle was accepted. In the initial stages it was in the form of caste differentiation as prescribed by the Hindu/ Vedic texts. Certain other shapes were also considered to be auspicious like the circle. the differentiation and assimilation in progress in a multi-ethnic society receives a prominent place in any political conflict.1 Circle and Swastika depended on the natural features of the site. The mandala could be divided into smaller squares. The Indian society was also stratified horizontally by language. These characteristics are derived from the need for defense and administration and the importance of religion (Kopardekara. Despite the Act. Judaism and Christianity found their way into India. violence sparked off by language issues has continued to occur in India. Buddhism. The final shape of the town Figure 3. Social assimilation and mobilization are a part of any evolving civilization. The earliest is the Hindu phase (3000 B. 3. This does not imply that social assimilation does not occur. The temple as the symbol of religion dominates the urban form. the creator. Jainism. orientation of buildings and arrangement of internal rooms based on astrological and religious criteria (Volwahsen. Vastushastra. . 1986). If it could not be a perfect square. A number of languages coexisted in all parts of the country. The temple also influences the siting of other land uses. The town wall enclosed the mandala. While some groups spoke of an all-India nationality other speaks of a regional nationality (Brass. which contributes many elements to the urban form. 1974).

“In the case of India. The morphological components include buildings used for trade warehouses. Residential areas associated with the commercial area were contiguous or within the commercial area (Hall. 1980). 1980). It has been shown that rural values have penetrated the urban philosophy due to large-scale migration. but also on socioeconomic factors (Ramachandran. In India where occupation and caste are synonyms. the Hindu tradition continued. D. This led to the development of commercial centers and zoning based on Western market principles. Kshatriyas in the eastern and southeastern part. pottery. As the built form depends on the social characteristics portrayed by its residents. 1992). There was further subdivisions within each district depending on the sub-caste. The residential character throughout this period was segregated. These are the theories which pertain to the built and social form of the city. and the south-west monsoon.).) was the third phase of historical urban form.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 27 The residential districts were divided among the four castes. Large migration of people from the rural area. Residential segregation is no longer based only on occupation and caste. and insufficient infrastructure in cities has led to the creation of slums and shantytowns (Misra. this has led to segregation and creation of enclaves within the city. The three leading theories described below are based on the built form of the city.were developed (Hall. On the periphery of these urban centers.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns . Williamson and Mills. The characteristics of the social and built form of the city contribute to its pattern. the Brahmans worked and lived in the northern district. The urban segregation was based on function and occupation premises. Many researchers have tried to fit Indian urban growth into a theoretical model. 1980). and wood formed niches in the urban pattern. jali (carved screens) and projecting balconies (Kopardekara. Diversification of professions due to industrialization in the post-independence era has resulted in further complexity (Becker. 3. D. the same theories are being used to describe the social patterns as well. Characteristics from medieval times are Islamic in nature (14th to 17th centuries A. jewelry. Areas for selling of specific goods – cloth. especially seen in the port cities associated with the East India Company (Mills. A generalization of these patterns has been made. Generally. and Hindu elements of this period are not distinct from earlier ones. During this time. The colonial influence (17th to early 20th century A.the cantonment . 1978). The Islamic elements included the mosque and domestic architecture which emphasized the purdah through enclosed courtyards. many researchers have pointed to the lack of penetration of urban values into the countryside. Vaishyas in the southern part and Sudras in the western district. 1988). India inherited a complex urban fabric. counting houses. military establishments . 1989). and the apparent timelessness and permanence of village life” (Hall. metalware. 1986). At the time of independence in 1947. The Brahmans and Kshatriyas lived in the parts of the town which were climatically more comfortable sheltered from the hot sun.

7. This was surrounded by a transition zone. It also had older residential districts. The next zone had lower income housing. 1992). Mobility and migrant influx were though of as the main cause of the social pattern (Hartshorn. These immigrants first found cheap housing in the inner city. 1929 various groups of society led him to conclude that the city was made up of concentric zones with the central business district (CBD) at the center (Figure 3. and successive zones had higher income residences (Burgess. Figure 3.2). The public transport system had also improved significantly and allowed the middle-class to . The CBD core had all major commercial. The basic premise in this model was that of succession and invasion whereby population groups gradually moved out as their economic and social status improved. 1929).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 28 Various spatial theories of the social pattern of cities have been advanced. Thus. most American cities in the mid-west absorbed many immigrant groups from Europe. This also forced an outward expansion. The model made many assumptions such as uniform land surface. The three leading Western models are: i Concentric zone model i Sector model i Multiple nuclei model These models have become frameworks for studying urban social patterns across the world (Hartshorn. 3.1 Concentric Zone Theory This theory put forth by Burgess in 1925 related population mobility and societal organization to the physical expansion of the city (Burgess. Diversification in employment opportunities gave rise to the growth of mixed land use development. The same city may express different models at different time periods (Scargill. 1979). Families moved out into the next zone when their zone was invaded. free Middle income market. others dynamic in nature. The movement was towards the periphery. and studying how the city grew (Scargill. some static. political and social activities. and especially in Chicago. accessibility to a single-centered city. 1929). they moved to better housing districts (Burgess. 1992). which were being taken over by the expanding CBD. In the early 1920s. Burgess was interested in determining a pattern for the social structure of the city. High income heterogeneous population and a commercialindustrial base (Herbert and Thomas. 1979). It was partly based on Low income economic factors. This model was based on Burgess’ experience in the American mid-west cities. it is a descriptive framework to CBD analyze spatial organization of land use in a city Transition and its change over time. With affluence. 1990). 1929).2 Concentric Zone Theory Burgess’ research on the distributional pattern of Source: Burgess. which had factories and slums.

7. industries may cluster around the railway line or lowincome housing along a riverbank. S (Hoyt. empirical studies did not confirm his model one hundred percent (Herbert and Thomas. The real world is more complicated than what was represented by Burgess’ very general model. Hoyt studied the city as an economist concerned with how the housing market worked.4). However. 1978). Rental value was the main criterion for studying the pattern (King.2 Sector Theory Homer Hoyt put forth a land use theory after studying over 100 cities in the U.7. The wedge pattern represents residential area growth (Scargill. 1979). This is because concentration of certain activities may prove to be more beneficial.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 29 travel from outer zones to the CBD for work. Hoyt also stressed the need to consider zoning laws and slum clearance laws in making models. It is more specific to some cities (King and Golledge. It was intended to serve as a framework for studying urban growth and change (King and Golledge. This model also accommodates growth (Hartshorn. He said that residential sectors of similar rent are situated in wedges radiating from the center (Figure 3.3 Sector Theory Source: Hoyt. Neighborhoods for each income group are common. Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. commercial ethnic group residential industrial Figure 3. Hence. For example. and Golledge.3 Multiple Nuclei Theory The multiple nuclei theory was put forth by Harris and Ullman. 3. Hoyt primarily studied residential land use. 1992).4 Multiple Nuclei Theory Source: Hartshorn. 1939 3. This is not a generalized model. 1979). 1990). 1992 . 1979). 1978). Concentric zones or sectors may emerge from these nuclei. 1939). It gives strength to cities with original nucleus in the center. 1979). These reasons complemented a concentric zone development model (Scargill. and subsequent decentralization (Figure 3.3). The model is very simple and can be used to predict how urban land markets work. It also did not explain the impact of transport networks on these zones (Scargill. 1978). This model proposes that patterns in many cities be arranged around several centers (Scargill. Burgess has been criticized for not having considered topographical criteria. The model also accounts for growth along transport routes. The original model did not take into account specialized clusters of industry.

The concept of neighborhood units became popular since the1920s in planned settlements (Perry. community and social and civic responsibilities such as aesthetics. but on cultural ones. three indices were used. In Western cities the reasons for non-uniformity have been identified as socioeconomic status. it does not address the needs of a social environment. education. housing choices may not be made on economic basis. 1990). It serves as the building block to construct the whole town. In the built environment this corresponds to ethnic neighborhoods (Timms. It is only the most convenient one. family status and ethnic status. ethnic status used religion and social groups. The city was viewed as a part of society. housing conditions and material possessions. security and identity. Social rank used the variables. and social change was expected to be reflected in studies which were repeated over a time period (Herbert and Thomas. 1929). Hence. The values are also related to family.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 30 3. 1971). however. It is not only a physical design concept. which analyze the physical environment under consideration. safety. A neighborhood unit is not the only model or universally appropriate unit of analysis. ethnic status and family status (Timms. Critics say that neighborhood unit strongly emphasizes physical environment. However. As a family’s needs for space increase. family status used the variables related to demographics and type of house. 1992). 1971). Ethnicity causes the social phenomena of segregation. social status and retirement (Scargill. 1990). 1979). The use of these three indices for analysis is a social area analysis. A neighborhood is the basis for formally organized residential space. These were social rank. For example. the neighborhood unit is used as the unit of analysis in the study of human settlements (Herbert and Thomas. This concept. parenthood. but also an expression of socioeconomic and cultural values of the people. The data source was census tracts. In the analysis of urban social patterns.8. Analysis of individual cities shows that the pattern is not uniform and is characterized by residential segregation. This is . 1979). has been under strong criticism (Hartshorn. every city has some constraints. neighborliness. 1971). 3. Individualistic frameworks. Family status in American cities shows a concentric distribution. This type of urbanization is also related to the housing market described by Hoyt (1939). 1990). The main assumption here was that social rank is related to transportation links which influence residential location in a sectoral manner (Scargill.8 Case Studies of Urban social Patterns The study of the urban social pattern of a city primarily focuses on the residential land use (Herbert and Thomas. It is assumed that any planned city consists of neighborhood units. The broad generalization of the social rank produced a sector model. value of home.1 Western Cities Many studies of the social and physical urban pattern have been done. The non-uniform pattern is consistent over many cities because similar households exert similar housing choices. they move outwards. employment. The outward mobility is related to different stages of life . are suitable modifications of the concept (Timms.marriage.

The changing pattern of family cycle reflects concentric zones while that of social rank is in sectors. 3. A study of Baltimore (Knox. socioeconomic status. 1995) shows that the four important factors in the social pattern are underclass. 1990) showed similar results. 1992. Winnipeg. does not always emerge as an independent component (Scargill. Hartshorn. traditional and modern design elements juxtaposed in seemingly dichotomous ways. Australia (Timms. Traditional places are typically more dense with narrow streets and housing spaces around central courtyards. 1995. however. Canada (Herbert and Thomas. Cities in the Third World are frequently dual environments. 1971).8.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 31 predominant in cities where migration is high. Studies of Brisbane. but socially with more complex relations to one another. Ethnicity.2 Third World Cities commercial ethnic group residential industrial Ethnic Status CBD Transition Low income Middle income High income Family Status Socioeconomic Status Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. Public open spaces are generally found only .5 Urban Social Patterns Source: Knox. youth/migrants and black poverty. 1979).

land use. Social morphological models constructed for the Third World cities show that there is a central concentration of commercial activity and a number of residential neighborhoods.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 32 around religious buildings. A large number of models of Third World cities have been made (Lowder. Western ideas of suburbanization and formed their Source: Drakakis-Smith own neighborhoods (Lowder. The migrants and poor did not live in the core of the city. The modern place is more spacious.6 Plan of Delhi and New educated and professional classes followed the Delhi. The colonial cities in Latin America show a centralized social pattern (Portes. 1986). A classic example can be seen in the design of New Delhi. but formed shantytowns in the peri-urban fringes and in unserviced areas (under bridges. The morphological model of Asian port cities shows a multiple nucleus (Figure 3. substandard living conditions and ethnicity were the broad variables that defined the social pattern of the city. Thus. ethnicity and literacy. The more Figure 3. Processes quite different from those in western cities govern the pattern of Third World cities.7 Asian Ports pattern showed concentric zones for land use. Even single cities. 1986). 1974) found that social status. family ties. 1986).6) (Herbert and Thomas. 1986 Literacy and ethnic patterns emerged in a sectoral form. . 1986). which is adjacent to. Around the plaza was the important buildings including a church. as opposed to conglomerations. and subsequently surrounded by an industrial city (Lowder. are very complex and have evolved over a very long time. and surrounds old Delhi (Figure 3. The model shows that the indigenous elite were closely associated with the commercial area. the morphological pattern of each Third World city is different mainly because of the presence of an indigenous city enclosed by a colonial city. traditional commercial areas and modern commercial areas. along riverbanks). The residences of the richer class formed the first concentric zone around the plaza. A study of Colombo (Herbert and de Silva. 1980. The center of the city was the plaza. social and economic variables may not be the only factors. 1975).7). But. The social Figure 3. The second and third concentric zones were occupied progressively by poorer people. which contribute significantly to the urban pattern (Kopardekara. The nuclei are original village. An analysis of Calcutta showed a pattern based on land use. 1990). Source: Lowder.

i Symbolic functionalism is performed by religion and caste and buttressed by regional affiliations. Wealthier families began to move out of the center and settle in more isolated locations. The greater complexity of urban life and the difficulty of maintaining caste identity through residential segregation alone. The pattern is similar to the one described by the sector model of North Figure 3. religion and language rather than demographics and economics can be seen. It has been found that Indian cities defy social modeling. 1986). Soon socioeconomic status related to nearness to the center became related to distance away from the center. A second indigenous factor suffusing urban society is that of regional affiliation. caste. in urban environments the meaning of caste becomes more important in terms of identity rather than function. Santiago and Chile Source: Lowder. 1977). languages and customs. The social ties are horizontal and vertical. 1986 residential colonies moved from the center of the city to the urban periphery which were selected for their better geographic.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 33 Here. industrial and office workers belonged to all castes. 1975).8). The nature of traditional social status and the interdependence and spatial interpretation of diverse. For example. farming is done only by the Sudra caste. the poorer the household (Cornelius. The outer ring bordered on farmland (Figure 3. The horizontal relationships are between people of the same cultural background while vertical relationships are between caste and class. climatic and aesthetic factors. In the 18th and 19th centuries. 1980): i Residences have not yet come to serve the symbolic function they do in the Western world. The pattern was a creation of the lifestyle choices of the urban rich (Portes. Soon. A consistent relationship existed between socioeconomic position of the household and their distance from the center of the city. and especially to construct a structural model. new definitions had to be made. in general. 3. spatial segregation based on ethnicity. and religious duties performed by the Brahmins. many large cities became crowded. Research findings point out that while caste is important in rural societies for its very functioning. "Particularly in cosmopolitan cities cultural or linguistic diversity and regional associations develop to extol their culture and language and to participate in their own . has created social organizations for each caste (Kopardekara.8. In Lima. the residences became smaller and public amenities were reduced. the Indian urban social scene essentially reflects two facets of non-western structure (Hall. in rural areas. the farther away from the center. status groups help to produce a very obscure patterning of social groups at the micro-level of analysis.3 Indian Cities In cities of India. But. yet complementary. In the cities where new professions were created.8 Latin American Cities America. Many studies have been done to study Indian urban areas.

