The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Urban and Regional Planning

John Browder, Chair Wendy Jacobson Paul Knox

April , 1998 Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords: urban social pattern, Navi Mumbai, Bombay, urban planning - India Copyright 1998, Malathi Ananthakrishnan

The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India Malathi Ananthakrishnan (ABSTRACT) This research thesis examines the emerging trends in urban social patterns in Navi Mumbai, India. Unlike the other planned cities of India, Navi Mumbai was specifically built as a planned decentralization of a large metropolitan city. The research focuses on explaining the urban social pattern of this particular case study. An urban social pattern reflects the social characteristics of the urban setting. In the case of Navi Mumbai, the government had a social agenda of promoting a social pattern based on socioeconomic distribution rather than an ethnic one. Analysis of the data provides an insight to the results of this social agenda, and provides a basis to frame new ones. Thus, the study not only addresses a basic research question, but also has policy implications. The research involves a comprehensive review of secondary source material to establish the theoretical framework for the research. The review also involves an extensive inspection of urban social patterns across the world to better contextualize this particular case study. The research puts forth a model that explains the social pattern of Navi Mumbai by social area analysis using variables, which are drawn from social aspects of any city and indigenous factors of Indian settlements. The model depends not only on statistical analysis but also on interpretation of local conditions. This research situates the emerging social pattern in geographic literature in developing countries. This research was supported in part, by a grant from the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Tech.


I would like to take this opportunity to thank my Advisor and Chair of my committee, Dr. John Browder. He was supportive of all my efforts to successfully complete this thesis. It would not have been possible without his help. Thank you also to my committee members, Dr. Jacobson and Dr. Knox, for the time and effort they contributed.

Thanks also due to everyone in Navi Mumbai who helped me collect the data and all relevant information. Special thanks to Ms. Adusumilli, Senior planner, CIDCO, Mrs. Raje, Chief statistician, CIDCO, Dr. Venkatachalam and Dr. Sengupta at IIT-Bombay and Dr. BanerjeeGuha at the University of Bombay. I would also like to thank Prachi and Avesh Tapde for their hospitality in Navi Mumbai.

Dr. Dyck and Dr. Bohland clarified many of my conceptual and analytical queries. I would like to give my appreciation for their support. I would also like to thank Dr. Randolph and Dr. Schubert for having made a grant available for me to carry out the field research.

I am also grateful to my good friends Inga, Maneesha and Elda for not only helping me out with proof reading and other mundane things, but also for being there during the ups and downs of the entire process. I would like to thank my family for always encouraging me to think and my fiancé for his patience.

3 Organization of the Thesis 1 2.5.2 Cluster Analysis .1 Caste 3.5.. 3 2.8.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns 3.1 Western Cities 3.2 Hypothesis 4.5.2 Sector Theory 3.5 Sociocultural Factors 3.6 The Built Form 3.5 Methodology Research Problem Statement 1.3 Operationalization 4.2 Significance of Thesis 1.9 Conclusion 4.3 Factors influencing Urban Form 3.1 Concentric Zone Theory 3.3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai 2.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 2.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan 2.4 Language 3.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai 2.1 Introduction 3.10 Conclusion 3.3 Religion 3.8.1 Social Area Analysis 4.Table of Contents 1.1 Introduction 2.1 Descriptive Analysis 4. Research Design……………………………………………………………… 38 4.7. Introduction………………………………………………………………….8 Case Study of Urban Social Patterns 3.5.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities 3.8. The Conceptual Framework………………………………………………….8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework 2.3 Indian Cities 3.7. 20 3.2 Third World Cities 3. 1.2 Class 3.4 Data Collection 4.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai 2.3 Multiple Nuclei Theory 3.5 Development Potential of the Site 2.5 Implications of the Sociocultural factors 3. The Research Setting………………………………………………………….7.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region 2..5.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern 3.

Presentation of Data………………………………………………………….6 Data Analysis Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory 6.2 Cluster Analysis mapping and Overlays 4.2.5 Conclusion 6.4. Glossary of Terms Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G 77 .1 Principal Components Analysis 5.4 Sub-regional Scale – sectors 5.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory 6.3 Discussion 5.1 Regional Scale 6...2 Descriptive Analysis 5.2.1 Principal Components Analysis 5.3 Regional Scale – nodes 5.4.3 Summary 6.2 Sub-regional Scale Introduction Principal Component Analysis 4. Interpretation / Discussion…………………………………………………… 6.4 Potential Utility of the Research 43 65 7.2 Cluster Analysis 5. 5. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 74 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………….3 Discussion 5.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory 6.

3 5.9 5.10 5.List of Tables Table number 2.13 5.15 5.8 5.11 5.4 2.2 5.18 5.5 2.1 2.2 5.6 5.16 5.21 Title Population Density of Bombay Immigrant population of Bombay Land Fragmentation in 1970 Household Income and Capacity to Pay Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay Land Use of Navi Mumbai Constructs and Variables Survey Sampling Constructs and Variables Work Force Number of Earners Occupational Classification of Workforce Household Income Location of Education Institutions Level of Education Male Population Female Population Family Size Type of Housing Ownership of House Housing built by CIDCO Housing built by Private Enterprise Year of Occupation Previous Place of Residence Religion Language Spatial Pattern of Variables Attributes of Principal Components Attributes of Principal Components page 4 5 6 8 16 17 39 40 43 44 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 50 51 52 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 60 61 .5 5.19 5.1 5.17 5.7 5.1 4.2 2.6 4.4 5.20 5.12 5.3 2.14 5.

2 3.5 3.5 5.2 2.13 5.8 5.1 5.9 5.1 3.15 5.12 5.17 5.3 5.6 5.3 6.14 5.2 5.11 5.9 3. 2651-4450 Frequency of Families with at least one individual with Secondary Education Frequency of Male Population in the age group 25-45 Frequency of Households with 4 or 5 members Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO Frequency of Housing built by CIDCO Frequency of Houses built by Private Enterprise Frequency of Tenure Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence Frequency of Hindus Frequency of Muslims Frequency of Marathi Frequency of Malayalam Components in Rotated Space Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai Average Linkage between Factor Scores Average Linkage between Variables Clustering of Sectors of Vashi Average Linkage between Factor Scores Page 2 5 7 11 15 18 26 28 29 29 31 32 32 33 34 36 45 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 56 57 57 59 59 60 62 63 65 66 66 67 68 .6 3.List of Figure Figure Number 2.10 5.10 5.1 2.4 3.5 Title Expansion of Bombay Twin City Across the Harbor Development Potential of the Site Nodes of Navi Mumbai Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai Land Use of Navi Mumbai Circle and Swastika Town Plans Concentric Zone Theory Sector Theory Multiple Nuclei Theory Urban Social Patterns Plan of Delhi and New Delhi Asian Ports Latin American Cities Pattern of Indian Cities Theories of Urban Social Patterns and Corresponding Case Studies Distribution of Single-earner Families Frequency of Families with Income range Rs.16 5.2 6.6 3.7 5.4 5.5 2.18 5.4 2.1 6.4 6.3 3.7 3.3 2.19 6.8 3.

6 6.13 6.9 6.17 6.11 6.18 Average Linkage between Variables Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic variables Distribution of Number of Earners Distribution of Income Hypothetical Concentric Pattern for Family Status variables Distribution of Ownership of Apartment Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic variables Distribution of Households speaking Marathi Distribution of Households which follow Islam Clustering of Sectors Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 .7 6.15 6.12 6.14 6.16 6.6.8 6.10 6.

Physical and economic landscapes. and the housing market. The literature review shows that a specific study of Navi Mumbai has not been previously documented. and their social pattern is characterized by residential segregation based on ethnic. Traditional Indian cities have evolved over the centuries. Therefore. Various processes influence the social pattern of the city.2 Significance of Research A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between their constituent elements at a certain period of time. An interpretation of the emerging social pattern reveals something of the social character of the city. the study of human settlements has an encompassing view of all the activities it supports. religion. if any. A policy emphasizing a uniform distribution of the population is the ideological orientation of the government. this paper will augment existing knowledge about social configurations of planned urban development in Asian regions. The urban form of a city is primarily the result of the characteristics of its physical and social design as well as socioeconomic and political forces. middle class population in India.Chapter 1: Introduction 1. race. The pattern suggests not only the outcome of . street patterns. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. The basic research here involves the search for an urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. 1990). Urban patterns occur because of repetition of these elements. The purpose of this thesis is to delineate and interpret the social pattern of Navi Mumbai. 1. The urban social pattern is one of the many aspects of the urban form. Socioeconomic factors. Why is such a study significant? The urban form of the city influences behavioral. This research aspires to contribute to basic research in social geography. exist in the urban social pattern of planned towns in India. housing characteristics. The pattern of Navi Mumbai will be studied at different hierarchical spatial levels: regional (node / township) and sub-regional (sector / neighborhood). and political events may influence the physical design and pattern of a city. Thus. religious and linguistic classes. land use pattern and ethnic classifications will be used as key variables to study the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai.1 Research Problem Statement The overall objective of this thesis is to determine what common patterns. planning regulations. Different characteristics are drawn from the factors influencing the physical design and cultural aspect of the city. migration. This research determines how the present social pattern relates to various theoretical frameworks. These include the ethnic composition of the city. It is a synthesis of the spatial relationships of various elements. Navi Mumbai (New Bombay) is one of the first planned new town developments built for a diverse. economic and social processes within it (Vance. land use and ownership.

The presentation of data and its analysis is in the fifth chapter. The third chapter is a comprehensive review of the secondary sources to establish a context of the research question. but also variables that influence this pattern. The second chapter provides the background to the particular case study used in the research. The urban social pattern also serves as a framework for further research. the research setting. Chapter seven draws to conclusion the thesis with a review of the problem statement.3 Organization of the Thesis This thesis is divided into seven chapters. Interpretation and discussion of the analysis and its relationship to the theories discussed in the third chapter is done in the sixth chapter. The fourth chapter outlines the methodology used for analysis of data and explains the data source and method of data collection. methodology. analysis and interpretation and the broad outcomes of the thesis. which provides the problem statement and the broader objectives of the thesis. This first chapter is the introduction.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 1: Introduction 2 the policy. Thus. 1. the basic research has many applications in longrange planning in Navi Mumbai. its contextual framework. .

1995. 1957 trading posts. South Bombay is the center of India’s 1950 banking and service industries. a Portuguese princess. the King of Portugal gifted the Bombay islands to King Charles II of England when King Charles married Catherine Braganza. 1973). This planned decentralization was the outcome of efforts by the government to make Bombay more “sustainable” (Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board. textile mills and government offices have made it the preeminent port of Western India. Bombay had its beginnings in a series of fishing villages until it was taken over by the Portuguese in the 16th century. the shipyard modernized and the city fortified. 1965 Bombay’s high concentration of docks. In Bombay. The geographical area of Bombay is an island.Chapter 2: The Research Setting 2. In 1661. Urbanization and subsequent suburbanization of Bombay have created a linear city such that the central business district (CBD) and residential areas have become further and further apart (Figure 2. The city of Source: Dwivedi and Mehrotra. is a new planned city across the harbor (of Bombay) from Bombay. In 1668. and providing efficient infrastructure (Dwivedi and Mehrotra.1 Expansion of Bombay The East India Company. the Crown rented Bombay to the East India Company. for Arabian MUMBAI Sea those who could not afford to make the 1910 long commutes. 1995). There was a . the East India Company had taken on the new role of ruler (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. 1995).1). was interested in developing the town in a methodical manner.1 Introduction Navi Mumbai (New Bombay). now as rulers. especially to the middle and lower class of people. By the 1780s.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region Bombay is not a city built on Indian traditional planning ideas. The East India Company encouraged Indian and East India Company merchants to settle in Bombay. The harbor was strengthened. Bombay was then established as a trading post. The first settlement was established in the southern most tip of the island. This range of activities led to crowding at an BOMBAY NAVI unprecedented scale. established in 1972. Navi Mumbai was designed to provide a better quality of life. squatter settlements all over Bombay became the way of life. India. Figure 2. 2.

In 1967. This enclosed the Town and Island of Bombay. Adequate water is a serious problem. However. 1992). Bombay’s infrastructure facilities were stretched to the limit. Housing deficits are ever widening and slums like a cancerous growth can be seen anywhere and everywhere. the Bombay Improvement Trust was created. Many parts of it are not even tolerably clean and healthy. the suburbs and 42 villages within the definition of the new city limit (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. which would encompass the Fort area as well as the suburbs of Bombay. the Bombay Municipal Corporation was established. concentration of industries and offices in certain pockets of Bombay. and 24 percent of the one and two room tenements were over crowded. They recommended: i the creation of a new town on the mainland across the harbor i develop the suburbs of Bombay further Bombay had reached a level of unmanageable growth by the 1960s. the Gadgil Committee strongly recommended a multi-nuclear growth using the creation of a new town across the harbor. In 1865. The 1967 development plan estimated a housing shortage of 131. 1986) The Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board in its report wrote Bombay the Beautiful is no more beautiful. . By the early 1900s. lack of housing and infrastructure and high land values were the major problems identified. The Post-War development Committee of 1945 and the ’Master Plan in Outline’ prepared by Albert Mayer and N. In 1966.2). The development acts of 1954 and 1964 emphasized the need to relocate industrial activity from the island to the mainland (CIDCO. Greater Bombay came into existence only after the Bombay High Court Act of 1945. the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board set up two committees to study the development of Bombay. some thought was given to ’Greater Bombay’. and. Modak influenced the development of Greater Bombay for the next two decades (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. 1965). The large migrant influx contributed to the overcrowding (Table 2.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 4 strong development of mixed land use settlements. in 1896. 1995). V. Commuter distances had become larger because of increased suburbanization with no change in location of the CBD. 1973) Population increase. These formal government bodies were the beginning of a conscientious effort to regulate the growth of Bombay (Banerjee-Guha. 1995). This committee appointed the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board to develop the concept further (Gadgil Committee. Transportation is threatening to break down…. Commercial and residential areas were mixed because many merchants carried on business from home (Tindall.1 Population Density of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Area in acres 14247 14281 14342 14575 15066 15480 16751 16720 Persons / Acre 54 56 54 67 78 75 165 184 (Various Census Reports for Bombay in Kosambi. (BMRPB. Table 2. 1995).000 houses. In the 1960s. Land use zoning and the concept of floor space index were incorporated for the first time. 1995). various planning committees were formed to develop a regional plan for Bombay. the Port of Bombay.

The site that was finally chosen was across the harbor from Bombay island. 1993). Also. and New Growth Centers Growth Centers of Bombay Town Center Arabian Sea Harbor of Bombay Figure 2. 1997).2). the Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board recommended considering a twin city across the harbor. It is a narrow piece of land bounded by the Western Ghat mountain ranges on the north. Lack of adequate water supply and sewage facilities worsened conditions.3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai The prominent authors of the ’twin city concept’ were Charles Correa1. was incharge of the planning and design of Navi Mumbai (1970-75).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 5 Table 2. 1973). 3 Sirish Patel. engineer and planner. air pollution and mixed land use (UNCHS. The implementation occurred through ’correct’ political and bureaucratic channels in 1969. 1973). Unhealthy and insanitary conditions for 1 million slum dwellers was the result of inadequate housing stock. 1 2 Charles Correa is a prominent architect and urban designer in Bombay. In a final attempt. 2. If the new city was too far away. Pravina Mehta (late) was a structural engineer.2 Immigrant Population of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Population 773196 821764 776006 979445 1175914 1161383 2771933 3070378 % 72 75 77 80 84 75 72 63 Immigrants Males per 151 171 162 189 191 181 160 149 100 Females (Various Census Reports of Bombay in Kosambi.2 Twin City Across the Harbor Source: CIDCO. 1973. south and east. This was in the form of the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board’s recommendation that a new city be designed within the Bombay Metropolitan region to facilitate the decongestion of Bombay (Correa. then this would not be possible (BMRPB. Pravina Mehta2 and Shirish Patel3 who presented to the government a proposal in 1964 for constructing new growth centers across Bombay harbor on the mainland (Figure 2. rocketing land prices prevented the acquisition of land for public purposes (BMPRB. 1986) The concentration of industries and offices at the CBD and suburbs like Chembur and Andheri created unequal development. .

CIDCO is a limited company. financing physical and social infrastructure through land sales. The land notified for acquisition for Navi Mumbai was under private and government ownership (Table 2. 1997). >10000 sq. a government agency explicitly set up for this purpose. They were (CIDCO. The first step was to identify all the land that needed to be acquired for Navi Mumbai. >500 sq.3 Land Fragmentation in 1970 Ownership Area (sq. Section 31(6) under the same act gives the government the power to specify land use and proceed with development. The government would acquire land under its power of eminent domain under Section 22. 1995) CIDCO notified all private owners about the compulsory acquisition. >1000 sq. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board created the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) in 1970 to implement its ideas. >4000 sq. Owners were notified about the government’s proposal. 1973): i polycentric pattern of development i acquisition of all land to have better control of the environment and to use land as the main resource for development. comprising of a number of nodes (townships). m. 1973). Patel and Mehta designed this regional plan based on three basic objectives: a planned new development. 1973).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 6 the Arabian Sea on the west (CIDCO. 2. wholly owned by the State Government of Maharashtra (CIDCO. Navi Mumbai covers an area of 344 sq. 1973). Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act (MR&TP Act). and improving Bombay by drawing off pressures for growth into the new area (Patel. was designed to accommodate new industrial and commercial activity as well as for secure and affordable housing to workers. The first task of CIDCO was to prepare a development plan for the new town. The new town. m. It is a self-contained city independent of Bombay although there is still a visual connection to Bombay. It was hoped that the nearness to Bombay would facilitate the relocation of people from Bombay (CIDCO. km. CIDCO used certain development principles in its design.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 The task of planning and developing Navi Mumbai was entrusted to the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO).3) Table 2. The plan hoped to reduce homelessness in Bombay and provide slum dwellers a better life as well as absorb migration from the countryside (Correa. 1966. The regional plan was approved in 1970. Correa. 1985). m. m. km) (number) (number) (number) Government 10137 All Private 16677 18412 3338 1579 90 Marsh(wetlands) 84 (CIDCO. The finality of the approved Development Plan ensures that the pressure and friction which would develop to obtain land use changes for particular land holdings would be largely eliminated .

4. To provide a physical infrastructure which prevents ethnic enclaves among the population.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 7 (CIDCO. container port at Nhava-Sheva. The development plan took into account the Figure 2. The Draft Development Plan gave only broad guidelines. These were (CIDCO. 1995). and major law and order problems did occur. leaving enough room for flexibility. 2. To provide an environment which would permit the residents of New Bombay to live fuller and richer lives in so far this is possible. it also hoped to improve the quality of life of Bombay. CIDCO acquired all the land after settling disputes about compensation (CIDCO. 1995): • the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) Estates at Turbhe and Taloja. Reduce the growth of population in Bombay city by creating a center that would absorb immigrants. and transport corridors along Thane-Belapur. 1995). The objectives were (CIDCO. • the newly commissioned bridge across the Thane creek. • the Thane-Pune National Highway 4. Nevertheless. and also attract some of Bombay’s present population.3 Development Potential of the Site Turbhe MIDC Industrial Estates Arabian Sea Creek bridge Taloja Panvel Nhava-sheva . • the existence of two municipal corporations at Panvel and Uran. Panvel-Uran rail and road links. raise the living standards and reduce the disparities in the amenities available to the different sections of the population. Although five minor amendments were made to this Draft Plan. To support a statewide Industrial Location Policy which will lead eventually to an efficient and rational distribution of industries over the State and a balanced development of urban centers in the hinterland. This was not entirely true. 2. 1973). no new document was ever prepared. Although the main objective of the design of Navi Mumbai was to create a selfsufficient urban environment. The success of Navi Mumbai was thought to depend on the adequate creation of jobs (CIDCO. 5. 3. 1973: 10): 1. To provide physical and social services. The Draft Development Plan remains the guiding document in use even today.3). which are commonly associated with urban living. free from the physical and social tensions. • the plan for a modern.5 Development Potential of the Site The chosen site had various development potentials (Figure 2.

i to use the job centers with matching infrastructure provision as engines of growth for the new city. The employment base of Navi Mumbai was planned to encompass manufacturing (industry). i to decongest Bombay by shifting jobs that are concentrated in the southern part of Bombay. Almost 87% of the office jobs of Greater Bombay are located on Bombay island with 62% in South Bombay. large industries. The Industrial Location Policy issued in December 1974 posed various restrictions on the start of new industrial units on Bombay island. better quality houses was the biggest incentive (CIDCO.7) Household % of Monthly Capacity to pay Affordable size Income Population capacity to pay for housing (in of housing unit (Rs. Although job opportunities were the driving force behind Navi Mumbai’s success. 1975).) Less than 200 20 10 1200 3 201-300 16 11 2580 5 301-400 15 12 4140 8 401-500 14 13 5940 12 501-600 12 14 7800 16 601-800 9 15 10800 22 801-1000 7 17 15600 31 Threshold of affordability 1001-1200 3 19 21000 43 1201-1500 2 22 30000 60 1501+ 2 25 37800 75 .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 8 provision of 750.4 Household Income and Capacity to Pay (Figures estimated in 1971 income where $1~Rs. 1973). Industrial growth was encouraged only in the MIDC industrial estates of Navi Mumbai (CIDCO. A series of controls were made for various regions within Bombay. large or medium industrial units were permitted on Bombay island. A CBD was planned in Navi Mumbai with the aim of creating 40. Only small-scale industries were allowed in place of old. 1995). trade and commerce (wholesale and warehousing). Table 2. 1997). m. assuming a family size of five. 400. as well as service sector (office) jobs. To accommodate a population of 2 million. The plan called for the shifting of government offices from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai.4 shows CIDCO’s estimates on the capacity to pay for housing by different income groups. No new. The authors of the regional plan cited the case of New Delhi to emphasize their idea (Patel. Table 2.000 houses needed to be built. the availability of cheaper. Per month) (% of income) rupees) (in sq. 1995): i make Navi Mumbai self-contained and not a dormitory.000 jobs for a population of 2 million (CIDCO. This was necessary to (CIDCO.000 office jobs.

1973). Each township had several sectors. 1977). which would subsidize housing for the lower income groups. The total land of Navi Mumbai was divided into thirteen townships. CIDCO decided to build a large part of the housing as public housing. The housing has to be heavily subsidized to make it affordable. A sector centrally located within each node took on commercial activities. The neighborhoods were self-sufficient and had their grocery store and primary school. The sector is the container of family life" (Le Corbusier. The sector planning of Modernism is very similar to the grid planning of traditional Indian cities. 1973). houses or larger (CIDCO. V4 roads were designed for shopping and commercial activity. The sector was based on the Spanish cuadra of 110 to 100 meters. In Navi Mumbai. 1961). 1977). Capacity to pay for housing divided by cost of construction shows a very small (or no) house could be owned by most families. m. The square had a significance in Hinduism as this perfect geometric shape was thought to be .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 9 (CIDCO. 550 per square meter and the cost of development of land was Rs. 1961). Otherwise. The higher income groups would pay a surcharge for housing. Le Corbusier had played an important role in the design of Chandigarh in Punjab in the mid1950s (Le Corbusier. 1973) The table shows the ability of each income group to contribute towards owned accommodation. At the same time. it was proposed to use cross subsidies. CIDCO decided to use a maximum surcharge of 15% on housing for highest income group to compensate for a maximum subsidy of 45% to the lowest income group (CIDCO. hierarchy of roads and important buildings of a gargantuan scale (Fry. Each of these cuadras was a self-contained unit with primary schools. 40 in 1970. Children were able to walk to school on the V7 through green belts (Sarin. residential and institutional activity. Le Corbusier explained "the plan is based on the main features of the 7V rule (Appendix B) determining an essential function: the creation of sectors. commercial. The Government of India’s policy on publicly financed housing has been to build 21 sq. These were: i decentralization by the design of self-sufficient townships(nodes). Many of these principles of Modernism were used in the planning of Navi Mumbai. i single-use zoning as opposed to the traditional multiple-use zoning The result was a single-use zoning pattern with distinct areas for industrial. community centers and residential areas. In India the square was used as the basic unit in the layout of traditional cities. This would have a great drain on the financial resources of the government. The cuadra had a detailed zoning plan with single-use zoning on all lots. each family could own only developed land. i residential neighborhoods (sector). Many of the sectors were residential in character.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai The conceptual design of Navi Mumbai was developed at the height of Modernism. 2. No fast traffic was allowed in the sectors. land would be leased under a 30-year repayment system to private cooperative housing schemes and private owners. The average cost of construction was Rs. Some of the highlights of the design elements of this plan were sector planning.

an American designer of the 1920s. 1973).4). "Arguing to turn any weaknesses into strength. Each node was planned to accommodate a range of income groups. This is significantly different from the single-use planning of Modernism. Neighborhood planning in the West was a concept put forth by Clarence Perry.000 to 200. All houses in a neighborhood were occupied by a particular caste. As the residential classification was based on the caste. The functionality of the city is based on the principle of neighborhood design as seen all over the Western world. 1973). both materials and human) and swatantrya (self-motivation and mutual self-help) (Ganguli. people were forced to work within that particular neighborhood. At a larger scale. Even in the planning of Mohenjadaro (7th century B. larger amenities by contiguous neighborhoods. nodes share some common facilities such as water reservoirs and transport facilities. So each sector had mixed use. Kshatriya. In the case of Navi Mumbai. Airoli and Kopar-Khairane have industrial estates. 1991). Under his leadership. the four castes are Brahmin. each neighborhood was known as a sector (CIDCO. The size of the node depends . the main philosophical design principles of Navi Mumbai are based on Gandhian ideology (Parab. Vashi is the center of Navi Mumbai's wholesale market. Each node is divided into neighborhoods (or sectors). commercial. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board put forth the broad conceptual regional plan of Navi Mumbai. was the Chief Planner of CIDCO for 20 years (1970-90) (Engel. warrior/king. streets. This also facilitated the sharing of other. The goal has been to create a city based on Gandhian principles of swavalamban (self-reliance). while Nhava-Sheva houses the new container port. This principle of neighborhood planning and its derivative from Modernism was used in Navi Mumbai. 1973). a true Gandhian. Navi Mumbai consists of thirteen townships (or nodes). Vaishya and Sudra. swadeshi (fullest utilization of local resources.). merchant and peasant. 1997). 1991). let us accommodate nature!" (Gandhi in Engel. The nodes contain residential. Each node is self-contained for 100. Many cities still reflect this street pattern. infrastructure and recreational uses (Figure 2.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 10 the abode of the gods (Henn. In India. Commercial and residential uses were adjacent to each other or one above the other. Parab.000 people. Some of the nodes have special features. This is the vision that is the traditional Indian design inspiration for Navi Mumbai. and progressively moved outward depending on the natural landscape. There would be no rich or poor nodes (CIDCO. This was a model layout for an area with specifications for residences. Here in Navi Mumbai the idea of a large “urban village” has been nurtured. The task of designing and detailing the physical design was carried out by CIDCO. Gandhi would have urged: If nature chooses not to accommodate us. 1929). 1984). The indigenous plans all started with a central focal point (either of political or religious symbolism). 1969). main streets formed perfect rectangles dividing the city into separate residential areas based on caste.C. which corresponds to the professions priest. amenities and utilities with segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic (Banerjee. The neighborhood unit is used as a building block to build New Towns across the world (Perry. Neighborhoods could be placed near each other to form a larger urban framework. Each neighborhood unit was within a one square mile radius. Mr.

The primary concerns were related .7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai Considerations of social equity were very important in all aspects of development in a country. Holding ponds would be used for pisciculture and recreation. and then unused portions would Nhava-Sheva be recycled. Private industries would not invest in this particular region unless they were assured of workers and so on. Water treated from industrial and sewage waste would be used to develop green areas (Parab. The Development Plan of Navi Mumbai is an example of the new consciousness for sustainable Kharghar Nerul settlements (CIDCO. unless sufficient industrial growth existed. 1997). The design concept of Navi Mumbai was very idealistic. The streams Source: CIDCO. It depended very heavily on external factors. The node should be large enough to provide schools. Hence. would be strongly supported. 2. Politicians use the creation of jobs and better living environments as a common strategy for getting votes. One of the ideas of putting the environmental city into Dronagiri practice was the creation of woodland corridors (Parab. For example. shopping areas and other facilities. For industrial growth large finances were required. 1995). The plan Jui Belapur Arabian envisioned an ecologically friendly Sea city where products of nature would be Panvel used. The Development Plan for Navi Mumbai called for the planting of one hundred thousand trees every year! (Engel. which had been independent for only 20 years. for its success. flowing from the Western Ghats mountain ranges would irrigate these trees. This was partly because of the scale and complexity of the project. only activities. Any change in political power would affect the policies and development strategies of this new town.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 11 BOMBAY Airoli Ghansoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada on walking distances to the mass transit stop. The plan called for the construction of holding ponds to retain excess monsoon run-off. 1973. There was also a high degree of uncertainty attached to some of the policies and physical developments. which were closely linked. This would also ensure reduction of soil erosion and the development of woodlands for both Figure 2. which would be used in the dry seasons. 1991). which ensured their re-election. a migration of population would not occur. 1997). As financial and economic considerations depended on the government in office.4 Nodes of Navi Mumbai recreation and timber. the plan had a very important political component.

more than 30% of the population of greater Bombay could not afford a pucca (durable) house (CIDCO. The sites-and-services plots would have services such as roads. sex. 1973). Navi Mumbai’s founders saw the construction of large amounts of new housing as an opportunity to break down demographic divisions and to enhance social equity. education and job opportunities. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion. economic and political . I). ground floor houses would be possible initially. 1973). For them. The planners of Navi Mumbai thought this was a fortuitous occasion to provide social justice to the millions of migrants and pavement dwellers of Bombay (CIDCO. Individual families would then have to build their own homes (swavalamban). cost-effective. place of birth or any of them (Article 15. race. 1973). The Draft Development Plan spelled out "there is a tendency in India that induces people to live in like groups." (CIDCO. water. cooperative housing groups or private builders.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 12 to providing better quality of housing. 1973). The remaining two-thirds of the population could afford more expensive housing. For the lower income group. The plan took into account the fact that one-third of the housing in New Bombay would be sites-and-services plots (CIDCO. medical care and social welfare. 1973) . 1973). To aid residents electricity and sanitation (CIDCO. The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice . it was proposed that housing should be constructed so that this income group could afford it. In 1970. More durable material could be used in the course of time. CIDCO would sell the plot at a highly subsidized rate and with a twenty-year repayment period.shall inform all the institutions of the national life (Article 38). Thus. caste. enclaves or ghettos of age long tradition of ’birds of the same feather flocking together’. Housing for the middle income and high income groups would be in the form of CIDCO housing. It recommended construction using cheaper concrete. Incremental housing was suggested as the solution. The Gandhian principle of self-help would be used to implement this agenda. cheap material. using bamboo instead of steel reinforcements and setting up of local retail shops where residents would be able to buy inexpensive building materials for building their homes (swadeshi) (CIDCO. The design of a completely new city was a very good opportunity to implement these national concerns. economic and political equity. The Constitution of India also spells out the need for the government machinery to facilitate social. Construction would be made with locally available. Housing would be built for the various income groups. In planned towns and cities this should be avoided to a great extent by allocating housing in neighborhoods to members of different communities. The residents could design and implement their construction in any way they chose (swatantrya). walk-up apartments of three to four floors would be designed.

It would be a small hospital and polyclinic where specialized health care would be provided to cases referred by the community health care center and general practitioners. These are discussed further in the next chapter. Establishment of ethnic enclaves has led to a number of problems in India. It should contain its own jobs. The medical center would provide secondary health service. one high school for 12. planners cited the segregation of Bombay as an example. The Greater Bombay region had some of the best social welfare programs in India. 1973). 1995).500 population and one college for 50. The nodes (townships) were designed to provide one primary school per 5000 population. schools and colleges and making health education a part of classroom education. exploited women and leprosyaffected persons would be developed in Navi Mumbai to accommodate the growing population (CIDCO. water supply and sanitation. The community health care center would primary health care.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 13 To justify this consideration. and law and order problems of the community (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. Other private institutions would be encouraged also." . The Governor of Bombay also encouraged this development because it reinforced the traditional panchayati (selfgovernment) system of administration by which the council of elders settled religious. Mobile health care units would operate from this community health center. "In each node it is proposed that accommodation be made available for the entire range of income groups expected in the city. recreational and other social facilities an should not become a dormitory for Greater Bombay. A large hospital for intensive care and for teaching and research purposes would be set up (CIDCO. The Development Plan says (CIDCO. 1973: 17): "CIDCO is anxious that the new city develop its own identity as quickly as possible. This led to the development of ethnic enclaves. Institutions for juvenile delinquents. Health planning was undertaken as public health projects. Minimum standards for building construction were developed by CIDCO. 1973).000 population (CIDCO. It would have out-patient department. medical care. 1973). diagnostic and investigation services. handicapped children. The planners of Navi Mumbai did not intend to create an identity for the city related to physical objects. When the East India Company encouraged merchants to establish residence in Bombay. but will also ensure a uniform standard of social and physical infrastructure and see that no one class of residents is better served than another" (CIDCO 1973: 17-18). Provision of schools and colleges was a priority in the planning of Navi Mumbai. merchants from neighboring districts migrated into Bombay and constructed homes inside and outside the Fort walls. The planning was for a comprehensive coverage by taking the services to households. 1973). These were the education facilities to be provided by the government. This further contributed to the creation of ethnic enclaves within the settlement. recreation and afforestation projects (CIDCO. It is expected that this accommodation of residents from various social and income groups within the same physical area will not only make for a healthier environment. shopping.

the Gadgil Committee Report (1965) had recommended the setting up of a New Town Development Authority (NTDA).8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework The government authorities of Bombay realized that the effectiveness of regional planning depended. i involving Government agencies for developing public transport and telecommunications. The role of CIDCO is to implement the plan of Navi Mumbai. on the institutions responsible for the plan.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 14 Thus. i Specialized services provided by Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA). Other institutions have also been set up in the Greater Bombay region to facilitate planning efforts in the region. the allotment of residential apartments would be governed by a policy. It is more of a philosophical identity . CIDCO undertook the task of (CIDCO. 1992): i Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA) in 1975 i Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) in 1992. planned cities of India such as Chandigarh. Its identity is only that of a spreading inkblot (Engel. However. CIDCO had to coordinate all planning and development programs. i Bombay Electric and State Transport (BEST). These stages include: i Draft Development Plan (programs and policies) . These are (CIDCO. The physical design would be the instrument to implement this objective. New. Gandhinagar can be described by their grid system or monumental scales. CIDCO was appointed as the NTDA. In particular. 1995): i developing land and providing infrastructure such as roads. 1992).Other agencies . The city of Navi Mumbai was planned to address the issue of social equality through its physical design. 1991). Before the creation of these different institutions. i promoting commercial and other employment activity. CIDCO has a more narrow and defined role. CIDCO has executed the implementation of the plan in various stages ( identity based on the Gandhian value of social equality. However. a strong institutional framework was required for its success. It appears that the monumental style of Corbusier was not an influence on this design. 2.Data base . With the creation of these other agencies. drainage. the identity of Navi Mumbai is subtler.Objectives . In the very beginning. which would help implement the objective. largely. electricity. i developing residential plots for different income groups. there was no aim to create a monumental city.Visualizing the future i Action Plans . water supply.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 2: The Research Setting


- Land use plans - Residential layout plans - Infrastructure plans - Industrial location plans - Environmental assessment i Implementation - Acquisition of land - Finance - Construction - Relocation strategies BMRDA took over such functions as coordination of metropolitan planning, funding, execution of programs, development control and maintenance of the entire Greater Bombay region including Navi Mumbai (UNCHS, 1993). Financial responsibilities and investment decisions are made by a large number of agencies including the Government of India, State Government of Maharashtra, CIDCO and firms in the private sector, but coordinated by BMRDA.

Macro-level Regional Planning Inputs
Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA)

Micro-level Sub-regional Planning Inputs
Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation

Plan Implementation of Navi Mumbai
City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) Figure 2.5 Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai In 1992, an amendment of the Constitution of India affected the functioning of CIDCO. The 74th Amendment of the Constitution of India (the 1992 Amendment Act on Municipalities) spells out the devolution of power to the local bodies and democratization of development planning. This Act emphasizes that the management must be done by elected representatives of the people who will account for two-thirds of the board. This committee is responsible for the preparation of the draft development plan. This ensures a bottom-up process with direct inputs from the citizens (UNCHS, 1993). These municipal corporations will be responsible for their economic development and incorporate all ideas within the

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 2: The Research Setting


Comprehensive Plan. The direct result of this Act is the creation, in 1992, of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation. This allowed CIDCO to give up its role as New Town Development Authority (CIDCO, 1995). A heavy-handed approach was used by the government to implement its social policy. As most of the housing was built by CIDCO, a government agency, the government could control, if not regulate, the distribution of the population on socioeconomic basis. Households desirous of buying a house built by CIDCO had to submit an application that stated the dwelling size they preferred. CIDCO allotted these houses, depending on when construction was completed, on a rolling basis. This was intended to ensure a random distribution of the various linguistic and religious groups of the population. The pattern expected would now be one based predominantly on income. 2.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan The planning of Navi Mumbai began in 1971. The results of each of the planning objectives can be studied now. The first objective of the Development Plan of Navi Mumbai was to reduce congestion of Bombay by absorbing immigrants and attracting some of the present population of Bombay. Table 2.5 Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay(BMRDA, 1978 in UNCHS, 1993) 1971 1981 1991 Population Density Population Density Population Density (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) CBD 1120 1659 1031 1527 849 1258 Central Bombay 1950 1349 2254 1559 2309 1597 Bombay Island 3070 1447 3285 1549 3158 1489 Bombay Suburbs 2900 544 4958 930 6751 1266 Navi Mumbai1 128 600 328 617 Over the 1981-91 period, there was a considerable decline in the population of the CBD and Bombay island. The increase in the population of the suburbs and Navi Mumbai accounts for the decline in the CBD and Bombay island. Outmigration to other cities and countries is negligible (BMRDA, 1978). The main reason for the shift was because of (UNCHS, 1993): i dilapidation of older buildings in Bombay i cheaper and better housing facilities in Navi Mumbai i better employment opportunities in Navi Mumbai i lesser commuter distances involved The second objective of the development plan was to bring maximum jobs consistent with the Gandhian principle of self-sufficiency (swavalambhan). CIDCO’s support of the Industrial Location Policy brought more jobs to Navi Mumbai. The sectors that had maximum growth in Navi Mumbai, were trade (39%), finance and services (27%) and manufacturing (18%) (BMRDA, 1992 in UNCHS, 1993). The wholesale agriculture produce

residential area increased from 213 hectares in 1981 to 531 hectares in 1991.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 2: The Research Setting


market for vegetables, foodgrains, oil seeds, sugar and spices was moved from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai (CIDCO, 1973). A separate railway siding and truck terminal were constructed to facilitate effective relocation. This involved the relocation of 30,000 jobs from Bombay and the reduction of 5000 truck trips per day. A new iron and steel stockyard complex has been developed in Navi Mumbai. This means the relocation of 25,000 jobs and a reduction of 1000 truck trips per day to Bombay. However, the economic agenda, which was based on agriculture and cottage industries, is no longer effective because of the government’s redoubled commitment to a policy of industrialization. Navi Mumbai continues to be exploited as a major industrial zone (Engel, 1991). CIDCO's third objective was to provide physical and social amenities in Navi Mumbai. The land use of Navi Mumbai shows these amenities (Table 2.6 and Figure 2.6). Table 2.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai, 1993 (in sq. km.) Land-use Zone 1979 1985 1986 1991 Residential 101.15 133.99 127.08 129.87 Commercial 6.51 6.51 6.51 5.75 Industrial 43.21 43.14 43.14 43.14 Port 12.00 22.7 22.7 22.7 Wholesale market 6.08 4.54 4.54 4.6 Woodlands / Park 90.26 61.24 68.15 69.35 Institutional .76 1.09 1.09 1.09 Fishing and allied 6.14 3.44 3.44 3.44 Transportation 30.86 30.35 30.35 29.73 No development 46.73 36.70 36.70 34.03 Total 343.70 343.70 343.70 343.70

1993 127.61 5.75 43.14 22.70 6.86 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70 (CIDCO, 1997) Primary, secondary and high schools have been provided in all sectors of Navi Mumbai. All primary schools are within walking distance. This eliminates the need of expensive transport for small children. There is at least one college in every node and Vashi node has both medical and engineering colleges (CIDCO, 1995). Medical facilities are provided by private medical practitioners. Every node has a hospital run by the Mahatma Gandhi Medical Trust. Community health car centers are also there (CIDCO, 1995). In its fourth objective to provide an ecologically friendly environment, CIDCO has not been entirely successful. The area of woodlands has been constantly decreasing (CIDCO, 1995). Most woodlands are in the form of mango groves which form a part of neighborhood parks. In the conceptual plan, streams flowing from the hillsides were to irrigate the woodland corridors. No significant effort has been made to utilize this resource. However, holding ponds have been constructed. Promenades have been built along them and they are being used as recreation areas (Parab, 1997). The fifth objective is the primary focus of this thesis. The objective to prevent ethnic enclaves and to promote a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics was fairly ambitious. In order for its success, a perfect control of the market is required. The analysis of the data will show the outcome of the objective.

1992 128.71 5.75 43.14 22.7 5.76 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70

and housing occupancy rates are high. recreation and commercial needs. . Social aspects of city planning were given importance with special attention given to considerations of employment opportunities.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai Source: CIDCO. While Modernism called for single-use zoning and a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics. Though the Navi Mumbai project was begun in 1970. development and implementation of ideas were done in an incremental manner. the development process has been slow. The poor transportation links between Bombay and Navi Mumbai has been the main contributing factor. lower income group. middle-income group and high-income groups. since 1990 there has been accelerated growth due to the commissioning of Nhava-Sheva port.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 18 NEW BOMBAY BOMBAY Arabian Sea Residential Woodlands Industrial Port Institutional Trucking Wholesale Fishing Wetlands Figure 2. and improvements made in the next phase of design. However. Houses have been constructed for different sectors of society economically weaker section. utilities. Designing. Periodic socioeconomic and household surveys were used to determine the status of constructed environment. Hence. Problems of design and development were identified. establishment of more industries and construction of more houses.10 Conclusion The Draft Development Plan of Navi Mumbai described many broad outlines for the development of a city for the common citizen. but a living and working reality. 1995. housing requirements. CIDCO provides serviced sites for both government and private ownership. the Gandhian principles supported cultural heterogeneity and mixed use zoning. Growth in other development sectors of Bombay has also had an adverse effect on Navi Mumbai’s growth. Commuter services have become operational since May 1992. the city is no longer a plan on paper. Many attributes of these two design principles are not necessarily harmonious. the extension of the railway lines. The absence of a port and railway links slowed growth. 2. The design principles described in the Draft Development Plan were based on the philosophical reasoning of Mahatma Gandhi and the functionalistic approach of Modernism.

A heavy-handed implementation strategy of this objective was done by taking complete control of the residential allotment. The success of this strategy depended on maintaining this control.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 19 This design also strongly supported the need to use the government’s power and machinery to promote the uniform distribution of people and prevent ethnic enclaves. The aim of this research is to examine the present urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Navi Mumbai is a modern. planned city within the context of a specific historic and cultural setting. Very little analysis has been done on the outcome of CIDCO's social agenda to ensure diffusion of ethnic groups and the urban social pattern that emerged. The research setting under consideration is the result of the hybridization of Indian and Western ideas. This also implies that the urban social pattern was predetermined. .

Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 3. then they reflect their lifestyles. principles and existing theories for improving the design of cities (Doxiadis. Whatever the mode of construction. changing and modifying it to suit their way of life (Lozano.the urban pattern. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. Human settlements contain people and societies in a physical environment consisting of natural and man-made elements (Doxiadis. communication and socioeconomic relationships influence urban patterns. Simultaneously. . Where market forces work. if government agencies or contractors build them. Socioeconomic factors have a very important contribution to the pattern. Interaction of these elements form a pattern . Urban social pattern is the pattern formed by the interaction of various social variables such as household characteristics. residents soon influence their urban environment. people adapt to the physical environment around them. technology. The aim of the thesis is to examine the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. because it changes continuously in a temporal dimension. language and housing character. religion. transportation. 1973). occupation and values of housing influence the spatial character. Education. This literature review will first trace the human settlements in India. 1995). urban form is not merely the architectural form of the city (Lozano. Most cities in the Third World and India have been indigenous in origin and organic in growth. Navi Mumbai is one of the first cities in India built for the common citizen. they are more generic and may not represent the lifestyles of every household. These design ideas seem to have a strong influence of Modernism (CIDCO. and those of Mahatma Gandhi. 1987). but four-dimensional. The pattern of spatial distribution is recognizable in most contemporary cities (Alexander. India. 1990). The final outcome of a morphological study is the formulation of a theory which connects facts to form hypotheses. A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between its elements within the temporal context. If the residents build the buildings themselves. Thus. income is one of the most important determinants. It is a city designed with the design principles of the time. (New Bombay). Many of these cities have been under colonial rule. Buildings and spaces are created by people and quite often characterize them (Kostof. and bear characteristics of western influence. The human-environment relationship is a two-way process termed as the socio-spatial dialectic (Knox. Intricacies in relationships have increased the complexity of the urban form over time.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern Every human settlement consists of certain elements. ethnicity. However. 1991). 1968). 1968). economic and physical environments. 3. Land ownership patterns.1 Introduction A human settlement is an establishment created by people for their inhabitation. Such a human settlement is not just threedimensional. The urban pattern is a result of the relationships between people and their social. It is also a cultural manifestation. 1990).

Urban spatial patterns occur because of the repetitive spatial distribution of these elements. human beings. buildings and infrastructure. Some farmers may sell their land more easily than others may. The built form is influenced by factors as (Alexander. Thus. 1995). 1971). it is necessary to determine existing land use as a pre-condition to urban growth and form. 1990): i the way in which nature and man-made features satisfy needs for protection and defense i the way in which physical and economic landscape allows for communication with other regions i the way in which the topography of a site suggests the construction of a human settlement i the way in which climate leads to building solutions These factors influence the cultural and spiritual form of the cities as well. 3.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 21 Demographics. In most studies this unit is the neighborhood which displays both physical and social aspects of the whole urban development. which may be universal or local. Urban patterns represent a continuity of time and space. Time and place may provide them with different characteristics making each city unique and dynamic. The patterns have similarities. society. The change of land use from rural to urban depends on the existing land use. Doxiadis defines five elements in the study of human settlements. every city has certain elements. They are the units of analysis of the morphological study (Knox. 1990). This representative sector is defined as the smallest area that exhibits the characteristics of the urban settlement. 1987): i land ownership i street patterns i existing land use i economic considerations i planning regulations i political and historical events The physical expansion of the city is always bound and guided by land ownership. A city replaces existing land use. a hill top site was the utilitarian response to any important building . Since the characteristics are universal (within the frame of study) they may be studied by a spatial representative sector. The rural land may also have been . The physical form is a variable of the social and built pattern of the city. linguistics and ethnic background also influence urban patterns.a fort or a religious building. In the study of Navi Mumbai. They are nature. Although details may not be identical. the node (township) and the sector (neighborhood) will be used as the study areas using aggregated household survey data.3 Factors Influencing Urban Form Many factors influence the form of cities. Traditional cities have used physical forms to interpret cultural and religious beliefs (Lozano. Traditional settlements were shaped by (Lozano. These features contributed to a particular urban and social pattern. 1990). For example. and the ownership. Thus urban social patterns are complex manifestations of underlying cultural values intermingled with global economic forces (McGee. “The typical sector represents the formal characteristics found throughout the area and thus acquires some universality” (Lozano. and natural and manmade obstacles.

5 The Sociocultural Factors India is among the most stratified of all known societies in the world (Srinivas. Kosambi. Priests. For thousands of years. private rental and public sector housing operationalize housing sectors. often because of a city wall. While some processes are culture-specific. within. a city contained social distinctions in terms of class. Planning controls influence development to a great extent. However. People as food gatherers advanced to become farmers. social and political circumstances influence the social pattern (Scargill. The external . The factors influencing urbanization were also different. 1987. Housing. 1990). commercial buildings. 1979). 1986): i ethnic composition of the city i migration i religion i economic considerations i race i political and historical events The housing market also influences the social pattern of the city. personal preferences and many institutional constraints. Reasons such as trade and defense have also been used to explain the formation of cities. 3. surplus food production was achieved. 1990). A particular social pattern brings about a particular built form. others are global in scope. Childe put forth a theory that urban centers were a result of agricultural change. Domestication of animals and cultivation of land created villages. 1995). Owner-occupier. A household’s choice of place to live is determined by its income level.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 22 subdivided. The social pattern and the built form are interrelated and contribute to the urban morphology of a city. The caste system of India separates and hierarchies the Hindus. and Thomas. race and religion (Vance. Plots of varying sizes and shapes influence the layout of the streets and of individual buildings (Knox. The variation in influencing factors and historical circumstance gave rise to different urban forms in different parts of the world. cities were very simple although they rarely served single purposes. Various economic. However. 1992a). Instead. The evolution of the urban pattern of Indian cities is divided into the social pattern and the built form. other scholars contend that it is doubtful that surplus can be attributed as the single factor which caused the emergence of urban settlements (Jacobs. Soon.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities The traditional theory of urban origin is generally attributed to Childe (Herbert. Pedestrian movement limited the size of the city. Clear differentiation between urban and rural existed. government offices and warehouses formed the built environment of the city. craftsmen and merchants were born. 3. 1983). These factors are (Alexander. Certain built forms encourage certain social patterns. This allowed some of the people to develop other professions. they supported a range of activities. Urbanization took place at different chronological periods. Master plans and regional plans provide long-range strategies for development.

Repulsion between castes forced isolation and the creation of distinct residential enclaves (Bougle. The term ethnic group refers broadly to people “with some similar characteristics which go beyond their mere place in a societal division of labor” (Brass.5. The spirit of the caste system is determined by the attitudes of each caste to the other. and in the case of India. Clothing. The real world. religion or occupation (Bougle.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 23 manifestation of the separation and hierarchy through particular attributes of the castes brings about social stratification of the urban social pattern (Marriott. Class systems by contrast define the rank of their members according to their individual attributes and behavior". 1992b). religion). diet and dress. unfortunately. 1974:8). 3. Kshatriya. sometimes reinforced by common work roles. The differences may also be placed in a horizontal system (example: language.2 Class "Class refers to a system of stratification which is economic in character" (Gupta. Various combinations of the hierarchy have come about due to regional differentiation in certain attributes of social living. vertical and horizontal systems of stratification exist. territory. The population may be stratified based on income. theoretically. culture.5. However. 1992). the forms of social stratification are many. all elements can not be arranged vertically. 1992). this popular caste hierarchy is not clear throughout the Indian subcontinent (Srinivas. arms. language. The caste system varies from village to village and is a local phenomenon. linguistic stratification and religious stratification. 1992). differentiates itself into only hierarchical status containing inequality (Gupta. Stratification implies a differentiation based on a set of criteria. As many individual criteria are . Hierarchy allows elements of the whole to be ranked with relation to each other (example: income and prestige). thighs and feet of the Creator. these single criterion hierarchies can be misleading as they depend on cutoff points related to individual analysis (Gupta. religion and language are discussed below. language. In India. 1992b). However. 1992). Although no hierarchy is mentioned in the Sukta. The characteristics caste. 1992b:14). class. Vaishya and Sudra are said to have come from the mouth. Ethnic characteristics refer to language. marriage and death ceremonies distinguish one caste from another. The criteria for the differentiation can normally be translated into money or wealth. Along with the caste exist occupational stratification. 1992). Certain occupations such as butchery and cobblery lower the rank. 3. However. Berreman (1965) says "Caste systems rank people by birthascribed group membership rather than by individual attributes. Vegetarian castes occupy higher positions. Certain customs lower or raise the status of the caste. The dominant caste legend is the Purushasukta legend whereby the Brahman. The social stratification is very deep and varied. 1992a). a hierarchy from Brahman to Sudra has been interpreted (Bougle.1 Caste Castes are the hierarchical divisions of people based on professional and family membership. linguistic. religious and ethnic diversity of the country (Gupta. rituals. The Indian theory of social stratification depends on caste. Thus.

In 1906 they formed the All-India Muslim League. Hindi was chosen because it was the language spoken by the largest percent of the population while was a result of the British legacy. After the decline of the Mughal Empire and the loss of political power to the British. the Muslim League represented only the Muslim population (Brass. occupation. Malayalam. not subjects” (Hodson. India is the birthplace of two major religions –Hinduism and Buddhism – and two minor religions . 3. 1977). 3.Jainism and Sikhism. Muslims became apprehensive of Hindu domination. Kannada. The major languages of India are Hindi. Hindus and Muslims drifted apart in the issue of independence from British rule. A Hindu revival period in the late nineteenth century to arouse enthusiasm for political action made the Muslims more insecure. Jainism and Sikhism stemmed off from Hinduism and are very similar to Hinduism. The League demanded for a separate electorate and for more employment in public service. 1985). Urdu and Punjabi. The linguistic distribution is not only diverse but also very complex (Das Gupta. From the beginning Islam has been a conquering and proselytizing faith (Hodson. At this time they felt the need for a political party of their own. Tamil. 1974). The characteristics of the population regarding bilinguals. The wake of Independence brought with it violence and terror in the Indo-Pakistan borders in Punjab and Bengal. 1974). “In most folk-memory the Muslims of India had been ruler. Gujarati. Telugu. the Muslims were in power over most of India. The framers of the Indian Constitution chose Hindi and English as the official languages of the government (King. The census of India 1951 (immediately after Independence) recorded a total of 179 languages and 544 dialects in India. 1970). . prestige and income to form a socioeconomic status. During the Mughal rule (16th to 18th century). While the Congress party represented the majority of the Indian population.5. 1997). Islam was a religion that came to India from outside and is culturally very different from Hinduism. There are many religions in India.4 Language A systematic inventory of Indian languages began in the mid-eighteenth century. Anger and frustration broke out as violence as Hindus moved from Pakistan into India and Muslims moved from India to Pakistan (Hodson. Buddhism.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 24 linked to other attributes. The Hindu religion has always been a pacifist and tolerant religion. which culminated in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan.5. degree of control over the language and relationship between the languages affect their social communication. it may be better to create a composite index of education. An overwhelming view of Hindu-Muslim relations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is that Hindus advanced due to their enthusiasm to take up western education and government employment (Kaura. 1985:11).3 Religion Religion and language have provided the motive power for nationalism in India (Brass. absorbing other religious doctrines and never proselytizing. However. A certain degree of animosity between Hindus and Muslims has existed since the first Muslim ruler of 1018 AD. Bengali. 1985). Marathi.

confusion has always existed about the status of Hindi as official or national language. 1970).5. they believed. There was strong opposition from non-Hindi areas in general and South India in particular (Hindi is a IndoAryan language while the languages of South India belong to the Dravidian group). 1989). When the ethnic groups occupy distinct neighborhoods. Language conflicts have also occurred in India. had led them to better job opportunities. a state language with an unique status (Das Gupta. a demand for a national language also arose. Certain castes are dominant in a society. the Brahman priests had more power because it was believed that they were the representatives of the Creator on earth. Hindu-Muslim riots broke out even in Bombay which has normally been a very peaceful city.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 25 However. The South Indian state of Tamil Nadu was most vocal in the Anti-Hindi agitation. Traditionally these castes had either wealth or power.5 Implications of the Sociocultural Factors The implications of caste and class are closely related to those of power and wealth (Dumont. This confusion in terminology is the basis for most language-related problems in Independent India. The inequality and economic differentiation cause conflict between the castes and classes. 3. 1971). In many places. The Tamilnad Students’ Anti-Hindi Agitation Council objected to both the removal of English as an official language and the declaration of Hindi as the sole official language. ethnic conflicts are easily targeted towards these select neighborhoods. Repercussions were felt all over the country. Although a majority of the rivalry has been for and against Hindi. The separatism movements seen all over India are all based on ethnicity and inter-caste rivalry (Bose. The partition of United India into India and Pakistan came with many problems. 1988). This rationale of composite nationalism influenced policies related to religion and language (Das Gupta. Pakistan officially declared itself as a Muslim state. many political leaders advocated for the use of Hindi as a national and official language. a synonym for official language and like state religion. The Babri Masjid in Ayodhya was broken down by Hindu fundamentalists. In the early 1950s. a majority of the leaders preferred a composite nationalism. In a multilingual society there may be a plurality of national languages. Although a minority of Hindu leaders in India felt that India should be declared as a Hindu state. as it was difficult to isolate only one family. and vice versa. The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India declared the fourteen major languages listed as national language (Gumprez. In some villages. This was not seen in more heterogeneous neighborhoods. there also been conflict between other regional languages. The better control the Tamil people had over English. 1970). Small Muslim enclaves within a majority Hindu neighborhood were targeted. Agitation and violence broke out in many non-Hindi states over this issue. all castes looked up to the farmer caste because they were important landowners and were wealthy (Srinivas. 1992a). Writers in Hindi commonly refer to Hindi as Rashtrabasha (state language) which may signify language used by the state. This issue can not only be seen at the time of partition in 1947 but also was seen during the recent communal violence in 1993. However. The union government declared that fifteen year deadline after Independence would be given for transition of official language from English and Hindi to only Hindi. Compromise was .

the differentiation and assimilation in progress in a multi-ethnic society receives a prominent place in any political conflict.6 The Built Form The historical evolution of the built form of Indian cities can be divided into three distinct phases. The caste system over the next ten to fifteen centuries became deeply rooted in the Hindu population and became a part of life.1 Circle and Swastika depended on the natural features of the site. The temple also influences the siting of other land uses. The multi-dimensional society was soon complicated by the emergence of other religions. padas. governed the alignment of roads. 1986). Judaism and Christianity found their way into India. If it could not be a perfect square.1). cyclical and swastika (Figure 3. which was the terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe inhabited by Brahma. These characteristics are derived from the need for defense and administration and the importance of religion (Kopardekara. Vastushastra. The town wall enclosed the mandala. and four gateways were situated at the cardinal points. The ethnic segregation and conflict has existed from the beginning of the Indian Civilization. Stratification of the society had to accommodate these religious factors. Sikhism were born in India while Islam. In the initial stages it was in the form of caste differentiation as prescribed by the Hindu/ Vedic texts. C to 12th century AD). Certain other shapes were also considered to be auspicious like the circle. Prime commercial and residential land was located near the temple. The temple as the symbol of religion dominates the urban form. and which had as many padas as there were to be residential sectors was selected. Despite the Act. The mandala could be divided into smaller squares. The earliest is the Hindu phase (3000 B. Hinduism. violence sparked off by language issues has continued to occur in India. In planning the town a vastupurusha mandala which was most auspicious. The final shape of the town Figure 3. 3. the creator. The Indian society was also stratified horizontally by language. both from within and without the country. a perfect rectangle was accepted. orientation of buildings and arrangement of internal rooms based on astrological and religious criteria (Volwahsen. class. The science of architecture and planning. religion and language is the issue of group identity which is the cause of most ethnic conflicts. While some groups spoke of an all-India nationality other speaks of a regional nationality (Brass. A number of languages coexisted in all parts of the country. The square was used in the creation of the vastupurusha mandala. Related to castes. 1974). The streets ran from north to south and from east to west. Social assimilation and mobilization are a part of any evolving civilization. Buddhism. . However. which contributes many elements to the urban form. 1969).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 26 finally reached in 1963 under the Official Languages Act. This does not imply that social assimilation does not occur. Jainism.

Vaishyas in the southern part and Sudras in the western district. D. India inherited a complex urban fabric. 1989). These are the theories which pertain to the built and social form of the city. and the apparent timelessness and permanence of village life” (Hall.) was the third phase of historical urban form. 1992). especially seen in the port cities associated with the East India Company (Mills. and insufficient infrastructure in cities has led to the creation of slums and shantytowns (Misra. “In the case of India. jewelry. The morphological components include buildings used for trade warehouses. 1986). 1980). During this time. In India where occupation and caste are synonyms. the same theories are being used to describe the social patterns as well. The residential character throughout this period was segregated. Diversification of professions due to industrialization in the post-independence era has resulted in further complexity (Becker. This led to the development of commercial centers and zoning based on Western market principles. A generalization of these patterns has been made. and Hindu elements of this period are not distinct from earlier ones.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns .were developed (Hall. the Hindu tradition continued. Generally. It has been shown that rural values have penetrated the urban philosophy due to large-scale migration. this has led to segregation and creation of enclaves within the city. Large migration of people from the rural area. and wood formed niches in the urban pattern. The colonial influence (17th to early 20th century A. Kshatriyas in the eastern and southeastern part. 1978). D. 1980). pottery.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 27 The residential districts were divided among the four castes. Williamson and Mills. and the south-west monsoon. but also on socioeconomic factors (Ramachandran. On the periphery of these urban centers. The urban segregation was based on function and occupation premises. military establishments . counting houses. Many researchers have tried to fit Indian urban growth into a theoretical model.the cantonment . jali (carved screens) and projecting balconies (Kopardekara. At the time of independence in 1947. 3. The Brahmans and Kshatriyas lived in the parts of the town which were climatically more comfortable sheltered from the hot sun. the Brahmans worked and lived in the northern district.). 1980). There was further subdivisions within each district depending on the sub-caste. many researchers have pointed to the lack of penetration of urban values into the countryside. The characteristics of the social and built form of the city contribute to its pattern. Residential areas associated with the commercial area were contiguous or within the commercial area (Hall. As the built form depends on the social characteristics portrayed by its residents. Characteristics from medieval times are Islamic in nature (14th to 17th centuries A. 1988). Areas for selling of specific goods – cloth. The three leading theories described below are based on the built form of the city. Residential segregation is no longer based only on occupation and caste. metalware. The Islamic elements included the mosque and domestic architecture which emphasized the purdah through enclosed courtyards.

It also had older residential districts. The three leading Western models are: i Concentric zone model i Sector model i Multiple nuclei model These models have become frameworks for studying urban social patterns across the world (Hartshorn. These immigrants first found cheap housing in the inner city. accessibility to a single-centered city. The CBD core had all major commercial. 1990). The basic premise in this model was that of succession and invasion whereby population groups gradually moved out as their economic and social status improved. Figure 3. Burgess was interested in determining a pattern for the social structure of the city. 1979).7. 1992). In the early 1920s. 1929). 1929). 3.1 Concentric Zone Theory This theory put forth by Burgess in 1925 related population mobility and societal organization to the physical expansion of the city (Burgess. The next zone had lower income housing. The model made many assumptions such as uniform land surface. and studying how the city grew (Scargill. This also forced an outward expansion. most American cities in the mid-west absorbed many immigrant groups from Europe.2 Concentric Zone Theory Burgess’ research on the distributional pattern of Source: Burgess. 1929). Mobility and migrant influx were though of as the main cause of the social pattern (Hartshorn. which had factories and slums. political and social activities. which were being taken over by the expanding CBD. With affluence. High income heterogeneous population and a commercialindustrial base (Herbert and Thomas. and successive zones had higher income residences (Burgess. Diversification in employment opportunities gave rise to the growth of mixed land use development. 1979). Thus. This was surrounded by a transition zone. The movement was towards the periphery.2). This model was based on Burgess’ experience in the American mid-west cities. free Middle income market. they moved to better housing districts (Burgess. 1992). The public transport system had also improved significantly and allowed the middle-class to . others dynamic in nature. some static. it is a descriptive framework to CBD analyze spatial organization of land use in a city Transition and its change over time.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 28 Various spatial theories of the social pattern of cities have been advanced. and especially in Chicago. It was partly based on Low income economic factors. Families moved out into the next zone when their zone was invaded. 1929 various groups of society led him to conclude that the city was made up of concentric zones with the central business district (CBD) at the center (Figure 3. The same city may express different models at different time periods (Scargill.

2 Sector Theory Homer Hoyt put forth a land use theory after studying over 100 cities in the U. S (Hoyt. 1979). Hoyt also stressed the need to consider zoning laws and slum clearance laws in making models. This is not a generalized model. 1979).4). 1990). The model is very simple and can be used to predict how urban land markets work.3). This model proposes that patterns in many cities be arranged around several centers (Scargill. However. Concentric zones or sectors may emerge from these nuclei. Hoyt primarily studied residential land use. Hoyt studied the city as an economist concerned with how the housing market worked. Rental value was the main criterion for studying the pattern (King. 3. 1978). The model also accounts for growth along transport routes. empirical studies did not confirm his model one hundred percent (Herbert and Thomas. It also did not explain the impact of transport networks on these zones (Scargill.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 29 travel from outer zones to the CBD for work. industries may cluster around the railway line or lowincome housing along a riverbank. commercial ethnic group residential industrial Figure 3. and Golledge.4 Multiple Nuclei Theory Source: Hartshorn. This model also accommodates growth (Hartshorn. 1939 3. 1979). 1992). For example. 1979). These reasons complemented a concentric zone development model (Scargill. 1978). 1992 .7. The wedge pattern represents residential area growth (Scargill. It was intended to serve as a framework for studying urban growth and change (King and Golledge. and subsequent decentralization (Figure 3. This is because concentration of certain activities may prove to be more beneficial. Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3.3 Sector Theory Source: Hoyt. Neighborhoods for each income group are common.7. The real world is more complicated than what was represented by Burgess’ very general model. It is more specific to some cities (King and Golledge. The original model did not take into account specialized clusters of industry. He said that residential sectors of similar rent are situated in wedges radiating from the center (Figure 3. Hence. 1978).3 Multiple Nuclei Theory The multiple nuclei theory was put forth by Harris and Ullman. Burgess has been criticized for not having considered topographical criteria. It gives strength to cities with original nucleus in the center. 1939).

A neighborhood is the basis for formally organized residential space. The main assumption here was that social rank is related to transportation links which influence residential location in a sectoral manner (Scargill. but on cultural ones. but also an expression of socioeconomic and cultural values of the people. This type of urbanization is also related to the housing market described by Hoyt (1939). In the analysis of urban social patterns. value of home. 1990).8 Case Studies of Urban social Patterns The study of the urban social pattern of a city primarily focuses on the residential land use (Herbert and Thomas. Hence. Critics say that neighborhood unit strongly emphasizes physical environment. 1992). education. 1990). It is assumed that any planned city consists of neighborhood units. it does not address the needs of a social environment. family status and ethnic status. three indices were used. This is . safety. In Western cities the reasons for non-uniformity have been identified as socioeconomic status. Ethnicity causes the social phenomena of segregation. 1971).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 30 3. the neighborhood unit is used as the unit of analysis in the study of human settlements (Herbert and Thomas. and social change was expected to be reflected in studies which were repeated over a time period (Herbert and Thomas. However. Analysis of individual cities shows that the pattern is not uniform and is characterized by residential segregation. every city has some constraints.1 Western Cities Many studies of the social and physical urban pattern have been done. Social rank used the variables. which analyze the physical environment under consideration. This concept. The data source was census tracts. however. employment. housing choices may not be made on economic basis. It is only the most convenient one. are suitable modifications of the concept (Timms. 1971). parenthood. As a family’s needs for space increase. family status used the variables related to demographics and type of house. The broad generalization of the social rank produced a sector model.8. In the built environment this corresponds to ethnic neighborhoods (Timms. The concept of neighborhood units became popular since the1920s in planned settlements (Perry. The city was viewed as a part of society. housing conditions and material possessions. security and identity. 1929). ethnic status and family status (Timms. The values are also related to family.marriage. For example. ethnic status used religion and social groups. Individualistic frameworks. The use of these three indices for analysis is a social area analysis. These were social rank. 3. social status and retirement (Scargill. 1979). they move outwards. The non-uniform pattern is consistent over many cities because similar households exert similar housing choices. 1971). has been under strong criticism (Hartshorn. 1990). The outward mobility is related to different stages of life . A neighborhood unit is not the only model or universally appropriate unit of analysis. It serves as the building block to construct the whole town. neighborliness. Family status in American cities shows a concentric distribution. It is not only a physical design concept. 1979). community and social and civic responsibilities such as aesthetics.

A study of Baltimore (Knox. The changing pattern of family cycle reflects concentric zones while that of social rank is in sectors.5 Urban Social Patterns Source: Knox. Ethnicity. 1995) shows that the four important factors in the social pattern are underclass.2 Third World Cities commercial ethnic group residential industrial Ethnic Status CBD Transition Low income Middle income High income Family Status Socioeconomic Status Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. traditional and modern design elements juxtaposed in seemingly dichotomous ways.8.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 31 predominant in cities where migration is high. however. does not always emerge as an independent component (Scargill. but socially with more complex relations to one another. Hartshorn. Public open spaces are generally found only . Traditional places are typically more dense with narrow streets and housing spaces around central courtyards. 3. Canada (Herbert and Thomas. 1990) showed similar results. socioeconomic status. Australia (Timms. 1995. 1992. youth/migrants and black poverty. Winnipeg. 1971). Cities in the Third World are frequently dual environments. 1979). Studies of Brisbane.

6) (Herbert and Thomas. 1986 Literacy and ethnic patterns emerged in a sectoral form. A classic example can be seen in the design of New Delhi. 1974) found that social status. the morphological pattern of each Third World city is different mainly because of the presence of an indigenous city enclosed by a colonial city. Source: Lowder. The center of the city was the plaza. The social Figure 3. land use. 1986). Western ideas of suburbanization and formed their Source: Drakakis-Smith own neighborhoods (Lowder. family ties. substandard living conditions and ethnicity were the broad variables that defined the social pattern of the city. as opposed to conglomerations. 1975). The model shows that the indigenous elite were closely associated with the commercial area. Thus. The second and third concentric zones were occupied progressively by poorer people. The colonial cities in Latin America show a centralized social pattern (Portes.7). and surrounds old Delhi (Figure 3. 1986). but formed shantytowns in the peri-urban fringes and in unserviced areas (under bridges. An analysis of Calcutta showed a pattern based on land use. along riverbanks). social and economic variables may not be the only factors. 1986). 1990). which is adjacent to. which contribute significantly to the urban pattern (Kopardekara. The migrants and poor did not live in the core of the city. Even single cities. traditional commercial areas and modern commercial areas.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 32 around religious buildings. 1980.7 Asian Ports pattern showed concentric zones for land use. . The morphological model of Asian port cities shows a multiple nucleus (Figure 3. A large number of models of Third World cities have been made (Lowder. But. The more Figure 3. Social morphological models constructed for the Third World cities show that there is a central concentration of commercial activity and a number of residential neighborhoods. The nuclei are original village.6 Plan of Delhi and New educated and professional classes followed the Delhi. ethnicity and literacy. A study of Colombo (Herbert and de Silva. are very complex and have evolved over a very long time. Around the plaza was the important buildings including a church. 1986). and subsequently surrounded by an industrial city (Lowder. Processes quite different from those in western cities govern the pattern of Third World cities. The residences of the richer class formed the first concentric zone around the plaza. The modern place is more spacious.

A consistent relationship existed between socioeconomic position of the household and their distance from the center of the city. Soon socioeconomic status related to nearness to the center became related to distance away from the center. in rural areas. in general. 1980): i Residences have not yet come to serve the symbolic function they do in the Western world. The pattern was a creation of the lifestyle choices of the urban rich (Portes. climatic and aesthetic factors. Research findings point out that while caste is important in rural societies for its very functioning. status groups help to produce a very obscure patterning of social groups at the micro-level of analysis. in urban environments the meaning of caste becomes more important in terms of identity rather than function. In the cities where new professions were created. has created social organizations for each caste (Kopardekara. Many studies have been done to study Indian urban areas. and especially to construct a structural model. "Particularly in cosmopolitan cities cultural or linguistic diversity and regional associations develop to extol their culture and language and to participate in their own . languages and customs. the poorer the household (Cornelius. The horizontal relationships are between people of the same cultural background while vertical relationships are between caste and class. religion and language rather than demographics and economics can be seen. In the 18th and 19th centuries. caste. the Indian urban social scene essentially reflects two facets of non-western structure (Hall. The nature of traditional social status and the interdependence and spatial interpretation of diverse. yet complementary. industrial and office workers belonged to all castes. new definitions had to be made. It has been found that Indian cities defy social modeling. 1977). Soon. farming is done only by the Sudra caste. The greater complexity of urban life and the difficulty of maintaining caste identity through residential segregation alone. 1975). Santiago and Chile Source: Lowder. The outer ring bordered on farmland (Figure 3. many large cities became crowded. In Lima. But. the farther away from the center. and religious duties performed by the Brahmins. For example. The pattern is similar to the one described by the sector model of North Figure 3. 1986). spatial segregation based on ethnicity. 3.3 Indian Cities In cities of India.8.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 33 Here. 1986 residential colonies moved from the center of the city to the urban periphery which were selected for their better geographic. the residences became smaller and public amenities were reduced. Wealthier families began to move out of the center and settle in more isolated locations. i Symbolic functionalism is performed by religion and caste and buttressed by regional affiliations. The social ties are horizontal and vertical.8). A second indigenous factor suffusing urban society is that of regional affiliation.8 Latin American Cities America.

Temple Bazaar Centroid Fort Brush (1977) studied 24 cities in India and discerned four types of gradients of population directly related to their Figure 3. These three dimensions were i socioeconomic dimension symbolized by the bazaar i political dimension represented by an administrative symbol i prestige dimension derived from the religious function of a temple. Certain areas are known for their residents speaking a particular language only. He had the following conclusions. colonial cities. Industrial towns like Jamshedpur were planned around their industrial core. i South Indian cities had higher female employment rate. 1980:35). real case studies did not prove this theory. low literacy. Calcutta and Madras. i The modern planned cities (Jamshedpur. However. He postulated three dimensions as being important contributors to residential segregation. These three dimensions would form concentric zones (Figure 3. such neighborhoods are the source for the development of the corporate groups. i North Indian cities had low female employment rates. and that the temple acted as the most meaningful focus for the spatial distribution of social characteristics. The centroid of the system represents the optimum location for accessibility to all three functions. Madras. Hyderabad had two nuclei – the old city and the colonial city. Pune and Varanasi. i Metropolitan cities (Bombay. it was found that multiple nuclei were present. Chandigarh) have low population densities with no concentration of industrial. Ahmad (1965) did a factor analysis of the socioeconomic characteristics of Indian cities. commercial or administrative areas. higher migration and equal male to female ratio. Although the neighborhoods that result are not corporate groups in the sense in which they are defined. Bombay. higher literacy. Calcutta) has low-density commercial centers surrounded by high-density residential neighborhoods. . Their influence and interplay causes residential segregation. cities that were well developed even before the colonial period.9). low migration and equal male to female ratio.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 34 regional festivals if not usually celebrated in the region within which they live now" (Hall.9 Pattern of Indian Cities Source: Weinstein. Weinstein (1974) made an attempt to produce a conceptual model for the social segregation of an Indian city. 1968). Instead. had retained their residential core (Mehta. 1974 evolutionary pattern. had western style CBDs.

languages. 1986). The existence of multiple physical urban patterns caused by the presence of indigenous settlements. religious polarity. commercialism. Census data from 1881. The presence of many religions. The social patterns were also strongly influenced by the age of the city. These examples show that the urban social pattern of Indian cities is very complex due to the influence of a variety of factors. A systematic analysis of census data for Bombay was done (Kosambi. . castes and classes produces a more heterogeneous pattern. 1831 and 1961 was used to determine the evolution and change of the social pattern. 1986).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 35 Such broad conclusions are results of regional analyses. 1901. British cities and industrial towns within the boundary of the urban area. Analysis at the level of a single city gave patterns that are more complex. The patterns were attributed to Europeanism. transportation and socioeconomic status (Kosambi.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 36 C oncentric Z one T h eory S ector T heory Incom e g rou p 1 M ultiple N uclei T heory commercial ethnic group CBD Tran sitio n L ow incom e M iddle inco m e H igh inco m e In com e g roup 2 residential industrial In com e g rou p 3 D elhi Latin A m erica A sian P orts C oncentric + S ector T heories C hicago C alcutta C oncentric + S ector + M ultiple N uclei T h eories Figure 2. Hartshorn. 1986. . 1992. Source: Lowder.10 Urban Social Patterns and Relevant Case Studies.

the components derived from social area analysis were termed as socioeconomic status. These are concentric zone theory. skills and professions. In the design of Navi Mumbai. In the American cities. In the case of Navi Mumbai. the sociocultural factors are related to caste. In Third World cities. an effort was made to prevent this social stratification and use residential allotments to fulfill this objective. the residential neighborhoods have been designed using the neighborhood principle as those designed in America. The components of the analysis of American cities are not entirely apparent in the Third World cities. religion and language. the researcher’s knowledge of the local environment is important to contextualize the pattern more appropriately. Land-use is also similar in that it is predominantly single-use zoning. Stratification causes social inequality in terms of wealth. power and status. Social area analysis assumes that a few independent factors can explain the spatial patterning of a city. The urban social pattern of these cities has been generalized. However. class. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. Migration may also be restricted to the men of the family. The lifestyle factor in North American cities relates small nuclear families with higher education achievements and better employment opportunities. The historical evolution of cities has supported this stratification. it is appropriate to use a social area analysis to delineate the urban social pattern. Male dominance.9 Conclusion The urban social pattern is the complex manifestation of the underlying cultural values of the population within a particular built environment. . The lifestyle depends on ethnicity and migration. Traditional Indian cities have grown over a very long period of time. Three leading western theories describing the urban social pattern of cities dominate the literature on urban social patterns (Hartshorn. Status in Third World cities is based on family membership or socioeconomic class. The households are generally large with a range of ages. this social area analysis must take into consideration the indigenous factors. this is not evident due to the existence of multi-generational families. The residential neighborhoods of such cities are not as well defined as they are in the American cities. migration or ethnic group represent the ethnic factor. or in search of opportunities in the city. In the case of India. These characteristics stratify the society into vertical and horizontal systems. These theories have been combined in a social area analysis to describe the social pattern based on a few social variables.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 37 3. The growth of cities across the world has been studied. The reasons for migration are also varied – they may be migrating as a result of natural calamities. 1992). family status and ethnic status. In such a case study. Here. A market economy strongly influences the lifestyle of the citizens of Navi Mumbai.

Better transportation systems increase mobility and lead to a greater sorting of population (Cadwallader.Chapter 4: Research Design Determining the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai is the primary research objective of this thesis. and ethnicity confirmed the validity of the analysis. The study involves the categorization of a city based on social rank. These involve population. These three factors also corresponded to the theoretical models proposed by Burgess. there was considerable criticism about the choice of variables.1 Social Area Analysis Social area analysis provides a broad framework for analyzing the social patterns of a city. economic. 1955). and housing characteristics. A set of variables describing the social structure of the city can be used in the statistical analysis. Cairo and Helsinki showed some useful generalization. Hoyt. urbanization index. and Harris and Ullman will be the theoretical framework for the conceptualization of the social pattern of Navi Mumbai. the city was analyzed as a composite made up of three layers. immigration of rural population leads to segregation based on language. studies in Calcutta. economic status and ethnic background produce a certain spatial pattern in the city. 1971). Cities are complex entities that have many different functions performed by many different people. These factors are taken into consideration in social area analysis. However. urbanization and segregation. The issue of spatial distribution of different kinds of people in Navi Mumbai is of primary interest. It is a . It was first put forth by Shevky and Williams (1949) in a study of Los Angeles. mapping of social area analysis for a large sample of cities showed that socioeconomic status. They were considered to be very narrow and not universally applicable. The increase in industrialization creates an occupational status system (Timms.socioeconomic status. 4. The pattern of the city may be determined by statistical analysis or by discerning people’s mental images of the city. The analysis looks at the variables at once and at their respective locations in their distribution. 1985). Social area analysis shows how family characteristics. Under these conditions. The aim is to identify key combinations of different measures that provide an adequate basis on which to differentiate the sub-areas from one another (King and Golledge. The research investigates the relationship between the spatial pattern of Navi Mumbai and the different theories of urban social patterns discussed in the literature review. The basic premise of social area analysis is that a city cannot be studied in isolation from the overall society (Shevky and Bell. Generally the economic model showed a sectored pattern. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. Although these analyses have been more effective for studying North American cities. 1978). Thus. The social area analysis may be done statistically by a factor analysis. The general issue of social areas will be accomplished through social area analysis. The family as a unit becomes weaker. the urbanization component showed a concentric ring pattern. This analysis classifies census tract data into three main constructs . The theories put forth by Burgess. Earlier. Hoyt and Harris and Ullman. family status and ethnic status. religion and ethnic background.

concentric zone theory and multiple nuclei theory. This database provides aggregated information about each node (township). Social structure in India is a result of cultural. family status and ethnic status correspond respectively to the sector theory. Variables that arise from such cultural determinants need to be used in the factor analysis. education. The variables are tabulated below: Table 4. 1990).1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Socioeconomic status Profession Number of earning members Income Education Family status Demographics Women at home Family size Dwelling size Type of house Year of occupation Ethnic status Religion Language 4. religious and historic development with both horizontal (kinship. is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social patterning will occur.2 Hypotheses As discussed in the literature review. mapping of social patterns in many cities across the world show that the socioeconomic status. then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. This provides a spatial hierarchical data set. The data available is based on a . The sectors (neighborhoods) are identical to census block tracts. H0. and each sector (neighborhood) of the nodes. caste) dimensions (Hall. In this case study of Navi Mumbai. my null hypothesis. If H0 is false. language) and vertical (occupation.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 39 device that seeks interrelationships among the set of input variables (Herbert and Thomas.4 Data Collection The data required for the analysis can be obtained from census tracts of Navi Mumbai. 4. religion. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. 1980). 4.3 Operationalization Certain variables will be used to operationalize the social area analysis to obtain the urban social pattern. Social area analysis based on western thinking can not be naively applied to the study of urban social patterns in India.

Table 4.283 Nerul 16. All data is standardized. cartographic mapping. An error of 5-8% is expected. These four methods are collectively used to analyze the data. The only data source that provides this information.161 Sanpada 2.1 Descriptive Analysis The first stage of analysis describes the data at both the regional and sub-regional scale. The cluster analysis puts together cases which are similar based on the relationship between the variables. The single variable from that data set is selected and a histogram of it at the . data covering a large area is required. For a social area analysis.056 New Panvel 9.357 Survey Coverage 6656 4219 2125 2034 2282 2530 2506 544 % of total 24 26 23 22 25 19 18 23 The issues of validity and reliability arise in the use of census data for testing the hypothesis. The third is cluster analysis of the cases to see which variables are closely associated. This is a detailed stage of analysis. for the purpose of this thesis it shall be used. The GIS and mapping techniques convert all the statistical information into a graphic representation. The variables are expected to cluster based on the constructs described above. and compare it to other cities. The survey was carried out on a ~22% sample basis for each node. The second is a principal components analysis.5 Methodology Four methodologies are used to analyze the data.007 Airoli 13. At the regional scale the data is tabulated. These are techniques in multivariate analysis. In this research. Finally. the sector is the unit of analysis. and at the sub-regional scale attached as Appendix C.338 Belapur 9. Although principal components analysis is no longer considered the most favorable mode of analysis to delineate patterns.109 Kalamboli 9. The principal components analysis draws out the relationship between the variables. 4. The descriptive analysis helps understand the finer dimensions of the data. and GIS overlay techniques are used to determine the social pattern at the regional and sub-regional levels. the units of analysis are not identical. although variables are related. The census data is not 100% reliable. 4. is census data. Statistics are weighted for spatial data because. The first is a descriptive analysis of the data setting out the parameters that need to be considered to define the meaning of heterogeneity.5.378 Kopar-khairane 14.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 40 socioeconomic survey done by CIDCO in December 1995.2 Survey Sampling Node Total Number of Dwellings Vashi 27.

Finally. 1986). The eigenvalue criterion (eigenvalue greater than or equal to 1) helps eliminate components which are not meaningful. If the standard deviation at the 95% confidence interval is within 15% of the mean. the matrix of component scores is computed. The N by M matrix is standardized in terms of standard deviation. This approach to classification is very subjective. Generally variables with communalities less than 0. It has very little theory and depends largely on experience.7 are not significant in the correlation matrix. The . "To obtain the initial solution. The axis has been rotated orthogonally (assuming the factors are uncorrelated). and so on" (Kim and Mueller. Rotating the axis more closely intersects the clusters of variables. 1986).3 Cluster Analysis Classification of data places objects in one or more homogenous groups. This matrix contains components that represent a group of interrelated variables. Characteristics of the urban social pattern can be revealed by considering the relationship within groups. 4. it is necessary to provide a permissible range of variation. The elements of the eigenvectors that are used to compute the scores are called principal component loadings. Principal components analysis can be thought of as four matrices. In order to interpret this descriptive statistics for homogeneity. Principal components are the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix (Davis.5. then the pattern shall be interpreted as homogeneous. certain restrictions are imposed. This solution determines whether a small number of the components can be used to explain the covariance between a large number of variables. The second step is to rotate the axis to get a simpler solution. and results in a simpler pattern.5.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 41 sub-regional scale is drawn. The rotation normally removes the negative loadings. This is varimax rotation. Each original observation is converted into a principal component score. The initial solution is based on the orthogonal solution. the second component accounts for as much of the residual variance left unexplained by the first factor. The cases are the rows and the variables are the columns. The first step of principal components analysis is to obtain an initial solution. A variation greater than thirty percent of the total population from the mean (15% on either side of mean) is used here to show unequal distribution.2 Principal Components Analysis A principal components analysis reduces a large number of variables to a smaller number of underlying components. These restrictions are (1) there are k common components (2) underlying components are orthogonal to each other (3) the first component accounts for as much variance as possible. The data is interpreted in terms of its mean and standard deviation. These loadings indicate the strength of the relationships between variables and underlying components. This matrix is next converted into a factor matrix. Patterns can be delineated from mapping these components. The data matrix is converted into a correlation matrix. Cluster analysis classifies the groups according to the observations into moreor-less homogenous and distinct groups (Davis. Corresponding communalities are also estimated. 1978). Comparative figures at the national scale are also given. The first matrix is a simple data matrix. 4.

principal components analysis and cluster analysis. Mapping of the principal components determined if any pattern exists in the social characteristics of Navi Mumbai at the regional and sub-regional scales. This method joins similar observations. The regional scale was comparisons between the eight nodes of Navi Mumbai. . Distance coefficients are linked at low values. as is the correlation coefficient.6 Data Analysis Descriptive analysis of the data was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS.0. The levels of similarity are used to construct the dendrogram. The SPSS program was also used to perform a principal component analysis and a cluster analysis on this data set. A correlation coefficient or distance coefficient may be used to evaluate similarities. The distance coefficient is not constrained within the range of +1. A low distance would indicate that two objects are similar and a large distance would indicate that the two objects are dissimilar. Both the analyses were done at a regional and sub-regional scale. The aim of these two kinds of analysis was to determine if the data set clustered into the three constructs given above.5. then connects the next most similar observations to these.0 to -1. 4. Analysis was then done of one particular node of Navi Mumbai.4 Mapping and Overlays The final stage is the mapping of the descriptive analysis. The criteria for clustering is that both observations mutually have the highest correlation with each other. and the statistical analysis to determine an interpretation of the pattern. and so produces better dendrograms. namely Vashi. A measure of similarity between every pair of objects is computed using Euclidean distance. This stage of analysis integrates the theoretical framework.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 42 classification procedure used here is hierarchical clustering. This mapping helps explain the statistics through a easily interpretable graphic representation. 4.

Malayalam . it was selected out of the eight nodes. The analysis is divided into descriptive analysis of variables and detailed analysis at the regional and sub-regional. female pop.1) with the actual variable from the data set. One or two variables from each set was selected for this study. m. and has fully developed residential sectors. The criteria used to select the variables were based on the expectations of the hypothesis. only then would they bring out the characteristics of the construct. Muslim Language Marathi. All the variables belonged to closed sets. Nerul. unskilled status Number of earning members 1 earning member Income Rs. Vashi is the oldest node. Type of housing CIDCO Tenure 1980s Last place of residence Bombay Ethnic status Religion Hindu. • sub-regional scale (sectors of a node) The study areas at the regional level of analysis are those of the nodes of Navi Mumbai including Vashi. Then the data set was studied at a sub-regional level by analyzing the neighborhoods of Vashi node. Data for the regional and sub-regional scale was collected from the 1995 socioeconomic survey conducted by CIDCO. As the 1995 survey data was the most recent data. Belapur. Kalamboli. This spatial scale is • regional scale (nodes). Kopar-khairane. it was used for analysis. Panvel. 5.Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 5. Hence. The variables needed to explain the constructs as well as possible. Table 5. As this node had the most complete data.2 Descriptive Analysis of Data The different constructs and variable names described in the methodology section are tabulated below (Table 5. only one or two representative variables from each set was selected. age 25-45 Family size 4 to 5 members Dwelling size 26-35 sq. The methodological reason for selecting these eight nodes out of the total of thirteen is because data was available for only these eight nodes.1 Introduction The aim of this research is to study the urban social pattern of the population across a hierarchical scale. age 25-45. Airoli and Sanpada. 2651-4450 Education high school Family status Demographics Male pop.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Name Variable from data set Socioeconomic Profession highly skilled.

2Work Force Percent of male Percent of female population in work population in work force force Vashi 53 10 Nerul 55 7 Belapur 52 12 Kalamboli 54 6 Panvel 57 8 Kopar-khairane 56 10 Airoli 53 7 Sanpada 58 9 Mean 54. 5. Data tables for the sub-regional scale are given in Appendix C. while it is 1.3).2. All these variables are closely correlated.2 and the number of earners in Table 5. 33. Better education facilitates getting better jobs and higher income.15% (a slight increase from 32.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 44 All data tables are for the regional scale while the histograms are from the sub-regional scale.3 Number of Earners Single 2 3 4+ Vashi 68 23 6 2 Nerul 78 16 3 1 Belapur 68 22 4 2 Kalamboli 79 15 4 1 Panvel 78 17 3 1 Kopar-khairane 76 17 5 1 Airoli 74 20 4 1 Sanpada 70 19 7 2 Mean 74 19 5 1 Standard deviation 5 3 1 1 . Table 5.12 1. A profession brings with it a certain prestige and social class.35.99 The average number of earners per household is 1.67 in Greater Bombay.2. 30430 are the working population.62 Standard Deviation 2. Table 5. An increase in the number of earning members increases family income and the socioeconomic class. The percent of males and females is shown in Table 5. Seventy-five percent of families had one earning member and twenty percent of families had two earning members (Table 5. Number of earning members: Out of the total population of 91787 recorded in the survey.8% recorded in the 1987 survey) of the population makes up the workforce of Navi Mumbai.1 Socioeconomic Status The socioeconomic status is an indicator of social class.75 8. and form the socioeconomic indicator.

Profession: Good employment opportunities are offered by the manufacturing industries of Navi Mumbai. construction workers and trainees.0 70.96 (mean=66.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 45 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std. The standard deviation is 11. Dev = 7. The distribution of the single earner families is shown in Figure 5.3). Kopar-khairane has a low number of highly skilled workers and a large number of unskilled workers (Table 5. Table 5. Unskilled persons are construction laborers and housemaids.0 65. This means that the distribution is homogeneous.00 45. while service professions such as shops and hotels employ 7% of the workforce.3). Both the values are within 15% of the mean.3 N = 19127. the variable. For this analysis classification based on skills is tabulated (Table 5. They form 17% of the workforce. On an average. was selected. Skilled workers are factory workers. Highly skilled professionals hold higher level managerial and supervisory jobs or are professional business persons.0 75. they are 19% of the work force and the standard deviation is 11.1 Distribution of Single-earner families For the analysis. 25% of the workforce is employed there. Small businesses account for 15% of the employees. At the sub-regional scale the standard deviation is 7.0 50. The main reason is that this node is presently under construction and has a large workforce of construction workers.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.1. Government offices including banks and public sector enterprises employ 21% of the workforce. and has a normal distribution over eight cases.0 80. The pattern is homogeneous. The mean is 74 with a very low standard deviation of 5.4 Occupational Classification of Workforce Highly skilled unskilled office selfteacher other skilled worker worker assistant employed Vashi 45 12 12 15 9 4 3 Nerul 38 23 13 15 4 4 3 Belapur 47 12 8 20 3 6 4 Kalamboli 24 31 20 12 8 3 2 Panvel 43 19 9 16 4 7 2 Kopar-khairane 20 9 41 9 9 0 12 Airoli 34 18 44 12 5 1 4 Sanpada 49 9 20 14 3 3 2 Mean 38 17 19 14 6 4 4 Standard Deviation 11 8 11 3 3 2 3 Frequency . In Navi Mumbai this economic class constitutes 38% of the work force. contractors and consultants. carpenters.0 60.0 55.4).96 Mean = 66. This is most representative of the entire population. The distribution of the singleearner family at the regional level shows a standard deviation of only 5 (mean=74). Professional workers in teaching and medical institutions are 7% of the workforce. single earning member.

29 750110000 15 6 12 3 5 9 8 12 8.5 Household Income upto 12511250 2650 Vashi 2 14 Nerul 3 27 Belapur 2 12 Kalamboli 2 26 Panvel 2 24 Kopar-khairane 2 9 Airoli 1 14 Sanpada 1 5 Mean 1. the standard deviation is 10.0 45.06 1000115000 7 3 5 1 3 7 2 4 4 2.0 40. The proportion of EWS:LIG:MIG:HIG is 2:16:34:48. This shows a proportionately large middle and higher income groups.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. 2650 • middle income group (MIG) earning between Rs.46.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 46 The corresponding data was not available at the sub-regional scale.75 4. Frequency .0 25.9) (Figure 5.63 6.0 50.13 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5. Both cases do not show a homogeneous distribution of people based on income as the standard deviation is greater than 15% of the mean.0 30. 1251 and Rs. 1230.0 20.88 16.46 (mean=33. Almost 34% of the population falls within this category.26 26514450 27 36 27 46 31 32 39 31 33.9 N = 19127. Dev = 10 Mean = 27. Thus.13 1.64 8.98 (mean=27.0 35.0 15. Table 5.45) and the sub-regional scale.0 10. 4451 and Rs 7500 and • higher income group (HIG) earning more than Rs. 7500 per month. 4900 and the monthly average per capita income is Rs. in Navi Mumbai it appears that the four income groups have to be redefined based on the median and/or mean income of this region rather than using the national urban averages (Table 5.2).25 7. 4200 fell within this range. 2651-4450 was selected for the principal components analysis because the median income of Rs. 2651-4450 The income range of Rs.38 Standard deviation 0.2 Frequency of Families with income range Rs.0 Std.46 44517500 30 21 35 21 31 36 34 42 31. The monthly average household income is Rs.5). The regional scale shows a standard deviation of 6.2 15000+ 3 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 1. and the standard deviation is 6. Income: The income groups are defined by the Government of India’s household income classification into: • economically weaker section (EWS) earning less than Rs1250 per month • lower income group (LIG) earning between Rs.

28 Children Primary secondary 9 5 8 10 8 6 7 8 7. secondary school education.7 Level of Education illiterate Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 4 3 5 7 3 4 4 4 4.63 1. The value given represents the highest level of education achieved by at least one member of the family (Table 5. 10% use bicycles and only 2% go by school bus.04 BS MS 22 4 24 5 15 2 9 1 22 4 29 4 13 3 21 4 19. while 4% of the population is going to college. Table 5. Bachelors and Masters degrees.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 47 Education: The survey shows that 27% of the total population is children going to school.36 technical 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 2 1. 51% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is English.38 3. high school education.66 27 27 30 34 25 27 37 21 28.07 high school 22 17 21 16 19 15 18 25 19. Vashi has all the major colleges. Most students attend school and college within their node (township). 76% of the students walk to their school or college. and 35% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is Marathi (12% did not specify their medium of instruction).13 3. children.52 1. technical education.7).25 2.6 Location of Education Institutions Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar. 12% use public transport.38 6.75 1.30 . primary school education. Hence.60 14 15 18 20 14 13 16 12 15.25 1.6). Table 5. the column titled Vashi shows that some students from all other nodes also go there to attend school or college (Table 5.Airoli Sanpada Bombay khairane Vashi 88 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 Nerul 9 77 2 1 1 0 0 0 10 Belapur 10 12 67 1 1 0 0 0 9 Kalamboli 1 0 1 90 4 0 0 0 4 Panvel 2 1 2 8 76 0 0 0 11 Kopar-khairane 17 0 0 0 0 81 0 0 2 Airoli 7 0 0 0 0 0 83 0 10 Sanpada 47 8 1 1 0 0 16 0 27 In the Bombay region literacy rates are seventy-five percent for adult population.5 5. The level of education is categorized into illiterate. Sanpada is the only node without any education facilities.

3 Frequency of Families with at least one a younger population with a high individual with Secondary Education percentage of children.6 (Census of India.0 20. 28. Table 5.5% of the population falls under this category with a standard deviation of 5. This level of education is provided to everyone by the government free of cost.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 48 The variable ’secondary school’ was selected under level of education. The demographic indicators used are male and female population of the age group 25-45. This age group was selected because it is a subset of the population and it makes most of the decision regarding social choices (Table 5.8.0 30.13 (mean=40.0 40.5). Cases weighted by population The present pattern clearly shows Figure 5. The variation is not homogeneous at either scale (Figure 5.0 population are in the 60+ range. Dev = 7.21 22 -24 25 -44 45 -59 60+ Vashi 4 3 7 15 12 5 34 14 5 Nerul 7 5 10 12 8 5 41 8 3 Belapur 6 4 8 14 12 5 37 11 4 Kalamboli 8 6 11 13 8 5 43 6 1 Panvel 8 4 8 11 9 5 44 9 3 Kopar-khairane 10 6 10 10 8 5 43 6 1 Airoli 7 5 10 14 11 4 39 8 2 Sanpada 7 4 6 10 10 5 43 10 4 Mean 7 5 9 12 10 5 41 9 3 Standard deviation 2 1 2 2 2 0 3 3 1 6000 Frequency .6).07 (mean=28.00 0 45 to 59.8 Male Population below 3 4-5 6 .13 population. Children up to the age of 15 constitute 33% of 3000 the total population.9 10 -15 16 .07. and at the sub-regional scale is 7.2 Family Status Demographics: The nodes of Navi Mumbai have a female to 5000 male ratio of 848 to 1000 (comparative figures for Bombay 4000 are 819 to 1000). Secondary school means an education of up to Grade 10 and the passing of a government examination (matriculation).3). 1991) The standard deviation of this variable at the regional scale is 5. The national average for this variable is 16. About 9% of the Mean = 40. 5.0 45.9).0 25. Table 5.0 50.0 35.2. The working age group of 25 to 44 is 39% of the 1000 Std.6 population are in the age group of N = 19127. and only 3% of the 15. The age group 16 to 24 is 10% of the 2000 population.

0 Std. A descriptive analysis of the data over the last 20 years shows that household size has been constantly increasing.52.0 N = 19127.0 48. Family size: The average family size is 4.0 34.21 in 1985.0 36.39 Mean = 38. In Vashi. average family size has increased from 3.39 (mean=38) at the sub-regional level (Figure 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 49 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation of the population is 3 (mean=41) at the regional level. 3000 2000 Frequency 1000 0 32.0 38.10).4). .0 46.0 42.4 Frequency of male population in the age group 25-45 Figure 5. The comparative family size for Bombay is 4. The reason for this is not only marriage and children.0 50.9 Female Population below 3 4-5 Vashi 5 3 Nerul 7 5 Belapur 5 4 Kalamboli 15 10 Panvel 8 4 Kopar-khairane 9 6 Airoli 6 5 Sanpada 6 4 Mean 8 5 Standard deviation 3 2 6 -9 8 10 8 16 8 10 10 8 10 3 10 -15 14 13 14 20 11 9 15 10 13 3 16 -21 11 9 11 13 10 12 10 13 11 1 22 -24 5 7 6 12 9 10 6 9 8 2 25 -44 39 40 40 6 40 37 39 39 35 12 45 -59 10 6 8 6 6 5 6 9 7 2 60+ 4 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 The female population of the age group 25-45 is also uniformly distributed over the study area. and 3. Dev = 3.76 and the national average is 5.0 52.01 for all the nodes (Table 5.0 44.73 in 1987 to 4.0 40. but also the need to accommodate older parents. The population age structure is uniformly distributed over the whole region.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.

03 3.5 The variation of the data is minimal.87 4.67 3.21 3.4 1.5 60. the data shows more diversification of the housing stock.5 65.5 57 54 53 52 45 45 56 45 50.85 (mean=56) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5. .3 26 34 31 31 41 41 27 39 33.1 6. private builders and cooperative housing began developing residential sectors.9).5 45. Frequency Cases weighted by population Figure 5.0 N = 19127.5).10 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0.00 0 42. All other nodes show a dominance of CIDCO housing (Table 5.7 14 10 13 14 8 10 15 12 12 2. 3000 2000 1000 Std.10 Family Size Single Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 6000 2.9.0 52.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 50 Table 5. Dev = 5.0 47.5 55.8 6.1.85 5000 4000 The families with a size of 4 or 5 members was chosen as 50% of the population belongs to this category.0 62.9 5.22 3.85 Mean = 56.1 (mean=50. Later.4 8.4 Average family size 4. The variable has a standard deviation of 5.81 4.11). and 5. CIDCO began all construction in Navi Mumbai.9 0.5 Frequency of households with 4 or 5 members Type of Housing: Initially CIDCO built ninety percent of the housing stock.0 67. Since Vashi is the oldest node.0 4.99 3.0 57.5 50. At the regional scale the standard deviation is 5.6 1 2 1 3 5 3 1 3 2.

35 1000 0 0. private ownership. Most government offices that provide housing for their employees obtain long term lease from CIDCO. The standard deviation at the regional scale is 12. resale and rental fall under private ownership.0 50.0 90.0 100.24 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 Pvt.0 10.00 Cases weighted by POP Figure 5.0 Std. This is a very significant result.0 70.77 Pvt. the oldest node.0 20.74 Other 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. CIDCO is still the major owner. Houses built by CIDCO are 90% of the houses available.38 9.62 Mean = 66. only houses built by CIDCO was selected.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 51 Table 5. The categories.0 80. House 2 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 1.12 shows present ownership of the house.38 Standard Deviation 12.24 (mean=89. The large deviation shows that private construction has taken place.0 40. This may be one of the main reasons for the greater variability in the pattern at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale. The standard deviation is 12. At Vashi. CIDCO’s aim to promote heterogeneity was to be implemented by having a strong hold over the housing market.76 0.4) (Figure 5.38) while at the sub-regional scale it is 35.13 0. Table 5.0 60. the strong control is no longer evident.62 (mean=66. Co-op Commercial 29 2 5 0 9 0 0 1 15 0 2 0 0 0 11 0 8.6). Dev = 35.0 30.88 0.24. Frequency .4 N = 19127.6 Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO For this variable.11 Type of Housing CIDCO Vashi 64 Nerul 95 Belapur 91 Kalamboli 99 Panvel 80 Kopar-khairane 98 Airoli 100 Sanpada 88 Mean 89. Some houses are mortgage through CIDCO.00 1.

7 Frequency of Housing Built by CIDCO . Dev = 21.13 Housing built by CIDCO <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 51-75 76-100 101-150 150+ Vashi 11 30 22 14 15 3 2 0 Nerul 7 57 18 8 7 2 1 0 Belapur 0 26 10 33 20 11 0 0 Kalamboli 24 37 24 5 7 2 0 0 Panvel 10 33 16 18 22 1 0 0 Kopar-khairane 0 20 10 42 18 9 1 0 Airoli 0 30 28 17 18 6 0 0 Sanpada 0 61 18 12 9 0 0 0 Mean 6.63 9.64 6.7).02 3.75 Private 17 3 4 1 9 1 0 7 5.14).43 Rental 23 36 37 43 36 49 42 26 36.0 80.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.50 0 Standard deviation 8.0 20.12 Ownership of House Mortgage CIDCO Vashi 11 23 Nerul 21 36 Belapur 8 40 Kalamboli 25 25 Panvel 7 33 Kopar-khairane 0 34 Airoli 0 51 Sanpada 15 32 Mean 10.65 6.75 18.2 (Figure 5.64 Dwelling size: The average size of dwelling units constructed by CIDCO is less than that built by private builders (Table 5.25 5.13.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 52 Table 5.85 Mean = 14.0 10.0 90.52 14.88 34.09 8.25 18.0 70.76 0 10000 8000 The standard deviation of the data was 21.0 60. Table 5. Table 5.00 0. While CIDCO is building houses for the EWS/LIG/MIG. the private builders are predominantly building for the HIG.99 0.0 40.68 Resale 21 16 0 0 0 14 0 18 8.63 14.25 Standard Deviation 9.25 0.5 8.25 while the mean was 14.2 N = 19127.0 50.5 4.50 36.36 12.0 30. 6000 4000 Frequency 2000 Std.

0 40. Panvel and Airoli in the latter 1980s and in Kopar-khairane and Sanpada only in the 1990s.0 The frequency distribution of houses built by private enterprise shows a 12000 standard deviation of 18.50 2. the dwelling sizes 4000 selected was 26-35 sq.75 3.14 Housing built by Private Enterprise <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 Vashi 4 2 2 14 Nerul 0 6 6 6 Belapur 0 1 2 2 Kalamboli 0 8 0 0 Panvel 0 0 1 1 Kopar-khairane 0 91 5 5 Airoli 0 0 0 0 Sanpada 13 60 2 2 Mean 37.13 11.15). For both CIDCO-built houses and privately 6000 built houses.67 and mean 10000 16.88 15.15 Year of Occupation before 1980 1981-85 1986-90 1991-92 1993 1994 1995 Vashi 11 28 24 8 9 14 5 Nerul 0 6 29 10 6 35 14 Belapur 4 23 24 11 13 18 7 Kalamboli 0 5 31 10 11 37 6 Panvel 0 11 14 15 14 34 12 Kopar-khairane 0 0 0 20 18 34 28 Airoli 0 0 47 14 12 16 11 Sanpada 0 0 0 0 8 48 44 Mean 1.13 21. corresponding to middle income Fre 2000 Std.67 76-100 24 23 9 0 24 1 0 5 3.16 51-75 14 8 33 5 18 42 17 12 5.0 10.78 12. m.50 15.88 9.0 60.38 29. Families began to reside in Nerul.0 20.94 10.0 6.41 150+ 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 14.83 3.67 que groups.2 ncy N = 19127.0 30.2 (Figure 5.12 101-150 8 5 5 0 8 0 0 2 3.76 7. Only Vashi and Belapur had a household population in the 1980s.09 13. Dwelling size was selected 8000 based on type of house.8).99 5. Dev = 18.8 Frequency of Houses built by Private number of houses occupied between Enterprise nodes (Table 5.69 10.63 18. Kalamboli.00 0 Tenure: The growth of Navi Mumbai 0. Mean = 16.86 3.50 14. middle phase in 1980s and accelerated phase in the 1990s.75 2.88 Standard Deviation 3.38 Standard Deviation 10.00 11. Cases weighted by population slow phase in the 1970s.0 50.0 can be divided into three stages: early. Table 5. There is a great variation in the Figure 5.50 16.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 53 Table 5.50 .

55 23. Movement within Navi Mumbai shows desire to move to a house of the homeowner’s choice.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 54 The three time periods of 1970s.45 Standard 5.34 13.89 47.28 55.18 5.5 2.25 1.8) (Figure 5.58 13.39 Within state 3. This is because any house in Navi Mumbai would be better than the existing living conditions in Bombay.14 5.20 2.25 (mean=52.94 11.11 2.26 5.82 3.27 Kopar 14.28 3.46 3.05 1.0 50. 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation at the regional scale is 20.26 6.17 .94 Nerul 13.36 0.4 4.0 10. These N = 19127.1 5.3 68. which can be attributed to the pace of construction. Only the middle phase was selected as a representative variable.19 26.25) and 18.05 4.16).0 30.15 24.9).0 movement within Navi Mumbai.63 Mean 11.82 4.78 0.16 Airoli 8.45 0.51 20.8 Navi Mumbai (Table 5.23 4.57 5.00 0 describe migration from Bombay and 0.0 70.23 Kalamboli 5.0 40.56 Belapur 10.0 80.19 Navi Mumbai 35. It is thus.36 17.54 Outside Outside state India 4.78 39.79 deviation Frequency Thane 3.42 0. 1980s and 1990s account for the entire span of growth of the city. There is a very large variability.04 6.2 2. Cases weighted by population Migration from Bombay is usually Figure 5.16 Previous Place of Residence Island City Western Eastern suburbs suburbs Vashi 18.06 6. 3000 Previous Place of Residence: The two variables describing previous Std.75 2.44 2.23 49. However.29 4.63 17.8 0.43 Sanpada 17. not entirely accurate as families may have shifted after their first place of residence.34 66.58 5.63 9.39 Panvel 3.83 5.0 20. 2000 Table 5.54 0.9 Frequency of Tenure the first stage of relocation where the choice of house is not very important.62 2.07 19.85 0 6.54 7.25 (mean=30.25 0. this table only indicates the year of occupation of the present accommodation.25 place of residence are Bombay and 1000 Mean = 52.2 2.04 2.51 3.79 2.34 49.4 0.65 10.32 5.94 0.53 2.53 32.0 60.58 4. Dev = 18.

western suburbs.0 40.60 Others 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0. Religion: This variable is very important for this analysis because India has a number of well-defined religions.67. The standard deviation of the families whose previous place of residence was Bombay is 9. from Bombay and within Navi Mumbai. Table 5.0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.0 65. Frequency . Ethnic enclaves are formed mainly by religious and linguistic groups.35 Sikh 2 3 7 6 1 1 1 3 3.45 Islam 6 5 4 5 2 6 3 7 4. The mean is 85. it is more important to analyze the minority religions to see if they are forming ethnic enclaves.0 55.0 50.75 Standard deviation 4.10 Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence The variables.00 2.33 Buddhist 1 0 2 1 0 2 5 1 1.46 The variables Hindu and Muslim were selected for analysis.25 0. However.42 (mean=26.00 0 35.67 Jain 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.75% of the total and has a standard deviation of 1. The Hindu population is the majority and is homogenous.3 Ethnic Status This construct is very important because it is the construct that creates segregation in India. This variable shows diversification of the population based on a cultural variable (Table 5.0 45.0 60.56 Mean = 53.17 Religion Hindu Vashi 84 Nerul 88 Belapur 79 Kalamboli 84 Panvel 94 Kopar-khairane 89 Airoli 88 Sanpada 80 Mean 85. This variable shows the families whose most immediate place of origin is Bombay.38 2. eastern suburbs and Thane have been summed up to obtain the variable.0 70.01) at the regional scale and 9. An analysis of the other minority populations also show very large standard deviations. Bombay.75 1.50 1.0 N = 19127.13 0. There is a large variation because there has been migration from the rural areas.17).2. island city. Dev = 9. The means of the religion variable correspond with the national averages.75% and the standard deviation is only 4.0 75. The Muslim population is 4.98 Christian 6 3 6 4 2 2 3 9 4.98.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 55 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std.54 (mean=53) at the sub-regional scale. 5.

49 11.50 3.6 12. Marathi is the local language.68 4.13 14.57 3.76 Kalamboli 55.22 The two languages selected are Marathi and Malayalam.9 N = 19127.44 2.66 2.64 2. Marathi is the local language.01 9.Malathi Ananthakrishnan 5000 Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 10000 56 4000 8000 3000 6000 2000 4000 Frequency Std. Punjabi is a northern language.50 2.47 3.60 5.56 3.04 1.41 4.31 9.18 Language Marathi Vashi 42.48 3.48 5.97 1.74 3.26 2.41 Nerul 45.11 6.75).96 5.29 2.90 2.81 7.69 5. Dev = 3.19 8. Mean = 82.11 Frequency of Hindus Figure 5.65 2.50 1. Hindi is the dominant language of the country. Malayalam is the language of the state 1000 miles away.66 2.12 Frequency of Muslims The Hindu population is spread uniformly over the study are with standard deviation 4. . The Muslim population and other minority religions show a nonuniform distribution over the study area.37 2.4 N = 19127.11 6.78 Kopar 67.33 5.13 13.59 12.19 5.08 11.91 2.53 16.46 Sanpada 63.50 3.5 14.98 (mean=85.98 8.80 5.67 1.04 3.75 Belapur 40.14 2.74 2.53 9.00 0 0 Figure 5.91 Mean = 6.79 Mean 53. Language: The variable language is very important in the Indian context because civil violence due to language has taken place across India.08 3. 54% of the population speaks this language.22 Std.82 3.99 1. This forms a major minority language. Malayalam and Kannada southern ones Table 5. Gujarati is the language of the adjoining state.27 16. Dev = 4. This has been used to study if there are any ethnic neighborhoods formed due to linguistic considerations.17 13.72 1.34 3.32 7. and there is a large population of Malayalam-speaking people in the greater Bombay region.99 10. Bengali an eastern one and Tamil.31 3. dev 11.16 16.77 1.29 2.27 2.93 Airoli 42.35 3.87 Panvel 66.33 2.34 3.32 0.23 7.00 Frequency 1000 2000 Std.32 3.72 1.36 4.72 0.92 5.20 0.43 8.12 1.83 6.73 Hindi Gujarati Malayalam Punjabi Tamil Kannada Bengali Other 13.68 1.

73 (mean=53. The standard deviation is very large showing some areas have more Malayalamspeaking persons than others leading to the conclusion that ethnic enclaves do exist.6).5 15. This is probably the result of the many other linguistic groups.77 (mean=7.0 12.0 40.6 N = 19127.13 Frequency of Marathi Figure 5.5 10.0 Cases weighted by population Cases weighted by population Figure 5. There is a non-uniform pattern in socioeconomic variables as well as in the ethnic variables.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 57 6000 6000 5000 5000 4000 4000 3000 3000 2000 2000 Frequency Frequency 1000 Std. The standard deviation of Malayalam is 3.68) at the regional scale and 3.0 60.5 25.73 (mean=46.9 N = 19127. The distribution of families with Marathi as their native language is not very uniform (Figure 5.0 0 2.5 5.00 0 10.00 1000 Std.73 Mean = 46.0 70.14 Frequency of Malayalam The standard deviation of Marathi is 11.0 50.0 80.5 20.19). The descriptive analysis suggests that the urban social pattern is not defined by homogeneous socioeconomic classes.0 22.22) at the regional scale and 15. Dev = 3.14).6) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.13). Table 5. This pattern is more apparent at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale (Table 5.0 7.77 Mean = 6.19 Spatial Pattern of Variables Variable Regional scale Number of earning members Uniform Income Non-uniform Education Non-uniform Demographics Uniform Family size Uniform Type of housing Non-uniform Tenure Non-uniform Last place of residence Non-uniform Hindu Uniform Muslim Non-uniform Marathi Non-uniform Malayalam Non-uniform .0 17.26 (mean=7.0 30. which have formed their own enclaves. Dev = 15.0 20.

secondary school education. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 3.468 explains 43. the variables selected were number of earning members. the assumption can be made that all the variables are significant and are useful for the study. The variables were weighted by the total population of each node. The constructs described on page 1 suggest the need for 12 variables. The principal components obtained from the rotated component matrix are used as they are more simple to interpret. However. The components with eigenvalues greater than 1 will be used to explain the variance. Hence. explaining 90% of the variance.824 and 0. or principle components.985. Cumulatively these three components explain 89.902 explains 23. family size.3. The use of PCA as a method of analysis was limited by the small number of cases. .Nodes 5. Thus.3 Regional Scale . The communalities of all the variables are very high.845% of the variation.818 explains a variation of 22.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the regional scale uses the eight nodes (townships) as the cases for the study. income. and in a range of 0.347% of the variation. as PCA limited the number of variables to 8.771% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 1. tenure.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 58 5.728%. and three components were obtained. religion and language. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix D). Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 1. A PCA was run.18. nearly 90% of the variance of the 8 nodes lies within a 3-dimensional space. The number of variables used in the analysis could not be more than the number of cases. migration. The outputs obtained from the SPSS program are used to determine which variables. The total of the communality is 7. are needed for the complete explanation of the difference in the data.

0 -.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 59 Figure 5.5 1 loading 0.15 Components in Rotated Space 1. 5 -1 FAM.5 1.0 Component 3 0.5 Component 2 0. It does not directly express which.5 RELIGION 0 EARNER EDUCATN INCOME -0 .16 Loadings of Principal Components The eight original variables are combined linearly to define principal components.0 .5 C o m p o n e n ts 1.5 0. components contribute more or less to the overall data association MIGRATN TENURE .0 education income earner family size tenure religion language migration -. The loadings produced by the principal components analysis for the variables is used to create bar charts to better visualize the magnitude of the loading.5 Component 1 Analysis weighted by population of each node . These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component.0 1.SIZE LANGUAGE va r i a b l e s Figure 5.0 .5 -. if any.

3. The three components correspond to family status.20): Table 5. Nerul.20 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Family size Previous place of residence Tenure Component 2 Education Income Component 3 Number of earners Language Religion Name Family status Socioeconomic status Ethnic status with high number of earners. Airoli (Appendix E). this PCA does not directly correspond to the descriptive analysis. socioeconomic status and ethnic status. 5. Kopar-khairane. This analysis does not show any differentiation based on variables of ethnicity.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three components with eigenvalues above 1. Panvel. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had the nodes Belapur and Kalamboli while the second cluster (Cluster 2) had the rest of the nodes. only two clusters were formed. Analysis of the raw data was not carried out because the SPSS program did not weight the raw data while running a cluster analysis. As the number of cases was only 8. As the analysis was constrained by the reduced number of variables. The cluster analysis shows that the two of the Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine Cluster 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ Node Panvel Kopar Sanpada Nerul Airoli Vashi Belapur Kalamboli -+-----------------+ Cluster 1 -+ +-------------------------+ -------------------+ +---+ -------------+-------+ I I -------------+ +-----------------------+ I ---------------------+ I ---------------------------------------+---------+ ---------------------------------------+ Figure 5. Cluster analysis of the scores from PCA ensured that the data was standardized in the same manner for both types of analysis.3. Sanpada. 5.17 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) .2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis was done using the scores obtained from the principal components analysis. Vashi.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 60 The three components are (Table 5.

and the high percentage of families in the selected income range for Kalamboli. linguistic groups speaking Marathi and Malayalam. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 2.690 explains 24.001% of the variation. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix F). high school education.21 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Education Income Ownership of house Previous place of residence Muslim Component 2 Marathi Component 3 Number of earners Malayalam Demographics Hindu Name Socioeconomic status and Muslim enclave Ethnic status Ethnic status with high number of earners. From the data. The attributes of the principal components are (Table 5.463%. household income range of Rs. Hindus and Muslims. The extracted sums of squared loadings of the first three components is cumulatively 72. but interpretation would have been more difficult. houses built by CIDCO. tenure of house in the 1980s. explaining 73% of the variance.Sectors of Vashi 5. and three components were obtained. 5.917%. .1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the sub-regional scale uses the 23 sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi as the cases for the study.21) Table 5.75 explains 25. The main reason for this is the high variability in the language data set for Belapur.4 Sub-regional Scale .01. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 2.453% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 2.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 61 nodes are different from the other six. families with 4 or 5 members. The PCA shows the communality of the 11 variables to be 8. 2651-4450. male and female population of the age group 25-45.581 explains a variation of 23. More components could have been used. The variables were weighted by the total population of each node. A PCA was run. These were: families with one earning member. migration from Bombay. 13 variables were selected for the analysis.4.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 62 C o m po ne nts 1 0. These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component. 4 -0 .4 0. 17.18 Loadings of Principal Components The bar chart explains the loadings of each variable on the component. Three clusters were formed using the 23 cases.4. These define which values contribute more or less significance to that particular component. 28 and 29.2 0 -0 . and the third cluster (Cluster 3) had all the rest of the 16 sectors (Appendix G). The second cluster (Cluster 2) had sectors 12. 6 -0 . 2 -0 . 8 -1 loadings EDUCATN MIGRATN RELGION1 LANGUAG1 LANGUAG2 OWNRSHIP RELGION2 EARNER INCOME MEN va r i a bl e s Figure 5. 5.2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis of the scores obtained from PCA was done.8 0.6 0. WOMEN . The first cluster (Cluster 1) had had only sector 5. 14. 16A.

The second component has only the population speaking Marathi. This can be translated into a middle-class population. As the Marathi population is 53% of the total population. this component also describes the general population. it represents a majority of the population. as Hindus are 83% of the population. The cluster analysis shows a segregation in Cluster 1 caused by high number of earners with a high percentage of households speaking Marathi and a low percentage of .58. It appears that there is a segregation based on the ethnic component.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three equally important components with eigenvalues in the range of 2. The first component is one which has a high socioeconomic component dominated by a Muslim population. The third component is the economically active age group dominated by the Hindu population.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 63 Figure 5.75 to 2. Again. Each of the three components have an ethnic variable in them.19 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine 0 5 10 15 20 +---------+---------+---------+---------+----Sector 2 6 1 4 16 20 9 10 15 26 21 3 7 9A 8 10A 14 29 12 17 16A 28 5 -+ -+---+ -+ +-+ -----+ +-----+ ---+---+ I ---+ +---+ -+-+ I I -+ +---+ I +-----------+ ---+ +-----+ I I Cluster 3 -------+ I I -----------------+ +---------+ ---+---+ I I ---+ +---------+ I I -------+ +-----------+ I ---------+-------+ +---------+ ---------+ I I -------+---------------+ I I -------+ I I I -+---+ +---------------+ I Cluster 2 -+ +-------------+ I I -----+ +---+ I -------------------+ I Cluster 1 -------------------------------------------------+ 5. All the components are equally important and separated only by ethnic variables.4.

5. Cluster 2 shows a dominance of households speaking Marathi. and a strong ethnic component is seen. The descriptive analysis of individual variables also shows this non-uniform pattern. and distinctly driven by an ethnic component at the sub-regional scale. At the sub-regional scale as there is a smaller percentage of CIDCO-built houses. the outcome of the implementation strategy shows otherwise. In summary. although the government policy was to prevent the formation of ethnic enclaves. individual households have exercised their choice.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 64 households speaking Malayalam.6 Conclusion The analysis of the data shows that the urban social pattern appears to be non-uniform at the regional scale. PCA and cluster analysis brings forth the variability of the data and shows which variables and which cases cluster together. .

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Figure 6. However.Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion A preliminary interpretation of the data analysis in the previous chapter shows the details of the social urban pattern are best seen in the sub-regional scale. a brief interpretation of the regional scale is described here before proceeding to the detailed interpretation at the sub-regional scale.1 Regional Scale Figure 6. 6.1 Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai . Cluster 1 has two nodes close to each other and BOMBAY Airoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada Nerul Arabian Sea Belapur Panvel possibly influenced by one another. All the other nodes are in the second cluster.1 shows the spatial distribution of the clusters.

2 shows that different factor scores influence the two Airoli 2 1 clusters. Cluster 1 is influenced by family size. 100 Panvel 80 EARNER EDUCATN 60 FAM. which are contributing to the clustering.3 shows the strength of variables.3 Average Linkage between Variables Analysis weighted by population . 1 2 Figure 6. education and language. Cluster 1 is linked to Factor score 1 0 score 1 and cluster 2 to score 2 -1 Factor score 2 -2 while score 3 exerts almost equal Factor score 3 67116 67116 67116 14543 14543 14543 -3 N= influence on both cluster. Figure 6. have an equal influence on the two clusters.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 66 3 Figure 6. The variables. previous place of residence and tenure while cluster 2 is affected by income.SIZE 40 INCOME Kopar-khaira 20 LANGUAGE MIGRATN 0 -20 1 Sanpada Kopar-khaira RELIGION TENURE 2 Figure 6. number of earners and religion.2 Average Linkage between Factor Scores Analysis weighted by population Further.

.2 Sub-regional Scale At the sub-regional scale.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 67 6. 10A. 6. More variables could also be used to study these cases. 15. and Cluster 1 (yellow) has only sector 5. 16A. 28 12 29 26 10 15 9 10A 9A 8 7 5 6 4 1 3 2 17 16 14 20 16A 21 Figure 6.4. and 26. 3.4 Clustering of the Sectors of Vashi Cluster 3 (red) has sectors 1. 14. 17. The grouping of the sectors into three clusters is shown in Figure 6. 20. 21. 9. 10. 28 and 29. 8. 12. Cluster 2 (green) has sectors 2. 16. there were twenty-three sectors. 9A. 4.

Cluster 1 is Factor Score 1 8 0 -2 influenced by all three scores. Cluster 3 is an outlier.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 68 Figure 6. Ownership. but dominated by an ethnic variable. 1 2 3 Figure 6. Factor Score 2 -4 cluster 2 more strongly by score 2 Factor Score 3 1892 1892 1892 738 738 738 -6 N = 16497 1649716497 and cluster 3 by score 3.5 Average Linkage between Groups Analysis weighted by population 120 EARNER 100 80 EDUCATION INCOME MARATHI 60 40 20 0 -20 1 2 3 MALAYALAM MEN MIGRATION OWNRSHIP HINDU MUSLIM WOMEN Figure 6.6 Average Linkage between Variables Figure 6. Cluster 2 is the most significant. income and the language Marathi dominate it.6 shows the average linkage between the variables. another ethnic variable.5 shows that the 4 2 three clusters are influenced by different factor scores. This is a socioeconomic construct. . Cluster 1 is also differentiated by Malayalam.

7 shows a scenario that could be expected from the mapping of any of the socioeconomic variables. Figure 6. . The colors red and orange are immediately above.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory As discussed in the literature review. The two variables selected were income and number of earners. and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes.7 Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic Variables Figure 6.9).8. In both maps the median range is represented by the color purple. Figure 6.9 Distribution of Income The pattern that emerges on mapping of the number of earners and income variables does not show any particular pattern (Figure 6. Figure 6.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 69 6.8 Distribution of Number of Earners Figure 6. the study of many cities across the world shows that the socioeconomic construct displays a sector pattern.2.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion


6.2.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory The study of many cities across the world shows that the family status construct displays a concentric pattern. Figure 6.10 shows a possible scenario in Vashi for a variable representing the family status. The variable selected to describe the family status is ownership of apartment. In the descriptive analysis, this variable showed a great degree of variability. The purple color represents the range within which the mean falls. The colors red and orange are immediately above, and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes. Figure 6.10 Hypothetical Concentric Zone Pattern for Family Status Variables The number of sectors which falls within the mean range is very small. Sectors which have slightly more or slightly less percentage of apartments built by CIDCO are represented by red and orange. It is important to note that five sectors are colored green while one sector is yellow (Figure 6.11). This shows a high degree of variability in the data.

Figure 6.11 Distribution of Ownership of Apartment

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion


6.2.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory Multiple Nuclei theory supports the spatial pattern of the ethnic factor. A possible solution is mapped for any ethnic variable in Figure 6.12. A language variable and a religion variable were selected from the data set for mapping. The mapping of language and religion variables shows a segregation of both of them. Yellow and green colors, which represent the extremes in the data set, are present in both the variables (Figure 6.13, Figure 6.14). This is especially true of the variable Muslim, which shows a largely non-uniform distribution.

Figure 6.12 Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic Variables

Figure 6.13 Distribution of Households speaking Marathi

Figure 6.14 Distribution of Households which follow Islam

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion


6.3 Summary The set of figures below shows the mapping of the cluster analysis as well as the individual factor scores.

Figure 6.15 Clustering of Sectors

Figure 6.16 Score 1

Figure 6.17 Score 2

Figure 6.18 Score 3

Although the four maps above (Figure 6.15, Figure 6.16, Figure 6.17, Figure 6.18) show that there is a different colored sector within a group of one color, the multiple nuclei pattern is not very obvious. However, looking at the descriptive analysis, principal components analysis, cluster analysis and the mapping collectively, the multiple nuclei pattern can be inferred. The descriptive analysis brought out the fact that the spatial pattern is

However. • • putting forth a new theory to generalize social pattern in planned cities in India. a pattern did emerge at this present stage. As Navi Mumbai has been constructed over the last 25 years.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 73 not uniform or heterogeneous. The mapping of individual variables and factor scores verifies that within a fairly homogeneous group of sectors there exists a dissimilar sector.4 Potential Utility of the Research This research is a starting point for further studies in spatial patterns in Navi Mumbai. 6. scaling down the study to stories of individual households to reach a more detailed level of interpretation. The aggregation of household data at the sector scale has limited this research from drawing out the finer details of the spatial pattern. The policy of the government to promote social heterogeneity influenced the type of residential construction in Navi Mumbai. examining the policy instruments and policy goals. The principal components analysis shows that the cause of this spatial pattern is ethnicity. The clustering indicates that some sectors are dissimilar from others. as the pattern is not uniform. the policy has not been successful. . Future research could involve: • • Delineating the pattern at intervals of time to study the change in pattern. the pattern is strongly influenced by factors as year of occupation of the house and reasons for moving. This is the multiple nuclei pattern of an ethnically driven spatial organization. In conclusion.

The government had a very practical interest in avoiding ethnic confrontation. The Muslims came to India as invaders. The important objectives of Navi Mumbai were: attract some of the immigrant population. The Hindu laws and treatises specified residential locations for different castes. Partition and the first years of independence were. Three leading theories put forth were concentric zone theory. These theories explain the urban social pattern . This was the first cause of separation in residential neighborhoods. Religious tensions have always existed in India. Housing would be allotted according to the preference of size of dwelling provided by applicants. religion and language. Navi Mumbai is separated from the metropolis of Bombay only by the Thane Creek. 1991). and provide an infrastructure which would promote ethnic heterogeneity. Planning policies in Navi Mumbai were strongly influenced by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. strongly influenced by ethnic variables. The culture of this race of people is very different from the Hindus. and the government had a specific social and political agenda. The religious divide was used in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. support an aggressive industrialization policy. The government hoped that this would distribute people based on socioeconomics and break barriers based on religion and language. and formulated a policy to support it. caste. The segregation is attributed to the ethnic variables. Ethnic enclaves have always characterized traditional settlements in India. thus. Traditional Indian cities have always had a strong ethnic component in their urban social pattern. This particular case study was chosen for two reasons: Navi Mumbai is the first planned city that is not a capital city or industrial township. The other feature that is unique to India is the existence of many languages. Political and administrative boundaries in independent India were decided on linguistic lines. One of the social objectives in the planning of Navi Mumbai was to use the government machinery to diversify the spatial distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. Every effort was taken by the government to make Navi Mumbai an independent city and not a suburb or satellite city to Bombay. Households would normally place this preference based on how much they can pay. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. India.Chapter 7: Conclusion The purpose of this thesis is to delineate the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. The thesis addresses this social objective. Bombay is the financial and economic capital of India. The government also decided to take up most of the initial building construction. The review of secondary source material shows that urban social patterns have been studied across the world. raise the standard of living and reduce social inequalities. It was also influenced by the concept of the city as a melting pot (Engel. The draft development plan of Navi Mumbai had very strong functional and social objectives. However. Navi Mumbai is still dependent on Bombay for much of its activity. It was hoped that a majority of the residential construction could be achieved though a policy of swavalambhan (self-reliance) and swatantrya (mutual selfhelp). Areas dominated by Muslims are common in most cities in India.

In the case of Navi Mumbai this is important because of the policy to prevent segregation based on ethnic variables. Generally the socioeconomic model showed a sectored pattern. Four methods were used to analyze the data. the analysis allowed a more detailed interpretation. is an analysis primarily of economic variables. sector theory. family status and ethnic status. Mobility and immigration are the key variables of this theory. The first methodology is a descriptive analysis. The software package SPSS was used to do the analysis. a cluster analysis was done of the cases of the data set. At the regional scale the analysis was done between the eight nodes to study their similarity. The hypothesis put forth in this study is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social segregation will occur. The similarity between the . The variables selected under each construct were drawn out of experience of the researchers. and the sub-regional scale of the sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi node. then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. socioeconomic. In Navi Mumbai.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 75 and its change over time. That would indicate that enclaves have not been caused by individual variables. The second theory. Succession and invasion based on social and economic status is the basic assumption of this theory. and histogram drawn of the variable selected from each data set. These scales were the regional scale of the nodes (townships). grouping of variables is expected to be under the three constructs. The second methodology is principal components analysis (PCA). Using the secondary source material as reference. Social area analysis broadly classifies variables into three constructs. and demographics. The variables selected are reduced into a smaller number of constructs. The data at both scales is tabulated. These are socioeconomic construct. Next. Twenty-three sectors of Vashi were then analyzed. Analysis was done to map the urban social pattern of many cities across the world. The PCA reduces the dimensionality of the data into a more interpretable form. The multiple nuclei theory proposes that patterns could be arranged around several centers. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. family status and ethnic status. Analysis of data was done at two scales. the scale was smaller. family size and type of house under family status. A variation in the data greater than 15% on each side of the mean is considered as unequal distribution. Two religion variables and two language variables have been selected representing the ethnic construct. The constructs of the social area analysis have been found to correspond to the three theories. income and education under the socioeconomic construct. If H0 is false. special emphasis has to be given to the ethnic components. the family component showed a concentric ring pattern. The methodology used was that of social area analysis. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. The concentric zone theory relates the pattern of cities to population mobility. The methodologies were techniques of multivariate analysis. The other variables selected were number of earning members. Wedge patterns representing income groups are the outcome of the theory. Since. Heterogeneity of the population is detected if these three constructs emerge from the analysis.

A moral analysis of segregation has to be done in the context of the Indian culture. . All three new constructs are dominated by an ethnic variable. allotment procedure. The distribution of these variables shows segregation. The center is an ethnic enclave surrounded by socioeconomic variables. The overall pattern of Navi Mumbai is one of multiple nuclei. physical design and the institutional framework need to be examined closely to realize their full impact and to understand the results in their context. However.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 76 nodes and sectors is determined from this. • Was this an experiment in enhancing quality of life or is it a method for the government to exert social control? • The concept of the melting pot has to be re-examined. The pattern could. This can be attributed to two reasons: 1. None of the variables selected display a uniform distribution. it has not succeeded at this stage. 2. and clustering to the urban social patterns detailed in the secondary source material. In Vashi only 64% of the houses were built and allotted by the government. As the socioeconomic variables are expected to take a sectored pattern. The policy has not facilitated the distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. How important is it to promote integration when self-sorting has been the natural process? • Can the Modernist synthesis seeking homogeneity in heterogeneity be used as a template for the Indian culture? • This leads to the question: is the objective valid? Does it have to be redefined or is the implementation strategy to be modified? At this stage it appears that a detailed analysis of the policy instrument and policy goals must be undertaken. In conclusion. graphically representing the analysis. The research brings to the fore many questions than answers. This indicates that the urban social pattern is strongly influenced by ethnicity. The final stage was mapping of the clusters. The objective. family status variables concentric zones and the ethnicity variables a multiple nuclei arrangement. Redistribution shows that people have aligned themselves based on ethnic variables. the socioeconomic variables also show separation. they were mapped under expected and observed conditions. however. This is especially true of the ethnic variables. The principal components analysis shows that the variables are not grouping under the three constructs. The extreme value range in the mapping is important because it represents the dissimilarity in the distribution. although the policy is noble in its aims and aspiration. The urban social pattern is best explained as one of multiple nuclei. Distribution was originally controlled through allotment of government-built houses based only on purchasing power (and indirectly socioeconomic status). The hypothesis was proved false. The interpretation of the analysis also involves comparing the descriptive analysis. thereby. The spatial distribution of households is still characterized by traditional Indian values of ethnic segregation. be explained using the theories of urban social patterns. The interpretation of the descriptive analysis shows that the distribution of most of the variables is not uniform. Control is maximum when the government owns all the houses. Even in the houses built by the government resale has taken place.

1979. Leicester: Leicester University Press. A Pattern Language: Towns. et. 1996. Banerjee-Guha. Indian Cities: characteristics and correlates. et. New York: Oxford University Press. Bombay: Tata McGraw Hill. G. Becker. Socialism. C. Gupta. 1989. M. Chicago: University of Chicago.. Vol. Construction. India’s Urbanization 1901-2001. Angotti. Banerjee. S. Berreman. al. The role of town-plan analysis in the study of the medieval Irish town in Slater. Banerjee-Guha. G. Ahmad. D. and Mills. A. 1987. C. BMRPB. 1990: 39-59. 1992. A. Metropolis 2000. Chicago: University of Chicago. 1965: 115-129. Q. D. New York: Harper & Row. Barnett. The Timeless Way of Building. S. Buildings. No. S. 1984. T. 1974. E. J. Bougle. Beyond the Neighborhood Unit: Residential Environments and Public Policy. Bogue. Williamson. C.Bibliography Alexander. Bombay: Government Press. Individualism and Indian Civilization. “The Modern City” in The Elusive City: five Centuries of Design. ed. 1992: 64-73. New York: Plenum Press. Bombay: Metaphor for Modern India. Bradley. T. C. R. The Basic writings of Ernest W. and Baer. D. and Thorner. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology. The Built Form of Western Cities. T. XIV. The Contemporary Scenario. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Architecture + Design. Bombay: Oxford University Press. Ambition and Miscalculation. 21. S. J. Delhi: Oxford University Press. al. 1978. ed. A. C. Bose. 1965. 1973. Alexander. W. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. Burgess. 1993. 77 . "Urban Development Process in Bombay: Planning for Whom?" In Patel. J. "The Essence and Reality of the Caste System" in Social Stratification. 2. eds. J. 1986. New York: Oxford University Press. India’s Social Crisis: An Essay on Capitalism. London: Routledge. Bose. "The Study of Caste Ranking in India". Regional Plan for Bombay Metropolitan Region 1970-1992. ed. Indian Urbanization and Economic Growth since 1960.

Architecture + Design.. Drew. Le Corbusier as I Knew Him in The Open Hand: Essays on Le Corbusier. New Delhi: Sage Publications.. 1971: 59-70. J. Belapur: CIDCO. 1971. 78 . 1992. ed. 1985. London: Cambridge University Press. Browder. Washington D. Comhaire.Brass. J. Cozen. P. M. F. Language Conflict and National Development: Group Politics and national Language Policy in India. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Cherunilam. “Evolution of the Concept”. 2. Dandekar. J. V. Das Gupta. Drakakis-Smith. Berkeley: University of California Press. XIV.: APA Press. The Third World City. The New Landscape: Urbanization in the Third World. 1973. The Draft Development Plan. Analytical Urban Geography: Spatial Patterns and Theories. Development Planning and Structural Inequalities. C. 1990. eds. Madison. 1997. No. B. and Globalization of the Brazilian Amazon. 1984. Mar-Apr. R. R. Leicester: Leicester University Press. Language. 1970. How Cities Grew: The Historical Sociology of Cities. New York: Columbia University Press. The Political Sociology of Cityward Migration in Latin America: Towards an Empirical Theory in Abu-Lughod. 1987. Bombay: Government Press. 1988. Third World Urbanization. Belapur: CIDCO. T. Urbanization in Developing Countries: A Socioeconomic and Demographic Analysis. 1990: 142-170. W. 1995. Twenty Years of Development. CIDCO. J. Religion and Politics in North India. D'Souza. A. Sustainable Urban Development: Case Study of New Bombay. Correa. J. P. C. D. N. CIDCO. Cornelius. and Cahnman.. H. W. 1977. London: Methuen. 1989. Cadwallader. Rainforest Cities: Urbanization. 1974. J. Correa. Development. The Planner’s Use of Information. 1997. J. J. CIDCO. Vol. C. Chicago: Maaroufa Press Inc. Bombay: Himalaya Publishing House.: The Florham Park Press Inc. and Godfrey. C. Cambridge: MIT Press. The Built Form of Western Cities. O. M. and Hay. R. Town-plan analysis in an American setting: cadastral processes in Boston and Omaha in Slater.

Gupta. Gandhi's Social Philosophy. 1970. Gugler. Gadgil Planning Committee. S. 1973. Hall. 79 . Fry. D. “Social Inequality and Social Stratification in India” in determinants of Social Status in India” ed. 1978.. 1980. Martin’s Press. Bombay: Oxford University Press. Language in Social Groups. V. Ltd. Berkeley: Center for Environmental Design Research. The Urbanization of the Third World. Master Plan for New Bombay. Engel. 1986: 44-62. 1992. Dwyer. Press. Bombay: The Cities Within. M. J. 1996. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. The City in the Third World. Modernity in the Traditional Contemporary Environment. Ganguli. Bombay: Government Press. B. A Spatial Analysis of Urban Community Development Policy in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. N. "Continuous Hierarchies and Discrete Castes" in Social Stratification. 1995. J. Gupta. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Report of the Committee appointed for Bombay-Panvel and Poona regions. Cities and Planning: The Case of Bombay. J. R. New Delhi: Vikas Publications. Fainstein. Malik. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1965. Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study. Stanford: Stanford University campus. and Campbell. P. C. 1977. Cambridge: MIT Press. S. 1992a: 110-143. “Building New Bombay: The Future of the Indian Metropolis” in Identity. S. Government of Maharashtra.: Blackwell Publishers. D. 1966. D. ed. Dwivedi. Cambridge. S and Mehrotra. D. Le Corbusier at Chandigarh in The Open Hand: Essays on Le Corbusier. D. Gupta. Harris. New York: Oxford University Press. Hagget. L "Hierarchy. ed. Economic Development. 1971. J. Delhi: Oxford University Press. eds. 1992b: 1-23. 1988. Gupta. Gumperz. Dumont. Readings in Urban Theory. N. Locational Analysis in Human Geography. P. Bombay: Govt. Gupta. ed. Status and Power: The Caste System and its Implications" in Social Stratification. Bombay: India Book House Pvt. Mass. "Hierarchy and Difference" in Social Stratification. D. New York: St. 1992: 471-492.D’Souza. 1974. D. ed.

1993. Charles Correa. J. Urbanization: An Introduction to Urban Geography. Cities. Urban Development in the Third World. Hough.. K. 1985. P. J. The Structure and Growth of Residential Neighborhoods in American Cities. P. D. L. R. Karachi: Oxford University Press. M. D. 23.: Federal Housing Administration. 1977. W. Geography: The Study of Location. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 1992. New Haven: Yale University Press. L. T. 1939. P. 1971. D. Cities in Space: Cities in Place. Ghosh. M. Herbert. V. R. V. 1961. Maryland: Barnes & Noble. Herbert. Urban Social Geography: An Introduction. Jacobs. Jain. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications. Jakobsen. U. 1969. Urbanization and National Development. L. and Prakash. Foreword in Living Architecture: Indian. Emerging Trends of Urbanization in India. 1994. Culture and Environment. 1990. Columbia: South Asia Books. L. 1990. Knox. England: Longman. 1974. King. Hodson. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. Khan. H. D. Muslims and Indian Nationalism. H. The Great Divide: Britain-India-Pakistan. J. Nehru and the Politics of India. 1997. Hoyt. H. 1957: 70-75.Hartshorn. J. 1979. J. A. vol. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York: Concept Media Pvt. King. New York: Praeger Publishers. New Delhi: Government of India. Kolars. Knox. J. Kaura. G. eds. 1995. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 1984. Space and Behavior: The Elements of Urban Geography. C. 80 . The Pattern of Indian Towns: A Study in Urban Morphology. P. and Won Bae Kun. D. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Karan. Ltd. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Henn. and Thomas. T. Journal of American Institute of Planners. and Golledge. Interpreting the City: An Urban Geography. C. New York: Random House. M. F and Nystuen. Out of Place: Restoring Identity to the Regional Landscape. Washington.

Two Worlds. No. 1986. 1986. Delhi: Oxford University Press.Kopardekara. Koter. 1990: 109-141. "Multiple Reference in Indian Caste Systems" in Social Stratification. and Becker. H. Poland 18251973 in Slater. R. 1978. T. M. The Development Plan for Greater Bombay: A Case Study of Urban Planning and Development vis-a-vis the Environment. Resource Conserving Urbanism in South Asia: The Development of Greater Bombay.Lodz. From New Bombay to Navi Mumbai. Berkeley: University of California. E. VIII. The Master Plan. London: G. T. The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meaning through History. 1991. Vol. Misra. Bombay 1961. The morphological evolution of a nineteenth century city centre. Architecture + Design. McGee. 1967. 1986. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. M. 1971. ed. 1984. The Urbanization Process in the Third World. Mehrotra. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Cambridge: University Press. The Built Form of Western Cities. P. No. 1972. Meier. E. Mehrotra. XIV. G. M. Lowder. R. D. Inside Third World Cities. McGee. Mar-Apr 1997.. S. D. 1978. ed. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International. S. Nov-Dec.. R. 1.. 2. New York: Oxford University Press. Brown and Company. New Delhi: NIUA. Lozano. Studies in Indian Urban Development. Praeger Inc. One Place. New York: Frederick A. Marriott. Le Corbusier. 81 . Leicester: Leicester University Press. S. 18801980. National Institute of Urban Affairs. Architecture + Design. Million Cities of India. 15. T. Vol. Boston: Little. Social Aspects of Urban development: A Case Study of the Pattern of Urban Development in Developing Countries. 6. Kosambi. Gupta. M. C. 1990. Kostof. Community Design and the Culture of Cities. Publishers. Marg vol. The Southeast Asian City. no. R. London: Croom Helm. Bombay: Popular Prakashan. R. 1992: 49-60. 1991. G. Mills. Bell and Sons Ltd. 1986. Bombay in Transition: The Growth and Social Ecology of a Colonial City.

UWIST. 1955. ed. Patel. Los Angeles: University of California Press. W. R. Alejandro. Delhi: Oxford University Press. S. MD Publications. Vol. T. 1985. Colonialism and the Spatial Structure of Underdevelopment: Outline of an Alternative Approach. 1990: 60-82. M. D. Singh. S. Social Area Analysis. M. Architecture + Design. Leicester: Leicester University Press. Ramachandran. Mar-Apr 1997: 38-44. Architecture + Design. eds. M and Franklin. R. 1975. New York: St. Shelter. and Thorner. Martin’s Press. 2. E and Williams. 1949. ed.. Urban Social Segregation. E. New York: Committee on Regional Plan of New York and its environs. Third World Urbanization. Urban Latin America: The Political Condition from Above and Below in AbuLughod. Third World Urbanization. Peach. “The Birth of a New City”. G.. Vol. Form and Culture. Neighborhood and Community Planning. Shevky. Slater. The Form of Cities. Urbanization and Urban Systems in India. Chandigarh as a Place to Live in The Open Hand: Essays on Le Corbusier. Rapoport. 1996. Sarin. English medieval new towns with composite plans: evidence from the Midlands in Slater. I. Portes. Chicago: Maaroufa Press Inc. R. Romaya. The Built Form of Western Cities. T. D. R. and Bell. 1989. J. 1969. B. eds. “The thirty-year Journey”. Chicago: Maaroufa Press Inc. Clarence. with special reference to Tanzania in Abu-Lughod. ed. 1979. The Social Areas of Los Angeles. XIV. Shevky. 82 . New Delhi. Scargill. Mar-Apr 1997: 120124. Slater. eds. S. D. Perry. A. 2. J. No. Patel. House. XIV. C.. Singh. Cambridge: MIT Press. Services and the Urban Poor. G. S. A. H. Stanford: Stanford University Press. R. and Hay. Spatial Characteristics of Urban Settlements in a part of India in Emerging frontiers of Urban Settlement Geography. 1971: 59-70. B. and Hay. S. 1929.Parab. New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. Bombay: Mosaic of Modern Culture. Cardiff: Department of Town Planning. 1971: 59-70. Bombay: Oxford University Press. 1995: 27-34. 1977. No. London: Longman.

M. Volwahsen. City of Gold: The Biography of Bombay. Living Architecture: Indian. 1969. 1990. A. 1971. G. N. 1986. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. J. "Mobility in a Caste System" in Social Stratification. UNCHS. Trancik. Srinivas. 1992. D. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1992a: 312-326. Cambridge: University Press. N.Srinivas. Nairobi: UNCHS. E. Spatial Decentralization: A Case Study of New Bombay and Cairo. Gupta. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. The Continuing City: Urban Morphology in Western Civilization. "Varna and Caste" in Social Stratification. 1992. 1992b: 28-35. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. ed. M. The Urban Mosaic: Towards a Theory of Residential Differentiation. D. Vance. 83 . Gupta. Tindall. Finding Lost Space. Timms. New Delhi: Penguin Books India Ltd. Delhi: Oxford University Press.. D. R. ed.

Glossary of Terms Term Cuadra Jali Masjid Padas Panchayati Pucca Purdahs Purushasukta Rashtrabasha Swadeshi Swatantrya Swavalambhan Vastupurusha mandala Vastushastra Meaning Spanish measurement Carved screens Mosque Subdivisions of the cosmic universe Self-government Durable Enclosure Hindu treatise Language of the State Fullest utilization of local resources Self-motivation and self-help Self-reliance Terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe Science of architecture and planning .

The Bombay Metropolitan regional Plan was approved by the State government. R. State government notified privately owned land in Navi Mumbai for acquisition. Bombay Metropolitan and Regional Planning Board was constituted. . Gadgil was appointed to formulate broad principles of regional planning for Bombay and Poona. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act 1966 was passed. The Board published the Draft Plan with recommendations to set up a twin city. Bombay Municipal Corporation decided to prepare a development plan for Greater Bombay. Development plan for greater Bombay was submitted to the State Government. CIDCO was formed. D. The Gadgil Committee recommended regional planning legislation and regional planning boards. Barve. G. CIDCO published its Draft Development Plan. A Committee under Dr. CIDCO was designated as New Town Development Authority for Navi Mumbai. S.Appendix A March 1958 July 1958 February 1959 July 1964 March 1965 March 1966 January 1967 July 1967 January 1970 February 1970 March 1970 March 1971 August 1973 October 1973 Study group on Greater Bombay set up under the chairmanship of Mr. The study group on Greater Bombay recommended a rail-cum-road bridge across the Thane creek.

the man of the mechanical civilization could: cross continents: V1 arrive in town: V1 go to essential public services: V2 cross at full speed. without interruption.Appendix B The 7Vs (les sept voies) The 7V Rule was studied in 1950 at the UNESCO’s request (Le Corbusier. . 1961). the territory of the town: V3 dispose of immediate accesses to daily needs: V4 reach the door of his dwelling: V5 and V6 send youths to the green areas of each sector. One discovered that with 7 types of roads. where schools and sports grounds are located: V7.

76 2.28 21.92 9 73.38 38.Appendix C Number of earning members Sector 1 2 3 no.57 15 72.89 5.33 6.39 2.85 3.08 5.01 25.52 18.26 4.16 1.22 26.01 6 65.48 7 62.54 0.17 8.72 2.03 1.43 9.23 21.68 16.42 5.83 17 61.13 6.77 21 63.08 8 52.15 9.57 23.52 1.25 .44 2.59 27.58 20.60 24.06 5.83 0.04 26.09 8.71 11.63 2.81 1.62 mean 66.09 16 65.64 5 46.41 6.86 0.57 8.22 std dev 9.58 9.31 3.89 4.99 3 68.42 2.28 3.07 30.81 7.43 2.81 4 70.26 23.19 19.16 10A 50.00 0.89 2.16 30.48 2.43 12 65.79 40.00 35.73 0.23 20 69.26 2 57.86 28 52.29 22.40 6.51 26 77.49 3.76 1.15 5.69 29.35 7.76 9A 74.70 14 77.38 3.67 28.77 10 74.31 20.25 11.10 0.29 4.79 4 1.00 29 82. 1 64.64 3.64 3.37 11.60 16A 71.00 0.96 27.

7500.47 15.46 17.18 25.94 4 0.00 0.42 .07 18.26 1.76 23.51 24.53 1.53 1.10 23.57 25.00 17.78 10A 0.21 stddev 3.92 30.00 16.14 25.49 22.45 12.82 36.63 4.61 16.84 18.70 3.15 8.16 12.18 10.00 10.00 2.00 35.56 7.09 2.63 40.97 28.90 14.49 3.73 47.47 12.2651.10001.29 8.96 33.71 34.45 6.14 10.09 39.62 7.19 20 6.26 16A 0.99 23.74 5 2.00 0.36 26.00 0.79 18.97 9 2.77 22.58 0.70 17.00 24.11 1.07 13.45 5.00 25.75 6 2.15000+ no.125 2650 4450 7500 10000 15000 0 1 3.90 2 1.80 5.19 16.65 0.86 21.59 2.97 7.55 30.97 0.74 28.77 26.48 39.00 29 0.4451.04 4.47 28.15 1.20 3.51 5.90 11.52 11.92 3.00 4.36 36.78 17.48 27.00 4.11 24.15 16 1.64 6.02 4.39 34.76 0.41 8.75 26.10 27.39 20.38 7.57 1.22 3.18 6.07 0.10 15.45 38.45 mean 2.00 28 0.41 37.46 21.72 0.23 10 1.94 37.27 7.48 6.59 9.Household Income Sector upto 1251.86 10.26 12.39 4.18 15 0.28 18.49 23.39 31.87 0.47 0.48 0.00 35.35 14 0.17 22.82 2.66 9.15 15.68 34.28 4.08 32.16 24.77 14.89 45.62 3 1.33 11.09 13.00 10.06 9A 1.38 10.30 7 11.52 4.46 8.67 7. Rs.02 7.00 20.92 21.07 35.37 11.41 12.89 37.55 42.47 26 0.40 8.00 21 2.49 4.90 24.88 17 0.59 18.13 3.87 30.76 8 0.81 16.77 12 13.35 8.20 4.72 44.15 9.

63 20 19.11 2.18 27.97 1.12 0.64 0.47 28.65 0.52 1.54 33.74 2.71 3.06 4.72 30.54 25.44 37.60 9.59 3.35 10.07 8.03 9.50 14.98 7.97 9.64 0.52 31.81 5.69 26.91 5.89 20.91 32.94 4.18 3.95 8.41 14.82 30.45 0.48 5 3.27 47.45 6.32 3.24 44.79 3.25 28 0.82 15.24 0.60 6 2.45 7.40 1.Highest Level of Education Sector illiterat childre primar second high vo-tech BS MS PhD no.91 17.24 10.18 7.38 3.01 45.28 11.65 1.46 5.92 2.88 9.21 3.08 0.87 15 4.50 20.37 .25 11.87 5.94 3.95 2.75 27.59 29.07 1.92 5.44 1.18 21.95 9.11 12.89 6.95 13.28 10.43 22.47 2.06 8.23 3.03 50.34 16.90 12.81 4.55 2.58 2.19 0.03 44.42 23.19 4.48 16A 2.16 2.90 22.71 34.68 12.64 4.09 11.47 8.31 10 3.15 2 3. e n y ary school 1 3.51 7.29 1.00 5.80 9 3.75 4.81 14.81 5.78 5.63 1.91 17 1.40 0.01 0.26 1.85 5.26 48.64 2.06 2.81 42.64 4.01 15.38 37.68 4 1.34 16 3.00 5.68 5.28 7.83 2.44 7 1.00 29 1.02 4.94 43.09 46.37 2.77 2.24 8.97 0.61 2.13 51.44 2.67 4.38 8.49 16.03 34.71 7.25 2.15 3.06 1.69 31.65 4.55 3.55 9.39 35.23 3.43 4.45 11.74 40.60 17.90 32.27 10.03 4.15 1.41 0.58 9.32 5.11 34.14 0.26 9A 1.08 13.72 9.63 4.61 9.71 9.82 1.09 5.07 9.48 0.73 3.85 34.87 9.27 12.01 11.81 0.12 1.35 10A 1.43 2.14 0.05 0.98 31.98 29.42 2.30 59.80 12 0.24 4.73 2.30 0.64 0.81 19.73 2.41 8 4.06 2.92 3 2.14 7.30 1.00 mean 3.00 14 2.96 3.50 11.68 4.57 12.54 2.15 13.80 17.80 2.94 7.35 2.00 26 3.12 stddev 4.92 36.68 1.38 4.00 21 13.05 2.

66 6.87 4.46 2.00 21 4.40 20.35 16 3.52 2.78 29.87 9.82 10.91 5.65 46.48 12.89 11.59 7.98 8.36 16.11 16.82 16.65 7.77 5.90 .56 8.60 6.23 2.29 6.Male Population Sector below 4.34 20.57 20.21 9.51 2.89 12.54 4.55 35.30 5.04 7.80 3.39 5.04 4.44 15.02 3.88 28 5.58 16.02 3.78 6.57 27.83 12.24 6.66 1.32 9.68 10 5.20 12.71 18.93 13.87 7.88 17.35 3.17 20 8.81 2.04 4.84 19.63 3.74 16. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 4.84 8.12 8.75 12.03 31.87 3.74 4.68 7.25 6.20 14.42 10.93 10.40 7 2.26 2.13 3.86 10.97 5.40 34.38 17.77 34.42 11.96 8.79 33.10 2.19 6.38 11.11 6.76 13.82 16.69 11.12 14 5.70 3.36 32.25 3.90 11.60 23.47 13.60 4.12 36.14 5.61 4.74 17.60 12.29 3.12 2.66 8.80 30.08 12.02 17.02 5.51 15.15 7.56 3.54 3.90 10A 2.62 8.80 1.91 14.76 12.59 4.67 12.60 8 3.43 4.95 2.60 4.87 8.12 3.67 3.19 11.59 5.52 9.93 28.59 4.94 21.89 29 4.32 13.59 5.35 3.43 9.41 16A 3.48 17.00 8.28 31.26 9.18 30.83 34.04 10.56 14.14 4.25 10.38 12.69 6 2.35 29.40 4.24 5 2.00 8.42 6.16 31.34 3.86 3 4.82 29.49 19.97 5.12 2.05 2.22 4.44 2.84 17 3.84 12.40 stddev 1.97 37.85 16.02 1.57 10.71 9A 4.77 15 3.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.60 13.35 26 6.98 1.93 2.67 12.32 2.42 14.59 12 6.29 2.45 14.07 6.91 2.26 3.96 4.46 42.99 1.18 33.39 4.00 27.37 8.73 14.48 15.32 37.29 6.34 3.97 35.27 3.80 4.41 1.89 21.65 5.43 7.62 0.57 mean 4.45 8.81 2 4.46 4.99 11.87 5.52 15.73 9 5.12 7.01 10.56 4 3.78 3.20 11.73 9.24 12.

55 12.39 13.01 10A 6.32 3.07 7 2.96 11.32 15.33 3.57 1.43 4.18 52.06 2.09 2.77 3.32 1.00 3.88 2 4.31 3.64 6.55 9 5.95 10.48 mean 4.93 3.03 6.60 7.34 4.43 12.57 3.68 3.97 21 5.76 9.77 6 3.18 22.51 10.00 5.71 5.14 26 7.87 17.35 38.52 6.74 41.14 6.45 15.35 3.31 12.98 10 5. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 3.13 5.07 6.13 14.71 38.22 39.00 5.93 11.42 12.15 3.07 6.84 34.39 13.06 28 2.25 9.39 11.07 10.17 37.86 6.81 11.82 10.61 10.56 47.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.68 12.87 8.35 2.29 17.39 11.57 3.01 10.99 3.00 13.29 9.22 13.78 11.09 16A 4.80 5.62 3.91 10.98 3.15 6.96 3.19 5.14 20.43 13.11 11.06 3.43 4.27 7.28 5.46 8 4.80 2.06 15.11 2.14 7.77 9A 3.32 12.13 16 4.48 1.23 4.87 7.06 5.58 42.66 2.66 4.03 20 8.21 32.82 5.32 12.86 40.39 3.77 17 4.57 13.87 2.14 4.83 5.86 7.20 5.85 9.17 4.29 6.35 3.82 2.88 16.99 11.56 5.72 10.08 5.89 4.29 4 3.09 1.46 1.65 12.41 4.98 9.22 40.29 12.01 9.16 37.28 stddev 1.64 6.13 38.25 16.76 33.90 9.71 8.80 5 4.50 1.38 3.14 32.06 45.90 38.53 7.49 6.44 5.86 12.04 10.83 5.58 15 4.82 9.31 5.72 10.29 4.35 3.09 2.97 14.60 4.72 38.16 3 4.22 14.89 2.29 12.11 11.84 3.78 5.29 5.07 12.40 2.Female Population Sector below 4.63 9.54 39.35 5.22 7.83 .15 13.94 8.83 4.49 16.74 36.55 7.27 41.78 2.79 6.96 10.46 18.55 4.72 2.06 0.03 14 4.96 7.71 12 6.58 19.40 11.08 2.44 4.60 11.36 9.21 14.57 0.78 29 2.88 6.30 33.35 1.45 17.59 8.66 17.92 4.71 6.09 1.79 34.86 7.

50 7.51 30.86 1.64 19.00 29 1.87 52.00 14 1.95 1.03 5 0.19 55.64 1.23 46.53 .14 14.67 0.46 2.82 12.58 1.24 16A 0.71 24.02 2.86 11.93 16 0.15 20 0.00 15.14 2.29 0.43 34.23 28.00 1.29 50.30 44.97 19.93 32.30 61.68 0.40 9.05 66.11 1.46 54.99 26 2.64 10.43 44.26 8.72 15.33 41.14 4 0.88 36.92 55.68 0.90 4.95 1.85 66.00 58.52 62.23 12.56 50.38 14.00 mean 1.47 20.28 21 0.23 0.17 54.73 20.91 11.82 9.99 0.55 23.30 9A 1.35 13.98 2.90 17 1.45 62.83 14. 1 2.45 1.86 12 0.36 0.57 57.41 63.18 2.92 12.00 28 0.48 9 1.16 44.07 12.67 14.34 2.21 54.00 0.29 54.53 6.Family Size Sector single 2 to 3 4 to 5 6 to 7 8 to 10 no.71 14.83 22.18 26.40 7 0.79 33.37 54.49 5.66 22.57 11.99 8 0.63 15.51 59.16 9.67 47.19 20.88 10 0.57 19.04 20.82 6 3.09 1.29 7.56 25.95 10A 1.00 19.92 1.23 36.87 2 1.07 28.82 51.46 15 1.49 64.05 stddev 0.19 3 1.00 26.

00 0.68 2.13 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.36 0.82 0.81 76.68 0.75 stddev 37.14 0.61 13.00 92.00 0.40 1.31 20 100.51 0.00 38.00 0.00 0.62 0.82 7.00 14 53.97 0.35 39.15 17.86 0.62 0.00 1.00 0.00 97.83 35.46 9 98.87 20.00 10 83.00 12 17.00 16 83.00 16A 7.18 0.72 0.67 0.47 0.58 8.30 0.00 0.00 0.19 0.38 0.00 0.17 2.81 0.00 23.91 76.58 .Pvt Other no.12 23.12 3.84 36.96 0. Pvt co.00 0.80 0.86 0.00 10A 2.00 0.00 29 42.23 26 100.00 6 92.00 0.00 7 89.15 85.00 0.39 4.00 16.00 0.01 1.13 39.21 6.00 0.25 62.40 6. House op comme society rcial 1 100.02 5 22.13 28.13 2.77 0.00 5.60 19.00 0.74 13.00 53.00 21 99.18 0.Type of Housing Sector CIDCO Pvt.02 mean 53.00 0.00 15 82.90 0.00 0.52 0.00 0.00 92.00 0.96 12.10 0.00 4 45.78 12.00 17 0.00 0.07 3.21 46.00 28 0.73 0.00 8 35.00 0.00 2 48.19 3 61.56 0.00 0.00 0.12 0.82 0.16 4.00 2.77 0.07 0.38 9A 2.00 0.

30 6.33 6.74 4.17 6.30 6.83 8.62 4.05 6.86 4.19 8.64 27.16 7.38 56.00 4.52 12.38 37.57 stddev 18.11 15.08 93 3.03 10.00 0.21 0.85 4.56 6.87 1.00 0.87 0.86 33.92 2.88 0.87 1.23 22.57 14.29 41.42 0.00 0.32 6.39 14.00 31.56 16.85 5.64 15 8.29 12 0.60 1.10 40.86 mean 12.65 17.00 35.91 6.40 95 1.00 29 0.49 12.53 20.27 1.37 7.87 10 0.31 16.86 7 42.17 12.54 24. 980 1 43.57 18.22 52.66 0.06 13.24 3.00 0.00 31.57 12.49 32.60 94 13.42 12.82 12.15 .82 8.82 24.83 26.59 38.65 31.54 6.00 48.74 6.52 7.11 17 0.92 11.16 9.50 16.61 12.50 12.93 10.73 4.38 10A 0.36 21.71 2 39.05 20.00 0.73 6.35 5.07 8.94 12.63 3.88 4.61 6.00 0.95 3 11.56 4.00 20.06 1.43 20.00 0.26 7.28 26 0.82 5.62 6.19 5.82 4.00 13.82 48.35 28.66 14.Tenure Sector before1 81-85 86-90 91-92 no.16 5.50 12.67 36.45 6.02 17.33 18.18 31.00 28 0.68 20 0.75 7.95 8 24.94 4.95 5.82 5.87 7.82 2.14 1.61 18.09 16 27.46 36.60 7.99 12.71 11.00 47.09 25.38 15.76 5 49.13 11.13 11.52 1.03 75.72 3.00 6.44 48.56 9 0.88 3.61 6 51.15 18.09 29.64 10.17 14 0.63 1.49 21 13.33 9A 0.19 9.42 7.34 13.87 6.26 28.81 6.02 44.43 32.56 16A 0.80 39.07 4 5.00 0.

67 8.37 10.00 38.88 1.83 8.42 4.79 0.93 8.31 5.15 2.82 6.07 5.00 19.45 0.17 25.83 2.25 4.71 5.48 20.69 5.94 28.30 34.76 3.33 0.17 5.00 30.95 12.33 0.46 0.33 4.26 19.81 0.00 32.09 5.35 15.67 3.35 21.20 8.63 5.00 20.92 7.71 20.54 3.50 27.00 30.54 8.20 6.47 36.61 12.02 9.98 0.03 15.48 17.43 17.69 4.09 27.23 12.62 0.24 5.40 8.52 2.90 2.00 0.52 1.67 7.02 22.26 2.64 2.76 11.39 0.33 7.57 1.00 1.24 23.30 2.39 4.69 35.55 8.05 19.73 25.00 28.26 0.63 15.19 17. city suburbs suburbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10A 12 14 15 16 16A 17 20 21 26 28 29 9A mean stddev 21.48 15.51 6.38 2.60 0.87 3.64 0.26 3.29 0.57 28.90 10.53 2.14 6.83 3.00 24.67 25.77 6.33 0.94 5.30 4.83 18.45 2.36 4.24 1.45 3.10 16.68 3.32 8.15 2.05 30.03 6.26 23.45 21.07 3.42 3.13 26.67 2.92 4.64 7.26 12.74 36.17 5.60 4.80 4.84 2.09 0.25 31.10 17.50 6.99 7.00 2.00 0.05 18.00 45.53 2.00 1.33 8.88 2.58 14.52 22.00 0.29 8.44 5.00 0.30 14.80 37.25 12.23 3.96 18.08 0.42 26.91 2.00 31.73 4.03 24.63 0.19 27.12 7.03 1.77 2.46 1.90 7.15 0.33 4.60 2.85 33.30 0.63 2.00 23.00 21.14 0.58 2.93 3.31 0.81 4.54 1.58 0.02 47.00 4.00 0.88 12.82 3.42 8.00 33.23 18.74 28.29 .37 1.47 6.32 27.62 29.26 7.62 4.58 0.85 47.00 26.17 8.24 7.00 4.51 7.38 5.Previous Place of Residence Sector Island Wn En Thane Vashi no.33 8.69 2.62 0.54 5.39 2.76 0.10 4.27 0.01 Navi Inside Out of Intl.95 9.10 16.98 3.58 9.00 6.76 3.74 31.53 0. Mumba state state i 24.51 10.29 20.55 3.00 39.

46 5.79 12.08 4.00 9.97 3.77 8.58 2.43 24.92 1.74 4.87 12.71 12 8.47 2.50 10.90 3.90 2 44.54 21 61.30 4.86 4.22 3.99 16.54 7.29 2.83 7.29 29 25.73 2.86 8.29 .82 4.76 12.66 10.27 7.03 9.73 2.33 29.70 8.00 7.83 14 19.00 12.75 14.00 6.32 9A 20.55 3.75 4.85 1.14 1.62 1.37 4.57 17.98 3.21 0.59 1.49 4.82 3.64 3.49 9.17 20.00 4.64 10.39 4.29 2.85 5.67 15 57.76 3.81 5.53 9.49 10.63 1.17 9.22 2.10 4.56 8 22.85 0.27 5.26 3.76 14.09 6.87 17.03 16.57 4 46.62 7.76 5.29 15.63 2.98 4.03 17.23 9.36 6.90 26 48.54 27.28 24.30 9.17 16.09 15.33 6.93 1.33 13.93 4.00 11.36 11.46 17.18 10.61 14.71 1.45 2.67 0.90 17.34 4.09 8.10 5.54 1.55 32.34 12.Language Sector Marath Hindi Gujarat Malaya Punjabi Tamil Kannad Bengali Other no.43 4.91 6 33.91 2.89 4.97 4.44 7.77 3.32 17 21.29 2.20 4.52 0.15 16.13 4.95 4.61 5.97 10.54 4.15 18.29 3.72 5.57 20.90 3.43 16.03 2.57 1.84 12.00 0.81 4.27 2.23 2.93 9.55 8.24 7.92 3.70 10.36 10 44.98 6.71 1.56 5.17 16.12 2.27 0.71 8.00 1.05 9.57 14.31 3.89 3.57 15.66 10.85 5.21 21.32 1.32 7.00 0.10 2.05 2.73 stddev 17.29 0.76 4.52 19.96 2.32 2.79 16A 51.26 5 77.70 6.21 9 50.00 1.13 7 37.37 4.66 8.53 2.61 1.73 0.84 4.36 6.43 14.49 10A 24.00 12.63 16 54.19 3.38 14.26 13.40 2.92 14.47 2.60 2.51 3.30 1.48 mean 39.69 28 28.27 7.19 2.42 3 32.26 2.99 3.43 7.44 2.67 4.92 20 60.36 4.96 6.73 3.38 0.96 5.08 7.83 8.44 5.72 12.15 2.13 20. i hi lam a 1 51.00 4.

00 28 100.16 0.00 0.33 0.13 5.00 0.67 1.88 0.00 0.68 0.29 9.88 0.17 0.00 0.00 7.00 0.85 0.82 0.04 5.00 0.61 1.32 2.44 0.11 10 80.17 12.00 0.66 8 72.55 4.73 1.37 0.46 0.43 1.15 0.82 7.53 3.00 0.61 4.31 0.53 4.91 0.60 0.00 1.32 1.17 0.00 4.36 mean 82.09 0.00 12 79.01 6.41 0.95 0.42 0.00 15 83.00 26 86.00 1.09 6.47 0. an st 1 79.64 9 84.57 4.45 2.00 6.82 10.21 15.00 2.26 6.00 1.13 8.00 21 81.76 8.59 3 75.98 0.34 6.62 0.43 0.71 0.69 0.72 4.62 0.82 2.42 5.20 8.47 0.40 2.42 1.03 0.32 2 80.00 14 88.18 11.49 .70 0.85 7.51 0.81 9.60 1.24 0.00 16A 91.54 0.00 0.66 3.57 4 84.46 1.79 0.85 0.00 10A 72.00 5 81.51 2.86 22.52 3.68 0.52 0.92 1.26 5.53 1.92 7.16 15.86 1.00 0.04 6.17 2.20 10.21 0.20 0.56 3.40 0.76 5.25 stddev 6.43 1.75 5.60 8.10 0.45 2.23 0.68 1.55 1.13 0.00 6 83.02 0.00 0.65 9.93 8.00 7 76.88 0.Religion Sector Hindu Christi Islam Jain Sikh Buddhi Other no.42 0.74 1.75 0.02 0.73 1.00 29 86.36 1.22 0.80 3.19 5.70 2.00 9A 73.43 1.50 4.47 4.33 0.05 0.78 3.00 0.64 5.62 20 86.03 5.28 4.00 0.64 0.32 6.00 17 85.78 1.36 0.99 0.70 1.00 0.00 16 88.

862 6 8.571 55.356 95.Appendix D Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics EARNER EDUCATN FAM. .005 99.8538 81659 53.064E-02 .SIZE 1.660 98.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.946 24.1087 9.202 5 .7800 3.955 89.796 .875 FAM.985 INCOME 1.000 .8863 81659 28.0403 3.890 3 .6705 5.9885 16.845 4 .824 RELIGION 1. Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 4.8271 8. Deviation Analysis N 73.832 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.000 .000 .939 MIGRATN 1.446 55.429 5.928 LANGUAGE 1.2670 81659 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.851E-17 .2091 4.4115 81659 32.039E-02 1.133 100.6486 81659 86.293 3.000 .000 .320 79.000 .867 7 1.9974 81659 49.6076 81659 8.000 .0814 4.000 .7870 81659 37.SIZE INCOME LANGUAGE MIGRATN RELIGION TENURE Mean Std.571 2 1.000 8 5.879 TENURE 1.314E-16 100.926 EDUCATN 1.

728 89.118 22.796E-04 TENURE .379 -2. 3 .244 -.358 .804 .455 .SIZE -.925E-02 TENURE -.862 LANGUAGE .881 LANGUAGE -.771 67.818 % of Variance Cumulative % 43.383E-02 .236 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.101 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.898E-02 .317E-02 -8.347 23.468 1.888 -7.785 -7.107 INCOME -.900 FAM.634 4. 3 .937 -.264 .156 .201 .822 .SIZE .381 .902 -.484 EDUCATN .202 -1.230 RELIGION -.882 FAM.155 -.446 .347 43.136 .Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings 1 2 3 Total 3.470 EDUCATN -.845 Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER .902 1.880 .951 .230 MIGRATN -.766E-02 MIGRATN .278 .293 INCOME .702 -.685 8.468E-03 RELIGION .430 .926 .255 4.454E-02 Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER -.878 -.

108 Cluster Membership 1:Vashi 2:Nerul 3:Belapur 4:Kalamboli 5:Panvel 6:Kopar-khaira 7:Airoli 8:Sanpada 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 .0 0 .0 Squared Euclidean Distance used Average Linkage (Between Groups) Average Linkage (Between Groups) Agglomeration Schedule Stage Cluster 1 1 5 2 2 3 5 4 1 5 3 6 1 7 1 Cluster 2 6 7 8 2 4 5 3 Coefficients .581 2.174 4.299 10.Appendix E Cluster Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N 8 a b Missing Total Percent N Percent N Percent 100.919 9.617 7.0 8 100.946 4.

Deviation 7.9142 3.3839 RELGION2 6.722 RELGION2 1.7719 3.836 INCOME 1.5580 35.9114 MEN 38.0375 Std.7324 3.000 .000 .855 LANGUAG1 1.568 WOMEN 1. .721 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.000 .9759 OWNRSHIP 66.0484 MIGRATN 52.000 .000 .889 LANGUAG2 1.000 .6247 4.7307 3.527 MEN 1.Appendix F Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics Mean EARNER 66.9421 LANGUAG1 46.3934 9.5835 Analysis N 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.1339 10.000 .5535 LANGUAG2 6.000 .9768 15.856 EDUCATN 1.801 RELGION1 1.3183 EDUCATN 40.4424 RELGION1 82.8628 WOMEN 33.5760 INCOME 27.000 .571 OWNRSHIP 1.9628 7.000 .000 .675 MIGRATN 1.

500 4.880 -.581 4 .310 .777 -.843 34.917 2.803 8.096 .441 5 .098 2.740 15.748 .564 11 4.391 LANGUAG2 -.734 10 9.592 WOMEN .638 97.935 7 .522 -.698 6 .657 -2.359 3.257 87.612 .265 95.234 8.436 100. Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .523 81.938 8.239 MEN 0.466 4.427E-02 INCOME .750 2 2. .136E-02 .093E-03 MIGRATN -.896 98.042E-02 .475 RELGION2 .200 8 .917 Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total 1 3.290 2.854E-02 .246 .238 91.831 99.453 49.131 .688 6.937 34.915E-04 .838 9 9.463 72.565 OWNRSHIP .455 23.071E-02 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.794E-02 .001 24.001 25.819 72.473 .000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.937 2.448 .458 LANGUAG1 .773 -.127 -.816 -5.538 .690 3 1.424 RELGION1 .373 -.161 57.Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % of Variance Cumulative % 25.438 22.487 EDUCATN .

046 -.869 .366 .795 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.351 -.201 .596 -.113 RELGION1 -.231 -.110 -.524 .130 .742 -. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. .246 LANGUAG1 .575 5.333 .610E-02 LANGUAG2 -.399 WOMEN .774 EDUCATN .709 .804 MIGRATN 0.240 .Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER . a Rotation converged in 6 iterations.214 .877 -9.316 -.210 .704E-02 INCOME .647 9.136 OWNRSHIP .141E-02 MEN -.658 RELGION2 .855 .120 .

309 6.151 2.032 1.751 .584 .726 4.574 .411 1.653 .840 1.487 3.837 1.114 .Appendix G Cluster Agglomeration Schedule Cluster Combined Stage Cluster 1 Cluster 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2 9 1 12 9 15 3 12 1 13 9 3 1 8 1 1 3 12 12 1 1 1 6 10 2 17 14 18 7 16 4 22 20 23 15 11 9 19 8 21 13 3 12 5 Stage Cluster First Appears Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Next Stage 0 0 3 0 0 5 0 1 9 0 0 8 2 0 11 0 0 13 0 0 12 4 0 18 3 0 13 0 0 19 5 0 15 7 0 17 9 6 15 0 0 17 13 11 16 15 0 20 12 14 20 8 0 19 18 10 21 16 17 21 20 19 22 21 0 0 Coefficients .799 5.515 1.449 8.918 .142 13.108 2.052 11.558 4.904 2.

Cluster Membership Case 3 Clusters 1:1 1 2:2 1 3:3 1 4:4 1 5:5 2 6:6 1 7:7 1 8:8 1 9:9 1 10:10 1 11:10A 1 12:12 3 13:14 3 14:15 1 15:16 1 16:16A 3 17:17 3 18:20 1 19:21 1 20:26 1 21:28 3 22:29 3 23:9A 1 .

India Experience Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. College of Architecture and Urban Studies.May 1997 Worked as an Architect with Suyojan Architects. Dec. • Won first prize (three member team) for Formica Interior design competition.Outstanding First Year Graduate Student. Browder. • Won first prize (three member team) in a design competition .Reclaiming a derelict river. Aug. L. 1996 . Professor.July 1996 . 1995 Worked with the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage May 1993 . Knox. • Registered Architect under Council of Architecture. May 1997. April . Boulder. USA. Blacksburg. 1997 – May 1998 Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning. 1994.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Date of Birth: 30 June 1973 Education: Master of Urban and Regional Planning May 1998 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. O.Mar. . Pune.May 1994 Worked as an intern at Historic Boulder. Pune. • Rank holder of the University of Pune. New Delhi. India. Pune. • Awarded Virginia Citizens Planning Associate Fellowship .July 1992 Honors and Affiliations • Invited to Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society. India May . Virginia Tech. October 1997. • Student member American Planning Association. VA Bachelor of Architecture May 1996 University of Pune. J. 1995. India. Aug. Worked as an intern with Narendra Dengle Architects. 1994 . Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. P. CO.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful