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Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Urban and Regional Planning
John Browder, Chair Wendy Jacobson Paul Knox
April , 1998 Blacksburg, Virginia
Keywords: urban social pattern, Navi Mumbai, Bombay, urban planning - India Copyright 1998, Malathi Ananthakrishnan
The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India Malathi Ananthakrishnan (ABSTRACT) This research thesis examines the emerging trends in urban social patterns in Navi Mumbai, India. Unlike the other planned cities of India, Navi Mumbai was specifically built as a planned decentralization of a large metropolitan city. The research focuses on explaining the urban social pattern of this particular case study. An urban social pattern reflects the social characteristics of the urban setting. In the case of Navi Mumbai, the government had a social agenda of promoting a social pattern based on socioeconomic distribution rather than an ethnic one. Analysis of the data provides an insight to the results of this social agenda, and provides a basis to frame new ones. Thus, the study not only addresses a basic research question, but also has policy implications. The research involves a comprehensive review of secondary source material to establish the theoretical framework for the research. The review also involves an extensive inspection of urban social patterns across the world to better contextualize this particular case study. The research puts forth a model that explains the social pattern of Navi Mumbai by social area analysis using variables, which are drawn from social aspects of any city and indigenous factors of Indian settlements. The model depends not only on statistical analysis but also on interpretation of local conditions. This research situates the emerging social pattern in geographic literature in developing countries. This research was supported in part, by a grant from the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Tech.
I would like to take this opportunity to thank my Advisor and Chair of my committee, Dr. John Browder. He was supportive of all my efforts to successfully complete this thesis. It would not have been possible without his help. Thank you also to my committee members, Dr. Jacobson and Dr. Knox, for the time and effort they contributed.
Thanks also due to everyone in Navi Mumbai who helped me collect the data and all relevant information. Special thanks to Ms. Adusumilli, Senior planner, CIDCO, Mrs. Raje, Chief statistician, CIDCO, Dr. Venkatachalam and Dr. Sengupta at IIT-Bombay and Dr. BanerjeeGuha at the University of Bombay. I would also like to thank Prachi and Avesh Tapde for their hospitality in Navi Mumbai.
Dr. Dyck and Dr. Bohland clarified many of my conceptual and analytical queries. I would like to give my appreciation for their support. I would also like to thank Dr. Randolph and Dr. Schubert for having made a grant available for me to carry out the field research.
I am also grateful to my good friends Inga, Maneesha and Elda for not only helping me out with proof reading and other mundane things, but also for being there during the ups and downs of the entire process. I would like to thank my family for always encouraging me to think and my fiancé for his patience.
1 Introduction 3.3 Factors influencing Urban Form 3.3 Religion 3. 3 126.96.36.199 Language 3.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities 3. Research Design……………………………………………………………… 38 4.5.3 Indian Cities 3.5 Methodology 4.1 Caste 3.2 Third World Cities 3.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 2.1 Introduction 2.3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai 2.3 Multiple Nuclei Theory 3.7.1 Western Cities 3.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai 2. 20 3. Introduction………………………………………………………………….1 Descriptive Analysis 4.Table of Contents 1.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan 2.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern 3.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai 2.9 Conclusion 4.2 Hypothesis 4..5.4 Data Collection 4. The Conceptual Framework………………………………………………….2 Class 3.1 Social Area Analysis 4.8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework 2.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns 3.5.5 Development Potential of the Site 2.5 Sociocultural Factors 3.3 Organization of the Thesis 1 2.1 Research Problem Statement 188.8.131.52 Cluster Analysis .5 Implications of the Sociocultural factors 3.6 The Built Form 3.1 Concentric Zone Theory 3. The Research Setting………………………………………………………….2 Sector Theory 184.108.40.206 Conclusion 220.127.116.11 Significance of Thesis 1.5..3 Operationalization 4.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region 2.8 Case Study of Urban Social Patterns 3. 1.
2 Cluster Analysis 5.3.2 Sub-regional Scale 6.1 Principal Components Analysis 5. Interpretation / Discussion…………………………………………………… 6.4.4 Sub-regional Scale – sectors 5.4.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory 6.1 Principal Components Analysis 5..4 mapping and Overlays 4. Presentation of Data………………………………………………………….2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory 6..4.3 Discussion 5. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 74 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………….3.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory 6.1 Introduction 5.1 Regional Scale 6.6 Data Analysis 5.3 Regional Scale – nodes 5.2. Glossary of Terms Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G 77 .2.3 Principal Component Analysis 18.104.22.168 Descriptive Analysis 5.4 Potential Utility of the Research 43 65 7.2 Cluster Analysis 5.2.5 Conclusion 6.3 Discussion 5. 5.3 Summary 6.5.4.
17 5.6 5.8 5.20 5.4 5.9 5.5 2.3 2.7 5.2 5.21 Title Population Density of Bombay Immigrant population of Bombay Land Fragmentation in 1970 Household Income and Capacity to Pay Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay Land Use of Navi Mumbai Constructs and Variables Survey Sampling Constructs and Variables Work Force Number of Earners Occupational Classification of Workforce Household Income Location of Education Institutions Level of Education Male Population Female Population Family Size Type of Housing Ownership of House Housing built by CIDCO Housing built by Private Enterprise Year of Occupation Previous Place of Residence Religion Language Spatial Pattern of Variables Attributes of Principal Components Attributes of Principal Components page 4 5 6 8 16 17 39 40 43 44 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 50 51 52 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 60 61 .List of Tables Table number 2.1 4.15 5.14 5.13 5.19 5.2 2.4 2.18 5.11 5.1 5.1 2.6 4.10 5.16 5.2 5.12 5.5 5.3 5.
1 6.3 6.2 5.8 3. 2651-4450 Frequency of Families with at least one individual with Secondary Education Frequency of Male Population in the age group 25-45 Frequency of Households with 4 or 5 members Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO Frequency of Housing built by CIDCO Frequency of Houses built by Private Enterprise Frequency of Tenure Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence Frequency of Hindus Frequency of Muslims Frequency of Marathi Frequency of Malayalam Components in Rotated Space Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai Average Linkage between Factor Scores Average Linkage between Variables Clustering of Sectors of Vashi Average Linkage between Factor Scores Page 2 5 7 11 15 18 26 28 29 29 31 32 32 33 34 36 45 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 56 57 57 59 59 60 62 63 65 66 66 67 68 .18 5.4 3.14 5.5 2.2 2.1 5.3 2.10 5.7 5.8 5.2 3.2 6.5 Title Expansion of Bombay Twin City Across the Harbor Development Potential of the Site Nodes of Navi Mumbai Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai Land Use of Navi Mumbai Circle and Swastika Town Plans Concentric Zone Theory Sector Theory Multiple Nuclei Theory Urban Social Patterns Plan of Delhi and New Delhi Asian Ports Latin American Cities Pattern of Indian Cities Theories of Urban Social Patterns and Corresponding Case Studies Distribution of Single-earner Families Frequency of Families with Income range Rs.15 5.6 3.5 5.4 6.4 2.9 3.7 3.3 3.5 3.List of Figure Figure Number 2.1 2.6 3.9 5.16 5.6 5.4 5.13 5.3 5.17 5.10 5.11 5.1 3.12 5.19 6.
15 6.9 6.18 Average Linkage between Variables Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic variables Distribution of Number of Earners Distribution of Income Hypothetical Concentric Pattern for Family Status variables Distribution of Ownership of Apartment Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic variables Distribution of Households speaking Marathi Distribution of Households which follow Islam Clustering of Sectors Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 .13 6.10 6.11 6.16 6.12 6.6 6.7 6.14 6.8 6.6.17 6.
A policy emphasizing a uniform distribution of the population is the ideological orientation of the government. An interpretation of the emerging social pattern reveals something of the social character of the city. planning regulations. Traditional Indian cities have evolved over the centuries. The urban social pattern is one of the many aspects of the urban form. The purpose of this thesis is to delineate and interpret the social pattern of Navi Mumbai. housing characteristics. exist in the urban social pattern of planned towns in India.1 Research Problem Statement The overall objective of this thesis is to determine what common patterns. This research determines how the present social pattern relates to various theoretical frameworks. and the housing market. and political events may influence the physical design and pattern of a city. religious and linguistic classes.Chapter 1: Introduction 1. 1990). 1. the study of human settlements has an encompassing view of all the activities it supports. if any. religion. These include the ethnic composition of the city. Why is such a study significant? The urban form of the city influences behavioral. Navi Mumbai (New Bombay) is one of the first planned new town developments built for a diverse. and their social pattern is characterized by residential segregation based on ethnic. It is a synthesis of the spatial relationships of various elements. land use pattern and ethnic classifications will be used as key variables to study the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Various processes influence the social pattern of the city. The literature review shows that a specific study of Navi Mumbai has not been previously documented. The pattern suggests not only the outcome of . The pattern of Navi Mumbai will be studied at different hierarchical spatial levels: regional (node / township) and sub-regional (sector / neighborhood). migration. This research aspires to contribute to basic research in social geography. economic and social processes within it (Vance. street patterns. Physical and economic landscapes. Urban patterns occur because of repetition of these elements. middle class population in India. Therefore.2 Significance of Research A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between their constituent elements at a certain period of time. Different characteristics are drawn from the factors influencing the physical design and cultural aspect of the city. The urban form of a city is primarily the result of the characteristics of its physical and social design as well as socioeconomic and political forces. this paper will augment existing knowledge about social configurations of planned urban development in Asian regions. land use and ownership. Thus. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. Socioeconomic factors. race. The basic research here involves the search for an urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai.
The urban social pattern also serves as a framework for further research. The presentation of data and its analysis is in the fifth chapter. methodology.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 1: Introduction 2 the policy. which provides the problem statement and the broader objectives of the thesis. the research setting. The second chapter provides the background to the particular case study used in the research.3 Organization of the Thesis This thesis is divided into seven chapters. The fourth chapter outlines the methodology used for analysis of data and explains the data source and method of data collection. the basic research has many applications in longrange planning in Navi Mumbai. Thus. analysis and interpretation and the broad outcomes of the thesis. its contextual framework. Interpretation and discussion of the analysis and its relationship to the theories discussed in the third chapter is done in the sixth chapter. . but also variables that influence this pattern. 1. Chapter seven draws to conclusion the thesis with a review of the problem statement. This first chapter is the introduction. The third chapter is a comprehensive review of the secondary sources to establish a context of the research question.
1995). In 1668. is a new planned city across the harbor (of Bombay) from Bombay.1 Introduction Navi Mumbai (New Bombay). textile mills and government offices have made it the preeminent port of Western India. Figure 2. 2. established in 1972. the King of Portugal gifted the Bombay islands to King Charles II of England when King Charles married Catherine Braganza.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region Bombay is not a city built on Indian traditional planning ideas. 1957 trading posts. and providing efficient infrastructure (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. the Crown rented Bombay to the East India Company. 1965 Bombay’s high concentration of docks. The geographical area of Bombay is an island. for Arabian MUMBAI Sea those who could not afford to make the 1910 long commutes. In 1661. This planned decentralization was the outcome of efforts by the government to make Bombay more “sustainable” (Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board. There was a . By the 1780s. especially to the middle and lower class of people. now as rulers. Urbanization and subsequent suburbanization of Bombay have created a linear city such that the central business district (CBD) and residential areas have become further and further apart (Figure 2. The city of Source: Dwivedi and Mehrotra. 1995.1). Bombay had its beginnings in a series of fishing villages until it was taken over by the Portuguese in the 16th century. 1995).1 Expansion of Bombay The East India Company. The East India Company encouraged Indian and East India Company merchants to settle in Bombay.Chapter 2: The Research Setting 2. a Portuguese princess. In Bombay. South Bombay is the center of India’s 1950 banking and service industries. This range of activities led to crowding at an BOMBAY NAVI unprecedented scale. 1973). India. Navi Mumbai was designed to provide a better quality of life. squatter settlements all over Bombay became the way of life. was interested in developing the town in a methodical manner. Bombay was then established as a trading post. the East India Company had taken on the new role of ruler (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. The harbor was strengthened. The first settlement was established in the southern most tip of the island. the shipyard modernized and the city fortified.
The development acts of 1954 and 1964 emphasized the need to relocate industrial activity from the island to the mainland (CIDCO. some thought was given to ’Greater Bombay’. 1992). V. which would encompass the Fort area as well as the suburbs of Bombay. 1995). However. This committee appointed the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board to develop the concept further (Gadgil Committee. Commuter distances had become larger because of increased suburbanization with no change in location of the CBD. These formal government bodies were the beginning of a conscientious effort to regulate the growth of Bombay (Banerjee-Guha. in 1896. the Gadgil Committee strongly recommended a multi-nuclear growth using the creation of a new town across the harbor. 1995). By the early 1900s. 1973) Population increase. In 1865. This enclosed the Town and Island of Bombay.2). and 24 percent of the one and two room tenements were over crowded. 1995). . Greater Bombay came into existence only after the Bombay High Court Act of 1945. the suburbs and 42 villages within the definition of the new city limit (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. Bombay’s infrastructure facilities were stretched to the limit. Transportation is threatening to break down…. (BMRPB. 1965).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 4 strong development of mixed land use settlements. Modak influenced the development of Greater Bombay for the next two decades (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. The Post-War development Committee of 1945 and the ’Master Plan in Outline’ prepared by Albert Mayer and N. the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board set up two committees to study the development of Bombay. various planning committees were formed to develop a regional plan for Bombay. They recommended: i the creation of a new town on the mainland across the harbor i develop the suburbs of Bombay further Bombay had reached a level of unmanageable growth by the 1960s. The large migrant influx contributed to the overcrowding (Table 2. In 1967. and. the Port of Bombay. 1995). lack of housing and infrastructure and high land values were the major problems identified. The 1967 development plan estimated a housing shortage of 131. 1986) The Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board in its report wrote Bombay the Beautiful is no more beautiful. Land use zoning and the concept of floor space index were incorporated for the first time. the Bombay Improvement Trust was created. Housing deficits are ever widening and slums like a cancerous growth can be seen anywhere and everywhere.1 Population Density of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Area in acres 14247 14281 14342 14575 15066 15480 16751 16720 Persons / Acre 54 56 54 67 78 75 165 184 (Various Census Reports for Bombay in Kosambi. Many parts of it are not even tolerably clean and healthy. In the 1960s.000 houses. Adequate water is a serious problem. Commercial and residential areas were mixed because many merchants carried on business from home (Tindall. the Bombay Municipal Corporation was established. In 1966. concentration of industries and offices in certain pockets of Bombay. Table 2.
Pravina Mehta2 and Shirish Patel3 who presented to the government a proposal in 1964 for constructing new growth centers across Bombay harbor on the mainland (Figure 2. 1986) The concentration of industries and offices at the CBD and suburbs like Chembur and Andheri created unequal development. Unhealthy and insanitary conditions for 1 million slum dwellers was the result of inadequate housing stock. south and east. then this would not be possible (BMRPB. The site that was finally chosen was across the harbor from Bombay island. 1993). This was in the form of the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board’s recommendation that a new city be designed within the Bombay Metropolitan region to facilitate the decongestion of Bombay (Correa. Lack of adequate water supply and sewage facilities worsened conditions. 3 Sirish Patel. If the new city was too far away.3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai The prominent authors of the ’twin city concept’ were Charles Correa1. .2 Immigrant Population of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Population 773196 821764 776006 979445 1175914 1161383 2771933 3070378 % 72 75 77 80 84 75 72 63 Immigrants Males per 151 171 162 189 191 181 160 149 100 Females (Various Census Reports of Bombay in Kosambi. Pravina Mehta (late) was a structural engineer. and New Growth Centers Growth Centers of Bombay Town Center Arabian Sea Harbor of Bombay Figure 2. 1973. rocketing land prices prevented the acquisition of land for public purposes (BMPRB. The implementation occurred through ’correct’ political and bureaucratic channels in 1969. 2. It is a narrow piece of land bounded by the Western Ghat mountain ranges on the north.2). 1973). In a final attempt. 1973). engineer and planner. the Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board recommended considering a twin city across the harbor. 1 2 Charles Correa is a prominent architect and urban designer in Bombay. air pollution and mixed land use (UNCHS.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 5 Table 2. was incharge of the planning and design of Navi Mumbai (1970-75). Also. 1997).2 Twin City Across the Harbor Source: CIDCO.
Correa. The regional plan was approved in 1970. m. 1985). 1997). The first task of CIDCO was to prepare a development plan for the new town. The first step was to identify all the land that needed to be acquired for Navi Mumbai. It was hoped that the nearness to Bombay would facilitate the relocation of people from Bombay (CIDCO. 1995) CIDCO notified all private owners about the compulsory acquisition. >10000 sq. 1966. The new town. Owners were notified about the government’s proposal. 1973). The land notified for acquisition for Navi Mumbai was under private and government ownership (Table 2. The plan hoped to reduce homelessness in Bombay and provide slum dwellers a better life as well as absorb migration from the countryside (Correa. CIDCO is a limited company.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 The task of planning and developing Navi Mumbai was entrusted to the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO). m. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board created the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) in 1970 to implement its ideas. km. wholly owned by the State Government of Maharashtra (CIDCO. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act (MR&TP Act). CIDCO used certain development principles in its design. 1973): i polycentric pattern of development i acquisition of all land to have better control of the environment and to use land as the main resource for development. >1000 sq. Patel and Mehta designed this regional plan based on three basic objectives: a planned new development.3) Table 2. comprising of a number of nodes (townships). 1973). The government would acquire land under its power of eminent domain under Section 22. m. >4000 sq. >500 sq. The finality of the approved Development Plan ensures that the pressure and friction which would develop to obtain land use changes for particular land holdings would be largely eliminated . Navi Mumbai covers an area of 344 sq. m. 1973).3 Land Fragmentation in 1970 Ownership Area (sq. They were (CIDCO. 2. a government agency explicitly set up for this purpose.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 6 the Arabian Sea on the west (CIDCO. financing physical and social infrastructure through land sales. km) (number) (number) (number) Government 10137 All Private 16677 18412 3338 1579 90 Marsh(wetlands) 84 (CIDCO. was designed to accommodate new industrial and commercial activity as well as for secure and affordable housing to workers. and improving Bombay by drawing off pressures for growth into the new area (Patel. It is a self-contained city independent of Bombay although there is still a visual connection to Bombay. Section 31(6) under the same act gives the government the power to specify land use and proceed with development.
• the plan for a modern. and major law and order problems did occur. 1995). 3. leaving enough room for flexibility. 1973: 10): 1. and also attract some of Bombay’s present population. 1973). The success of Navi Mumbai was thought to depend on the adequate creation of jobs (CIDCO. CIDCO acquired all the land after settling disputes about compensation (CIDCO.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 7 (CIDCO. The Draft Development Plan gave only broad guidelines. The objectives were (CIDCO. To support a statewide Industrial Location Policy which will lead eventually to an efficient and rational distribution of industries over the State and a balanced development of urban centers in the hinterland. 2. To provide a physical infrastructure which prevents ethnic enclaves among the population.3). raise the living standards and reduce the disparities in the amenities available to the different sections of the population. Although the main objective of the design of Navi Mumbai was to create a selfsufficient urban environment. no new document was ever prepared. Nevertheless. To provide physical and social services. 4. it also hoped to improve the quality of life of Bombay. and transport corridors along Thane-Belapur. 1995). Reduce the growth of population in Bombay city by creating a center that would absorb immigrants. These were (CIDCO. • the existence of two municipal corporations at Panvel and Uran. The development plan took into account the Figure 2. 5. container port at Nhava-Sheva.3 Development Potential of the Site Turbhe MIDC Industrial Estates Arabian Sea Creek bridge Taloja Panvel Nhava-sheva . The Draft Development Plan remains the guiding document in use even today. Although five minor amendments were made to this Draft Plan. 2.5 Development Potential of the Site The chosen site had various development potentials (Figure 2. • the Thane-Pune National Highway 4. free from the physical and social tensions. To provide an environment which would permit the residents of New Bombay to live fuller and richer lives in so far this is possible. Panvel-Uran rail and road links. which are commonly associated with urban living. This was not entirely true. • the newly commissioned bridge across the Thane creek. 1995): • the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) Estates at Turbhe and Taloja.
1995).000 houses needed to be built. i to decongest Bombay by shifting jobs that are concentrated in the southern part of Bombay. 1975). i to use the job centers with matching infrastructure provision as engines of growth for the new city. 1973). better quality houses was the biggest incentive (CIDCO. To accommodate a population of 2 million. m.000 office jobs. The authors of the regional plan cited the case of New Delhi to emphasize their idea (Patel. A series of controls were made for various regions within Bombay. the availability of cheaper. trade and commerce (wholesale and warehousing). 1997).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 8 provision of 750. 1995): i make Navi Mumbai self-contained and not a dormitory. Almost 87% of the office jobs of Greater Bombay are located on Bombay island with 62% in South Bombay.4 shows CIDCO’s estimates on the capacity to pay for housing by different income groups. This was necessary to (CIDCO. Although job opportunities were the driving force behind Navi Mumbai’s success.7) Household % of Monthly Capacity to pay Affordable size Income Population capacity to pay for housing (in of housing unit (Rs. Industrial growth was encouraged only in the MIDC industrial estates of Navi Mumbai (CIDCO.) Less than 200 20 10 1200 3 201-300 16 11 2580 5 301-400 15 12 4140 8 401-500 14 13 5940 12 501-600 12 14 7800 16 601-800 9 15 10800 22 801-1000 7 17 15600 31 Threshold of affordability 1001-1200 3 19 21000 43 1201-1500 2 22 30000 60 1501+ 2 25 37800 75 . Table 2. The employment base of Navi Mumbai was planned to encompass manufacturing (industry). assuming a family size of five. Per month) (% of income) rupees) (in sq.4 Household Income and Capacity to Pay (Figures estimated in 1971 income where $1~Rs. large or medium industrial units were permitted on Bombay island. The plan called for the shifting of government offices from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai. A CBD was planned in Navi Mumbai with the aim of creating 40. No new. 400.000 jobs for a population of 2 million (CIDCO. Only small-scale industries were allowed in place of old. The Industrial Location Policy issued in December 1974 posed various restrictions on the start of new industrial units on Bombay island. large industries. Table 2. as well as service sector (office) jobs.
Capacity to pay for housing divided by cost of construction shows a very small (or no) house could be owned by most families. community centers and residential areas. 1973). land would be leased under a 30-year repayment system to private cooperative housing schemes and private owners. The Government of India’s policy on publicly financed housing has been to build 21 sq. CIDCO decided to build a large part of the housing as public housing. 550 per square meter and the cost of development of land was Rs. houses or larger (CIDCO. The cuadra had a detailed zoning plan with single-use zoning on all lots. 1961). Le Corbusier explained "the plan is based on the main features of the 7V rule (Appendix B) determining an essential function: the creation of sectors. In India the square was used as the basic unit in the layout of traditional cities. 1973).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 9 (CIDCO. CIDCO decided to use a maximum surcharge of 15% on housing for highest income group to compensate for a maximum subsidy of 45% to the lowest income group (CIDCO. The total land of Navi Mumbai was divided into thirteen townships. i residential neighborhoods (sector). each family could own only developed land. Many of the sectors were residential in character. A sector centrally located within each node took on commercial activities. The higher income groups would pay a surcharge for housing. m. V4 roads were designed for shopping and commercial activity. Children were able to walk to school on the V7 through green belts (Sarin. The sector planning of Modernism is very similar to the grid planning of traditional Indian cities. The sector is the container of family life" (Le Corbusier. 1961). Many of these principles of Modernism were used in the planning of Navi Mumbai. Some of the highlights of the design elements of this plan were sector planning. These were: i decentralization by the design of self-sufficient townships(nodes). The neighborhoods were self-sufficient and had their grocery store and primary school. residential and institutional activity. which would subsidize housing for the lower income groups. At the same time. The housing has to be heavily subsidized to make it affordable. Otherwise. it was proposed to use cross subsidies. 1977). Each township had several sectors. 2. hierarchy of roads and important buildings of a gargantuan scale (Fry. This would have a great drain on the financial resources of the government. i single-use zoning as opposed to the traditional multiple-use zoning The result was a single-use zoning pattern with distinct areas for industrial. The sector was based on the Spanish cuadra of 110 to 100 meters. In Navi Mumbai. The average cost of construction was Rs. The square had a significance in Hinduism as this perfect geometric shape was thought to be . 1977). No fast traffic was allowed in the sectors.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai The conceptual design of Navi Mumbai was developed at the height of Modernism. Each of these cuadras was a self-contained unit with primary schools. commercial. 1973) The table shows the ability of each income group to contribute towards owned accommodation. 40 in 1970. Le Corbusier had played an important role in the design of Chandigarh in Punjab in the mid1950s (Le Corbusier.
Vashi is the center of Navi Mumbai's wholesale market. 1969). 1991).4). Each node is self-contained for 100. As the residential classification was based on the caste. swadeshi (fullest utilization of local resources. infrastructure and recreational uses (Figure 2. a true Gandhian. This is significantly different from the single-use planning of Modernism. Here in Navi Mumbai the idea of a large “urban village” has been nurtured. The functionality of the city is based on the principle of neighborhood design as seen all over the Western world. All houses in a neighborhood were occupied by a particular caste. Vaishya and Sudra. So each sector had mixed use. This also facilitated the sharing of other. 1929).000 to 200. At a larger scale. The task of designing and detailing the physical design was carried out by CIDCO. Many cities still reflect this street pattern. Some of the nodes have special features. The nodes contain residential. which corresponds to the professions priest. This principle of neighborhood planning and its derivative from Modernism was used in Navi Mumbai. Commercial and residential uses were adjacent to each other or one above the other. main streets formed perfect rectangles dividing the city into separate residential areas based on caste.000 people. streets. In the case of Navi Mumbai. the four castes are Brahmin. 1997). each neighborhood was known as a sector (CIDCO. There would be no rich or poor nodes (CIDCO. nodes share some common facilities such as water reservoirs and transport facilities. The goal has been to create a city based on Gandhian principles of swavalamban (self-reliance). commercial. was the Chief Planner of CIDCO for 20 years (1970-90) (Engel. "Arguing to turn any weaknesses into strength. 1991).). 1973). warrior/king. This is the vision that is the traditional Indian design inspiration for Navi Mumbai. The size of the node depends . the main philosophical design principles of Navi Mumbai are based on Gandhian ideology (Parab. merchant and peasant. Each node is divided into neighborhoods (or sectors). Neighborhoods could be placed near each other to form a larger urban framework. In India. both materials and human) and swatantrya (self-motivation and mutual self-help) (Ganguli. Navi Mumbai consists of thirteen townships (or nodes).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 10 the abode of the gods (Henn. and progressively moved outward depending on the natural landscape. people were forced to work within that particular neighborhood. Even in the planning of Mohenjadaro (7th century B. Under his leadership. Mr. while Nhava-Sheva houses the new container port. let us accommodate nature!" (Gandhi in Engel. Gandhi would have urged: If nature chooses not to accommodate us. Neighborhood planning in the West was a concept put forth by Clarence Perry.C. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board put forth the broad conceptual regional plan of Navi Mumbai. amenities and utilities with segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic (Banerjee. 1984). Each neighborhood unit was within a one square mile radius. larger amenities by contiguous neighborhoods. The indigenous plans all started with a central focal point (either of political or religious symbolism). Airoli and Kopar-Khairane have industrial estates. Kshatriya. Each node was planned to accommodate a range of income groups. Parab. 1973). an American designer of the 1920s. This was a model layout for an area with specifications for residences. The neighborhood unit is used as a building block to build New Towns across the world (Perry. 1973).
The node should be large enough to provide schools.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai Considerations of social equity were very important in all aspects of development in a country. The streams Source: CIDCO. The Development Plan of Navi Mumbai is an example of the new consciousness for sustainable Kharghar Nerul settlements (CIDCO. The plan called for the construction of holding ponds to retain excess monsoon run-off. flowing from the Western Ghats mountain ranges would irrigate these trees. The Development Plan for Navi Mumbai called for the planting of one hundred thousand trees every year! (Engel. 1991). Holding ponds would be used for pisciculture and recreation. This was partly because of the scale and complexity of the project. for its success. Private industries would not invest in this particular region unless they were assured of workers and so on.4 Nodes of Navi Mumbai recreation and timber. which had been independent for only 20 years. which were closely linked. unless sufficient industrial growth existed. shopping areas and other facilities. 1997). and then unused portions would Nhava-Sheva be recycled. For industrial growth large finances were required. As financial and economic considerations depended on the government in office. For example. It depended very heavily on external factors. only activities. 1997). would be strongly supported.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 11 BOMBAY Airoli Ghansoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada on walking distances to the mass transit stop. Politicians use the creation of jobs and better living environments as a common strategy for getting votes. The plan Jui Belapur Arabian envisioned an ecologically friendly Sea city where products of nature would be Panvel used. which ensured their re-election. Hence. 1973. 1995). Any change in political power would affect the policies and development strategies of this new town. The primary concerns were related . The design concept of Navi Mumbai was very idealistic. a migration of population would not occur. This would also ensure reduction of soil erosion and the development of woodlands for both Figure 2. 2. There was also a high degree of uncertainty attached to some of the policies and physical developments. One of the ideas of putting the environmental city into Dronagiri practice was the creation of woodland corridors (Parab. which would be used in the dry seasons. the plan had a very important political component. Water treated from industrial and sewage waste would be used to develop green areas (Parab.
The design of a completely new city was a very good opportunity to implement these national concerns. 1973). ground floor houses would be possible initially. place of birth or any of them (Article 15. it was proposed that housing should be constructed so that this income group could afford it. 1973).social. The planners of Navi Mumbai thought this was a fortuitous occasion to provide social justice to the millions of migrants and pavement dwellers of Bombay (CIDCO. The Draft Development Plan spelled out "there is a tendency in India that induces people to live in like groups. The plan took into account the fact that one-third of the housing in New Bombay would be sites-and-services plots (CIDCO. caste. I). The Constitution of India also spells out the need for the government machinery to facilitate social. The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice . cooperative housing groups or private builders. CIDCO would sell the plot at a highly subsidized rate and with a twenty-year repayment period. In planned towns and cities this should be avoided to a great extent by allocating housing in neighborhoods to members of different communities. More durable material could be used in the course of time. enclaves or ghettos of age long tradition of ’birds of the same feather flocking together’. walk-up apartments of three to four floors would be designed.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 12 to providing better quality of housing. sex.shall inform all the institutions of the national life (Article 38). medical care and social welfare. In 1970. economic and political . It recommended construction using cheaper concrete. Housing would be built for the various income groups." (CIDCO. cost-effective. 1973). economic and political equity. Individual families would then have to build their own homes (swavalamban). Housing for the middle income and high income groups would be in the form of CIDCO housing. 1973) . For them. more than 30% of the population of greater Bombay could not afford a pucca (durable) house (CIDCO. The residents could design and implement their construction in any way they chose (swatantrya). cheap material. Construction would be made with locally available. race. Incremental housing was suggested as the solution. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion. using bamboo instead of steel reinforcements and setting up of local retail shops where residents would be able to buy inexpensive building materials for building their homes (swadeshi) (CIDCO. 1973). 1973). electricity and sanitation (CIDCO. water. The Gandhian principle of self-help would be used to implement this agenda. For the lower income group. To aid residents further. Navi Mumbai’s founders saw the construction of large amounts of new housing as an opportunity to break down demographic divisions and to enhance social equity. The sites-and-services plots would have services such as roads. Thus. The remaining two-thirds of the population could afford more expensive housing. education and job opportunities.
1973). merchants from neighboring districts migrated into Bombay and constructed homes inside and outside the Fort walls. Mobile health care units would operate from this community health center. A large hospital for intensive care and for teaching and research purposes would be set up (CIDCO. recreation and afforestation projects (CIDCO. 1973). The community health care center would primary health care. The nodes (townships) were designed to provide one primary school per 5000 population. Other private institutions would be encouraged also.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 13 To justify this consideration. The medical center would provide secondary health service. It would have out-patient department. 1973: 17): "CIDCO is anxious that the new city develop its own identity as quickly as possible. water supply and sanitation. handicapped children. exploited women and leprosyaffected persons would be developed in Navi Mumbai to accommodate the growing population (CIDCO. "In each node it is proposed that accommodation be made available for the entire range of income groups expected in the city. When the East India Company encouraged merchants to establish residence in Bombay. The Governor of Bombay also encouraged this development because it reinforced the traditional panchayati (selfgovernment) system of administration by which the council of elders settled religious.000 population (CIDCO.500 population and one college for 50." . It should contain its own jobs. shopping. The Greater Bombay region had some of the best social welfare programs in India. Institutions for juvenile delinquents. Establishment of ethnic enclaves has led to a number of problems in India. It would be a small hospital and polyclinic where specialized health care would be provided to cases referred by the community health care center and general practitioners. This further contributed to the creation of ethnic enclaves within the settlement. Minimum standards for building construction were developed by CIDCO. 1995). The planning was for a comprehensive coverage by taking the services to households. planners cited the segregation of Bombay as an example. The Development Plan says (CIDCO. recreational and other social facilities an should not become a dormitory for Greater Bombay. schools and colleges and making health education a part of classroom education. one high school for 12. The planners of Navi Mumbai did not intend to create an identity for the city related to physical objects. Provision of schools and colleges was a priority in the planning of Navi Mumbai. medical care. Health planning was undertaken as public health projects. 1973). diagnostic and investigation services. These were the education facilities to be provided by the government. but will also ensure a uniform standard of social and physical infrastructure and see that no one class of residents is better served than another" (CIDCO 1973: 17-18). and law and order problems of the community (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. These are discussed further in the next chapter. It is expected that this accommodation of residents from various social and income groups within the same physical area will not only make for a healthier environment. 1973). This led to the development of ethnic enclaves.
drainage. CIDCO was appointed as the NTDA. which would help implement the objective. These are (CIDCO. It appears that the monumental style of Corbusier was not an influence on this design. These stages include: i Draft Development Plan (programs and policies) . Other institutions have also been set up in the Greater Bombay region to facilitate planning efforts in the region. 1992). 2. the allotment of residential apartments would be governed by a policy. 1991).an identity based on the Gandhian value of social equality. The city of Navi Mumbai was planned to address the issue of social equality through its physical design. In particular. In the very beginning. With the creation of these other agencies. i promoting commercial and other employment activity. i Specialized services provided by Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA).Data base . i developing residential plots for different income groups. planned cities of India such as Chandigarh. CIDCO has executed the implementation of the plan in various stages (CIDCO. CIDCO had to coordinate all planning and development programs.Other agencies . electricity.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 14 Thus. Its identity is only that of a spreading inkblot (Engel. Before the creation of these different institutions. on the institutions responsible for the plan. a strong institutional framework was required for its success. there was no aim to create a monumental city.Visualizing the future i Action Plans .8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework The government authorities of Bombay realized that the effectiveness of regional planning depended. the Gadgil Committee Report (1965) had recommended the setting up of a New Town Development Authority (NTDA). However. the identity of Navi Mumbai is subtler. New. CIDCO has a more narrow and defined role. i Bombay Electric and State Transport (BEST). It is more of a philosophical identity . CIDCO undertook the task of (CIDCO. i involving Government agencies for developing public transport and telecommunications. largely. The role of CIDCO is to implement the plan of Navi Mumbai. 1992): i Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA) in 1975 i Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) in 1992. However.Objectives . 1995): i developing land and providing infrastructure such as roads. Gandhinagar can be described by their grid system or monumental scales. water supply. The physical design would be the instrument to implement this objective.
Chapter 2: The Research Setting
- Land use plans - Residential layout plans - Infrastructure plans - Industrial location plans - Environmental assessment i Implementation - Acquisition of land - Finance - Construction - Relocation strategies BMRDA took over such functions as coordination of metropolitan planning, funding, execution of programs, development control and maintenance of the entire Greater Bombay region including Navi Mumbai (UNCHS, 1993). Financial responsibilities and investment decisions are made by a large number of agencies including the Government of India, State Government of Maharashtra, CIDCO and firms in the private sector, but coordinated by BMRDA.
Macro-level Regional Planning Inputs
Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA)
Micro-level Sub-regional Planning Inputs
Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation
Plan Implementation of Navi Mumbai
City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) Figure 2.5 Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai In 1992, an amendment of the Constitution of India affected the functioning of CIDCO. The 74th Amendment of the Constitution of India (the 1992 Amendment Act on Municipalities) spells out the devolution of power to the local bodies and democratization of development planning. This Act emphasizes that the management must be done by elected representatives of the people who will account for two-thirds of the board. This committee is responsible for the preparation of the draft development plan. This ensures a bottom-up process with direct inputs from the citizens (UNCHS, 1993). These municipal corporations will be responsible for their economic development and incorporate all ideas within the
Chapter 2: The Research Setting
Comprehensive Plan. The direct result of this Act is the creation, in 1992, of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation. This allowed CIDCO to give up its role as New Town Development Authority (CIDCO, 1995). A heavy-handed approach was used by the government to implement its social policy. As most of the housing was built by CIDCO, a government agency, the government could control, if not regulate, the distribution of the population on socioeconomic basis. Households desirous of buying a house built by CIDCO had to submit an application that stated the dwelling size they preferred. CIDCO allotted these houses, depending on when construction was completed, on a rolling basis. This was intended to ensure a random distribution of the various linguistic and religious groups of the population. The pattern expected would now be one based predominantly on income. 2.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan The planning of Navi Mumbai began in 1971. The results of each of the planning objectives can be studied now. The first objective of the Development Plan of Navi Mumbai was to reduce congestion of Bombay by absorbing immigrants and attracting some of the present population of Bombay. Table 2.5 Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay(BMRDA, 1978 in UNCHS, 1993) 1971 1981 1991 Population Density Population Density Population Density (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) CBD 1120 1659 1031 1527 849 1258 Central Bombay 1950 1349 2254 1559 2309 1597 Bombay Island 3070 1447 3285 1549 3158 1489 Bombay Suburbs 2900 544 4958 930 6751 1266 Navi Mumbai1 128 600 328 617 Over the 1981-91 period, there was a considerable decline in the population of the CBD and Bombay island. The increase in the population of the suburbs and Navi Mumbai accounts for the decline in the CBD and Bombay island. Outmigration to other cities and countries is negligible (BMRDA, 1978). The main reason for the shift was because of (UNCHS, 1993): i dilapidation of older buildings in Bombay i cheaper and better housing facilities in Navi Mumbai i better employment opportunities in Navi Mumbai i lesser commuter distances involved The second objective of the development plan was to bring maximum jobs consistent with the Gandhian principle of self-sufficiency (swavalambhan). CIDCO’s support of the Industrial Location Policy brought more jobs to Navi Mumbai. The sectors that had maximum growth in Navi Mumbai, were trade (39%), finance and services (27%) and manufacturing (18%) (BMRDA, 1992 in UNCHS, 1993). The wholesale agriculture produce
residential area increased from 213 hectares in 1981 to 531 hectares in 1991.
Chapter 2: The Research Setting
market for vegetables, foodgrains, oil seeds, sugar and spices was moved from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai (CIDCO, 1973). A separate railway siding and truck terminal were constructed to facilitate effective relocation. This involved the relocation of 30,000 jobs from Bombay and the reduction of 5000 truck trips per day. A new iron and steel stockyard complex has been developed in Navi Mumbai. This means the relocation of 25,000 jobs and a reduction of 1000 truck trips per day to Bombay. However, the economic agenda, which was based on agriculture and cottage industries, is no longer effective because of the government’s redoubled commitment to a policy of industrialization. Navi Mumbai continues to be exploited as a major industrial zone (Engel, 1991). CIDCO's third objective was to provide physical and social amenities in Navi Mumbai. The land use of Navi Mumbai shows these amenities (Table 2.6 and Figure 2.6). Table 2.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai, 1993 (in sq. km.) Land-use Zone 1979 1985 1986 1991 Residential 101.15 133.99 127.08 129.87 Commercial 6.51 6.51 6.51 5.75 Industrial 43.21 43.14 43.14 43.14 Port 12.00 22.7 22.7 22.7 Wholesale market 6.08 4.54 4.54 4.6 Woodlands / Park 90.26 61.24 68.15 69.35 Institutional .76 1.09 1.09 1.09 Fishing and allied 6.14 3.44 3.44 3.44 Transportation 30.86 30.35 30.35 29.73 No development 46.73 36.70 36.70 34.03 Total 343.70 343.70 343.70 343.70
1993 127.61 5.75 43.14 22.70 6.86 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70 (CIDCO, 1997) Primary, secondary and high schools have been provided in all sectors of Navi Mumbai. All primary schools are within walking distance. This eliminates the need of expensive transport for small children. There is at least one college in every node and Vashi node has both medical and engineering colleges (CIDCO, 1995). Medical facilities are provided by private medical practitioners. Every node has a hospital run by the Mahatma Gandhi Medical Trust. Community health car centers are also there (CIDCO, 1995). In its fourth objective to provide an ecologically friendly environment, CIDCO has not been entirely successful. The area of woodlands has been constantly decreasing (CIDCO, 1995). Most woodlands are in the form of mango groves which form a part of neighborhood parks. In the conceptual plan, streams flowing from the hillsides were to irrigate the woodland corridors. No significant effort has been made to utilize this resource. However, holding ponds have been constructed. Promenades have been built along them and they are being used as recreation areas (Parab, 1997). The fifth objective is the primary focus of this thesis. The objective to prevent ethnic enclaves and to promote a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics was fairly ambitious. In order for its success, a perfect control of the market is required. The analysis of the data will show the outcome of the objective.
1992 128.71 5.75 43.14 22.7 5.76 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70
Growth in other development sectors of Bombay has also had an adverse effect on Navi Mumbai’s growth. Periodic socioeconomic and household surveys were used to determine the status of constructed environment.10 Conclusion The Draft Development Plan of Navi Mumbai described many broad outlines for the development of a city for the common citizen. CIDCO provides serviced sites for both government and private ownership. The poor transportation links between Bombay and Navi Mumbai has been the main contributing factor. recreation and commercial needs. utilities. . Though the Navi Mumbai project was begun in 1970. the development process has been slow. and housing occupancy rates are high. the Gandhian principles supported cultural heterogeneity and mixed use zoning. However. establishment of more industries and construction of more houses.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai Source: CIDCO.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 18 NEW BOMBAY BOMBAY Arabian Sea Residential Woodlands Industrial Port Institutional Trucking Wholesale Fishing Wetlands Figure 2. housing requirements. Commuter services have become operational since May 1992. Hence. since 1990 there has been accelerated growth due to the commissioning of Nhava-Sheva port. Many attributes of these two design principles are not necessarily harmonious. middle-income group and high-income groups. 2. development and implementation of ideas were done in an incremental manner. lower income group. Houses have been constructed for different sectors of society economically weaker section. the extension of the railway lines. the city is no longer a plan on paper. Social aspects of city planning were given importance with special attention given to considerations of employment opportunities. The absence of a port and railway links slowed growth. Designing. and improvements made in the next phase of design. but a living and working reality. While Modernism called for single-use zoning and a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics. The design principles described in the Draft Development Plan were based on the philosophical reasoning of Mahatma Gandhi and the functionalistic approach of Modernism. 1995. Problems of design and development were identified.
A heavy-handed implementation strategy of this objective was done by taking complete control of the residential allotment. . The success of this strategy depended on maintaining this control. The research setting under consideration is the result of the hybridization of Indian and Western ideas. Navi Mumbai is a modern. planned city within the context of a specific historic and cultural setting. The aim of this research is to examine the present urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Very little analysis has been done on the outcome of CIDCO's social agenda to ensure diffusion of ethnic groups and the urban social pattern that emerged. This also implies that the urban social pattern was predetermined.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 19 This design also strongly supported the need to use the government’s power and machinery to promote the uniform distribution of people and prevent ethnic enclaves.
Socioeconomic factors have a very important contribution to the pattern. 1968). Whatever the mode of construction. 1990). The final outcome of a morphological study is the formulation of a theory which connects facts to form hypotheses. 1990). principles and existing theories for improving the design of cities (Doxiadis. technology. Land ownership patterns. residents soon influence their urban environment.Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 3. It is a city designed with the design principles of the time. Thus. Most cities in the Third World and India have been indigenous in origin and organic in growth. The pattern of spatial distribution is recognizable in most contemporary cities (Alexander. Buildings and spaces are created by people and quite often characterize them (Kostof. 1995). These design ideas seem to have a strong influence of Modernism (CIDCO. Many of these cities have been under colonial rule. This literature review will first trace the human settlements in India. transportation.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern Every human settlement consists of certain elements. India. urban form is not merely the architectural form of the city (Lozano. people adapt to the physical environment around them. but four-dimensional. The human-environment relationship is a two-way process termed as the socio-spatial dialectic (Knox.1 Introduction A human settlement is an establishment created by people for their inhabitation. Where market forces work. because it changes continuously in a temporal dimension. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. It is also a cultural manifestation. 1991). However. . A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between its elements within the temporal context. 1973). The urban pattern is a result of the relationships between people and their social. they are more generic and may not represent the lifestyles of every household. and bear characteristics of western influence. Interaction of these elements form a pattern . and those of Mahatma Gandhi. 1987). Intricacies in relationships have increased the complexity of the urban form over time. 3. Simultaneously. 1968).the urban pattern. language and housing character. ethnicity. changing and modifying it to suit their way of life (Lozano. income is one of the most important determinants. If the residents build the buildings themselves. communication and socioeconomic relationships influence urban patterns. Education. economic and physical environments. The aim of the thesis is to examine the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Such a human settlement is not just threedimensional. Human settlements contain people and societies in a physical environment consisting of natural and man-made elements (Doxiadis. then they reflect their lifestyles. Urban social pattern is the pattern formed by the interaction of various social variables such as household characteristics. religion. (New Bombay). Navi Mumbai is one of the first cities in India built for the common citizen. if government agencies or contractors build them. occupation and values of housing influence the spatial character.
Thus.a fort or a religious building. The rural land may also have been . Urban patterns represent a continuity of time and space. buildings and infrastructure.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 21 Demographics. Although details may not be identical. Urban spatial patterns occur because of the repetitive spatial distribution of these elements. The patterns have similarities. human beings. the node (township) and the sector (neighborhood) will be used as the study areas using aggregated household survey data. and the ownership. This representative sector is defined as the smallest area that exhibits the characteristics of the urban settlement. 1971). Traditional cities have used physical forms to interpret cultural and religious beliefs (Lozano. Some farmers may sell their land more easily than others may. 1987): i land ownership i street patterns i existing land use i economic considerations i planning regulations i political and historical events The physical expansion of the city is always bound and guided by land ownership. They are the units of analysis of the morphological study (Knox. Thus urban social patterns are complex manifestations of underlying cultural values intermingled with global economic forces (McGee. Time and place may provide them with different characteristics making each city unique and dynamic. These features contributed to a particular urban and social pattern. a hill top site was the utilitarian response to any important building . and natural and manmade obstacles. Traditional settlements were shaped by (Lozano. 1995). Since the characteristics are universal (within the frame of study) they may be studied by a spatial representative sector. In most studies this unit is the neighborhood which displays both physical and social aspects of the whole urban development. The physical form is a variable of the social and built pattern of the city. 1990): i the way in which nature and man-made features satisfy needs for protection and defense i the way in which physical and economic landscape allows for communication with other regions i the way in which the topography of a site suggests the construction of a human settlement i the way in which climate leads to building solutions These factors influence the cultural and spiritual form of the cities as well. 1990). it is necessary to determine existing land use as a pre-condition to urban growth and form. society.3 Factors Influencing Urban Form Many factors influence the form of cities. linguistics and ethnic background also influence urban patterns. In the study of Navi Mumbai. A city replaces existing land use. The change of land use from rural to urban depends on the existing land use. The built form is influenced by factors as (Alexander. Doxiadis defines five elements in the study of human settlements. For example. 3. 1990). which may be universal or local. “The typical sector represents the formal characteristics found throughout the area and thus acquires some universality” (Lozano. They are nature. every city has certain elements.
often because of a city wall. These factors are (Alexander. Master plans and regional plans provide long-range strategies for development. Plots of varying sizes and shapes influence the layout of the streets and of individual buildings (Knox.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities The traditional theory of urban origin is generally attributed to Childe (Herbert. 1990). others are global in scope. Owner-occupier. Childe put forth a theory that urban centers were a result of agricultural change. The factors influencing urbanization were also different. The caste system of India separates and hierarchies the Hindus. However. While some processes are culture-specific. Clear differentiation between urban and rural existed. other scholars contend that it is doubtful that surplus can be attributed as the single factor which caused the emergence of urban settlements (Jacobs. However. 3. commercial buildings. Kosambi. 3. Pedestrian movement limited the size of the city. A household’s choice of place to live is determined by its income level. A particular social pattern brings about a particular built form. within. race and religion (Vance. For thousands of years. This allowed some of the people to develop other professions.5 The Sociocultural Factors India is among the most stratified of all known societies in the world (Srinivas. personal preferences and many institutional constraints. cities were very simple although they rarely served single purposes. Instead. 1979). craftsmen and merchants were born. Urbanization took place at different chronological periods. Domestication of animals and cultivation of land created villages. Soon. The variation in influencing factors and historical circumstance gave rise to different urban forms in different parts of the world. a city contained social distinctions in terms of class. Priests. 1987. Various economic.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 22 subdivided. The social pattern and the built form are interrelated and contribute to the urban morphology of a city. they supported a range of activities. The external . 1983). 1990). People as food gatherers advanced to become farmers. Reasons such as trade and defense have also been used to explain the formation of cities. and Thomas. Housing. 1995). private rental and public sector housing operationalize housing sectors. surplus food production was achieved. The evolution of the urban pattern of Indian cities is divided into the social pattern and the built form. 1986): i ethnic composition of the city i migration i religion i economic considerations i race i political and historical events The housing market also influences the social pattern of the city. Planning controls influence development to a great extent. social and political circumstances influence the social pattern (Scargill. Certain built forms encourage certain social patterns. 1992a). government offices and warehouses formed the built environment of the city.
However. diet and dress. 1992a). Class systems by contrast define the rank of their members according to their individual attributes and behavior". and in the case of India. However. all elements can not be arranged vertically. The real world. Clothing. theoretically. territory. 1992). this popular caste hierarchy is not clear throughout the Indian subcontinent (Srinivas. Although no hierarchy is mentioned in the Sukta. Various combinations of the hierarchy have come about due to regional differentiation in certain attributes of social living. language. 1992). Vegetarian castes occupy higher positions. In India. Along with the caste exist occupational stratification. marriage and death ceremonies distinguish one caste from another. Certain occupations such as butchery and cobblery lower the rank. linguistic stratification and religious stratification. unfortunately. The differences may also be placed in a horizontal system (example: language. culture. Vaishya and Sudra are said to have come from the mouth. linguistic. 1992b). The spirit of the caste system is determined by the attitudes of each caste to the other. differentiates itself into only hierarchical status containing inequality (Gupta. Hierarchy allows elements of the whole to be ranked with relation to each other (example: income and prestige). 1974:8). religious and ethnic diversity of the country (Gupta. a hierarchy from Brahman to Sudra has been interpreted (Bougle. class. The characteristics caste. Kshatriya. Thus. 1992). language.2 Class "Class refers to a system of stratification which is economic in character" (Gupta. 1992). The caste system varies from village to village and is a local phenomenon. thighs and feet of the Creator.5. The social stratification is very deep and varied. the forms of social stratification are many. Certain customs lower or raise the status of the caste. The criteria for the differentiation can normally be translated into money or wealth. However. As many individual criteria are . The population may be stratified based on income. Berreman (1965) says "Caste systems rank people by birthascribed group membership rather than by individual attributes. Stratification implies a differentiation based on a set of criteria. Ethnic characteristics refer to language. The term ethnic group refers broadly to people “with some similar characteristics which go beyond their mere place in a societal division of labor” (Brass.1 Caste Castes are the hierarchical divisions of people based on professional and family membership. 3. The dominant caste legend is the Purushasukta legend whereby the Brahman. 1992b). 1992b:14). The Indian theory of social stratification depends on caste. religion or occupation (Bougle.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 23 manifestation of the separation and hierarchy through particular attributes of the castes brings about social stratification of the urban social pattern (Marriott. sometimes reinforced by common work roles. 1992). vertical and horizontal systems of stratification exist. arms. rituals. these single criterion hierarchies can be misleading as they depend on cutoff points related to individual analysis (Gupta. religion). religion and language are discussed below. 3.5. Repulsion between castes forced isolation and the creation of distinct residential enclaves (Bougle.
During the Mughal rule (16th to 18th century). The major languages of India are Hindi. While the Congress party represented the majority of the Indian population. prestige and income to form a socioeconomic status. Buddhism. Bengali. An overwhelming view of Hindu-Muslim relations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is that Hindus advanced due to their enthusiasm to take up western education and government employment (Kaura. 1985). Muslims became apprehensive of Hindu domination. 1985:11). . In 1906 they formed the All-India Muslim League. Kannada. The linguistic distribution is not only diverse but also very complex (Das Gupta. it may be better to create a composite index of education. Gujarati. absorbing other religious doctrines and never proselytizing. Hindi was chosen because it was the language spoken by the largest percent of the population while was a result of the British legacy. occupation. 3. not subjects” (Hodson. the Muslim League represented only the Muslim population (Brass.5. 1970). The characteristics of the population regarding bilinguals. Urdu and Punjabi. From the beginning Islam has been a conquering and proselytizing faith (Hodson.5.Jainism and Sikhism. 1974). At this time they felt the need for a political party of their own. which culminated in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. The League demanded for a separate electorate and for more employment in public service. Jainism and Sikhism stemmed off from Hinduism and are very similar to Hinduism. The framers of the Indian Constitution chose Hindi and English as the official languages of the government (King. The census of India 1951 (immediately after Independence) recorded a total of 179 languages and 544 dialects in India. Marathi.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 24 linked to other attributes. A certain degree of animosity between Hindus and Muslims has existed since the first Muslim ruler of 1018 AD. 1997).4 Language A systematic inventory of Indian languages began in the mid-eighteenth century. 1974). Telugu. Islam was a religion that came to India from outside and is culturally very different from Hinduism.3 Religion Religion and language have provided the motive power for nationalism in India (Brass. Tamil. degree of control over the language and relationship between the languages affect their social communication. Hindus and Muslims drifted apart in the issue of independence from British rule. A Hindu revival period in the late nineteenth century to arouse enthusiasm for political action made the Muslims more insecure. The Hindu religion has always been a pacifist and tolerant religion. 1985). There are many religions in India. 3. India is the birthplace of two major religions –Hinduism and Buddhism – and two minor religions . Anger and frustration broke out as violence as Hindus moved from Pakistan into India and Muslims moved from India to Pakistan (Hodson. Malayalam. 1977). However. the Muslims were in power over most of India. The wake of Independence brought with it violence and terror in the Indo-Pakistan borders in Punjab and Bengal. After the decline of the Mughal Empire and the loss of political power to the British. “In most folk-memory the Muslims of India had been ruler.
Writers in Hindi commonly refer to Hindi as Rashtrabasha (state language) which may signify language used by the state. many political leaders advocated for the use of Hindi as a national and official language. as it was difficult to isolate only one family. Hindu-Muslim riots broke out even in Bombay which has normally been a very peaceful city. ethnic conflicts are easily targeted towards these select neighborhoods. the Brahman priests had more power because it was believed that they were the representatives of the Creator on earth. In many places. The better control the Tamil people had over English. This rationale of composite nationalism influenced policies related to religion and language (Das Gupta. Pakistan officially declared itself as a Muslim state. Agitation and violence broke out in many non-Hindi states over this issue. Although a majority of the rivalry has been for and against Hindi. However. 1970). there also been conflict between other regional languages.5. a synonym for official language and like state religion. 1970). confusion has always existed about the status of Hindi as official or national language. In the early 1950s. The South Indian state of Tamil Nadu was most vocal in the Anti-Hindi agitation. they believed. This issue can not only be seen at the time of partition in 1947 but also was seen during the recent communal violence in 1993. The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India declared the fourteen major languages listed as national language (Gumprez. all castes looked up to the farmer caste because they were important landowners and were wealthy (Srinivas. When the ethnic groups occupy distinct neighborhoods. and vice versa. a majority of the leaders preferred a composite nationalism.5 Implications of the Sociocultural Factors The implications of caste and class are closely related to those of power and wealth (Dumont. a demand for a national language also arose. 3. The union government declared that fifteen year deadline after Independence would be given for transition of official language from English and Hindi to only Hindi. 1988). The separatism movements seen all over India are all based on ethnicity and inter-caste rivalry (Bose. In some villages. The inequality and economic differentiation cause conflict between the castes and classes. The Babri Masjid in Ayodhya was broken down by Hindu fundamentalists. Small Muslim enclaves within a majority Hindu neighborhood were targeted. had led them to better job opportunities. Repercussions were felt all over the country. The partition of United India into India and Pakistan came with many problems. This confusion in terminology is the basis for most language-related problems in Independent India. The Tamilnad Students’ Anti-Hindi Agitation Council objected to both the removal of English as an official language and the declaration of Hindi as the sole official language. Language conflicts have also occurred in India. In a multilingual society there may be a plurality of national languages. 1971). This was not seen in more heterogeneous neighborhoods. Compromise was . 1992a). Traditionally these castes had either wealth or power. Although a minority of Hindu leaders in India felt that India should be declared as a Hindu state. a state language with an unique status (Das Gupta. There was strong opposition from non-Hindi areas in general and South India in particular (Hindi is a IndoAryan language while the languages of South India belong to the Dravidian group).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 25 However. 1989). Certain castes are dominant in a society.
The temple as the symbol of religion dominates the urban form. Stratification of the society had to accommodate these religious factors. The Indian society was also stratified horizontally by language. A number of languages coexisted in all parts of the country. The final shape of the town Figure 3.1 Circle and Swastika depended on the natural features of the site. The streets ran from north to south and from east to west. padas. 3. religion and language is the issue of group identity which is the cause of most ethnic conflicts. class. Sikhism were born in India while Islam. a perfect rectangle was accepted. both from within and without the country. violence sparked off by language issues has continued to occur in India. If it could not be a perfect square. Judaism and Christianity found their way into India. These characteristics are derived from the need for defense and administration and the importance of religion (Kopardekara. and which had as many padas as there were to be residential sectors was selected. . In the initial stages it was in the form of caste differentiation as prescribed by the Hindu/ Vedic texts. The science of architecture and planning. which contributes many elements to the urban form.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 26 finally reached in 1963 under the Official Languages Act. orientation of buildings and arrangement of internal rooms based on astrological and religious criteria (Volwahsen. which was the terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe inhabited by Brahma. The caste system over the next ten to fifteen centuries became deeply rooted in the Hindu population and became a part of life. In planning the town a vastupurusha mandala which was most auspicious. The multi-dimensional society was soon complicated by the emergence of other religions. 1969). Prime commercial and residential land was located near the temple.6 The Built Form The historical evolution of the built form of Indian cities can be divided into three distinct phases. The town wall enclosed the mandala. The square was used in the creation of the vastupurusha mandala. However. the creator. Related to castes. 1986).1). Certain other shapes were also considered to be auspicious like the circle. Vastushastra. Hinduism. Jainism. and four gateways were situated at the cardinal points. The temple also influences the siting of other land uses. The mandala could be divided into smaller squares. governed the alignment of roads. C to 12th century AD). This does not imply that social assimilation does not occur. Buddhism. The ethnic segregation and conflict has existed from the beginning of the Indian Civilization. The earliest is the Hindu phase (3000 B. Despite the Act. 1974). the differentiation and assimilation in progress in a multi-ethnic society receives a prominent place in any political conflict. cyclical and swastika (Figure 3. While some groups spoke of an all-India nationality other speaks of a regional nationality (Brass. Social assimilation and mobilization are a part of any evolving civilization.
The characteristics of the social and built form of the city contribute to its pattern. This led to the development of commercial centers and zoning based on Western market principles. pottery. and the apparent timelessness and permanence of village life” (Hall.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 27 The residential districts were divided among the four castes. A generalization of these patterns has been made. The colonial influence (17th to early 20th century A. the Brahmans worked and lived in the northern district. many researchers have pointed to the lack of penetration of urban values into the countryside. and the south-west monsoon. D. India inherited a complex urban fabric. especially seen in the port cities associated with the East India Company (Mills.). 1986). The Brahmans and Kshatriyas lived in the parts of the town which were climatically more comfortable sheltered from the hot sun. The residential character throughout this period was segregated. As the built form depends on the social characteristics portrayed by its residents. 1978). Generally.the cantonment . 1980). The morphological components include buildings used for trade warehouses. The Islamic elements included the mosque and domestic architecture which emphasized the purdah through enclosed courtyards. During this time. 1980). the Hindu tradition continued. and Hindu elements of this period are not distinct from earlier ones. Large migration of people from the rural area. In India where occupation and caste are synonyms. 1980). 3. Vaishyas in the southern part and Sudras in the western district.were developed (Hall.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns . “In the case of India. The urban segregation was based on function and occupation premises. There was further subdivisions within each district depending on the sub-caste. Kshatriyas in the eastern and southeastern part. military establishments .) was the third phase of historical urban form. These are the theories which pertain to the built and social form of the city. Many researchers have tried to fit Indian urban growth into a theoretical model. Residential areas associated with the commercial area were contiguous or within the commercial area (Hall. Residential segregation is no longer based only on occupation and caste. the same theories are being used to describe the social patterns as well. Characteristics from medieval times are Islamic in nature (14th to 17th centuries A. counting houses. 1988). this has led to segregation and creation of enclaves within the city. At the time of independence in 1947. It has been shown that rural values have penetrated the urban philosophy due to large-scale migration. Williamson and Mills. 1992). but also on socioeconomic factors (Ramachandran. 1989). jali (carved screens) and projecting balconies (Kopardekara. D. Areas for selling of specific goods – cloth. and wood formed niches in the urban pattern. jewelry. and insufficient infrastructure in cities has led to the creation of slums and shantytowns (Misra. The three leading theories described below are based on the built form of the city. On the periphery of these urban centers. Diversification of professions due to industrialization in the post-independence era has resulted in further complexity (Becker. metalware.
1929).1 Concentric Zone Theory This theory put forth by Burgess in 1925 related population mobility and societal organization to the physical expansion of the city (Burgess. which were being taken over by the expanding CBD. This was surrounded by a transition zone. 3. In the early 1920s. The basic premise in this model was that of succession and invasion whereby population groups gradually moved out as their economic and social status improved.2). Thus. others dynamic in nature. and especially in Chicago. political and social activities. 1929). and successive zones had higher income residences (Burgess. 1992). The same city may express different models at different time periods (Scargill. This also forced an outward expansion. High income heterogeneous population and a commercialindustrial base (Herbert and Thomas. The next zone had lower income housing. It was partly based on Low income economic factors. 1929). Figure 3. The movement was towards the periphery. 1929 various groups of society led him to conclude that the city was made up of concentric zones with the central business district (CBD) at the center (Figure 3.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 28 Various spatial theories of the social pattern of cities have been advanced. some static. The CBD core had all major commercial. 1979). The model made many assumptions such as uniform land surface. 1992). This model was based on Burgess’ experience in the American mid-west cities. 1990). 1979). Mobility and migrant influx were though of as the main cause of the social pattern (Hartshorn. Diversification in employment opportunities gave rise to the growth of mixed land use development. These immigrants first found cheap housing in the inner city. accessibility to a single-centered city. and studying how the city grew (Scargill.2 Concentric Zone Theory Burgess’ research on the distributional pattern of Source: Burgess. Burgess was interested in determining a pattern for the social structure of the city. The public transport system had also improved significantly and allowed the middle-class to . they moved to better housing districts (Burgess. The three leading Western models are: i Concentric zone model i Sector model i Multiple nuclei model These models have become frameworks for studying urban social patterns across the world (Hartshorn. Families moved out into the next zone when their zone was invaded. It also had older residential districts. which had factories and slums. free Middle income market.7. With affluence. it is a descriptive framework to CBD analyze spatial organization of land use in a city Transition and its change over time. most American cities in the mid-west absorbed many immigrant groups from Europe.
3).3 Multiple Nuclei Theory The multiple nuclei theory was put forth by Harris and Ullman. and Golledge. The wedge pattern represents residential area growth (Scargill.3 Sector Theory Source: Hoyt. empirical studies did not confirm his model one hundred percent (Herbert and Thomas. It gives strength to cities with original nucleus in the center. 1990). Neighborhoods for each income group are common. For example.4 Multiple Nuclei Theory Source: Hartshorn. commercial ethnic group residential industrial Figure 3. 1939). However. Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. Burgess has been criticized for not having considered topographical criteria. Hoyt studied the city as an economist concerned with how the housing market worked. 1979). Hoyt primarily studied residential land use. It was intended to serve as a framework for studying urban growth and change (King and Golledge. The model is very simple and can be used to predict how urban land markets work. This is not a generalized model.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 29 travel from outer zones to the CBD for work. Hence. This model proposes that patterns in many cities be arranged around several centers (Scargill. Concentric zones or sectors may emerge from these nuclei. 1992). S (Hoyt.7.4).2 Sector Theory Homer Hoyt put forth a land use theory after studying over 100 cities in the U. It is more specific to some cities (King and Golledge. 1939 3. He said that residential sectors of similar rent are situated in wedges radiating from the center (Figure 3. This is because concentration of certain activities may prove to be more beneficial. 1978). 1992 . The original model did not take into account specialized clusters of industry. 1979). 1979).7. 1978). It also did not explain the impact of transport networks on these zones (Scargill. 1979). These reasons complemented a concentric zone development model (Scargill. This model also accommodates growth (Hartshorn. The real world is more complicated than what was represented by Burgess’ very general model. The model also accounts for growth along transport routes. industries may cluster around the railway line or lowincome housing along a riverbank. Hoyt also stressed the need to consider zoning laws and slum clearance laws in making models. 3. Rental value was the main criterion for studying the pattern (King. 1978). and subsequent decentralization (Figure 3.
1971). The non-uniform pattern is consistent over many cities because similar households exert similar housing choices. 1979). However. the neighborhood unit is used as the unit of analysis in the study of human settlements (Herbert and Thomas. The concept of neighborhood units became popular since the1920s in planned settlements (Perry. ethnic status used religion and social groups. 1979). are suitable modifications of the concept (Timms. safety. security and identity. every city has some constraints. The broad generalization of the social rank produced a sector model. Ethnicity causes the social phenomena of segregation. 1971). community and social and civic responsibilities such as aesthetics. The main assumption here was that social rank is related to transportation links which influence residential location in a sectoral manner (Scargill. It is only the most convenient one. 1971). This concept. 1992). The outward mobility is related to different stages of life . 3. As a family’s needs for space increase. three indices were used.marriage. The use of these three indices for analysis is a social area analysis. 1990). and social change was expected to be reflected in studies which were repeated over a time period (Herbert and Thomas. The city was viewed as a part of society. For example. Social rank used the variables.1 Western Cities Many studies of the social and physical urban pattern have been done. value of home. parenthood. This is . In the analysis of urban social patterns. family status used the variables related to demographics and type of house. It is not only a physical design concept. has been under strong criticism (Hartshorn. 1990). It is assumed that any planned city consists of neighborhood units. however. housing choices may not be made on economic basis. Hence. Critics say that neighborhood unit strongly emphasizes physical environment.8 Case Studies of Urban social Patterns The study of the urban social pattern of a city primarily focuses on the residential land use (Herbert and Thomas. education. which analyze the physical environment under consideration. These were social rank. In the built environment this corresponds to ethnic neighborhoods (Timms.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 30 3. employment. 1990). housing conditions and material possessions. Individualistic frameworks.8. Family status in American cities shows a concentric distribution. A neighborhood unit is not the only model or universally appropriate unit of analysis. but on cultural ones. family status and ethnic status. In Western cities the reasons for non-uniformity have been identified as socioeconomic status. The data source was census tracts. they move outwards. The values are also related to family. Analysis of individual cities shows that the pattern is not uniform and is characterized by residential segregation. neighborliness. 1929). social status and retirement (Scargill. ethnic status and family status (Timms. It serves as the building block to construct the whole town. it does not address the needs of a social environment. A neighborhood is the basis for formally organized residential space. This type of urbanization is also related to the housing market described by Hoyt (1939). but also an expression of socioeconomic and cultural values of the people.
8. 1990) showed similar results. youth/migrants and black poverty.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 31 predominant in cities where migration is high. 1995. does not always emerge as an independent component (Scargill. 1979). Ethnicity. 1995) shows that the four important factors in the social pattern are underclass.5 Urban Social Patterns Source: Knox. 3. Australia (Timms. Winnipeg. Studies of Brisbane. socioeconomic status. The changing pattern of family cycle reflects concentric zones while that of social rank is in sectors. however. Canada (Herbert and Thomas. traditional and modern design elements juxtaposed in seemingly dichotomous ways. A study of Baltimore (Knox. Cities in the Third World are frequently dual environments.2 Third World Cities commercial ethnic group residential industrial Ethnic Status CBD Transition Low income Middle income High income Family Status Socioeconomic Status Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. Public open spaces are generally found only . Traditional places are typically more dense with narrow streets and housing spaces around central courtyards. but socially with more complex relations to one another. 1971). 1992. Hartshorn.
Western ideas of suburbanization and formed their Source: Drakakis-Smith own neighborhoods (Lowder. 1986 Literacy and ethnic patterns emerged in a sectoral form. The second and third concentric zones were occupied progressively by poorer people.6) (Herbert and Thomas. Around the plaza was the important buildings including a church. land use. substandard living conditions and ethnicity were the broad variables that defined the social pattern of the city. The more Figure 3. The migrants and poor did not live in the core of the city. and subsequently surrounded by an industrial city (Lowder. but formed shantytowns in the peri-urban fringes and in unserviced areas (under bridges. 1980. The social Figure 3. Even single cities.7). which contribute significantly to the urban pattern (Kopardekara.7 Asian Ports pattern showed concentric zones for land use.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 32 around religious buildings. A study of Colombo (Herbert and de Silva. 1986).6 Plan of Delhi and New educated and professional classes followed the Delhi. A classic example can be seen in the design of New Delhi. 1986). The model shows that the indigenous elite were closely associated with the commercial area. as opposed to conglomerations. 1975). The modern place is more spacious. and surrounds old Delhi (Figure 3. traditional commercial areas and modern commercial areas. 1990). The morphological model of Asian port cities shows a multiple nucleus (Figure 3. 1986). Social morphological models constructed for the Third World cities show that there is a central concentration of commercial activity and a number of residential neighborhoods. But. are very complex and have evolved over a very long time. Thus. The residences of the richer class formed the first concentric zone around the plaza. The center of the city was the plaza. . 1986). The nuclei are original village. the morphological pattern of each Third World city is different mainly because of the presence of an indigenous city enclosed by a colonial city. family ties. which is adjacent to. ethnicity and literacy. 1974) found that social status. A large number of models of Third World cities have been made (Lowder. An analysis of Calcutta showed a pattern based on land use. along riverbanks). The colonial cities in Latin America show a centralized social pattern (Portes. Source: Lowder. social and economic variables may not be the only factors. Processes quite different from those in western cities govern the pattern of Third World cities.
3. But. In the 18th and 19th centuries. in rural areas. The greater complexity of urban life and the difficulty of maintaining caste identity through residential segregation alone. The pattern was a creation of the lifestyle choices of the urban rich (Portes. The nature of traditional social status and the interdependence and spatial interpretation of diverse. caste. Soon.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 33 Here. In the cities where new professions were created. languages and customs. status groups help to produce a very obscure patterning of social groups at the micro-level of analysis. industrial and office workers belonged to all castes. Many studies have been done to study Indian urban areas. "Particularly in cosmopolitan cities cultural or linguistic diversity and regional associations develop to extol their culture and language and to participate in their own . new definitions had to be made. A consistent relationship existed between socioeconomic position of the household and their distance from the center of the city. Research findings point out that while caste is important in rural societies for its very functioning. yet complementary. the farther away from the center. and religious duties performed by the Brahmins. Wealthier families began to move out of the center and settle in more isolated locations. has created social organizations for each caste (Kopardekara.3 Indian Cities In cities of India. and especially to construct a structural model. Santiago and Chile Source: Lowder. the residences became smaller and public amenities were reduced. 1986). It has been found that Indian cities defy social modeling. 1977). 1980): i Residences have not yet come to serve the symbolic function they do in the Western world. A second indigenous factor suffusing urban society is that of regional affiliation. i Symbolic functionalism is performed by religion and caste and buttressed by regional affiliations.8). Soon socioeconomic status related to nearness to the center became related to distance away from the center. The outer ring bordered on farmland (Figure 3. spatial segregation based on ethnicity. In Lima. 1975). religion and language rather than demographics and economics can be seen. The pattern is similar to the one described by the sector model of North Figure 3. 1986 residential colonies moved from the center of the city to the urban periphery which were selected for their better geographic.8 Latin American Cities America. climatic and aesthetic factors. in urban environments the meaning of caste becomes more important in terms of identity rather than function. farming is done only by the Sudra caste. in general. For example. the poorer the household (Cornelius. The social ties are horizontal and vertical. The horizontal relationships are between people of the same cultural background while vertical relationships are between caste and class. the Indian urban social scene essentially reflects two facets of non-western structure (Hall.8. many large cities became crowded.
Instead. He postulated three dimensions as being important contributors to residential segregation. higher migration and equal male to female ratio. low literacy. Chandigarh) have low population densities with no concentration of industrial. commercial or administrative areas. Calcutta) has low-density commercial centers surrounded by high-density residential neighborhoods.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 34 regional festivals if not usually celebrated in the region within which they live now" (Hall. i The modern planned cities (Jamshedpur. Their influence and interplay causes residential segregation. 1980:35). The centroid of the system represents the optimum location for accessibility to all three functions. and that the temple acted as the most meaningful focus for the spatial distribution of social characteristics. These three dimensions were i socioeconomic dimension symbolized by the bazaar i political dimension represented by an administrative symbol i prestige dimension derived from the religious function of a temple. cities that were well developed even before the colonial period. Madras. i Metropolitan cities (Bombay. i North Indian cities had low female employment rates. 1974 evolutionary pattern. colonial cities. Certain areas are known for their residents speaking a particular language only. These three dimensions would form concentric zones (Figure 3.9 Pattern of Indian Cities Source: Weinstein. He had the following conclusions. Weinstein (1974) made an attempt to produce a conceptual model for the social segregation of an Indian city. Hyderabad had two nuclei – the old city and the colonial city. it was found that multiple nuclei were present. Industrial towns like Jamshedpur were planned around their industrial core. i South Indian cities had higher female employment rate. Calcutta and Madras. Temple Bazaar Centroid Fort Brush (1977) studied 24 cities in India and discerned four types of gradients of population directly related to their Figure 3. Although the neighborhoods that result are not corporate groups in the sense in which they are defined. real case studies did not prove this theory.9). had retained their residential core (Mehta. higher literacy. low migration and equal male to female ratio. However. had western style CBDs. 1968). Pune and Varanasi. . Bombay. such neighborhoods are the source for the development of the corporate groups. Ahmad (1965) did a factor analysis of the socioeconomic characteristics of Indian cities.
transportation and socioeconomic status (Kosambi. These examples show that the urban social pattern of Indian cities is very complex due to the influence of a variety of factors. Analysis at the level of a single city gave patterns that are more complex. A systematic analysis of census data for Bombay was done (Kosambi. 1986). castes and classes produces a more heterogeneous pattern. The patterns were attributed to Europeanism. 1901. The existence of multiple physical urban patterns caused by the presence of indigenous settlements.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 35 Such broad conclusions are results of regional analyses. . Census data from 1881. British cities and industrial towns within the boundary of the urban area. The social patterns were also strongly influenced by the age of the city. 1986). religious polarity. languages. commercialism. 1831 and 1961 was used to determine the evolution and change of the social pattern. The presence of many religions.
Source: Lowder. Hartshorn. 1986.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 36 C oncentric Z one T h eory S ector T heory Incom e g rou p 1 M ultiple N uclei T heory commercial ethnic group CBD Tran sitio n L ow incom e M iddle inco m e H igh inco m e In com e g roup 2 residential industrial In com e g rou p 3 D elhi Latin A m erica A sian P orts C oncentric + S ector T heories C hicago C alcutta C oncentric + S ector + M ultiple N uclei T h eories Figure 2. . 1992.10 Urban Social Patterns and Relevant Case Studies.
or in search of opportunities in the city. These theories have been combined in a social area analysis to describe the social pattern based on a few social variables. Land-use is also similar in that it is predominantly single-use zoning. In the American cities.9 Conclusion The urban social pattern is the complex manifestation of the underlying cultural values of the population within a particular built environment. The components of the analysis of American cities are not entirely apparent in the Third World cities. Social area analysis assumes that a few independent factors can explain the spatial patterning of a city. In the design of Navi Mumbai. Stratification causes social inequality in terms of wealth. skills and professions. class. power and status. religion and language. The urban social pattern of these cities has been generalized. family status and ethnic status. this is not evident due to the existence of multi-generational families. A market economy strongly influences the lifestyle of the citizens of Navi Mumbai. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 37 3. In the case of Navi Mumbai. Male dominance. the residential neighborhoods have been designed using the neighborhood principle as those designed in America. this social area analysis must take into consideration the indigenous factors. an effort was made to prevent this social stratification and use residential allotments to fulfill this objective. In the case of India. the sociocultural factors are related to caste. Migration may also be restricted to the men of the family. In Third World cities. Status in Third World cities is based on family membership or socioeconomic class. In such a case study. The residential neighborhoods of such cities are not as well defined as they are in the American cities. However. it is appropriate to use a social area analysis to delineate the urban social pattern. Here. Traditional Indian cities have grown over a very long period of time. the components derived from social area analysis were termed as socioeconomic status. These characteristics stratify the society into vertical and horizontal systems. The households are generally large with a range of ages. The lifestyle factor in North American cities relates small nuclear families with higher education achievements and better employment opportunities. The growth of cities across the world has been studied. Three leading western theories describing the urban social pattern of cities dominate the literature on urban social patterns (Hartshorn. The reasons for migration are also varied – they may be migrating as a result of natural calamities. the researcher’s knowledge of the local environment is important to contextualize the pattern more appropriately. The historical evolution of cities has supported this stratification. 1992). These are concentric zone theory. The lifestyle depends on ethnicity and migration. migration or ethnic group represent the ethnic factor. .
economic. They were considered to be very narrow and not universally applicable. Cairo and Helsinki showed some useful generalization.Chapter 4: Research Design Determining the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai is the primary research objective of this thesis. The pattern of the city may be determined by statistical analysis or by discerning people’s mental images of the city. mapping of social area analysis for a large sample of cities showed that socioeconomic status. studies in Calcutta. 1985). the urbanization component showed a concentric ring pattern. The study involves the categorization of a city based on social rank. It is a . Earlier. The social area analysis may be done statistically by a factor analysis. Cities are complex entities that have many different functions performed by many different people. These involve population. Although these analyses have been more effective for studying North American cities. there was considerable criticism about the choice of variables. 1971).1 Social Area Analysis Social area analysis provides a broad framework for analyzing the social patterns of a city. The aim is to identify key combinations of different measures that provide an adequate basis on which to differentiate the sub-areas from one another (King and Golledge. Social area analysis shows how family characteristics. The family as a unit becomes weaker. and housing characteristics. the city was analyzed as a composite made up of three layers. economic status and ethnic background produce a certain spatial pattern in the city. 1978). The theories put forth by Burgess. Thus. 4. However. Hoyt. The issue of spatial distribution of different kinds of people in Navi Mumbai is of primary interest. urbanization index. The increase in industrialization creates an occupational status system (Timms. Hoyt and Harris and Ullman. family status and ethnic status. This analysis classifies census tract data into three main constructs . 1955). These three factors also corresponded to the theoretical models proposed by Burgess.socioeconomic status. Generally the economic model showed a sectored pattern. urbanization and segregation. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. and ethnicity confirmed the validity of the analysis. Under these conditions. The analysis looks at the variables at once and at their respective locations in their distribution. The basic premise of social area analysis is that a city cannot be studied in isolation from the overall society (Shevky and Bell. The research investigates the relationship between the spatial pattern of Navi Mumbai and the different theories of urban social patterns discussed in the literature review. immigration of rural population leads to segregation based on language. The general issue of social areas will be accomplished through social area analysis. It was first put forth by Shevky and Williams (1949) in a study of Los Angeles. These factors are taken into consideration in social area analysis. Better transportation systems increase mobility and lead to a greater sorting of population (Cadwallader. A set of variables describing the social structure of the city can be used in the statistical analysis. religion and ethnic background. and Harris and Ullman will be the theoretical framework for the conceptualization of the social pattern of Navi Mumbai.
H0. caste) dimensions (Hall. The variables are tabulated below: Table 4. The sectors (neighborhoods) are identical to census block tracts. religion. education. and each sector (neighborhood) of the nodes. concentric zone theory and multiple nuclei theory. Social area analysis based on western thinking can not be naively applied to the study of urban social patterns in India. my null hypothesis. This provides a spatial hierarchical data set.3 Operationalization Certain variables will be used to operationalize the social area analysis to obtain the urban social pattern. Variables that arise from such cultural determinants need to be used in the factor analysis.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Socioeconomic status Profession Number of earning members Income Education Family status Demographics Women at home Family size Dwelling size Type of house Year of occupation Ethnic status Religion Language 4. If H0 is false. is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social patterning will occur. 1990). 4.2 Hypotheses As discussed in the literature review.4 Data Collection The data required for the analysis can be obtained from census tracts of Navi Mumbai. religious and historic development with both horizontal (kinship. The data available is based on a . then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. family status and ethnic status correspond respectively to the sector theory. 4. Social structure in India is a result of cultural. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. mapping of social patterns in many cities across the world show that the socioeconomic status.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 39 device that seeks interrelationships among the set of input variables (Herbert and Thomas. 1980). In this case study of Navi Mumbai. This database provides aggregated information about each node (township). language) and vertical (occupation.
Statistics are weighted for spatial data because. An error of 5-8% is expected. Although principal components analysis is no longer considered the most favorable mode of analysis to delineate patterns. 4. and compare it to other cities. the units of analysis are not identical. The single variable from that data set is selected and a histogram of it at the . and GIS overlay techniques are used to determine the social pattern at the regional and sub-regional levels. In this research. At the regional scale the data is tabulated. The descriptive analysis helps understand the finer dimensions of the data.5.378 Kopar-khairane 14. data covering a large area is required.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 40 socioeconomic survey done by CIDCO in December 1995. and at the sub-regional scale attached as Appendix C. This is a detailed stage of analysis.109 Kalamboli 9.056 New Panvel 9.161 Sanpada 2. The second is a principal components analysis. The only data source that provides this information. 4.357 Survey Coverage 6656 4219 2125 2034 2282 2530 2506 544 % of total 24 26 23 22 25 19 18 23 The issues of validity and reliability arise in the use of census data for testing the hypothesis. although variables are related. The census data is not 100% reliable. Table 4.5 Methodology Four methodologies are used to analyze the data.1 Descriptive Analysis The first stage of analysis describes the data at both the regional and sub-regional scale. The survey was carried out on a ~22% sample basis for each node.338 Belapur 9. is census data.2 Survey Sampling Node Total Number of Dwellings Vashi 27. For a social area analysis. The GIS and mapping techniques convert all the statistical information into a graphic representation. Finally. All data is standardized. the sector is the unit of analysis. cartographic mapping.283 Nerul 16. The variables are expected to cluster based on the constructs described above. The third is cluster analysis of the cases to see which variables are closely associated. The principal components analysis draws out the relationship between the variables. The first is a descriptive analysis of the data setting out the parameters that need to be considered to define the meaning of heterogeneity. These four methods are collectively used to analyze the data. The cluster analysis puts together cases which are similar based on the relationship between the variables. for the purpose of this thesis it shall be used.007 Airoli 13. These are techniques in multivariate analysis.
The rotation normally removes the negative loadings. The N by M matrix is standardized in terms of standard deviation. The axis has been rotated orthogonally (assuming the factors are uncorrelated). This matrix contains components that represent a group of interrelated variables. These restrictions are (1) there are k common components (2) underlying components are orthogonal to each other (3) the first component accounts for as much variance as possible.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 41 sub-regional scale is drawn.7 are not significant in the correlation matrix. it is necessary to provide a permissible range of variation.5. The . 4. Comparative figures at the national scale are also given. The elements of the eigenvectors that are used to compute the scores are called principal component loadings. These loadings indicate the strength of the relationships between variables and underlying components. This solution determines whether a small number of the components can be used to explain the covariance between a large number of variables. the second component accounts for as much of the residual variance left unexplained by the first factor. Rotating the axis more closely intersects the clusters of variables. The second step is to rotate the axis to get a simpler solution. This is varimax rotation. 1978). In order to interpret this descriptive statistics for homogeneity. and so on" (Kim and Mueller. the matrix of component scores is computed. Generally variables with communalities less than 0. Corresponding communalities are also estimated. The initial solution is based on the orthogonal solution.2 Principal Components Analysis A principal components analysis reduces a large number of variables to a smaller number of underlying components. 4. The first step of principal components analysis is to obtain an initial solution. and results in a simpler pattern. Cluster analysis classifies the groups according to the observations into moreor-less homogenous and distinct groups (Davis. The data is interpreted in terms of its mean and standard deviation. Characteristics of the urban social pattern can be revealed by considering the relationship within groups. The data matrix is converted into a correlation matrix. A variation greater than thirty percent of the total population from the mean (15% on either side of mean) is used here to show unequal distribution. 1986). 1986). If the standard deviation at the 95% confidence interval is within 15% of the mean. It has very little theory and depends largely on experience.3 Cluster Analysis Classification of data places objects in one or more homogenous groups. Each original observation is converted into a principal component score. The eigenvalue criterion (eigenvalue greater than or equal to 1) helps eliminate components which are not meaningful. certain restrictions are imposed. The cases are the rows and the variables are the columns.5. This matrix is next converted into a factor matrix. then the pattern shall be interpreted as homogeneous. "To obtain the initial solution. This approach to classification is very subjective. The first matrix is a simple data matrix. Patterns can be delineated from mapping these components. Principal components are the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix (Davis. Finally. Principal components analysis can be thought of as four matrices.
This stage of analysis integrates the theoretical framework. namely Vashi. This mapping helps explain the statistics through a easily interpretable graphic representation. and the statistical analysis to determine an interpretation of the pattern. 4.6 Data Analysis Descriptive analysis of the data was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS.5. Distance coefficients are linked at low values. . A correlation coefficient or distance coefficient may be used to evaluate similarities. The aim of these two kinds of analysis was to determine if the data set clustered into the three constructs given above. Mapping of the principal components determined if any pattern exists in the social characteristics of Navi Mumbai at the regional and sub-regional scales. This method joins similar observations. The criteria for clustering is that both observations mutually have the highest correlation with each other.4 Mapping and Overlays The final stage is the mapping of the descriptive analysis. The regional scale was comparisons between the eight nodes of Navi Mumbai. then connects the next most similar observations to these.0 to -1. Both the analyses were done at a regional and sub-regional scale. The levels of similarity are used to construct the dendrogram. as is the correlation coefficient. A low distance would indicate that two objects are similar and a large distance would indicate that the two objects are dissimilar.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 42 classification procedure used here is hierarchical clustering.0. and so produces better dendrograms. The distance coefficient is not constrained within the range of +1. principal components analysis and cluster analysis. A measure of similarity between every pair of objects is computed using Euclidean distance. The SPSS program was also used to perform a principal component analysis and a cluster analysis on this data set. 4. Analysis was then done of one particular node of Navi Mumbai.
1) with the actual variable from the data set. age 25-45 Family size 4 to 5 members Dwelling size 26-35 sq. Kalamboli. Airoli and Sanpada. age 25-45. As the 1995 survey data was the most recent data. Then the data set was studied at a sub-regional level by analyzing the neighborhoods of Vashi node. unskilled status Number of earning members 1 earning member Income Rs. • sub-regional scale (sectors of a node) The study areas at the regional level of analysis are those of the nodes of Navi Mumbai including Vashi. One or two variables from each set was selected for this study. This spatial scale is • regional scale (nodes). 5. The criteria used to select the variables were based on the expectations of the hypothesis. Hence. The methodological reason for selecting these eight nodes out of the total of thirteen is because data was available for only these eight nodes. The variables needed to explain the constructs as well as possible. As this node had the most complete data.Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 5.2 Descriptive Analysis of Data The different constructs and variable names described in the methodology section are tabulated below (Table 5. Muslim Language Marathi.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Name Variable from data set Socioeconomic Profession highly skilled. only one or two representative variables from each set was selected. Belapur. Kopar-khairane. female pop. it was used for analysis. Type of housing CIDCO Tenure 1980s Last place of residence Bombay Ethnic status Religion Hindu. Table 5. All the variables belonged to closed sets. m. and has fully developed residential sectors. it was selected out of the eight nodes. Panvel. 2651-4450 Education high school Family status Demographics Male pop. only then would they bring out the characteristics of the construct.1 Introduction The aim of this research is to study the urban social pattern of the population across a hierarchical scale. The analysis is divided into descriptive analysis of variables and detailed analysis at the regional and sub-regional. Data for the regional and sub-regional scale was collected from the 1995 socioeconomic survey conducted by CIDCO. Malayalam . Vashi is the oldest node. Nerul.
Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 44 All data tables are for the regional scale while the histograms are from the sub-regional scale. Table 5. while it is 1.2. An increase in the number of earning members increases family income and the socioeconomic class. 5. Data tables for the sub-regional scale are given in Appendix C.2Work Force Percent of male Percent of female population in work population in work force force Vashi 53 10 Nerul 55 7 Belapur 52 12 Kalamboli 54 6 Panvel 57 8 Kopar-khairane 56 10 Airoli 53 7 Sanpada 58 9 Mean 54.2.8% recorded in the 1987 survey) of the population makes up the workforce of Navi Mumbai.3 Number of Earners Single 2 3 4+ Vashi 68 23 6 2 Nerul 78 16 3 1 Belapur 68 22 4 2 Kalamboli 79 15 4 1 Panvel 78 17 3 1 Kopar-khairane 76 17 5 1 Airoli 74 20 4 1 Sanpada 70 19 7 2 Mean 74 19 5 1 Standard deviation 5 3 1 1 .35.62 Standard Deviation 2.15% (a slight increase from 32. All these variables are closely correlated. 33.12 1. Table 5.2 and the number of earners in Table 5. The percent of males and females is shown in Table 5. 30430 are the working population. Number of earning members: Out of the total population of 91787 recorded in the survey. Better education facilitates getting better jobs and higher income.67 in Greater Bombay.3). and form the socioeconomic indicator. Seventy-five percent of families had one earning member and twenty percent of families had two earning members (Table 5.1 Socioeconomic Status The socioeconomic status is an indicator of social class.75 8.99 The average number of earners per household is 1. A profession brings with it a certain prestige and social class.
3).3). they are 19% of the work force and the standard deviation is 11. and has a normal distribution over eight cases. Profession: Good employment opportunities are offered by the manufacturing industries of Navi Mumbai. Government offices including banks and public sector enterprises employ 21% of the workforce. The standard deviation is 11. 25% of the workforce is employed there. Professional workers in teaching and medical institutions are 7% of the workforce.0 80.4).1. The distribution of the singleearner family at the regional level shows a standard deviation of only 5 (mean=74). Dev = 7. The main reason is that this node is presently under construction and has a large workforce of construction workers. Highly skilled professionals hold higher level managerial and supervisory jobs or are professional business persons.0 55. For this analysis classification based on skills is tabulated (Table 5.0 50. The distribution of the single earner families is shown in Figure 5. Skilled workers are factory workers. while service professions such as shops and hotels employ 7% of the workforce. This is most representative of the entire population.0 65. At the sub-regional scale the standard deviation is 7. Table 5. This means that the distribution is homogeneous. construction workers and trainees. single earning member.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 45 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std. The pattern is homogeneous.0 75. On an average. Both the values are within 15% of the mean.96 (mean=66. They form 17% of the workforce. The mean is 74 with a very low standard deviation of 5. Kopar-khairane has a low number of highly skilled workers and a large number of unskilled workers (Table 5.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.96 Mean = 66. contractors and consultants. Small businesses account for 15% of the employees.4 Occupational Classification of Workforce Highly skilled unskilled office selfteacher other skilled worker worker assistant employed Vashi 45 12 12 15 9 4 3 Nerul 38 23 13 15 4 4 3 Belapur 47 12 8 20 3 6 4 Kalamboli 24 31 20 12 8 3 2 Panvel 43 19 9 16 4 7 2 Kopar-khairane 20 9 41 9 9 0 12 Airoli 34 18 44 12 5 1 4 Sanpada 49 9 20 14 3 3 2 Mean 38 17 19 14 6 4 4 Standard Deviation 11 8 11 3 3 2 3 Frequency .1 Distribution of Single-earner families For the analysis. carpenters.0 60.0 70.3 N = 19127. In Navi Mumbai this economic class constitutes 38% of the work force. was selected. Unskilled persons are construction laborers and housemaids.00 45. the variable.
45) and the sub-regional scale.2 15000+ 3 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 1.0 10.0 Std. 2650 • middle income group (MIG) earning between Rs.13 1. 1230.5 Household Income upto 12511250 2650 Vashi 2 14 Nerul 3 27 Belapur 2 12 Kalamboli 2 26 Panvel 2 24 Kopar-khairane 2 9 Airoli 1 14 Sanpada 1 5 Mean 1. 4200 fell within this range. and the standard deviation is 6.0 50.46 44517500 30 21 35 21 31 36 34 42 31.0 20.0 35. 2651-4450 The income range of Rs.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 46 The corresponding data was not available at the sub-regional scale. Frequency .9 N = 19127.0 40. The regional scale shows a standard deviation of 6. Table 5. This shows a proportionately large middle and higher income groups. in Navi Mumbai it appears that the four income groups have to be redefined based on the median and/or mean income of this region rather than using the national urban averages (Table 5.5).29 750110000 15 6 12 3 5 9 8 12 8. 4451 and Rs 7500 and • higher income group (HIG) earning more than Rs.88 16. 4900 and the monthly average per capita income is Rs. Income: The income groups are defined by the Government of India’s household income classification into: • economically weaker section (EWS) earning less than Rs1250 per month • lower income group (LIG) earning between Rs.25 7.06 1000115000 7 3 5 1 3 7 2 4 4 2. The proportion of EWS:LIG:MIG:HIG is 2:16:34:48. Dev = 10 Mean = 27.0 45. Both cases do not show a homogeneous distribution of people based on income as the standard deviation is greater than 15% of the mean.13 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5.75 4. the standard deviation is 10. 2651-4450 was selected for the principal components analysis because the median income of Rs. The monthly average household income is Rs.2 Frequency of Families with income range Rs.46. 1251 and Rs.0 25. Thus. Almost 34% of the population falls within this category.38 Standard deviation 0.64 8.46 (mean=33. 7500 per month.98 (mean=27.9) (Figure 5.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.63 6.0 15.0 30.2).26 26514450 27 36 27 46 31 32 39 31 33.
60 14 15 18 20 14 13 16 12 15.63 1. secondary school education. 51% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is English. while 4% of the population is going to college.38 3.52 1. Hence. technical education. Vashi has all the major colleges. The value given represents the highest level of education achieved by at least one member of the family (Table 5.04 BS MS 22 4 24 5 15 2 9 1 22 4 29 4 13 3 21 4 19. Bachelors and Masters degrees. 76% of the students walk to their school or college.07 high school 22 17 21 16 19 15 18 25 19. Table 5.25 1.13 3.6 Location of Education Institutions Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar. 10% use bicycles and only 2% go by school bus.5 5. 12% use public transport.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 47 Education: The survey shows that 27% of the total population is children going to school. Most students attend school and college within their node (township).Airoli Sanpada Bombay khairane Vashi 88 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 Nerul 9 77 2 1 1 0 0 0 10 Belapur 10 12 67 1 1 0 0 0 9 Kalamboli 1 0 1 90 4 0 0 0 4 Panvel 2 1 2 8 76 0 0 0 11 Kopar-khairane 17 0 0 0 0 81 0 0 2 Airoli 7 0 0 0 0 0 83 0 10 Sanpada 47 8 1 1 0 0 16 0 27 In the Bombay region literacy rates are seventy-five percent for adult population.36 technical 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 2 1.30 .75 1.7 Level of Education illiterate Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 4 3 5 7 3 4 4 4 4. Table 5.6). and 35% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is Marathi (12% did not specify their medium of instruction). the column titled Vashi shows that some students from all other nodes also go there to attend school or college (Table 5.25 2. primary school education. The level of education is categorized into illiterate. Sanpada is the only node without any education facilities.38 6.66 27 27 30 34 25 27 37 21 28. high school education.7).28 Children Primary secondary 9 5 8 10 8 6 7 8 7. children.
2. The demographic indicators used are male and female population of the age group 25-45.13 population.21 22 -24 25 -44 45 -59 60+ Vashi 4 3 7 15 12 5 34 14 5 Nerul 7 5 10 12 8 5 41 8 3 Belapur 6 4 8 14 12 5 37 11 4 Kalamboli 8 6 11 13 8 5 43 6 1 Panvel 8 4 8 11 9 5 44 9 3 Kopar-khairane 10 6 10 10 8 5 43 6 1 Airoli 7 5 10 14 11 4 39 8 2 Sanpada 7 4 6 10 10 5 43 10 4 Mean 7 5 9 12 10 5 41 9 3 Standard deviation 2 1 2 2 2 0 3 3 1 6000 Frequency . The age group 16 to 24 is 10% of the 2000 population. Dev = 7.00 0 45 to 59. 28.5% of the population falls under this category with a standard deviation of 5.07 (mean=28.0 30.0 25.0 50.0 35.13 (mean=40.3). The national average for this variable is 16. Secondary school means an education of up to Grade 10 and the passing of a government examination (matriculation). This level of education is provided to everyone by the government free of cost. and at the sub-regional scale is 7. This age group was selected because it is a subset of the population and it makes most of the decision regarding social choices (Table 5.8.6 population are in the age group of N = 19127.8 Male Population below 3 4-5 6 .2 Family Status Demographics: The nodes of Navi Mumbai have a female to 5000 male ratio of 848 to 1000 (comparative figures for Bombay 4000 are 819 to 1000).07.6).0 40. 5. The variation is not homogeneous at either scale (Figure 5. Table 5.5). 1991) The standard deviation of this variable at the regional scale is 5. The working age group of 25 to 44 is 39% of the 1000 Std.0 20.0 45. Children up to the age of 15 constitute 33% of 3000 the total population.0 population are in the 60+ range.9).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 48 The variable ’secondary school’ was selected under level of education.3 Frequency of Families with at least one a younger population with a high individual with Secondary Education percentage of children.6 (Census of India. Table 5. About 9% of the Mean = 40. and only 3% of the 15. Cases weighted by population The present pattern clearly shows Figure 5.9 10 -15 16 .
0 50.10).4).39 Mean = 38. Dev = 3. Family size: The average family size is 4.21 in 1985. average family size has increased from 3.4 Frequency of male population in the age group 25-45 Figure 5.0 52. but also the need to accommodate older parents.0 34.0 46. The population age structure is uniformly distributed over the whole region.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 49 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation of the population is 3 (mean=41) at the regional level.0 48.01 for all the nodes (Table 5.76 and the national average is 5. The comparative family size for Bombay is 4.0 36. 3000 2000 Frequency 1000 0 32.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. and 3.39 (mean=38) at the sub-regional level (Figure 5.73 in 1987 to 4. In Vashi.0 N = 19127.9 Female Population below 3 4-5 Vashi 5 3 Nerul 7 5 Belapur 5 4 Kalamboli 15 10 Panvel 8 4 Kopar-khairane 9 6 Airoli 6 5 Sanpada 6 4 Mean 8 5 Standard deviation 3 2 6 -9 8 10 8 16 8 10 10 8 10 3 10 -15 14 13 14 20 11 9 15 10 13 3 16 -21 11 9 11 13 10 12 10 13 11 1 22 -24 5 7 6 12 9 10 6 9 8 2 25 -44 39 40 40 6 40 37 39 39 35 12 45 -59 10 6 8 6 6 5 6 9 7 2 60+ 4 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 The female population of the age group 25-45 is also uniformly distributed over the study area.52. A descriptive analysis of the data over the last 20 years shows that household size has been constantly increasing.0 40.0 42. The reason for this is not only marriage and children.0 44. .0 Std.0 38.
5 60.0 47.22 3. private builders and cooperative housing began developing residential sectors.0 52. . 3000 2000 1000 Std.0 62.81 4. Since Vashi is the oldest node.9.0 4.9). Frequency Cases weighted by population Figure 5.1. CIDCO began all construction in Navi Mumbai.11).87 4.1 (mean=50.6 1 2 1 3 5 3 1 3 2. The variable has a standard deviation of 5. and 5. Dev = 5.8 6.7 14 10 13 14 8 10 15 12 12 2.5).5 55.9 0.5 45.21 3.10 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0.4 8.67 3.85 Mean = 56. Later. All other nodes show a dominance of CIDCO housing (Table 5.0 67.00 0 42.0 57. the data shows more diversification of the housing stock.10 Family Size Single Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 6000 2.5 57 54 53 52 45 45 56 45 50.4 Average family size 4.03 3. At the regional scale the standard deviation is 5.1 6.5 Frequency of households with 4 or 5 members Type of Housing: Initially CIDCO built ninety percent of the housing stock.85 (mean=56) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.5 The variation of the data is minimal.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 50 Table 5.5 65.99 3.0 N = 19127.9 5.5 50.3 26 34 31 31 41 41 27 39 33.85 5000 4000 The families with a size of 4 or 5 members was chosen as 50% of the population belongs to this category.4 1.
38) while at the sub-regional scale it is 35.6 Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO For this variable. Most government offices that provide housing for their employees obtain long term lease from CIDCO. The standard deviation is 12. This is a very significant result. resale and rental fall under private ownership.24 (mean=89.62 Mean = 66. Houses built by CIDCO are 90% of the houses available. Co-op Commercial 29 2 5 0 9 0 0 1 15 0 2 0 0 0 11 0 8. Frequency .0 Std.62 (mean=66.0 20.77 Pvt. Dev = 35.0 70. CIDCO’s aim to promote heterogeneity was to be implemented by having a strong hold over the housing market. The large deviation shows that private construction has taken place.24 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 Pvt.0 80. This may be one of the main reasons for the greater variability in the pattern at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale.0 60.0 100.11 Type of Housing CIDCO Vashi 64 Nerul 95 Belapur 91 Kalamboli 99 Panvel 80 Kopar-khairane 98 Airoli 100 Sanpada 88 Mean 89.76 0.0 30.4 N = 19127.4) (Figure 5. At Vashi.0 10.0 40.0 50.38 9.00 Cases weighted by POP Figure 5. House 2 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 1.13 0.00 1. The categories. Some houses are mortgage through CIDCO.12 shows present ownership of the house. The standard deviation at the regional scale is 12.38 Standard Deviation 12.6). CIDCO is still the major owner.88 0. the strong control is no longer evident. the oldest node.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 51 Table 5.74 Other 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0 90.24. only houses built by CIDCO was selected. private ownership.35 1000 0 0. Table 5.
0 90.13.0 20.0 60.0 80.99 0.0 70. Dev = 21.75 18.2 (Figure 5.25 18.7).75 Private 17 3 4 1 9 1 0 7 5.25 5.13 Housing built by CIDCO <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 51-75 76-100 101-150 150+ Vashi 11 30 22 14 15 3 2 0 Nerul 7 57 18 8 7 2 1 0 Belapur 0 26 10 33 20 11 0 0 Kalamboli 24 37 24 5 7 2 0 0 Panvel 10 33 16 18 22 1 0 0 Kopar-khairane 0 20 10 42 18 9 1 0 Airoli 0 30 28 17 18 6 0 0 Sanpada 0 61 18 12 9 0 0 0 Mean 6.25 while the mean was 14.5 8.64 Dwelling size: The average size of dwelling units constructed by CIDCO is less than that built by private builders (Table 5.85 Mean = 14.50 36.36 12.63 9.65 6.0 40.5 4.12 Ownership of House Mortgage CIDCO Vashi 11 23 Nerul 21 36 Belapur 8 40 Kalamboli 25 25 Panvel 7 33 Kopar-khairane 0 34 Airoli 0 51 Sanpada 15 32 Mean 10. Table 5. While CIDCO is building houses for the EWS/LIG/MIG.7 Frequency of Housing Built by CIDCO . Table 5.68 Resale 21 16 0 0 0 14 0 18 8.09 8.88 34.43 Rental 23 36 37 43 36 49 42 26 36.50 0 Standard deviation 8. 6000 4000 Frequency 2000 Std.63 14.0 10.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.25 0. the private builders are predominantly building for the HIG.64 6.25 Standard Deviation 9.2 N = 19127.14).52 14.02 3.0 30.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 52 Table 5.0 50.00 0.76 0 10000 8000 The standard deviation of the data was 21.
0 60.88 15.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 53 Table 5. There is a great variation in the Figure 5. Mean = 16. Dev = 18.67 and mean 10000 16.0 10.67 76-100 24 23 9 0 24 1 0 5 3. the dwelling sizes 4000 selected was 26-35 sq.63 18.12 101-150 8 5 5 0 8 0 0 2 3.8 Frequency of Houses built by Private number of houses occupied between Enterprise nodes (Table 5.13 21. Table 5.50 14.69 10.75 2. Families began to reside in Nerul.13 11.15). Dwelling size was selected 8000 based on type of house.2 (Figure 5.75 3.88 Standard Deviation 3.78 12.14 Housing built by Private Enterprise <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 Vashi 4 2 2 14 Nerul 0 6 6 6 Belapur 0 1 2 2 Kalamboli 0 8 0 0 Panvel 0 0 1 1 Kopar-khairane 0 91 5 5 Airoli 0 0 0 0 Sanpada 13 60 2 2 Mean 37. Panvel and Airoli in the latter 1980s and in Kopar-khairane and Sanpada only in the 1990s. For both CIDCO-built houses and privately 6000 built houses.86 3.67 que groups.8).00 0 Tenure: The growth of Navi Mumbai 0. corresponding to middle income Fre 2000 Std.0 can be divided into three stages: early.00 11. Only Vashi and Belapur had a household population in the 1980s.50 16.83 3.76 7. Cases weighted by population slow phase in the 1970s.99 5.0 20.0 50.0 The frequency distribution of houses built by private enterprise shows a 12000 standard deviation of 18.0 6.41 150+ 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 14.09 13.94 10.38 Standard Deviation 10.0 30.88 9. middle phase in 1980s and accelerated phase in the 1990s. Kalamboli.50 15.15 Year of Occupation before 1980 1981-85 1986-90 1991-92 1993 1994 1995 Vashi 11 28 24 8 9 14 5 Nerul 0 6 29 10 6 35 14 Belapur 4 23 24 11 13 18 7 Kalamboli 0 5 31 10 11 37 6 Panvel 0 11 14 15 14 34 12 Kopar-khairane 0 0 0 20 18 34 28 Airoli 0 0 47 14 12 16 11 Sanpada 0 0 0 0 8 48 44 Mean 1.50 2. m.50 .16 51-75 14 8 33 5 18 42 17 12 5.38 29.2 ncy N = 19127.0 40.
39 Within state 3.0 50. Dev = 18.0 movement within Navi Mumbai.17 .20 2.54 Outside Outside state India 4. 1980s and 1990s account for the entire span of growth of the city.58 5.43 Sanpada 17.5 2.53 2.4 4. which can be attributed to the pace of construction. These N = 19127.58 4.8 0.0 30.11 2.54 0.34 13.0 80.06 6.65 10.55 23.75 2.78 0.18 5.57 5. this table only indicates the year of occupation of the present accommodation. not entirely accurate as families may have shifted after their first place of residence.45 Standard 5.34 49.62 2.94 Nerul 13.19 26.54 7. Only the middle phase was selected as a representative variable.45 0.25 1.9). There is a very large variability.0 20.36 17.2 2.2 2. 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation at the regional scale is 20.15 24.79 2.63 9.28 55.23 Kalamboli 5.34 66. Movement within Navi Mumbai shows desire to move to a house of the homeowner’s choice.25 place of residence are Bombay and 1000 Mean = 52.82 3.26 5.07 19.51 20.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 54 The three time periods of 1970s.28 3.79 deviation Frequency Thane 3.04 2.05 4.3 68.94 11.39 Panvel 3.16).94 0.58 13.46 3.44 2.1 5.23 49.05 1.29 4.42 0.36 0.0 10.25 (mean=52. 2000 Table 5.32 5.16 Previous Place of Residence Island City Western Eastern suburbs suburbs Vashi 18.27 Kopar 14. It is thus.63 Mean 11.56 Belapur 10.82 4.26 6.19 Navi Mumbai 35.4 0.83 5.0 70.89 47.53 32.9 Frequency of Tenure the first stage of relocation where the choice of house is not very important.63 17.04 6.25) and 18. This is because any house in Navi Mumbai would be better than the existing living conditions in Bombay.0 60. Cases weighted by population Migration from Bombay is usually Figure 5.78 39.25 (mean=30.8) (Figure 5.85 0 6.8 Navi Mumbai (Table 5.23 4.16 Airoli 8. However.25 0. 3000 Previous Place of Residence: The two variables describing previous Std.0 40.00 0 describe migration from Bombay and 0.14 5.51 3.
An analysis of the other minority populations also show very large standard deviations. The means of the religion variable correspond with the national averages.75% of the total and has a standard deviation of 1.60 Others 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0.46 The variables Hindu and Muslim were selected for analysis.0 60.67 Jain 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.56 Mean = 53.0 55.38 2. Ethnic enclaves are formed mainly by religious and linguistic groups.0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.0 40.98 Christian 6 3 6 4 2 2 3 9 4.00 0 35.01) at the regional scale and 9. Dev = 9.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 55 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std.13 0. Frequency .67.17).10 Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence The variables.25 0. The Hindu population is the majority and is homogenous.3 Ethnic Status This construct is very important because it is the construct that creates segregation in India. western suburbs. eastern suburbs and Thane have been summed up to obtain the variable.98.0 70.35 Sikh 2 3 7 6 1 1 1 3 3. Table 5. Religion: This variable is very important for this analysis because India has a number of well-defined religions. The Muslim population is 4.2.0 75. This variable shows diversification of the population based on a cultural variable (Table 5.45 Islam 6 5 4 5 2 6 3 7 4.0 65.50 1.0 N = 19127. This variable shows the families whose most immediate place of origin is Bombay.00 2. There is a large variation because there has been migration from the rural areas.42 (mean=26.75 Standard deviation 4. from Bombay and within Navi Mumbai. 5.54 (mean=53) at the sub-regional scale.33 Buddhist 1 0 2 1 0 2 5 1 1.75 1.17 Religion Hindu Vashi 84 Nerul 88 Belapur 79 Kalamboli 84 Panvel 94 Kopar-khairane 89 Airoli 88 Sanpada 80 Mean 85. it is more important to analyze the minority religions to see if they are forming ethnic enclaves.0 50.0 45. island city. The mean is 85. Bombay. The standard deviation of the families whose previous place of residence was Bombay is 9. However.75% and the standard deviation is only 4.
69 5.66 2.35 3.23 7.26 2. Punjabi is a northern language.53 16.77 1.99 10.80 5.6 12. This forms a major minority language.08 11. Bengali an eastern one and Tamil.22 Std.64 2.59 12.08 3.74 3.19 5.72 1.46 Sanpada 63.57 3.50 1.91 2.73 Hindi Gujarati Malayalam Punjabi Tamil Kannada Bengali Other 13.16 16.27 2.37 2.14 2.00 0 0 Figure 5.12 1.72 1.34 3.81 7.11 6.31 3.53 9.99 1. Hindi is the dominant language of the country.4 N = 19127. The Muslim population and other minority religions show a nonuniform distribution over the study area.32 3.98 (mean=85. Mean = 82.00 Frequency 1000 2000 Std.65 2. Dev = 4.11 6.48 5.32 0.43 8. .47 3.93 Airoli 42.36 4.98 8. Dev = 3.11 Frequency of Hindus Figure 5.56 3.17 13.33 5.31 9.72 0.34 3.04 1.13 13.01 9.50 3.97 1.78 Kopar 67.48 3.41 Nerul 45.32 7.29 2.74 2. Marathi is the local language.79 Mean 53.66 2.83 6. dev 11.20 0.5 14.60 5.50 3.50 2.68 1.68 4. Gujarati is the language of the adjoining state.19 8.18 Language Marathi Vashi 42.12 Frequency of Muslims The Hindu population is spread uniformly over the study are with standard deviation 4.13 14.22 The two languages selected are Marathi and Malayalam.33 2. 54% of the population speaks this language.49 11.29 2.90 2.44 2.82 3.04 3.75 Belapur 40.67 1. and there is a large population of Malayalam-speaking people in the greater Bombay region.87 Panvel 66.9 N = 19127. Malayalam is the language of the state 1000 miles away. Marathi is the local language.Malathi Ananthakrishnan 5000 Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 10000 56 4000 8000 3000 6000 2000 4000 Frequency Std. Malayalam and Kannada southern ones Table 5. This has been used to study if there are any ethnic neighborhoods formed due to linguistic considerations.96 5.91 Mean = 6.76 Kalamboli 55. Language: The variable language is very important in the Indian context because civil violence due to language has taken place across India.92 5.27 16.75).41 4.
13).5 5.6 N = 19127. This pattern is more apparent at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale (Table 5.5 20.5 25.77 (mean=7. The descriptive analysis suggests that the urban social pattern is not defined by homogeneous socioeconomic classes.5 15.0 12.73 (mean=53. Dev = 15.14 Frequency of Malayalam The standard deviation of Marathi is 11.19 Spatial Pattern of Variables Variable Regional scale Number of earning members Uniform Income Non-uniform Education Non-uniform Demographics Uniform Family size Uniform Type of housing Non-uniform Tenure Non-uniform Last place of residence Non-uniform Hindu Uniform Muslim Non-uniform Marathi Non-uniform Malayalam Non-uniform .00 1000 Std. There is a non-uniform pattern in socioeconomic variables as well as in the ethnic variables.73 (mean=46.0 20.22) at the regional scale and 15.73 Mean = 46.6) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.5 10.0 40.0 Cases weighted by population Cases weighted by population Figure 5.0 30.14). The standard deviation of Malayalam is 3.0 50.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 57 6000 6000 5000 5000 4000 4000 3000 3000 2000 2000 Frequency Frequency 1000 Std. Table 5.19).0 0 2. The standard deviation is very large showing some areas have more Malayalamspeaking persons than others leading to the conclusion that ethnic enclaves do exist.0 80. This is probably the result of the many other linguistic groups.9 N = 19127. which have formed their own enclaves.68) at the regional scale and 3.00 0 10.0 60.0 70. Dev = 3.6). The distribution of families with Marathi as their native language is not very uniform (Figure 5.0 17.77 Mean = 6.0 22.13 Frequency of Marathi Figure 5.26 (mean=7.0 7.
The total of the communality is 7.728%.985.824 and 0. family size. the assumption can be made that all the variables are significant and are useful for the study. The use of PCA as a method of analysis was limited by the small number of cases. Cumulatively these three components explain 89. The components with eigenvalues greater than 1 will be used to explain the variance.3 Regional Scale . nearly 90% of the variance of the 8 nodes lies within a 3-dimensional space.18. migration. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 1. religion and language. The number of variables used in the analysis could not be more than the number of cases. income. Thus.3. . Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 3. tenure.771% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 1. The constructs described on page 1 suggest the need for 12 variables. However. The communalities of all the variables are very high.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 58 5. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix D). The variables were weighted by the total population of each node.818 explains a variation of 22. Hence.845% of the variation.468 explains 43. secondary school education. or principle components. The outputs obtained from the SPSS program are used to determine which variables. and three components were obtained. explaining 90% of the variance.Nodes 5. the variables selected were number of earning members.902 explains 23.347% of the variation. are needed for the complete explanation of the difference in the data. and in a range of 0. A PCA was run. as PCA limited the number of variables to 8.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the regional scale uses the eight nodes (townships) as the cases for the study. The principal components obtained from the rotated component matrix are used as they are more simple to interpret.
5 -.5 C o m p o n e n ts 1.5 Component 2 0.5 1.0 1.0 . These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component.5 Component 1 Analysis weighted by population of each node .SIZE LANGUAGE va r i a b l e s Figure 5.5 RELIGION 0 EARNER EDUCATN INCOME -0 .0 .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 59 Figure 5. The loadings produced by the principal components analysis for the variables is used to create bar charts to better visualize the magnitude of the loading.0 Component 3 0.15 Components in Rotated Space 1.5 1 loading 0. 5 -1 FAM.0 education income earner family size tenure religion language migration -. It does not directly express which.0 -. components contribute more or less to the overall data association MIGRATN TENURE .16 Loadings of Principal Components The eight original variables are combined linearly to define principal components.5 0. if any.
Nerul.20 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Family size Previous place of residence Tenure Component 2 Education Income Component 3 Number of earners Language Religion Name Family status Socioeconomic status Ethnic status with high number of earners. Analysis of the raw data was not carried out because the SPSS program did not weight the raw data while running a cluster analysis. Cluster analysis of the scores from PCA ensured that the data was standardized in the same manner for both types of analysis. This analysis does not show any differentiation based on variables of ethnicity.17 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) . 5. Sanpada.3. socioeconomic status and ethnic status. only two clusters were formed. As the number of cases was only 8. this PCA does not directly correspond to the descriptive analysis. Vashi. Airoli (Appendix E). 5. Kopar-khairane. The cluster analysis shows that the two of the Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine Cluster 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ Node Panvel Kopar Sanpada Nerul Airoli Vashi Belapur Kalamboli -+-----------------+ Cluster 1 -+ +-------------------------+ -------------------+ +---+ -------------+-------+ I I -------------+ +-----------------------+ I ---------------------+ I ---------------------------------------+---------+ ---------------------------------------+ Figure 5. The three components correspond to family status.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 60 The three components are (Table 5.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three components with eigenvalues above 1. Panvel. As the analysis was constrained by the reduced number of variables.2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis was done using the scores obtained from the principal components analysis.20): Table 5. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had the nodes Belapur and Kalamboli while the second cluster (Cluster 2) had the rest of the nodes.3.
13 variables were selected for the analysis.690 explains 24. The attributes of the principal components are (Table 5. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 2. and three components were obtained. The main reason for this is the high variability in the language data set for Belapur.463%. male and female population of the age group 25-45. families with 4 or 5 members.4. migration from Bombay.917%. Hindus and Muslims. The extracted sums of squared loadings of the first three components is cumulatively 72. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix F). 2651-4450. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 2.001% of the variation.21 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Education Income Ownership of house Previous place of residence Muslim Component 2 Marathi Component 3 Number of earners Malayalam Demographics Hindu Name Socioeconomic status and Muslim enclave Ethnic status Ethnic status with high number of earners. linguistic groups speaking Marathi and Malayalam. houses built by CIDCO. More components could have been used.75 explains 25. 5. From the data. explaining 73% of the variance. household income range of Rs.21) Table 5. A PCA was run.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 61 nodes are different from the other six.Sectors of Vashi 5. . tenure of house in the 1980s. These were: families with one earning member. but interpretation would have been more difficult.453% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 2. The PCA shows the communality of the 11 variables to be 8. high school education.581 explains a variation of 23.01.4 Sub-regional Scale . The variables were weighted by the total population of each node.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the sub-regional scale uses the 23 sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi as the cases for the study. and the high percentage of families in the selected income range for Kalamboli.
The second cluster (Cluster 2) had sectors 12. 8 -1 loadings EDUCATN MIGRATN RELGION1 LANGUAG1 LANGUAG2 OWNRSHIP RELGION2 EARNER INCOME MEN va r i a bl e s Figure 5.2 0 -0 . WOMEN .2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis of the scores obtained from PCA was done. 28 and 29. 6 -0 . These define which values contribute more or less significance to that particular component.4 0. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had had only sector 5. Three clusters were formed using the 23 cases. 5. 17. These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component.6 0.18 Loadings of Principal Components The bar chart explains the loadings of each variable on the component.8 0.4. and the third cluster (Cluster 3) had all the rest of the 16 sectors (Appendix G).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 62 C o m po ne nts 1 0. 4 -0 . 16A. 2 -0 . 14.
As the Marathi population is 53% of the total population. All the components are equally important and separated only by ethnic variables. This can be translated into a middle-class population. it represents a majority of the population. The second component has only the population speaking Marathi. this component also describes the general population. Again.58.75 to 2. The third component is the economically active age group dominated by the Hindu population. Each of the three components have an ethnic variable in them.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 63 Figure 5. as Hindus are 83% of the population.4.19 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine 0 5 10 15 20 +---------+---------+---------+---------+----Sector 2 6 1 4 16 20 9 10 15 26 21 3 7 9A 8 10A 14 29 12 17 16A 28 5 -+ -+---+ -+ +-+ -----+ +-----+ ---+---+ I ---+ +---+ -+-+ I I -+ +---+ I +-----------+ ---+ +-----+ I I Cluster 3 -------+ I I -----------------+ +---------+ ---+---+ I I ---+ +---------+ I I -------+ +-----------+ I ---------+-------+ +---------+ ---------+ I I -------+---------------+ I I -------+ I I I -+---+ +---------------+ I Cluster 2 -+ +-------------+ I I -----+ +---+ I -------------------+ I Cluster 1 -------------------------------------------------+ 5.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three equally important components with eigenvalues in the range of 2. It appears that there is a segregation based on the ethnic component. The cluster analysis shows a segregation in Cluster 1 caused by high number of earners with a high percentage of households speaking Marathi and a low percentage of . The first component is one which has a high socioeconomic component dominated by a Muslim population.
At the sub-regional scale as there is a smaller percentage of CIDCO-built houses. individual households have exercised their choice. and a strong ethnic component is seen. the outcome of the implementation strategy shows otherwise. The descriptive analysis of individual variables also shows this non-uniform pattern. . and distinctly driven by an ethnic component at the sub-regional scale. although the government policy was to prevent the formation of ethnic enclaves. Cluster 2 shows a dominance of households speaking Marathi. 5. In summary.6 Conclusion The analysis of the data shows that the urban social pattern appears to be non-uniform at the regional scale.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 64 households speaking Malayalam. PCA and cluster analysis brings forth the variability of the data and shows which variables and which cases cluster together.
However.1 Regional Scale Figure 6.1 shows the spatial distribution of the clusters.1 Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai . 6. Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Figure 6.Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion A preliminary interpretation of the data analysis in the previous chapter shows the details of the social urban pattern are best seen in the sub-regional scale. All the other nodes are in the second cluster. Cluster 1 has two nodes close to each other and BOMBAY Airoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada Nerul Arabian Sea Belapur Panvel possibly influenced by one another. a brief interpretation of the regional scale is described here before proceeding to the detailed interpretation at the sub-regional scale.
The variables.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 66 3 Figure 6. Cluster 1 is influenced by family size.2 Average Linkage between Factor Scores Analysis weighted by population Further. which are contributing to the clustering.SIZE 40 INCOME Kopar-khaira 20 LANGUAGE MIGRATN 0 -20 1 Sanpada Kopar-khaira RELIGION TENURE 2 Figure 6. Figure 6.2 shows that different factor scores influence the two Airoli 2 1 clusters.3 Average Linkage between Variables Analysis weighted by population . number of earners and religion. Cluster 1 is linked to Factor score 1 0 score 1 and cluster 2 to score 2 -1 Factor score 2 -2 while score 3 exerts almost equal Factor score 3 67116 67116 67116 14543 14543 14543 -3 N= influence on both cluster. have an equal influence on the two clusters. previous place of residence and tenure while cluster 2 is affected by income. 100 Panvel 80 EARNER EDUCATN 60 FAM.3 shows the strength of variables. education and language. 1 2 Figure 6.
10. there were twenty-three sectors. Cluster 2 (green) has sectors 2. The grouping of the sectors into three clusters is shown in Figure 6. 17. and Cluster 1 (yellow) has only sector 5. and 26. 9. 4. 15. 14. 3. 16. 12.2 Sub-regional Scale At the sub-regional scale.4 Clustering of the Sectors of Vashi Cluster 3 (red) has sectors 1.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 67 6. 9A. . More variables could also be used to study these cases. 28 and 29. 20. 8. 6. 28 12 29 26 10 15 9 10A 9A 8 7 5 6 4 1 3 2 17 16 14 20 16A 21 Figure 6. 21. 10A.4. 16A.
This is a socioeconomic construct. Cluster 1 is Factor Score 1 8 0 -2 influenced by all three scores.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 68 Figure 6. another ethnic variable.6 shows the average linkage between the variables. . Cluster 3 is an outlier.6 Average Linkage between Variables Figure 6. income and the language Marathi dominate it. 1 2 3 Figure 6. Cluster 1 is also differentiated by Malayalam. Cluster 2 is the most significant. but dominated by an ethnic variable. Ownership. Factor Score 2 -4 cluster 2 more strongly by score 2 Factor Score 3 1892 1892 1892 738 738 738 -6 N = 16497 1649716497 and cluster 3 by score 3.5 Average Linkage between Groups Analysis weighted by population 120 EARNER 100 80 EDUCATION INCOME MARATHI 60 40 20 0 -20 1 2 3 MALAYALAM MEN MIGRATION OWNRSHIP HINDU MUSLIM WOMEN Figure 6.5 shows that the 4 2 three clusters are influenced by different factor scores.
The two variables selected were income and number of earners.8 Distribution of Number of Earners Figure 6.9 Distribution of Income The pattern that emerges on mapping of the number of earners and income variables does not show any particular pattern (Figure 6.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory As discussed in the literature review. Figure 6. In both maps the median range is represented by the color purple. The colors red and orange are immediately above.7 Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic Variables Figure 6. and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes.2.8. Figure 6. the study of many cities across the world shows that the socioeconomic construct displays a sector pattern. Figure 6.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 69 6.9).7 shows a scenario that could be expected from the mapping of any of the socioeconomic variables. .
Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion
6.2.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory The study of many cities across the world shows that the family status construct displays a concentric pattern. Figure 6.10 shows a possible scenario in Vashi for a variable representing the family status. The variable selected to describe the family status is ownership of apartment. In the descriptive analysis, this variable showed a great degree of variability. The purple color represents the range within which the mean falls. The colors red and orange are immediately above, and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes. Figure 6.10 Hypothetical Concentric Zone Pattern for Family Status Variables The number of sectors which falls within the mean range is very small. Sectors which have slightly more or slightly less percentage of apartments built by CIDCO are represented by red and orange. It is important to note that five sectors are colored green while one sector is yellow (Figure 6.11). This shows a high degree of variability in the data.
Figure 6.11 Distribution of Ownership of Apartment
Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion
6.2.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory Multiple Nuclei theory supports the spatial pattern of the ethnic factor. A possible solution is mapped for any ethnic variable in Figure 6.12. A language variable and a religion variable were selected from the data set for mapping. The mapping of language and religion variables shows a segregation of both of them. Yellow and green colors, which represent the extremes in the data set, are present in both the variables (Figure 6.13, Figure 6.14). This is especially true of the variable Muslim, which shows a largely non-uniform distribution.
Figure 6.12 Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic Variables
Figure 6.13 Distribution of Households speaking Marathi
Figure 6.14 Distribution of Households which follow Islam
Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion
6.3 Summary The set of figures below shows the mapping of the cluster analysis as well as the individual factor scores.
Figure 6.15 Clustering of Sectors
Figure 6.16 Score 1
Figure 6.17 Score 2
Figure 6.18 Score 3
Although the four maps above (Figure 6.15, Figure 6.16, Figure 6.17, Figure 6.18) show that there is a different colored sector within a group of one color, the multiple nuclei pattern is not very obvious. However, looking at the descriptive analysis, principal components analysis, cluster analysis and the mapping collectively, the multiple nuclei pattern can be inferred. The descriptive analysis brought out the fact that the spatial pattern is
6. . However. scaling down the study to stories of individual households to reach a more detailed level of interpretation. This is the multiple nuclei pattern of an ethnically driven spatial organization. In conclusion.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 73 not uniform or heterogeneous. The policy of the government to promote social heterogeneity influenced the type of residential construction in Navi Mumbai. the pattern is strongly influenced by factors as year of occupation of the house and reasons for moving. The mapping of individual variables and factor scores verifies that within a fairly homogeneous group of sectors there exists a dissimilar sector. Future research could involve: • • Delineating the pattern at intervals of time to study the change in pattern.4 Potential Utility of the Research This research is a starting point for further studies in spatial patterns in Navi Mumbai. examining the policy instruments and policy goals. the policy has not been successful. • • putting forth a new theory to generalize social pattern in planned cities in India. a pattern did emerge at this present stage. As Navi Mumbai has been constructed over the last 25 years. as the pattern is not uniform. The aggregation of household data at the sector scale has limited this research from drawing out the finer details of the spatial pattern. The principal components analysis shows that the cause of this spatial pattern is ethnicity. The clustering indicates that some sectors are dissimilar from others.
Areas dominated by Muslims are common in most cities in India. The thesis addresses this social objective. Navi Mumbai is separated from the metropolis of Bombay only by the Thane Creek.Chapter 7: Conclusion The purpose of this thesis is to delineate the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Navi Mumbai is still dependent on Bombay for much of its activity. Ethnic enclaves have always characterized traditional settlements in India. This was the first cause of separation in residential neighborhoods. Partition and the first years of independence were. One of the social objectives in the planning of Navi Mumbai was to use the government machinery to diversify the spatial distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. support an aggressive industrialization policy. caste. and the government had a specific social and political agenda. The government hoped that this would distribute people based on socioeconomics and break barriers based on religion and language. It was also influenced by the concept of the city as a melting pot (Engel. The government also decided to take up most of the initial building construction. This particular case study was chosen for two reasons: Navi Mumbai is the first planned city that is not a capital city or industrial township. It was hoped that a majority of the residential construction could be achieved though a policy of swavalambhan (self-reliance) and swatantrya (mutual selfhelp). Every effort was taken by the government to make Navi Mumbai an independent city and not a suburb or satellite city to Bombay. The review of secondary source material shows that urban social patterns have been studied across the world. The draft development plan of Navi Mumbai had very strong functional and social objectives. Households would normally place this preference based on how much they can pay. These theories explain the urban social pattern . The religious divide was used in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. The Hindu laws and treatises specified residential locations for different castes. The government had a very practical interest in avoiding ethnic confrontation. religion and language. Housing would be allotted according to the preference of size of dwelling provided by applicants. The segregation is attributed to the ethnic variables. The Muslims came to India as invaders. However. Three leading theories put forth were concentric zone theory. The important objectives of Navi Mumbai were: attract some of the immigrant population. India. thus. strongly influenced by ethnic variables. Bombay is the financial and economic capital of India. Traditional Indian cities have always had a strong ethnic component in their urban social pattern. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. Religious tensions have always existed in India. Political and administrative boundaries in independent India were decided on linguistic lines. The culture of this race of people is very different from the Hindus. and formulated a policy to support it. Planning policies in Navi Mumbai were strongly influenced by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. and provide an infrastructure which would promote ethnic heterogeneity. raise the standard of living and reduce social inequalities. The other feature that is unique to India is the existence of many languages. 1991).
Next. Mobility and immigration are the key variables of this theory. A variation in the data greater than 15% on each side of the mean is considered as unequal distribution. The other variables selected were number of earning members. family status and ethnic status. The methodology used was that of social area analysis. Analysis of data was done at two scales. is an analysis primarily of economic variables. special emphasis has to be given to the ethnic components. The data at both scales is tabulated. Analysis was done to map the urban social pattern of many cities across the world. The multiple nuclei theory proposes that patterns could be arranged around several centers. Generally the socioeconomic model showed a sectored pattern. The software package SPSS was used to do the analysis. Heterogeneity of the population is detected if these three constructs emerge from the analysis. The methodologies were techniques of multivariate analysis. Twenty-three sectors of Vashi were then analyzed. the analysis allowed a more detailed interpretation. Since. and demographics. Using the secondary source material as reference. At the regional scale the analysis was done between the eight nodes to study their similarity. a cluster analysis was done of the cases of the data set. family size and type of house under family status. socioeconomic. These are socioeconomic construct. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. The second theory. Wedge patterns representing income groups are the outcome of the theory. The concentric zone theory relates the pattern of cities to population mobility. In Navi Mumbai. The variables selected are reduced into a smaller number of constructs. family status and ethnic status. Social area analysis broadly classifies variables into three constructs. The similarity between the . income and education under the socioeconomic construct. the scale was smaller. then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. grouping of variables is expected to be under the three constructs. The hypothesis put forth in this study is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social segregation will occur.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 75 and its change over time. The constructs of the social area analysis have been found to correspond to the three theories. The first methodology is a descriptive analysis. That would indicate that enclaves have not been caused by individual variables. and the sub-regional scale of the sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi node. These scales were the regional scale of the nodes (townships). Succession and invasion based on social and economic status is the basic assumption of this theory. The variables selected under each construct were drawn out of experience of the researchers. Two religion variables and two language variables have been selected representing the ethnic construct. The second methodology is principal components analysis (PCA). In the case of Navi Mumbai this is important because of the policy to prevent segregation based on ethnic variables. sector theory. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. the family component showed a concentric ring pattern. Four methods were used to analyze the data. and histogram drawn of the variable selected from each data set. The PCA reduces the dimensionality of the data into a more interpretable form. If H0 is false.
thereby. The overall pattern of Navi Mumbai is one of multiple nuclei. they were mapped under expected and observed conditions. it has not succeeded at this stage. The research brings to the fore many questions than answers. . All three new constructs are dominated by an ethnic variable. A moral analysis of segregation has to be done in the context of the Indian culture. However. The interpretation of the analysis also involves comparing the descriptive analysis. although the policy is noble in its aims and aspiration. The spatial distribution of households is still characterized by traditional Indian values of ethnic segregation. This indicates that the urban social pattern is strongly influenced by ethnicity. Redistribution shows that people have aligned themselves based on ethnic variables. however. be explained using the theories of urban social patterns. The distribution of these variables shows segregation. The urban social pattern is best explained as one of multiple nuclei. The pattern could. The objective. The hypothesis was proved false. The center is an ethnic enclave surrounded by socioeconomic variables. physical design and the institutional framework need to be examined closely to realize their full impact and to understand the results in their context. and clustering to the urban social patterns detailed in the secondary source material. allotment procedure. Even in the houses built by the government resale has taken place. The interpretation of the descriptive analysis shows that the distribution of most of the variables is not uniform. None of the variables selected display a uniform distribution.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 76 nodes and sectors is determined from this. The extreme value range in the mapping is important because it represents the dissimilarity in the distribution. Distribution was originally controlled through allotment of government-built houses based only on purchasing power (and indirectly socioeconomic status). This can be attributed to two reasons: 1. As the socioeconomic variables are expected to take a sectored pattern. • Was this an experiment in enhancing quality of life or is it a method for the government to exert social control? • The concept of the melting pot has to be re-examined. The principal components analysis shows that the variables are not grouping under the three constructs. family status variables concentric zones and the ethnicity variables a multiple nuclei arrangement. This is especially true of the ethnic variables. The final stage was mapping of the clusters. graphically representing the analysis. In conclusion. Control is maximum when the government owns all the houses. How important is it to promote integration when self-sorting has been the natural process? • Can the Modernist synthesis seeking homogeneity in heterogeneity be used as a template for the Indian culture? • This leads to the question: is the objective valid? Does it have to be redefined or is the implementation strategy to be modified? At this stage it appears that a detailed analysis of the policy instrument and policy goals must be undertaken. 2. The policy has not facilitated the distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. the socioeconomic variables also show separation. In Vashi only 64% of the houses were built and allotted by the government.
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Glossary of Terms Term Cuadra Jali Masjid Padas Panchayati Pucca Purdahs Purushasukta Rashtrabasha Swadeshi Swatantrya Swavalambhan Vastupurusha mandala Vastushastra Meaning Spanish measurement Carved screens Mosque Subdivisions of the cosmic universe Self-government Durable Enclosure Hindu treatise Language of the State Fullest utilization of local resources Self-motivation and self-help Self-reliance Terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe Science of architecture and planning .
A Committee under Dr. CIDCO published its Draft Development Plan. Barve. State government notified privately owned land in Navi Mumbai for acquisition. G. Gadgil was appointed to formulate broad principles of regional planning for Bombay and Poona. S. The Gadgil Committee recommended regional planning legislation and regional planning boards. The Board published the Draft Plan with recommendations to set up a twin city.Appendix A March 1958 July 1958 February 1959 July 1964 March 1965 March 1966 January 1967 July 1967 January 1970 February 1970 March 1970 March 1971 August 1973 October 1973 Study group on Greater Bombay set up under the chairmanship of Mr. CIDCO was designated as New Town Development Authority for Navi Mumbai. Bombay Metropolitan and Regional Planning Board was constituted. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act 1966 was passed. Bombay Municipal Corporation decided to prepare a development plan for Greater Bombay. The study group on Greater Bombay recommended a rail-cum-road bridge across the Thane creek. CIDCO was formed. The Bombay Metropolitan regional Plan was approved by the State government. D. Development plan for greater Bombay was submitted to the State Government. . R.
the territory of the town: V3 dispose of immediate accesses to daily needs: V4 reach the door of his dwelling: V5 and V6 send youths to the green areas of each sector. One discovered that with 7 types of roads. 1961). where schools and sports grounds are located: V7.Appendix B The 7Vs (les sept voies) The 7V Rule was studied in 1950 at the UNESCO’s request (Le Corbusier. without interruption. . the man of the mechanical civilization could: cross continents: V1 arrive in town: V1 go to essential public services: V2 cross at full speed.
35 7.28 3.16 1.71 11.58 9.26 4.38 3.00 29 82.08 5.31 20.42 2.42 5.25 .19 19.22 26.89 2.68 16.15 5.29 22.57 8.85 3.48 7 62.26 23.96 27.86 0.37 11.01 25.25 11.00 0.83 17 61.01 6 65.76 2.15 9.33 6.79 4 1.26 2 57.07 30.52 1.38 38.22 std dev 9. 1 64.76 1.43 2.57 15 72.00 0.23 20 69.13 6.39 2.73 0.72 2.64 5 46.99 3 68.59 27.79 40.44 2.89 4.76 9A 74.63 2.52 18.60 16A 71.89 5.57 23.40 6.64 3.58 20.17 8.00 35.31 3.48 2.04 26.77 10 74.81 7.Appendix C Number of earning members Sector 1 2 3 no.67 28.70 14 77.28 21.09 8.83 0.16 30.09 16 65.29 4.64 3.16 10A 50.81 1.81 4 70.51 26 77.03 1.43 12 65.60 24.43 9.10 0.06 5.86 28 52.77 21 63.62 mean 66.08 8 52.41 6.69 29.54 0.49 3.23 21.92 9 73.
55 42.97 9 2.30 7 11.28 4.10 15.00 4.08 32.00 10.41 37.97 7.09 2.48 6.80 5.92 21.67 7.49 22.96 33.65 0.39 4.15000+ no.75 6 2.86 21.29 8.82 36.84 18.79 18.10 27.90 24.15 15.63 40.72 44.77 22.76 0.22 3.39 31.75 26.42 .26 1. Rs.77 14.45 6.39 20.41 8.62 7.47 15.88 17 0.46 21.47 12.14 25.46 17.35 8.00 4.82 2.00 0.04 4.70 17.00 0.40 8.26 12.00 21 2.00 20.52 4.57 25.48 39.00 24.48 0.90 14.07 0.53 1.00 17.59 18.51 24.20 4.20 3.07 18.66 9.15 16 1.94 4 0.00 16.59 2.59 9.Household Income Sector upto 1251.45 5.36 26.07 35.00 25.76 23.47 0.52 11.90 2 1.17 22.21 stddev 3.35 14 0.72 0.33 11.71 34.00 10.27 7.18 15 0.76 8 0.00 28 0.39 34.45 12.53 1.15 1.81 16.45 mean 2.86 10.49 23.61 16.00 35.2651.74 5 2.90 11.89 37.09 13.19 20 6.09 39.92 30.10001.06 9A 1.4451.68 34.62 3 1.58 0.78 10A 0.37 11.16 24.00 0.125 2650 4450 7500 10000 15000 0 1 3.11 1.73 47.23 10 1.38 7.97 0.87 0.92 3.77 12 13.15 9.11 24.89 45.16 12.49 4.28 18.00 29 0.02 4.51 5.02 7.45 38.87 30.07 13.36 36.18 6.48 27.78 17.13 3.97 28.47 26 0.10 23.94 37.18 25.74 28.26 16A 0.7500.55 30.38 10.46 8.70 3.15 8.47 28.14 10.56 7.19 16.00 35.41 12.00 2.18 10.63 4.64 6.99 23.57 1.77 26.49 3.
24 44.97 0.63 1.61 9.91 17 1.80 2.30 0.94 4.15 13.65 4.94 43.38 37.01 0.38 4.45 7.75 4.45 6.52 31.18 27.54 25.64 2.94 7.01 15.24 4.81 4.46 5.85 5.91 17.95 9.02 4.01 45.81 0.55 9.41 0.58 9.92 3 2.21 3.64 0.18 7.69 31.05 0.13 51.67 4.24 10.87 9.26 1.35 10A 1.32 5.50 20.07 9.52 1.05 2.29 1.78 5.26 9A 1.96 3.60 17.64 4.98 29.91 32.71 9.97 9.94 3.54 2.81 5.15 3.89 20.60 9.74 2.87 5.14 0.09 5.68 5.51 7.06 2.88 9.49 16.27 10.03 44.28 10.65 1.11 12.97 1.47 28.57 12.24 0.19 4.98 7.95 2.37 2.30 59.06 2.26 48.81 14.14 0.03 9.12 stddev 4.31 10 3.00 29 1.14 7.37 .50 11.27 12.35 10.90 32.68 4.15 2 3.41 14.38 3.47 2.06 1.47 8.82 15.79 3.06 4.90 12.73 3.54 33.06 8.98 31.38 8.28 7.59 3.71 3.09 46.44 37.25 11.82 30.39 35.85 34.61 2.74 40. e n y ary school 1 3.83 2.45 11.00 mean 3.34 16.09 11.03 50.00 5.80 9 3.23 3.18 3.15 1.42 23.90 22.07 8.95 8.92 5.40 0.68 4 1.41 8 4.25 28 0.11 34.11 2.01 11.63 20 19.63 4.71 7.32 3.92 36.44 2.42 2.07 1.50 14.73 2.75 27.34 16 3.28 11.82 1.48 16A 2.45 0.92 2.18 21.68 1.12 1.44 7 1.43 4.27 47.19 0.64 0.65 0.40 1.59 29.03 4.95 13.55 3.00 21 13.08 13.24 8.03 34.23 3.80 17.81 19.12 0.55 2.43 22.25 2.64 4.71 34.58 2.60 6 2.48 5 3.43 2.81 42.16 2.00 26 3.08 0.35 2.80 12 0.68 12.73 2.30 1.77 2.00 5.00 14 2.87 15 4.89 6.48 0.72 9.44 1.72 30.64 0.69 26.Highest Level of Education Sector illiterat childre primar second high vo-tech BS MS PhD no.81 5.91 5.
77 34.84 12.10 2.34 20.36 32.91 2.29 6.26 3.61 4.04 4.95 2.68 7.97 5.48 12.69 11.28 31.87 3.57 mean 4.98 1.65 7.75 12.43 4.60 4.65 5.02 5.26 9.97 37.56 14.20 12.62 8.49 19.19 6.34 3.87 7.90 11.67 12.29 3.97 35.12 8.60 23.74 16.59 4.60 6.81 2.20 14.93 13.65 46.19 11.35 3.15 7.11 16.02 17.70 3.07 6.47 13.00 21 4.12 2.14 5.04 4.88 28 5.91 5.84 8.93 28.12 2.38 17.24 5 2.00 8.82 29.63 3.59 5.41 16A 3.51 2.12 36.43 7.27 3.32 13.96 8.42 14.71 18.03 31.87 8.80 30.35 29.00 8.22 4.02 3.87 9.11 6.39 5.99 11.99 1.40 4.82 16.84 19.77 5.38 11.93 2.08 12.54 4.66 1.66 6.20 11.66 8.60 8 3.52 15.55 35.25 3.73 9 5.58 16.48 15.46 4.94 21.52 9.01 10.77 15 3.13 3.51 15.80 4.25 10.32 2.98 8.59 5.23 2.57 10.90 .42 11.71 9A 4.39 4.59 7.18 30.93 10.78 3.74 4.57 20.78 6.26 2.69 6 2.42 10.40 7 2.24 6.40 20.87 4.16 31.57 27.91 14.56 4 3.83 12.73 9.02 3.76 12.84 17 3.81 2 4.97 5.00 27.86 10.56 8.34 3.89 12.60 12.40 34.41 1.80 3.54 3.Male Population Sector below 4.67 12.24 12.45 14.76 13.60 13.44 2.17 20 8.48 17.85 16.02 1.12 7.14 4.29 6.82 16.87 5.37 8.59 4.43 9.36 16.25 6.74 17.56 3.29 2.42 6.67 3.52 2.04 7.60 4.04 10.12 3.78 29.59 12 6.96 4.35 3.62 0.68 10 5.88 17.46 2.30 5.32 37.73 14.83 34.32 9. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 4.80 1.35 26 6.40 stddev 1.90 10A 2.05 2.38 12.35 16 3.89 29 4.86 3 4.82 10.89 11.79 33.45 8.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.18 33.21 9.44 15.46 42.89 21.12 14 5.
29 9.39 13.27 41.90 9.66 4.01 10.32 3.88 2 4.31 12.61 10.97 14.14 7.65 12.80 5 4.29 5.11 11.78 29 2.11 2.39 11.60 7.30 33.57 1.60 4.17 37.29 12.57 3.50 1.72 2.35 3.09 1.99 3.79 6.57 13.39 11.55 12.91 10.92 4.13 38.94 8.14 4.64 6.76 9.82 2.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.79 34.07 7 2.71 8.25 9.21 32.08 5.09 1.96 10.35 3.96 11.36 9.32 15.55 4.29 4.87 17.89 4.82 10.86 7.27 7.71 12 6.87 8.13 16 4.77 9A 3.74 36.03 14 4.77 6 3.81 11.29 6.00 13.48 1.71 6.14 20.20 5.35 2.11 11.31 3.66 17.06 2.95 10.14 32.83 .62 3.72 10.14 6.06 15.19 5.43 12.98 3.06 45.25 16.49 6.40 11.43 4.78 5.72 38.45 15.15 6.33 3.16 3 4.35 3.86 40.09 2.56 47.83 5.22 40.44 4.88 16.98 9.38 3.39 13.84 34.22 13.29 4 3.68 3.96 7.49 16.28 5.99 11.03 20 8.29 17.57 3.71 38.93 3.35 38.03 6.88 6.44 5.14 26 7.46 8 4.06 3.89 2.66 2.21 14.54 39.87 2.06 0.86 12.07 12.74 41.28 stddev 1.93 11.46 1.32 1.86 6.51 10.80 5.16 37.55 7.77 3.15 13.17 4.01 10A 6.78 11.86 7.58 42.63 9.22 39.52 6.07 6.45 17.15 3.00 5.64 6.58 19. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 3.35 5.Female Population Sector below 4.53 7.43 4.83 5.01 9.41 4.22 7.42 12.23 4.82 9.68 12.90 38.00 5.18 22.87 7.09 2.78 2.55 9 5.60 11.18 52.85 9.57 0.07 10.46 18.58 15 4.84 3.35 1.98 10 5.00 3.32 12.32 12.13 5.77 17 4.22 14.82 5.71 5.13 14.56 5.48 mean 4.06 28 2.39 3.31 5.09 16A 4.96 3.72 10.04 10.29 12.06 5.97 21 5.80 2.08 2.34 4.76 33.40 2.59 8.43 13.83 4.07 6.
83 14.36 0.58 1.23 46.16 9.00 0.57 19.17 54.95 1.41 63.99 0.23 12.07 12.19 20.99 8 0.00 mean 1.95 1.11 1.00 28 0.86 12 0.50 7.14 4 0.90 4.90 17 1.19 3 1.14 2.19 55.56 50.35 13.30 44.Family Size Sector single 2 to 3 4 to 5 6 to 7 8 to 10 no.68 0.67 47.91 11.97 19.45 62.37 54.93 16 0.24 16A 0.29 54.23 36.67 0.00 14 1.93 32.16 44.64 10.57 57.99 26 2. 1 2.23 28.23 0.92 12.53 .87 2 1.88 36.47 20.00 26.00 29 1.85 66.53 6.64 1.73 20.86 11.02 2.00 58.33 41.48 9 1.46 54.34 2.52 62.09 1.63 15.64 19.49 5.79 33.46 15 1.82 51.55 23.15 20 0.28 21 0.56 25.03 5 0.68 0.43 44.82 6 3.82 12.46 2.05 stddev 0.21 54.29 50.95 10A 1.00 15.83 22.51 59.04 20.18 26.07 28.88 10 0.86 1.87 52.30 9A 1.30 61.18 2.98 2.38 14.49 64.71 24.67 14.14 14.00 1.51 30.43 34.92 55.71 14.92 1.05 66.29 0.82 9.45 1.26 8.00 19.40 7 0.72 15.40 9.57 11.66 22.29 7.
00 0.02 mean 53. House op comme society rcial 1 100.81 76.01 1.56 0.47 0.00 21 99.23 26 100.61 13.35 39.00 7 89.36 0.00 6 92.00 0.00 5.17 2.00 0.00 0.78 12.18 0.00 0.00 0.77 0.07 3.00 0.00 0.00 0.15 85.00 0.13 39.00 10A 2.00 12 17.00 4 45.58 .00 0.13 2.00 15 82.38 9A 2.83 35.90 0.81 0.14 0.74 13.00 16.00 0.33 0.60 19.00 92.68 2.00 0.00 2 48.86 0.82 0.96 0.82 0.96 12.16 4.12 23.52 0.00 0.25 62.40 6.67 0.00 0.00 2.19 0.12 0.00 0.19 3 61.39 4.00 0.00 97.13 28.13 0.00 0.07 0.00 23.86 0.30 0.21 6.38 0.31 20 100.58 8. Pvt co.00 1.75 stddev 37.12 3.00 0.46 9 98.00 16A 7.82 7.00 0.73 0.Pvt Other no.00 0.00 0.77 0.00 8 35.87 20.15 17.68 0.Type of Housing Sector CIDCO Pvt.84 36.21 46.00 53.00 29 42.18 0.00 0.72 0.00 38.00 14 53.10 0.91 76.00 0.00 16 83.40 1.02 5 22.51 0.00 17 0.80 0.00 28 0.00 92.62 0.00 0.97 0.62 0.00 10 83.00 0.
Tenure Sector before1 81-85 86-90 91-92 no.86 7 42.09 16 27.66 0.64 15 8.00 47.06 1.33 9A 0.57 stddev 18.54 6.64 27.83 26.00 28 0.82 2.05 6.94 12.61 12.82 24.50 16.17 12.74 6.16 7.00 0.13 11.00 13.49 32.82 8.75 7.60 7.00 0.38 56.63 3.43 20.24 3.11 17 0.56 16.00 20.38 37.88 3.29 12 0.95 3 11.08 93 3.07 4 5.52 7.85 4.46 36.44 48.74 4.23 22.49 21 13.33 18.42 0.57 14.06 13.19 5.88 4.57 12.43 32.52 12.81 6.94 4.65 31.76 5 49.86 4.95 8 24.65 17.53 20. 980 1 43.17 14 0.30 6.00 31.63 1.61 6.00 48.31 16.35 28.91 6.62 4.61 18.00 4.56 4.32 6.85 5.00 0.27 1.62 6.67 36.87 0.60 94 13.66 14.38 15.00 6.71 2 39.37 7.15 .82 48.07 8.99 12.82 5.71 11.09 25.02 44.57 18.73 6.03 10.38 10A 0.14 1.60 1.36 21.87 6.29 41.00 0.09 29.86 33.82 5.39 14.82 12.00 31.87 10 0.68 20 0.80 39.95 5.13 11.45 6.42 12.11 15.86 mean 12.17 6.28 26 0.87 1.00 29 0.88 0.64 10.83 8.00 0.26 28.00 0.82 4.33 6.03 75.30 6.50 12.15 18.92 11.73 4.00 0.22 52.10 40.72 3.02 17.59 38.92 2.87 1.50 12.56 6.16 9.21 0.34 13.35 5.05 20.26 7.52 1.56 9 0.42 7.49 12.19 8.61 6 51.40 95 1.18 31.56 16A 0.19 9.87 7.54 24.00 0.93 10.00 35.16 5.
07 3.05 18.10 16.30 2.31 5.02 47.12 7.76 11.17 8.29 0.09 27.30 14.35 15.76 0.64 2.58 14.63 15.90 10.43 17.47 6.00 6.00 39.25 4.60 2.58 0.26 23.29 8.00 2.62 29.05 19.51 10.82 3.05 30.00 21.42 8.69 4.31 0.33 8.23 12.03 24.00 33.26 2.26 7.30 34.29 20.62 4.00 32.00 4.92 4.00 24.17 5.09 0.10 17.71 5.24 1.33 4.85 33.55 3.26 12.71 20.24 5.95 9.88 1.45 21.93 8.29 .68 3.03 15.50 27.26 0.03 1.84 2.83 3.74 28.63 2.33 0.00 4.00 26.00 28.74 36.67 25.98 0.83 8.64 7.23 3.60 4.00 30.90 7.74 31.00 0.00 0.67 8.73 4.33 0.60 0.53 2.51 7.52 1.00 1. Mumba state state i 24.23 18.46 1.00 31.58 2.14 0.15 0.48 17.96 18.00 1.77 2.47 36.25 31.15 2.07 5.82 6.81 0.42 26.61 12.52 22.01 Navi Inside Out of Intl.33 8.54 5.42 4.73 25.38 5.19 17.63 5.39 4.69 5.85 47.58 9.24 23.76 3.00 0.00 23.46 0.83 18.25 12.91 2.55 8.54 1.77 6.62 0.00 45.20 8.80 37.51 6.10 16.44 5.35 21.13 26.33 0.58 0.32 8.92 7.Previous Place of Residence Sector Island Wn En Thane Vashi no.36 4.00 0.33 4.39 2.50 6.69 2.37 1.67 2.15 2.81 4.03 6.14 6.88 2.09 5.99 7.08 0.83 2.42 3.95 12.90 2.30 0.26 19.00 30.10 4.48 15.00 19.00 0.80 4.87 3.57 1.62 0.53 0.20 6.54 3.94 5.98 3.67 3.00 38.19 27.02 9.26 3.38 2.52 2.32 27.27 0. city suburbs suburbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10A 12 14 15 16 16A 17 20 21 26 28 29 9A mean stddev 21.17 25.48 20.53 2.63 0.54 8.17 5.00 20.69 35.93 3.45 0.57 28.24 7.45 3.02 22.94 28.45 2.39 0.40 8.30 4.88 12.67 7.33 7.79 0.76 3.64 0.37 10.
92 20 60.48 mean 39.54 27.27 5.70 8.57 20.72 12.93 9.27 7.15 16.55 3.17 16.38 14.18 10.86 4.93 4.00 7.73 stddev 17.27 2.19 2.55 32.77 3.00 0.44 7.54 4.71 1.57 14.52 0.63 16 54.09 6.29 2.66 8.26 5 77.50 10.85 1.08 4.66 10.55 8.53 2.29 29 25.33 13.29 2.43 16.17 16.43 14.00 0.76 12.09 15.26 13.00 12.49 9.64 10.43 24.83 14 19.32 2.99 3.93 1.13 20.24 7.29 15.84 12.34 12.26 2.36 4.92 14.27 0.89 3.49 10.29 3.10 2.45 2.67 0.90 2 44.17 20.38 0.37 4.85 5.70 6.33 29.74 4.73 2.58 2.91 2.60 2.71 1.63 1.49 10A 24.03 16.85 5.51 3.00 1.37 4.36 10 44.Language Sector Marath Hindi Gujarat Malaya Punjabi Tamil Kannad Bengali Other no.42 3 32.97 10.47 2.00 1.98 3.15 2.39 4.13 4.00 4. i hi lam a 1 51.05 9.66 10.56 8 22.03 9.21 9 50.29 .57 17.69 28 28.54 21 61.90 17.19 3.81 5.49 4.27 7.36 6.90 3.76 3.67 4.13 7 37.30 4.87 17.00 9.08 7.81 4.46 17.62 7.10 4.30 9.03 2.57 1.90 3.14 1.29 0.46 5.23 9.21 21.82 4.15 18.67 15 57.97 3.99 16.30 1.95 4.73 0.61 14.32 17 21.71 8.28 24.62 1.70 10.52 19.64 3.44 5.09 8.76 5.72 5.76 14.87 12.43 4.32 1.23 2.00 4.43 7.85 0.89 4.36 11.57 15.83 8.83 7.17 9.54 7.26 3.31 3.96 2.75 4.05 2.59 1.54 1.84 4.71 12 8.92 1.00 12.61 1.33 6.36 6.76 4.22 3.40 2.12 2.75 14.82 3.92 3.47 2.57 4 46.29 2.98 6.56 5.34 4.10 5.21 0.73 2.79 16A 51.00 11.03 17.73 3.90 26 48.00 6.79 12.20 4.63 2.32 9A 20.96 6.53 9.44 2.22 2.61 5.91 6 33.77 8.97 4.32 7.86 8.98 4.96 5.
36 0.00 5 81.00 0.00 0.88 0.Religion Sector Hindu Christi Islam Jain Sikh Buddhi Other no.22 0.60 0.42 1.32 1.72 4.75 5.53 4.29 9.86 1.55 4.42 0.04 6.68 1.16 15.70 2.88 0.36 1.04 5.00 4.26 5.00 6 83.88 0.82 2.92 1.55 1.00 7 76.21 0.71 0.00 0.46 0.05 0.47 4.62 0.46 1.85 7.64 5. an st 1 79.47 0.69 0.70 0.00 0.03 0.79 0.01 6.85 0.00 21 81.66 8 72.13 0.60 1.16 0.85 0.45 2.00 16 88.17 2.57 4 84.00 9A 73.28 4.62 0.61 1.37 0.64 9 84.02 0.51 2.47 0.19 5.24 0.00 0.17 12.13 8.20 8.53 3.17 0.00 7.00 28 100.36 mean 82.51 0.61 4.20 0.60 8.02 0.43 1.52 0.00 1.50 4.00 0.00 0.68 0.40 0.13 5.66 3.25 stddev 6.03 5.44 0.10 0.78 1.33 0.09 6.81 9.67 1.92 7.75 0.49 .56 3.17 0.41 0.82 7.15 0.20 10.43 1.62 20 86.64 0.53 1.91 0.00 6.00 0.73 1.59 3 75.18 11.78 3.00 16A 91.95 0.00 0.32 2 80.00 10A 72.00 0.00 0.86 22.76 8.93 8.33 0.65 9.31 0.42 0.00 1.80 3.43 0.82 10.74 1.00 0.42 5.00 14 88.54 0.45 2.09 0.32 6.00 2.40 2.99 0.21 15.00 26 86.00 0.00 17 85.26 6.00 1.73 1.00 0.32 2.98 0.00 15 83.00 29 86.34 6.70 1.76 5.11 10 80.68 0.57 4.23 0.43 1.00 12 79.82 0.52 3.
064E-02 . .000 .6486 81659 86.005 99.446 55.875 FAM.4115 81659 32.000 .000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.8271 8.571 55.2670 81659 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.356 95.985 INCOME 1. Deviation Analysis N 73.8538 81659 53.946 24.862 6 8.000 .832 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.429 5.000 .000 .955 89.000 .926 EDUCATN 1.000 .0403 3.879 TENURE 1.1087 9.320 79.SIZE INCOME LANGUAGE MIGRATN RELIGION TENURE Mean Std.9885 16.7800 3.314E-16 100.202 5 .6076 81659 8.867 7 1.796 .571 2 1.2091 4.SIZE 1.0814 4.Appendix D Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics EARNER EDUCATN FAM.6705 5.039E-02 1.8863 81659 28. Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 4.660 98.824 RELIGION 1.9974 81659 49.845 4 .000 8 5.939 MIGRATN 1.000 .7870 81659 37.928 LANGUAGE 1.133 100.851E-17 .890 3 .293 3.
230 RELIGION -.Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings 1 2 3 Total 3.818 % of Variance Cumulative % 43.317E-02 -8.822 .468E-03 RELIGION .155 -.804 .118 22.278 .358 .236 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.951 .470 EDUCATN -.264 .878 -. 3 .796E-04 TENURE .201 .379 -2.136 .882 FAM.862 LANGUAGE .244 -.926 .156 .702 -.484 EDUCATN .902 1.888 -7.SIZE .293 INCOME .898E-02 .468 1.454E-02 Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER -.446 .880 .430 .766E-02 MIGRATN .881 LANGUAGE -.685 8.455 .902 -.845 Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER .347 43.347 23.728 89.383E-02 .785 -7.925E-02 TENURE -.900 FAM.771 67.101 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.937 -.202 -1. 3 .230 MIGRATN -.255 4.SIZE -.381 .634 4.107 INCOME -.
174 4.919 9.0 0 .Appendix E Cluster Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N 8 a b Missing Total Percent N Percent N Percent 100.299 10.108 Cluster Membership 1:Vashi 2:Nerul 3:Belapur 4:Kalamboli 5:Panvel 6:Kopar-khaira 7:Airoli 8:Sanpada 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 .581 2.0 Squared Euclidean Distance used Average Linkage (Between Groups) Average Linkage (Between Groups) Agglomeration Schedule Stage Cluster 1 1 5 2 2 3 5 4 1 5 3 6 1 7 1 Cluster 2 6 7 8 2 4 5 3 Coefficients .0 8 100.946 4.617 7.
5835 Analysis N 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.000 .000 .9421 LANGUAG1 46.568 WOMEN 1.5580 35.5760 INCOME 27.9114 MEN 38.4424 RELGION1 82.Appendix F Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics Mean EARNER 66.000 .855 LANGUAG1 1.722 RELGION2 1.7324 3.9759 OWNRSHIP 66.7307 3.000 .836 INCOME 1.000 .3183 EDUCATN 40.889 LANGUAG2 1.527 MEN 1.000 .8628 WOMEN 33.3934 9.7719 3. Deviation 7. .0484 MIGRATN 52.675 MIGRATN 1.9768 15.3839 RELGION2 6.856 EDUCATN 1.1339 10.000 .801 RELGION1 1.000 .5535 LANGUAG2 6.000 .000 .9142 3.571 OWNRSHIP 1.9628 7.6247 4.000 .721 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.0375 Std.
001 24.896 98.937 2.638 97.854E-02 .239 MEN 0.612 .042E-02 .475 RELGION2 .803 8. Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.938 8.831 99.915E-04 .436 100.657 -2.777 -.500 4.734 10 9.688 6.740 15.473 .453 49.200 8 .310 .441 5 .234 8.592 WOMEN .819 72.265 95.131 .880 -.538 .136E-02 .937 34.438 22.096 .917 Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total 1 3.565 OWNRSHIP .843 34.838 9 9.071E-02 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.773 -.359 3.522 -.698 6 .466 4.098 2.794E-02 .238 91.935 7 .161 57.093E-03 MIGRATN -.458 LANGUAG1 .917 2.127 -.750 2 2.523 81.463 72.391 LANGUAG2 -. .690 3 1.448 .487 EDUCATN .424 RELGION1 .Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % of Variance Cumulative % 25.246 .373 -.816 -5.455 23.581 4 .257 87.748 .290 2.001 25.564 11 4.427E-02 INCOME .
a Rotation converged in 6 iterations.647 9.366 .231 -.399 WOMEN .210 .136 OWNRSHIP .351 -.141E-02 MEN -.709 .855 .110 -.214 .610E-02 LANGUAG2 -.240 .596 -.869 . Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.246 LANGUAG1 .046 -.742 -.201 .316 -.130 .333 .113 RELGION1 -.774 EDUCATN .120 .Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .704E-02 INCOME .658 RELGION2 . .524 .575 5.877 -9.804 MIGRATN 0.795 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
052 11.584 .840 1.904 2.032 1.558 4.653 .309 6.Appendix G Cluster Agglomeration Schedule Cluster Combined Stage Cluster 1 Cluster 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2 9 1 12 9 15 3 12 1 13 9 3 1 8 1 1 3 12 12 1 1 1 6 10 2 17 14 18 7 16 4 22 20 23 15 11 9 19 8 21 13 3 12 5 Stage Cluster First Appears Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Next Stage 0 0 3 0 0 5 0 1 9 0 0 8 2 0 11 0 0 13 0 0 12 4 0 18 3 0 13 0 0 19 5 0 15 7 0 17 9 6 15 0 0 17 13 11 16 15 0 20 12 14 20 8 0 19 18 10 21 16 17 21 20 19 22 21 0 0 Coefficients .449 8.918 .751 .114 .837 1.411 1.108 2.142 13.515 1.574 .151 2.487 3.799 5.726 4.
Cluster Membership Case 3 Clusters 1:1 1 2:2 1 3:3 1 4:4 1 5:5 2 6:6 1 7:7 1 8:8 1 9:9 1 10:10 1 11:10A 1 12:12 3 13:14 3 14:15 1 15:16 1 16:16A 3 17:17 3 18:20 1 19:21 1 20:26 1 21:28 3 22:29 3 23:9A 1 .
• Student member American Planning Association. Worked as an intern with Narendra Dengle Architects. Aug. Professor.Outstanding First Year Graduate Student. • Won first prize (three member team) for Formica Interior design competition.May 1994 Worked as an intern at Historic Boulder. • Registered Architect under Council of Architecture.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Date of Birth: 30 June 1973 Education: Master of Urban and Regional Planning May 1998 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. CO. Boulder. . • Won first prize (three member team) in a design competition . Browder. Dec. Knox. J. L. Pune. October 1997. May 1997.July 1992 Honors and Affiliations • Invited to Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society. 1995. Blacksburg. College of Architecture and Urban Studies. Aug. April . Pune. India Experience Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. • Rank holder of the University of Pune.Reclaiming a derelict river. VA Bachelor of Architecture May 1996 University of Pune. Pune. O. 1997 – May 1998 Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. India May .Mar. 1994 . India. 1995 Worked with the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage May 1993 . Virginia Tech.May 1997 Worked as an Architect with Suyojan Architects.July 1996 . 1994. New Delhi. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning. USA. • Awarded Virginia Citizens Planning Associate Fellowship . India. 1996 . P.
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