These three dimensions would form concentric zones (Figure 3. These three dimensions were i socioeconomic dimension symbolized by the bazaar i political dimension represented by an administrative symbol i prestige dimension derived from the religious function of a temple. Calcutta) has low-density commercial centers surrounded by high-density residential neighborhoods. 1968). had retained their residential core (Mehta. However. 1980:35).9). Their influence and interplay causes residential segregation. Chandigarh) have low population densities with no concentration of industrial. . He had the following conclusions. cities that were well developed even before the colonial period. Ahmad (1965) did a factor analysis of the socioeconomic characteristics of Indian cities. Instead. such neighborhoods are the source for the development of the corporate groups. colonial cities. Madras. Industrial towns like Jamshedpur were planned around their industrial core. Weinstein (1974) made an attempt to produce a conceptual model for the social segregation of an Indian city. Certain areas are known for their residents speaking a particular language only. higher migration and equal male to female ratio. i The modern planned cities (Jamshedpur. and that the temple acted as the most meaningful focus for the spatial distribution of social characteristics. higher literacy. 1974 evolutionary pattern. Calcutta and Madras. Although the neighborhoods that result are not corporate groups in the sense in which they are defined. i South Indian cities had higher female employment rate. low literacy. i North Indian cities had low female employment rates. low migration and equal male to female ratio. The centroid of the system represents the optimum location for accessibility to all three functions. commercial or administrative areas. i Metropolitan cities (Bombay. had western style CBDs. real case studies did not prove this theory. He postulated three dimensions as being important contributors to residential segregation. Bombay. Hyderabad had two nuclei – the old city and the colonial city. Pune and Varanasi.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 34 regional festivals if not usually celebrated in the region within which they live now" (Hall. Temple Bazaar Centroid Fort Brush (1977) studied 24 cities in India and discerned four types of gradients of population directly related to their Figure 3. it was found that multiple nuclei were present.9 Pattern of Indian Cities Source: Weinstein.

Census data from 1881. religious polarity. A systematic analysis of census data for Bombay was done (Kosambi. 1986). Analysis at the level of a single city gave patterns that are more complex. castes and classes produces a more heterogeneous pattern. The social patterns were also strongly influenced by the age of the city. 1831 and 1961 was used to determine the evolution and change of the social pattern. 1901. British cities and industrial towns within the boundary of the urban area. languages. transportation and socioeconomic status (Kosambi. These examples show that the urban social pattern of Indian cities is very complex due to the influence of a variety of factors. The presence of many religions. .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 35 Such broad conclusions are results of regional analyses. commercialism. 1986). The patterns were attributed to Europeanism. The existence of multiple physical urban patterns caused by the presence of indigenous settlements.

Source: Lowder.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 36 C oncentric Z one T h eory S ector T heory Incom e g rou p 1 M ultiple N uclei T heory commercial ethnic group CBD Tran sitio n L ow incom e M iddle inco m e H igh inco m e In com e g roup 2 residential industrial In com e g rou p 3 D elhi Latin A m erica A sian P orts C oncentric + S ector T heories C hicago C alcutta C oncentric + S ector + M ultiple N uclei T h eories Figure 2. Hartshorn.10 Urban Social Patterns and Relevant Case Studies. 1992. 1986. .

or in search of opportunities in the city. In the case of Navi Mumbai. The lifestyle depends on ethnicity and migration. Land-use is also similar in that it is predominantly single-use zoning. . The historical evolution of cities has supported this stratification. religion and language. The reasons for migration are also varied – they may be migrating as a result of natural calamities. In the American cities. The lifestyle factor in North American cities relates small nuclear families with higher education achievements and better employment opportunities. Male dominance. These are concentric zone theory. Stratification causes social inequality in terms of wealth. the components derived from social area analysis were termed as socioeconomic status. Three leading western theories describing the urban social pattern of cities dominate the literature on urban social patterns (Hartshorn. this is not evident due to the existence of multi-generational families. The urban social pattern of these cities has been generalized. In the design of Navi Mumbai. Migration may also be restricted to the men of the family. The growth of cities across the world has been studied. the residential neighborhoods have been designed using the neighborhood principle as those designed in America. A market economy strongly influences the lifestyle of the citizens of Navi Mumbai. family status and ethnic status. skills and professions. power and status. Social area analysis assumes that a few independent factors can explain the spatial patterning of a city.9 Conclusion The urban social pattern is the complex manifestation of the underlying cultural values of the population within a particular built environment. Traditional Indian cities have grown over a very long period of time. In such a case study. it is appropriate to use a social area analysis to delineate the urban social pattern. In the case of India. The components of the analysis of American cities are not entirely apparent in the Third World cities. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. These characteristics stratify the society into vertical and horizontal systems. the researcher’s knowledge of the local environment is important to contextualize the pattern more appropriately. the sociocultural factors are related to caste. However.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 37 3. These theories have been combined in a social area analysis to describe the social pattern based on a few social variables. The households are generally large with a range of ages. 1992). an effort was made to prevent this social stratification and use residential allotments to fulfill this objective. this social area analysis must take into consideration the indigenous factors. The residential neighborhoods of such cities are not as well defined as they are in the American cities. class. In Third World cities. Here. migration or ethnic group represent the ethnic factor. Status in Third World cities is based on family membership or socioeconomic class.

The analysis looks at the variables at once and at their respective locations in their distribution. Although these analyses have been more effective for studying North American cities. studies in Calcutta. economic status and ethnic background produce a certain spatial pattern in the city.socioeconomic status. These factors are taken into consideration in social area analysis. However. family status and ethnic status. A set of variables describing the social structure of the city can be used in the statistical analysis. Under these conditions. Earlier. The research investigates the relationship between the spatial pattern of Navi Mumbai and the different theories of urban social patterns discussed in the literature review. 1985). Generally the economic model showed a sectored pattern. Cities are complex entities that have many different functions performed by many different people. immigration of rural population leads to segregation based on language. The aim is to identify key combinations of different measures that provide an adequate basis on which to differentiate the sub-areas from one another (King and Golledge. The study involves the categorization of a city based on social rank. Hoyt and Harris and Ullman. The social area analysis may be done statistically by a factor analysis. The issue of spatial distribution of different kinds of people in Navi Mumbai is of primary interest. These involve population.Chapter 4: Research Design Determining the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai is the primary research objective of this thesis. Social area analysis shows how family characteristics. and housing characteristics. mapping of social area analysis for a large sample of cities showed that socioeconomic status. Better transportation systems increase mobility and lead to a greater sorting of population (Cadwallader. Thus. and ethnicity confirmed the validity of the analysis. urbanization and segregation. 1971). The basic premise of social area analysis is that a city cannot be studied in isolation from the overall society (Shevky and Bell. These three factors also corresponded to the theoretical models proposed by Burgess. It is a . and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. Hoyt. the urbanization component showed a concentric ring pattern. 4. The pattern of the city may be determined by statistical analysis or by discerning people’s mental images of the city. there was considerable criticism about the choice of variables. economic. They were considered to be very narrow and not universally applicable. The family as a unit becomes weaker. The general issue of social areas will be accomplished through social area analysis. 1978). The increase in industrialization creates an occupational status system (Timms. This analysis classifies census tract data into three main constructs . Cairo and Helsinki showed some useful generalization. and Harris and Ullman will be the theoretical framework for the conceptualization of the social pattern of Navi Mumbai.1 Social Area Analysis Social area analysis provides a broad framework for analyzing the social patterns of a city. The theories put forth by Burgess. It was first put forth by Shevky and Williams (1949) in a study of Los Angeles. urbanization index. religion and ethnic background. 1955). the city was analyzed as a composite made up of three layers.

education.4 Data Collection The data required for the analysis can be obtained from census tracts of Navi Mumbai.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Socioeconomic status Profession Number of earning members Income Education Family status Demographics Women at home Family size Dwelling size Type of house Year of occupation Ethnic status Religion Language 4. 1990). Social area analysis based on western thinking can not be naively applied to the study of urban social patterns in India. then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. Variables that arise from such cultural determinants need to be used in the factor analysis. religious and historic development with both horizontal (kinship. This database provides aggregated information about each node (township). religion. H0. is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social patterning will occur. language) and vertical (occupation. mapping of social patterns in many cities across the world show that the socioeconomic status. The sectors (neighborhoods) are identical to census block tracts. caste) dimensions (Hall. Social structure in India is a result of cultural. In this case study of Navi Mumbai. 4. 1980). If H0 is false.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 39 device that seeks interrelationships among the set of input variables (Herbert and Thomas.2 Hypotheses As discussed in the literature review. 4. and each sector (neighborhood) of the nodes. concentric zone theory and multiple nuclei theory. family status and ethnic status correspond respectively to the sector theory. my null hypothesis. This provides a spatial hierarchical data set. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. The variables are tabulated below: Table 4. The data available is based on a .3 Operationalization Certain variables will be used to operationalize the social area analysis to obtain the urban social pattern.

Table 4. is census data. The only data source that provides this information. the sector is the unit of analysis.5.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 40 socioeconomic survey done by CIDCO in December 1995.2 Survey Sampling Node Total Number of Dwellings Vashi 27. and compare it to other cities. 4. The survey was carried out on a ~22% sample basis for each node. the units of analysis are not identical. Statistics are weighted for spatial data because. In this research. The third is cluster analysis of the cases to see which variables are closely associated. cartographic mapping. The single variable from that data set is selected and a histogram of it at the .283 Nerul 16. The second is a principal components analysis. The descriptive analysis helps understand the finer dimensions of the data.338 Belapur 9. The GIS and mapping techniques convert all the statistical information into a graphic representation. For a social area analysis. Although principal components analysis is no longer considered the most favorable mode of analysis to delineate patterns. This is a detailed stage of analysis. These are techniques in multivariate analysis. The census data is not 100% reliable. and GIS overlay techniques are used to determine the social pattern at the regional and sub-regional levels. All data is standardized. The cluster analysis puts together cases which are similar based on the relationship between the variables. and at the sub-regional scale attached as Appendix C.378 Kopar-khairane 14. although variables are related. Finally.109 Kalamboli 9. 4. The principal components analysis draws out the relationship between the variables. An error of 5-8% is expected.357 Survey Coverage 6656 4219 2125 2034 2282 2530 2506 544 % of total 24 26 23 22 25 19 18 23 The issues of validity and reliability arise in the use of census data for testing the hypothesis.007 Airoli 13.1 Descriptive Analysis The first stage of analysis describes the data at both the regional and sub-regional scale. These four methods are collectively used to analyze the data.161 Sanpada 2. At the regional scale the data is tabulated.056 New Panvel 9. for the purpose of this thesis it shall be used. The variables are expected to cluster based on the constructs described above.5 Methodology Four methodologies are used to analyze the data. The first is a descriptive analysis of the data setting out the parameters that need to be considered to define the meaning of heterogeneity. data covering a large area is required.

The data is interpreted in terms of its mean and standard deviation. This matrix is next converted into a factor matrix. and so on" (Kim and Mueller. It has very little theory and depends largely on experience. Finally. Corresponding communalities are also estimated. The first matrix is a simple data matrix. 1986). certain restrictions are imposed. 4. 1986). Patterns can be delineated from mapping these components. the matrix of component scores is computed. The cases are the rows and the variables are the columns.5.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 41 sub-regional scale is drawn. The rotation normally removes the negative loadings. This approach to classification is very subjective. The second step is to rotate the axis to get a simpler solution. 4. In order to interpret this descriptive statistics for homogeneity. the second component accounts for as much of the residual variance left unexplained by the first factor. The data matrix is converted into a correlation matrix. Cluster analysis classifies the groups according to the observations into moreor-less homogenous and distinct groups (Davis. Generally variables with communalities less than 0. it is necessary to provide a permissible range of variation.2 Principal Components Analysis A principal components analysis reduces a large number of variables to a smaller number of underlying components. then the pattern shall be interpreted as homogeneous.3 Cluster Analysis Classification of data places objects in one or more homogenous groups. These restrictions are (1) there are k common components (2) underlying components are orthogonal to each other (3) the first component accounts for as much variance as possible. The elements of the eigenvectors that are used to compute the scores are called principal component loadings. Rotating the axis more closely intersects the clusters of variables. Comparative figures at the national scale are also given. and results in a simpler pattern.5. The N by M matrix is standardized in terms of standard deviation. This matrix contains components that represent a group of interrelated variables. Characteristics of the urban social pattern can be revealed by considering the relationship within groups. If the standard deviation at the 95% confidence interval is within 15% of the mean. The eigenvalue criterion (eigenvalue greater than or equal to 1) helps eliminate components which are not meaningful. The initial solution is based on the orthogonal solution. A variation greater than thirty percent of the total population from the mean (15% on either side of mean) is used here to show unequal distribution.7 are not significant in the correlation matrix. "To obtain the initial solution. This is varimax rotation. These loadings indicate the strength of the relationships between variables and underlying components. This solution determines whether a small number of the components can be used to explain the covariance between a large number of variables. The first step of principal components analysis is to obtain an initial solution. Each original observation is converted into a principal component score. Principal components are the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix (Davis. Principal components analysis can be thought of as four matrices. The axis has been rotated orthogonally (assuming the factors are uncorrelated). The . 1978).

Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 42 classification procedure used here is hierarchical clustering. The criteria for clustering is that both observations mutually have the highest correlation with each other. The SPSS program was also used to perform a principal component analysis and a cluster analysis on this data set. The levels of similarity are used to construct the dendrogram. namely Vashi. and so produces better dendrograms.5.0 to -1. then connects the next most similar observations to these. principal components analysis and cluster analysis.0.4 Mapping and Overlays The final stage is the mapping of the descriptive analysis. This stage of analysis integrates the theoretical framework. The regional scale was comparisons between the eight nodes of Navi Mumbai. A measure of similarity between every pair of objects is computed using Euclidean distance. Analysis was then done of one particular node of Navi Mumbai. 4. and the statistical analysis to determine an interpretation of the pattern. Mapping of the principal components determined if any pattern exists in the social characteristics of Navi Mumbai at the regional and sub-regional scales. The aim of these two kinds of analysis was to determine if the data set clustered into the three constructs given above. 4.6 Data Analysis Descriptive analysis of the data was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. This mapping helps explain the statistics through a easily interpretable graphic representation. A low distance would indicate that two objects are similar and a large distance would indicate that the two objects are dissimilar. Distance coefficients are linked at low values. Both the analyses were done at a regional and sub-regional scale. as is the correlation coefficient. The distance coefficient is not constrained within the range of +1. . A correlation coefficient or distance coefficient may be used to evaluate similarities. This method joins similar observations.

m. The variables needed to explain the constructs as well as possible. Data for the regional and sub-regional scale was collected from the 1995 socioeconomic survey conducted by CIDCO.2 Descriptive Analysis of Data The different constructs and variable names described in the methodology section are tabulated below (Table 5. As the 1995 survey data was the most recent data. female pop. only then would they bring out the characteristics of the construct. it was used for analysis. Muslim Language Marathi. Panvel. age 25-45 Family size 4 to 5 members Dwelling size 26-35 sq. Kalamboli.Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 5. Belapur. Airoli and Sanpada. and has fully developed residential sectors. age 25-45.1 Introduction The aim of this research is to study the urban social pattern of the population across a hierarchical scale. it was selected out of the eight nodes. This spatial scale is • regional scale (nodes). Type of housing CIDCO Tenure 1980s Last place of residence Bombay Ethnic status Religion Hindu. Then the data set was studied at a sub-regional level by analyzing the neighborhoods of Vashi node. All the variables belonged to closed sets.1) with the actual variable from the data set. • sub-regional scale (sectors of a node) The study areas at the regional level of analysis are those of the nodes of Navi Mumbai including Vashi. Kopar-khairane. 2651-4450 Education high school Family status Demographics Male pop. The criteria used to select the variables were based on the expectations of the hypothesis. only one or two representative variables from each set was selected. As this node had the most complete data. Table 5.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Name Variable from data set Socioeconomic Profession highly skilled. 5. Malayalam . unskilled status Number of earning members 1 earning member Income Rs. One or two variables from each set was selected for this study. The methodological reason for selecting these eight nodes out of the total of thirteen is because data was available for only these eight nodes. Hence. Vashi is the oldest node. Nerul. The analysis is divided into descriptive analysis of variables and detailed analysis at the regional and sub-regional.

2.2Work Force Percent of male Percent of female population in work population in work force force Vashi 53 10 Nerul 55 7 Belapur 52 12 Kalamboli 54 6 Panvel 57 8 Kopar-khairane 56 10 Airoli 53 7 Sanpada 58 9 Mean 54.12 1. A profession brings with it a certain prestige and social class.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 44 All data tables are for the regional scale while the histograms are from the sub-regional scale.2.1 Socioeconomic Status The socioeconomic status is an indicator of social class. Data tables for the sub-regional scale are given in Appendix C.99 The average number of earners per household is 1. while it is 1. 33. An increase in the number of earning members increases family income and the socioeconomic class. All these variables are closely correlated. and form the socioeconomic indicator.35.67 in Greater Bombay. Table 5.15% (a slight increase from 32.8% recorded in the 1987 survey) of the population makes up the workforce of Navi Mumbai. 5.2 and the number of earners in Table 5. The percent of males and females is shown in Table 5.3). Number of earning members: Out of the total population of 91787 recorded in the survey.62 Standard Deviation 2. 30430 are the working population.75 8. Better education facilitates getting better jobs and higher income. Seventy-five percent of families had one earning member and twenty percent of families had two earning members (Table 5. Table 5.3 Number of Earners Single 2 3 4+ Vashi 68 23 6 2 Nerul 78 16 3 1 Belapur 68 22 4 2 Kalamboli 79 15 4 1 Panvel 78 17 3 1 Kopar-khairane 76 17 5 1 Airoli 74 20 4 1 Sanpada 70 19 7 2 Mean 74 19 5 1 Standard deviation 5 3 1 1 .

while service professions such as shops and hotels employ 7% of the workforce. This means that the distribution is homogeneous. Small businesses account for 15% of the employees.4 Occupational Classification of Workforce Highly skilled unskilled office selfteacher other skilled worker worker assistant employed Vashi 45 12 12 15 9 4 3 Nerul 38 23 13 15 4 4 3 Belapur 47 12 8 20 3 6 4 Kalamboli 24 31 20 12 8 3 2 Panvel 43 19 9 16 4 7 2 Kopar-khairane 20 9 41 9 9 0 12 Airoli 34 18 44 12 5 1 4 Sanpada 49 9 20 14 3 3 2 Mean 38 17 19 14 6 4 4 Standard Deviation 11 8 11 3 3 2 3 Frequency . Skilled workers are factory workers. The distribution of the single earner families is shown in Figure 5. The mean is 74 with a very low standard deviation of 5. Unskilled persons are construction laborers and housemaids. single earning member. The standard deviation is 11. Government offices including banks and public sector enterprises employ 21% of the workforce.0 50. was selected.0 60. This is most representative of the entire population.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 45 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std.0 65. They form 17% of the workforce.0 75.96 Mean = 66. Dev = 7.3 N = 19127. Table 5.96 (mean=66.0 70. The distribution of the singleearner family at the regional level shows a standard deviation of only 5 (mean=74).4). Kopar-khairane has a low number of highly skilled workers and a large number of unskilled workers (Table 5. On an average. In Navi Mumbai this economic class constitutes 38% of the work force. the variable.0 55. For this analysis classification based on skills is tabulated (Table 5. Professional workers in teaching and medical institutions are 7% of the workforce.0 80.1 Distribution of Single-earner families For the analysis. The main reason is that this node is presently under construction and has a large workforce of construction workers.3).00 45. 25% of the workforce is employed there. construction workers and trainees. At the sub-regional scale the standard deviation is 7. Profession: Good employment opportunities are offered by the manufacturing industries of Navi Mumbai.3).0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. they are 19% of the work force and the standard deviation is 11. and has a normal distribution over eight cases. The pattern is homogeneous. contractors and consultants.1. Both the values are within 15% of the mean. carpenters. Highly skilled professionals hold higher level managerial and supervisory jobs or are professional business persons.

88 16. 2651-4450 The income range of Rs. 1251 and Rs.46 (mean=33.46 44517500 30 21 35 21 31 36 34 42 31. This shows a proportionately large middle and higher income groups.5). 2651-4450 was selected for the principal components analysis because the median income of Rs. and the standard deviation is 6.5 Household Income upto 12511250 2650 Vashi 2 14 Nerul 3 27 Belapur 2 12 Kalamboli 2 26 Panvel 2 24 Kopar-khairane 2 9 Airoli 1 14 Sanpada 1 5 Mean 1.13 1. 4900 and the monthly average per capita income is Rs.64 8.2 Frequency of Families with income range Rs.0 20. Income: The income groups are defined by the Government of India’s household income classification into: • economically weaker section (EWS) earning less than Rs1250 per month • lower income group (LIG) earning between Rs.13 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5.0 15.9) (Figure 5. 7500 per month.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.45) and the sub-regional scale.29 750110000 15 6 12 3 5 9 8 12 8.46.2 15000+ 3 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 1.2).38 Standard deviation 0. 4200 fell within this range.0 30. Both cases do not show a homogeneous distribution of people based on income as the standard deviation is greater than 15% of the mean.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 46 The corresponding data was not available at the sub-regional scale.75 4. Almost 34% of the population falls within this category. 4451 and Rs 7500 and • higher income group (HIG) earning more than Rs.0 40. Frequency .9 N = 19127.0 45. the standard deviation is 10.0 Std. The proportion of EWS:LIG:MIG:HIG is 2:16:34:48. The regional scale shows a standard deviation of 6. The monthly average household income is Rs.06 1000115000 7 3 5 1 3 7 2 4 4 2.0 25. 1230. in Navi Mumbai it appears that the four income groups have to be redefined based on the median and/or mean income of this region rather than using the national urban averages (Table 5.98 (mean=27. Thus.0 35.0 50. Table 5.25 7. 2650 • middle income group (MIG) earning between Rs.0 10.26 26514450 27 36 27 46 31 32 39 31 33. Dev = 10 Mean = 27.63 6.

Airoli Sanpada Bombay khairane Vashi 88 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 Nerul 9 77 2 1 1 0 0 0 10 Belapur 10 12 67 1 1 0 0 0 9 Kalamboli 1 0 1 90 4 0 0 0 4 Panvel 2 1 2 8 76 0 0 0 11 Kopar-khairane 17 0 0 0 0 81 0 0 2 Airoli 7 0 0 0 0 0 83 0 10 Sanpada 47 8 1 1 0 0 16 0 27 In the Bombay region literacy rates are seventy-five percent for adult population. 10% use bicycles and only 2% go by school bus. 76% of the students walk to their school or college. children.75 1.52 1. secondary school education.38 3.6 Location of Education Institutions Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar. high school education. the column titled Vashi shows that some students from all other nodes also go there to attend school or college (Table 5. while 4% of the population is going to college. and 35% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is Marathi (12% did not specify their medium of instruction).38 6.07 high school 22 17 21 16 19 15 18 25 19. Table 5.7). 51% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is English. The value given represents the highest level of education achieved by at least one member of the family (Table 5. Hence.6). Sanpada is the only node without any education facilities. Table 5. Most students attend school and college within their node (township). 12% use public transport.7 Level of Education illiterate Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 4 3 5 7 3 4 4 4 4.28 Children Primary secondary 9 5 8 10 8 6 7 8 7.66 27 27 30 34 25 27 37 21 28.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 47 Education: The survey shows that 27% of the total population is children going to school.25 1. The level of education is categorized into illiterate.13 3.30 . technical education. primary school education.36 technical 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 2 1.25 2. Vashi has all the major colleges.04 BS MS 22 4 24 5 15 2 9 1 22 4 29 4 13 3 21 4 19.5 5.60 14 15 18 20 14 13 16 12 15.63 1. Bachelors and Masters degrees.

3). The national average for this variable is 16. The working age group of 25 to 44 is 39% of the 1000 Std.0 40.6 population are in the age group of N = 19127.5).0 population are in the 60+ range.2 Family Status Demographics: The nodes of Navi Mumbai have a female to 5000 male ratio of 848 to 1000 (comparative figures for Bombay 4000 are 819 to 1000).0 25.3 Frequency of Families with at least one a younger population with a high individual with Secondary Education percentage of children. Table 5. The variation is not homogeneous at either scale (Figure 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 48 The variable ’secondary school’ was selected under level of education. 28.8 Male Population below 3 4-5 6 .21 22 -24 25 -44 45 -59 60+ Vashi 4 3 7 15 12 5 34 14 5 Nerul 7 5 10 12 8 5 41 8 3 Belapur 6 4 8 14 12 5 37 11 4 Kalamboli 8 6 11 13 8 5 43 6 1 Panvel 8 4 8 11 9 5 44 9 3 Kopar-khairane 10 6 10 10 8 5 43 6 1 Airoli 7 5 10 14 11 4 39 8 2 Sanpada 7 4 6 10 10 5 43 10 4 Mean 7 5 9 12 10 5 41 9 3 Standard deviation 2 1 2 2 2 0 3 3 1 6000 Frequency .0 35. 1991) The standard deviation of this variable at the regional scale is 5.0 30.6). Children up to the age of 15 constitute 33% of 3000 the total population. and at the sub-regional scale is 7. Secondary school means an education of up to Grade 10 and the passing of a government examination (matriculation).07. About 9% of the Mean = 40. Table 5. 5.00 0 45 to 59. This age group was selected because it is a subset of the population and it makes most of the decision regarding social choices (Table 5.9 10 -15 16 .13 (mean=40.07 (mean=28.5% of the population falls under this category with a standard deviation of 5.9).8. This level of education is provided to everyone by the government free of cost.0 20. The demographic indicators used are male and female population of the age group 25-45.6 (Census of India.13 population.2. Dev = 7.0 45. The age group 16 to 24 is 10% of the 2000 population. and only 3% of the 15.0 50. Cases weighted by population The present pattern clearly shows Figure 5.

In Vashi.0 N = 19127.39 Mean = 38.01 for all the nodes (Table 5. and 3. The reason for this is not only marriage and children.39 (mean=38) at the sub-regional level (Figure 5.76 and the national average is 5.0 50. Family size: The average family size is 4. .0 36.73 in 1987 to 4.21 in 1985.0 46.0 40.0 42.0 48.4 Frequency of male population in the age group 25-45 Figure 5.0 52.4).0 38.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. but also the need to accommodate older parents.52.9 Female Population below 3 4-5 Vashi 5 3 Nerul 7 5 Belapur 5 4 Kalamboli 15 10 Panvel 8 4 Kopar-khairane 9 6 Airoli 6 5 Sanpada 6 4 Mean 8 5 Standard deviation 3 2 6 -9 8 10 8 16 8 10 10 8 10 3 10 -15 14 13 14 20 11 9 15 10 13 3 16 -21 11 9 11 13 10 12 10 13 11 1 22 -24 5 7 6 12 9 10 6 9 8 2 25 -44 39 40 40 6 40 37 39 39 35 12 45 -59 10 6 8 6 6 5 6 9 7 2 60+ 4 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 The female population of the age group 25-45 is also uniformly distributed over the study area. 3000 2000 Frequency 1000 0 32. A descriptive analysis of the data over the last 20 years shows that household size has been constantly increasing.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 49 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation of the population is 3 (mean=41) at the regional level. The comparative family size for Bombay is 4. Dev = 3. average family size has increased from 3. The population age structure is uniformly distributed over the whole region.0 Std.0 44.0 34.10).

9 5.1.21 3.85 Mean = 56.3 26 34 31 31 41 41 27 39 33.9).6 1 2 1 3 5 3 1 3 2.1 (mean=50.0 67.0 52. and 5. Later.4 Average family size 4. At the regional scale the standard deviation is 5.5 60. the data shows more diversification of the housing stock. Frequency Cases weighted by population Figure 5. 3000 2000 1000 Std.0 57.5 45.22 3.87 4.5 The variation of the data is minimal.00 0 42.1 6.0 47.8 6. Since Vashi is the oldest node. private builders and cooperative housing began developing residential sectors.9 0.85 (mean=56) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.0 N = 19127.7 14 10 13 14 8 10 15 12 12 2. .99 3.10 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 50 Table 5.67 3.85 5000 4000 The families with a size of 4 or 5 members was chosen as 50% of the population belongs to this category.0 62.11).5 57 54 53 52 45 45 56 45 50. CIDCO began all construction in Navi Mumbai.5 65.5 Frequency of households with 4 or 5 members Type of Housing: Initially CIDCO built ninety percent of the housing stock.5 50. The variable has a standard deviation of 5. Dev = 5.03 3.4 8.0 4.81 4.5). All other nodes show a dominance of CIDCO housing (Table 5.9.4 1.10 Family Size Single Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 6000 2.5 55.

The standard deviation is 12.0 50. This is a very significant result. Co-op Commercial 29 2 5 0 9 0 0 1 15 0 2 0 0 0 11 0 8.0 30.6 Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO For this variable. CIDCO’s aim to promote heterogeneity was to be implemented by having a strong hold over the housing market.38 9.76 0. Table 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 51 Table 5.11 Type of Housing CIDCO Vashi 64 Nerul 95 Belapur 91 Kalamboli 99 Panvel 80 Kopar-khairane 98 Airoli 100 Sanpada 88 Mean 89.00 1.4 N = 19127.00 Cases weighted by POP Figure 5.38) while at the sub-regional scale it is 35.0 70. The categories. private ownership.77 Pvt. The standard deviation at the regional scale is 12.24 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 Pvt. Houses built by CIDCO are 90% of the houses available.0 100.13 0. Frequency . This may be one of the main reasons for the greater variability in the pattern at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale.0 40.0 Std.0 10.0 90. the strong control is no longer evident.24. only houses built by CIDCO was selected. The large deviation shows that private construction has taken place.0 20.6).0 80. At Vashi. CIDCO is still the major owner.62 (mean=66.4) (Figure 5.24 (mean=89.12 shows present ownership of the house. resale and rental fall under private ownership.88 0. House 2 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 1. the oldest node. Dev = 35.0 60. Most government offices that provide housing for their employees obtain long term lease from CIDCO.35 1000 0 0.62 Mean = 66.38 Standard Deviation 12. Some houses are mortgage through CIDCO.74 Other 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 52 Table 5.25 18.13 Housing built by CIDCO <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 51-75 76-100 101-150 150+ Vashi 11 30 22 14 15 3 2 0 Nerul 7 57 18 8 7 2 1 0 Belapur 0 26 10 33 20 11 0 0 Kalamboli 24 37 24 5 7 2 0 0 Panvel 10 33 16 18 22 1 0 0 Kopar-khairane 0 20 10 42 18 9 1 0 Airoli 0 30 28 17 18 6 0 0 Sanpada 0 61 18 12 9 0 0 0 Mean 6.65 6.63 9.85 Mean = 14. While CIDCO is building houses for the EWS/LIG/MIG.0 90.7 Frequency of Housing Built by CIDCO . Table 5.25 0.2 (Figure 5.12 Ownership of House Mortgage CIDCO Vashi 11 23 Nerul 21 36 Belapur 8 40 Kalamboli 25 25 Panvel 7 33 Kopar-khairane 0 34 Airoli 0 51 Sanpada 15 32 Mean 10. Dev = 21.75 Private 17 3 4 1 9 1 0 7 5.99 0.0 20. Table 5.50 36.36 12.88 34.76 0 10000 8000 The standard deviation of the data was 21.25 5.0 50.25 while the mean was 14. 6000 4000 Frequency 2000 Std.68 Resale 21 16 0 0 0 14 0 18 8.0 30.50 0 Standard deviation 8.64 6.13.5 8.7).0 60.75 18.2 N = 19127.0 40.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.5 4.00 0.52 14.63 14.02 3.0 70.0 10.14).0 80.09 8.64 Dwelling size: The average size of dwelling units constructed by CIDCO is less than that built by private builders (Table 5.25 Standard Deviation 9.43 Rental 23 36 37 43 36 49 42 26 36. the private builders are predominantly building for the HIG.

8 Frequency of Houses built by Private number of houses occupied between Enterprise nodes (Table 5.94 10. Table 5.13 11.83 3.78 12.50 16.88 15.0 can be divided into three stages: early. Dwelling size was selected 8000 based on type of house.38 29.99 5.15 Year of Occupation before 1980 1981-85 1986-90 1991-92 1993 1994 1995 Vashi 11 28 24 8 9 14 5 Nerul 0 6 29 10 6 35 14 Belapur 4 23 24 11 13 18 7 Kalamboli 0 5 31 10 11 37 6 Panvel 0 11 14 15 14 34 12 Kopar-khairane 0 0 0 20 18 34 28 Airoli 0 0 47 14 12 16 11 Sanpada 0 0 0 0 8 48 44 Mean 1. For both CIDCO-built houses and privately 6000 built houses.0 60.0 The frequency distribution of houses built by private enterprise shows a 12000 standard deviation of 18.38 Standard Deviation 10. Dev = 18.76 7. There is a great variation in the Figure 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 53 Table 5.50 2.75 3.0 6.0 20.0 10.13 21.00 0 Tenure: The growth of Navi Mumbai 0.88 Standard Deviation 3.16 51-75 14 8 33 5 18 42 17 12 5. m.14 Housing built by Private Enterprise <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 Vashi 4 2 2 14 Nerul 0 6 6 6 Belapur 0 1 2 2 Kalamboli 0 8 0 0 Panvel 0 0 1 1 Kopar-khairane 0 91 5 5 Airoli 0 0 0 0 Sanpada 13 60 2 2 Mean 37.50 .00 11.0 40. corresponding to middle income Fre 2000 Std.0 50.8).69 10.0 30.15).12 101-150 8 5 5 0 8 0 0 2 3.09 13. Kalamboli.75 2.88 9.2 (Figure 5.67 que groups. Cases weighted by population slow phase in the 1970s.86 3.67 and mean 10000 16. Panvel and Airoli in the latter 1980s and in Kopar-khairane and Sanpada only in the 1990s. Only Vashi and Belapur had a household population in the 1980s.63 18.50 15.67 76-100 24 23 9 0 24 1 0 5 3. middle phase in 1980s and accelerated phase in the 1990s. Families began to reside in Nerul. Mean = 16.50 14.2 ncy N = 19127. the dwelling sizes 4000 selected was 26-35 sq.41 150+ 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 14.

16 Airoli 8.25 (mean=30.05 4.89 47.04 6.16).0 40.58 13.42 0.0 80.58 5.82 3. 3000 Previous Place of Residence: The two variables describing previous Std. However.9 Frequency of Tenure the first stage of relocation where the choice of house is not very important.04 2.57 5.94 11. which can be attributed to the pace of construction. This is because any house in Navi Mumbai would be better than the existing living conditions in Bombay.78 0.29 4.79 2.4 4.8 Navi Mumbai (Table 5.18 5.8) (Figure 5.63 9.0 20.2 2. Only the middle phase was selected as a representative variable.83 5.1 5.28 55.9).20 2.45 0. this table only indicates the year of occupation of the present accommodation.25) and 18.94 Nerul 13.32 5.63 17.51 3.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 54 The three time periods of 1970s.2 2.00 0 describe migration from Bombay and 0.11 2.26 5.34 13.39 Within state 3.5 2.14 5. It is thus.85 0 6.0 60.25 place of residence are Bombay and 1000 Mean = 52.0 10.16 Previous Place of Residence Island City Western Eastern suburbs suburbs Vashi 18. not entirely accurate as families may have shifted after their first place of residence.25 (mean=52.39 Panvel 3. Cases weighted by population Migration from Bombay is usually Figure 5. 2000 Table 5.27 Kopar 14.51 20.0 50.54 Outside Outside state India 4.55 23.0 30. Dev = 18.75 2.28 3.06 6.53 32.4 0.17 .15 24. 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation at the regional scale is 20.58 4.53 2.54 0. There is a very large variability.23 4.8 0.26 6.78 39.43 Sanpada 17. 1980s and 1990s account for the entire span of growth of the city.19 Navi Mumbai 35.0 70.45 Standard 5.07 19.25 0.34 49.79 deviation Frequency Thane 3.63 Mean 11.62 2.56 Belapur 10.25 1.46 3.82 4.23 Kalamboli 5.36 17. These N = 19127. Movement within Navi Mumbai shows desire to move to a house of the homeowner’s choice.05 1.19 26.36 0.34 66.23 49.0 movement within Navi Mumbai.94 0.44 2.65 10.3 68.54 7.

This variable shows diversification of the population based on a cultural variable (Table 5.0 50.75% of the total and has a standard deviation of 1. An analysis of the other minority populations also show very large standard deviations.50 1.54 (mean=53) at the sub-regional scale. from Bombay and within Navi Mumbai.0 60.0 65.46 The variables Hindu and Muslim were selected for analysis.0 40.0 45.98. There is a large variation because there has been migration from the rural areas. island city.67. it is more important to analyze the minority religions to see if they are forming ethnic enclaves. 5. Bombay. The mean is 85.75% and the standard deviation is only 4. Ethnic enclaves are formed mainly by religious and linguistic groups.75 1. The Muslim population is 4. The Hindu population is the majority and is homogenous. This variable shows the families whose most immediate place of origin is Bombay. western suburbs.0 70. The means of the religion variable correspond with the national averages.45 Islam 6 5 4 5 2 6 3 7 4.67 Jain 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. Dev = 9.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 55 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std.38 2. Table 5.00 2.17).33 Buddhist 1 0 2 1 0 2 5 1 1.0 75.60 Others 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.10 Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence The variables.2. However.3 Ethnic Status This construct is very important because it is the construct that creates segregation in India.00 0 35.98 Christian 6 3 6 4 2 2 3 9 4.13 0.42 (mean=26.17 Religion Hindu Vashi 84 Nerul 88 Belapur 79 Kalamboli 84 Panvel 94 Kopar-khairane 89 Airoli 88 Sanpada 80 Mean 85.0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.35 Sikh 2 3 7 6 1 1 1 3 3. The standard deviation of the families whose previous place of residence was Bombay is 9. eastern suburbs and Thane have been summed up to obtain the variable.0 55.01) at the regional scale and 9. Frequency .75 Standard deviation 4.25 0. Religion: This variable is very important for this analysis because India has a number of well-defined religions.56 Mean = 53.0 N = 19127.

This forms a major minority language.75 Belapur 40.12 1.34 3.13 14.75).91 Mean = 6.73 Hindi Gujarati Malayalam Punjabi Tamil Kannada Bengali Other 13.31 9.37 2.98 (mean=85.49 11. Marathi is the local language.99 10.9 N = 19127. dev 11.08 11. Hindi is the dominant language of the country.08 3.41 4.83 6. Dev = 4.01 9.72 0.22 Std.74 3.04 1. Marathi is the local language.11 6.93 Airoli 42.14 2.4 N = 19127. Mean = 82.33 2.04 3. Dev = 3.53 9.29 2.27 2.27 16.48 3.36 4.31 3. Bengali an eastern one and Tamil.60 5.69 5.47 3. Malayalam is the language of the state 1000 miles away.68 4.76 Kalamboli 55.74 2.20 0.26 2.29 2.77 1.68 1.53 16.96 5.44 2.48 5. The Muslim population and other minority religions show a nonuniform distribution over the study area.99 1.92 5.00 Frequency 1000 2000 Std. This has been used to study if there are any ethnic neighborhoods formed due to linguistic considerations.13 13.57 3.78 Kopar 67.12 Frequency of Muslims The Hindu population is spread uniformly over the study are with standard deviation 4.50 1.6 12.59 12.87 Panvel 66.46 Sanpada 63.16 16.82 3. 54% of the population speaks this language.23 7.50 3.64 2.11 Frequency of Hindus Figure 5.72 1.18 Language Marathi Vashi 42.65 2.32 3.91 2. Malayalam and Kannada southern ones Table 5.33 5.50 2.79 Mean 53.41 Nerul 45.19 8. Punjabi is a northern language.90 2.32 0.22 The two languages selected are Marathi and Malayalam.50 3.98 8.35 3.32 7.11 6. .66 2.43 8.Malathi Ananthakrishnan 5000 Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 10000 56 4000 8000 3000 6000 2000 4000 Frequency Std.19 5.00 0 0 Figure 5.80 5.5 14.17 13.56 3. Gujarati is the language of the adjoining state.34 3. Language: The variable language is very important in the Indian context because civil violence due to language has taken place across India.67 1.66 2. and there is a large population of Malayalam-speaking people in the greater Bombay region.81 7.72 1.97 1.

0 12.0 70.6).5 10.22) at the regional scale and 15. This is probably the result of the many other linguistic groups.0 20.77 (mean=7.26 (mean=7.0 22. The standard deviation is very large showing some areas have more Malayalamspeaking persons than others leading to the conclusion that ethnic enclaves do exist.0 30.0 60.0 80. Dev = 3. Table 5.13). This pattern is more apparent at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale (Table 5.6 N = 19127.68) at the regional scale and 3.0 0 2.73 Mean = 46.0 17.14).0 Cases weighted by population Cases weighted by population Figure 5.6) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5. The standard deviation of Malayalam is 3.5 20.0 7.5 5.00 1000 Std.0 40.19 Spatial Pattern of Variables Variable Regional scale Number of earning members Uniform Income Non-uniform Education Non-uniform Demographics Uniform Family size Uniform Type of housing Non-uniform Tenure Non-uniform Last place of residence Non-uniform Hindu Uniform Muslim Non-uniform Marathi Non-uniform Malayalam Non-uniform .19).0 50.14 Frequency of Malayalam The standard deviation of Marathi is 11. The distribution of families with Marathi as their native language is not very uniform (Figure 5.73 (mean=53. The descriptive analysis suggests that the urban social pattern is not defined by homogeneous socioeconomic classes.5 15. which have formed their own enclaves.13 Frequency of Marathi Figure 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 57 6000 6000 5000 5000 4000 4000 3000 3000 2000 2000 Frequency Frequency 1000 Std.5 25.9 N = 19127.73 (mean=46.00 0 10.77 Mean = 6. Dev = 15. There is a non-uniform pattern in socioeconomic variables as well as in the ethnic variables.

18. .902 explains 23. as PCA limited the number of variables to 8. explaining 90% of the variance. The number of variables used in the analysis could not be more than the number of cases. Hence. or principle components. are needed for the complete explanation of the difference in the data.845% of the variation. religion and language. A PCA was run.Nodes 5. The constructs described on page 1 suggest the need for 12 variables. nearly 90% of the variance of the 8 nodes lies within a 3-dimensional space.818 explains a variation of 22. income. and three components were obtained. The principal components obtained from the rotated component matrix are used as they are more simple to interpret.468 explains 43. Cumulatively these three components explain 89. The use of PCA as a method of analysis was limited by the small number of cases. Thus. The outputs obtained from the SPSS program are used to determine which variables.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the regional scale uses the eight nodes (townships) as the cases for the study.728%. The components with eigenvalues greater than 1 will be used to explain the variance. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 3. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix D). the variables selected were number of earning members.3 Regional Scale . and in a range of 0.3. The communalities of all the variables are very high. secondary school education. family size. tenure.347% of the variation. However. migration. The total of the communality is 7. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 1.824 and 0.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 58 5.985. the assumption can be made that all the variables are significant and are useful for the study. The variables were weighted by the total population of each node.771% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 1.

if any.0 -.15 Components in Rotated Space 1.0 1.SIZE LANGUAGE va r i a b l e s Figure 5.0 education income earner family size tenure religion language migration -.16 Loadings of Principal Components The eight original variables are combined linearly to define principal components. These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 59 Figure 5.5 1 loading 0. The loadings produced by the principal components analysis for the variables is used to create bar charts to better visualize the magnitude of the loading.5 C o m p o n e n ts 1.5 RELIGION 0 EARNER EDUCATN INCOME -0 .5 1.5 Component 1 Analysis weighted by population of each node .0 .5 Component 2 0.0 . components contribute more or less to the overall data association MIGRATN TENURE .5 -.5 0. 5 -1 FAM. It does not directly express which.0 Component 3 0.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 60 The three components are (Table 5.20 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Family size Previous place of residence Tenure Component 2 Education Income Component 3 Number of earners Language Religion Name Family status Socioeconomic status Ethnic status with high number of earners.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three components with eigenvalues above 1. Vashi. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had the nodes Belapur and Kalamboli while the second cluster (Cluster 2) had the rest of the nodes. As the analysis was constrained by the reduced number of variables.3. The three components correspond to family status. 5. Nerul. As the number of cases was only 8. 5. socioeconomic status and ethnic status. The cluster analysis shows that the two of the Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine Cluster 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ Node Panvel Kopar Sanpada Nerul Airoli Vashi Belapur Kalamboli -+-----------------+ Cluster 1 -+ +-------------------------+ -------------------+ +---+ -------------+-------+ I I -------------+ +-----------------------+ I ---------------------+ I ---------------------------------------+---------+ ---------------------------------------+ Figure 5. Airoli (Appendix E).3. Kopar-khairane. Analysis of the raw data was not carried out because the SPSS program did not weight the raw data while running a cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of the scores from PCA ensured that the data was standardized in the same manner for both types of analysis.20): Table 5.2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis was done using the scores obtained from the principal components analysis. Sanpada. Panvel.17 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) . only two clusters were formed. this PCA does not directly correspond to the descriptive analysis. This analysis does not show any differentiation based on variables of ethnicity.

581 explains a variation of 23.Sectors of Vashi 5. 2651-4450. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix F).917%. household income range of Rs.463%. high school education.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the sub-regional scale uses the 23 sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi as the cases for the study. The PCA shows the communality of the 11 variables to be 8. These were: families with one earning member. The attributes of the principal components are (Table 5.21 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Education Income Ownership of house Previous place of residence Muslim Component 2 Marathi Component 3 Number of earners Malayalam Demographics Hindu Name Socioeconomic status and Muslim enclave Ethnic status Ethnic status with high number of earners.4 Sub-regional Scale .690 explains 24. The variables were weighted by the total population of each node.001% of the variation. male and female population of the age group 25-45. Hindus and Muslims. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 2. 5.4. tenure of house in the 1980s. A PCA was run.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 61 nodes are different from the other six. explaining 73% of the variance. 13 variables were selected for the analysis. and the high percentage of families in the selected income range for Kalamboli.01. linguistic groups speaking Marathi and Malayalam. and three components were obtained.75 explains 25. migration from Bombay. but interpretation would have been more difficult. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 2. houses built by CIDCO. From the data.21) Table 5.453% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 2. The extracted sums of squared loadings of the first three components is cumulatively 72. . families with 4 or 5 members. More components could have been used. The main reason for this is the high variability in the language data set for Belapur.

The first cluster (Cluster 1) had had only sector 5. 5. 4 -0 .18 Loadings of Principal Components The bar chart explains the loadings of each variable on the component.8 0. 17. 16A. These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component. Three clusters were formed using the 23 cases.2 0 -0 . 28 and 29. WOMEN . and the third cluster (Cluster 3) had all the rest of the 16 sectors (Appendix G). 8 -1 loadings EDUCATN MIGRATN RELGION1 LANGUAG1 LANGUAG2 OWNRSHIP RELGION2 EARNER INCOME MEN va r i a bl e s Figure 5. 14. 6 -0 . 2 -0 .4 0. The second cluster (Cluster 2) had sectors 12.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 62 C o m po ne nts 1 0.4.6 0.2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis of the scores obtained from PCA was done. These define which values contribute more or less significance to that particular component.

It appears that there is a segregation based on the ethnic component. The second component has only the population speaking Marathi. it represents a majority of the population. This can be translated into a middle-class population. As the Marathi population is 53% of the total population. as Hindus are 83% of the population. The first component is one which has a high socioeconomic component dominated by a Muslim population. this component also describes the general population.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 63 Figure 5.75 to 2.4. Each of the three components have an ethnic variable in them.19 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine 0 5 10 15 20 +---------+---------+---------+---------+----Sector 2 6 1 4 16 20 9 10 15 26 21 3 7 9A 8 10A 14 29 12 17 16A 28 5 -+ -+---+ -+ +-+ -----+ +-----+ ---+---+ I ---+ +---+ -+-+ I I -+ +---+ I +-----------+ ---+ +-----+ I I Cluster 3 -------+ I I -----------------+ +---------+ ---+---+ I I ---+ +---------+ I I -------+ +-----------+ I ---------+-------+ +---------+ ---------+ I I -------+---------------+ I I -------+ I I I -+---+ +---------------+ I Cluster 2 -+ +-------------+ I I -----+ +---+ I -------------------+ I Cluster 1 -------------------------------------------------+ 5.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three equally important components with eigenvalues in the range of 2. All the components are equally important and separated only by ethnic variables. Again. The cluster analysis shows a segregation in Cluster 1 caused by high number of earners with a high percentage of households speaking Marathi and a low percentage of . The third component is the economically active age group dominated by the Hindu population.58.

The descriptive analysis of individual variables also shows this non-uniform pattern. individual households have exercised their choice.6 Conclusion The analysis of the data shows that the urban social pattern appears to be non-uniform at the regional scale. . and distinctly driven by an ethnic component at the sub-regional scale. In summary. and a strong ethnic component is seen. although the government policy was to prevent the formation of ethnic enclaves. At the sub-regional scale as there is a smaller percentage of CIDCO-built houses.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 64 households speaking Malayalam. the outcome of the implementation strategy shows otherwise. Cluster 2 shows a dominance of households speaking Marathi. 5. PCA and cluster analysis brings forth the variability of the data and shows which variables and which cases cluster together.

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion A preliminary interpretation of the data analysis in the previous chapter shows the details of the social urban pattern are best seen in the sub-regional scale.1 Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai . Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Figure 6. a brief interpretation of the regional scale is described here before proceeding to the detailed interpretation at the sub-regional scale.1 Regional Scale Figure 6. All the other nodes are in the second cluster.1 shows the spatial distribution of the clusters. However. 6. Cluster 1 has two nodes close to each other and BOMBAY Airoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada Nerul Arabian Sea Belapur Panvel possibly influenced by one another.

2 Average Linkage between Factor Scores Analysis weighted by population Further.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 66 3 Figure 6. Figure 6. Cluster 1 is linked to Factor score 1 0 score 1 and cluster 2 to score 2 -1 Factor score 2 -2 while score 3 exerts almost equal Factor score 3 67116 67116 67116 14543 14543 14543 -3 N= influence on both cluster. 100 Panvel 80 EARNER EDUCATN 60 FAM. education and language.3 Average Linkage between Variables Analysis weighted by population .3 shows the strength of variables. 1 2 Figure 6. number of earners and religion. The variables.2 shows that different factor scores influence the two Airoli 2 1 clusters. previous place of residence and tenure while cluster 2 is affected by income.SIZE 40 INCOME Kopar-khaira 20 LANGUAGE MIGRATN 0 -20 1 Sanpada Kopar-khaira RELIGION TENURE 2 Figure 6. have an equal influence on the two clusters. which are contributing to the clustering. Cluster 1 is influenced by family size.

there were twenty-three sectors. 4. 16. 12.4 Clustering of the Sectors of Vashi Cluster 3 (red) has sectors 1. Cluster 2 (green) has sectors 2. 6. 10. 10A. The grouping of the sectors into three clusters is shown in Figure 6. 15. 28 and 29. 21. 17. 28 12 29 26 10 15 9 10A 9A 8 7 5 6 4 1 3 2 17 16 14 20 16A 21 Figure 6.4. and Cluster 1 (yellow) has only sector 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 67 6. 9A. 14. 20. 9. 8. 3. and 26. 16A. . More variables could also be used to study these cases.2 Sub-regional Scale At the sub-regional scale.

another ethnic variable.5 Average Linkage between Groups Analysis weighted by population 120 EARNER 100 80 EDUCATION INCOME MARATHI 60 40 20 0 -20 1 2 3 MALAYALAM MEN MIGRATION OWNRSHIP HINDU MUSLIM WOMEN Figure 6. Cluster 3 is an outlier.5 shows that the 4 2 three clusters are influenced by different factor scores.6 shows the average linkage between the variables. Ownership. This is a socioeconomic construct. income and the language Marathi dominate it.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 68 Figure 6. Cluster 1 is Factor Score 1 8 0 -2 influenced by all three scores. 1 2 3 Figure 6. Factor Score 2 -4 cluster 2 more strongly by score 2 Factor Score 3 1892 1892 1892 738 738 738 -6 N = 16497 1649716497 and cluster 3 by score 3. . Cluster 1 is also differentiated by Malayalam.6 Average Linkage between Variables Figure 6. Cluster 2 is the most significant. but dominated by an ethnic variable.

8.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 69 6.2.9). the study of many cities across the world shows that the socioeconomic construct displays a sector pattern. The two variables selected were income and number of earners.7 shows a scenario that could be expected from the mapping of any of the socioeconomic variables.7 Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic Variables Figure 6. The colors red and orange are immediately above. .8 Distribution of Number of Earners Figure 6. Figure 6. Figure 6.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory As discussed in the literature review. In both maps the median range is represented by the color purple.9 Distribution of Income The pattern that emerges on mapping of the number of earners and income variables does not show any particular pattern (Figure 6. and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes. Figure 6.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion

70

6.2.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory The study of many cities across the world shows that the family status construct displays a concentric pattern. Figure 6.10 shows a possible scenario in Vashi for a variable representing the family status. The variable selected to describe the family status is ownership of apartment. In the descriptive analysis, this variable showed a great degree of variability. The purple color represents the range within which the mean falls. The colors red and orange are immediately above, and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes. Figure 6.10 Hypothetical Concentric Zone Pattern for Family Status Variables The number of sectors which falls within the mean range is very small. Sectors which have slightly more or slightly less percentage of apartments built by CIDCO are represented by red and orange. It is important to note that five sectors are colored green while one sector is yellow (Figure 6.11). This shows a high degree of variability in the data.

Figure 6.11 Distribution of Ownership of Apartment

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion

71

6.2.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory Multiple Nuclei theory supports the spatial pattern of the ethnic factor. A possible solution is mapped for any ethnic variable in Figure 6.12. A language variable and a religion variable were selected from the data set for mapping. The mapping of language and religion variables shows a segregation of both of them. Yellow and green colors, which represent the extremes in the data set, are present in both the variables (Figure 6.13, Figure 6.14). This is especially true of the variable Muslim, which shows a largely non-uniform distribution.

Figure 6.12 Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic Variables

Figure 6.13 Distribution of Households speaking Marathi

Figure 6.14 Distribution of Households which follow Islam

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion

72

6.3 Summary The set of figures below shows the mapping of the cluster analysis as well as the individual factor scores.

Figure 6.15 Clustering of Sectors

Figure 6.16 Score 1

Figure 6.17 Score 2

Figure 6.18 Score 3

Although the four maps above (Figure 6.15, Figure 6.16, Figure 6.17, Figure 6.18) show that there is a different colored sector within a group of one color, the multiple nuclei pattern is not very obvious. However, looking at the descriptive analysis, principal components analysis, cluster analysis and the mapping collectively, the multiple nuclei pattern can be inferred. The descriptive analysis brought out the fact that the spatial pattern is

In conclusion. The principal components analysis shows that the cause of this spatial pattern is ethnicity. The clustering indicates that some sectors are dissimilar from others. examining the policy instruments and policy goals. • • putting forth a new theory to generalize social pattern in planned cities in India. . Future research could involve: • • Delineating the pattern at intervals of time to study the change in pattern. scaling down the study to stories of individual households to reach a more detailed level of interpretation. The mapping of individual variables and factor scores verifies that within a fairly homogeneous group of sectors there exists a dissimilar sector. 6. The aggregation of household data at the sector scale has limited this research from drawing out the finer details of the spatial pattern.4 Potential Utility of the Research This research is a starting point for further studies in spatial patterns in Navi Mumbai.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 73 not uniform or heterogeneous. the policy has not been successful. The policy of the government to promote social heterogeneity influenced the type of residential construction in Navi Mumbai. As Navi Mumbai has been constructed over the last 25 years. a pattern did emerge at this present stage. This is the multiple nuclei pattern of an ethnically driven spatial organization. However. as the pattern is not uniform. the pattern is strongly influenced by factors as year of occupation of the house and reasons for moving.

and formulated a policy to support it. This was the first cause of separation in residential neighborhoods.Chapter 7: Conclusion The purpose of this thesis is to delineate the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. The government also decided to take up most of the initial building construction. The important objectives of Navi Mumbai were: attract some of the immigrant population. The segregation is attributed to the ethnic variables. Religious tensions have always existed in India. The Muslims came to India as invaders. Housing would be allotted according to the preference of size of dwelling provided by applicants. Ethnic enclaves have always characterized traditional settlements in India. Every effort was taken by the government to make Navi Mumbai an independent city and not a suburb or satellite city to Bombay. Navi Mumbai is separated from the metropolis of Bombay only by the Thane Creek. Bombay is the financial and economic capital of India. The Hindu laws and treatises specified residential locations for different castes. India. Political and administrative boundaries in independent India were decided on linguistic lines. These theories explain the urban social pattern . The government hoped that this would distribute people based on socioeconomics and break barriers based on religion and language. Traditional Indian cities have always had a strong ethnic component in their urban social pattern. Navi Mumbai is still dependent on Bombay for much of its activity. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. The other feature that is unique to India is the existence of many languages. The thesis addresses this social objective. This particular case study was chosen for two reasons: Navi Mumbai is the first planned city that is not a capital city or industrial township. and the government had a specific social and political agenda. raise the standard of living and reduce social inequalities. Households would normally place this preference based on how much they can pay. It was hoped that a majority of the residential construction could be achieved though a policy of swavalambhan (self-reliance) and swatantrya (mutual selfhelp). support an aggressive industrialization policy. Partition and the first years of independence were. strongly influenced by ethnic variables. The government had a very practical interest in avoiding ethnic confrontation. One of the social objectives in the planning of Navi Mumbai was to use the government machinery to diversify the spatial distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. and provide an infrastructure which would promote ethnic heterogeneity. 1991). thus. Planning policies in Navi Mumbai were strongly influenced by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. Areas dominated by Muslims are common in most cities in India. The religious divide was used in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. Three leading theories put forth were concentric zone theory. caste. It was also influenced by the concept of the city as a melting pot (Engel. The draft development plan of Navi Mumbai had very strong functional and social objectives. The review of secondary source material shows that urban social patterns have been studied across the world. religion and language. However. The culture of this race of people is very different from the Hindus.

The PCA reduces the dimensionality of the data into a more interpretable form. Analysis was done to map the urban social pattern of many cities across the world. The first methodology is a descriptive analysis. The hypothesis put forth in this study is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social segregation will occur. The data at both scales is tabulated. The variables selected are reduced into a smaller number of constructs. A variation in the data greater than 15% on each side of the mean is considered as unequal distribution. In Navi Mumbai. a cluster analysis was done of the cases of the data set. Succession and invasion based on social and economic status is the basic assumption of this theory. Four methods were used to analyze the data. The concentric zone theory relates the pattern of cities to population mobility. That would indicate that enclaves have not been caused by individual variables. Since. special emphasis has to be given to the ethnic components. The second theory. the scale was smaller. Mobility and immigration are the key variables of this theory. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. Social area analysis broadly classifies variables into three constructs. The second methodology is principal components analysis (PCA). These are socioeconomic construct. family status and ethnic status. and the sub-regional scale of the sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi node. The constructs of the social area analysis have been found to correspond to the three theories. The software package SPSS was used to do the analysis. Analysis of data was done at two scales.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 75 and its change over time. the family component showed a concentric ring pattern. Using the secondary source material as reference. The other variables selected were number of earning members. Generally the socioeconomic model showed a sectored pattern. grouping of variables is expected to be under the three constructs. family status and ethnic status. The methodology used was that of social area analysis. family size and type of house under family status. The methodologies were techniques of multivariate analysis. The multiple nuclei theory proposes that patterns could be arranged around several centers. The similarity between the . then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. In the case of Navi Mumbai this is important because of the policy to prevent segregation based on ethnic variables. and histogram drawn of the variable selected from each data set. socioeconomic. These scales were the regional scale of the nodes (townships). Heterogeneity of the population is detected if these three constructs emerge from the analysis. Next. Wedge patterns representing income groups are the outcome of the theory. Two religion variables and two language variables have been selected representing the ethnic construct. is an analysis primarily of economic variables. The variables selected under each construct were drawn out of experience of the researchers. At the regional scale the analysis was done between the eight nodes to study their similarity. If H0 is false. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. the analysis allowed a more detailed interpretation. income and education under the socioeconomic construct. sector theory. Twenty-three sectors of Vashi were then analyzed. and demographics.

The interpretation of the descriptive analysis shows that the distribution of most of the variables is not uniform. As the socioeconomic variables are expected to take a sectored pattern. be explained using the theories of urban social patterns. The pattern could. The research brings to the fore many questions than answers. Control is maximum when the government owns all the houses. however. it has not succeeded at this stage. • Was this an experiment in enhancing quality of life or is it a method for the government to exert social control? • The concept of the melting pot has to be re-examined. The overall pattern of Navi Mumbai is one of multiple nuclei. In conclusion. The objective. physical design and the institutional framework need to be examined closely to realize their full impact and to understand the results in their context. None of the variables selected display a uniform distribution. The hypothesis was proved false. although the policy is noble in its aims and aspiration. Distribution was originally controlled through allotment of government-built houses based only on purchasing power (and indirectly socioeconomic status). The distribution of these variables shows segregation. The principal components analysis shows that the variables are not grouping under the three constructs.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 76 nodes and sectors is determined from this. thereby. The policy has not facilitated the distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. How important is it to promote integration when self-sorting has been the natural process? • Can the Modernist synthesis seeking homogeneity in heterogeneity be used as a template for the Indian culture? • This leads to the question: is the objective valid? Does it have to be redefined or is the implementation strategy to be modified? At this stage it appears that a detailed analysis of the policy instrument and policy goals must be undertaken. The interpretation of the analysis also involves comparing the descriptive analysis. The final stage was mapping of the clusters. family status variables concentric zones and the ethnicity variables a multiple nuclei arrangement. All three new constructs are dominated by an ethnic variable. A moral analysis of segregation has to be done in the context of the Indian culture. the socioeconomic variables also show separation. Even in the houses built by the government resale has taken place. The center is an ethnic enclave surrounded by socioeconomic variables. The urban social pattern is best explained as one of multiple nuclei. This can be attributed to two reasons: 1. Redistribution shows that people have aligned themselves based on ethnic variables. The spatial distribution of households is still characterized by traditional Indian values of ethnic segregation. they were mapped under expected and observed conditions. The extreme value range in the mapping is important because it represents the dissimilarity in the distribution. In Vashi only 64% of the houses were built and allotted by the government. This indicates that the urban social pattern is strongly influenced by ethnicity. However. allotment procedure. graphically representing the analysis. 2. This is especially true of the ethnic variables. . and clustering to the urban social patterns detailed in the secondary source material.

New York: Oxford University Press. R. 1990: 39-59. 1992: 64-73. Ambition and Miscalculation. "Urban Development Process in Bombay: Planning for Whom?" In Patel. A. The Basic writings of Ernest W. 1978. Delhi: Oxford University Press. and Baer. Banerjee-Guha. M. A Pattern Language: Towns. Angotti. G. 2. Chicago: University of Chicago. S. G. Bose. D. Banerjee-Guha. Socialism. eds. A. J. Gupta. Beyond the Neighborhood Unit: Residential Environments and Public Policy. Bogue. Bradley. Chicago: University of Chicago. S. 77 . Bose. Q. Alexander. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Barnett. Bombay: Tata McGraw Hill. ed. "The Essence and Reality of the Caste System" in Social Stratification. New York: Plenum Press. Construction. et. T. A. Metropolis 2000. 1973. al. Leicester: Leicester University Press. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. The role of town-plan analysis in the study of the medieval Irish town in Slater. Indian Cities: characteristics and correlates. 1986. New York: Oxford University Press. "The Study of Caste Ranking in India". and Thorner. XIV. and Mills. J. Bombay: Government Press. C. ed. Bombay: Oxford University Press. Vol.. C. Regional Plan for Bombay Metropolitan Region 1970-1992. “The Modern City” in The Elusive City: five Centuries of Design. 1984. C. Indian Urbanization and Economic Growth since 1960. India’s Social Crisis: An Essay on Capitalism. 1987. 1965: 115-129. The Contemporary Scenario. Ahmad. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. 1992. The Timeless Way of Building. Bougle. 21. The Built Form of Western Cities. J. 1989. T. BMRPB. New York: Harper & Row. W. J. No. C. E. al. Burgess. Berreman. D. 1996. Becker. T. 1979. S. 1993. Bombay: Metaphor for Modern India. C. India’s Urbanization 1901-2001. London: Routledge.Bibliography Alexander. Buildings. Individualism and Indian Civilization. 1974. Banerjee. et. Architecture + Design. S. ed. 1965. D. Williamson.

. Architecture + Design. C. “Evolution of the Concept”. Correa. Correa. Development Planning and Structural Inequalities. New Delhi: Sage Publications. J.: APA Press. Cadwallader. N. 1971. Language. Dandekar. Religion and Politics in North India. Town-plan analysis in an American setting: cadastral processes in Boston and Omaha in Slater. Belapur: CIDCO. F. 1973. and Cahnman. The New Landscape: Urbanization in the Third World.. B. CIDCO. New York: Columbia University Press. J. W. The Built Form of Western Cities. J. J. Analytical Urban Geography: Spatial Patterns and Theories. 78 . 1970. 1971: 59-70. 1985. Cambridge: MIT Press. M. How Cities Grew: The Historical Sociology of Cities. C. Mar-Apr. A. XIV. The Third World City. 2. Berkeley: University of California Press. 1989. Language Conflict and National Development: Group Politics and national Language Policy in India. 1990. R. Drew. P. Le Corbusier as I Knew Him in The Open Hand: Essays on Le Corbusier. Bombay: Government Press. and Godfrey. V. Rainforest Cities: Urbanization. J. CIDCO. 1992. Cozen. Urbanization in Developing Countries: A Socioeconomic and Demographic Analysis. P. No. Third World Urbanization. D. Development. H. J. Belapur: CIDCO. 1987. D'Souza. C. 1977. Das Gupta. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. O. Washington D. eds. 1997. 1984. The Planner’s Use of Information. W. Vol.. 1974. Cornelius.: The Florham Park Press Inc. Cherunilam. and Hay. Comhaire. London: Cambridge University Press. ed. 1988. C. Twenty Years of Development. and Globalization of the Brazilian Amazon. R. T. 1990: 142-170. 1995. J. Madison. London: Methuen. M. Leicester: Leicester University Press. J. Browder. R. Chicago: Maaroufa Press Inc. Sustainable Urban Development: Case Study of New Bombay. The Draft Development Plan. CIDCO. 1997. Drakakis-Smith. The Political Sociology of Cityward Migration in Latin America: Towards an Empirical Theory in Abu-Lughod. Bombay: Himalaya Publishing House.Brass.

"Continuous Hierarchies and Discrete Castes" in Social Stratification. Economic Development. J. Readings in Urban Theory. Gupta. 1973. ed. N. Cambridge. N. 1977. Le Corbusier at Chandigarh in The Open Hand: Essays on Le Corbusier. D. Gupta. D. Fainstein. and Campbell. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. Gugler. 1965. 1966. 1970. R. Dwyer. Malik. A Spatial Analysis of Urban Community Development Policy in India. 1974. Government of Maharashtra. 79 . 1995. V. 1996.D’Souza. S. New York: Oxford University Press. Bombay: Govt. The Urbanization of the Third World. L "Hierarchy. Gupta. S. Status and Power: The Caste System and its Implications" in Social Stratification. Cambridge: MIT Press. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Hagget. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Ltd. Mass. Stanford: Stanford University campus. J. 1992a: 110-143. 1978. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Bombay: Oxford University Press. Bombay: India Book House Pvt. Language in Social Groups. eds. M. D.: Blackwell Publishers. P. Gumperz. Dwivedi. J. New Delhi: Vikas Publications. 1986: 44-62. ed. S. "Hierarchy and Difference" in Social Stratification. Press. Gandhi's Social Philosophy. D. D. Martin’s Press. Berkeley: Center for Environmental Design Research. S and Mehrotra. “Social Inequality and Social Stratification in India” in determinants of Social Status in India” ed. Ganguli. Bombay: Government Press. 1988. Master Plan for New Bombay. 1992. J. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study. The City in the Third World. Cities and Planning: The Case of Bombay. Fry. D. P. ed. Hall. 1992b: 1-23. ed. C. Locational Analysis in Human Geography. Dumont. 1980.. D. 1992: 471-492. Bombay: The Cities Within. Gadgil Planning Committee. Report of the Committee appointed for Bombay-Panvel and Poona regions. Modernity in the Traditional Contemporary Environment. Harris. Gupta. New York: St. “Building New Bombay: The Future of the Indian Metropolis” in Identity. Engel. Delhi: Oxford University Press. B. 1971. Gupta.

King. Journal of American Institute of Planners. W. Culture and Environment. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Emerging Trends of Urbanization in India. J. J. 23. L. Urbanization: An Introduction to Urban Geography. Geography: The Study of Location. 1957: 70-75. L. D. New York: Praeger Publishers. D. Jain. J. 1985. K. 1979. Columbia: South Asia Books. The Great Divide: Britain-India-Pakistan. 1995. Ltd. D. 1974. J. 1990. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Karan. 1977. R. Jakobsen.. Foreword in Living Architecture: Indian. H. M. 1961.: Federal Housing Administration. 1984. Knox. C. 1994. P. R. Nehru and the Politics of India. New Haven: Yale University Press. Herbert. Khan. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. New York: Random House. 1939. Kaura. vol. Out of Place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape. J. Muslims and Indian Nationalism. New Delhi: Government of India. L. Space and Behavior: The Elements of Urban Geography. P. T. The Pattern of Indian Towns: A Study in Urban Morphology. Hough. Herbert. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. Karachi: Oxford University Press.Hartshorn. Maryland: Barnes & Noble. Charles Correa. 1990. P. V. A. and Won Bae Kun. L. F and Nystuen. Henn. 1997. H. and Golledge. New York: Concept Media Pvt. England: Longman. H. M. eds. J. 1969. 80 . 1993. Jacobs. Urban Development in the Third World. D. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Kolars. V. New York: John Wiley and Sons. and Prakash. and Thomas. C. Urban Social Geography: An Introduction. M. Knox. G. Interpreting the City: An Urban Geography. Ghosh. T. D. The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods in American Cities. 1992. Urbanization and National Development. Washington. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. P. Cities. Cities in Space: Cities in Place. 1971. Hoyt. King. Hodson. U.

Meier. G. 1986. Vol. Koter. R. Architecture + Design. The Built Form of Western Cities. VIII. Le Corbusier. The morphological evolution of a nineteenth century city centre. Bombay 1961. Brown and Company. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Cambridge: University Press. D. 1986. No. C. M. Community Design and the Culture of Cities. No. New York: Frederick A. and Becker. Bell and Sons Ltd. R. Resource Conserving Urbanism in South Asia: The Development of Greater Bombay. XIV. 81 . 1984. T. 6.. Gupta. Berkeley: University of California. D. E. P. M. 1990. The Urbanization Process in the Third World. S. T. E. R. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Lozano. Misra. Mehrotra. Publishers. London: Croom Helm. 1978. Two Worlds. Boston: Little. The Development Plan for Greater Bombay: A Case Study of Urban Planning and Development vis-a-vis the Environment. Million Cities of India. New York: Oxford University Press. 1.Lodz. T. 1967. The Southeast Asian City. ed.. H. 1991. "Multiple Reference in Indian Caste Systems" in Social Stratification. 18801980. 1986. M. 1986. Poland 18251973 in Slater. Social Aspects of Urban development: A Case Study of the Pattern of Urban Development in Developing Countries. 1991. Kosambi. Studies in Indian Urban Development. Kostof. Bombay: Popular Prakashan. Mar-Apr 1997. 1990: 109-141. The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meaning through History. Nov-Dec.Kopardekara. ed. Leicester: Leicester University Press. McGee. 1971. Architecture + Design. R. S. 2.. Lowder. Inside Third World Cities. Bombay in Transition: The Growth and Social Ecology of a Colonial City. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. Marriott. 1992: 49-60. From New Bombay to Navi Mumbai. S. McGee. London: G. Praeger Inc. The Master Plan. Marg vol. 15. New Delhi: NIUA. G. National Institute of Urban Affairs. 1972. no. Mehrotra. Vol. R. 1978. M. One Place. Mills. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

S. House. Patel. Rapoport. Mar-Apr 1997: 38-44. Patel. 1975. Cardiff: Department of Town Planning. B. 1996. Portes. “The Birth of a New City”. Sarin. and Hay. The Social Areas of Los Angeles. M and Franklin. 1989. Third World Urbanization. 1969. R. Chicago: Maaroufa Press Inc. and Thorner. D. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Third World Urbanization. Mar-Apr 1997: 120124. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Parab. R. B. Spatial Characteristics of Urban Settlements in a part of India in Emerging frontiers of Urban Settlement Geography. XIV. G. R.. No. The Form of Cities. Singh. 1985. 1995: 27-34. New York: Committee on Regional Plan of New York and its environs. 2. eds. Vol. Shevky. Ramachandran. Vol. 2. H. W. Alejandro. and Hay. Slater. ed. UWIST. A. T. J. D. New York: St. A. No. M. Form and Culture. 1977. Bombay: Oxford University Press. Cambridge: MIT Press. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Delhi: Oxford University Press. I.. E and Williams. MD Publications. S. S. Bombay: Mosaic of Modern Culture. 1971: 59-70. ed. M. Shelter. Services and the Urban Poor. 1979. English medieval new towns with composite plans: evidence from the Midlands in Slater. Chandigarh as a Place to Live in The Open Hand: Essays on Le Corbusier. eds. 1955. Peach. Clarence. Slater. R. T. “The thirty-year Journey”. Colonialism and the Spatial Structure of Underdevelopment: Outline of an Alternative Approach. New Delhi. Perry.. XIV. 1971: 59-70. S. Urban Social Segregation. Neighborhood and Community Planning. Martin’s Press. Leicester: Leicester University Press. E. Social Area Analysis. ed. Scargill. Romaya. 82 . 1990: 60-82. Architecture + Design. Urbanization and Urban Systems in India. G. eds. C. J. The Built Form of Western Cities. Shevky. Architecture + Design. D. Chicago: Maaroufa Press Inc. R. S. London: Longman. Urban Latin America: The Political Condition from Above and Below in AbuLughod. and Bell. with special reference to Tanzania in Abu-Lughod. Singh. 1949. 1929.

Tindall. Spatial Decentralization: A Case Study of New Bombay and Cairo. Finding Lost Space. Timms. Gupta. Living Architecture: Indian. The Urban Mosaic: Towards a Theory of Residential Differentiation. N. 83 . 1992. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. D. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. Srinivas. G. 1969. 1992b: 28-35. 1992a: 312-326. 1992.Srinivas. 1990. ed.. UNCHS. R. City of Gold: The Biography of Bombay. D. E. M. "Varna and Caste" in Social Stratification. Gupta. Cambridge: University Press. 1971. "Mobility in a Caste System" in Social Stratification. M. Volwahsen. D. 1986. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Trancik. N. J. Nairobi: UNCHS. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. The Continuing City: Urban Morphology in Western Civilization. A. ed. Vance. New Delhi: Penguin Books India Ltd.

Glossary of Terms Term Cuadra Jali Masjid Padas Panchayati Pucca Purdahs Purushasukta Rashtrabasha Swadeshi Swatantrya Swavalambhan Vastupurusha mandala Vastushastra Meaning Spanish measurement Carved screens Mosque Subdivisions of the cosmic universe Self-government Durable Enclosure Hindu treatise Language of the State Fullest utilization of local resources Self-motivation and self-help Self-reliance Terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe Science of architecture and planning .

D. Barve. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act 1966 was passed. . State government notified privately owned land in Navi Mumbai for acquisition. CIDCO published its Draft Development Plan. Bombay Metropolitan and Regional Planning Board was constituted. CIDCO was designated as New Town Development Authority for Navi Mumbai. S. Development plan for greater Bombay was submitted to the State Government. Gadgil was appointed to formulate broad principles of regional planning for Bombay and Poona. The Gadgil Committee recommended regional planning legislation and regional planning boards. Bombay Municipal Corporation decided to prepare a development plan for Greater Bombay. The Board published the Draft Plan with recommendations to set up a twin city. A Committee under Dr. The study group on Greater Bombay recommended a rail-cum-road bridge across the Thane creek.Appendix A March 1958 July 1958 February 1959 July 1964 March 1965 March 1966 January 1967 July 1967 January 1970 February 1970 March 1970 March 1971 August 1973 October 1973 Study group on Greater Bombay set up under the chairmanship of Mr. CIDCO was formed. The Bombay Metropolitan regional Plan was approved by the State government. G. R.

where schools and sports grounds are located: V7. without interruption. the territory of the town: V3 dispose of immediate accesses to daily needs: V4 reach the door of his dwelling: V5 and V6 send youths to the green areas of each sector. the man of the mechanical civilization could: cross continents: V1 arrive in town: V1 go to essential public services: V2 cross at full speed. 1961). .Appendix B The 7Vs (les sept voies) The 7V Rule was studied in 1950 at the UNESCO’s request (Le Corbusier. One discovered that with 7 types of roads.

62 mean 66.42 2.67 28.41 6.69 29.86 0.81 7.64 5 46.13 6.44 2.76 9A 74.81 1.23 20 69.64 3.99 3 68.57 15 72.09 16 65.03 1.77 10 74.22 std dev 9.31 3.79 40.08 8 52.83 17 61.38 38.51 26 77.79 4 1.23 21.09 8.29 4.57 23.58 9.07 30.01 6 65.60 24.25 11.16 10A 50.58 20.59 27.38 3.43 2. 1 64.40 6.54 0.52 18.68 16.33 6.86 28 52.04 26.96 27.57 8.89 4.37 11.70 14 77.22 26.43 12 65.28 21.85 3.35 7.77 21 63.00 29 82.00 0.39 2.26 4.06 5.Appendix C Number of earning members Sector 1 2 3 no.60 16A 71.73 0.15 9.89 5.71 11.28 3.10 0.25 .63 2.16 1.92 9 73.19 19.31 20.72 2.26 2 57.48 2.89 2.52 1.26 23.81 4 70.29 22.42 5.17 8.00 35.49 3.08 5.01 25.00 0.43 9.15 5.83 0.76 2.76 1.64 3.16 30.48 7 62.

00 16.15 16 1.53 1.00 4.00 25.63 40.51 5.81 16.10 23.48 0.45 5.75 6 2.97 9 2.55 30.49 3.86 10.92 3.48 39.07 0.53 1.74 5 2.89 45.39 31.04 4.66 9.00 28 0.19 20 6.00 10.49 22.46 21.88 17 0.28 18.08 32.73 47.97 0.96 33.18 10.47 26 0.61 16.10001.45 mean 2.15 15.86 21.41 8.67 7.76 23.23 10 1.11 1.09 13.75 26.47 28. Rs.19 16.92 30.70 17.15 1.06 9A 1.77 12 13.38 7.16 24.65 0.10 27.35 8.07 13.72 0.26 12.46 17.71 34.47 12.45 12.56 7.00 29 0.82 36.15 9.00 0.47 0.42 .28 4.62 3 1.16 12.68 34.00 24.27 7.87 30.36 26.84 18.00 4.00 20.62 7.125 2650 4450 7500 10000 15000 0 1 3.70 3.21 stddev 3.00 0.Household Income Sector upto 1251.00 2.49 23.09 2.36 36.20 4.47 15.40 8.02 7.77 22.33 11.80 5.72 44.79 18.78 17.00 21 2.15000+ no.17 22.15 8.90 14.76 8 0.99 23.38 10.02 4.90 24.76 0.00 0.94 37.00 35.29 8.41 37.7500.52 11.14 10.57 1.26 16A 0.97 28.49 4.59 18.39 4.92 21.26 1.39 34.89 37.55 42.4451.18 6.07 18.87 0.11 24.20 3.64 6.00 17.37 11.57 25.35 14 0.14 25.97 7.59 2.2651.74 28.46 8.90 2 1.82 2.48 6.10 15.45 38.52 4.63 4.59 9.45 6.51 24.18 25.48 27.18 15 0.39 20.00 35.78 10A 0.09 39.22 3.58 0.94 4 0.07 35.41 12.77 26.13 3.30 7 11.90 11.77 14.00 10.

63 4.26 1.81 5.42 2.92 36.28 11.45 11.44 1.42 23.83 2.19 0.46 5.81 4.91 32.30 0.15 3.90 32.60 9.98 29.72 30.01 45.24 0.94 4.50 11.00 21 13.27 10.81 42.90 12.41 8 4.27 12.44 37.39 35.37 2.11 2.06 2.06 4.01 15.82 30.69 31.74 40.24 8.40 1.03 34.07 1.71 7.11 34.41 14.54 33.49 16.27 47.68 12.81 14.03 50.35 10.43 4.01 0.95 9.75 4.98 7.97 0.73 2.25 2.94 43.59 3.64 0.38 37.12 1.81 19.14 7.09 46. e n y ary school 1 3.25 28 0.43 22.91 5.44 7 1.48 5 3.54 2.92 5.85 5.74 2.41 0.91 17 1.38 4.45 0.94 3.65 4.55 9.64 2.79 3.40 0.37 .03 44.47 28.85 34.71 34.28 7.09 5.68 5.59 29.50 14.00 mean 3.61 9.65 1.Highest Level of Education Sector illiterat childre primar second high vo-tech BS MS PhD no.72 9.07 8.61 2.03 9.06 2.44 2.03 4.64 0.47 2.64 0.54 25.63 1.87 15 4.68 4 1.08 0.13 51.38 8.23 3.75 27.52 31.90 22.11 12.26 48.89 6.14 0.00 14 2.55 3.81 0.25 11.14 0.09 11.69 26.96 3.95 2.80 12 0.95 13.91 17.12 stddev 4.43 2.32 5.26 9A 1.73 2.48 0.97 9.94 7.80 2.50 20.73 3.19 4.77 2.07 9.21 3.81 5.18 7.87 5.51 7.16 2.24 10.60 6 2.45 6.48 16A 2.32 3.23 3.31 10 3.18 3.02 4.95 8.08 13.80 17.00 29 1.64 4.78 5.82 1.18 27.15 2 3.68 1.00 26 3.00 5.71 3.57 12.64 4.88 9.89 20.35 10A 1.15 1.30 1.82 15.71 9.38 3.24 4.05 2.34 16 3.06 1.80 9 3.00 5.05 0.47 8.92 3 2.52 1.24 44.68 4.58 2.35 2.58 9.34 16.30 59.65 0.12 0.60 17.29 1.28 10.06 8.98 31.63 20 19.67 4.45 7.87 9.01 11.15 13.92 2.97 1.18 21.55 2.

59 5.20 11.44 2.22 4.48 17.18 30.57 mean 4.80 4.43 9.77 5.34 3.20 14.68 7.20 12.98 8.41 16A 3.16 31.78 29.35 26 6.57 20.59 4.08 12.97 37.54 3.55 35.87 8.23 2.52 15.60 4.35 3.10 2.81 2.11 6.88 28 5.73 9 5.24 5 2.69 11.74 4.01 10.67 3.42 6.79 33.24 6.00 27.35 3.45 14.52 9.62 8.12 7.76 13.29 3.02 3.97 35.85 16.26 9.21 9.11 16.05 2.00 8.52 2.Male Population Sector below 4.35 16 3.04 7.60 8 3.46 4.37 8.36 32.62 0.96 4.32 37.40 20.02 3.98 1.56 8.97 5.36 16.60 4.26 2.59 5.59 4.48 12.29 6.00 21 4.78 6.58 16.99 11.48 15.65 7.68 10 5.80 1.84 17 3.87 9.38 11.04 4.25 3.14 5.12 8.47 13.86 10.39 4.25 10.12 2. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 4.34 3.56 3.81 2 4.12 2.66 6.90 .61 4.86 3 4.29 6.87 4.93 2.82 16.51 15.89 29 4.41 1.83 34.89 11.51 2.87 5.00 8.14 4.89 12.32 13.84 8.75 12.93 28.74 17.77 34.71 9A 4.59 12 6.95 2.46 2.42 10.90 10A 2.83 12.54 4.84 19.93 10.29 2.60 6.40 7 2.74 16.39 5.71 18.97 5.24 12.77 15 3.93 13.70 3.28 31.03 31.40 34.38 12.60 12.94 21.04 4.44 15.38 17.66 1.63 3.13 3.99 1.73 14.87 3.88 17.60 13.67 12.19 11.73 9.56 4 3.17 20 8.43 7.87 7.56 14.12 3.40 stddev 1.67 12.32 9.90 11.49 19.42 11.04 10.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.57 10.02 5.59 7.32 2.96 8.40 4.84 12.15 7.80 30.30 5.18 33.25 6.65 5.57 27.80 3.45 8.12 36.82 10.02 1.34 20.78 3.65 46.82 29.42 14.91 5.26 3.35 29.19 6.07 6.76 12.69 6 2.89 21.91 2.43 4.02 17.91 14.46 42.82 16.66 8.60 23.27 3.12 14 5.

99 3.16 3 4.98 10 5.09 2.21 32.39 13.29 4 3.07 6.92 4.46 18.96 3.82 5.76 9.35 1.50 1.59 8.89 2.77 9A 3.40 2.86 12.71 5.80 5.72 10.55 4.32 15.61 10.83 5.35 3.66 4.33 3.06 45.54 39.08 5.29 4.79 34.64 6.43 4.00 3.88 2 4.18 52.78 29 2.23 4.83 4.85 9.01 10A 6.29 12.77 6 3.74 41.30 33.49 16.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.74 36.97 14.22 7.81 11.34 4.66 17.32 12.53 7.57 13.07 7 2.09 1.46 8 4.04 10.58 15 4.13 16 4.86 7.86 6.57 3.88 16.38 3.82 10.82 9.43 13.77 17 4.46 1.84 34.96 7.03 20 8.06 15.95 10.01 10.39 11.08 2.51 10.11 11.78 11.36 9.87 8.43 4.86 40.32 3.21 14.22 13.48 mean 4.17 37.79 6.29 9.07 12.35 5.72 38.99 11.60 11.28 stddev 1.93 11.00 5.27 7.40 11.44 5.35 3.17 4.80 2.35 38.00 13.27 41.83 5.87 17.68 3.55 7.87 7.52 6.42 12.41 4.71 6.20 5.55 9 5.11 2.76 33.03 14 4.39 13.09 2.31 5.57 0.90 9.13 14.22 40.18 22.11 11.29 12.32 12.82 2.72 10.60 7.01 9.28 5.16 37.58 19.88 6.06 3.98 9.44 4. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 3.45 15.68 12.14 6.15 3.94 8.29 6.35 3.56 47.56 5.78 5.55 12.60 4.06 2.35 2.58 42.63 9.06 28 2.77 3.09 16A 4.71 12 6.64 6.57 3.15 6.98 3.90 38.29 17.89 4.25 16.48 1.06 0.97 21 5.83 .78 2.84 3.15 13.39 11.14 20.07 10.43 12.22 14.91 10.96 10.49 6.09 1.31 12.14 32.19 5.00 5.71 8.31 3.65 12.80 5 4.39 3.06 5.29 5.03 6.13 5.71 38.66 2.62 3.96 11.87 2.86 7.32 1.07 6.45 17.13 38.14 7.Female Population Sector below 4.22 39.14 26 7.93 3.14 4.72 2.25 9.57 1.

98 2.53 .36 0.57 57.45 62.67 14.92 1.49 5.64 1.38 14.30 9A 1.30 61.46 2.24 16A 0.14 4 0.07 12.19 55.17 54.04 20.79 33.57 11.99 8 0.49 64.09 1.95 1.29 0.86 11.02 2.16 9.90 17 1.43 44.15 20 0.71 14.83 22.82 51.85 66.90 4.19 3 1.99 0.21 54. 1 2.00 58.53 6.92 12.95 1.88 10 0.56 25.07 28.00 28 0.29 7.52 62.00 29 1.03 5 0.86 12 0.72 15.64 19.57 19.93 32.18 26.19 20.73 20.67 0.14 14.00 0.88 36.91 11.23 36.48 9 1.93 16 0.55 23.67 47.16 44.29 50.87 2 1.00 1.29 54.46 54.00 26.56 50.97 19.82 6 3.99 26 2.83 14.28 21 0.40 7 0.37 54.33 41.Family Size Sector single 2 to 3 4 to 5 6 to 7 8 to 10 no.00 mean 1.05 stddev 0.43 34.30 44.45 1.95 10A 1.68 0.92 55.14 2.18 2.46 15 1.00 15.41 63.26 8.63 15.87 52.00 14 1.23 0.23 12.51 30.82 9.71 24.34 2.23 46.50 7.11 1.00 19.68 0.51 59.40 9.58 1.64 10.66 22.35 13.05 66.86 1.47 20.82 12.23 28.

00 0.00 29 42.01 1.00 16A 7.07 3.00 0.58 8.00 2 48.46 9 98.00 0.00 17 0. House op comme society rcial 1 100.00 53.40 1.18 0.58 .38 9A 2.12 0.00 0.81 76.00 0.02 mean 53.00 6 92.00 0.00 4 45.78 12.00 0.00 0.00 2.Type of Housing Sector CIDCO Pvt.13 28.00 0.81 0.74 13.00 0.00 14 53.30 0.00 0.51 0.77 0.07 0.86 0.25 62.Pvt Other no.10 0.73 0.14 0.96 0.00 0.91 76.47 0.52 0.33 0.87 20.02 5 22.68 0.15 85.12 3.00 21 99.60 19.62 0.00 5.00 10 83.00 10A 2.90 0.00 0.00 38.80 0.39 4.40 6.00 8 35.72 0.12 23.31 20 100.86 0.62 0.23 26 100.68 2.00 0.35 39.00 28 0.67 0.00 15 82.00 0.17 2.00 1.00 16 83.00 0.83 35.96 12.21 46.00 0.00 0.84 36.56 0.18 0.82 0.00 0.19 3 61.00 92.13 39.61 13.19 0. Pvt co.00 0.00 12 17.82 0.82 7.13 2.21 6.97 0.00 0.00 7 89.00 0.00 23.15 17.00 0.36 0.13 0.00 0.00 92.00 16.75 stddev 37.00 0.38 0.77 0.00 97.00 0.16 4.

00 0.54 24.31 16.00 4.46 36.00 6.88 4.02 17.87 6.94 12.94 4.00 0.42 7.00 13.87 1.63 3.27 1.57 18.00 0.Tenure Sector before1 81-85 86-90 91-92 no.62 4.73 6.03 10.03 75.72 3.62 6.76 5 49.66 0.00 47.09 16 27.83 8.91 6.45 6.07 4 5.05 20.00 0.36 21.87 1.05 6.57 12.56 6.85 5.57 14.00 0.00 48.52 1.49 21 13.64 10.10 40.13 11.60 1.82 24.87 10 0.49 32.24 3.54 6.49 12.00 28 0.13 11.74 4.38 10A 0.43 20.50 16.38 37.06 13.38 15.66 14.39 14.33 9A 0.09 25.00 29 0.00 0.85 4.42 12.61 6 51.64 27.23 22.88 3.86 7 42.33 18.52 12.68 20 0.50 12.15 18.56 16. 980 1 43.11 17 0.19 5.35 28.61 18.11 15.73 4.18 31.75 7.19 8.00 0.99 12.33 6.65 31.95 5.43 32.83 26.30 6.14 1.82 8.00 0.81 6.30 6.40 95 1.00 31.16 7.82 12.59 38.21 0.00 20.56 9 0.71 2 39.52 7.87 0.42 0.86 mean 12.28 26 0.34 13.82 48.82 5.88 0.07 8.57 stddev 18.17 12.92 2.60 7.17 14 0.95 3 11.87 7.80 39.60 94 13.29 41.63 1.44 48.86 4.64 15 8.95 8 24.82 4.02 44.26 28.74 6.35 5.00 31.92 11.09 29.16 9.65 17.82 5.17 6.86 33.61 6.00 35.08 93 3.82 2.38 56.29 12 0.56 4.56 16A 0.26 7.06 1.16 5.71 11.50 12.19 9.15 .61 12.67 36.32 6.22 52.53 20.37 7.93 10.

03 24.67 3.51 10.29 .19 27.67 2.13 26.00 4.62 0.26 0.03 6.30 34.47 6.00 32.95 12.00 6.45 3.39 2.33 4.96 18.42 4.33 8.82 3.77 6.29 0.30 2.33 7.33 0.20 8.10 16.69 5.36 4.00 31.93 3.25 4.90 2.46 1.99 7.54 8.39 4.80 4.27 0.45 2.00 2.83 2.85 47.62 4.29 20.26 2.00 19.58 0.90 10.20 6.53 0.67 7.92 4.68 3.45 21.26 12.24 23.88 1.35 15.00 0.92 7.50 6.00 21.48 20.00 0.51 6.14 6.26 19.19 17.12 7.14 0.25 31.42 26.00 1.48 15.94 28.85 33.58 2.58 0.38 2.64 0.30 0.69 2.52 1.33 8.60 2.07 3.67 25. city suburbs suburbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10A 12 14 15 16 16A 17 20 21 26 28 29 9A mean stddev 21.60 0.03 15.09 5.84 2.42 3.61 12.95 9.05 30.71 5.55 8.83 3.91 2.00 33.10 17.73 25.33 0.58 9.32 8.29 8.00 0.33 4.50 27.02 22.67 8.25 12.01 Navi Inside Out of Intl.00 28.08 0.53 2.38 5.48 17.35 21.63 5.17 5.00 24.17 8.15 2.71 20.76 3.87 3.26 23.88 12.45 0.98 0.32 27.09 27.23 3.76 0.74 28.94 5.98 3.17 5.81 4.51 7.30 14.37 10.47 36.00 1.63 15.42 8.00 38.83 18.83 8.00 4.79 0.33 0.46 0.00 45.31 5.52 22.44 5.00 39.69 4.39 0.62 29.63 2.77 2.31 0.37 1.02 47.76 3.73 4.82 6.62 0.54 3.15 0.53 2.81 0.24 7.26 7.09 0.02 9.05 19.88 2.57 1.64 2. Mumba state state i 24.24 1.58 14.23 12.30 4.17 25.57 28.00 26.63 0.03 1.40 8.15 2.43 17.00 0.23 18.90 7.80 37.74 36.76 11.52 2.10 16.10 4.24 5.93 8.54 5.00 0.Previous Place of Residence Sector Island Wn En Thane Vashi no.26 3.00 30.05 18.07 5.00 30.00 20.00 23.54 1.64 7.55 3.74 31.69 35.60 4.

63 2.73 3.38 14.86 4.00 6.49 10A 24.70 6.82 3.48 mean 39.55 8.30 4.05 2.26 3.64 3.27 2.74 4.44 2.70 8.49 10.47 2.15 16.03 17.22 3.Language Sector Marath Hindi Gujarat Malaya Punjabi Tamil Kannad Bengali Other no.26 13.66 10.64 10.33 6.17 16.77 3.27 0.57 17.09 15.90 2 44.34 4.90 26 48.73 2.43 4.19 2.00 1.76 4.99 16.54 21 61.32 1.60 2.75 14.47 2.57 15.29 2.91 2.92 20 60.00 12.72 12.90 3.76 12.70 10.46 17.30 9.73 0.97 4.87 12.17 9.10 2.62 7.36 10 44.76 3.85 1.43 24.58 2.21 9 50.18 10.71 1.92 1.67 15 57.93 1.36 6.00 4.43 14.05 9.57 4 46.53 9.00 9.96 6.52 0.43 16.13 20.50 10.59 1.73 stddev 17.57 1.98 3.15 18.27 5.56 8 22.83 7.09 8.91 6 33.85 5.33 13.61 5.44 7.99 3.61 14.10 5.92 3.84 12.85 5.79 16A 51.45 2.49 9.28 24.83 14 19.86 8.00 0.31 3.63 16 54.36 4.00 1.84 4.29 3.42 3 32.17 16.72 5.95 4.71 8.97 3.24 7.82 4.81 5.63 1.23 2.27 7.32 2.36 6.26 2.32 7.53 2.08 7.93 9.66 8.00 4.76 5.14 1.54 27.67 4.30 1.00 12.36 11.71 1.32 9A 20.29 2.34 12.03 9.15 2.44 5.51 3.12 2.00 0.76 14.09 6.54 4.19 3.89 4.26 5 77.43 7.73 2.87 17.33 29.29 15.54 1.62 1.90 3.03 2.37 4.46 5.52 19.97 10.54 7.49 4. i hi lam a 1 51.55 32.38 0.77 8.96 2.79 12.03 16.57 14.17 20.81 4.29 0.83 8.71 12 8.29 2.32 17 21.93 4.00 7.37 4.21 0.96 5.22 2.08 4.89 3.69 28 28.29 29 25.85 0.56 5.61 1.40 2.75 4.92 14.20 4.10 4.29 .23 9.13 7 37.13 4.90 17.27 7.57 20.98 4.21 21.55 3.98 6.39 4.00 11.67 0.66 10.

04 6.60 8.42 0.43 0.76 8.21 15.68 0.33 0.68 0.32 2 80.66 3.17 0.88 0.00 0.52 0.44 0.00 16A 91.41 0.70 2.51 2.32 2.50 4.00 14 88.88 0.00 1.80 3.31 0.65 9.88 0.18 11.91 0.16 0.93 8.66 8 72.74 1.00 21 81.46 0.00 0.26 6.36 1.86 1.79 0.00 0.09 0.29 9.51 0.57 4.05 0.00 0.61 1.85 7.69 0.04 5.00 5 81.92 1.64 0.00 0.00 7 76.59 3 75.43 1.70 1.00 0.98 0.00 29 86.37 0.00 10A 72.43 1.13 5.62 0.68 1.15 0.60 1.45 2.36 mean 82.86 22.60 0.70 0.62 20 86.28 4.00 15 83.13 0.45 2.17 0.26 5.21 0.99 0.Religion Sector Hindu Christi Islam Jain Sikh Buddhi Other no.00 16 88.33 0.78 1.00 0.53 1.22 0.00 0.82 10.17 12.82 7.71 0.00 0.32 6.62 0.03 0.23 0.64 5.13 8.76 5.00 0.00 6.40 2.67 1.55 1.47 0.00 7.81 9.46 1.73 1.00 2.02 0.53 3.03 5.54 0.82 0.75 5.11 10 80.61 4.53 4.00 12 79.20 8.01 6.00 0.09 6.00 6 83.72 4.47 4.95 0.52 3.00 0.00 4.02 0.85 0.64 9 84.34 6.24 0.20 0.57 4 84.40 0.10 0.75 0.00 1.56 3.00 9A 73.92 7.00 1.32 1.16 15.00 0.42 5.25 stddev 6.00 17 85.17 2. an st 1 79.00 28 100.00 26 86.42 1.85 0.73 1.49 .43 1.36 0.78 3.19 5.47 0.55 4.20 10.42 0.00 0.82 2.

Deviation Analysis N 73.851E-17 .314E-16 100. Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 4.9974 81659 49.064E-02 .1087 9.946 24.000 .862 6 8. .845 4 .824 RELIGION 1.429 5.000 .133 100.000 .202 5 .879 TENURE 1.000 .7870 81659 37.832 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.6705 5.571 55.000 .320 79.8271 8.000 .000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.571 2 1.939 MIGRATN 1.0403 3.2670 81659 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.6076 81659 8.039E-02 1.867 7 1.SIZE 1.7800 3.875 FAM.926 EDUCATN 1.985 INCOME 1.6486 81659 86.Appendix D Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics EARNER EDUCATN FAM.000 .446 55.0814 4.660 98.8863 81659 28.000 8 5.356 95.8538 81659 53.928 LANGUAGE 1.2091 4.9885 16.000 .955 89.890 3 .796 .SIZE INCOME LANGUAGE MIGRATN RELIGION TENURE Mean Std.293 3.005 99.4115 81659 32.

118 22.468E-03 RELIGION .156 .796E-04 TENURE .900 FAM.484 EDUCATN .766E-02 MIGRATN .155 -.818 % of Variance Cumulative % 43.236 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.878 -.SIZE .230 MIGRATN -.317E-02 -8.926 .107 INCOME -.702 -.882 FAM.381 .685 8.255 4.230 RELIGION -.SIZE -. 3 .202 -1.347 23.925E-02 TENURE -.293 INCOME .Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings 1 2 3 Total 3.845 Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER .862 LANGUAGE .937 -.454E-02 Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER -.101 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.771 67.881 LANGUAGE -.358 .136 .785 -7.244 -.455 .278 .728 89.347 43.902 1.804 .379 -2.880 . 3 .383E-02 .446 .822 .634 4.951 .898E-02 .430 .201 .264 .468 1.888 -7.902 -.470 EDUCATN -.

919 9.299 10.581 2.174 4.617 7.Appendix E Cluster Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N 8 a b Missing Total Percent N Percent N Percent 100.0 0 .0 8 100.0 Squared Euclidean Distance used Average Linkage (Between Groups) Average Linkage (Between Groups) Agglomeration Schedule Stage Cluster 1 1 5 2 2 3 5 4 1 5 3 6 1 7 1 Cluster 2 6 7 8 2 4 5 3 Coefficients .108 Cluster Membership 1:Vashi 2:Nerul 3:Belapur 4:Kalamboli 5:Panvel 6:Kopar-khaira 7:Airoli 8:Sanpada 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 .946 4.

5580 35.0375 Std.1339 10.721 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.000 . . Deviation 7.5835 Analysis N 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.856 EDUCATN 1.4424 RELGION1 82.000 .000 .7307 3.000 .000 .5760 INCOME 27.9768 15.000 .5535 LANGUAG2 6.000 .527 MEN 1.8628 WOMEN 33.9142 3.3839 RELGION2 6.Appendix F Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics Mean EARNER 66.9114 MEN 38.000 .7324 3.855 LANGUAG1 1.722 RELGION2 1.000 .9628 7.675 MIGRATN 1.9421 LANGUAG1 46.000 .6247 4.3934 9.836 INCOME 1.889 LANGUAG2 1.7719 3.3183 EDUCATN 40.0484 MIGRATN 52.571 OWNRSHIP 1.801 RELGION1 1.9759 OWNRSHIP 66.568 WOMEN 1.000 .

538 .453 49. Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .096 .564 11 4.093E-03 MIGRATN -.161 57.001 24.238 91.265 95.612 .581 4 .455 23.200 8 .373 -.854E-02 .500 4.522 -.246 .740 15.239 MEN 0.466 4.042E-02 .427E-02 INCOME .638 97.523 81.896 98.310 .071E-02 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.257 87.234 8.917 Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total 1 3.803 8.794E-02 .565 OWNRSHIP .098 2.777 -.131 .773 -.657 -2.441 5 .592 WOMEN .937 2.136E-02 .750 2 2.690 3 1.816 -5.359 3.748 .458 LANGUAG1 .734 10 9.127 -.938 8.Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % of Variance Cumulative % 25.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.463 72.698 6 .819 72.438 22.917 2.436 100.475 RELGION2 .937 34.001 25. .688 6.880 -.391 LANGUAG2 -.290 2.424 RELGION1 .843 34.915E-04 .831 99.838 9 9.487 EDUCATN .935 7 .473 .448 .

658 RELGION2 .333 .399 WOMEN .210 .855 .201 .647 9.575 5.113 RELGION1 -.141E-02 MEN -.795 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.246 LANGUAG1 .877 -9.366 .316 -.136 OWNRSHIP .046 -.610E-02 LANGUAG2 -.596 -.214 .804 MIGRATN 0.524 .869 .240 . . a Rotation converged in 6 iterations.120 .Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER . Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.742 -.774 EDUCATN .110 -.351 -.704E-02 INCOME .709 .130 .231 -.

411 1.Appendix G Cluster Agglomeration Schedule Cluster Combined Stage Cluster 1 Cluster 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2 9 1 12 9 15 3 12 1 13 9 3 1 8 1 1 3 12 12 1 1 1 6 10 2 17 14 18 7 16 4 22 20 23 15 11 9 19 8 21 13 3 12 5 Stage Cluster First Appears Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Next Stage 0 0 3 0 0 5 0 1 9 0 0 8 2 0 11 0 0 13 0 0 12 4 0 18 3 0 13 0 0 19 5 0 15 7 0 17 9 6 15 0 0 17 13 11 16 15 0 20 12 14 20 8 0 19 18 10 21 16 17 21 20 19 22 21 0 0 Coefficients .309 6.515 1.114 .558 4.904 2.726 4.653 .584 .108 2.151 2.142 13.052 11.751 .799 5.918 .487 3.574 .449 8.840 1.837 1.032 1.

Cluster Membership Case 3 Clusters 1:1 1 2:2 1 3:3 1 4:4 1 5:5 2 6:6 1 7:7 1 8:8 1 9:9 1 10:10 1 11:10A 1 12:12 3 13:14 3 14:15 1 15:16 1 16:16A 3 17:17 3 18:20 1 19:21 1 20:26 1 21:28 3 22:29 3 23:9A 1 .

College of Architecture and Urban Studies. October 1997.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Date of Birth: 30 June 1973 Education: Master of Urban and Regional Planning May 1998 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 1995. • Student member American Planning Association. Virginia Tech.Outstanding First Year Graduate Student. Dec. • Won first prize (three member team) in a design competition . Aug. Boulder. • Rank holder of the University of Pune. • Registered Architect under Council of Architecture. 1995 Worked with the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage May 1993 . J. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning. Pune. Pune. May 1997. Knox.May 1994 Worked as an intern at Historic Boulder. India. India. Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. India Experience Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. CO. 1994. P. Professor. Blacksburg. Browder. 1994 . Pune. • Awarded Virginia Citizens Planning Associate Fellowship . USA.Mar.July 1996 . O. . India May . New Delhi. • Won first prize (three member team) for Formica Interior design competition. VA Bachelor of Architecture May 1996 University of Pune.May 1997 Worked as an Architect with Suyojan Architects. Worked as an intern with Narendra Dengle Architects. Aug. 1997 – May 1998 Graduate Research Assistant to Dr.July 1992 Honors and Affiliations • Invited to Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society. 1996 .Reclaiming a derelict river. L. April .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful