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Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Urban and Regional Planning
John Browder, Chair Wendy Jacobson Paul Knox
April , 1998 Blacksburg, Virginia
Keywords: urban social pattern, Navi Mumbai, Bombay, urban planning - India Copyright 1998, Malathi Ananthakrishnan
The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India Malathi Ananthakrishnan (ABSTRACT) This research thesis examines the emerging trends in urban social patterns in Navi Mumbai, India. Unlike the other planned cities of India, Navi Mumbai was specifically built as a planned decentralization of a large metropolitan city. The research focuses on explaining the urban social pattern of this particular case study. An urban social pattern reflects the social characteristics of the urban setting. In the case of Navi Mumbai, the government had a social agenda of promoting a social pattern based on socioeconomic distribution rather than an ethnic one. Analysis of the data provides an insight to the results of this social agenda, and provides a basis to frame new ones. Thus, the study not only addresses a basic research question, but also has policy implications. The research involves a comprehensive review of secondary source material to establish the theoretical framework for the research. The review also involves an extensive inspection of urban social patterns across the world to better contextualize this particular case study. The research puts forth a model that explains the social pattern of Navi Mumbai by social area analysis using variables, which are drawn from social aspects of any city and indigenous factors of Indian settlements. The model depends not only on statistical analysis but also on interpretation of local conditions. This research situates the emerging social pattern in geographic literature in developing countries. This research was supported in part, by a grant from the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Tech.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank my Advisor and Chair of my committee, Dr. John Browder. He was supportive of all my efforts to successfully complete this thesis. It would not have been possible without his help. Thank you also to my committee members, Dr. Jacobson and Dr. Knox, for the time and effort they contributed.
Thanks also due to everyone in Navi Mumbai who helped me collect the data and all relevant information. Special thanks to Ms. Adusumilli, Senior planner, CIDCO, Mrs. Raje, Chief statistician, CIDCO, Dr. Venkatachalam and Dr. Sengupta at IIT-Bombay and Dr. BanerjeeGuha at the University of Bombay. I would also like to thank Prachi and Avesh Tapde for their hospitality in Navi Mumbai.
Dr. Dyck and Dr. Bohland clarified many of my conceptual and analytical queries. I would like to give my appreciation for their support. I would also like to thank Dr. Randolph and Dr. Schubert for having made a grant available for me to carry out the field research.
I am also grateful to my good friends Inga, Maneesha and Elda for not only helping me out with proof reading and other mundane things, but also for being there during the ups and downs of the entire process. I would like to thank my family for always encouraging me to think and my fiancé for his patience.
5 Implications of the Sociocultural factors 3.7. 20 3.5 Sociocultural Factors 3.4 Language 3.2 Hypothesis 4.5.3 Indian Cities 3.1 Caste 3. 3 2. 1.5 Methodology 4.5.10 Conclusion 3.2 Significance of Thesis 1.Table of Contents 1.3 Operationalization 4.5. The Research Setting………………………………………………………….8. Introduction………………………………………………………………….1 Introduction 2.3 Multiple Nuclei Theory 3.5.3 Religion 3.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region 2.1 Research Problem Statement 1.3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai 2.8 Case Study of Urban Social Patterns 3.7.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan 2.1 Western Cities 3.7.4 Data Collection 4. Research Design……………………………………………………………… 38 4.3 Factors influencing Urban Form 3.1 Social Area Analysis 4.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities 3.5.3 Organization of the Thesis 1 2.1 Introduction 3.2 Class 3. The Conceptual Framework………………………………………………….1 Descriptive Analysis 4.5.8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework 2.2 Cluster Analysis .8.6 The Built Form 3.5 Development Potential of the Site 2.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai 2.9 Conclusion 4.8.2 Third World Cities 3.5.2 Sector Theory 3.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern 3.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai 2.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns 3.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 2...1 Concentric Zone Theory 3.
3 Regional Scale – nodes 5.3 Discussion 5. Interpretation / Discussion…………………………………………………… 6.2 Sub-regional Scale 6.2 Cluster Analysis 5.3 Principal Component Analysis 4.5. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 74 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………..184.108.40.206 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory 6. Presentation of Data………………………………………………………….4.3.1 Principal Components Analysis 5.2 Descriptive Analysis 5.1 Introduction 5. Glossary of Terms Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G 77 .3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory 6. 5.4..4 mapping and Overlays 4.3 Summary 6.2.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory 6.3.6 Data Analysis 5.5 Conclusion 6.3.2 Cluster Analysis 5.3 Discussion 5.1 Regional Scale 220.127.116.11 Sub-regional Scale – sectors 5.1 Principal Components Analysis 5.4 Potential Utility of the Research 43 65 7.
3 5.12 5.15 5.6 4.10 5.19 5.11 5.14 5.16 5.6 5.2 2.1 4.9 5.18 5.1 2.4 5.7 5.2 5.2 5.List of Tables Table number 2.5 2.17 5.21 Title Population Density of Bombay Immigrant population of Bombay Land Fragmentation in 1970 Household Income and Capacity to Pay Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay Land Use of Navi Mumbai Constructs and Variables Survey Sampling Constructs and Variables Work Force Number of Earners Occupational Classification of Workforce Household Income Location of Education Institutions Level of Education Male Population Female Population Family Size Type of Housing Ownership of House Housing built by CIDCO Housing built by Private Enterprise Year of Occupation Previous Place of Residence Religion Language Spatial Pattern of Variables Attributes of Principal Components Attributes of Principal Components page 4 5 6 8 16 17 39 40 43 44 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 50 51 52 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 60 61 .1 5.13 5.3 2.5 5.8 5.20 5.4 2.
1 3.4 5.2 5.13 5.1 5.9 3.4 3.3 6.14 5.9 5. 2651-4450 Frequency of Families with at least one individual with Secondary Education Frequency of Male Population in the age group 25-45 Frequency of Households with 4 or 5 members Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO Frequency of Housing built by CIDCO Frequency of Houses built by Private Enterprise Frequency of Tenure Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence Frequency of Hindus Frequency of Muslims Frequency of Marathi Frequency of Malayalam Components in Rotated Space Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai Average Linkage between Factor Scores Average Linkage between Variables Clustering of Sectors of Vashi Average Linkage between Factor Scores Page 2 5 7 11 15 18 26 28 29 29 31 32 32 33 34 36 45 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 56 57 57 59 59 60 62 63 65 66 66 67 68 .7 3.List of Figure Figure Number 2.10 5.8 3.1 2.3 2.6 3.7 5.11 5.12 5.8 5.2 6.3 5.6 5.6 3.5 Title Expansion of Bombay Twin City Across the Harbor Development Potential of the Site Nodes of Navi Mumbai Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai Land Use of Navi Mumbai Circle and Swastika Town Plans Concentric Zone Theory Sector Theory Multiple Nuclei Theory Urban Social Patterns Plan of Delhi and New Delhi Asian Ports Latin American Cities Pattern of Indian Cities Theories of Urban Social Patterns and Corresponding Case Studies Distribution of Single-earner Families Frequency of Families with Income range Rs.2 3.19 6.2 2.10 5.1 6.18 5.5 3.5 5.16 5.17 5.3 3.4 2.5 2.4 6.15 5.
7 6.12 6.15 6.14 6.11 6.8 6.9 6.6 6.18 Average Linkage between Variables Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic variables Distribution of Number of Earners Distribution of Income Hypothetical Concentric Pattern for Family Status variables Distribution of Ownership of Apartment Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic variables Distribution of Households speaking Marathi Distribution of Households which follow Islam Clustering of Sectors Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 .13 6.10 6.16 6.17 6.6.
The purpose of this thesis is to delineate and interpret the social pattern of Navi Mumbai. These include the ethnic composition of the city. Socioeconomic factors. The urban form of a city is primarily the result of the characteristics of its physical and social design as well as socioeconomic and political forces. religious and linguistic classes.2 Significance of Research A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between their constituent elements at a certain period of time. This research aspires to contribute to basic research in social geography. 1. if any. exist in the urban social pattern of planned towns in India. housing characteristics. Different characteristics are drawn from the factors influencing the physical design and cultural aspect of the city. The basic research here involves the search for an urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. This research determines how the present social pattern relates to various theoretical frameworks. Thus. race. this paper will augment existing knowledge about social configurations of planned urban development in Asian regions. the study of human settlements has an encompassing view of all the activities it supports. land use and ownership. and their social pattern is characterized by residential segregation based on ethnic.1 Research Problem Statement The overall objective of this thesis is to determine what common patterns. planning regulations. and the housing market. street patterns. Therefore. Urban patterns occur because of repetition of these elements. Various processes influence the social pattern of the city. Why is such a study significant? The urban form of the city influences behavioral. Navi Mumbai (New Bombay) is one of the first planned new town developments built for a diverse. religion. economic and social processes within it (Vance. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. The literature review shows that a specific study of Navi Mumbai has not been previously documented. The pattern of Navi Mumbai will be studied at different hierarchical spatial levels: regional (node / township) and sub-regional (sector / neighborhood). 1990). An interpretation of the emerging social pattern reveals something of the social character of the city. Traditional Indian cities have evolved over the centuries.Chapter 1: Introduction 1. migration. The urban social pattern is one of the many aspects of the urban form. A policy emphasizing a uniform distribution of the population is the ideological orientation of the government. and political events may influence the physical design and pattern of a city. Physical and economic landscapes. middle class population in India. It is a synthesis of the spatial relationships of various elements. land use pattern and ethnic classifications will be used as key variables to study the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. The pattern suggests not only the outcome of .
its contextual framework. Chapter seven draws to conclusion the thesis with a review of the problem statement. This first chapter is the introduction. . The second chapter provides the background to the particular case study used in the research. Thus. The fourth chapter outlines the methodology used for analysis of data and explains the data source and method of data collection. the basic research has many applications in longrange planning in Navi Mumbai. The presentation of data and its analysis is in the fifth chapter. methodology.3 Organization of the Thesis This thesis is divided into seven chapters. analysis and interpretation and the broad outcomes of the thesis. Interpretation and discussion of the analysis and its relationship to the theories discussed in the third chapter is done in the sixth chapter. the research setting.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 1: Introduction 2 the policy. The third chapter is a comprehensive review of the secondary sources to establish a context of the research question. 1. but also variables that influence this pattern. The urban social pattern also serves as a framework for further research. which provides the problem statement and the broader objectives of the thesis.
This planned decentralization was the outcome of efforts by the government to make Bombay more “sustainable” (Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board. the East India Company had taken on the new role of ruler (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. Urbanization and subsequent suburbanization of Bombay have created a linear city such that the central business district (CBD) and residential areas have become further and further apart (Figure 2. Figure 2. is a new planned city across the harbor (of Bombay) from Bombay. the King of Portugal gifted the Bombay islands to King Charles II of England when King Charles married Catherine Braganza. By the 1780s. Bombay had its beginnings in a series of fishing villages until it was taken over by the Portuguese in the 16th century. especially to the middle and lower class of people. 1995.1 Introduction Navi Mumbai (New Bombay). the Crown rented Bombay to the East India Company. The East India Company encouraged Indian and East India Company merchants to settle in Bombay. In Bombay. In 1668. India. the shipyard modernized and the city fortified. established in 1972. There was a . Navi Mumbai was designed to provide a better quality of life.1 Expansion of Bombay The East India Company. textile mills and government offices have made it the preeminent port of Western India. Bombay was then established as a trading post. now as rulers. The first settlement was established in the southern most tip of the island.Chapter 2: The Research Setting 2. The harbor was strengthened. 1995). This range of activities led to crowding at an BOMBAY NAVI unprecedented scale. and providing efficient infrastructure (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. In 1661. South Bombay is the center of India’s 1950 banking and service industries.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region Bombay is not a city built on Indian traditional planning ideas. for Arabian MUMBAI Sea those who could not afford to make the 1910 long commutes. squatter settlements all over Bombay became the way of life. 1965 Bombay’s high concentration of docks. 1957 trading posts. The geographical area of Bombay is an island. a Portuguese princess. 1995). The city of Source: Dwivedi and Mehrotra. 2.1). was interested in developing the town in a methodical manner. 1973).
1973) Population increase. In 1865. Adequate water is a serious problem. 1995).1 Population Density of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Area in acres 14247 14281 14342 14575 15066 15480 16751 16720 Persons / Acre 54 56 54 67 78 75 165 184 (Various Census Reports for Bombay in Kosambi. Many parts of it are not even tolerably clean and healthy. In the 1960s. Commercial and residential areas were mixed because many merchants carried on business from home (Tindall. lack of housing and infrastructure and high land values were the major problems identified. This committee appointed the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board to develop the concept further (Gadgil Committee. Table 2. By the early 1900s. Greater Bombay came into existence only after the Bombay High Court Act of 1945. V. and 24 percent of the one and two room tenements were over crowded. In 1966.000 houses. which would encompass the Fort area as well as the suburbs of Bombay. 1995). in 1896. 1995). Transportation is threatening to break down…. Land use zoning and the concept of floor space index were incorporated for the first time. The Post-War development Committee of 1945 and the ’Master Plan in Outline’ prepared by Albert Mayer and N.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 4 strong development of mixed land use settlements. The development acts of 1954 and 1964 emphasized the need to relocate industrial activity from the island to the mainland (CIDCO. the Bombay Improvement Trust was created. Bombay’s infrastructure facilities were stretched to the limit. 1995). 1965). the suburbs and 42 villages within the definition of the new city limit (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. various planning committees were formed to develop a regional plan for Bombay. (BMRPB. 1992). the Port of Bombay. and. The 1967 development plan estimated a housing shortage of 131. some thought was given to ’Greater Bombay’. In 1967. the Gadgil Committee strongly recommended a multi-nuclear growth using the creation of a new town across the harbor. They recommended: i the creation of a new town on the mainland across the harbor i develop the suburbs of Bombay further Bombay had reached a level of unmanageable growth by the 1960s. This enclosed the Town and Island of Bombay. Modak influenced the development of Greater Bombay for the next two decades (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. the Bombay Municipal Corporation was established. concentration of industries and offices in certain pockets of Bombay. Commuter distances had become larger because of increased suburbanization with no change in location of the CBD. 1986) The Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board in its report wrote Bombay the Beautiful is no more beautiful.2). These formal government bodies were the beginning of a conscientious effort to regulate the growth of Bombay (Banerjee-Guha. the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board set up two committees to study the development of Bombay. However. . The large migrant influx contributed to the overcrowding (Table 2. Housing deficits are ever widening and slums like a cancerous growth can be seen anywhere and everywhere.
rocketing land prices prevented the acquisition of land for public purposes (BMPRB. Unhealthy and insanitary conditions for 1 million slum dwellers was the result of inadequate housing stock. If the new city was too far away. 1973. then this would not be possible (BMRPB. This was in the form of the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board’s recommendation that a new city be designed within the Bombay Metropolitan region to facilitate the decongestion of Bombay (Correa. 2. 1986) The concentration of industries and offices at the CBD and suburbs like Chembur and Andheri created unequal development. 1997). engineer and planner. was incharge of the planning and design of Navi Mumbai (1970-75).3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai The prominent authors of the ’twin city concept’ were Charles Correa1. Pravina Mehta (late) was a structural engineer. and New Growth Centers Growth Centers of Bombay Town Center Arabian Sea Harbor of Bombay Figure 2.2 Twin City Across the Harbor Source: CIDCO.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 5 Table 2. Also.2 Immigrant Population of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Population 773196 821764 776006 979445 1175914 1161383 2771933 3070378 % 72 75 77 80 84 75 72 63 Immigrants Males per 151 171 162 189 191 181 160 149 100 Females (Various Census Reports of Bombay in Kosambi. The implementation occurred through ’correct’ political and bureaucratic channels in 1969. 1973).2). south and east. 3 Sirish Patel. 1 2 Charles Correa is a prominent architect and urban designer in Bombay. In a final attempt. The site that was finally chosen was across the harbor from Bombay island. . air pollution and mixed land use (UNCHS. 1993). Lack of adequate water supply and sewage facilities worsened conditions. It is a narrow piece of land bounded by the Western Ghat mountain ranges on the north. the Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board recommended considering a twin city across the harbor. 1973). Pravina Mehta2 and Shirish Patel3 who presented to the government a proposal in 1964 for constructing new growth centers across Bombay harbor on the mainland (Figure 2.
km. m. a government agency explicitly set up for this purpose. 1973). was designed to accommodate new industrial and commercial activity as well as for secure and affordable housing to workers. 1985). comprising of a number of nodes (townships).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 6 the Arabian Sea on the west (CIDCO. 1966. 2. CIDCO is a limited company. The first step was to identify all the land that needed to be acquired for Navi Mumbai. The first task of CIDCO was to prepare a development plan for the new town. >10000 sq. >4000 sq. The government would acquire land under its power of eminent domain under Section 22. 1973). Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act (MR&TP Act). The land notified for acquisition for Navi Mumbai was under private and government ownership (Table 2. m. Owners were notified about the government’s proposal. The finality of the approved Development Plan ensures that the pressure and friction which would develop to obtain land use changes for particular land holdings would be largely eliminated . >1000 sq. 1973): i polycentric pattern of development i acquisition of all land to have better control of the environment and to use land as the main resource for development. financing physical and social infrastructure through land sales. 1973). CIDCO used certain development principles in its design. and improving Bombay by drawing off pressures for growth into the new area (Patel. The plan hoped to reduce homelessness in Bombay and provide slum dwellers a better life as well as absorb migration from the countryside (Correa. wholly owned by the State Government of Maharashtra (CIDCO.3) Table 2. It is a self-contained city independent of Bombay although there is still a visual connection to Bombay. km) (number) (number) (number) Government 10137 All Private 16677 18412 3338 1579 90 Marsh(wetlands) 84 (CIDCO. >500 sq.3 Land Fragmentation in 1970 Ownership Area (sq. Patel and Mehta designed this regional plan based on three basic objectives: a planned new development. m. Correa. They were (CIDCO. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board created the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) in 1970 to implement its ideas. Section 31(6) under the same act gives the government the power to specify land use and proceed with development. It was hoped that the nearness to Bombay would facilitate the relocation of people from Bombay (CIDCO. 1995) CIDCO notified all private owners about the compulsory acquisition. Navi Mumbai covers an area of 344 sq. 1997). The new town. m. The regional plan was approved in 1970.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 The task of planning and developing Navi Mumbai was entrusted to the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO).
3. Panvel-Uran rail and road links. 5. and transport corridors along Thane-Belapur. it also hoped to improve the quality of life of Bombay. raise the living standards and reduce the disparities in the amenities available to the different sections of the population. The success of Navi Mumbai was thought to depend on the adequate creation of jobs (CIDCO. Nevertheless. Although five minor amendments were made to this Draft Plan. • the plan for a modern. and major law and order problems did occur. 1973).5 Development Potential of the Site The chosen site had various development potentials (Figure 2. The Draft Development Plan gave only broad guidelines.3). To support a statewide Industrial Location Policy which will lead eventually to an efficient and rational distribution of industries over the State and a balanced development of urban centers in the hinterland. container port at Nhava-Sheva. CIDCO acquired all the land after settling disputes about compensation (CIDCO. Reduce the growth of population in Bombay city by creating a center that would absorb immigrants. • the newly commissioned bridge across the Thane creek. 4. no new document was ever prepared. To provide an environment which would permit the residents of New Bombay to live fuller and richer lives in so far this is possible. 2. which are commonly associated with urban living. The development plan took into account the Figure 2. 1995). • the Thane-Pune National Highway 4. These were (CIDCO. and also attract some of Bombay’s present population. To provide physical and social services. This was not entirely true. free from the physical and social tensions. 1995). The objectives were (CIDCO. 1995): • the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) Estates at Turbhe and Taloja.3 Development Potential of the Site Turbhe MIDC Industrial Estates Arabian Sea Creek bridge Taloja Panvel Nhava-sheva . 1973: 10): 1. • the existence of two municipal corporations at Panvel and Uran. leaving enough room for flexibility.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 7 (CIDCO. 2. The Draft Development Plan remains the guiding document in use even today. Although the main objective of the design of Navi Mumbai was to create a selfsufficient urban environment. To provide a physical infrastructure which prevents ethnic enclaves among the population.
i to decongest Bombay by shifting jobs that are concentrated in the southern part of Bombay. better quality houses was the biggest incentive (CIDCO. Per month) (% of income) rupees) (in sq.) Less than 200 20 10 1200 3 201-300 16 11 2580 5 301-400 15 12 4140 8 401-500 14 13 5940 12 501-600 12 14 7800 16 601-800 9 15 10800 22 801-1000 7 17 15600 31 Threshold of affordability 1001-1200 3 19 21000 43 1201-1500 2 22 30000 60 1501+ 2 25 37800 75 . as well as service sector (office) jobs. Although job opportunities were the driving force behind Navi Mumbai’s success. Table 2. m.000 houses needed to be built. The plan called for the shifting of government offices from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai. The authors of the regional plan cited the case of New Delhi to emphasize their idea (Patel. This was necessary to (CIDCO. i to use the job centers with matching infrastructure provision as engines of growth for the new city. Almost 87% of the office jobs of Greater Bombay are located on Bombay island with 62% in South Bombay. 1995): i make Navi Mumbai self-contained and not a dormitory. The Industrial Location Policy issued in December 1974 posed various restrictions on the start of new industrial units on Bombay island.000 jobs for a population of 2 million (CIDCO. Industrial growth was encouraged only in the MIDC industrial estates of Navi Mumbai (CIDCO. assuming a family size of five.4 Household Income and Capacity to Pay (Figures estimated in 1971 income where $1~Rs. large industries.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 8 provision of 750. A CBD was planned in Navi Mumbai with the aim of creating 40. 1973). Only small-scale industries were allowed in place of old. No new. 1997).000 office jobs. A series of controls were made for various regions within Bombay.7) Household % of Monthly Capacity to pay Affordable size Income Population capacity to pay for housing (in of housing unit (Rs. 1975). large or medium industrial units were permitted on Bombay island. To accommodate a population of 2 million. trade and commerce (wholesale and warehousing). 1995).4 shows CIDCO’s estimates on the capacity to pay for housing by different income groups. The employment base of Navi Mumbai was planned to encompass manufacturing (industry). 400. the availability of cheaper. Table 2.
The higher income groups would pay a surcharge for housing. which would subsidize housing for the lower income groups.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 9 (CIDCO. hierarchy of roads and important buildings of a gargantuan scale (Fry. Le Corbusier explained "the plan is based on the main features of the 7V rule (Appendix B) determining an essential function: the creation of sectors. commercial. it was proposed to use cross subsidies. At the same time. A sector centrally located within each node took on commercial activities. 2. Each township had several sectors. No fast traffic was allowed in the sectors. m. The neighborhoods were self-sufficient and had their grocery store and primary school. These were: i decentralization by the design of self-sufficient townships(nodes). The sector was based on the Spanish cuadra of 110 to 100 meters. Otherwise. 1977). The sector is the container of family life" (Le Corbusier. 1973). i single-use zoning as opposed to the traditional multiple-use zoning The result was a single-use zoning pattern with distinct areas for industrial. The housing has to be heavily subsidized to make it affordable. 1961). 1977). 1973) The table shows the ability of each income group to contribute towards owned accommodation. community centers and residential areas. Each of these cuadras was a self-contained unit with primary schools. The total land of Navi Mumbai was divided into thirteen townships. The sector planning of Modernism is very similar to the grid planning of traditional Indian cities. V4 roads were designed for shopping and commercial activity. each family could own only developed land. Capacity to pay for housing divided by cost of construction shows a very small (or no) house could be owned by most families. land would be leased under a 30-year repayment system to private cooperative housing schemes and private owners. Many of these principles of Modernism were used in the planning of Navi Mumbai. This would have a great drain on the financial resources of the government. 40 in 1970. Children were able to walk to school on the V7 through green belts (Sarin. residential and institutional activity. 550 per square meter and the cost of development of land was Rs. Many of the sectors were residential in character. houses or larger (CIDCO.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai The conceptual design of Navi Mumbai was developed at the height of Modernism. The cuadra had a detailed zoning plan with single-use zoning on all lots. CIDCO decided to use a maximum surcharge of 15% on housing for highest income group to compensate for a maximum subsidy of 45% to the lowest income group (CIDCO. 1961). 1973). The average cost of construction was Rs. In Navi Mumbai. i residential neighborhoods (sector). Le Corbusier had played an important role in the design of Chandigarh in Punjab in the mid1950s (Le Corbusier. In India the square was used as the basic unit in the layout of traditional cities. CIDCO decided to build a large part of the housing as public housing. The square had a significance in Hinduism as this perfect geometric shape was thought to be . The Government of India’s policy on publicly financed housing has been to build 21 sq. Some of the highlights of the design elements of this plan were sector planning.
Commercial and residential uses were adjacent to each other or one above the other. a true Gandhian. "Arguing to turn any weaknesses into strength.C. streets. 1969). This is the vision that is the traditional Indian design inspiration for Navi Mumbai. each neighborhood was known as a sector (CIDCO. swadeshi (fullest utilization of local resources. warrior/king. Each node is self-contained for 100. Kshatriya. infrastructure and recreational uses (Figure 2. In the case of Navi Mumbai. As the residential classification was based on the caste. while Nhava-Sheva houses the new container port. 1973). So each sector had mixed use. 1973). 1997). an American designer of the 1920s. Under his leadership. people were forced to work within that particular neighborhood. Parab.). commercial. Airoli and Kopar-Khairane have industrial estates. The neighborhood unit is used as a building block to build New Towns across the world (Perry. In India.4). was the Chief Planner of CIDCO for 20 years (1970-90) (Engel. Mr. The nodes contain residential. Here in Navi Mumbai the idea of a large “urban village” has been nurtured. 1929).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 10 the abode of the gods (Henn. This also facilitated the sharing of other. The goal has been to create a city based on Gandhian principles of swavalamban (self-reliance). Many cities still reflect this street pattern. Neighborhood planning in the West was a concept put forth by Clarence Perry. This was a model layout for an area with specifications for residences. Vaishya and Sudra. At a larger scale. main streets formed perfect rectangles dividing the city into separate residential areas based on caste.000 to 200. Some of the nodes have special features. the main philosophical design principles of Navi Mumbai are based on Gandhian ideology (Parab. Even in the planning of Mohenjadaro (7th century B. Navi Mumbai consists of thirteen townships (or nodes). larger amenities by contiguous neighborhoods. The task of designing and detailing the physical design was carried out by CIDCO. nodes share some common facilities such as water reservoirs and transport facilities. 1973). which corresponds to the professions priest. Each node was planned to accommodate a range of income groups. Each neighborhood unit was within a one square mile radius. amenities and utilities with segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic (Banerjee. the four castes are Brahmin. Vashi is the center of Navi Mumbai's wholesale market. and progressively moved outward depending on the natural landscape. The functionality of the city is based on the principle of neighborhood design as seen all over the Western world. 1984).000 people. merchant and peasant. Neighborhoods could be placed near each other to form a larger urban framework. There would be no rich or poor nodes (CIDCO. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board put forth the broad conceptual regional plan of Navi Mumbai. Each node is divided into neighborhoods (or sectors). 1991). This is significantly different from the single-use planning of Modernism. The size of the node depends . 1991). All houses in a neighborhood were occupied by a particular caste. This principle of neighborhood planning and its derivative from Modernism was used in Navi Mumbai. let us accommodate nature!" (Gandhi in Engel. both materials and human) and swatantrya (self-motivation and mutual self-help) (Ganguli. The indigenous plans all started with a central focal point (either of political or religious symbolism). Gandhi would have urged: If nature chooses not to accommodate us.
This was partly because of the scale and complexity of the project. which would be used in the dry seasons. The streams Source: CIDCO. flowing from the Western Ghats mountain ranges would irrigate these trees. Holding ponds would be used for pisciculture and recreation. 1991). for its success. The design concept of Navi Mumbai was very idealistic.4 Nodes of Navi Mumbai recreation and timber. Politicians use the creation of jobs and better living environments as a common strategy for getting votes. The plan Jui Belapur Arabian envisioned an ecologically friendly Sea city where products of nature would be Panvel used. Private industries would not invest in this particular region unless they were assured of workers and so on. It depended very heavily on external factors. For industrial growth large finances were required.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 11 BOMBAY Airoli Ghansoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada on walking distances to the mass transit stop. which had been independent for only 20 years. The node should be large enough to provide schools. 1997). which were closely linked. The Development Plan of Navi Mumbai is an example of the new consciousness for sustainable Kharghar Nerul settlements (CIDCO. Hence. a migration of population would not occur. 1995). 1997). Water treated from industrial and sewage waste would be used to develop green areas (Parab.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai Considerations of social equity were very important in all aspects of development in a country. and then unused portions would Nhava-Sheva be recycled. As financial and economic considerations depended on the government in office. which ensured their re-election. One of the ideas of putting the environmental city into Dronagiri practice was the creation of woodland corridors (Parab. For example. only activities. the plan had a very important political component. would be strongly supported. The Development Plan for Navi Mumbai called for the planting of one hundred thousand trees every year! (Engel. This would also ensure reduction of soil erosion and the development of woodlands for both Figure 2. shopping areas and other facilities. Any change in political power would affect the policies and development strategies of this new town. 2. The primary concerns were related . The plan called for the construction of holding ponds to retain excess monsoon run-off. unless sufficient industrial growth existed. 1973. There was also a high degree of uncertainty attached to some of the policies and physical developments.
place of birth or any of them (Article 15. Incremental housing was suggested as the solution. The remaining two-thirds of the population could afford more expensive housing. The planners of Navi Mumbai thought this was a fortuitous occasion to provide social justice to the millions of migrants and pavement dwellers of Bombay (CIDCO. To aid residents further. race. The Draft Development Plan spelled out "there is a tendency in India that induces people to live in like groups. More durable material could be used in the course of time. In 1970. Individual families would then have to build their own homes (swavalamban). 1973). The residents could design and implement their construction in any way they chose (swatantrya). walk-up apartments of three to four floors would be designed. I). The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice . The sites-and-services plots would have services such as roads. CIDCO would sell the plot at a highly subsidized rate and with a twenty-year repayment period. sex. cooperative housing groups or private builders. 1973). The Gandhian principle of self-help would be used to implement this agenda. Construction would be made with locally available. more than 30% of the population of greater Bombay could not afford a pucca (durable) house (CIDCO. Thus. cost-effective. education and job opportunities. economic and political equity. enclaves or ghettos of age long tradition of ’birds of the same feather flocking together’. Housing would be built for the various income groups. using bamboo instead of steel reinforcements and setting up of local retail shops where residents would be able to buy inexpensive building materials for building their homes (swadeshi) (CIDCO. 1973). water. The plan took into account the fact that one-third of the housing in New Bombay would be sites-and-services plots (CIDCO. medical care and social welfare.social. 1973) .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 12 to providing better quality of housing. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion. it was proposed that housing should be constructed so that this income group could afford it. For them. It recommended construction using cheaper concrete. caste. economic and political . cheap material. 1973). For the lower income group. Housing for the middle income and high income groups would be in the form of CIDCO housing. The Constitution of India also spells out the need for the government machinery to facilitate social." (CIDCO. Navi Mumbai’s founders saw the construction of large amounts of new housing as an opportunity to break down demographic divisions and to enhance social equity. 1973).shall inform all the institutions of the national life (Article 38). In planned towns and cities this should be avoided to a great extent by allocating housing in neighborhoods to members of different communities. ground floor houses would be possible initially. electricity and sanitation (CIDCO. The design of a completely new city was a very good opportunity to implement these national concerns.
"In each node it is proposed that accommodation be made available for the entire range of income groups expected in the city. These were the education facilities to be provided by the government. A large hospital for intensive care and for teaching and research purposes would be set up (CIDCO. exploited women and leprosyaffected persons would be developed in Navi Mumbai to accommodate the growing population (CIDCO. handicapped children. 1973). 1973). one high school for 12. This led to the development of ethnic enclaves. Health planning was undertaken as public health projects. This further contributed to the creation of ethnic enclaves within the settlement. The planners of Navi Mumbai did not intend to create an identity for the city related to physical objects. recreational and other social facilities an should not become a dormitory for Greater Bombay. recreation and afforestation projects (CIDCO. Institutions for juvenile delinquents. water supply and sanitation. 1973). diagnostic and investigation services. It would have out-patient department. schools and colleges and making health education a part of classroom education. but will also ensure a uniform standard of social and physical infrastructure and see that no one class of residents is better served than another" (CIDCO 1973: 17-18). The Development Plan says (CIDCO. 1973). The planning was for a comprehensive coverage by taking the services to households. The nodes (townships) were designed to provide one primary school per 5000 population. planners cited the segregation of Bombay as an example. These are discussed further in the next chapter.000 population (CIDCO. and law and order problems of the community (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. The community health care center would primary health care. It should contain its own jobs.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 13 To justify this consideration. It would be a small hospital and polyclinic where specialized health care would be provided to cases referred by the community health care center and general practitioners. Provision of schools and colleges was a priority in the planning of Navi Mumbai. merchants from neighboring districts migrated into Bombay and constructed homes inside and outside the Fort walls. shopping. Mobile health care units would operate from this community health center. When the East India Company encouraged merchants to establish residence in Bombay.500 population and one college for 50. The medical center would provide secondary health service. 1973: 17): "CIDCO is anxious that the new city develop its own identity as quickly as possible. Establishment of ethnic enclaves has led to a number of problems in India." . medical care. The Greater Bombay region had some of the best social welfare programs in India. Minimum standards for building construction were developed by CIDCO. Other private institutions would be encouraged also. It is expected that this accommodation of residents from various social and income groups within the same physical area will not only make for a healthier environment. The Governor of Bombay also encouraged this development because it reinforced the traditional panchayati (selfgovernment) system of administration by which the council of elders settled religious. 1995).
Other agencies . on the institutions responsible for the plan. 1992). The role of CIDCO is to implement the plan of Navi Mumbai. The physical design would be the instrument to implement this objective. With the creation of these other agencies. i Bombay Electric and State Transport (BEST). i Specialized services provided by Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA). which would help implement the objective. Other institutions have also been set up in the Greater Bombay region to facilitate planning efforts in the region. CIDCO has executed the implementation of the plan in various stages (CIDCO. It is more of a philosophical identity . However. CIDCO was appointed as the NTDA. i involving Government agencies for developing public transport and telecommunications. largely. Its identity is only that of a spreading inkblot (Engel.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 14 Thus. Gandhinagar can be described by their grid system or monumental scales. i promoting commercial and other employment activity. However. the allotment of residential apartments would be governed by a policy. 1995): i developing land and providing infrastructure such as roads. 1992): i Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA) in 1975 i Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) in 1992. CIDCO has a more narrow and defined role. Before the creation of these different institutions. CIDCO had to coordinate all planning and development programs. there was no aim to create a monumental city. water supply. In the very beginning. a strong institutional framework was required for its success.Data base .Objectives .8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework The government authorities of Bombay realized that the effectiveness of regional planning depended. These are (CIDCO. In particular. These stages include: i Draft Development Plan (programs and policies) . CIDCO undertook the task of (CIDCO. electricity.Visualizing the future i Action Plans . drainage. The city of Navi Mumbai was planned to address the issue of social equality through its physical design. It appears that the monumental style of Corbusier was not an influence on this design.an identity based on the Gandhian value of social equality. New. 2. i developing residential plots for different income groups. the Gadgil Committee Report (1965) had recommended the setting up of a New Town Development Authority (NTDA). the identity of Navi Mumbai is subtler. 1991). planned cities of India such as Chandigarh.
Chapter 2: The Research Setting
- Land use plans - Residential layout plans - Infrastructure plans - Industrial location plans - Environmental assessment i Implementation - Acquisition of land - Finance - Construction - Relocation strategies BMRDA took over such functions as coordination of metropolitan planning, funding, execution of programs, development control and maintenance of the entire Greater Bombay region including Navi Mumbai (UNCHS, 1993). Financial responsibilities and investment decisions are made by a large number of agencies including the Government of India, State Government of Maharashtra, CIDCO and firms in the private sector, but coordinated by BMRDA.
Macro-level Regional Planning Inputs
Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA)
Micro-level Sub-regional Planning Inputs
Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation
Plan Implementation of Navi Mumbai
City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) Figure 2.5 Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai In 1992, an amendment of the Constitution of India affected the functioning of CIDCO. The 74th Amendment of the Constitution of India (the 1992 Amendment Act on Municipalities) spells out the devolution of power to the local bodies and democratization of development planning. This Act emphasizes that the management must be done by elected representatives of the people who will account for two-thirds of the board. This committee is responsible for the preparation of the draft development plan. This ensures a bottom-up process with direct inputs from the citizens (UNCHS, 1993). These municipal corporations will be responsible for their economic development and incorporate all ideas within the
Chapter 2: The Research Setting
Comprehensive Plan. The direct result of this Act is the creation, in 1992, of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation. This allowed CIDCO to give up its role as New Town Development Authority (CIDCO, 1995). A heavy-handed approach was used by the government to implement its social policy. As most of the housing was built by CIDCO, a government agency, the government could control, if not regulate, the distribution of the population on socioeconomic basis. Households desirous of buying a house built by CIDCO had to submit an application that stated the dwelling size they preferred. CIDCO allotted these houses, depending on when construction was completed, on a rolling basis. This was intended to ensure a random distribution of the various linguistic and religious groups of the population. The pattern expected would now be one based predominantly on income. 2.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan The planning of Navi Mumbai began in 1971. The results of each of the planning objectives can be studied now. The first objective of the Development Plan of Navi Mumbai was to reduce congestion of Bombay by absorbing immigrants and attracting some of the present population of Bombay. Table 2.5 Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay(BMRDA, 1978 in UNCHS, 1993) 1971 1981 1991 Population Density Population Density Population Density (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) CBD 1120 1659 1031 1527 849 1258 Central Bombay 1950 1349 2254 1559 2309 1597 Bombay Island 3070 1447 3285 1549 3158 1489 Bombay Suburbs 2900 544 4958 930 6751 1266 Navi Mumbai1 128 600 328 617 Over the 1981-91 period, there was a considerable decline in the population of the CBD and Bombay island. The increase in the population of the suburbs and Navi Mumbai accounts for the decline in the CBD and Bombay island. Outmigration to other cities and countries is negligible (BMRDA, 1978). The main reason for the shift was because of (UNCHS, 1993): i dilapidation of older buildings in Bombay i cheaper and better housing facilities in Navi Mumbai i better employment opportunities in Navi Mumbai i lesser commuter distances involved The second objective of the development plan was to bring maximum jobs consistent with the Gandhian principle of self-sufficiency (swavalambhan). CIDCO’s support of the Industrial Location Policy brought more jobs to Navi Mumbai. The sectors that had maximum growth in Navi Mumbai, were trade (39%), finance and services (27%) and manufacturing (18%) (BMRDA, 1992 in UNCHS, 1993). The wholesale agriculture produce
residential area increased from 213 hectares in 1981 to 531 hectares in 1991.
Chapter 2: The Research Setting
market for vegetables, foodgrains, oil seeds, sugar and spices was moved from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai (CIDCO, 1973). A separate railway siding and truck terminal were constructed to facilitate effective relocation. This involved the relocation of 30,000 jobs from Bombay and the reduction of 5000 truck trips per day. A new iron and steel stockyard complex has been developed in Navi Mumbai. This means the relocation of 25,000 jobs and a reduction of 1000 truck trips per day to Bombay. However, the economic agenda, which was based on agriculture and cottage industries, is no longer effective because of the government’s redoubled commitment to a policy of industrialization. Navi Mumbai continues to be exploited as a major industrial zone (Engel, 1991). CIDCO's third objective was to provide physical and social amenities in Navi Mumbai. The land use of Navi Mumbai shows these amenities (Table 2.6 and Figure 2.6). Table 2.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai, 1993 (in sq. km.) Land-use Zone 1979 1985 1986 1991 Residential 101.15 133.99 127.08 129.87 Commercial 6.51 6.51 6.51 5.75 Industrial 43.21 43.14 43.14 43.14 Port 12.00 22.7 22.7 22.7 Wholesale market 6.08 4.54 4.54 4.6 Woodlands / Park 90.26 61.24 68.15 69.35 Institutional .76 1.09 1.09 1.09 Fishing and allied 6.14 3.44 3.44 3.44 Transportation 30.86 30.35 30.35 29.73 No development 46.73 36.70 36.70 34.03 Total 343.70 343.70 343.70 343.70
1993 127.61 5.75 43.14 22.70 6.86 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70 (CIDCO, 1997) Primary, secondary and high schools have been provided in all sectors of Navi Mumbai. All primary schools are within walking distance. This eliminates the need of expensive transport for small children. There is at least one college in every node and Vashi node has both medical and engineering colleges (CIDCO, 1995). Medical facilities are provided by private medical practitioners. Every node has a hospital run by the Mahatma Gandhi Medical Trust. Community health car centers are also there (CIDCO, 1995). In its fourth objective to provide an ecologically friendly environment, CIDCO has not been entirely successful. The area of woodlands has been constantly decreasing (CIDCO, 1995). Most woodlands are in the form of mango groves which form a part of neighborhood parks. In the conceptual plan, streams flowing from the hillsides were to irrigate the woodland corridors. No significant effort has been made to utilize this resource. However, holding ponds have been constructed. Promenades have been built along them and they are being used as recreation areas (Parab, 1997). The fifth objective is the primary focus of this thesis. The objective to prevent ethnic enclaves and to promote a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics was fairly ambitious. In order for its success, a perfect control of the market is required. The analysis of the data will show the outcome of the objective.
1992 128.71 5.75 43.14 22.7 5.76 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70
Hence. and housing occupancy rates are high. While Modernism called for single-use zoning and a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics. the city is no longer a plan on paper. lower income group. Growth in other development sectors of Bombay has also had an adverse effect on Navi Mumbai’s growth. However. The design principles described in the Draft Development Plan were based on the philosophical reasoning of Mahatma Gandhi and the functionalistic approach of Modernism. recreation and commercial needs. Designing. housing requirements. The absence of a port and railway links slowed growth. Social aspects of city planning were given importance with special attention given to considerations of employment opportunities. Commuter services have become operational since May 1992. the extension of the railway lines. Problems of design and development were identified. establishment of more industries and construction of more houses. 2. . utilities. the development process has been slow.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai Source: CIDCO. Though the Navi Mumbai project was begun in 1970. since 1990 there has been accelerated growth due to the commissioning of Nhava-Sheva port. middle-income group and high-income groups. Houses have been constructed for different sectors of society economically weaker section. development and implementation of ideas were done in an incremental manner.10 Conclusion The Draft Development Plan of Navi Mumbai described many broad outlines for the development of a city for the common citizen. The poor transportation links between Bombay and Navi Mumbai has been the main contributing factor. 1995. Periodic socioeconomic and household surveys were used to determine the status of constructed environment. and improvements made in the next phase of design. the Gandhian principles supported cultural heterogeneity and mixed use zoning.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 18 NEW BOMBAY BOMBAY Arabian Sea Residential Woodlands Industrial Port Institutional Trucking Wholesale Fishing Wetlands Figure 2. but a living and working reality. Many attributes of these two design principles are not necessarily harmonious. CIDCO provides serviced sites for both government and private ownership.
planned city within the context of a specific historic and cultural setting. The aim of this research is to examine the present urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Navi Mumbai is a modern. This also implies that the urban social pattern was predetermined. The success of this strategy depended on maintaining this control. A heavy-handed implementation strategy of this objective was done by taking complete control of the residential allotment. Very little analysis has been done on the outcome of CIDCO's social agenda to ensure diffusion of ethnic groups and the urban social pattern that emerged. The research setting under consideration is the result of the hybridization of Indian and Western ideas.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 19 This design also strongly supported the need to use the government’s power and machinery to promote the uniform distribution of people and prevent ethnic enclaves. .
Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 3. Socioeconomic factors have a very important contribution to the pattern.the urban pattern. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. However. These design ideas seem to have a strong influence of Modernism (CIDCO. It is a city designed with the design principles of the time. and those of Mahatma Gandhi. 3. Navi Mumbai is one of the first cities in India built for the common citizen. 1973). language and housing character. principles and existing theories for improving the design of cities (Doxiadis. If the residents build the buildings themselves. then they reflect their lifestyles.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern Every human settlement consists of certain elements. The pattern of spatial distribution is recognizable in most contemporary cities (Alexander. The urban pattern is a result of the relationships between people and their social. 1968). Buildings and spaces are created by people and quite often characterize them (Kostof. changing and modifying it to suit their way of life (Lozano. if government agencies or contractors build them. Human settlements contain people and societies in a physical environment consisting of natural and man-made elements (Doxiadis. people adapt to the physical environment around them. economic and physical environments. communication and socioeconomic relationships influence urban patterns. technology. 1968). because it changes continuously in a temporal dimension. Whatever the mode of construction. Most cities in the Third World and India have been indigenous in origin and organic in growth. .1 Introduction A human settlement is an establishment created by people for their inhabitation. 1990). Land ownership patterns. (New Bombay). but four-dimensional. Interaction of these elements form a pattern . Simultaneously. A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between its elements within the temporal context. transportation. The human-environment relationship is a two-way process termed as the socio-spatial dialectic (Knox. religion. ethnicity. occupation and values of housing influence the spatial character. 1987). Education. 1990). The aim of the thesis is to examine the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. India. urban form is not merely the architectural form of the city (Lozano. The final outcome of a morphological study is the formulation of a theory which connects facts to form hypotheses. they are more generic and may not represent the lifestyles of every household. Intricacies in relationships have increased the complexity of the urban form over time. Many of these cities have been under colonial rule. Where market forces work. 1995). Such a human settlement is not just threedimensional. It is also a cultural manifestation. This literature review will first trace the human settlements in India. and bear characteristics of western influence. income is one of the most important determinants. Thus. residents soon influence their urban environment. Urban social pattern is the pattern formed by the interaction of various social variables such as household characteristics. 1991).
These features contributed to a particular urban and social pattern. Time and place may provide them with different characteristics making each city unique and dynamic. 1971). society. every city has certain elements. Thus urban social patterns are complex manifestations of underlying cultural values intermingled with global economic forces (McGee. “The typical sector represents the formal characteristics found throughout the area and thus acquires some universality” (Lozano. 1990). They are the units of analysis of the morphological study (Knox.3 Factors Influencing Urban Form Many factors influence the form of cities. Doxiadis defines five elements in the study of human settlements. A city replaces existing land use. and natural and manmade obstacles. Although details may not be identical. buildings and infrastructure. The patterns have similarities. linguistics and ethnic background also influence urban patterns. The rural land may also have been . 1995). The change of land use from rural to urban depends on the existing land use. Urban patterns represent a continuity of time and space. The built form is influenced by factors as (Alexander. human beings.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 21 Demographics. 1987): i land ownership i street patterns i existing land use i economic considerations i planning regulations i political and historical events The physical expansion of the city is always bound and guided by land ownership. This representative sector is defined as the smallest area that exhibits the characteristics of the urban settlement. 1990): i the way in which nature and man-made features satisfy needs for protection and defense i the way in which physical and economic landscape allows for communication with other regions i the way in which the topography of a site suggests the construction of a human settlement i the way in which climate leads to building solutions These factors influence the cultural and spiritual form of the cities as well. a hill top site was the utilitarian response to any important building . 3.a fort or a religious building. For example. Some farmers may sell their land more easily than others may. In the study of Navi Mumbai. Since the characteristics are universal (within the frame of study) they may be studied by a spatial representative sector. which may be universal or local. it is necessary to determine existing land use as a pre-condition to urban growth and form. Traditional cities have used physical forms to interpret cultural and religious beliefs (Lozano. Traditional settlements were shaped by (Lozano. In most studies this unit is the neighborhood which displays both physical and social aspects of the whole urban development. the node (township) and the sector (neighborhood) will be used as the study areas using aggregated household survey data. Thus. The physical form is a variable of the social and built pattern of the city. Urban spatial patterns occur because of the repetitive spatial distribution of these elements. and the ownership. They are nature. 1990).
A particular social pattern brings about a particular built form. craftsmen and merchants were born. This allowed some of the people to develop other professions. Planning controls influence development to a great extent. Master plans and regional plans provide long-range strategies for development. 1983). 1990). The external . While some processes are culture-specific. 1990). Clear differentiation between urban and rural existed. personal preferences and many institutional constraints. commercial buildings. Pedestrian movement limited the size of the city. private rental and public sector housing operationalize housing sectors. within.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 22 subdivided. Soon. The variation in influencing factors and historical circumstance gave rise to different urban forms in different parts of the world. 3. Priests. surplus food production was achieved. Reasons such as trade and defense have also been used to explain the formation of cities. Childe put forth a theory that urban centers were a result of agricultural change. Various economic. social and political circumstances influence the social pattern (Scargill. The factors influencing urbanization were also different. Housing.5 The Sociocultural Factors India is among the most stratified of all known societies in the world (Srinivas. 1992a). often because of a city wall. Plots of varying sizes and shapes influence the layout of the streets and of individual buildings (Knox. Domestication of animals and cultivation of land created villages. For thousands of years. Instead. These factors are (Alexander. they supported a range of activities. 1987. Kosambi. The evolution of the urban pattern of Indian cities is divided into the social pattern and the built form. People as food gatherers advanced to become farmers. However. Owner-occupier. 1979). a city contained social distinctions in terms of class. However. Certain built forms encourage certain social patterns. Urbanization took place at different chronological periods. race and religion (Vance. cities were very simple although they rarely served single purposes. 1986): i ethnic composition of the city i migration i religion i economic considerations i race i political and historical events The housing market also influences the social pattern of the city. and Thomas. others are global in scope. The caste system of India separates and hierarchies the Hindus. The social pattern and the built form are interrelated and contribute to the urban morphology of a city. 1995). other scholars contend that it is doubtful that surplus can be attributed as the single factor which caused the emergence of urban settlements (Jacobs. 3.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities The traditional theory of urban origin is generally attributed to Childe (Herbert. A household’s choice of place to live is determined by its income level. government offices and warehouses formed the built environment of the city.
theoretically. religion or occupation (Bougle.1 Caste Castes are the hierarchical divisions of people based on professional and family membership. In India. Kshatriya. 1992a). Clothing. the forms of social stratification are many. Repulsion between castes forced isolation and the creation of distinct residential enclaves (Bougle.5. a hierarchy from Brahman to Sudra has been interpreted (Bougle. sometimes reinforced by common work roles. and in the case of India. Thus. 1974:8). 1992b). Hierarchy allows elements of the whole to be ranked with relation to each other (example: income and prestige). The characteristics caste. Certain customs lower or raise the status of the caste. Various combinations of the hierarchy have come about due to regional differentiation in certain attributes of social living. 1992). differentiates itself into only hierarchical status containing inequality (Gupta. 3. culture. this popular caste hierarchy is not clear throughout the Indian subcontinent (Srinivas. The spirit of the caste system is determined by the attitudes of each caste to the other. all elements can not be arranged vertically. Stratification implies a differentiation based on a set of criteria. However. rituals. However. The term ethnic group refers broadly to people “with some similar characteristics which go beyond their mere place in a societal division of labor” (Brass. vertical and horizontal systems of stratification exist. Vegetarian castes occupy higher positions. The Indian theory of social stratification depends on caste. Ethnic characteristics refer to language. class.2 Class "Class refers to a system of stratification which is economic in character" (Gupta. 1992). Although no hierarchy is mentioned in the Sukta. The real world. language. The caste system varies from village to village and is a local phenomenon. marriage and death ceremonies distinguish one caste from another. religious and ethnic diversity of the country (Gupta. The social stratification is very deep and varied. 1992). 3. As many individual criteria are . 1992b). diet and dress. 1992).5. However. Along with the caste exist occupational stratification. Certain occupations such as butchery and cobblery lower the rank.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 23 manifestation of the separation and hierarchy through particular attributes of the castes brings about social stratification of the urban social pattern (Marriott. Berreman (1965) says "Caste systems rank people by birthascribed group membership rather than by individual attributes. thighs and feet of the Creator. language. territory. linguistic stratification and religious stratification. linguistic. Vaishya and Sudra are said to have come from the mouth. The criteria for the differentiation can normally be translated into money or wealth. Class systems by contrast define the rank of their members according to their individual attributes and behavior". these single criterion hierarchies can be misleading as they depend on cutoff points related to individual analysis (Gupta. religion). religion and language are discussed below. The population may be stratified based on income. arms. unfortunately. 1992b:14). 1992). The differences may also be placed in a horizontal system (example: language. The dominant caste legend is the Purushasukta legend whereby the Brahman.
An overwhelming view of Hindu-Muslim relations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is that Hindus advanced due to their enthusiasm to take up western education and government employment (Kaura. 1970). A Hindu revival period in the late nineteenth century to arouse enthusiasm for political action made the Muslims more insecure. 1985:11). Hindi was chosen because it was the language spoken by the largest percent of the population while was a result of the British legacy. The Hindu religion has always been a pacifist and tolerant religion. 3. Muslims became apprehensive of Hindu domination. From the beginning Islam has been a conquering and proselytizing faith (Hodson. Kannada. The characteristics of the population regarding bilinguals. However. Hindus and Muslims drifted apart in the issue of independence from British rule. Buddhism. Tamil. India is the birthplace of two major religions –Hinduism and Buddhism – and two minor religions . Gujarati. absorbing other religious doctrines and never proselytizing. At this time they felt the need for a political party of their own. After the decline of the Mughal Empire and the loss of political power to the British. 1974). Anger and frustration broke out as violence as Hindus moved from Pakistan into India and Muslims moved from India to Pakistan (Hodson. The League demanded for a separate electorate and for more employment in public service. The census of India 1951 (immediately after Independence) recorded a total of 179 languages and 544 dialects in India.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 24 linked to other attributes. which culminated in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. 1997). the Muslims were in power over most of India.5. the Muslim League represented only the Muslim population (Brass. 1977).3 Religion Religion and language have provided the motive power for nationalism in India (Brass. The framers of the Indian Constitution chose Hindi and English as the official languages of the government (King. not subjects” (Hodson. The major languages of India are Hindi. Jainism and Sikhism stemmed off from Hinduism and are very similar to Hinduism.4 Language A systematic inventory of Indian languages began in the mid-eighteenth century. Malayalam. There are many religions in India. In 1906 they formed the All-India Muslim League. Bengali. 1985). During the Mughal rule (16th to 18th century). “In most folk-memory the Muslims of India had been ruler. Islam was a religion that came to India from outside and is culturally very different from Hinduism. The wake of Independence brought with it violence and terror in the Indo-Pakistan borders in Punjab and Bengal. 1985). The linguistic distribution is not only diverse but also very complex (Das Gupta. 3. Marathi. Urdu and Punjabi. it may be better to create a composite index of education. degree of control over the language and relationship between the languages affect their social communication. occupation.Jainism and Sikhism. . A certain degree of animosity between Hindus and Muslims has existed since the first Muslim ruler of 1018 AD. 1974). prestige and income to form a socioeconomic status. While the Congress party represented the majority of the Indian population.5. Telugu.
5 Implications of the Sociocultural Factors The implications of caste and class are closely related to those of power and wealth (Dumont. 1988). In a multilingual society there may be a plurality of national languages. the Brahman priests had more power because it was believed that they were the representatives of the Creator on earth.5. This was not seen in more heterogeneous neighborhoods. Although a minority of Hindu leaders in India felt that India should be declared as a Hindu state. Language conflicts have also occurred in India. In the early 1950s. many political leaders advocated for the use of Hindi as a national and official language. Traditionally these castes had either wealth or power. Hindu-Muslim riots broke out even in Bombay which has normally been a very peaceful city. a synonym for official language and like state religion. In many places. The Babri Masjid in Ayodhya was broken down by Hindu fundamentalists. confusion has always existed about the status of Hindi as official or national language. 3. Pakistan officially declared itself as a Muslim state. However. 1970). as it was difficult to isolate only one family. This rationale of composite nationalism influenced policies related to religion and language (Das Gupta. This issue can not only be seen at the time of partition in 1947 but also was seen during the recent communal violence in 1993. 1970). The separatism movements seen all over India are all based on ethnicity and inter-caste rivalry (Bose. Agitation and violence broke out in many non-Hindi states over this issue. There was strong opposition from non-Hindi areas in general and South India in particular (Hindi is a IndoAryan language while the languages of South India belong to the Dravidian group). ethnic conflicts are easily targeted towards these select neighborhoods. Although a majority of the rivalry has been for and against Hindi. all castes looked up to the farmer caste because they were important landowners and were wealthy (Srinivas. Repercussions were felt all over the country. 1971). The better control the Tamil people had over English. Certain castes are dominant in a society. The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India declared the fourteen major languages listed as national language (Gumprez. a majority of the leaders preferred a composite nationalism. In some villages. there also been conflict between other regional languages. When the ethnic groups occupy distinct neighborhoods. Small Muslim enclaves within a majority Hindu neighborhood were targeted. had led them to better job opportunities. Writers in Hindi commonly refer to Hindi as Rashtrabasha (state language) which may signify language used by the state. The union government declared that fifteen year deadline after Independence would be given for transition of official language from English and Hindi to only Hindi. The South Indian state of Tamil Nadu was most vocal in the Anti-Hindi agitation. The inequality and economic differentiation cause conflict between the castes and classes. and vice versa. Compromise was . a demand for a national language also arose. they believed. The Tamilnad Students’ Anti-Hindi Agitation Council objected to both the removal of English as an official language and the declaration of Hindi as the sole official language. The partition of United India into India and Pakistan came with many problems.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 25 However. This confusion in terminology is the basis for most language-related problems in Independent India. 1992a). a state language with an unique status (Das Gupta. 1989).
The town wall enclosed the mandala. class. which contributes many elements to the urban form. If it could not be a perfect square. The mandala could be divided into smaller squares.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 26 finally reached in 1963 under the Official Languages Act. Judaism and Christianity found their way into India. orientation of buildings and arrangement of internal rooms based on astrological and religious criteria (Volwahsen. Prime commercial and residential land was located near the temple. Certain other shapes were also considered to be auspicious like the circle. The multi-dimensional society was soon complicated by the emergence of other religions. The streets ran from north to south and from east to west. The square was used in the creation of the vastupurusha mandala. The caste system over the next ten to fifteen centuries became deeply rooted in the Hindu population and became a part of life. Stratification of the society had to accommodate these religious factors. The Indian society was also stratified horizontally by language. and four gateways were situated at the cardinal points. Jainism. Hinduism. violence sparked off by language issues has continued to occur in India. These characteristics are derived from the need for defense and administration and the importance of religion (Kopardekara. The temple as the symbol of religion dominates the urban form. C to 12th century AD). 1986). governed the alignment of roads. the differentiation and assimilation in progress in a multi-ethnic society receives a prominent place in any political conflict. The ethnic segregation and conflict has existed from the beginning of the Indian Civilization. . The temple also influences the siting of other land uses. Related to castes.1 Circle and Swastika depended on the natural features of the site.6 The Built Form The historical evolution of the built form of Indian cities can be divided into three distinct phases. Social assimilation and mobilization are a part of any evolving civilization. Despite the Act. 1974). The science of architecture and planning. In the initial stages it was in the form of caste differentiation as prescribed by the Hindu/ Vedic texts. and which had as many padas as there were to be residential sectors was selected. A number of languages coexisted in all parts of the country. Buddhism. which was the terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe inhabited by Brahma. religion and language is the issue of group identity which is the cause of most ethnic conflicts. Sikhism were born in India while Islam.1). a perfect rectangle was accepted. cyclical and swastika (Figure 3. 1969). padas. the creator. In planning the town a vastupurusha mandala which was most auspicious. Vastushastra. While some groups spoke of an all-India nationality other speaks of a regional nationality (Brass. 3. both from within and without the country. However. The earliest is the Hindu phase (3000 B. This does not imply that social assimilation does not occur. The final shape of the town Figure 3.
Characteristics from medieval times are Islamic in nature (14th to 17th centuries A. In India where occupation and caste are synonyms. Williamson and Mills. and the south-west monsoon. pottery. and insufficient infrastructure in cities has led to the creation of slums and shantytowns (Misra. The colonial influence (17th to early 20th century A. This led to the development of commercial centers and zoning based on Western market principles. The characteristics of the social and built form of the city contribute to its pattern. The morphological components include buildings used for trade warehouses. 1980). The urban segregation was based on function and occupation premises. the Brahmans worked and lived in the northern district. military establishments . Generally. this has led to segregation and creation of enclaves within the city. Diversification of professions due to industrialization in the post-independence era has resulted in further complexity (Becker. and the apparent timelessness and permanence of village life” (Hall. It has been shown that rural values have penetrated the urban philosophy due to large-scale migration. metalware. At the time of independence in 1947. There was further subdivisions within each district depending on the sub-caste. counting houses. Areas for selling of specific goods – cloth. 1978). Large migration of people from the rural area.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 27 The residential districts were divided among the four castes. A generalization of these patterns has been made. The Brahmans and Kshatriyas lived in the parts of the town which were climatically more comfortable sheltered from the hot sun. 1980). The three leading theories described below are based on the built form of the city. 3. Kshatriyas in the eastern and southeastern part. Many researchers have tried to fit Indian urban growth into a theoretical model. During this time. and wood formed niches in the urban pattern. and Hindu elements of this period are not distinct from earlier ones. Vaishyas in the southern part and Sudras in the western district. many researchers have pointed to the lack of penetration of urban values into the countryside. Residential areas associated with the commercial area were contiguous or within the commercial area (Hall. The Islamic elements included the mosque and domestic architecture which emphasized the purdah through enclosed courtyards. 1988).) was the third phase of historical urban form. D. the same theories are being used to describe the social patterns as well. “In the case of India. 1989).the cantonment . 1980).7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns . D. but also on socioeconomic factors (Ramachandran. The residential character throughout this period was segregated. jewelry. As the built form depends on the social characteristics portrayed by its residents. 1986).were developed (Hall. jali (carved screens) and projecting balconies (Kopardekara. These are the theories which pertain to the built and social form of the city. On the periphery of these urban centers. Residential segregation is no longer based only on occupation and caste.). especially seen in the port cities associated with the East India Company (Mills. 1992). the Hindu tradition continued. India inherited a complex urban fabric.
and especially in Chicago. they moved to better housing districts (Burgess. The movement was towards the periphery. 1929). 1992). it is a descriptive framework to CBD analyze spatial organization of land use in a city Transition and its change over time. 3. and studying how the city grew (Scargill.1 Concentric Zone Theory This theory put forth by Burgess in 1925 related population mobility and societal organization to the physical expansion of the city (Burgess. 1990). The next zone had lower income housing. The three leading Western models are: i Concentric zone model i Sector model i Multiple nuclei model These models have become frameworks for studying urban social patterns across the world (Hartshorn.7. Mobility and migrant influx were though of as the main cause of the social pattern (Hartshorn. free Middle income market. others dynamic in nature. 1929). It was partly based on Low income economic factors. 1979).2 Concentric Zone Theory Burgess’ research on the distributional pattern of Source: Burgess. The public transport system had also improved significantly and allowed the middle-class to . some static. This also forced an outward expansion. The basic premise in this model was that of succession and invasion whereby population groups gradually moved out as their economic and social status improved. 1929). This was surrounded by a transition zone. Burgess was interested in determining a pattern for the social structure of the city. In the early 1920s. The model made many assumptions such as uniform land surface.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 28 Various spatial theories of the social pattern of cities have been advanced.2). The same city may express different models at different time periods (Scargill. which were being taken over by the expanding CBD. These immigrants first found cheap housing in the inner city. Figure 3. The CBD core had all major commercial. Thus. 1979). political and social activities. which had factories and slums. Families moved out into the next zone when their zone was invaded. 1992). 1929 various groups of society led him to conclude that the city was made up of concentric zones with the central business district (CBD) at the center (Figure 3. With affluence. High income heterogeneous population and a commercialindustrial base (Herbert and Thomas. This model was based on Burgess’ experience in the American mid-west cities. It also had older residential districts. accessibility to a single-centered city. Diversification in employment opportunities gave rise to the growth of mixed land use development. most American cities in the mid-west absorbed many immigrant groups from Europe. and successive zones had higher income residences (Burgess.
industries may cluster around the railway line or lowincome housing along a riverbank. This is because concentration of certain activities may prove to be more beneficial. 1992).3 Multiple Nuclei Theory The multiple nuclei theory was put forth by Harris and Ullman. 1978). It gives strength to cities with original nucleus in the center. Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. and subsequent decentralization (Figure 3. 1939). This model proposes that patterns in many cities be arranged around several centers (Scargill.3 Sector Theory Source: Hoyt. The wedge pattern represents residential area growth (Scargill. For example.3). He said that residential sectors of similar rent are situated in wedges radiating from the center (Figure 3. Neighborhoods for each income group are common. It was intended to serve as a framework for studying urban growth and change (King and Golledge. Hoyt primarily studied residential land use. commercial ethnic group residential industrial Figure 3. 1979). 1939 3. The original model did not take into account specialized clusters of industry.2 Sector Theory Homer Hoyt put forth a land use theory after studying over 100 cities in the U. and Golledge. Hoyt also stressed the need to consider zoning laws and slum clearance laws in making models. Hence. These reasons complemented a concentric zone development model (Scargill. empirical studies did not confirm his model one hundred percent (Herbert and Thomas. The model is very simple and can be used to predict how urban land markets work. 1979). The model also accounts for growth along transport routes. 1978). 1992 . 1979). Hoyt studied the city as an economist concerned with how the housing market worked.7.4). Burgess has been criticized for not having considered topographical criteria. This model also accommodates growth (Hartshorn. 1978). It also did not explain the impact of transport networks on these zones (Scargill. It is more specific to some cities (King and Golledge.4 Multiple Nuclei Theory Source: Hartshorn.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 29 travel from outer zones to the CBD for work. S (Hoyt. Concentric zones or sectors may emerge from these nuclei. 1990). The real world is more complicated than what was represented by Burgess’ very general model. This is not a generalized model.7. However. 3. 1979). Rental value was the main criterion for studying the pattern (King.
8 Case Studies of Urban social Patterns The study of the urban social pattern of a city primarily focuses on the residential land use (Herbert and Thomas. family status used the variables related to demographics and type of house. The use of these three indices for analysis is a social area analysis. The outward mobility is related to different stages of life . are suitable modifications of the concept (Timms. The city was viewed as a part of society. 1979). It is not only a physical design concept. 1990). the neighborhood unit is used as the unit of analysis in the study of human settlements (Herbert and Thomas. employment.1 Western Cities Many studies of the social and physical urban pattern have been done. neighborliness. it does not address the needs of a social environment. 1992). Critics say that neighborhood unit strongly emphasizes physical environment. This concept.8. It is assumed that any planned city consists of neighborhood units. It serves as the building block to construct the whole town. Analysis of individual cities shows that the pattern is not uniform and is characterized by residential segregation. This is . security and identity. This type of urbanization is also related to the housing market described by Hoyt (1939). Social rank used the variables. housing choices may not be made on economic basis. As a family’s needs for space increase. housing conditions and material possessions. ethnic status used religion and social groups. 1990). The broad generalization of the social rank produced a sector model. In the analysis of urban social patterns. The main assumption here was that social rank is related to transportation links which influence residential location in a sectoral manner (Scargill. These were social rank. however. and social change was expected to be reflected in studies which were repeated over a time period (Herbert and Thomas. The non-uniform pattern is consistent over many cities because similar households exert similar housing choices. Individualistic frameworks. which analyze the physical environment under consideration. safety. The data source was census tracts. In the built environment this corresponds to ethnic neighborhoods (Timms. 1979). In Western cities the reasons for non-uniformity have been identified as socioeconomic status. For example. education. Family status in American cities shows a concentric distribution. The concept of neighborhood units became popular since the1920s in planned settlements (Perry. value of home. has been under strong criticism (Hartshorn. community and social and civic responsibilities such as aesthetics. Hence. ethnic status and family status (Timms. Ethnicity causes the social phenomena of segregation. family status and ethnic status. 1971). A neighborhood unit is not the only model or universally appropriate unit of analysis. A neighborhood is the basis for formally organized residential space. 3. parenthood. three indices were used. but also an expression of socioeconomic and cultural values of the people.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 30 3. It is only the most convenient one. 1971). However. 1971). 1929). they move outwards. but on cultural ones. every city has some constraints.marriage. 1990). social status and retirement (Scargill. The values are also related to family.
Winnipeg.5 Urban Social Patterns Source: Knox. Canada (Herbert and Thomas. Public open spaces are generally found only . Studies of Brisbane. 1990) showed similar results. 1992. socioeconomic status. Australia (Timms. however. Hartshorn. Ethnicity. 1971). A study of Baltimore (Knox.8. 1995) shows that the four important factors in the social pattern are underclass. Traditional places are typically more dense with narrow streets and housing spaces around central courtyards. does not always emerge as an independent component (Scargill. youth/migrants and black poverty. Cities in the Third World are frequently dual environments. The changing pattern of family cycle reflects concentric zones while that of social rank is in sectors. 1979). traditional and modern design elements juxtaposed in seemingly dichotomous ways.2 Third World Cities commercial ethnic group residential industrial Ethnic Status CBD Transition Low income Middle income High income Family Status Socioeconomic Status Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. 3.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 31 predominant in cities where migration is high. 1995. but socially with more complex relations to one another.
1986). 1986 Literacy and ethnic patterns emerged in a sectoral form. 1986). The residences of the richer class formed the first concentric zone around the plaza. But. 1980. the morphological pattern of each Third World city is different mainly because of the presence of an indigenous city enclosed by a colonial city. A large number of models of Third World cities have been made (Lowder. Source: Lowder. along riverbanks). land use. and subsequently surrounded by an industrial city (Lowder. social and economic variables may not be the only factors. 1974) found that social status. which is adjacent to. Social morphological models constructed for the Third World cities show that there is a central concentration of commercial activity and a number of residential neighborhoods. The migrants and poor did not live in the core of the city.7). 1975). Thus. The more Figure 3. family ties. as opposed to conglomerations. which contribute significantly to the urban pattern (Kopardekara. Western ideas of suburbanization and formed their Source: Drakakis-Smith own neighborhoods (Lowder. substandard living conditions and ethnicity were the broad variables that defined the social pattern of the city. Even single cities. The second and third concentric zones were occupied progressively by poorer people. traditional commercial areas and modern commercial areas.7 Asian Ports pattern showed concentric zones for land use. Around the plaza was the important buildings including a church. The nuclei are original village. The morphological model of Asian port cities shows a multiple nucleus (Figure 3. and surrounds old Delhi (Figure 3.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 32 around religious buildings. The center of the city was the plaza. but formed shantytowns in the peri-urban fringes and in unserviced areas (under bridges. The social Figure 3. . A classic example can be seen in the design of New Delhi. are very complex and have evolved over a very long time.6 Plan of Delhi and New educated and professional classes followed the Delhi. 1990). 1986). ethnicity and literacy. The model shows that the indigenous elite were closely associated with the commercial area. 1986). Processes quite different from those in western cities govern the pattern of Third World cities. The colonial cities in Latin America show a centralized social pattern (Portes. A study of Colombo (Herbert and de Silva. The modern place is more spacious.6) (Herbert and Thomas. An analysis of Calcutta showed a pattern based on land use.
The outer ring bordered on farmland (Figure 3.8). The nature of traditional social status and the interdependence and spatial interpretation of diverse. new definitions had to be made.8 Latin American Cities America. 1975). A consistent relationship existed between socioeconomic position of the household and their distance from the center of the city. i Symbolic functionalism is performed by religion and caste and buttressed by regional affiliations.8. caste. languages and customs. religion and language rather than demographics and economics can be seen. The pattern is similar to the one described by the sector model of North Figure 3. status groups help to produce a very obscure patterning of social groups at the micro-level of analysis. Santiago and Chile Source: Lowder. climatic and aesthetic factors. In the 18th and 19th centuries. "Particularly in cosmopolitan cities cultural or linguistic diversity and regional associations develop to extol their culture and language and to participate in their own . Soon. 1986). industrial and office workers belonged to all castes. Many studies have been done to study Indian urban areas. many large cities became crowded. 1986 residential colonies moved from the center of the city to the urban periphery which were selected for their better geographic. For example.3 Indian Cities In cities of India. farming is done only by the Sudra caste. Soon socioeconomic status related to nearness to the center became related to distance away from the center. and especially to construct a structural model. Wealthier families began to move out of the center and settle in more isolated locations. In the cities where new professions were created. in rural areas. A second indigenous factor suffusing urban society is that of regional affiliation. the poorer the household (Cornelius. But. The greater complexity of urban life and the difficulty of maintaining caste identity through residential segregation alone. the farther away from the center. The social ties are horizontal and vertical. In Lima. the Indian urban social scene essentially reflects two facets of non-western structure (Hall. yet complementary. in general. 1980): i Residences have not yet come to serve the symbolic function they do in the Western world. Research findings point out that while caste is important in rural societies for its very functioning. 3. It has been found that Indian cities defy social modeling. in urban environments the meaning of caste becomes more important in terms of identity rather than function. The pattern was a creation of the lifestyle choices of the urban rich (Portes. spatial segregation based on ethnicity. the residences became smaller and public amenities were reduced. and religious duties performed by the Brahmins.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 33 Here. has created social organizations for each caste (Kopardekara. 1977). The horizontal relationships are between people of the same cultural background while vertical relationships are between caste and class.
i South Indian cities had higher female employment rate. However. higher literacy. higher migration and equal male to female ratio. had retained their residential core (Mehta. 1980:35). Pune and Varanasi. Temple Bazaar Centroid Fort Brush (1977) studied 24 cities in India and discerned four types of gradients of population directly related to their Figure 3.9). Industrial towns like Jamshedpur were planned around their industrial core. 1974 evolutionary pattern. such neighborhoods are the source for the development of the corporate groups. i Metropolitan cities (Bombay. low literacy. Certain areas are known for their residents speaking a particular language only. cities that were well developed even before the colonial period. had western style CBDs. i North Indian cities had low female employment rates. These three dimensions were i socioeconomic dimension symbolized by the bazaar i political dimension represented by an administrative symbol i prestige dimension derived from the religious function of a temple. Calcutta) has low-density commercial centers surrounded by high-density residential neighborhoods. Chandigarh) have low population densities with no concentration of industrial. 1968). low migration and equal male to female ratio.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 34 regional festivals if not usually celebrated in the region within which they live now" (Hall. The centroid of the system represents the optimum location for accessibility to all three functions. Their influence and interplay causes residential segregation. These three dimensions would form concentric zones (Figure 3. Hyderabad had two nuclei – the old city and the colonial city. . Weinstein (1974) made an attempt to produce a conceptual model for the social segregation of an Indian city. i The modern planned cities (Jamshedpur. and that the temple acted as the most meaningful focus for the spatial distribution of social characteristics. Madras. commercial or administrative areas. Although the neighborhoods that result are not corporate groups in the sense in which they are defined. He had the following conclusions. Bombay. it was found that multiple nuclei were present. real case studies did not prove this theory. colonial cities. Calcutta and Madras. Ahmad (1965) did a factor analysis of the socioeconomic characteristics of Indian cities. Instead. He postulated three dimensions as being important contributors to residential segregation.9 Pattern of Indian Cities Source: Weinstein.
1901. British cities and industrial towns within the boundary of the urban area. languages. A systematic analysis of census data for Bombay was done (Kosambi. 1986). Census data from 1881. commercialism. The patterns were attributed to Europeanism. The presence of many religions. Analysis at the level of a single city gave patterns that are more complex. The existence of multiple physical urban patterns caused by the presence of indigenous settlements.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 35 Such broad conclusions are results of regional analyses. . The social patterns were also strongly influenced by the age of the city. transportation and socioeconomic status (Kosambi. religious polarity. 1831 and 1961 was used to determine the evolution and change of the social pattern. castes and classes produces a more heterogeneous pattern. 1986). These examples show that the urban social pattern of Indian cities is very complex due to the influence of a variety of factors.
. Hartshorn.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 36 C oncentric Z one T h eory S ector T heory Incom e g rou p 1 M ultiple N uclei T heory commercial ethnic group CBD Tran sitio n L ow incom e M iddle inco m e H igh inco m e In com e g roup 2 residential industrial In com e g rou p 3 D elhi Latin A m erica A sian P orts C oncentric + S ector T heories C hicago C alcutta C oncentric + S ector + M ultiple N uclei T h eories Figure 2. 1986. 1992. Source: Lowder.10 Urban Social Patterns and Relevant Case Studies.
1992). However. power and status. the components derived from social area analysis were termed as socioeconomic status. The lifestyle depends on ethnicity and migration. an effort was made to prevent this social stratification and use residential allotments to fulfill this objective. skills and professions. In the case of India. In such a case study. These characteristics stratify the society into vertical and horizontal systems. Male dominance. Migration may also be restricted to the men of the family. The growth of cities across the world has been studied. The residential neighborhoods of such cities are not as well defined as they are in the American cities. religion and language. migration or ethnic group represent the ethnic factor. class. or in search of opportunities in the city. In the design of Navi Mumbai. The components of the analysis of American cities are not entirely apparent in the Third World cities. Traditional Indian cities have grown over a very long period of time.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 37 3. Social area analysis assumes that a few independent factors can explain the spatial patterning of a city. The urban social pattern of these cities has been generalized. In the case of Navi Mumbai. the researcher’s knowledge of the local environment is important to contextualize the pattern more appropriately. this social area analysis must take into consideration the indigenous factors. Three leading western theories describing the urban social pattern of cities dominate the literature on urban social patterns (Hartshorn. the sociocultural factors are related to caste. . this is not evident due to the existence of multi-generational families. The lifestyle factor in North American cities relates small nuclear families with higher education achievements and better employment opportunities. Status in Third World cities is based on family membership or socioeconomic class. it is appropriate to use a social area analysis to delineate the urban social pattern. the residential neighborhoods have been designed using the neighborhood principle as those designed in America. These are concentric zone theory. Stratification causes social inequality in terms of wealth. In Third World cities. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. family status and ethnic status. The reasons for migration are also varied – they may be migrating as a result of natural calamities.9 Conclusion The urban social pattern is the complex manifestation of the underlying cultural values of the population within a particular built environment. Land-use is also similar in that it is predominantly single-use zoning. These theories have been combined in a social area analysis to describe the social pattern based on a few social variables. In the American cities. A market economy strongly influences the lifestyle of the citizens of Navi Mumbai. Here. The historical evolution of cities has supported this stratification. The households are generally large with a range of ages.
1985). These involve population. 1978). The general issue of social areas will be accomplished through social area analysis. Thus. These three factors also corresponded to the theoretical models proposed by Burgess. studies in Calcutta. Earlier. Generally the economic model showed a sectored pattern. They were considered to be very narrow and not universally applicable. The pattern of the city may be determined by statistical analysis or by discerning people’s mental images of the city. religion and ethnic background. urbanization and segregation. urbanization index. The aim is to identify key combinations of different measures that provide an adequate basis on which to differentiate the sub-areas from one another (King and Golledge. there was considerable criticism about the choice of variables. The research investigates the relationship between the spatial pattern of Navi Mumbai and the different theories of urban social patterns discussed in the literature review. and ethnicity confirmed the validity of the analysis. family status and ethnic status. Cities are complex entities that have many different functions performed by many different people. 1971). The family as a unit becomes weaker.1 Social Area Analysis Social area analysis provides a broad framework for analyzing the social patterns of a city. and Harris and Ullman will be the theoretical framework for the conceptualization of the social pattern of Navi Mumbai. The social area analysis may be done statistically by a factor analysis. economic. Social area analysis shows how family characteristics. and housing characteristics. The analysis looks at the variables at once and at their respective locations in their distribution. 1955).socioeconomic status. This analysis classifies census tract data into three main constructs . The basic premise of social area analysis is that a city cannot be studied in isolation from the overall society (Shevky and Bell. economic status and ethnic background produce a certain spatial pattern in the city.Chapter 4: Research Design Determining the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai is the primary research objective of this thesis. Under these conditions. Although these analyses have been more effective for studying North American cities. Cairo and Helsinki showed some useful generalization. Hoyt. the city was analyzed as a composite made up of three layers. The study involves the categorization of a city based on social rank. Better transportation systems increase mobility and lead to a greater sorting of population (Cadwallader. A set of variables describing the social structure of the city can be used in the statistical analysis. It is a . The theories put forth by Burgess. 4. mapping of social area analysis for a large sample of cities showed that socioeconomic status. The issue of spatial distribution of different kinds of people in Navi Mumbai is of primary interest. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. immigration of rural population leads to segregation based on language. It was first put forth by Shevky and Williams (1949) in a study of Los Angeles. The increase in industrialization creates an occupational status system (Timms. These factors are taken into consideration in social area analysis. However. Hoyt and Harris and Ullman. the urbanization component showed a concentric ring pattern.
This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. caste) dimensions (Hall. 1980). 4. 1990). religion. The variables are tabulated below: Table 4.3 Operationalization Certain variables will be used to operationalize the social area analysis to obtain the urban social pattern. 4.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Socioeconomic status Profession Number of earning members Income Education Family status Demographics Women at home Family size Dwelling size Type of house Year of occupation Ethnic status Religion Language 4. and each sector (neighborhood) of the nodes. Social structure in India is a result of cultural.4 Data Collection The data required for the analysis can be obtained from census tracts of Navi Mumbai. H0. In this case study of Navi Mumbai. religious and historic development with both horizontal (kinship. If H0 is false.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 39 device that seeks interrelationships among the set of input variables (Herbert and Thomas. education. The data available is based on a . my null hypothesis. family status and ethnic status correspond respectively to the sector theory. is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social patterning will occur. mapping of social patterns in many cities across the world show that the socioeconomic status.2 Hypotheses As discussed in the literature review. This provides a spatial hierarchical data set. concentric zone theory and multiple nuclei theory. The sectors (neighborhoods) are identical to census block tracts. This database provides aggregated information about each node (township). Social area analysis based on western thinking can not be naively applied to the study of urban social patterns in India. language) and vertical (occupation. Variables that arise from such cultural determinants need to be used in the factor analysis. then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories.
The single variable from that data set is selected and a histogram of it at the . The variables are expected to cluster based on the constructs described above.357 Survey Coverage 6656 4219 2125 2034 2282 2530 2506 544 % of total 24 26 23 22 25 19 18 23 The issues of validity and reliability arise in the use of census data for testing the hypothesis. The third is cluster analysis of the cases to see which variables are closely associated. is census data.5 Methodology Four methodologies are used to analyze the data. and compare it to other cities. and at the sub-regional scale attached as Appendix C.1 Descriptive Analysis The first stage of analysis describes the data at both the regional and sub-regional scale. An error of 5-8% is expected. the sector is the unit of analysis. for the purpose of this thesis it shall be used. All data is standardized.283 Nerul 16. 4. the units of analysis are not identical.338 Belapur 9.109 Kalamboli 9. The survey was carried out on a ~22% sample basis for each node. At the regional scale the data is tabulated.161 Sanpada 2. The GIS and mapping techniques convert all the statistical information into a graphic representation. The descriptive analysis helps understand the finer dimensions of the data. data covering a large area is required.5.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 40 socioeconomic survey done by CIDCO in December 1995. Although principal components analysis is no longer considered the most favorable mode of analysis to delineate patterns. although variables are related.056 New Panvel 9. Statistics are weighted for spatial data because. These are techniques in multivariate analysis. Finally. In this research. cartographic mapping. This is a detailed stage of analysis. The second is a principal components analysis. The census data is not 100% reliable.007 Airoli 13. The first is a descriptive analysis of the data setting out the parameters that need to be considered to define the meaning of heterogeneity. These four methods are collectively used to analyze the data. The cluster analysis puts together cases which are similar based on the relationship between the variables. For a social area analysis.2 Survey Sampling Node Total Number of Dwellings Vashi 27.378 Kopar-khairane 14. Table 4. The only data source that provides this information. 4. and GIS overlay techniques are used to determine the social pattern at the regional and sub-regional levels. The principal components analysis draws out the relationship between the variables.
3 Cluster Analysis Classification of data places objects in one or more homogenous groups. The rotation normally removes the negative loadings. The second step is to rotate the axis to get a simpler solution. Principal components analysis can be thought of as four matrices. 4. The elements of the eigenvectors that are used to compute the scores are called principal component loadings. These loadings indicate the strength of the relationships between variables and underlying components.5. If the standard deviation at the 95% confidence interval is within 15% of the mean.2 Principal Components Analysis A principal components analysis reduces a large number of variables to a smaller number of underlying components. This solution determines whether a small number of the components can be used to explain the covariance between a large number of variables. it is necessary to provide a permissible range of variation. It has very little theory and depends largely on experience.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 41 sub-regional scale is drawn. The data matrix is converted into a correlation matrix.7 are not significant in the correlation matrix. The eigenvalue criterion (eigenvalue greater than or equal to 1) helps eliminate components which are not meaningful. then the pattern shall be interpreted as homogeneous. This matrix contains components that represent a group of interrelated variables. The data is interpreted in terms of its mean and standard deviation. 1986). The first matrix is a simple data matrix. Characteristics of the urban social pattern can be revealed by considering the relationship within groups. Each original observation is converted into a principal component score. The cases are the rows and the variables are the columns. This matrix is next converted into a factor matrix. 4.5. 1978). Patterns can be delineated from mapping these components. Comparative figures at the national scale are also given. Rotating the axis more closely intersects the clusters of variables. The axis has been rotated orthogonally (assuming the factors are uncorrelated). A variation greater than thirty percent of the total population from the mean (15% on either side of mean) is used here to show unequal distribution. These restrictions are (1) there are k common components (2) underlying components are orthogonal to each other (3) the first component accounts for as much variance as possible. The . Cluster analysis classifies the groups according to the observations into moreor-less homogenous and distinct groups (Davis. In order to interpret this descriptive statistics for homogeneity. and results in a simpler pattern. the matrix of component scores is computed. This is varimax rotation. certain restrictions are imposed. Principal components are the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix (Davis. "To obtain the initial solution. The first step of principal components analysis is to obtain an initial solution. Corresponding communalities are also estimated. Generally variables with communalities less than 0. and so on" (Kim and Mueller. 1986). Finally. The N by M matrix is standardized in terms of standard deviation. This approach to classification is very subjective. the second component accounts for as much of the residual variance left unexplained by the first factor. The initial solution is based on the orthogonal solution.
Mapping of the principal components determined if any pattern exists in the social characteristics of Navi Mumbai at the regional and sub-regional scales. This method joins similar observations. A low distance would indicate that two objects are similar and a large distance would indicate that the two objects are dissimilar. . The SPSS program was also used to perform a principal component analysis and a cluster analysis on this data set. as is the correlation coefficient. 4. then connects the next most similar observations to these. and so produces better dendrograms. This mapping helps explain the statistics through a easily interpretable graphic representation. namely Vashi. The levels of similarity are used to construct the dendrogram. 4.0 to -1. The regional scale was comparisons between the eight nodes of Navi Mumbai. and the statistical analysis to determine an interpretation of the pattern. The distance coefficient is not constrained within the range of +1.0.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 42 classification procedure used here is hierarchical clustering. This stage of analysis integrates the theoretical framework.4 Mapping and Overlays The final stage is the mapping of the descriptive analysis. Analysis was then done of one particular node of Navi Mumbai. The criteria for clustering is that both observations mutually have the highest correlation with each other. A correlation coefficient or distance coefficient may be used to evaluate similarities. Both the analyses were done at a regional and sub-regional scale.5. principal components analysis and cluster analysis. The aim of these two kinds of analysis was to determine if the data set clustered into the three constructs given above. A measure of similarity between every pair of objects is computed using Euclidean distance. Distance coefficients are linked at low values.6 Data Analysis Descriptive analysis of the data was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS.
Vashi is the oldest node. only then would they bring out the characteristics of the construct. Muslim Language Marathi. it was selected out of the eight nodes. Kalamboli. m.1 Introduction The aim of this research is to study the urban social pattern of the population across a hierarchical scale. female pop. This spatial scale is • regional scale (nodes). As this node had the most complete data. 2651-4450 Education high school Family status Demographics Male pop. Kopar-khairane. Then the data set was studied at a sub-regional level by analyzing the neighborhoods of Vashi node. Malayalam . 5. As the 1995 survey data was the most recent data. Data for the regional and sub-regional scale was collected from the 1995 socioeconomic survey conducted by CIDCO. The methodological reason for selecting these eight nodes out of the total of thirteen is because data was available for only these eight nodes. • sub-regional scale (sectors of a node) The study areas at the regional level of analysis are those of the nodes of Navi Mumbai including Vashi. age 25-45. unskilled status Number of earning members 1 earning member Income Rs. Airoli and Sanpada. The analysis is divided into descriptive analysis of variables and detailed analysis at the regional and sub-regional. Type of housing CIDCO Tenure 1980s Last place of residence Bombay Ethnic status Religion Hindu. Nerul. The criteria used to select the variables were based on the expectations of the hypothesis.1) with the actual variable from the data set. All the variables belonged to closed sets. it was used for analysis. Hence. Table 5.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Name Variable from data set Socioeconomic Profession highly skilled. only one or two representative variables from each set was selected. The variables needed to explain the constructs as well as possible. Belapur. One or two variables from each set was selected for this study.Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 5. Panvel. and has fully developed residential sectors. age 25-45 Family size 4 to 5 members Dwelling size 26-35 sq.2 Descriptive Analysis of Data The different constructs and variable names described in the methodology section are tabulated below (Table 5.
Seventy-five percent of families had one earning member and twenty percent of families had two earning members (Table 5. and form the socioeconomic indicator.8% recorded in the 1987 survey) of the population makes up the workforce of Navi Mumbai.67 in Greater Bombay.99 The average number of earners per household is 1.12 1.2Work Force Percent of male Percent of female population in work population in work force force Vashi 53 10 Nerul 55 7 Belapur 52 12 Kalamboli 54 6 Panvel 57 8 Kopar-khairane 56 10 Airoli 53 7 Sanpada 58 9 Mean 54.2. All these variables are closely correlated. Table 5. Table 5. 30430 are the working population.15% (a slight increase from 32. 5. The percent of males and females is shown in Table 5.62 Standard Deviation 2.75 8. Better education facilitates getting better jobs and higher income. while it is 1.3).35.3 Number of Earners Single 2 3 4+ Vashi 68 23 6 2 Nerul 78 16 3 1 Belapur 68 22 4 2 Kalamboli 79 15 4 1 Panvel 78 17 3 1 Kopar-khairane 76 17 5 1 Airoli 74 20 4 1 Sanpada 70 19 7 2 Mean 74 19 5 1 Standard deviation 5 3 1 1 . A profession brings with it a certain prestige and social class.2. Number of earning members: Out of the total population of 91787 recorded in the survey.2 and the number of earners in Table 5. 33.1 Socioeconomic Status The socioeconomic status is an indicator of social class. Data tables for the sub-regional scale are given in Appendix C.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 44 All data tables are for the regional scale while the histograms are from the sub-regional scale. An increase in the number of earning members increases family income and the socioeconomic class.
0 70.4 Occupational Classification of Workforce Highly skilled unskilled office selfteacher other skilled worker worker assistant employed Vashi 45 12 12 15 9 4 3 Nerul 38 23 13 15 4 4 3 Belapur 47 12 8 20 3 6 4 Kalamboli 24 31 20 12 8 3 2 Panvel 43 19 9 16 4 7 2 Kopar-khairane 20 9 41 9 9 0 12 Airoli 34 18 44 12 5 1 4 Sanpada 49 9 20 14 3 3 2 Mean 38 17 19 14 6 4 4 Standard Deviation 11 8 11 3 3 2 3 Frequency . 25% of the workforce is employed there. The pattern is homogeneous.0 75.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.3 N = 19127. Dev = 7. The standard deviation is 11. Government offices including banks and public sector enterprises employ 21% of the workforce. In Navi Mumbai this economic class constitutes 38% of the work force.0 80.0 50. At the sub-regional scale the standard deviation is 7.96 (mean=66.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 45 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std. Small businesses account for 15% of the employees. This is most representative of the entire population.0 60. carpenters. The distribution of the singleearner family at the regional level shows a standard deviation of only 5 (mean=74). They form 17% of the workforce. construction workers and trainees. was selected. contractors and consultants. The main reason is that this node is presently under construction and has a large workforce of construction workers. The mean is 74 with a very low standard deviation of 5. the variable.1. This means that the distribution is homogeneous. while service professions such as shops and hotels employ 7% of the workforce. Profession: Good employment opportunities are offered by the manufacturing industries of Navi Mumbai.96 Mean = 66. Professional workers in teaching and medical institutions are 7% of the workforce. Both the values are within 15% of the mean. Skilled workers are factory workers. they are 19% of the work force and the standard deviation is 11.1 Distribution of Single-earner families For the analysis. single earning member. Unskilled persons are construction laborers and housemaids.0 65. Kopar-khairane has a low number of highly skilled workers and a large number of unskilled workers (Table 5. For this analysis classification based on skills is tabulated (Table 5. The distribution of the single earner families is shown in Figure 5. and has a normal distribution over eight cases.3). Highly skilled professionals hold higher level managerial and supervisory jobs or are professional business persons. Table 5.4). On an average.3).0 55.00 45.
2 Frequency of Families with income range Rs.25 7. 2651-4450 The income range of Rs.0 15. and the standard deviation is 6.64 8.5). Both cases do not show a homogeneous distribution of people based on income as the standard deviation is greater than 15% of the mean.2).75 4.13 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5. the standard deviation is 10. in Navi Mumbai it appears that the four income groups have to be redefined based on the median and/or mean income of this region rather than using the national urban averages (Table 5.0 Std. Dev = 10 Mean = 27. Almost 34% of the population falls within this category.0 25.0 45.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 46 The corresponding data was not available at the sub-regional scale. 4200 fell within this range.88 16.46.0 20.0 10.2 15000+ 3 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 1. This shows a proportionately large middle and higher income groups. 4451 and Rs 7500 and • higher income group (HIG) earning more than Rs. 1251 and Rs.0 40.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.0 35. 2651-4450 was selected for the principal components analysis because the median income of Rs.0 30.98 (mean=27. The regional scale shows a standard deviation of 6.26 26514450 27 36 27 46 31 32 39 31 33.38 Standard deviation 0. The monthly average household income is Rs.9) (Figure 5.46 (mean=33. The proportion of EWS:LIG:MIG:HIG is 2:16:34:48.13 1.63 6.5 Household Income upto 12511250 2650 Vashi 2 14 Nerul 3 27 Belapur 2 12 Kalamboli 2 26 Panvel 2 24 Kopar-khairane 2 9 Airoli 1 14 Sanpada 1 5 Mean 1.45) and the sub-regional scale. Income: The income groups are defined by the Government of India’s household income classification into: • economically weaker section (EWS) earning less than Rs1250 per month • lower income group (LIG) earning between Rs. Frequency . 7500 per month. Table 5. 2650 • middle income group (MIG) earning between Rs.0 50. 4900 and the monthly average per capita income is Rs.29 750110000 15 6 12 3 5 9 8 12 8. Thus. 1230.06 1000115000 7 3 5 1 3 7 2 4 4 2.9 N = 19127.46 44517500 30 21 35 21 31 36 34 42 31.
30 .7). while 4% of the population is going to college.63 1. The level of education is categorized into illiterate. primary school education. Most students attend school and college within their node (township). Hence. and 35% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is Marathi (12% did not specify their medium of instruction).52 1. 51% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is English.28 Children Primary secondary 9 5 8 10 8 6 7 8 7.6 Location of Education Institutions Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar.75 1.04 BS MS 22 4 24 5 15 2 9 1 22 4 29 4 13 3 21 4 19. the column titled Vashi shows that some students from all other nodes also go there to attend school or college (Table 5. 12% use public transport.36 technical 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 2 1. Table 5. 10% use bicycles and only 2% go by school bus. technical education. Table 5. Vashi has all the major colleges. children. high school education. secondary school education. Sanpada is the only node without any education facilities. 76% of the students walk to their school or college. The value given represents the highest level of education achieved by at least one member of the family (Table 5.38 3.5 5.25 2.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 47 Education: The survey shows that 27% of the total population is children going to school.38 6.60 14 15 18 20 14 13 16 12 15.66 27 27 30 34 25 27 37 21 28.07 high school 22 17 21 16 19 15 18 25 19.13 3.Airoli Sanpada Bombay khairane Vashi 88 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 Nerul 9 77 2 1 1 0 0 0 10 Belapur 10 12 67 1 1 0 0 0 9 Kalamboli 1 0 1 90 4 0 0 0 4 Panvel 2 1 2 8 76 0 0 0 11 Kopar-khairane 17 0 0 0 0 81 0 0 2 Airoli 7 0 0 0 0 0 83 0 10 Sanpada 47 8 1 1 0 0 16 0 27 In the Bombay region literacy rates are seventy-five percent for adult population.25 1.7 Level of Education illiterate Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 4 3 5 7 3 4 4 4 4.6). Bachelors and Masters degrees.
0 40. 1991) The standard deviation of this variable at the regional scale is 5. The national average for this variable is 16.0 30.07. The age group 16 to 24 is 10% of the 2000 population.07 (mean=28. This age group was selected because it is a subset of the population and it makes most of the decision regarding social choices (Table 5. Dev = 7.13 population.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 48 The variable ’secondary school’ was selected under level of education. Table 5. The working age group of 25 to 44 is 39% of the 1000 Std.2 Family Status Demographics: The nodes of Navi Mumbai have a female to 5000 male ratio of 848 to 1000 (comparative figures for Bombay 4000 are 819 to 1000). Cases weighted by population The present pattern clearly shows Figure 5.0 25.13 (mean=40. The demographic indicators used are male and female population of the age group 25-45.0 35.3). 5. Children up to the age of 15 constitute 33% of 3000 the total population.0 population are in the 60+ range.0 50.8. and at the sub-regional scale is 7.0 20.21 22 -24 25 -44 45 -59 60+ Vashi 4 3 7 15 12 5 34 14 5 Nerul 7 5 10 12 8 5 41 8 3 Belapur 6 4 8 14 12 5 37 11 4 Kalamboli 8 6 11 13 8 5 43 6 1 Panvel 8 4 8 11 9 5 44 9 3 Kopar-khairane 10 6 10 10 8 5 43 6 1 Airoli 7 5 10 14 11 4 39 8 2 Sanpada 7 4 6 10 10 5 43 10 4 Mean 7 5 9 12 10 5 41 9 3 Standard deviation 2 1 2 2 2 0 3 3 1 6000 Frequency .2.6). About 9% of the Mean = 40. and only 3% of the 15.0 45.00 0 45 to 59.8 Male Population below 3 4-5 6 .6 population are in the age group of N = 19127. 28. This level of education is provided to everyone by the government free of cost.5).5% of the population falls under this category with a standard deviation of 5.9 10 -15 16 . Secondary school means an education of up to Grade 10 and the passing of a government examination (matriculation). Table 5.9).6 (Census of India. The variation is not homogeneous at either scale (Figure 5.3 Frequency of Families with at least one a younger population with a high individual with Secondary Education percentage of children.
Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 49 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation of the population is 3 (mean=41) at the regional level.0 42.39 (mean=38) at the sub-regional level (Figure 5. Family size: The average family size is 4. .73 in 1987 to 4.0 34.21 in 1985.0 38.76 and the national average is 5. Dev = 3.10).4 Frequency of male population in the age group 25-45 Figure 5. The population age structure is uniformly distributed over the whole region. but also the need to accommodate older parents. and 3.0 44.0 46.0 Std. In Vashi.0 36. 3000 2000 Frequency 1000 0 32.4).00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. average family size has increased from 3. The reason for this is not only marriage and children. The comparative family size for Bombay is 4.0 48.0 N = 19127.0 40.52.01 for all the nodes (Table 5.0 50.9 Female Population below 3 4-5 Vashi 5 3 Nerul 7 5 Belapur 5 4 Kalamboli 15 10 Panvel 8 4 Kopar-khairane 9 6 Airoli 6 5 Sanpada 6 4 Mean 8 5 Standard deviation 3 2 6 -9 8 10 8 16 8 10 10 8 10 3 10 -15 14 13 14 20 11 9 15 10 13 3 16 -21 11 9 11 13 10 12 10 13 11 1 22 -24 5 7 6 12 9 10 6 9 8 2 25 -44 39 40 40 6 40 37 39 39 35 12 45 -59 10 6 8 6 6 5 6 9 7 2 60+ 4 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 The female population of the age group 25-45 is also uniformly distributed over the study area.0 52.39 Mean = 38. A descriptive analysis of the data over the last 20 years shows that household size has been constantly increasing.
At the regional scale the standard deviation is 5.00 0 42.99 3.10 Family Size Single Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 6000 2. and 5.0 47.0 N = 19127.1 (mean=50. Frequency Cases weighted by population Figure 5.5 Frequency of households with 4 or 5 members Type of Housing: Initially CIDCO built ninety percent of the housing stock.81 4.5).5 57 54 53 52 45 45 56 45 50.8 6.87 4.4 1.5 50. Dev = 5. the data shows more diversification of the housing stock.0 4. 3000 2000 1000 Std.67 3.0 62.7 14 10 13 14 8 10 15 12 12 2.1 6.85 (mean=56) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.5 55.85 5000 4000 The families with a size of 4 or 5 members was chosen as 50% of the population belongs to this category.85 Mean = 56.03 3.5 60. Since Vashi is the oldest node.22 3. .0 57.6 1 2 1 3 5 3 1 3 2.1.9 0.9. All other nodes show a dominance of CIDCO housing (Table 5.5 65.11).3 26 34 31 31 41 41 27 39 33. private builders and cooperative housing began developing residential sectors.10 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0.21 3.4 Average family size 4.9 5.0 67. CIDCO began all construction in Navi Mumbai.4 8.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 50 Table 5. Later.9). The variable has a standard deviation of 5.5 The variation of the data is minimal.5 45.0 52.
0 10.0 100.24 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 Pvt.00 Cases weighted by POP Figure 5. Some houses are mortgage through CIDCO.76 0. CIDCO is still the major owner.38 9. The large deviation shows that private construction has taken place.0 30. private ownership.00 1.24.0 50.0 90.4 N = 19127. This may be one of the main reasons for the greater variability in the pattern at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale.0 60. the strong control is no longer evident.0 80.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 51 Table 5. the oldest node.6).38 Standard Deviation 12. At Vashi. The categories. Dev = 35.77 Pvt.0 Std.62 (mean=66.88 0.0 20. resale and rental fall under private ownership.0 40.24 (mean=89.13 0. Houses built by CIDCO are 90% of the houses available. Frequency .38) while at the sub-regional scale it is 35.6 Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO For this variable. Co-op Commercial 29 2 5 0 9 0 0 1 15 0 2 0 0 0 11 0 8.12 shows present ownership of the house.0 70. CIDCO’s aim to promote heterogeneity was to be implemented by having a strong hold over the housing market. This is a very significant result. The standard deviation is 12.62 Mean = 66.11 Type of Housing CIDCO Vashi 64 Nerul 95 Belapur 91 Kalamboli 99 Panvel 80 Kopar-khairane 98 Airoli 100 Sanpada 88 Mean 89.74 Other 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. Table 5. only houses built by CIDCO was selected. The standard deviation at the regional scale is 12.4) (Figure 5.35 1000 0 0. House 2 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 1. Most government offices that provide housing for their employees obtain long term lease from CIDCO.
25 0.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 52 Table 5.43 Rental 23 36 37 43 36 49 42 26 36. Table 5.0 40.50 0 Standard deviation 8.75 18.00 0.13 Housing built by CIDCO <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 51-75 76-100 101-150 150+ Vashi 11 30 22 14 15 3 2 0 Nerul 7 57 18 8 7 2 1 0 Belapur 0 26 10 33 20 11 0 0 Kalamboli 24 37 24 5 7 2 0 0 Panvel 10 33 16 18 22 1 0 0 Kopar-khairane 0 20 10 42 18 9 1 0 Airoli 0 30 28 17 18 6 0 0 Sanpada 0 61 18 12 9 0 0 0 Mean 6.85 Mean = 14. Dev = 21.65 6.02 3.5 4.0 90. Table 5.12 Ownership of House Mortgage CIDCO Vashi 11 23 Nerul 21 36 Belapur 8 40 Kalamboli 25 25 Panvel 7 33 Kopar-khairane 0 34 Airoli 0 51 Sanpada 15 32 Mean 10.7 Frequency of Housing Built by CIDCO .0 30.63 9.0 80.64 Dwelling size: The average size of dwelling units constructed by CIDCO is less than that built by private builders (Table 5.25 Standard Deviation 9.76 0 10000 8000 The standard deviation of the data was 21.0 20.64 6.25 18.0 60.09 8.75 Private 17 3 4 1 9 1 0 7 5.0 70. 6000 4000 Frequency 2000 Std.2 (Figure 5.25 5.0 10. the private builders are predominantly building for the HIG.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.52 14.13.25 while the mean was 14. While CIDCO is building houses for the EWS/LIG/MIG.2 N = 19127.36 12.0 50.63 14.14).5 8.50 36.7).68 Resale 21 16 0 0 0 14 0 18 8.99 0.88 34.
83 3.13 21.15 Year of Occupation before 1980 1981-85 1986-90 1991-92 1993 1994 1995 Vashi 11 28 24 8 9 14 5 Nerul 0 6 29 10 6 35 14 Belapur 4 23 24 11 13 18 7 Kalamboli 0 5 31 10 11 37 6 Panvel 0 11 14 15 14 34 12 Kopar-khairane 0 0 0 20 18 34 28 Airoli 0 0 47 14 12 16 11 Sanpada 0 0 0 0 8 48 44 Mean 1.12 101-150 8 5 5 0 8 0 0 2 3.76 7.50 2.0 10.8 Frequency of Houses built by Private number of houses occupied between Enterprise nodes (Table 5. Mean = 16.78 12. Table 5. m.00 11.8).67 and mean 10000 16. Cases weighted by population slow phase in the 1970s.63 18.00 0 Tenure: The growth of Navi Mumbai 0. Panvel and Airoli in the latter 1980s and in Kopar-khairane and Sanpada only in the 1990s.88 Standard Deviation 3.94 10.0 The frequency distribution of houses built by private enterprise shows a 12000 standard deviation of 18. Dev = 18.50 .69 10. Only Vashi and Belapur had a household population in the 1980s.88 9. Families began to reside in Nerul.75 2.67 que groups.0 60.14 Housing built by Private Enterprise <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 Vashi 4 2 2 14 Nerul 0 6 6 6 Belapur 0 1 2 2 Kalamboli 0 8 0 0 Panvel 0 0 1 1 Kopar-khairane 0 91 5 5 Airoli 0 0 0 0 Sanpada 13 60 2 2 Mean 37. corresponding to middle income Fre 2000 Std. There is a great variation in the Figure 5.16 51-75 14 8 33 5 18 42 17 12 5.38 29.0 can be divided into three stages: early.38 Standard Deviation 10. middle phase in 1980s and accelerated phase in the 1990s.86 3. Dwelling size was selected 8000 based on type of house. For both CIDCO-built houses and privately 6000 built houses.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 53 Table 5.67 76-100 24 23 9 0 24 1 0 5 3.50 16.2 (Figure 5.0 6.50 14.2 ncy N = 19127.09 13.88 15.0 40.0 50.15).50 15.99 5.0 30. Kalamboli.41 150+ 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 14.13 11. the dwelling sizes 4000 selected was 26-35 sq.0 20.75 3.
34 66.58 4.8) (Figure 5. not entirely accurate as families may have shifted after their first place of residence.19 Navi Mumbai 35. It is thus. 2000 Table 5.42 0. However.25 place of residence are Bombay and 1000 Mean = 52.46 3.36 17.16 Airoli 8.05 4.28 55. 1980s and 1990s account for the entire span of growth of the city.25 (mean=52.27 Kopar 14.0 50.19 26.26 5.9).0 movement within Navi Mumbai. 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation at the regional scale is 20. Dev = 18.17 .04 2.4 4.0 80.23 4.43 Sanpada 17.28 3.63 Mean 11.53 2.56 Belapur 10.36 0.26 6.58 5.11 2.79 deviation Frequency Thane 3.8 0.89 47.78 0.5 2.83 5.29 4.79 2.57 5. this table only indicates the year of occupation of the present accommodation.63 9.2 2.0 60. which can be attributed to the pace of construction.25) and 18.44 2.9 Frequency of Tenure the first stage of relocation where the choice of house is not very important. Only the middle phase was selected as a representative variable.75 2.82 3. This is because any house in Navi Mumbai would be better than the existing living conditions in Bombay.55 23.25 1.34 13.3 68.0 20.0 10.0 70.32 5.62 2.16).82 4.45 0.23 Kalamboli 5.39 Within state 3.2 2.53 32.45 Standard 5.05 1. There is a very large variability.0 30.4 0.23 49.04 6.54 0. Movement within Navi Mumbai shows desire to move to a house of the homeowner’s choice.39 Panvel 3.8 Navi Mumbai (Table 5.94 0. Cases weighted by population Migration from Bombay is usually Figure 5.0 40.07 19.78 39.54 Outside Outside state India 4.94 Nerul 13.20 2.1 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 54 The three time periods of 1970s.54 7.06 6.18 5.15 24.25 0.63 17.16 Previous Place of Residence Island City Western Eastern suburbs suburbs Vashi 18.58 13.51 20.25 (mean=30.51 3. These N = 19127.94 11.85 0 6.65 10. 3000 Previous Place of Residence: The two variables describing previous Std.34 49.14 5.00 0 describe migration from Bombay and 0.
An analysis of the other minority populations also show very large standard deviations.0 60.45 Islam 6 5 4 5 2 6 3 7 4.46 The variables Hindu and Muslim were selected for analysis.98 Christian 6 3 6 4 2 2 3 9 4. eastern suburbs and Thane have been summed up to obtain the variable.67.75 1.0 70. Dev = 9.00 0 35.75% of the total and has a standard deviation of 1.00 2.25 0.50 1. The Hindu population is the majority and is homogenous. Religion: This variable is very important for this analysis because India has a number of well-defined religions. However.0 50.98. western suburbs.0 40. from Bombay and within Navi Mumbai.42 (mean=26.0 N = 19127.0 55. Table 5.17). Ethnic enclaves are formed mainly by religious and linguistic groups. The standard deviation of the families whose previous place of residence was Bombay is 9. The means of the religion variable correspond with the national averages.13 0.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 55 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std. Bombay.35 Sikh 2 3 7 6 1 1 1 3 3.67 Jain 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 65.0 75.33 Buddhist 1 0 2 1 0 2 5 1 1.38 2.75 Standard deviation 4.75% and the standard deviation is only 4. This variable shows the families whose most immediate place of origin is Bombay. 5. The mean is 85.17 Religion Hindu Vashi 84 Nerul 88 Belapur 79 Kalamboli 84 Panvel 94 Kopar-khairane 89 Airoli 88 Sanpada 80 Mean 85.01) at the regional scale and 9.0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.3 Ethnic Status This construct is very important because it is the construct that creates segregation in India.10 Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence The variables.0 45.60 Others 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0. The Muslim population is 4.54 (mean=53) at the sub-regional scale. This variable shows diversification of the population based on a cultural variable (Table 5.2. Frequency .56 Mean = 53. island city. There is a large variation because there has been migration from the rural areas. it is more important to analyze the minority religions to see if they are forming ethnic enclaves.
59 12.69 5.34 3.68 1.80 5.67 1.31 9.74 3.48 3.96 5. Dev = 3.5 14.44 2.57 3.90 2.11 Frequency of Hindus Figure 5. Hindi is the dominant language of the country.64 2.68 4.32 3.00 Frequency 1000 2000 Std.23 7. Marathi is the local language.13 13.66 2.29 2.01 9.53 9.75 Belapur 40.6 12. Bengali an eastern one and Tamil.77 1.37 2. This forms a major minority language.12 Frequency of Muslims The Hindu population is spread uniformly over the study are with standard deviation 4.92 5.04 3.33 5.78 Kopar 67.65 2. Dev = 4.75). Marathi is the local language.32 7.98 (mean=85.97 1.31 3.19 8.19 5.9 N = 19127.29 2.32 0.22 Std. Mean = 82. Malayalam and Kannada southern ones Table 5. Malayalam is the language of the state 1000 miles away.43 8.66 2.Malathi Ananthakrishnan 5000 Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 10000 56 4000 8000 3000 6000 2000 4000 Frequency Std. dev 11.82 3.99 10.4 N = 19127.91 Mean = 6.72 0.72 1.46 Sanpada 63.13 14. .04 1.50 2.27 2.98 8. Punjabi is a northern language.72 1.81 7.11 6. Gujarati is the language of the adjoining state.79 Mean 53.35 3.16 16.41 4. and there is a large population of Malayalam-speaking people in the greater Bombay region.60 5.20 0.17 13. The Muslim population and other minority religions show a nonuniform distribution over the study area.74 2. Language: The variable language is very important in the Indian context because civil violence due to language has taken place across India. 54% of the population speaks this language.53 16.36 4.83 6.33 2. This has been used to study if there are any ethnic neighborhoods formed due to linguistic considerations.50 3.99 1.91 2.48 5.27 16.26 2.34 3.49 11.93 Airoli 42.50 1.47 3.11 6.08 3.08 11.73 Hindi Gujarati Malayalam Punjabi Tamil Kannada Bengali Other 13.12 1.22 The two languages selected are Marathi and Malayalam.50 3.18 Language Marathi Vashi 42.14 2.87 Panvel 66.56 3.76 Kalamboli 55.00 0 0 Figure 5.41 Nerul 45.
0 70.0 20.6).0 Cases weighted by population Cases weighted by population Figure 5.73 (mean=46.77 Mean = 6.0 22.0 30.5 20.14).6) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.14 Frequency of Malayalam The standard deviation of Marathi is 11. The standard deviation is very large showing some areas have more Malayalamspeaking persons than others leading to the conclusion that ethnic enclaves do exist.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 57 6000 6000 5000 5000 4000 4000 3000 3000 2000 2000 Frequency Frequency 1000 Std.5 10.68) at the regional scale and 3. The distribution of families with Marathi as their native language is not very uniform (Figure 5. Dev = 15.0 12.00 1000 Std.22) at the regional scale and 15.0 7.73 (mean=53. which have formed their own enclaves.6 N = 19127.26 (mean=7.19).13).5 5. This pattern is more apparent at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale (Table 5. Table 5.0 0 2. The standard deviation of Malayalam is 3. This is probably the result of the many other linguistic groups.0 60.0 50.19 Spatial Pattern of Variables Variable Regional scale Number of earning members Uniform Income Non-uniform Education Non-uniform Demographics Uniform Family size Uniform Type of housing Non-uniform Tenure Non-uniform Last place of residence Non-uniform Hindu Uniform Muslim Non-uniform Marathi Non-uniform Malayalam Non-uniform .77 (mean=7.0 40.5 15.0 17.5 25.00 0 10.73 Mean = 46. The descriptive analysis suggests that the urban social pattern is not defined by homogeneous socioeconomic classes.9 N = 19127.13 Frequency of Marathi Figure 5. There is a non-uniform pattern in socioeconomic variables as well as in the ethnic variables.0 80. Dev = 3.
The number of variables used in the analysis could not be more than the number of cases.824 and 0.771% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 1. are needed for the complete explanation of the difference in the data. explaining 90% of the variance.3. tenure. The constructs described on page 1 suggest the need for 12 variables.468 explains 43.3 Regional Scale . migration. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 1. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 3.845% of the variation.Nodes 5. as PCA limited the number of variables to 8. nearly 90% of the variance of the 8 nodes lies within a 3-dimensional space. The components with eigenvalues greater than 1 will be used to explain the variance. The principal components obtained from the rotated component matrix are used as they are more simple to interpret. family size. income. However. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix D). or principle components. . the assumption can be made that all the variables are significant and are useful for the study. The communalities of all the variables are very high.902 explains 23.818 explains a variation of 22. The use of PCA as a method of analysis was limited by the small number of cases. and in a range of 0. The variables were weighted by the total population of each node.347% of the variation.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the regional scale uses the eight nodes (townships) as the cases for the study. secondary school education. A PCA was run.728%. The outputs obtained from the SPSS program are used to determine which variables. The total of the communality is 7. Cumulatively these three components explain 89. religion and language. Hence. the variables selected were number of earning members.18.985. Thus. and three components were obtained.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 58 5.
The loadings produced by the principal components analysis for the variables is used to create bar charts to better visualize the magnitude of the loading.5 0.5 1 loading 0. These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component.15 Components in Rotated Space 1.0 education income earner family size tenure religion language migration -.5 C o m p o n e n ts 1.SIZE LANGUAGE va r i a b l e s Figure 5. It does not directly express which.5 RELIGION 0 EARNER EDUCATN INCOME -0 .5 -.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 59 Figure 5.5 1.0 . if any.16 Loadings of Principal Components The eight original variables are combined linearly to define principal components.5 Component 1 Analysis weighted by population of each node .0 -.5 Component 2 0.0 . components contribute more or less to the overall data association MIGRATN TENURE . 5 -1 FAM.0 Component 3 0.0 1.
5.20): Table 5. socioeconomic status and ethnic status.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three components with eigenvalues above 1. As the analysis was constrained by the reduced number of variables. 5.3. Cluster analysis of the scores from PCA ensured that the data was standardized in the same manner for both types of analysis. Kopar-khairane.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 60 The three components are (Table 5. this PCA does not directly correspond to the descriptive analysis. only two clusters were formed. Vashi. Panvel.17 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) . Sanpada. The three components correspond to family status. This analysis does not show any differentiation based on variables of ethnicity.3.2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis was done using the scores obtained from the principal components analysis. Analysis of the raw data was not carried out because the SPSS program did not weight the raw data while running a cluster analysis.20 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Family size Previous place of residence Tenure Component 2 Education Income Component 3 Number of earners Language Religion Name Family status Socioeconomic status Ethnic status with high number of earners. Airoli (Appendix E). As the number of cases was only 8. The cluster analysis shows that the two of the Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine Cluster 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ Node Panvel Kopar Sanpada Nerul Airoli Vashi Belapur Kalamboli -+-----------------+ Cluster 1 -+ +-------------------------+ -------------------+ +---+ -------------+-------+ I I -------------+ +-----------------------+ I ---------------------+ I ---------------------------------------+---------+ ---------------------------------------+ Figure 5. Nerul. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had the nodes Belapur and Kalamboli while the second cluster (Cluster 2) had the rest of the nodes.
More components could have been used. tenure of house in the 1980s. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 2. explaining 73% of the variance. .453% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 2.21 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Education Income Ownership of house Previous place of residence Muslim Component 2 Marathi Component 3 Number of earners Malayalam Demographics Hindu Name Socioeconomic status and Muslim enclave Ethnic status Ethnic status with high number of earners.001% of the variation. high school education. household income range of Rs. linguistic groups speaking Marathi and Malayalam.21) Table 5. 2651-4450.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 61 nodes are different from the other six.4. but interpretation would have been more difficult. Hindus and Muslims. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix F). The extracted sums of squared loadings of the first three components is cumulatively 72. From the data. and three components were obtained. male and female population of the age group 25-45. The PCA shows the communality of the 11 variables to be 8. These were: families with one earning member.75 explains 25. houses built by CIDCO. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 2.463%. The attributes of the principal components are (Table 5.Sectors of Vashi 5. migration from Bombay.917%.4 Sub-regional Scale .581 explains a variation of 23. 13 variables were selected for the analysis. A PCA was run.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the sub-regional scale uses the 23 sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi as the cases for the study. families with 4 or 5 members. The variables were weighted by the total population of each node. 5. and the high percentage of families in the selected income range for Kalamboli. The main reason for this is the high variability in the language data set for Belapur.01.690 explains 24.
6 0. WOMEN . These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component.2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis of the scores obtained from PCA was done.4 0.2 0 -0 . These define which values contribute more or less significance to that particular component. 8 -1 loadings EDUCATN MIGRATN RELGION1 LANGUAG1 LANGUAG2 OWNRSHIP RELGION2 EARNER INCOME MEN va r i a bl e s Figure 5.18 Loadings of Principal Components The bar chart explains the loadings of each variable on the component. 14. 6 -0 . and the third cluster (Cluster 3) had all the rest of the 16 sectors (Appendix G).4. 28 and 29. Three clusters were formed using the 23 cases. 5. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had had only sector 5.8 0.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 62 C o m po ne nts 1 0. The second cluster (Cluster 2) had sectors 12. 16A. 17. 4 -0 . 2 -0 .
19 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine 0 5 10 15 20 +---------+---------+---------+---------+----Sector 2 6 1 4 16 20 9 10 15 26 21 3 7 9A 8 10A 14 29 12 17 16A 28 5 -+ -+---+ -+ +-+ -----+ +-----+ ---+---+ I ---+ +---+ -+-+ I I -+ +---+ I +-----------+ ---+ +-----+ I I Cluster 3 -------+ I I -----------------+ +---------+ ---+---+ I I ---+ +---------+ I I -------+ +-----------+ I ---------+-------+ +---------+ ---------+ I I -------+---------------+ I I -------+ I I I -+---+ +---------------+ I Cluster 2 -+ +-------------+ I I -----+ +---+ I -------------------+ I Cluster 1 -------------------------------------------------+ 5. as Hindus are 83% of the population. This can be translated into a middle-class population. The cluster analysis shows a segregation in Cluster 1 caused by high number of earners with a high percentage of households speaking Marathi and a low percentage of . The second component has only the population speaking Marathi. All the components are equally important and separated only by ethnic variables. It appears that there is a segregation based on the ethnic component.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 63 Figure 5. The first component is one which has a high socioeconomic component dominated by a Muslim population. Again. The third component is the economically active age group dominated by the Hindu population. Each of the three components have an ethnic variable in them. it represents a majority of the population.58. As the Marathi population is 53% of the total population.75 to 2.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three equally important components with eigenvalues in the range of 2. this component also describes the general population.4.
Cluster 2 shows a dominance of households speaking Marathi.6 Conclusion The analysis of the data shows that the urban social pattern appears to be non-uniform at the regional scale. individual households have exercised their choice. the outcome of the implementation strategy shows otherwise. The descriptive analysis of individual variables also shows this non-uniform pattern. although the government policy was to prevent the formation of ethnic enclaves.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 64 households speaking Malayalam. and distinctly driven by an ethnic component at the sub-regional scale. PCA and cluster analysis brings forth the variability of the data and shows which variables and which cases cluster together. . At the sub-regional scale as there is a smaller percentage of CIDCO-built houses. and a strong ethnic component is seen. 5. In summary.
Cluster 1 has two nodes close to each other and BOMBAY Airoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada Nerul Arabian Sea Belapur Panvel possibly influenced by one another.1 Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai .1 shows the spatial distribution of the clusters.1 Regional Scale Figure 6. All the other nodes are in the second cluster.Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion A preliminary interpretation of the data analysis in the previous chapter shows the details of the social urban pattern are best seen in the sub-regional scale. However. 6. a brief interpretation of the regional scale is described here before proceeding to the detailed interpretation at the sub-regional scale. Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Figure 6.
2 shows that different factor scores influence the two Airoli 2 1 clusters. which are contributing to the clustering. Cluster 1 is linked to Factor score 1 0 score 1 and cluster 2 to score 2 -1 Factor score 2 -2 while score 3 exerts almost equal Factor score 3 67116 67116 67116 14543 14543 14543 -3 N= influence on both cluster.SIZE 40 INCOME Kopar-khaira 20 LANGUAGE MIGRATN 0 -20 1 Sanpada Kopar-khaira RELIGION TENURE 2 Figure 6. The variables.3 shows the strength of variables. 100 Panvel 80 EARNER EDUCATN 60 FAM. education and language.2 Average Linkage between Factor Scores Analysis weighted by population Further. 1 2 Figure 6. number of earners and religion.3 Average Linkage between Variables Analysis weighted by population . have an equal influence on the two clusters. previous place of residence and tenure while cluster 2 is affected by income. Figure 6.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 66 3 Figure 6. Cluster 1 is influenced by family size.
and 26. there were twenty-three sectors. 3. Cluster 2 (green) has sectors 2. 9A. .2 Sub-regional Scale At the sub-regional scale.4 Clustering of the Sectors of Vashi Cluster 3 (red) has sectors 1. 16. 17. 28 and 29. 10.4. and Cluster 1 (yellow) has only sector 5. The grouping of the sectors into three clusters is shown in Figure 6. 21. 16A. 6. 8. 12. 10A. More variables could also be used to study these cases. 14. 28 12 29 26 10 15 9 10A 9A 8 7 5 6 4 1 3 2 17 16 14 20 16A 21 Figure 6.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 67 6. 15. 9. 20. 4.
Cluster 1 is also differentiated by Malayalam.6 Average Linkage between Variables Figure 6. Factor Score 2 -4 cluster 2 more strongly by score 2 Factor Score 3 1892 1892 1892 738 738 738 -6 N = 16497 1649716497 and cluster 3 by score 3. . This is a socioeconomic construct.5 shows that the 4 2 three clusters are influenced by different factor scores.6 shows the average linkage between the variables. Cluster 2 is the most significant. Ownership. income and the language Marathi dominate it.5 Average Linkage between Groups Analysis weighted by population 120 EARNER 100 80 EDUCATION INCOME MARATHI 60 40 20 0 -20 1 2 3 MALAYALAM MEN MIGRATION OWNRSHIP HINDU MUSLIM WOMEN Figure 6. another ethnic variable. Cluster 1 is Factor Score 1 8 0 -2 influenced by all three scores. Cluster 3 is an outlier. 1 2 3 Figure 6. but dominated by an ethnic variable.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 68 Figure 6.
8 Distribution of Number of Earners Figure 6.2. The colors red and orange are immediately above.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory As discussed in the literature review.9 Distribution of Income The pattern that emerges on mapping of the number of earners and income variables does not show any particular pattern (Figure 6.7 shows a scenario that could be expected from the mapping of any of the socioeconomic variables. . Figure 6. the study of many cities across the world shows that the socioeconomic construct displays a sector pattern.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 69 6. Figure 6. In both maps the median range is represented by the color purple.8. and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes.7 Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic Variables Figure 6.9). Figure 6. The two variables selected were income and number of earners.
Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion
6.2.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory The study of many cities across the world shows that the family status construct displays a concentric pattern. Figure 6.10 shows a possible scenario in Vashi for a variable representing the family status. The variable selected to describe the family status is ownership of apartment. In the descriptive analysis, this variable showed a great degree of variability. The purple color represents the range within which the mean falls. The colors red and orange are immediately above, and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes. Figure 6.10 Hypothetical Concentric Zone Pattern for Family Status Variables The number of sectors which falls within the mean range is very small. Sectors which have slightly more or slightly less percentage of apartments built by CIDCO are represented by red and orange. It is important to note that five sectors are colored green while one sector is yellow (Figure 6.11). This shows a high degree of variability in the data.
Figure 6.11 Distribution of Ownership of Apartment
Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion
6.2.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory Multiple Nuclei theory supports the spatial pattern of the ethnic factor. A possible solution is mapped for any ethnic variable in Figure 6.12. A language variable and a religion variable were selected from the data set for mapping. The mapping of language and religion variables shows a segregation of both of them. Yellow and green colors, which represent the extremes in the data set, are present in both the variables (Figure 6.13, Figure 6.14). This is especially true of the variable Muslim, which shows a largely non-uniform distribution.
Figure 6.12 Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic Variables
Figure 6.13 Distribution of Households speaking Marathi
Figure 6.14 Distribution of Households which follow Islam
Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion
6.3 Summary The set of figures below shows the mapping of the cluster analysis as well as the individual factor scores.
Figure 6.15 Clustering of Sectors
Figure 6.16 Score 1
Figure 6.17 Score 2
Figure 6.18 Score 3
Although the four maps above (Figure 6.15, Figure 6.16, Figure 6.17, Figure 6.18) show that there is a different colored sector within a group of one color, the multiple nuclei pattern is not very obvious. However, looking at the descriptive analysis, principal components analysis, cluster analysis and the mapping collectively, the multiple nuclei pattern can be inferred. The descriptive analysis brought out the fact that the spatial pattern is
However. The principal components analysis shows that the cause of this spatial pattern is ethnicity. • • putting forth a new theory to generalize social pattern in planned cities in India. the pattern is strongly influenced by factors as year of occupation of the house and reasons for moving. examining the policy instruments and policy goals. the policy has not been successful. . This is the multiple nuclei pattern of an ethnically driven spatial organization. Future research could involve: • • Delineating the pattern at intervals of time to study the change in pattern. The mapping of individual variables and factor scores verifies that within a fairly homogeneous group of sectors there exists a dissimilar sector.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 73 not uniform or heterogeneous.4 Potential Utility of the Research This research is a starting point for further studies in spatial patterns in Navi Mumbai. scaling down the study to stories of individual households to reach a more detailed level of interpretation. 6. In conclusion. The policy of the government to promote social heterogeneity influenced the type of residential construction in Navi Mumbai. a pattern did emerge at this present stage. As Navi Mumbai has been constructed over the last 25 years. as the pattern is not uniform. The aggregation of household data at the sector scale has limited this research from drawing out the finer details of the spatial pattern. The clustering indicates that some sectors are dissimilar from others.
Traditional Indian cities have always had a strong ethnic component in their urban social pattern. India. This was the first cause of separation in residential neighborhoods. The segregation is attributed to the ethnic variables. The government had a very practical interest in avoiding ethnic confrontation. The Muslims came to India as invaders. Housing would be allotted according to the preference of size of dwelling provided by applicants. Households would normally place this preference based on how much they can pay. thus. Bombay is the financial and economic capital of India. However. The government hoped that this would distribute people based on socioeconomics and break barriers based on religion and language. Planning policies in Navi Mumbai were strongly influenced by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. These theories explain the urban social pattern . Navi Mumbai is still dependent on Bombay for much of its activity. Political and administrative boundaries in independent India were decided on linguistic lines. It was also influenced by the concept of the city as a melting pot (Engel. strongly influenced by ethnic variables. Three leading theories put forth were concentric zone theory. and the government had a specific social and political agenda. raise the standard of living and reduce social inequalities. 1991). and formulated a policy to support it. caste. The culture of this race of people is very different from the Hindus. The other feature that is unique to India is the existence of many languages. Partition and the first years of independence were. religion and language. The government also decided to take up most of the initial building construction. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. The draft development plan of Navi Mumbai had very strong functional and social objectives. and provide an infrastructure which would promote ethnic heterogeneity. The religious divide was used in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. One of the social objectives in the planning of Navi Mumbai was to use the government machinery to diversify the spatial distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. Ethnic enclaves have always characterized traditional settlements in India. The Hindu laws and treatises specified residential locations for different castes. Religious tensions have always existed in India. The review of secondary source material shows that urban social patterns have been studied across the world. The thesis addresses this social objective. It was hoped that a majority of the residential construction could be achieved though a policy of swavalambhan (self-reliance) and swatantrya (mutual selfhelp). Areas dominated by Muslims are common in most cities in India. This particular case study was chosen for two reasons: Navi Mumbai is the first planned city that is not a capital city or industrial township. The important objectives of Navi Mumbai were: attract some of the immigrant population. Navi Mumbai is separated from the metropolis of Bombay only by the Thane Creek. support an aggressive industrialization policy.Chapter 7: Conclusion The purpose of this thesis is to delineate the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Every effort was taken by the government to make Navi Mumbai an independent city and not a suburb or satellite city to Bombay.
Using the secondary source material as reference. The second methodology is principal components analysis (PCA). The data at both scales is tabulated. A variation in the data greater than 15% on each side of the mean is considered as unequal distribution. In Navi Mumbai. The methodologies were techniques of multivariate analysis. and histogram drawn of the variable selected from each data set. the family component showed a concentric ring pattern. socioeconomic. The concentric zone theory relates the pattern of cities to population mobility. The similarity between the . These scales were the regional scale of the nodes (townships).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 75 and its change over time. Twenty-three sectors of Vashi were then analyzed. special emphasis has to be given to the ethnic components. Mobility and immigration are the key variables of this theory. In the case of Navi Mumbai this is important because of the policy to prevent segregation based on ethnic variables. Heterogeneity of the population is detected if these three constructs emerge from the analysis. The variables selected are reduced into a smaller number of constructs. The hypothesis put forth in this study is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social segregation will occur. family status and ethnic status. and the sub-regional scale of the sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi node. Generally the socioeconomic model showed a sectored pattern. grouping of variables is expected to be under the three constructs. a cluster analysis was done of the cases of the data set. family status and ethnic status. Social area analysis broadly classifies variables into three constructs. If H0 is false. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. The multiple nuclei theory proposes that patterns could be arranged around several centers. The other variables selected were number of earning members. is an analysis primarily of economic variables. income and education under the socioeconomic construct. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. The first methodology is a descriptive analysis. These are socioeconomic construct. The PCA reduces the dimensionality of the data into a more interpretable form. Analysis of data was done at two scales. The software package SPSS was used to do the analysis. That would indicate that enclaves have not been caused by individual variables. Next. the analysis allowed a more detailed interpretation. and demographics. Analysis was done to map the urban social pattern of many cities across the world. Two religion variables and two language variables have been selected representing the ethnic construct. family size and type of house under family status. The second theory. Succession and invasion based on social and economic status is the basic assumption of this theory. The methodology used was that of social area analysis. Since. then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. The constructs of the social area analysis have been found to correspond to the three theories. Wedge patterns representing income groups are the outcome of the theory. the scale was smaller. sector theory. At the regional scale the analysis was done between the eight nodes to study their similarity. Four methods were used to analyze the data. The variables selected under each construct were drawn out of experience of the researchers.
This is especially true of the ethnic variables. The interpretation of the descriptive analysis shows that the distribution of most of the variables is not uniform. Distribution was originally controlled through allotment of government-built houses based only on purchasing power (and indirectly socioeconomic status). • Was this an experiment in enhancing quality of life or is it a method for the government to exert social control? • The concept of the melting pot has to be re-examined. The urban social pattern is best explained as one of multiple nuclei. and clustering to the urban social patterns detailed in the secondary source material. The principal components analysis shows that the variables are not grouping under the three constructs. graphically representing the analysis. it has not succeeded at this stage. The spatial distribution of households is still characterized by traditional Indian values of ethnic segregation. This indicates that the urban social pattern is strongly influenced by ethnicity. they were mapped under expected and observed conditions. however. A moral analysis of segregation has to be done in the context of the Indian culture. As the socioeconomic variables are expected to take a sectored pattern. thereby. In conclusion. Control is maximum when the government owns all the houses. All three new constructs are dominated by an ethnic variable.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 76 nodes and sectors is determined from this. The research brings to the fore many questions than answers. The policy has not facilitated the distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. the socioeconomic variables also show separation. 2. The pattern could. physical design and the institutional framework need to be examined closely to realize their full impact and to understand the results in their context. . Redistribution shows that people have aligned themselves based on ethnic variables. Even in the houses built by the government resale has taken place. This can be attributed to two reasons: 1. The final stage was mapping of the clusters. The objective. allotment procedure. However. None of the variables selected display a uniform distribution. The hypothesis was proved false. How important is it to promote integration when self-sorting has been the natural process? • Can the Modernist synthesis seeking homogeneity in heterogeneity be used as a template for the Indian culture? • This leads to the question: is the objective valid? Does it have to be redefined or is the implementation strategy to be modified? At this stage it appears that a detailed analysis of the policy instrument and policy goals must be undertaken. family status variables concentric zones and the ethnicity variables a multiple nuclei arrangement. The center is an ethnic enclave surrounded by socioeconomic variables. The interpretation of the analysis also involves comparing the descriptive analysis. The extreme value range in the mapping is important because it represents the dissimilarity in the distribution. The overall pattern of Navi Mumbai is one of multiple nuclei. In Vashi only 64% of the houses were built and allotted by the government. The distribution of these variables shows segregation. be explained using the theories of urban social patterns. although the policy is noble in its aims and aspiration.
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Glossary of Terms Term Cuadra Jali Masjid Padas Panchayati Pucca Purdahs Purushasukta Rashtrabasha Swadeshi Swatantrya Swavalambhan Vastupurusha mandala Vastushastra Meaning Spanish measurement Carved screens Mosque Subdivisions of the cosmic universe Self-government Durable Enclosure Hindu treatise Language of the State Fullest utilization of local resources Self-motivation and self-help Self-reliance Terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe Science of architecture and planning .
S. D. R. CIDCO published its Draft Development Plan. Development plan for greater Bombay was submitted to the State Government. State government notified privately owned land in Navi Mumbai for acquisition. The Bombay Metropolitan regional Plan was approved by the State government. The study group on Greater Bombay recommended a rail-cum-road bridge across the Thane creek. The Gadgil Committee recommended regional planning legislation and regional planning boards. CIDCO was formed. CIDCO was designated as New Town Development Authority for Navi Mumbai. The Board published the Draft Plan with recommendations to set up a twin city. A Committee under Dr. Gadgil was appointed to formulate broad principles of regional planning for Bombay and Poona. Barve. G. Bombay Metropolitan and Regional Planning Board was constituted. . Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act 1966 was passed. Bombay Municipal Corporation decided to prepare a development plan for Greater Bombay.Appendix A March 1958 July 1958 February 1959 July 1964 March 1965 March 1966 January 1967 July 1967 January 1970 February 1970 March 1970 March 1971 August 1973 October 1973 Study group on Greater Bombay set up under the chairmanship of Mr.
. the man of the mechanical civilization could: cross continents: V1 arrive in town: V1 go to essential public services: V2 cross at full speed. One discovered that with 7 types of roads.Appendix B The 7Vs (les sept voies) The 7V Rule was studied in 1950 at the UNESCO’s request (Le Corbusier. 1961). the territory of the town: V3 dispose of immediate accesses to daily needs: V4 reach the door of his dwelling: V5 and V6 send youths to the green areas of each sector. without interruption. where schools and sports grounds are located: V7.
57 8.70 14 77.41 6.79 4 1.29 4.31 3.42 5.43 9.77 21 63.31 20.96 27.09 8.43 12 65.19 19.Appendix C Number of earning members Sector 1 2 3 no.01 25.60 24.22 26.28 3.15 5.00 0.86 0.39 2.64 5 46.08 5.28 21. 1 64.26 2 57.57 23.76 2.00 0.08 8 52.15 9.67 28.38 38.10 0.44 2.76 9A 74.81 1.52 1.00 35.77 10 74.54 0.60 16A 71.89 2.16 30.03 1.25 .89 5.64 3.64 3.16 1.40 6.43 2.49 3.23 21.48 7 62.38 3.58 20.04 26.71 11.48 2.59 27.09 16 65.13 6.35 7.52 18.85 3.89 4.86 28 52.29 22.69 29.73 0.17 8.00 29 82.79 40.63 2.57 15 72.81 7.37 11.81 4 70.99 3 68.33 6.51 26 77.76 1.68 16.16 10A 50.25 11.23 20 69.42 2.72 2.26 4.07 30.92 9 73.26 23.62 mean 66.83 0.83 17 61.58 9.01 6 65.22 std dev 9.06 5.
96 33.41 37.00 29 0.2651.92 21.09 13.23 10 1.48 0.86 10.61 16.90 11.14 25.19 20 6.00 28 0.15 15.19 16.49 22.46 8.48 6.7500.28 18.26 16A 0.49 4.65 0.80 5.51 24.07 18.45 5.41 12.10001.07 35.07 0.53 1.39 34.35 14 0.49 23.45 38.57 1.00 4.10 15.89 45.90 2 1.51 5.97 0.55 30.00 35.00 21 2.63 4.33 11.36 36.70 3.94 4 0.36 26.57 25.14 10.64 6.02 4. Rs.00 10.21 stddev 3.97 28.10 27.07 13.47 12.125 2650 4450 7500 10000 15000 0 1 3.00 0.62 3 1.67 7.37 11.40 8.74 5 2.62 7.45 12.79 18.00 24.06 9A 1.15 8.35 8.00 10.22 3.15 1.11 24.56 7.86 21.39 31.45 6.47 28.27 7.29 8.28 4.82 36.76 0.04 4.00 20.02 7.13 3.89 37.38 10.42 .26 1.73 47.16 24.78 17.15 16 1.18 15 0.18 6.72 0.59 18.90 24.87 30.20 4.94 37.55 42.26 12.76 23.41 8.75 26.78 10A 0.45 mean 2.77 26.48 27.15 9.90 14.48 39.59 9.39 20.30 7 11.46 21.09 2.00 35.20 3.16 12.46 17.70 17.66 9.17 22.88 17 0.92 3.87 0.47 15.00 16.75 6 2.09 39.11 1.58 0.15000+ no.63 40.Household Income Sector upto 1251.00 2.38 7.52 11.00 17.52 4.77 14.00 25.49 3.81 16.47 0.53 1.10 23.08 32.18 10.99 23.00 0.84 18.00 0.18 25.72 44.00 4.82 2.74 28.77 12 13.76 8 0.59 2.4451.71 34.68 34.47 26 0.77 22.92 30.97 7.97 9 2.39 4.
77 2.65 0.98 7.79 3.72 9.38 8.18 7.44 2.32 5.68 1.87 5.82 15.55 9.54 33.00 mean 3.11 12.71 3.71 34.35 10A 1.24 8.44 7 1.60 17.68 4.00 26 3.24 44.60 9.75 27.45 6. e n y ary school 1 3.14 0.64 4.25 28 0.49 16.95 2.13 51.48 0.92 2.35 10.38 3.25 11.16 2.26 1.98 31.14 0.81 42.81 4.81 0.50 14.23 3.21 3.50 11.87 15 4.32 3.43 22.43 2.59 3.44 37.34 16.47 8.82 30.Highest Level of Education Sector illiterat childre primar second high vo-tech BS MS PhD no.82 1.94 4.03 44.54 2.12 1.95 13.98 29.00 14 2.71 9.60 6 2.89 6.35 2.61 9.34 16 3.81 5.23 3.41 8 4.97 1.24 4.47 2.43 4.91 17.14 7.58 2.52 1.07 9.19 0.57 12.64 0.09 46.15 1.64 0.80 17.91 32.03 34.68 5.94 7.41 0.69 26.07 8.08 13.18 3.30 59.97 0.75 4.01 45.96 3.02 4.27 47.90 32.68 4 1.11 34.81 14.55 3.46 5.06 2.72 30.40 0.12 stddev 4.63 4.74 40.09 11.45 0.81 5.73 2.11 2.24 0.08 0.73 2.83 2.78 5.15 13.97 9.40 1.09 5.91 17 1.45 7.01 0.25 2.07 1.29 1.01 15.30 1.59 29.69 31.00 5.64 2.94 43.80 2.03 9.27 12.91 5.95 9.64 0.47 28.92 36.74 2.26 48.63 1.65 4.80 12 0.39 35.51 7.71 7.67 4.87 9.06 2.54 25.06 1.42 2.38 37.26 9A 1.28 11.37 .28 10.61 2.95 8.48 5 3.03 50.38 4.05 0.63 20 19.18 21.41 14.50 20.52 31.06 4.01 11.37 2.44 1.65 1.64 4.31 10 3.03 4.94 3.00 5.24 10.15 3.85 34.58 9.42 23.90 12.19 4.15 2 3.27 10.48 16A 2.90 22.81 19.92 3 2.80 9 3.85 5.92 5.12 0.30 0.00 29 1.89 20.05 2.00 21 13.73 3.28 7.68 12.06 8.45 11.55 2.88 9.18 27.
71 9A 4.77 15 3.35 3.03 31.48 15.97 5.40 4.29 6.19 11.46 4.12 14 5.65 46.80 4.00 27.10 2.87 8.40 20.83 12.97 5.47 13.60 4.48 12.66 6.85 16.54 4.97 35.35 3.68 10 5.70 3.80 3.60 6.87 9.66 8.82 16.57 mean 4.95 2.41 16A 3.20 11.17 20 8.35 16 3.60 8 3.13 3.93 2.02 3.19 6.74 17.01 10.98 1.49 19.98 8.68 7.88 17.73 9 5.00 8.36 16.82 16.29 3.82 29.81 2.00 8.42 6.81 2 4.84 12.35 29.59 4.14 5.12 2.32 9.62 0.63 3.80 30.12 8.69 11.12 3.29 6.43 4.02 1.12 7.84 17 3.67 3.55 35.14 4.02 5.08 12.18 30.56 4 3.90 .30 5.07 6.60 12.48 17.21 9.05 2.29 2.59 7.27 3.91 2.89 12.32 2.77 5.36 32.42 14.75 12.89 21.12 2.67 12.83 34.11 6.90 11.84 8.52 2.60 13.25 10.73 14.26 9.25 6.59 5.56 14.79 33.04 4.20 12. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 4.52 15.12 36.38 17.99 1.96 8.45 14.02 17.25 3.76 13.26 3.80 1.51 2.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.89 29 4.87 3.38 12.59 4.96 4.23 2.32 37.46 42.57 27.62 8.28 31.58 16.65 5.78 29.24 5 2.02 3.69 6 2.38 11.65 7.18 33.87 7.42 11.16 31.57 20.74 4.99 11.84 19.56 3.59 5.94 21.42 10.40 stddev 1.86 10.04 7.88 28 5.78 6.93 28.87 5.24 12.71 18.67 12.56 8.11 16.82 10.87 4.97 37.91 5.39 5.40 7 2.34 3.91 14.66 1.04 10.43 7.26 2.15 7.60 4.37 8.20 14.35 26 6.44 2.77 34.04 4.44 15.78 3.22 4.57 10.00 21 4.93 13.43 9.45 8.76 12.73 9.24 6.39 4.61 4.90 10A 2.40 34.60 23.32 13.51 15.74 16.34 20.59 12 6.54 3.93 10.86 3 4.41 1.52 9.Male Population Sector below 4.46 2.34 3.89 11.
99 11.83 4.68 12.80 5.71 12 6.72 10.71 38.29 4 3.81 11.50 1.55 4.40 11.00 5.09 2.31 3.93 3.07 10. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 3.96 3.22 14.77 17 4.18 52.76 9.86 6.72 10.82 9.86 40.74 36.11 2.01 9.39 3.28 stddev 1.39 11.36 9.53 7.13 5.00 13.66 2.48 mean 4.42 12.98 3.29 6.71 6.34 4.01 10A 6.43 12.22 40.60 11.01 10.39 13.66 17.44 4.29 4.09 1.17 4.14 32.08 2.Female Population Sector below 4.35 1.25 16.91 10.11 11.06 5.60 4.63 9.32 15.13 14.35 38.07 6.92 4.55 7.90 38.19 5.82 10.60 7.78 29 2.20 5.46 1.09 1.96 11.94 8.06 15.82 5.88 2 4.46 8 4.22 7.96 10.43 4.78 11.82 2.86 12.68 3.98 9.43 4.59 8.89 4.78 2.87 7.40 2.13 38.65 12.66 4.77 6 3.07 6.15 13.58 15 4.29 12.55 9 5.52 6.16 3 4.35 2.35 3.64 6.93 11.39 11.79 34.06 3.54 39.80 5 4.78 5.38 3.35 5.57 0.97 14.03 20 8.88 6.14 4.15 6.22 13.64 6.89 2.87 8.62 3.95 10.61 10.71 8.88 16.14 20.04 10.83 5.35 3.86 7.06 2.97 21 5.27 41.87 17.76 33.57 3.56 5.55 12.58 42.07 7 2.49 6.43 13.85 9.06 45.39 13.57 13.74 41.83 .22 39.09 2.21 32.57 1.03 14 4.32 1.33 3.16 37.46 18.25 9.14 7.18 22.30 33.51 10.27 7.99 3.09 16A 4.14 26 7.28 5.23 4.57 3.07 12.29 17.98 10 5.15 3.84 3.06 0.03 6.48 1.00 5.29 12.35 3.90 9.77 9A 3.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.58 19.44 5.80 2.77 3.56 47.86 7.79 6.31 12.21 14.71 5.31 5.72 2.72 38.32 12.17 37.13 16 4.29 9.41 4.83 5.96 7.32 12.08 5.87 2.14 6.49 16.11 11.45 17.45 15.00 3.29 5.84 34.32 3.06 28 2.
72 15.05 66.82 6 3.00 15.83 22.45 62.29 50.30 9A 1.38 14.63 15.05 stddev 0.26 8.46 15 1.68 0.16 44.19 20.93 16 0.49 5.40 9.00 58.56 50.57 57.88 10 0.29 54.23 0.14 2.86 1.14 14.11 1.95 1.30 44.29 0.33 41.40 7 0.88 36.17 54.02 2.79 33.87 2 1.00 0.58 1.23 28.34 2.23 12.51 30.30 61.82 9.09 1.53 .82 12.07 12.90 17 1.92 1. 1 2.41 63.67 14.03 5 0.28 21 0.68 0.04 20.Family Size Sector single 2 to 3 4 to 5 6 to 7 8 to 10 no.18 26.57 19.92 55.87 52.00 19.64 10.36 0.00 26.83 14.55 23.15 20 0.43 44.47 20.67 47.99 8 0.43 34.21 54.00 29 1.86 11.23 46.71 24.19 3 1.23 36.16 9.57 11.86 12 0.50 7.85 66.19 55.18 2.90 4.53 6.48 9 1.46 2.66 22.00 mean 1.64 1.73 20.00 14 1.35 13.00 28 0.82 51.67 0.29 7.49 64.71 14.07 28.37 54.24 16A 0.92 12.91 11.98 2.51 59.93 32.56 25.00 1.99 26 2.52 62.99 0.14 4 0.45 1.46 54.97 19.95 10A 1.64 19.95 1.
82 0.30 0.82 0.91 76.00 0.12 3.62 0.00 0.00 2 48.61 13.77 0.02 mean 53.75 stddev 37.00 21 99.82 7.00 0.00 0.00 0.13 39.12 0.16 4.62 0.00 0.67 0.00 16 83.00 0.51 0.00 97.13 2.00 0.38 0.35 39.25 62.86 0.13 0.40 1.14 0.00 0.31 20 100.78 12.00 0.52 0.01 1. Pvt co.00 16.00 38.21 46.00 0.00 0.00 0.19 0.81 0.96 0.18 0.00 4 45.39 4.00 0.00 0.36 0.33 0.80 0.00 6 92.68 0.00 17 0.00 53.90 0.00 0.00 0.47 0.84 36.87 20.58 8.Pvt Other no.81 76.68 2.00 5.38 9A 2.00 10A 2.00 1.00 23.97 0.00 7 89.13 28. House op comme society rcial 1 100.00 92.96 12.00 29 42.00 2.00 92.58 .00 0.00 12 17.00 0.00 0.00 28 0.15 85.07 0.12 23.86 0.60 19.00 14 53.00 0.40 6.00 8 35.00 0.17 2.00 0.23 26 100.07 3.00 16A 7.83 35.73 0.72 0.00 0.21 6.18 0.19 3 61.56 0.74 13.00 0.10 0.Type of Housing Sector CIDCO Pvt.77 0.00 10 83.46 9 98.00 15 82.00 0.02 5 22.15 17.
52 1.82 8.00 0.49 12.95 3 11.42 7.88 4.82 24.93 10.66 0.00 29 0.37 7.38 10A 0.19 9.11 17 0.39 14.76 5 49.72 3.71 2 39.32 6.09 29.06 1.86 7 42.00 13.99 12.59 38.62 4.43 32.50 12.64 15 8.50 16.68 20 0.74 4.61 18.63 1.13 11.64 10.00 48.16 7.19 8.16 9.71 11.60 1.61 6 51.74 6.09 16 27.29 41.03 75.95 5.31 16.92 2.87 1.28 26 0.86 mean 12.35 28.87 0.00 31.38 56.82 12.43 20.34 13.00 6.42 12.82 5.14 1.13 11.83 8.50 12.00 0.60 7.00 4.46 36.26 28.57 stddev 18.00 0.24 3.57 18.49 32.00 0.00 0.82 2.94 4.09 25.49 21 13.03 10.18 31.63 3.54 6.11 15.80 39.65 17.88 0.22 52.91 6.75 7.85 4.67 36.35 5.07 4 5.26 7.52 7.38 15.00 0.82 5.60 94 13.45 6.42 0.10 40.00 0.73 4.02 44.05 20.82 4.00 35.88 3.17 12.07 8.56 6.33 18.62 6.00 20.08 93 3.82 48.02 17.56 4.56 16.05 6.64 27.30 6.95 8 24.87 10 0.15 .56 16A 0.54 24.65 31.56 9 0.87 7.15 18.83 26.17 6.30 6.52 12.38 37.00 31.85 5.86 4.16 5.17 14 0.87 1.87 6.66 14. 980 1 43.33 9A 0.Tenure Sector before1 81-85 86-90 91-92 no.92 11.00 0.94 12.57 14.61 12.57 12.00 28 0.44 48.29 12 0.23 22.33 6.86 33.36 21.00 47.06 13.27 1.21 0.53 20.40 95 1.19 5.73 6.61 6.81 6.
36 4.33 0.92 7.31 0.12 7.61 12.69 4.24 7.00 31.63 15.73 25.95 12.69 2.52 22.53 2.26 2.99 7.33 4.42 8.37 10.53 2.27 0.76 3.15 2.38 5.69 5.96 18.26 12.82 6.32 8.62 4.23 12.53 0.54 8.03 15.58 0.32 27.71 20.60 0.58 9.19 27.00 2.03 24.85 33.47 6.63 5.57 1.14 6.03 6.83 18.30 34.40 8.85 47.00 1.00 20.07 3.60 2.80 4.05 19.00 4.00 33.30 2.62 29.81 4.15 0.93 8.25 4.00 32.67 25.31 5.80 37.45 3.19 17.45 0.02 47.20 6.29 8.17 25.30 0.35 15.00 0.64 2.42 3.44 5.00 1.79 0.30 4.46 0.93 3.73 4.52 2.09 5.17 8.02 9.00 19.90 10.63 0.76 0.33 7.33 8.68 3.23 18.26 23.45 21.00 0.10 16.23 3.33 4.50 27.13 26.29 0.00 26.39 4.83 2.35 21.74 36.24 23.74 31.33 0.00 0.24 1.10 16.42 26.09 0.26 0.88 1.76 11.74 28.17 5.64 0.00 23.Previous Place of Residence Sector Island Wn En Thane Vashi no.47 36.48 15.94 5.08 0.95 9.69 35.02 22.67 8.24 5.00 6.09 27.14 0.63 2.25 12.55 8.67 3.90 7.26 3.39 2.38 2.98 0.87 3.67 2.15 2.30 14.92 4.05 18.84 2.48 20.00 38.00 21.33 0.60 4.57 28.00 39.20 8.25 31.62 0.83 3.52 1.51 6.54 5.03 1. city suburbs suburbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10A 12 14 15 16 16A 17 20 21 26 28 29 9A mean stddev 21.58 14.54 1.54 3.58 2.00 0.00 0.07 5.05 30.10 17.42 4.81 0.45 2.94 28.46 1.00 28.76 3.39 0.58 0.01 Navi Inside Out of Intl.98 3.88 2.62 0.50 6.29 .00 24.00 30.55 3.64 7.51 7. Mumba state state i 24.83 8.77 6.29 20.77 2.88 12.17 5.43 17.51 10.82 3.26 19.90 2.10 4.37 1.33 8.00 45.00 30.67 7.00 4.26 7.91 2.71 5.48 17.
48 mean 39.40 2.38 14.85 5.43 24.76 5.96 2.29 2.92 1.36 6.89 3.86 4.50 10.52 0.71 12 8.19 2.86 8.90 17.27 7.05 9.57 14.32 1.60 2.36 6.29 2.38 0.27 5.27 0.96 6.00 1.36 10 44.05 2.29 3.49 9.93 1.33 6.15 18.34 12.54 21 61.73 0.44 2.47 2.22 3.00 4.47 2.49 10.76 12.00 7.09 6.83 8.90 2 44.90 3.97 10.36 4.76 4.92 14.64 3.53 2.08 4.90 3.83 14 19.33 29.29 2.66 10.Language Sector Marath Hindi Gujarat Malaya Punjabi Tamil Kannad Bengali Other no.72 12.72 5.76 3.53 9.70 6.03 16.00 12.85 5.00 0.97 3.98 3.91 6 33.61 5.43 7.66 8.95 4.30 4.43 16.56 8 22.69 28 28.18 10.17 16.17 16.00 12.61 1.30 9.44 7.83 7.32 17 21.00 0.87 12.55 3.26 2.62 1.21 0.00 1.34 4.51 3.63 2.31 3.97 4.85 1.36 11.29 29 25.82 4.10 5.29 0.55 8.59 1.54 4.30 1.62 7.10 2.92 20 60.43 4.71 8.00 6.70 8.93 9.64 10.56 5.23 9.00 9.81 5.73 2.75 14.03 2.84 4.15 2.20 4.19 3.32 2.43 14.67 4. i hi lam a 1 51.32 7.57 20.98 4.28 24.70 10.17 9.76 14.49 4.57 1.13 4.52 19.74 4.54 1.26 3.61 14.46 5.29 .00 4.54 27.08 7.66 10.26 5 77.91 2.71 1.55 32.29 15.99 3.71 1.77 8.89 4.03 17.39 4.09 8.13 7 37.03 9.33 13.27 2.67 0.27 7.57 15.13 20.75 4.32 9A 20.57 4 46.37 4.93 4.92 3.79 16A 51.49 10A 24.42 3 32.45 2.63 16 54.44 5.09 15.84 12.90 26 48.15 16.58 2.17 20.67 15 57.22 2.98 6.57 17.10 4.96 5.77 3.24 7.23 2.21 21.81 4.85 0.21 9 50.79 12.99 16.12 2.73 2.26 13.87 17.73 3.46 17.63 1.37 4.14 1.82 3.73 stddev 17.54 7.00 11.
an st 1 79.03 5.22 0.00 12 79.65 9.00 0.50 4.11 10 80.00 14 88.72 4.61 4.28 4.55 4.09 6.78 3.02 0.33 0.26 6.85 0.37 0.49 .04 5.24 0.13 8.70 2.64 0.00 10A 72.00 0.00 1.43 1.43 1.17 12.15 0.73 1.00 0.70 1.46 0.75 5.47 4.98 0.43 0.10 0.85 0.86 1.73 1.78 1.25 stddev 6.17 0.62 20 86.31 0.36 mean 82.01 6.82 2.70 0.20 0.42 5.00 2.17 0.69 0.53 3.42 1.56 3.44 0.02 0.05 0.32 1.81 9.64 9 84.36 0.61 1.46 1.00 0.62 0.53 4.19 5.88 0.66 3.00 0.80 3.34 6.00 0.54 0.09 0.68 0.00 5 81.00 0.00 0.92 7.16 0.86 22.00 26 86.18 11.20 8.21 0.82 10.91 0.00 0.51 0.71 0.23 0.40 2.32 2 80.67 1.93 8.51 2.26 5.00 16 88.33 0.00 0.68 0.21 15.16 15.74 1.45 2.00 0.41 0.00 0.42 0.00 7 76.47 0.29 9.79 0.32 6.45 2.13 0.75 0.36 1.00 6 83.00 16A 91.20 10.62 0.00 28 100.00 15 83.95 0.66 8 72.92 1.00 1.53 1.52 3.64 5.13 5.88 0.04 6.00 4.60 8.00 1.55 1.03 0.76 5.00 21 81.43 1.00 9A 73.00 7.40 0.00 29 86.52 0.68 1.Religion Sector Hindu Christi Islam Jain Sikh Buddhi Other no.88 0.57 4.00 0.17 2.00 17 85.85 7.00 0.82 7.47 0.32 2.00 6.76 8.57 4 84.42 0.60 0.59 3 75.82 0.60 1.99 0.
2091 4.SIZE INCOME LANGUAGE MIGRATN RELIGION TENURE Mean Std.2670 81659 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.867 7 1.6705 5. Deviation Analysis N 73.000 .824 RELIGION 1.926 EDUCATN 1.571 2 1. .8271 8.862 6 8.4115 81659 32.005 99. Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 4.6486 81659 86.928 LANGUAGE 1.6076 81659 8.845 4 .9885 16.039E-02 1.356 95.9974 81659 49.939 MIGRATN 1.985 INCOME 1.875 FAM.000 .000 .064E-02 .851E-17 .446 55.0403 3.832 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.000 .000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.000 8 5.7870 81659 37.314E-16 100.1087 9.796 .133 100.Appendix D Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics EARNER EDUCATN FAM.8863 81659 28.8538 81659 53.7800 3.000 .0814 4.879 TENURE 1.890 3 .571 55.000 .955 89.202 5 .946 24.660 98.000 .000 .320 79.293 3.SIZE 1.429 5.
880 .925E-02 TENURE -.358 .236 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.902 1.202 -1.881 LANGUAGE -.926 .822 .796E-04 TENURE .230 MIGRATN -.845 Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER .446 .SIZE -.470 EDUCATN -.702 -.454E-02 Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER -.685 8.118 22.468 1. 3 .937 -.317E-02 -8.804 .430 .383E-02 .634 4.771 67.468E-03 RELIGION .902 -.484 EDUCATN .862 LANGUAGE .264 .156 .107 INCOME -.201 .898E-02 .379 -2.785 -7.951 .381 .SIZE .818 % of Variance Cumulative % 43.900 FAM.347 23.888 -7.278 .255 4.230 RELIGION -. 3 .244 -.878 -.136 .155 -.347 43.728 89.101 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.293 INCOME .Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings 1 2 3 Total 3.882 FAM.455 .766E-02 MIGRATN .
617 7.299 10.946 4.Appendix E Cluster Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N 8 a b Missing Total Percent N Percent N Percent 100.0 8 100.0 Squared Euclidean Distance used Average Linkage (Between Groups) Average Linkage (Between Groups) Agglomeration Schedule Stage Cluster 1 1 5 2 2 3 5 4 1 5 3 6 1 7 1 Cluster 2 6 7 8 2 4 5 3 Coefficients .174 4.0 0 .108 Cluster Membership 1:Vashi 2:Nerul 3:Belapur 4:Kalamboli 5:Panvel 6:Kopar-khaira 7:Airoli 8:Sanpada 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 .581 2.919 9.
000 .527 MEN 1.9768 15.3183 EDUCATN 40.0484 MIGRATN 52.7719 3.000 .000 .5760 INCOME 27.9114 MEN 38.4424 RELGION1 82.5580 35.000 .801 RELGION1 1.6247 4.568 WOMEN 1.675 MIGRATN 1.000 .3934 9. Deviation 7.000 .721 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.3839 RELGION2 6.856 EDUCATN 1.000 .9628 7.836 INCOME 1.Appendix F Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics Mean EARNER 66.7324 3.000 .000 .000 .5535 LANGUAG2 6.9421 LANGUAG1 46.0375 Std.9142 3.855 LANGUAG1 1.000 .1339 10.9759 OWNRSHIP 66.889 LANGUAG2 1. .5835 Analysis N 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.8628 WOMEN 33.7307 3.722 RELGION2 1.571 OWNRSHIP 1.
473 .131 .290 2.816 -5.001 25.831 99.938 8.Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % of Variance Cumulative % 25.042E-02 .438 22.538 .750 2 2.448 .740 15.896 98.612 .441 5 .239 MEN 0.453 49.458 LANGUAG1 .098 2.234 8.455 23.773 -.880 -.803 8.917 Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total 1 3.690 3 1.935 7 .257 87.238 91.391 LANGUAG2 -.777 -.475 RELGION2 .843 34.657 -2.854E-02 .096 .794E-02 . Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .581 4 .638 97.071E-02 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.001 24.200 8 .310 .688 6.565 OWNRSHIP .161 57.373 -.523 81.466 4.698 6 .265 95.427E-02 INCOME . .436 100.748 .592 WOMEN .246 .463 72.819 72.917 2.937 2.500 4.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.734 10 9.127 -.915E-04 .838 9 9.424 RELGION1 .093E-03 MIGRATN -.564 11 4.487 EDUCATN .937 34.136E-02 .359 3.522 -.
869 .795 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.120 . a Rotation converged in 6 iterations.046 -.855 .804 MIGRATN 0.333 . .231 -.610E-02 LANGUAG2 -.877 -9.524 .742 -.709 .596 -. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.316 -.246 LANGUAG1 .Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .214 .399 WOMEN .351 -.240 .575 5.210 .366 .647 9.658 RELGION2 .704E-02 INCOME .774 EDUCATN .130 .113 RELGION1 -.110 -.141E-02 MEN -.201 .136 OWNRSHIP .
108 2.411 1.904 2.487 3.142 13.309 6.515 1.114 .840 1.726 4.584 .837 1.653 .558 4.449 8.052 11.574 .032 1.Appendix G Cluster Agglomeration Schedule Cluster Combined Stage Cluster 1 Cluster 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2 9 1 12 9 15 3 12 1 13 9 3 1 8 1 1 3 12 12 1 1 1 6 10 2 17 14 18 7 16 4 22 20 23 15 11 9 19 8 21 13 3 12 5 Stage Cluster First Appears Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Next Stage 0 0 3 0 0 5 0 1 9 0 0 8 2 0 11 0 0 13 0 0 12 4 0 18 3 0 13 0 0 19 5 0 15 7 0 17 9 6 15 0 0 17 13 11 16 15 0 20 12 14 20 8 0 19 18 10 21 16 17 21 20 19 22 21 0 0 Coefficients .918 .751 .799 5.151 2.
Cluster Membership Case 3 Clusters 1:1 1 2:2 1 3:3 1 4:4 1 5:5 2 6:6 1 7:7 1 8:8 1 9:9 1 10:10 1 11:10A 1 12:12 3 13:14 3 14:15 1 15:16 1 16:16A 3 17:17 3 18:20 1 19:21 1 20:26 1 21:28 3 22:29 3 23:9A 1 .
Dec. India Experience Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. VA Bachelor of Architecture May 1996 University of Pune.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Date of Birth: 30 June 1973 Education: Master of Urban and Regional Planning May 1998 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. India May . April . P. 1994. 1997 – May 1998 Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. L. • Registered Architect under Council of Architecture. Knox. New Delhi. CO. Professor. • Rank holder of the University of Pune.Outstanding First Year Graduate Student. Boulder.July 1992 Honors and Affiliations • Invited to Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society.Mar. • Student member American Planning Association. 1994 . Associate Dean for Academic Affairs.July 1996 . Pune. 1995. Virginia Tech. India. India. May 1997. October 1997. Pune. • Won first prize (three member team) in a design competition . Blacksburg. Browder. 1996 .May 1997 Worked as an Architect with Suyojan Architects. • Awarded Virginia Citizens Planning Associate Fellowship . Worked as an intern with Narendra Dengle Architects.May 1994 Worked as an intern at Historic Boulder. Aug. USA. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning. J. Pune. O. . College of Architecture and Urban Studies. • Won first prize (three member team) for Formica Interior design competition. Aug. 1995 Worked with the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage May 1993 .Reclaiming a derelict river.