The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

Master of Urban and Regional Planning

John Browder, Chair Wendy Jacobson Paul Knox

April , 1998 Blacksburg, Virginia

Keywords: urban social pattern, Navi Mumbai, Bombay, urban planning - India Copyright 1998, Malathi Ananthakrishnan

The Urban Social Pattern of Navi Mumbai, India Malathi Ananthakrishnan (ABSTRACT) This research thesis examines the emerging trends in urban social patterns in Navi Mumbai, India. Unlike the other planned cities of India, Navi Mumbai was specifically built as a planned decentralization of a large metropolitan city. The research focuses on explaining the urban social pattern of this particular case study. An urban social pattern reflects the social characteristics of the urban setting. In the case of Navi Mumbai, the government had a social agenda of promoting a social pattern based on socioeconomic distribution rather than an ethnic one. Analysis of the data provides an insight to the results of this social agenda, and provides a basis to frame new ones. Thus, the study not only addresses a basic research question, but also has policy implications. The research involves a comprehensive review of secondary source material to establish the theoretical framework for the research. The review also involves an extensive inspection of urban social patterns across the world to better contextualize this particular case study. The research puts forth a model that explains the social pattern of Navi Mumbai by social area analysis using variables, which are drawn from social aspects of any city and indigenous factors of Indian settlements. The model depends not only on statistical analysis but also on interpretation of local conditions. This research situates the emerging social pattern in geographic literature in developing countries. This research was supported in part, by a grant from the College of Architecture and Urban Studies, Virginia Tech.


I would like to take this opportunity to thank my Advisor and Chair of my committee, Dr. John Browder. He was supportive of all my efforts to successfully complete this thesis. It would not have been possible without his help. Thank you also to my committee members, Dr. Jacobson and Dr. Knox, for the time and effort they contributed.

Thanks also due to everyone in Navi Mumbai who helped me collect the data and all relevant information. Special thanks to Ms. Adusumilli, Senior planner, CIDCO, Mrs. Raje, Chief statistician, CIDCO, Dr. Venkatachalam and Dr. Sengupta at IIT-Bombay and Dr. BanerjeeGuha at the University of Bombay. I would also like to thank Prachi and Avesh Tapde for their hospitality in Navi Mumbai.

Dr. Dyck and Dr. Bohland clarified many of my conceptual and analytical queries. I would like to give my appreciation for their support. I would also like to thank Dr. Randolph and Dr. Schubert for having made a grant available for me to carry out the field research.

I am also grateful to my good friends Inga, Maneesha and Elda for not only helping me out with proof reading and other mundane things, but also for being there during the ups and downs of the entire process. I would like to thank my family for always encouraging me to think and my fiancé for his patience.

2 Significance of Thesis 1.5.5 Sociocultural Factors 3.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai Caste 3.3 Indian Cities 3.1 Introduction 2.3 Organization of the Thesis 1 2. Introduction…………………………………………………………………. The Conceptual Framework………………………………………………….5.8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework 2.4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 2.2 Sector Theory 3.3 Factors influencing Urban Form 3.5 Methodology 4.2 Cluster Analysis .2 Class 3.Table of Contents 1.10 Conclusion 3.3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai 2.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern 3.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns 3.5.7. 20 3.8.3 Religion 3.2 Hypothesis 4.1 Research Problem Statement 1.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities 3..1 Descriptive Analysis 4.1 Concentric Zone Theory Western Cities 3.1 Social Area Analysis 4.6 The Built Form 3.8. 3 2.5.2 Third World Cities 3..4 Data Collection 4.4 Language 3.3 Operationalization 4. The Research Setting………………………………………………………….9 Conclusion 4.5 Development Potential of the Site 2.8.1 Introduction 3. Research Design……………………………………………………………… 38 4.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region 2. 1.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai 2.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan 2.3 Multiple Nuclei Theory 3.8 Case Study of Urban Social Patterns 3.5 Implications of the Sociocultural factors 3.5.

1 Introduction 5. Interpretation / Discussion…………………………………………………… 6.2 Descriptive Analysis 5.1 Regional Scale 6. 5.4 Sub-regional Scale – sectors 5. Glossary of Terms Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G 77 .5.4.3 Discussion 5.4..2.3 Discussion 5.5 Conclusion 6.2 Cluster Analysis 5.3 Summary 6.6 Data Analysis 5.3 Principal Component Analysis 4.4.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory 6.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory 6.1 Principal Components Analysis 5.1 Principal Components Analysis 5.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory 6.3 Regional Scale – nodes Potential Utility of the Research 43 65 7..4 mapping and Overlays 4.3.2 Sub-regional Scale 6. Presentation of Data………………………………………………………….5. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… 74 Bibliography…………………………………………………………………….2 Cluster Analysis 5.4.3.

16 5.9 5.3 2.2 2.4 2.5 5.2 5.12 5.15 5.1 2.21 Title Population Density of Bombay Immigrant population of Bombay Land Fragmentation in 1970 Household Income and Capacity to Pay Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay Land Use of Navi Mumbai Constructs and Variables Survey Sampling Constructs and Variables Work Force Number of Earners Occupational Classification of Workforce Household Income Location of Education Institutions Level of Education Male Population Female Population Family Size Type of Housing Ownership of House Housing built by CIDCO Housing built by Private Enterprise Year of Occupation Previous Place of Residence Religion Language Spatial Pattern of Variables Attributes of Principal Components Attributes of Principal Components page 4 5 6 8 16 17 39 40 43 44 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 50 51 52 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 60 61 .4 5.7 5.5 2.3 5.14 5.11 5.6 4.2 5.1 4.19 5.1 5.6 5.20 5.8 5.List of Tables Table number 2.10 5.17 5.13 5.18 5.

6 3.17 5.10 5.List of Figure Figure Number 2.7 5.1 6.4 2.16 5.8 5.2 2.3 3.9 3.2 6.1 3.15 5. 2651-4450 Frequency of Families with at least one individual with Secondary Education Frequency of Male Population in the age group 25-45 Frequency of Households with 4 or 5 members Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO Frequency of Housing built by CIDCO Frequency of Houses built by Private Enterprise Frequency of Tenure Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence Frequency of Hindus Frequency of Muslims Frequency of Marathi Frequency of Malayalam Components in Rotated Space Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Loadings of Principal Components Dendrogram using Average Linkages between groups Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai Average Linkage between Factor Scores Average Linkage between Variables Clustering of Sectors of Vashi Average Linkage between Factor Scores Page 2 5 7 11 15 18 26 28 29 29 31 32 32 33 34 36 45 46 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 56 57 57 59 59 60 62 63 65 66 66 67 68 .4 6.19 6.18 5.5 5.11 5.5 3.14 5.2 3.10 5.5 Title Expansion of Bombay Twin City Across the Harbor Development Potential of the Site Nodes of Navi Mumbai Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai Land Use of Navi Mumbai Circle and Swastika Town Plans Concentric Zone Theory Sector Theory Multiple Nuclei Theory Urban Social Patterns Plan of Delhi and New Delhi Asian Ports Latin American Cities Pattern of Indian Cities Theories of Urban Social Patterns and Corresponding Case Studies Distribution of Single-earner Families Frequency of Families with Income range Rs.3 6.5 2.6 5.1 5.3 5.8 3.3 2.1 2.4 3.9 5.12 5.4 5.13 5.6 3.2 5.7 3.

17 6.18 Average Linkage between Variables Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic variables Distribution of Number of Earners Distribution of Income Hypothetical Concentric Pattern for Family Status variables Distribution of Ownership of Apartment Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic variables Distribution of Households speaking Marathi Distribution of Households which follow Islam Clustering of Sectors Score 1 Score 2 Score 3 68 69 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 72 72 72 72 .12 6.13 6.14 6.6.15 6.8 6.9 6.6 6.10 6.16 6.7 6.11 6.

The pattern of Navi Mumbai will be studied at different hierarchical spatial levels: regional (node / township) and sub-regional (sector / neighborhood). The urban form of a city is primarily the result of the characteristics of its physical and social design as well as socioeconomic and political forces. Different characteristics are drawn from the factors influencing the physical design and cultural aspect of the city. Therefore. An interpretation of the emerging social pattern reveals something of the social character of the city. exist in the urban social pattern of planned towns in India. The basic research here involves the search for an urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai.2 Significance of Research A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between their constituent elements at a certain period of time. Navi Mumbai (New Bombay) is one of the first planned new town developments built for a diverse.1 Research Problem Statement The overall objective of this thesis is to determine what common patterns. It is a synthesis of the spatial relationships of various elements. This research aspires to contribute to basic research in social geography. The urban social pattern is one of the many aspects of the urban form. land use and ownership. The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology. Physical and economic landscapes. the study of human settlements has an encompassing view of all the activities it supports. middle class population in India. 1990). race. The pattern suggests not only the outcome of . and political events may influence the physical design and pattern of a city. housing characteristics. These include the ethnic composition of the city. this paper will augment existing knowledge about social configurations of planned urban development in Asian regions. Urban patterns occur because of repetition of these elements. This research determines how the present social pattern relates to various theoretical frameworks. A policy emphasizing a uniform distribution of the population is the ideological orientation of the government. if any. migration. Traditional Indian cities have evolved over the centuries. land use pattern and ethnic classifications will be used as key variables to study the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Thus. and the housing market. religion. planning regulations. The literature review shows that a specific study of Navi Mumbai has not been previously documented. economic and social processes within it (Vance. religious and linguistic classes. 1. Various processes influence the social pattern of the city.Chapter 1: Introduction 1. and their social pattern is characterized by residential segregation based on ethnic. The purpose of this thesis is to delineate and interpret the social pattern of Navi Mumbai. street patterns. Why is such a study significant? The urban form of the city influences behavioral. Socioeconomic factors.

methodology. This first chapter is the introduction. Thus. the research setting. The fourth chapter outlines the methodology used for analysis of data and explains the data source and method of data collection. the basic research has many applications in longrange planning in Navi Mumbai. The second chapter provides the background to the particular case study used in the research. The third chapter is a comprehensive review of the secondary sources to establish a context of the research question. Chapter seven draws to conclusion the thesis with a review of the problem statement. The urban social pattern also serves as a framework for further research. The presentation of data and its analysis is in the fifth chapter.3 Organization of the Thesis This thesis is divided into seven chapters. Interpretation and discussion of the analysis and its relationship to the theories discussed in the third chapter is done in the sixth chapter. but also variables that influence this pattern. which provides the problem statement and the broader objectives of the thesis. 1.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 1: Introduction 2 the policy. analysis and interpretation and the broad outcomes of the thesis. . its contextual framework.

1 Introduction Navi Mumbai (New Bombay). There was a . The geographical area of Bombay is an island. The harbor was strengthened. 2. Figure 2. established in 1972. especially to the middle and lower class of people. the King of Portugal gifted the Bombay islands to King Charles II of England when King Charles married Catherine Braganza. 1957 trading posts. the shipyard modernized and the city fortified. for Arabian MUMBAI Sea those who could not afford to make the 1910 long commutes. By the 1780s. The first settlement was established in the southern most tip of the island.Chapter 2: The Research Setting 2. 1973). The East India Company encouraged Indian and East India Company merchants to settle in Bombay. This planned decentralization was the outcome of efforts by the government to make Bombay more “sustainable” (Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board. now as rulers. is a new planned city across the harbor (of Bombay) from Bombay. 1995. 1965 Bombay’s high concentration of docks. 1995). textile mills and government offices have made it the preeminent port of Western India. South Bombay is the center of India’s 1950 banking and service industries.2 The Planning History of Bombay and the Greater Bombay region Bombay is not a city built on Indian traditional planning ideas. India. squatter settlements all over Bombay became the way of life.1 Expansion of Bombay The East India Company. In 1661.1). In Bombay. a Portuguese princess. 1995). Navi Mumbai was designed to provide a better quality of life. The city of Source: Dwivedi and Mehrotra. This range of activities led to crowding at an BOMBAY NAVI unprecedented scale. Urbanization and subsequent suburbanization of Bombay have created a linear city such that the central business district (CBD) and residential areas have become further and further apart (Figure 2. In 1668. the Crown rented Bombay to the East India Company. Bombay was then established as a trading post. was interested in developing the town in a methodical manner. and providing efficient infrastructure (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. Bombay had its beginnings in a series of fishing villages until it was taken over by the Portuguese in the 16th century. the East India Company had taken on the new role of ruler (Dwivedi and Mehrotra.

1973) Population increase. They recommended: i the creation of a new town on the mainland across the harbor i develop the suburbs of Bombay further Bombay had reached a level of unmanageable growth by the 1960s. 1986) The Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board in its report wrote Bombay the Beautiful is no more beautiful. the suburbs and 42 villages within the definition of the new city limit (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. lack of housing and infrastructure and high land values were the major problems identified. 1995). Modak influenced the development of Greater Bombay for the next two decades (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. some thought was given to ’Greater Bombay’. and 24 percent of the one and two room tenements were over crowded. Commercial and residential areas were mixed because many merchants carried on business from home (Tindall. The development acts of 1954 and 1964 emphasized the need to relocate industrial activity from the island to the mainland (CIDCO. and. This committee appointed the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board to develop the concept further (Gadgil Committee. By the early 1900s. V. various planning committees were formed to develop a regional plan for Bombay.1 Population Density of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Area in acres 14247 14281 14342 14575 15066 15480 16751 16720 Persons / Acre 54 56 54 67 78 75 165 184 (Various Census Reports for Bombay in Kosambi. the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board set up two committees to study the development of Bombay. Transportation is threatening to break down…. The large migrant influx contributed to the overcrowding (Table 2.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 4 strong development of mixed land use settlements. Land use zoning and the concept of floor space index were incorporated for the first time.000 houses. In 1865. Many parts of it are not even tolerably clean and healthy. the Gadgil Committee strongly recommended a multi-nuclear growth using the creation of a new town across the harbor. . the Bombay Municipal Corporation was established. Commuter distances had become larger because of increased suburbanization with no change in location of the CBD. Adequate water is a serious problem. which would encompass the Fort area as well as the suburbs of Bombay. in 1896. This enclosed the Town and Island of Bombay. In 1967.2). However. Housing deficits are ever widening and slums like a cancerous growth can be seen anywhere and everywhere. In 1966. 1995). 1995). (BMRPB. Greater Bombay came into existence only after the Bombay High Court Act of 1945. 1995). Bombay’s infrastructure facilities were stretched to the limit. Table 2. the Port of Bombay. The Post-War development Committee of 1945 and the ’Master Plan in Outline’ prepared by Albert Mayer and N. the Bombay Improvement Trust was created. 1965). The 1967 development plan estimated a housing shortage of 131. 1992). These formal government bodies were the beginning of a conscientious effort to regulate the growth of Bombay (Banerjee-Guha. In the 1960s. concentration of industries and offices in certain pockets of Bombay.

3 Sirish Patel.2 Immigrant Population of Bombay 1881 1891 1901 1911 1921 1931 1961 1971 Population 773196 821764 776006 979445 1175914 1161383 2771933 3070378 % 72 75 77 80 84 75 72 63 Immigrants Males per 151 171 162 189 191 181 160 149 100 Females (Various Census Reports of Bombay in Kosambi. 1997). 1973). south and east. . Unhealthy and insanitary conditions for 1 million slum dwellers was the result of inadequate housing stock. If the new city was too far away.3 The Creation of Navi Mumbai The prominent authors of the ’twin city concept’ were Charles Correa1. 1973.2 Twin City Across the Harbor Source: CIDCO. Pravina Mehta2 and Shirish Patel3 who presented to the government a proposal in 1964 for constructing new growth centers across Bombay harbor on the mainland (Figure 2. and New Growth Centers Growth Centers of Bombay Town Center Arabian Sea Harbor of Bombay Figure 2. 1973). The site that was finally chosen was across the harbor from Bombay island. Also. Pravina Mehta (late) was a structural engineer. 1 2 Charles Correa is a prominent architect and urban designer in Bombay. 1993). 1986) The concentration of industries and offices at the CBD and suburbs like Chembur and Andheri created unequal development.2). engineer and planner.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 5 Table 2. It is a narrow piece of land bounded by the Western Ghat mountain ranges on the north. The implementation occurred through ’correct’ political and bureaucratic channels in 1969. then this would not be possible (BMRPB. was incharge of the planning and design of Navi Mumbai (1970-75). Lack of adequate water supply and sewage facilities worsened conditions. In a final attempt. rocketing land prices prevented the acquisition of land for public purposes (BMPRB. This was in the form of the Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board’s recommendation that a new city be designed within the Bombay Metropolitan region to facilitate the decongestion of Bombay (Correa. the Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Board recommended considering a twin city across the harbor. air pollution and mixed land use (UNCHS. 2.

a government agency explicitly set up for this purpose. Navi Mumbai covers an area of 344 sq. m. The government would acquire land under its power of eminent domain under Section 22. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act (MR&TP Act). 1985). 1973). The first task of CIDCO was to prepare a development plan for the new town. >10000 sq. 1973).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 6 the Arabian Sea on the west (CIDCO. It was hoped that the nearness to Bombay would facilitate the relocation of people from Bombay (CIDCO. >4000 sq. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board created the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) in 1970 to implement its ideas. wholly owned by the State Government of Maharashtra (CIDCO. They were (CIDCO. 1973): i polycentric pattern of development i acquisition of all land to have better control of the environment and to use land as the main resource for development. >500 sq.3 Land Fragmentation in 1970 Ownership Area (sq. It is a self-contained city independent of Bombay although there is still a visual connection to Bombay. comprising of a number of nodes (townships). Owners were notified about the government’s proposal. km. The first step was to identify all the land that needed to be acquired for Navi Mumbai. m. The land notified for acquisition for Navi Mumbai was under private and government ownership (Table 2. km) (number) (number) (number) Government 10137 All Private 16677 18412 3338 1579 90 Marsh(wetlands) 84 (CIDCO. 1995) CIDCO notified all private owners about the compulsory acquisition. Section 31(6) under the same act gives the government the power to specify land use and proceed with development. m. m. The plan hoped to reduce homelessness in Bombay and provide slum dwellers a better life as well as absorb migration from the countryside (Correa. 1973). Patel and Mehta designed this regional plan based on three basic objectives: a planned new development. was designed to accommodate new industrial and commercial activity as well as for secure and affordable housing to workers. The regional plan was approved in 1970.3) Table 2. 1997).4 The Draft Development Plan of 1973 The task of planning and developing Navi Mumbai was entrusted to the City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO). CIDCO is a limited company. 2. financing physical and social infrastructure through land sales. The new town. and improving Bombay by drawing off pressures for growth into the new area (Patel. The finality of the approved Development Plan ensures that the pressure and friction which would develop to obtain land use changes for particular land holdings would be largely eliminated . CIDCO used certain development principles in its design. Correa. >1000 sq. 1966.

it also hoped to improve the quality of life of Bombay. 1995). • the plan for a modern. 1995): • the Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) Estates at Turbhe and Taloja. Although five minor amendments were made to this Draft Plan. 3. The development plan took into account the Figure 2. To support a statewide Industrial Location Policy which will lead eventually to an efficient and rational distribution of industries over the State and a balanced development of urban centers in the hinterland. Although the main objective of the design of Navi Mumbai was to create a selfsufficient urban environment. 1995). and transport corridors along Thane-Belapur. The success of Navi Mumbai was thought to depend on the adequate creation of jobs (CIDCO. raise the living standards and reduce the disparities in the amenities available to the different sections of the population. which are commonly associated with urban living.3). CIDCO acquired all the land after settling disputes about compensation (CIDCO. 2. leaving enough room for flexibility. Panvel-Uran rail and road links. free from the physical and social tensions. Reduce the growth of population in Bombay city by creating a center that would absorb immigrants. The Draft Development Plan remains the guiding document in use even today. and also attract some of Bombay’s present population. • the newly commissioned bridge across the Thane creek. The Draft Development Plan gave only broad guidelines. The objectives were (CIDCO. 1973: 10): 1. 2. These were (CIDCO. • the Thane-Pune National Highway 4. • the existence of two municipal corporations at Panvel and Uran. 1973). This was not entirely true. To provide an environment which would permit the residents of New Bombay to live fuller and richer lives in so far this is possible. To provide a physical infrastructure which prevents ethnic enclaves among the population. Nevertheless. 5.5 Development Potential of the Site The chosen site had various development potentials (Figure 2.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 7 (CIDCO. To provide physical and social services. no new document was ever prepared.3 Development Potential of the Site Turbhe MIDC Industrial Estates Arabian Sea Creek bridge Taloja Panvel Nhava-sheva . and major law and order problems did occur. container port at Nhava-Sheva. 4.

The Industrial Location Policy issued in December 1974 posed various restrictions on the start of new industrial units on Bombay island. 1995). 1997). 1975). large or medium industrial units were permitted on Bombay island.4 Household Income and Capacity to Pay (Figures estimated in 1971 income where $1~Rs. Industrial growth was encouraged only in the MIDC industrial estates of Navi Mumbai (CIDCO. Only small-scale industries were allowed in place of old. Table 2.000 jobs for a population of 2 million (CIDCO. A CBD was planned in Navi Mumbai with the aim of creating 40.) Less than 200 20 10 1200 3 201-300 16 11 2580 5 301-400 15 12 4140 8 401-500 14 13 5940 12 501-600 12 14 7800 16 601-800 9 15 10800 22 801-1000 7 17 15600 31 Threshold of affordability 1001-1200 3 19 21000 43 1201-1500 2 22 30000 60 1501+ 2 25 37800 75 . better quality houses was the biggest incentive (CIDCO. To accommodate a population of 2 million. i to decongest Bombay by shifting jobs that are concentrated in the southern part of Bombay.7) Household % of Monthly Capacity to pay Affordable size Income Population capacity to pay for housing (in of housing unit (Rs. 400.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 8 provision of 750. as well as service sector (office) jobs. assuming a family size of five. The employment base of Navi Mumbai was planned to encompass manufacturing (industry). A series of controls were made for various regions within Bombay. This was necessary to (CIDCO. m. trade and commerce (wholesale and warehousing). 1973).000 houses needed to be built. No new. i to use the job centers with matching infrastructure provision as engines of growth for the new city. Table 2. large industries. 1995): i make Navi Mumbai self-contained and not a dormitory. the availability of cheaper. The plan called for the shifting of government offices from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai. Almost 87% of the office jobs of Greater Bombay are located on Bombay island with 62% in South Bombay. Per month) (% of income) rupees) (in sq. Although job opportunities were the driving force behind Navi Mumbai’s success.000 office jobs.4 shows CIDCO’s estimates on the capacity to pay for housing by different income groups. The authors of the regional plan cited the case of New Delhi to emphasize their idea (Patel.

Otherwise. The average cost of construction was Rs. 2.6 Design Principles of Navi Mumbai The conceptual design of Navi Mumbai was developed at the height of Modernism. 1961). commercial. No fast traffic was allowed in the sectors. The sector was based on the Spanish cuadra of 110 to 100 meters. i residential neighborhoods (sector). each family could own only developed land. hierarchy of roads and important buildings of a gargantuan scale (Fry. At the same time. In India the square was used as the basic unit in the layout of traditional cities. Le Corbusier explained "the plan is based on the main features of the 7V rule (Appendix B) determining an essential function: the creation of sectors. These were: i decentralization by the design of self-sufficient townships(nodes). Each township had several sectors. Some of the highlights of the design elements of this plan were sector planning. m. The total land of Navi Mumbai was divided into thirteen townships. Children were able to walk to school on the V7 through green belts (Sarin. The Government of India’s policy on publicly financed housing has been to build 21 sq. Le Corbusier had played an important role in the design of Chandigarh in Punjab in the mid1950s (Le Corbusier. 1977). The sector planning of Modernism is very similar to the grid planning of traditional Indian cities. 1973). land would be leased under a 30-year repayment system to private cooperative housing schemes and private owners. V4 roads were designed for shopping and commercial activity. A sector centrally located within each node took on commercial activities. 1973). which would subsidize housing for the lower income groups. This would have a great drain on the financial resources of the government. The neighborhoods were self-sufficient and had their grocery store and primary school. The sector is the container of family life" (Le Corbusier. Each of these cuadras was a self-contained unit with primary schools. i single-use zoning as opposed to the traditional multiple-use zoning The result was a single-use zoning pattern with distinct areas for industrial. 40 in 1970. Many of these principles of Modernism were used in the planning of Navi Mumbai. 1977). The square had a significance in Hinduism as this perfect geometric shape was thought to be . residential and institutional activity. 550 per square meter and the cost of development of land was Rs. The cuadra had a detailed zoning plan with single-use zoning on all lots. Capacity to pay for housing divided by cost of construction shows a very small (or no) house could be owned by most families. The housing has to be heavily subsidized to make it affordable. CIDCO decided to use a maximum surcharge of 15% on housing for highest income group to compensate for a maximum subsidy of 45% to the lowest income group (CIDCO. In Navi Mumbai. community centers and residential areas. 1961). houses or larger (CIDCO. Many of the sectors were residential in character. it was proposed to use cross subsidies. The higher income groups would pay a surcharge for housing. 1973) The table shows the ability of each income group to contribute towards owned accommodation.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 9 (CIDCO. CIDCO decided to build a large part of the housing as public housing.

In India. 1929). 1984). Neighborhoods could be placed near each other to form a larger urban framework. So each sector had mixed use. larger amenities by contiguous neighborhoods. 1991).C. Gandhi would have urged: If nature chooses not to accommodate us. All houses in a neighborhood were occupied by a particular caste.000 to 200. main streets formed perfect rectangles dividing the city into separate residential areas based on caste. Under his leadership.). Mr. Neighborhood planning in the West was a concept put forth by Clarence Perry. This also facilitated the sharing of other. Navi Mumbai consists of thirteen townships (or nodes). Commercial and residential uses were adjacent to each other or one above the other. commercial. Here in Navi Mumbai the idea of a large “urban village” has been nurtured. merchant and peasant. while Nhava-Sheva houses the new container port. There would be no rich or poor nodes (CIDCO. 1973). 1973).000 people.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 10 the abode of the gods (Henn. This principle of neighborhood planning and its derivative from Modernism was used in Navi Mumbai. Vashi is the center of Navi Mumbai's wholesale market. each neighborhood was known as a sector (CIDCO. 1969). was the Chief Planner of CIDCO for 20 years (1970-90) (Engel. 1991). Each neighborhood unit was within a one square mile radius. Even in the planning of Mohenjadaro (7th century B. At a larger scale. The goal has been to create a city based on Gandhian principles of swavalamban (self-reliance). This is the vision that is the traditional Indian design inspiration for Navi Mumbai. This is significantly different from the single-use planning of Modernism. The Bombay Municipal Regional Planning Board put forth the broad conceptual regional plan of Navi Mumbai. let us accommodate nature!" (Gandhi in Engel. streets. 1997). Vaishya and Sudra. The indigenous plans all started with a central focal point (either of political or religious symbolism). the main philosophical design principles of Navi Mumbai are based on Gandhian ideology (Parab. both materials and human) and swatantrya (self-motivation and mutual self-help) (Ganguli. 1973). and progressively moved outward depending on the natural landscape. Some of the nodes have special features. Kshatriya. The neighborhood unit is used as a building block to build New Towns across the world (Perry.4). Each node is divided into neighborhoods (or sectors). an American designer of the 1920s. The task of designing and detailing the physical design was carried out by CIDCO. This was a model layout for an area with specifications for residences. "Arguing to turn any weaknesses into strength. Each node was planned to accommodate a range of income groups. a true Gandhian. In the case of Navi Mumbai. Each node is self-contained for 100. infrastructure and recreational uses (Figure 2. the four castes are Brahmin. people were forced to work within that particular neighborhood. The nodes contain residential. The functionality of the city is based on the principle of neighborhood design as seen all over the Western world. which corresponds to the professions priest. warrior/king. Parab. Many cities still reflect this street pattern. The size of the node depends . amenities and utilities with segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic (Banerjee. swadeshi (fullest utilization of local resources. nodes share some common facilities such as water reservoirs and transport facilities. Airoli and Kopar-Khairane have industrial estates. As the residential classification was based on the caste.

the plan had a very important political component. for its success. This would also ensure reduction of soil erosion and the development of woodlands for both Figure 2. flowing from the Western Ghats mountain ranges would irrigate these trees. For example. It depended very heavily on external factors. Hence. One of the ideas of putting the environmental city into Dronagiri practice was the creation of woodland corridors (Parab. Holding ponds would be used for pisciculture and recreation. would be strongly supported. The plan called for the construction of holding ponds to retain excess monsoon run-off. unless sufficient industrial growth existed. Any change in political power would affect the policies and development strategies of this new town. 1997). which would be used in the dry seasons.4 Nodes of Navi Mumbai recreation and timber. The Development Plan of Navi Mumbai is an example of the new consciousness for sustainable Kharghar Nerul settlements (CIDCO. For industrial growth large finances were required. The streams Source: CIDCO. shopping areas and other facilities. only activities. 2. The primary concerns were related . which were closely linked. 1995). Politicians use the creation of jobs and better living environments as a common strategy for getting votes.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 11 BOMBAY Airoli Ghansoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada on walking distances to the mass transit stop. The plan Jui Belapur Arabian envisioned an ecologically friendly Sea city where products of nature would be Panvel used. and then unused portions would Nhava-Sheva be recycled. The design concept of Navi Mumbai was very idealistic. The Development Plan for Navi Mumbai called for the planting of one hundred thousand trees every year! (Engel.7 Social Agenda in the Planning of Navi Mumbai Considerations of social equity were very important in all aspects of development in a country. The node should be large enough to provide schools. 1997). 1991). As financial and economic considerations depended on the government in office. Private industries would not invest in this particular region unless they were assured of workers and so on. Water treated from industrial and sewage waste would be used to develop green areas (Parab. This was partly because of the scale and complexity of the project. a migration of population would not occur. There was also a high degree of uncertainty attached to some of the policies and physical developments. which had been independent for only 20 years. which ensured their re-election. 1973.

CIDCO would sell the plot at a highly subsidized rate and with a twenty-year repayment period. cost-effective. To aid residents further. ground floor houses would be possible initially. The design of a completely new city was a very good opportunity to implement these national concerns. Individual families would then have to build their own homes (swavalamban).shall inform all the institutions of the national life (Article 38). 1973). enclaves or ghettos of age long tradition of ’birds of the same feather flocking together’. For them. race. Incremental housing was suggested as the solution. Construction would be made with locally available. cheap material. medical care and social welfare. The sites-and-services plots would have services such as roads. The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion. The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice . The planners of Navi Mumbai thought this was a fortuitous occasion to provide social justice to the millions of migrants and pavement dwellers of Bombay (CIDCO." (CIDCO. 1973). Housing for the middle income and high income groups would be in the form of CIDCO housing. The plan took into account the fact that one-third of the housing in New Bombay would be sites-and-services plots (CIDCO. The residents could design and implement their construction in any way they chose (swatantrya). Thus. it was proposed that housing should be constructed so that this income group could afford it. 1973) . In planned towns and cities this should be avoided to a great extent by allocating housing in neighborhoods to members of different communities. education and job opportunities. Navi Mumbai’s founders saw the construction of large amounts of new housing as an opportunity to break down demographic divisions and to enhance social equity. water. walk-up apartments of three to four floors would be designed. Housing would be built for the various income It recommended construction using cheaper concrete. The Draft Development Plan spelled out "there is a tendency in India that induces people to live in like groups. For the lower income group. 1973). economic and political . economic and political equity. The remaining two-thirds of the population could afford more expensive housing. caste. sex. More durable material could be used in the course of time. 1973). cooperative housing groups or private builders. 1973). electricity and sanitation (CIDCO. using bamboo instead of steel reinforcements and setting up of local retail shops where residents would be able to buy inexpensive building materials for building their homes (swadeshi) (CIDCO. In 1970.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 12 to providing better quality of housing. I). place of birth or any of them (Article 15. The Gandhian principle of self-help would be used to implement this agenda. more than 30% of the population of greater Bombay could not afford a pucca (durable) house (CIDCO. The Constitution of India also spells out the need for the government machinery to facilitate social.

and law and order problems of the community (Dwivedi and Mehrotra. schools and colleges and making health education a part of classroom education. Mobile health care units would operate from this community health center. These were the education facilities to be provided by the government. 1995). planners cited the segregation of Bombay as an example. The Governor of Bombay also encouraged this development because it reinforced the traditional panchayati (selfgovernment) system of administration by which the council of elders settled religious. The nodes (townships) were designed to provide one primary school per 5000 population. These are discussed further in the next chapter. Establishment of ethnic enclaves has led to a number of problems in India. The medical center would provide secondary health service. The planning was for a comprehensive coverage by taking the services to households. medical care.500 population and one college for 50. but will also ensure a uniform standard of social and physical infrastructure and see that no one class of residents is better served than another" (CIDCO 1973: 17-18). "In each node it is proposed that accommodation be made available for the entire range of income groups expected in the city. The planners of Navi Mumbai did not intend to create an identity for the city related to physical objects. It would have out-patient department. Other private institutions would be encouraged also. merchants from neighboring districts migrated into Bombay and constructed homes inside and outside the Fort walls. Minimum standards for building construction were developed by CIDCO. 1973). 1973). water supply and sanitation. Institutions for juvenile delinquents. The Greater Bombay region had some of the best social welfare programs in India. It should contain its own jobs. recreation and afforestation projects (CIDCO. one high school for 12. exploited women and leprosyaffected persons would be developed in Navi Mumbai to accommodate the growing population (CIDCO.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 13 To justify this consideration. It would be a small hospital and polyclinic where specialized health care would be provided to cases referred by the community health care center and general practitioners. When the East India Company encouraged merchants to establish residence in Bombay. diagnostic and investigation services. recreational and other social facilities an should not become a dormitory for Greater Bombay. It is expected that this accommodation of residents from various social and income groups within the same physical area will not only make for a healthier environment. Health planning was undertaken as public health projects. The community health care center would primary health care. Provision of schools and colleges was a priority in the planning of Navi Mumbai. shopping." . This led to the development of ethnic enclaves.000 population (CIDCO. 1973: 17): "CIDCO is anxious that the new city develop its own identity as quickly as possible. This further contributed to the creation of ethnic enclaves within the settlement. A large hospital for intensive care and for teaching and research purposes would be set up (CIDCO. The Development Plan says (CIDCO. handicapped children. 1973). 1973).

i involving Government agencies for developing public transport and telecommunications. i Bombay Electric and State Transport (BEST). identity based on the Gandhian value of social equality.Objectives . there was no aim to create a monumental city. CIDCO had to coordinate all planning and development programs. CIDCO has executed the implementation of the plan in various stages (CIDCO. Gandhinagar can be described by their grid system or monumental scales. However. electricity.8 Plan Implementation through the Public Administrative Framework The government authorities of Bombay realized that the effectiveness of regional planning depended. a strong institutional framework was required for its success.Visualizing the future i Action Plans . CIDCO was appointed as the NTDA. The role of CIDCO is to implement the plan of Navi Mumbai. CIDCO has a more narrow and defined role. It is more of a philosophical identity . The city of Navi Mumbai was planned to address the issue of social equality through its physical design. on the institutions responsible for the plan. CIDCO undertook the task of (CIDCO. i promoting commercial and other employment activity. The physical design would be the instrument to implement this objective. 2. which would help implement the objective. 1995): i developing land and providing infrastructure such as roads. Before the creation of these different institutions. the Gadgil Committee Report (1965) had recommended the setting up of a New Town Development Authority (NTDA). the identity of Navi Mumbai is subtler. However. the allotment of residential apartments would be governed by a policy. These stages include: i Draft Development Plan (programs and policies) . With the creation of these other agencies.Data base . 1992). planned cities of India such as Chandigarh. 1991). In the very beginning. Its identity is only that of a spreading inkblot (Engel. water supply.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 14 Thus.Other agencies . It appears that the monumental style of Corbusier was not an influence on this design. These are (CIDCO. New. In particular. largely. i developing residential plots for different income groups. i Specialized services provided by Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA). Other institutions have also been set up in the Greater Bombay region to facilitate planning efforts in the region. 1992): i Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA) in 1975 i Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation (NMMC) in 1992.

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Chapter 2: The Research Setting


- Land use plans - Residential layout plans - Infrastructure plans - Industrial location plans - Environmental assessment i Implementation - Acquisition of land - Finance - Construction - Relocation strategies BMRDA took over such functions as coordination of metropolitan planning, funding, execution of programs, development control and maintenance of the entire Greater Bombay region including Navi Mumbai (UNCHS, 1993). Financial responsibilities and investment decisions are made by a large number of agencies including the Government of India, State Government of Maharashtra, CIDCO and firms in the private sector, but coordinated by BMRDA.

Macro-level Regional Planning Inputs
Bombay Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (BMRDA)

Micro-level Sub-regional Planning Inputs
Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation

Plan Implementation of Navi Mumbai
City and Industrial Development Corporation (CIDCO) Figure 2.5 Institutional Hierarchy in Implementation of Development Plan for Navi Mumbai In 1992, an amendment of the Constitution of India affected the functioning of CIDCO. The 74th Amendment of the Constitution of India (the 1992 Amendment Act on Municipalities) spells out the devolution of power to the local bodies and democratization of development planning. This Act emphasizes that the management must be done by elected representatives of the people who will account for two-thirds of the board. This committee is responsible for the preparation of the draft development plan. This ensures a bottom-up process with direct inputs from the citizens (UNCHS, 1993). These municipal corporations will be responsible for their economic development and incorporate all ideas within the

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Chapter 2: The Research Setting


Comprehensive Plan. The direct result of this Act is the creation, in 1992, of the Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation. This allowed CIDCO to give up its role as New Town Development Authority (CIDCO, 1995). A heavy-handed approach was used by the government to implement its social policy. As most of the housing was built by CIDCO, a government agency, the government could control, if not regulate, the distribution of the population on socioeconomic basis. Households desirous of buying a house built by CIDCO had to submit an application that stated the dwelling size they preferred. CIDCO allotted these houses, depending on when construction was completed, on a rolling basis. This was intended to ensure a random distribution of the various linguistic and religious groups of the population. The pattern expected would now be one based predominantly on income. 2.9 The Reality of Implementing the Plan The planning of Navi Mumbai began in 1971. The results of each of the planning objectives can be studied now. The first objective of the Development Plan of Navi Mumbai was to reduce congestion of Bombay by absorbing immigrants and attracting some of the present population of Bombay. Table 2.5 Population Density in Various Sectors of Bombay(BMRDA, 1978 in UNCHS, 1993) 1971 1981 1991 Population Density Population Density Population Density (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) (in ’000s) (pop/ha) CBD 1120 1659 1031 1527 849 1258 Central Bombay 1950 1349 2254 1559 2309 1597 Bombay Island 3070 1447 3285 1549 3158 1489 Bombay Suburbs 2900 544 4958 930 6751 1266 Navi Mumbai1 128 600 328 617 Over the 1981-91 period, there was a considerable decline in the population of the CBD and Bombay island. The increase in the population of the suburbs and Navi Mumbai accounts for the decline in the CBD and Bombay island. Outmigration to other cities and countries is negligible (BMRDA, 1978). The main reason for the shift was because of (UNCHS, 1993): i dilapidation of older buildings in Bombay i cheaper and better housing facilities in Navi Mumbai i better employment opportunities in Navi Mumbai i lesser commuter distances involved The second objective of the development plan was to bring maximum jobs consistent with the Gandhian principle of self-sufficiency (swavalambhan). CIDCO’s support of the Industrial Location Policy brought more jobs to Navi Mumbai. The sectors that had maximum growth in Navi Mumbai, were trade (39%), finance and services (27%) and manufacturing (18%) (BMRDA, 1992 in UNCHS, 1993). The wholesale agriculture produce

residential area increased from 213 hectares in 1981 to 531 hectares in 1991.

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market for vegetables, foodgrains, oil seeds, sugar and spices was moved from South Bombay to Navi Mumbai (CIDCO, 1973). A separate railway siding and truck terminal were constructed to facilitate effective relocation. This involved the relocation of 30,000 jobs from Bombay and the reduction of 5000 truck trips per day. A new iron and steel stockyard complex has been developed in Navi Mumbai. This means the relocation of 25,000 jobs and a reduction of 1000 truck trips per day to Bombay. However, the economic agenda, which was based on agriculture and cottage industries, is no longer effective because of the government’s redoubled commitment to a policy of industrialization. Navi Mumbai continues to be exploited as a major industrial zone (Engel, 1991). CIDCO's third objective was to provide physical and social amenities in Navi Mumbai. The land use of Navi Mumbai shows these amenities (Table 2.6 and Figure 2.6). Table 2.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai, 1993 (in sq. km.) Land-use Zone 1979 1985 1986 1991 Residential 101.15 133.99 127.08 129.87 Commercial 6.51 6.51 6.51 5.75 Industrial 43.21 43.14 43.14 43.14 Port 12.00 22.7 22.7 22.7 Wholesale market 6.08 4.54 4.54 4.6 Woodlands / Park 90.26 61.24 68.15 69.35 Institutional .76 1.09 1.09 1.09 Fishing and allied 6.14 3.44 3.44 3.44 Transportation 30.86 30.35 30.35 29.73 No development 46.73 36.70 36.70 34.03 Total 343.70 343.70 343.70 343.70

1993 127.61 5.75 43.14 22.70 6.86 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70 (CIDCO, 1997) Primary, secondary and high schools have been provided in all sectors of Navi Mumbai. All primary schools are within walking distance. This eliminates the need of expensive transport for small children. There is at least one college in every node and Vashi node has both medical and engineering colleges (CIDCO, 1995). Medical facilities are provided by private medical practitioners. Every node has a hospital run by the Mahatma Gandhi Medical Trust. Community health car centers are also there (CIDCO, 1995). In its fourth objective to provide an ecologically friendly environment, CIDCO has not been entirely successful. The area of woodlands has been constantly decreasing (CIDCO, 1995). Most woodlands are in the form of mango groves which form a part of neighborhood parks. In the conceptual plan, streams flowing from the hillsides were to irrigate the woodland corridors. No significant effort has been made to utilize this resource. However, holding ponds have been constructed. Promenades have been built along them and they are being used as recreation areas (Parab, 1997). The fifth objective is the primary focus of this thesis. The objective to prevent ethnic enclaves and to promote a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics was fairly ambitious. In order for its success, a perfect control of the market is required. The analysis of the data will show the outcome of the objective.

1992 128.71 5.75 43.14 22.7 5.76 69.35 1.09 3.44 29.73 34.03 343.70

utilities.10 Conclusion The Draft Development Plan of Navi Mumbai described many broad outlines for the development of a city for the common citizen. The poor transportation links between Bombay and Navi Mumbai has been the main contributing factor. but a living and working reality. Growth in other development sectors of Bombay has also had an adverse effect on Navi Mumbai’s growth. Problems of design and development were identified. the city is no longer a plan on paper. Commuter services have become operational since May 1992. While Modernism called for single-use zoning and a pattern based on socioeconomic characteristics. CIDCO provides serviced sites for both government and private ownership. 2. lower income group. However. Many attributes of these two design principles are not necessarily harmonious. Designing. development and implementation of ideas were done in an incremental manner. recreation and commercial needs. since 1990 there has been accelerated growth due to the commissioning of Nhava-Sheva port. . middle-income group and high-income groups. The absence of a port and railway links slowed growth. Though the Navi Mumbai project was begun in 1970. and housing occupancy rates are high. the Gandhian principles supported cultural heterogeneity and mixed use zoning. Periodic socioeconomic and household surveys were used to determine the status of constructed environment. Hence. housing requirements. establishment of more industries and construction of more houses. Houses have been constructed for different sectors of society economically weaker section. Social aspects of city planning were given importance with special attention given to considerations of employment opportunities. 1995.6 Land Use of Navi Mumbai Source: CIDCO. the development process has been slow. the extension of the railway lines. The design principles described in the Draft Development Plan were based on the philosophical reasoning of Mahatma Gandhi and the functionalistic approach of Modernism. and improvements made in the next phase of design.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 18 NEW BOMBAY BOMBAY Arabian Sea Residential Woodlands Industrial Port Institutional Trucking Wholesale Fishing Wetlands Figure 2.

Navi Mumbai is a modern. planned city within the context of a specific historic and cultural setting. The aim of this research is to examine the present urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 2: The Research Setting 19 This design also strongly supported the need to use the government’s power and machinery to promote the uniform distribution of people and prevent ethnic enclaves. Very little analysis has been done on the outcome of CIDCO's social agenda to ensure diffusion of ethnic groups and the urban social pattern that emerged. This also implies that the urban social pattern was predetermined. A heavy-handed implementation strategy of this objective was done by taking complete control of the residential allotment. The success of this strategy depended on maintaining this control. The research setting under consideration is the result of the hybridization of Indian and Western ideas.

communication and socioeconomic relationships influence urban patterns. 1990). It is a city designed with the design principles of the time. people adapt to the physical environment around them. income is one of the most important determinants. economic and physical environments. (New Bombay). 1991). Urban social pattern is the pattern formed by the interaction of various social variables such as household characteristics. Land ownership patterns. principles and existing theories for improving the design of cities (Doxiadis. Whatever the mode of construction. they are more generic and may not represent the lifestyles of every household. However.2 Urban Form and Urban Pattern Every human settlement consists of certain elements. 1995). and bear characteristics of western influence. Education. India. 1973).Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 3. Buildings and spaces are created by people and quite often characterize them (Kostof. because it changes continuously in a temporal dimension. 1987). urban form is not merely the architectural form of the city (Lozano. but four-dimensional. Thus. . This literature review will first trace the human settlements in India. 3.1 Introduction A human settlement is an establishment created by people for their inhabitation. Interaction of these elements form a pattern . If the residents build the buildings themselves. The aim of the thesis is to examine the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Simultaneously. religion. Most cities in the Third World and India have been indigenous in origin and organic in growth. Many of these cities have been under colonial rule. and those of Mahatma Gandhi. Navi Mumbai is one of the first cities in India built for the common citizen. residents soon influence their urban environment. The pattern of spatial distribution is recognizable in most contemporary cities (Alexander. Where market forces work. The human-environment relationship is a two-way process termed as the socio-spatial dialectic (Knox. These design ideas seem to have a strong influence of Modernism (CIDCO. occupation and values of housing influence the spatial character. ethnicity. language and housing character. Such a human settlement is not just threedimensional. Intricacies in relationships have increased the complexity of the urban form over time. It is also a cultural manifestation. The final outcome of a morphological study is the formulation of a theory which connects facts to form hypotheses. technology. transportation. Human settlements contain people and societies in a physical environment consisting of natural and man-made elements (Doxiadis. A holistic approach to the study of settlements involves understanding the interrelationships between its elements within the temporal context.the urban pattern. 1990). The urban pattern is a result of the relationships between people and their social. 1968). then they reflect their lifestyles. if government agencies or contractors build them. Socioeconomic factors have a very important contribution to the pattern. changing and modifying it to suit their way of life (Lozano. 1968). The study of the physical form and structure of cities is the study of urban morphology.

The built form is influenced by factors as (Alexander. 1987): i land ownership i street patterns i existing land use i economic considerations i planning regulations i political and historical events The physical expansion of the city is always bound and guided by land ownership. 1971). 1990). This representative sector is defined as the smallest area that exhibits the characteristics of the urban settlement. which may be universal or local. These features contributed to a particular urban and social pattern. human beings.3 Factors Influencing Urban Form Many factors influence the form of cities. They are the units of analysis of the morphological study (Knox. “The typical sector represents the formal characteristics found throughout the area and thus acquires some universality” (Lozano. Urban patterns represent a continuity of time and space. The change of land use from rural to urban depends on the existing land use. In the study of Navi Mumbai.a fort or a religious building. A city replaces existing land use. and natural and manmade obstacles. Although details may not be identical. Thus.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 21 Demographics. 1995). society. 1990). 3. a hill top site was the utilitarian response to any important building . The patterns have similarities. They are nature. Traditional cities have used physical forms to interpret cultural and religious beliefs (Lozano. Thus urban social patterns are complex manifestations of underlying cultural values intermingled with global economic forces (McGee. In most studies this unit is the neighborhood which displays both physical and social aspects of the whole urban development. Time and place may provide them with different characteristics making each city unique and dynamic. Doxiadis defines five elements in the study of human settlements. Urban spatial patterns occur because of the repetitive spatial distribution of these elements. buildings and infrastructure. linguistics and ethnic background also influence urban patterns. Some farmers may sell their land more easily than others may. Since the characteristics are universal (within the frame of study) they may be studied by a spatial representative sector. it is necessary to determine existing land use as a pre-condition to urban growth and form. For example. every city has certain elements. 1990): i the way in which nature and man-made features satisfy needs for protection and defense i the way in which physical and economic landscape allows for communication with other regions i the way in which the topography of a site suggests the construction of a human settlement i the way in which climate leads to building solutions These factors influence the cultural and spiritual form of the cities as well. and the ownership. Traditional settlements were shaped by (Lozano. the node (township) and the sector (neighborhood) will be used as the study areas using aggregated household survey data. The physical form is a variable of the social and built pattern of the city. The rural land may also have been .

craftsmen and merchants were born. 1986): i ethnic composition of the city i migration i religion i economic considerations i race i political and historical events The housing market also influences the social pattern of the city. Soon. 1983). Instead. Certain built forms encourage certain social patterns. other scholars contend that it is doubtful that surplus can be attributed as the single factor which caused the emergence of urban settlements (Jacobs. However. personal preferences and many institutional constraints. Domestication of animals and cultivation of land created villages. While some processes are culture-specific. 1992a). 3. The social pattern and the built form are interrelated and contribute to the urban morphology of a city. A household’s choice of place to live is determined by its income level. The evolution of the urban pattern of Indian cities is divided into the social pattern and the built form. Pedestrian movement limited the size of the city. Reasons such as trade and defense have also been used to explain the formation of cities. The external . Priests. Childe put forth a theory that urban centers were a result of agricultural change. Planning controls influence development to a great extent.4 The Evolution of the Urban Form of Indian Cities The traditional theory of urban origin is generally attributed to Childe (Herbert. commercial buildings. 1990). The factors influencing urbanization were also different. Master plans and regional plans provide long-range strategies for development. cities were very simple although they rarely served single purposes. Clear differentiation between urban and rural existed. The variation in influencing factors and historical circumstance gave rise to different urban forms in different parts of the world. 1990). and Thomas. within. 1995). they supported a range of activities. These factors are (Alexander. Urbanization took place at different chronological periods. often because of a city wall. social and political circumstances influence the social pattern (Scargill. For thousands of years. Housing. Kosambi. 3. The caste system of India separates and hierarchies the Hindus. surplus food production was achieved. Plots of varying sizes and shapes influence the layout of the streets and of individual buildings (Knox.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 22 subdivided. a city contained social distinctions in terms of class. others are global in scope.5 The Sociocultural Factors India is among the most stratified of all known societies in the world (Srinivas. private rental and public sector housing operationalize housing sectors. race and religion (Vance. However. A particular social pattern brings about a particular built form. government offices and warehouses formed the built environment of the city. People as food gatherers advanced to become farmers. This allowed some of the people to develop other professions. 1987. Owner-occupier. 1979). Various economic.

Vegetarian castes occupy higher positions. vertical and horizontal systems of stratification exist. 1992). The spirit of the caste system is determined by the attitudes of each caste to the other. 1992a). language. Berreman (1965) says "Caste systems rank people by birthascribed group membership rather than by individual attributes. a hierarchy from Brahman to Sudra has been interpreted (Bougle. class. and in the case of India. The criteria for the differentiation can normally be translated into money or wealth. The real world. 1992b). the forms of social stratification are many. The term ethnic group refers broadly to people “with some similar characteristics which go beyond their mere place in a societal division of labor” (Brass. 1992). Various combinations of the hierarchy have come about due to regional differentiation in certain attributes of social living. Stratification implies a differentiation based on a set of criteria.5. Kshatriya. 1992). Vaishya and Sudra are said to have come from the mouth. thighs and feet of the Creator. these single criterion hierarchies can be misleading as they depend on cutoff points related to individual analysis (Gupta. this popular caste hierarchy is not clear throughout the Indian subcontinent (Srinivas. arms. Clothing. Hierarchy allows elements of the whole to be ranked with relation to each other (example: income and prestige). 1992b). Along with the caste exist occupational stratification. religion). territory. linguistic stratification and religious stratification.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 23 manifestation of the separation and hierarchy through particular attributes of the castes brings about social stratification of the urban social pattern (Marriott. sometimes reinforced by common work roles. The Indian theory of social stratification depends on caste. Class systems by contrast define the rank of their members according to their individual attributes and behavior". 1974:8). linguistic. 3.1 Caste Castes are the hierarchical divisions of people based on professional and family membership. Repulsion between castes forced isolation and the creation of distinct residential enclaves (Bougle. 1992b:14). religion and language are discussed below. language. The caste system varies from village to village and is a local phenomenon. Ethnic characteristics refer to language. As many individual criteria are . 1992). rituals. However. Although no hierarchy is mentioned in the Sukta. However. marriage and death ceremonies distinguish one caste from another. Thus. The characteristics caste. all elements can not be arranged vertically. differentiates itself into only hierarchical status containing inequality (Gupta. Certain occupations such as butchery and cobblery lower the rank. The dominant caste legend is the Purushasukta legend whereby the Brahman. religious and ethnic diversity of the country (Gupta.5. diet and dress. Certain customs lower or raise the status of the caste. However. 3. 1992). culture. The social stratification is very deep and varied. unfortunately. The differences may also be placed in a horizontal system (example: language.2 Class "Class refers to a system of stratification which is economic in character" (Gupta. The population may be stratified based on income. religion or occupation (Bougle. In India. theoretically.

1974). After the decline of the Mughal Empire and the loss of political power to the British. Anger and frustration broke out as violence as Hindus moved from Pakistan into India and Muslims moved from India to Pakistan (Hodson. . 1997). the Muslim League represented only the Muslim population (Brass. Jainism and Sikhism stemmed off from Hinduism and are very similar to Hinduism. 1985:11). At this time they felt the need for a political party of their own. An overwhelming view of Hindu-Muslim relations in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is that Hindus advanced due to their enthusiasm to take up western education and government employment (Kaura. Tamil. During the Mughal rule (16th to 18th century). The framers of the Indian Constitution chose Hindi and English as the official languages of the government (King. Telugu. However. While the Congress party represented the majority of the Indian population. Hindus and Muslims drifted apart in the issue of independence from British rule. which culminated in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan.3 Religion Religion and language have provided the motive power for nationalism in India (Brass. 1985). The characteristics of the population regarding bilinguals. Bengali. A certain degree of animosity between Hindus and Muslims has existed since the first Muslim ruler of 1018 AD. The League demanded for a separate electorate and for more employment in public service. 1970). Islam was a religion that came to India from outside and is culturally very different from Hinduism. Buddhism. 1974). the Muslims were in power over most of India. There are many religions in India.5. degree of control over the language and relationship between the languages affect their social communication. absorbing other religious doctrines and never proselytizing.Jainism and Sikhism. “In most folk-memory the Muslims of India had been ruler. Hindi was chosen because it was the language spoken by the largest percent of the population while was a result of the British legacy. The major languages of India are Hindi. Marathi. occupation. not subjects” (Hodson. Urdu and Punjabi.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 24 linked to other attributes. The Hindu religion has always been a pacifist and tolerant religion. A Hindu revival period in the late nineteenth century to arouse enthusiasm for political action made the Muslims more insecure. Malayalam. 3.5.4 Language A systematic inventory of Indian languages began in the mid-eighteenth century. prestige and income to form a socioeconomic status. The census of India 1951 (immediately after Independence) recorded a total of 179 languages and 544 dialects in India. Gujarati. The linguistic distribution is not only diverse but also very complex (Das Gupta. In 1906 they formed the All-India Muslim League. 1977). From the beginning Islam has been a conquering and proselytizing faith (Hodson. it may be better to create a composite index of education. 3. 1985). Kannada. The wake of Independence brought with it violence and terror in the Indo-Pakistan borders in Punjab and Bengal. Muslims became apprehensive of Hindu domination. India is the birthplace of two major religions –Hinduism and Buddhism – and two minor religions .

Pakistan officially declared itself as a Muslim state. there also been conflict between other regional languages. The Babri Masjid in Ayodhya was broken down by Hindu fundamentalists. Repercussions were felt all over the country. In many places. In the early 1950s.5. Traditionally these castes had either wealth or power. The better control the Tamil people had over English. The partition of United India into India and Pakistan came with many problems. The union government declared that fifteen year deadline after Independence would be given for transition of official language from English and Hindi to only Hindi. 3. This confusion in terminology is the basis for most language-related problems in Independent India. 1971). a synonym for official language and like state religion. Writers in Hindi commonly refer to Hindi as Rashtrabasha (state language) which may signify language used by the state. ethnic conflicts are easily targeted towards these select neighborhoods. confusion has always existed about the status of Hindi as official or national language. and vice versa. However. Small Muslim enclaves within a majority Hindu neighborhood were targeted. When the ethnic groups occupy distinct neighborhoods. There was strong opposition from non-Hindi areas in general and South India in particular (Hindi is a IndoAryan language while the languages of South India belong to the Dravidian group). many political leaders advocated for the use of Hindi as a national and official language. The Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India declared the fourteen major languages listed as national language (Gumprez. a demand for a national language also arose. 1970).5 Implications of the Sociocultural Factors The implications of caste and class are closely related to those of power and wealth (Dumont. The South Indian state of Tamil Nadu was most vocal in the Anti-Hindi agitation. a majority of the leaders preferred a composite nationalism. Agitation and violence broke out in many non-Hindi states over this issue. Certain castes are dominant in a society. the Brahman priests had more power because it was believed that they were the representatives of the Creator on earth. Compromise was . This was not seen in more heterogeneous neighborhoods. This issue can not only be seen at the time of partition in 1947 but also was seen during the recent communal violence in 1993. a state language with an unique status (Das Gupta.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 25 However. The separatism movements seen all over India are all based on ethnicity and inter-caste rivalry (Bose. all castes looked up to the farmer caste because they were important landowners and were wealthy (Srinivas. The inequality and economic differentiation cause conflict between the castes and classes. 1988). In a multilingual society there may be a plurality of national languages. In some villages. 1970). as it was difficult to isolate only one family. had led them to better job opportunities. Hindu-Muslim riots broke out even in Bombay which has normally been a very peaceful city. 1989). 1992a). Language conflicts have also occurred in India. The Tamilnad Students’ Anti-Hindi Agitation Council objected to both the removal of English as an official language and the declaration of Hindi as the sole official language. This rationale of composite nationalism influenced policies related to religion and language (Das Gupta. Although a minority of Hindu leaders in India felt that India should be declared as a Hindu state. Although a majority of the rivalry has been for and against Hindi. they believed.

1). and four gateways were situated at the cardinal points. The square was used in the creation of the vastupurusha mandala. 1974).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 26 finally reached in 1963 under the Official Languages Act. Jainism. Hinduism.1 Circle and Swastika depended on the natural features of the site. which contributes many elements to the urban form. The ethnic segregation and conflict has existed from the beginning of the Indian Civilization. In the initial stages it was in the form of caste differentiation as prescribed by the Hindu/ Vedic texts. governed the alignment of roads.6 The Built Form The historical evolution of the built form of Indian cities can be divided into three distinct phases. Prime commercial and residential land was located near the temple. Social assimilation and mobilization are a part of any evolving civilization. orientation of buildings and arrangement of internal rooms based on astrological and religious criteria (Volwahsen. padas. the creator. The science of architecture and planning. However. which was the terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe inhabited by Brahma. The multi-dimensional society was soon complicated by the emergence of other religions. The streets ran from north to south and from east to west. Certain other shapes were also considered to be auspicious like the circle. This does not imply that social assimilation does not occur. The temple as the symbol of religion dominates the urban form. In planning the town a vastupurusha mandala which was most auspicious. 1986). the differentiation and assimilation in progress in a multi-ethnic society receives a prominent place in any political conflict. The final shape of the town Figure 3. The temple also influences the siting of other land uses. a perfect rectangle was accepted. 3. both from within and without the country. If it could not be a perfect square. religion and language is the issue of group identity which is the cause of most ethnic conflicts. cyclical and swastika (Figure 3. The town wall enclosed the mandala. . C to 12th century AD). and which had as many padas as there were to be residential sectors was selected. A number of languages coexisted in all parts of the country. The caste system over the next ten to fifteen centuries became deeply rooted in the Hindu population and became a part of life. Vastushastra. class. Related to castes. Stratification of the society had to accommodate these religious factors. The Indian society was also stratified horizontally by language. Buddhism. These characteristics are derived from the need for defense and administration and the importance of religion (Kopardekara. Sikhism were born in India while Islam. Judaism and Christianity found their way into India. Despite the Act. The mandala could be divided into smaller squares. While some groups spoke of an all-India nationality other speaks of a regional nationality (Brass. The earliest is the Hindu phase (3000 B. violence sparked off by language issues has continued to occur in India. 1969).

Areas for selling of specific goods – cloth. military establishments . and insufficient infrastructure in cities has led to the creation of slums and shantytowns (Misra. and wood formed niches in the urban pattern. jali (carved screens) and projecting balconies (Kopardekara. It has been shown that rural values have penetrated the urban philosophy due to large-scale migration. Generally. D. the Hindu tradition continued. but also on socioeconomic factors (Ramachandran. These are the theories which pertain to the built and social form of the city. Kshatriyas in the eastern and southeastern part. this has led to segregation and creation of enclaves within the city. 1988). 1986). Residential areas associated with the commercial area were contiguous or within the commercial area (Hall. The urban segregation was based on function and occupation premises. In India where occupation and caste are synonyms. “In the case of India. and Hindu elements of this period are not distinct from earlier ones.) was the third phase of historical urban form. many researchers have pointed to the lack of penetration of urban values into the countryside. Many researchers have tried to fit Indian urban growth into a theoretical model. the Brahmans worked and lived in the northern district. Diversification of professions due to industrialization in the post-independence era has resulted in further complexity (Becker. 1978). The Brahmans and Kshatriyas lived in the parts of the town which were climatically more comfortable sheltered from the hot sun. There was further subdivisions within each district depending on the sub-caste. India inherited a complex urban fabric. and the apparent timelessness and permanence of village life” (Hall.the cantonment . 3. the same theories are being used to describe the social patterns as well. Williamson and Mills. 1980). especially seen in the port cities associated with the East India Company (Mills. On the periphery of these urban centers. The colonial influence (17th to early 20th century A. 1992). As the built form depends on the social characteristics portrayed by its residents.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 27 The residential districts were divided among the four castes. Large migration of people from the rural area. Vaishyas in the southern part and Sudras in the western district. The morphological components include buildings used for trade warehouses. metalware. The three leading theories described below are based on the built form of the city. At the time of independence in 1947. and the south-west monsoon. D.). The characteristics of the social and built form of the city contribute to its pattern. Residential segregation is no longer based only on occupation and caste. 1980). The residential character throughout this period was segregated. The Islamic elements included the mosque and domestic architecture which emphasized the purdah through enclosed courtyards.7 Theories of Urban Social Patterns . A generalization of these patterns has been made.were developed (Hall. jewelry. During this time. counting houses. pottery. Characteristics from medieval times are Islamic in nature (14th to 17th centuries A. 1989). This led to the development of commercial centers and zoning based on Western market principles. 1980).

1929 various groups of society led him to conclude that the city was made up of concentric zones with the central business district (CBD) at the center (Figure 3. In the early 1920s. The same city may express different models at different time periods (Scargill. The CBD core had all major commercial. which were being taken over by the expanding CBD. It was partly based on Low income economic factors. Burgess was interested in determining a pattern for the social structure of the city. 1992).Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 28 Various spatial theories of the social pattern of cities have been advanced.7. 1929). most American cities in the mid-west absorbed many immigrant groups from Europe. This also forced an outward expansion. Diversification in employment opportunities gave rise to the growth of mixed land use development. The model made many assumptions such as uniform land surface. High income heterogeneous population and a commercialindustrial base (Herbert and Thomas.2 Concentric Zone Theory Burgess’ research on the distributional pattern of Source: Burgess. Thus. they moved to better housing districts (Burgess. The three leading Western models are: i Concentric zone model i Sector model i Multiple nuclei model These models have become frameworks for studying urban social patterns across the world (Hartshorn. accessibility to a single-centered city. This was surrounded by a transition zone. Figure 3. political and social activities. The public transport system had also improved significantly and allowed the middle-class to . This model was based on Burgess’ experience in the American mid-west cities. Mobility and migrant influx were though of as the main cause of the social pattern (Hartshorn. The movement was towards the periphery. free Middle income market. 1979). The basic premise in this model was that of succession and invasion whereby population groups gradually moved out as their economic and social status improved. 1929). The next zone had lower income housing. some static. 1992). It also had older residential districts. With affluence. 3. and especially in Chicago. it is a descriptive framework to CBD analyze spatial organization of land use in a city Transition and its change over time. and studying how the city grew (Scargill. which had factories and slums. Families moved out into the next zone when their zone was invaded. others dynamic in nature. 1990). 1929).2). 1979).1 Concentric Zone Theory This theory put forth by Burgess in 1925 related population mobility and societal organization to the physical expansion of the city (Burgess. These immigrants first found cheap housing in the inner city. and successive zones had higher income residences (Burgess.

It gives strength to cities with original nucleus in the center. It is more specific to some cities (King and Golledge. 1992).2 Sector Theory Homer Hoyt put forth a land use theory after studying over 100 cities in the U. 1978). It was intended to serve as a framework for studying urban growth and change (King and Golledge. 1939). 1992 . However. This model proposes that patterns in many cities be arranged around several centers (Scargill. commercial ethnic group residential industrial Figure 3. The model is very simple and can be used to predict how urban land markets work. Hoyt primarily studied residential land use. and Golledge. This is because concentration of certain activities may prove to be more beneficial.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 29 travel from outer zones to the CBD for work. This model also accommodates growth (Hartshorn.3 Multiple Nuclei Theory The multiple nuclei theory was put forth by Harris and Ullman.7. 1979). 1990). Hence. 1979). 1979). and subsequent decentralization (Figure 3. Hoyt also stressed the need to consider zoning laws and slum clearance laws in making models. S (Hoyt. 1978). 1978).3). 3.3 Sector Theory Source: Hoyt. The model also accounts for growth along transport routes. empirical studies did not confirm his model one hundred percent (Herbert and Thomas.4 Multiple Nuclei Theory Source: Hartshorn.7. This is not a generalized model. 1939 3. Rental value was the main criterion for studying the pattern (King. The real world is more complicated than what was represented by Burgess’ very general model. The original model did not take into account specialized clusters of industry. Neighborhoods for each income group are common. Hoyt studied the city as an economist concerned with how the housing market worked. These reasons complemented a concentric zone development model (Scargill. He said that residential sectors of similar rent are situated in wedges radiating from the center (Figure 3. 1979). Concentric zones or sectors may emerge from these nuclei.4). Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. The wedge pattern represents residential area growth (Scargill. For example. industries may cluster around the railway line or lowincome housing along a riverbank. It also did not explain the impact of transport networks on these zones (Scargill. Burgess has been criticized for not having considered topographical criteria.

community and social and civic responsibilities such as aesthetics.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 30 3. It is assumed that any planned city consists of neighborhood units. three indices were used. are suitable modifications of the concept (Timms. social status and retirement (Scargill. 1929). but on cultural ones. housing conditions and material possessions. It is not only a physical design concept. 1990). The data source was census tracts. The main assumption here was that social rank is related to transportation links which influence residential location in a sectoral manner (Scargill. This concept. A neighborhood is the basis for formally organized residential space. they move outwards. parenthood. In the built environment this corresponds to ethnic neighborhoods (Timms. which analyze the physical environment under consideration. The use of these three indices for analysis is a social area analysis. As a family’s needs for space increase. In Western cities the reasons for non-uniformity have been identified as socioeconomic status. employment. security and identity. however. However.marriage. Individualistic frameworks. Hence.1 Western Cities Many studies of the social and physical urban pattern have been done. 1979). 1979). family status and ethnic status. 1971). Family status in American cities shows a concentric distribution. A neighborhood unit is not the only model or universally appropriate unit of analysis. 1971). This type of urbanization is also related to the housing market described by Hoyt (1939). 1992).8. In the analysis of urban social patterns. The city was viewed as a part of society. and social change was expected to be reflected in studies which were repeated over a time period (Herbert and Thomas. Critics say that neighborhood unit strongly emphasizes physical environment. ethnic status and family status (Timms. The broad generalization of the social rank produced a sector model. 1990). 1990). These were social rank. neighborliness. The outward mobility is related to different stages of life . the neighborhood unit is used as the unit of analysis in the study of human settlements (Herbert and Thomas. it does not address the needs of a social environment. 1971). 3. It serves as the building block to construct the whole town. It is only the most convenient one. The values are also related to family. every city has some constraints. education. has been under strong criticism (Hartshorn. family status used the variables related to demographics and type of house. The concept of neighborhood units became popular since the1920s in planned settlements (Perry. housing choices may not be made on economic basis.8 Case Studies of Urban social Patterns The study of the urban social pattern of a city primarily focuses on the residential land use (Herbert and Thomas. This is . The non-uniform pattern is consistent over many cities because similar households exert similar housing choices. Ethnicity causes the social phenomena of segregation. For example. ethnic status used religion and social groups. Social rank used the variables. Analysis of individual cities shows that the pattern is not uniform and is characterized by residential segregation. but also an expression of socioeconomic and cultural values of the people. safety. value of home.

socioeconomic status. however.2 Third World Cities commercial ethnic group residential industrial Ethnic Status CBD Transition Low income Middle income High income Family Status Socioeconomic Status Income group 1 Income group 2 Income group 3 Figure 3. Studies of Brisbane. Australia (Timms. The changing pattern of family cycle reflects concentric zones while that of social rank is in sectors.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 31 predominant in cities where migration is high. 1979). does not always emerge as an independent component (Scargill.5 Urban Social Patterns Source: Knox. 1990) showed similar results. traditional and modern design elements juxtaposed in seemingly dichotomous ways. Winnipeg. Public open spaces are generally found only . A study of Baltimore (Knox. 1992. 3. youth/migrants and black poverty. Ethnicity. Canada (Herbert and Thomas. 1995.8. Cities in the Third World are frequently dual environments. Traditional places are typically more dense with narrow streets and housing spaces around central courtyards. but socially with more complex relations to one another. 1995) shows that the four important factors in the social pattern are underclass. Hartshorn. 1971).

7). The more Figure 3. The colonial cities in Latin America show a centralized social pattern (Portes. A large number of models of Third World cities have been made (Lowder. Thus. Processes quite different from those in western cities govern the pattern of Third World cities. but formed shantytowns in the peri-urban fringes and in unserviced areas (under bridges. A study of Colombo (Herbert and de Silva. traditional commercial areas and modern commercial areas. Social morphological models constructed for the Third World cities show that there is a central concentration of commercial activity and a number of residential neighborhoods. 1986). family ties. 1986). The nuclei are original village. A classic example can be seen in the design of New Delhi. 1986). are very complex and have evolved over a very long time. 1980. the morphological pattern of each Third World city is different mainly because of the presence of an indigenous city enclosed by a colonial city. Around the plaza was the important buildings including a church. ethnicity and literacy. An analysis of Calcutta showed a pattern based on land use. . The modern place is more spacious. social and economic variables may not be the only factors. The center of the city was the plaza. The second and third concentric zones were occupied progressively by poorer people. substandard living conditions and ethnicity were the broad variables that defined the social pattern of the city. 1975). 1986). The migrants and poor did not live in the core of the city. 1974) found that social status. But. 1986 Literacy and ethnic patterns emerged in a sectoral form. which is adjacent to. 1990). as opposed to conglomerations. land use. and subsequently surrounded by an industrial city (Lowder. along riverbanks). Source: Lowder. and surrounds old Delhi (Figure 3. which contribute significantly to the urban pattern (Kopardekara.7 Asian Ports pattern showed concentric zones for land use. The residences of the richer class formed the first concentric zone around the plaza. The model shows that the indigenous elite were closely associated with the commercial area.6 Plan of Delhi and New educated and professional classes followed the Delhi.6) (Herbert and Thomas. The social Figure 3. Even single cities.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 32 around religious buildings. The morphological model of Asian port cities shows a multiple nucleus (Figure 3. Western ideas of suburbanization and formed their Source: Drakakis-Smith own neighborhoods (Lowder.

and religious duties performed by the Brahmins. Santiago and Chile Source: Lowder. religion and language rather than demographics and economics can be seen. languages and customs.8 Latin American Cities America. But. the Indian urban social scene essentially reflects two facets of non-western structure (Hall. Many studies have been done to study Indian urban areas. spatial segregation based on ethnicity. industrial and office workers belonged to all castes. It has been found that Indian cities defy social modeling. The social ties are horizontal and vertical. 1975). "Particularly in cosmopolitan cities cultural or linguistic diversity and regional associations develop to extol their culture and language and to participate in their own . Soon. farming is done only by the Sudra caste. The pattern is similar to the one described by the sector model of North Figure 3. The pattern was a creation of the lifestyle choices of the urban rich (Portes. i Symbolic functionalism is performed by religion and caste and buttressed by regional affiliations. 3. in rural areas. many large cities became crowded. A consistent relationship existed between socioeconomic position of the household and their distance from the center of the city. caste. The nature of traditional social status and the interdependence and spatial interpretation of diverse. Soon socioeconomic status related to nearness to the center became related to distance away from the center. the residences became smaller and public amenities were reduced. The greater complexity of urban life and the difficulty of maintaining caste identity through residential segregation alone. A second indigenous factor suffusing urban society is that of regional affiliation.8. The outer ring bordered on farmland (Figure 3. in urban environments the meaning of caste becomes more important in terms of identity rather than function. the farther away from the center. In the 18th and 19th centuries. status groups help to produce a very obscure patterning of social groups at the micro-level of analysis. In Lima.8). The horizontal relationships are between people of the same cultural background while vertical relationships are between caste and class. in general. 1980): i Residences have not yet come to serve the symbolic function they do in the Western world. 1986). 1977). the poorer the household (Cornelius.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 33 Here. Wealthier families began to move out of the center and settle in more isolated locations. 1986 residential colonies moved from the center of the city to the urban periphery which were selected for their better geographic. Research findings point out that while caste is important in rural societies for its very functioning. yet complementary. and especially to construct a structural model. new definitions had to be made. climatic and aesthetic factors.3 Indian Cities In cities of India. has created social organizations for each caste (Kopardekara. For example. In the cities where new professions were created.

commercial or administrative areas. Certain areas are known for their residents speaking a particular language only. higher literacy. These three dimensions were i socioeconomic dimension symbolized by the bazaar i political dimension represented by an administrative symbol i prestige dimension derived from the religious function of a temple. Instead. i South Indian cities had higher female employment rate.9 Pattern of Indian Cities Source: Weinstein. These three dimensions would form concentric zones (Figure 3. Weinstein (1974) made an attempt to produce a conceptual model for the social segregation of an Indian city. Their influence and interplay causes residential segregation. i The modern planned cities (Jamshedpur. Madras. He had the following conclusions. . such neighborhoods are the source for the development of the corporate groups. The centroid of the system represents the optimum location for accessibility to all three functions. Pune and Varanasi. i North Indian cities had low female employment rates. 1968). Industrial towns like Jamshedpur were planned around their industrial core. Chandigarh) have low population densities with no concentration of industrial. 1980:35). Hyderabad had two nuclei – the old city and the colonial city. had western style CBDs. low literacy. higher migration and equal male to female ratio. real case studies did not prove this theory. i Metropolitan cities (Bombay. He postulated three dimensions as being important contributors to residential segregation. Temple Bazaar Centroid Fort Brush (1977) studied 24 cities in India and discerned four types of gradients of population directly related to their Figure 3. 1974 evolutionary pattern. colonial cities. Calcutta) has low-density commercial centers surrounded by high-density residential neighborhoods.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 34 regional festivals if not usually celebrated in the region within which they live now" (Hall.9). Ahmad (1965) did a factor analysis of the socioeconomic characteristics of Indian cities. had retained their residential core (Mehta. it was found that multiple nuclei were present. Bombay. Although the neighborhoods that result are not corporate groups in the sense in which they are defined. Calcutta and Madras. low migration and equal male to female ratio. cities that were well developed even before the colonial period. However. and that the temple acted as the most meaningful focus for the spatial distribution of social characteristics.

religious polarity. The existence of multiple physical urban patterns caused by the presence of indigenous settlements. Census data from 1881. The presence of many religions.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 35 Such broad conclusions are results of regional analyses. transportation and socioeconomic status (Kosambi. These examples show that the urban social pattern of Indian cities is very complex due to the influence of a variety of factors. languages. A systematic analysis of census data for Bombay was done (Kosambi. 1901. The social patterns were also strongly influenced by the age of the city. castes and classes produces a more heterogeneous pattern. 1986). . Analysis at the level of a single city gave patterns that are more complex. British cities and industrial towns within the boundary of the urban area. 1831 and 1961 was used to determine the evolution and change of the social pattern. commercialism. The patterns were attributed to Europeanism. 1986).

Source: Lowder. 1992.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 36 C oncentric Z one T h eory S ector T heory Incom e g rou p 1 M ultiple N uclei T heory commercial ethnic group CBD Tran sitio n L ow incom e M iddle inco m e H igh inco m e In com e g roup 2 residential industrial In com e g rou p 3 D elhi Latin A m erica A sian P orts C oncentric + S ector T heories C hicago C alcutta C oncentric + S ector + M ultiple N uclei T h eories Figure 2. Hartshorn.10 Urban Social Patterns and Relevant Case Studies. 1986. .

The residential neighborhoods of such cities are not as well defined as they are in the American cities. skills and professions. The reasons for migration are also varied – they may be migrating as a result of natural calamities. A market economy strongly influences the lifestyle of the citizens of Navi Mumbai. the sociocultural factors are related to caste. In Third World cities. class. In the case of India. Male dominance. The lifestyle depends on ethnicity and migration. this social area analysis must take into consideration the indigenous factors. Migration may also be restricted to the men of the family. family status and ethnic status. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. or in search of opportunities in the city. The households are generally large with a range of ages. These characteristics stratify the society into vertical and horizontal systems. religion and language. the components derived from social area analysis were termed as socioeconomic status. The historical evolution of cities has supported this stratification. The components of the analysis of American cities are not entirely apparent in the Third World cities.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 3: The Conceptual Framework 37 3. Status in Third World cities is based on family membership or socioeconomic class. Stratification causes social inequality in terms of wealth. power and status. Social area analysis assumes that a few independent factors can explain the spatial patterning of a city. The growth of cities across the world has been studied. Land-use is also similar in that it is predominantly single-use zoning. an effort was made to prevent this social stratification and use residential allotments to fulfill this objective. The lifestyle factor in North American cities relates small nuclear families with higher education achievements and better employment opportunities. this is not evident due to the existence of multi-generational families. . The urban social pattern of these cities has been generalized. In such a case study. it is appropriate to use a social area analysis to delineate the urban social pattern. the researcher’s knowledge of the local environment is important to contextualize the pattern more appropriately. Traditional Indian cities have grown over a very long period of time. Three leading western theories describing the urban social pattern of cities dominate the literature on urban social patterns (Hartshorn. 1992). In the design of Navi Mumbai. These theories have been combined in a social area analysis to describe the social pattern based on a few social variables. These are concentric zone theory. In the American cities. In the case of Navi Mumbai. the residential neighborhoods have been designed using the neighborhood principle as those designed in America. Here.9 Conclusion The urban social pattern is the complex manifestation of the underlying cultural values of the population within a particular built environment. migration or ethnic group represent the ethnic factor. However.

These three factors also corresponded to the theoretical models proposed by Burgess. These factors are taken into consideration in social area analysis. Hoyt and Harris and Ullman.socioeconomic status. However.Chapter 4: Research Design Determining the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai is the primary research objective of this thesis. 1985). The research investigates the relationship between the spatial pattern of Navi Mumbai and the different theories of urban social patterns discussed in the literature review. there was considerable criticism about the choice of variables. economic. Hoyt. The increase in industrialization creates an occupational status system (Timms. A set of variables describing the social structure of the city can be used in the statistical analysis. and Harris and Ullman will be the theoretical framework for the conceptualization of the social pattern of Navi Mumbai. It is a . urbanization and segregation. Cairo and Helsinki showed some useful generalization. Cities are complex entities that have many different functions performed by many different people. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. They were considered to be very narrow and not universally applicable. and ethnicity confirmed the validity of the analysis. The family as a unit becomes weaker. and housing characteristics.1 Social Area Analysis Social area analysis provides a broad framework for analyzing the social patterns of a city. The study involves the categorization of a city based on social rank. family status and ethnic status. The analysis looks at the variables at once and at their respective locations in their distribution. Generally the economic model showed a sectored pattern. 4. This analysis classifies census tract data into three main constructs . The basic premise of social area analysis is that a city cannot be studied in isolation from the overall society (Shevky and Bell. studies in Calcutta. 1971). The issue of spatial distribution of different kinds of people in Navi Mumbai is of primary interest. These involve population. The general issue of social areas will be accomplished through social area analysis. The pattern of the city may be determined by statistical analysis or by discerning people’s mental images of the city. religion and ethnic background. the city was analyzed as a composite made up of three layers. Earlier. Under these conditions. Thus. The aim is to identify key combinations of different measures that provide an adequate basis on which to differentiate the sub-areas from one another (King and Golledge. Social area analysis shows how family characteristics. It was first put forth by Shevky and Williams (1949) in a study of Los Angeles. Although these analyses have been more effective for studying North American cities. The social area analysis may be done statistically by a factor analysis. The theories put forth by Burgess. urbanization index. the urbanization component showed a concentric ring pattern. 1955). 1978). immigration of rural population leads to segregation based on language. economic status and ethnic background produce a certain spatial pattern in the city. mapping of social area analysis for a large sample of cities showed that socioeconomic status. Better transportation systems increase mobility and lead to a greater sorting of population (Cadwallader.

education. 1980). then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. my null hypothesis. religion. concentric zone theory and multiple nuclei theory.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 39 device that seeks interrelationships among the set of input variables (Herbert and Thomas. The variables are tabulated below: Table 4. 4. Social area analysis based on western thinking can not be naively applied to the study of urban social patterns in India. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. Social structure in India is a result of cultural.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Socioeconomic status Profession Number of earning members Income Education Family status Demographics Women at home Family size Dwelling size Type of house Year of occupation Ethnic status Religion Language 4. This provides a spatial hierarchical data set. is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social patterning will occur. family status and ethnic status correspond respectively to the sector theory.2 Hypotheses As discussed in the literature review. The data available is based on a . caste) dimensions (Hall. and each sector (neighborhood) of the nodes. Variables that arise from such cultural determinants need to be used in the factor analysis. If H0 is false. language) and vertical (occupation.4 Data Collection The data required for the analysis can be obtained from census tracts of Navi Mumbai.3 Operationalization Certain variables will be used to operationalize the social area analysis to obtain the urban social pattern. The sectors (neighborhoods) are identical to census block tracts. 4. H0. In this case study of Navi Mumbai. mapping of social patterns in many cities across the world show that the socioeconomic status. This database provides aggregated information about each node (township). religious and historic development with both horizontal (kinship. 1990).

The GIS and mapping techniques convert all the statistical information into a graphic representation. Statistics are weighted for spatial data because.338 Belapur 9. The survey was carried out on a ~22% sample basis for each node. the sector is the unit of analysis. and GIS overlay techniques are used to determine the social pattern at the regional and sub-regional levels. cartographic mapping.5. The variables are expected to cluster based on the constructs described above.283 Nerul 16. and compare it to other cities. These are techniques in multivariate analysis.5 Methodology Four methodologies are used to analyze the data. data covering a large area is required. the units of analysis are not identical. An error of 5-8% is expected.109 Kalamboli 9. 4. In this research. Although principal components analysis is no longer considered the most favorable mode of analysis to delineate patterns. although variables are related.357 Survey Coverage 6656 4219 2125 2034 2282 2530 2506 544 % of total 24 26 23 22 25 19 18 23 The issues of validity and reliability arise in the use of census data for testing the hypothesis. Finally.1 Descriptive Analysis The first stage of analysis describes the data at both the regional and sub-regional scale. The census data is not 100% reliable. The single variable from that data set is selected and a histogram of it at the .007 Airoli 13. and at the sub-regional scale attached as Appendix C. The second is a principal components analysis. These four methods are collectively used to analyze the data. for the purpose of this thesis it shall be used. is census data. All data is standardized. The only data source that provides this information. For a social area analysis. The first is a descriptive analysis of the data setting out the parameters that need to be considered to define the meaning of heterogeneity.2 Survey Sampling Node Total Number of Dwellings Vashi 27. At the regional scale the data is tabulated.161 Sanpada 2. The cluster analysis puts together cases which are similar based on the relationship between the variables. Table 4. 4.378 Kopar-khairane 14. The descriptive analysis helps understand the finer dimensions of the data. This is a detailed stage of analysis. The principal components analysis draws out the relationship between the variables.056 New Panvel 9. The third is cluster analysis of the cases to see which variables are closely associated.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 40 socioeconomic survey done by CIDCO in December 1995.

Cluster analysis classifies the groups according to the observations into moreor-less homogenous and distinct groups (Davis. 4. This matrix contains components that represent a group of interrelated variables. Principal components are the eigenvalues of the correlation matrix (Davis. The elements of the eigenvectors that are used to compute the scores are called principal component loadings. The N by M matrix is standardized in terms of standard deviation. 1986).7 are not significant in the correlation matrix. This is varimax rotation. This solution determines whether a small number of the components can be used to explain the covariance between a large number of variables. The initial solution is based on the orthogonal solution. Rotating the axis more closely intersects the clusters of variables.5. The cases are the rows and the variables are the columns. certain restrictions are imposed. The axis has been rotated orthogonally (assuming the factors are uncorrelated). Corresponding communalities are also estimated. The data matrix is converted into a correlation matrix. 1978). 1986). This approach to classification is very subjective. then the pattern shall be interpreted as homogeneous. The eigenvalue criterion (eigenvalue greater than or equal to 1) helps eliminate components which are not meaningful. These loadings indicate the strength of the relationships between variables and underlying components.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 41 sub-regional scale is drawn. and results in a simpler pattern. The second step is to rotate the axis to get a simpler solution.2 Principal Components Analysis A principal components analysis reduces a large number of variables to a smaller number of underlying components. Principal components analysis can be thought of as four matrices. and so on" (Kim and Mueller. the matrix of component scores is computed. The rotation normally removes the negative loadings. Patterns can be delineated from mapping these components. it is necessary to provide a permissible range of variation. Characteristics of the urban social pattern can be revealed by considering the relationship within groups. This matrix is next converted into a factor matrix. the second component accounts for as much of the residual variance left unexplained by the first factor.5. Finally. These restrictions are (1) there are k common components (2) underlying components are orthogonal to each other (3) the first component accounts for as much variance as possible. The first matrix is a simple data matrix. The . Generally variables with communalities less than 0. A variation greater than thirty percent of the total population from the mean (15% on either side of mean) is used here to show unequal distribution. "To obtain the initial solution. If the standard deviation at the 95% confidence interval is within 15% of the mean. Each original observation is converted into a principal component score. It has very little theory and depends largely on experience. 4. The data is interpreted in terms of its mean and standard deviation. Comparative figures at the national scale are also given.3 Cluster Analysis Classification of data places objects in one or more homogenous groups. The first step of principal components analysis is to obtain an initial solution. In order to interpret this descriptive statistics for homogeneity.

0. The SPSS program was also used to perform a principal component analysis and a cluster analysis on this data set. This method joins similar observations. Both the analyses were done at a regional and sub-regional scale. This stage of analysis integrates the theoretical framework. 4.4 Mapping and Overlays The final stage is the mapping of the descriptive analysis. principal components analysis and cluster analysis. The aim of these two kinds of analysis was to determine if the data set clustered into the three constructs given above.0 to -1. Mapping of the principal components determined if any pattern exists in the social characteristics of Navi Mumbai at the regional and sub-regional scales. The levels of similarity are used to construct the dendrogram. A correlation coefficient or distance coefficient may be used to evaluate similarities. 4. and so produces better dendrograms. The criteria for clustering is that both observations mutually have the highest correlation with each other.Malathi Ananathakrishnan Chapter 4: The Research Design 42 classification procedure used here is hierarchical clustering.5. The regional scale was comparisons between the eight nodes of Navi Mumbai. Analysis was then done of one particular node of Navi Mumbai. then connects the next most similar observations to these. as is the correlation coefficient. A measure of similarity between every pair of objects is computed using Euclidean distance. and the statistical analysis to determine an interpretation of the pattern. This mapping helps explain the statistics through a easily interpretable graphic representation. namely Vashi. Distance coefficients are linked at low values. The distance coefficient is not constrained within the range of +1. A low distance would indicate that two objects are similar and a large distance would indicate that the two objects are dissimilar. .6 Data Analysis Descriptive analysis of the data was done using Microsoft Excel and SPSS.

The criteria used to select the variables were based on the expectations of the hypothesis. The variables needed to explain the constructs as well as possible. it was selected out of the eight nodes. All the variables belonged to closed sets. it was used for analysis. unskilled status Number of earning members 1 earning member Income Rs. age 25-45 Family size 4 to 5 members Dwelling size 26-35 sq.1 Constructs and Variables Construct Variable Name Variable from data set Socioeconomic Profession highly skilled. only one or two representative variables from each set was selected.Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 5. Vashi is the oldest node. Panvel. Nerul. Then the data set was studied at a sub-regional level by analyzing the neighborhoods of Vashi node. 2651-4450 Education high school Family status Demographics Male pop. As this node had the most complete data. Kalamboli. Airoli and Sanpada. Hence. m.1) with the actual variable from the data set. Belapur. Type of housing CIDCO Tenure 1980s Last place of residence Bombay Ethnic status Religion Hindu. Malayalam . As the 1995 survey data was the most recent data. Data for the regional and sub-regional scale was collected from the 1995 socioeconomic survey conducted by CIDCO. This spatial scale is • regional scale (nodes). Muslim Language Marathi.2 Descriptive Analysis of Data The different constructs and variable names described in the methodology section are tabulated below (Table 5. 5. female pop. age 25-45. Table 5. The methodological reason for selecting these eight nodes out of the total of thirteen is because data was available for only these eight nodes. only then would they bring out the characteristics of the construct. • sub-regional scale (sectors of a node) The study areas at the regional level of analysis are those of the nodes of Navi Mumbai including Vashi. and has fully developed residential sectors. The analysis is divided into descriptive analysis of variables and detailed analysis at the regional and sub-regional.1 Introduction The aim of this research is to study the urban social pattern of the population across a hierarchical scale. One or two variables from each set was selected for this study. Kopar-khairane.

8% recorded in the 1987 survey) of the population makes up the workforce of Navi Mumbai. 30430 are the working population. Better education facilitates getting better jobs and higher income.1 Socioeconomic Status The socioeconomic status is an indicator of social class. Data tables for the sub-regional scale are given in Appendix C. An increase in the number of earning members increases family income and the socioeconomic class. Table 5. 33. Table 5. The average number of earners per household is 1.12 1. The percent of males and females is shown in Table 5. A profession brings with it a certain prestige and social class.3).3 Number of Earners Single 2 3 4+ Vashi 68 23 6 2 Nerul 78 16 3 1 Belapur 68 22 4 2 Kalamboli 79 15 4 1 Panvel 78 17 3 1 Kopar-khairane 76 17 5 1 Airoli 74 20 4 1 Sanpada 70 19 7 2 Mean 74 19 5 1 Standard deviation 5 3 1 1 . while it is 1.62 Standard Deviation 2.2Work Force Percent of male Percent of female population in work population in work force force Vashi 53 10 Nerul 55 7 Belapur 52 12 Kalamboli 54 6 Panvel 57 8 Kopar-khairane 56 10 Airoli 53 7 Sanpada 58 9 Mean 54. Number of earning members: Out of the total population of 91787 recorded in the survey.15% (a slight increase from 32. and form the socioeconomic indicator. Seventy-five percent of families had one earning member and twenty percent of families had two earning members (Table 5.67 in Greater Bombay.75 8. All these variables are closely correlated.2 and the number of earners in Table 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 44 All data tables are for the regional scale while the histograms are from the sub-regional scale.

single earning member. Small businesses account for 15% of the employees. was selected.1 Distribution of Single-earner families For the analysis.4 Occupational Classification of Workforce Highly skilled unskilled office selfteacher other skilled worker worker assistant employed Vashi 45 12 12 15 9 4 3 Nerul 38 23 13 15 4 4 3 Belapur 47 12 8 20 3 6 4 Kalamboli 24 31 20 12 8 3 2 Panvel 43 19 9 16 4 7 2 Kopar-khairane 20 9 41 9 9 0 12 Airoli 34 18 44 12 5 1 4 Sanpada 49 9 20 14 3 3 2 Mean 38 17 19 14 6 4 4 Standard Deviation 11 8 11 3 3 2 3 Frequency .3). The standard deviation is 11.0 60. Government offices including banks and public sector enterprises employ 21% of the workforce. Unskilled persons are construction laborers and housemaids. For this analysis classification based on skills is tabulated (Table 5.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 45 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std. Kopar-khairane has a low number of highly skilled workers and a large number of unskilled workers (Table 5. 25% of the workforce is employed there. Profession: Good employment opportunities are offered by the manufacturing industries of Navi Mumbai.0 75.0 55. Both the values are within 15% of the mean. In Navi Mumbai this economic class constitutes 38% of the work force. The distribution of the singleearner family at the regional level shows a standard deviation of only 5 (mean=74). This is most representative of the entire population. Highly skilled professionals hold higher level managerial and supervisory jobs or are professional business persons. This means that the distribution is homogeneous.1.0 70. On an average.00 45.0 50. Dev = 7.0 80. Skilled workers are factory workers. The pattern is homogeneous. They form 17% of the workforce.0 65. Professional workers in teaching and medical institutions are 7% of the workforce.96 Mean = 66. The distribution of the single earner families is shown in Figure 5. At the sub-regional scale the standard deviation is 7. Table 5. they are 19% of the work force and the standard deviation is 11.96 (mean=66. construction workers and trainees. The main reason is that this node is presently under construction and has a large workforce of construction workers.4). carpenters. The mean is 74 with a very low standard deviation of 5.3 N = 19127.3). and has a normal distribution over eight cases. while service professions such as shops and hotels employ 7% of the workforce.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. contractors and consultants. the variable.

The proportion of EWS:LIG:MIG:HIG is 2:16:34:48.9) (Figure 5.46.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. This shows a proportionately large middle and higher income groups. 1230.9 N = 19127.0 10. The monthly average household income is Rs.2).88 16. Almost 34% of the population falls within this category.2 Frequency of Families with income range Rs. The regional scale shows a standard deviation of 6.38 Standard deviation 0.29 750110000 15 6 12 3 5 9 8 12 8. and the standard deviation is 6. 4200 fell within this range.0 20. 2651-4450 The income range of Rs.98 (mean=27.0 30.46 (mean=33. Income: The income groups are defined by the Government of India’s household income classification into: • economically weaker section (EWS) earning less than Rs1250 per month • lower income group (LIG) earning between Rs.0 25. 7500 per month. in Navi Mumbai it appears that the four income groups have to be redefined based on the median and/or mean income of this region rather than using the national urban averages (Table 5.64 8.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 46 The corresponding data was not available at the sub-regional scale.0 50. Both cases do not show a homogeneous distribution of people based on income as the standard deviation is greater than 15% of the mean. 4451 and Rs 7500 and • higher income group (HIG) earning more than Rs.0 40.0 35.63 6. the standard deviation is 10.26 26514450 27 36 27 46 31 32 39 31 33.25 7. Dev = 10 Mean = 27. Thus.0 45. 2651-4450 was selected for the principal components analysis because the median income of Rs. 1251 and Rs.06 1000115000 7 3 5 1 3 7 2 4 4 2. 4900 and the monthly average per capita income is Rs.5 Household Income upto 12511250 2650 Vashi 2 14 Nerul 3 27 Belapur 2 12 Kalamboli 2 26 Panvel 2 24 Kopar-khairane 2 9 Airoli 1 14 Sanpada 1 5 Mean 1. 2650 • middle income group (MIG) earning between Rs.45) and the sub-regional scale.75 4.0 Std.13 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 5.2 15000+ 3 1 2 0 2 0 0 1 1.5).0 15. Frequency .13 1.46 44517500 30 21 35 21 31 36 34 42 31. Table 5.

25 2.38 3.5 5. Bachelors and Masters degrees. Hence.60 14 15 18 20 14 13 16 12 15. and 35% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is Marathi (12% did not specify their medium of instruction).63 1. The level of education is categorized into illiterate. Most students attend school and college within their node (township).04 BS MS 22 4 24 5 15 2 9 1 22 4 29 4 13 3 21 4 19.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 47 Education: The survey shows that 27% of the total population is children going to school.7 Level of Education illiterate Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 4 3 5 7 3 4 4 4 4.38 6.66 27 27 30 34 25 27 37 21 28. Sanpada is the only node without any education facilities. 76% of the students walk to their school or college.25 1.30 . 51% of the children go to schools where the medium of instruction is English. technical education.75 1. secondary school education. children. while 4% of the population is going to college. high school education. Table 5. primary school education.52 1. the column titled Vashi shows that some students from all other nodes also go there to attend school or college (Table 5. Vashi has all the major colleges.13 3.28 Children Primary secondary 9 5 8 10 8 6 7 8 7.07 high school 22 17 21 16 19 15 18 25 19.6 Location of Education Institutions Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar. 10% use bicycles and only 2% go by school bus.36 technical 1 2 1 2 4 1 1 2 1. The value given represents the highest level of education achieved by at least one member of the family (Table 5. 12% use public transport.6). Table 5.Airoli Sanpada Bombay khairane Vashi 88 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 9 Nerul 9 77 2 1 1 0 0 0 10 Belapur 10 12 67 1 1 0 0 0 9 Kalamboli 1 0 1 90 4 0 0 0 4 Panvel 2 1 2 8 76 0 0 0 11 Kopar-khairane 17 0 0 0 0 81 0 0 2 Airoli 7 0 0 0 0 0 83 0 10 Sanpada 47 8 1 1 0 0 16 0 27 In the Bombay region literacy rates are seventy-five percent for adult population.7).

6 (Census of India.13 population.6).0 35.0 45.0 20.0 25.5). 1991) The standard deviation of this variable at the regional scale is 5. About 9% of the Mean = 40. and only 3% of the 15.9). Children up to the age of 15 constitute 33% of 3000 the total population.5% of the population falls under this category with a standard deviation of 5. The variation is not homogeneous at either scale (Figure 5. Table 5.8 Male Population below 3 4-5 6 .9 10 -15 16 . The demographic indicators used are male and female population of the age group 25-45.13 (mean=40. The working age group of 25 to 44 is 39% of the 1000 Std.00 0 45 to 59.0 30. Cases weighted by population The present pattern clearly shows Figure 5.8. This level of education is provided to everyone by the government free of cost. and at the sub-regional scale is 7. 5.07 (mean=28.0 40. Secondary school means an education of up to Grade 10 and the passing of a government examination (matriculation).3 Frequency of Families with at least one a younger population with a high individual with Secondary Education percentage of children. 28.0 population are in the 60+ range.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 48 The variable ’secondary school’ was selected under level of education. The age group 16 to 24 is 10% of the 2000 population. Table 5. This age group was selected because it is a subset of the population and it makes most of the decision regarding social choices (Table 5. The national average for this variable is 16.3).2.07. Dev = 7.21 22 -24 25 -44 45 -59 60+ Vashi 4 3 7 15 12 5 34 14 5 Nerul 7 5 10 12 8 5 41 8 3 Belapur 6 4 8 14 12 5 37 11 4 Kalamboli 8 6 11 13 8 5 43 6 1 Panvel 8 4 8 11 9 5 44 9 3 Kopar-khairane 10 6 10 10 8 5 43 6 1 Airoli 7 5 10 14 11 4 39 8 2 Sanpada 7 4 6 10 10 5 43 10 4 Mean 7 5 9 12 10 5 41 9 3 Standard deviation 2 1 2 2 2 0 3 3 1 6000 Frequency .6 population are in the age group of N = 19127.2 Family Status Demographics: The nodes of Navi Mumbai have a female to 5000 male ratio of 848 to 1000 (comparative figures for Bombay 4000 are 819 to 1000).0 50.

The reason for this is not only marriage and children.0 52. Dev = 3.0 50.9 Female Population below 3 4-5 Vashi 5 3 Nerul 7 5 Belapur 5 4 Kalamboli 15 10 Panvel 8 4 Kopar-khairane 9 6 Airoli 6 5 Sanpada 6 4 Mean 8 5 Standard deviation 3 2 6 -9 8 10 8 16 8 10 10 8 10 3 10 -15 14 13 14 20 11 9 15 10 13 3 16 -21 11 9 11 13 10 12 10 13 11 1 22 -24 5 7 6 12 9 10 6 9 8 2 25 -44 39 40 40 6 40 37 39 39 35 12 45 -59 10 6 8 6 6 5 6 9 7 2 60+ 4 2 3 2 3 1 2 3 3 1 The female population of the age group 25-45 is also uniformly distributed over the study area.10).73 in 1987 to 4.0 38.0 Std. In Vashi.0 42.39 Mean = 38. A descriptive analysis of the data over the last 20 years shows that household size has been constantly increasing.76 and the national average is 5.0 N = 19127.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 49 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation of the population is 3 (mean=41) at the regional level.01 for all the nodes (Table 5. but also the need to accommodate older parents.0 40.0 34. Family size: The average family size is 4.52.0 48.39 (mean=38) at the sub-regional level (Figure 5.0 36. The population age structure is uniformly distributed over the whole region.4). and 3. .21 in 1985.4 Frequency of male population in the age group 25-45 Figure 5. The comparative family size for Bombay is 4. 3000 2000 Frequency 1000 0 32. average family size has increased from 3.00 Cases weighted by population Figure 5.0 44.0 46.

1 6.0 52.5 55.85 5000 4000 The families with a size of 4 or 5 members was chosen as 50% of the population belongs to this category.5). 3000 2000 1000 Std.0 4. .9.0 47. CIDCO began all construction in Navi Mumbai.9 0.4 1.9).85 Mean = 56.0 62.10 2 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0.5 45.5 57 54 53 52 45 45 56 45 50.5 50.03 3.6 1 2 1 3 5 3 1 3 2.5 Frequency of households with 4 or 5 members Type of Housing: Initially CIDCO built ninety percent of the housing stock.1.1 (mean=50.5 The variation of the data is minimal.5 65.22 3.21 3.5 60.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 50 Table 5. Frequency Cases weighted by population Figure 5.7 14 10 13 14 8 10 15 12 12 2.0 67.10 Family Size Single Vashi Nerul Belapur Kalamboli Panvel Kopar-khairane Airoli Sanpada Mean Standard deviation 6000 2. All other nodes show a dominance of CIDCO housing (Table 5. Since Vashi is the oldest node.3 26 34 31 31 41 41 27 39 33.67 3.85 (mean=56) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.99 3.81 4. At the regional scale the standard deviation is 5.00 0 42.9 5.4 8.4 Average family size 4.0 N = 19127.8 6.0 57. Dev = 5. The variable has a standard deviation of 5. the data shows more diversification of the housing stock. and 5.87 4. Later.11). private builders and cooperative housing began developing residential sectors.

the strong control is no longer evident.0 Std.13 0. only houses built by CIDCO was selected. Co-op Commercial 29 2 5 0 9 0 0 1 15 0 2 0 0 0 11 0 8. Houses built by CIDCO are 90% of the houses available.4) (Figure 5.35 1000 0 0.4 N = 19127.77 Pvt. the oldest node.0 70.38 Standard Deviation 12.0 40. At Vashi.0 50.0 100.6).24. The standard deviation is 12.24 (mean=89.0 90.12 shows present ownership of the house. resale and rental fall under private ownership.6 Frequency of Houses built by CIDCO For this variable. This may be one of the main reasons for the greater variability in the pattern at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale.76 0. This is a very significant result. CIDCO is still the major owner.74 Other 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0. Some houses are mortgage through CIDCO.38) while at the sub-regional scale it is 35.62 Mean = 66.0 20.00 Cases weighted by POP Figure 5. private ownership. Table 5.0 60. The standard deviation at the regional scale is 12. Frequency . The large deviation shows that private construction has taken place.88 0. House 2 0 0 0 5 0 0 1 1.62 (mean=66. Dev = 35. The categories.00 1. CIDCO’s aim to promote heterogeneity was to be implemented by having a strong hold over the housing market.24 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 Pvt.0 80.0 30. Most government offices that provide housing for their employees obtain long term lease from CIDCO.11 Type of Housing CIDCO Vashi 64 Nerul 95 Belapur 91 Kalamboli 99 Panvel 80 Kopar-khairane 98 Airoli 100 Sanpada 88 Mean 89.38 9.0 10.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 51 Table 5.

2 (Figure 5.68 Resale 21 16 0 0 0 14 0 18 8.50 36.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 52 Table 5.75 18.25 18.65 6.85 Mean = 14.0 40.88 34.36 12.09 8.25 while the mean was 14.7).50 0 Standard deviation 8.13. Table 5.5 8.99 0.63 9.25 0.64 Dwelling size: The average size of dwelling units constructed by CIDCO is less than that built by private builders (Table 5.25 Standard Deviation 9. Table 5.63 14.0 60.75 Private 17 3 4 1 9 1 0 7 5.2 N = 19127. While CIDCO is building houses for the EWS/LIG/MIG.0 70.0 0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. the private builders are predominantly building for the HIG.7 Frequency of Housing Built by CIDCO .0 20.5 4.0 30.0 10.00 0.0 50.0 90.52 14. 6000 4000 Frequency 2000 Std.02 3.43 Rental 23 36 37 43 36 49 42 26 36.76 0 10000 8000 The standard deviation of the data was 21.25 5.64 6.12 Ownership of House Mortgage CIDCO Vashi 11 23 Nerul 21 36 Belapur 8 40 Kalamboli 25 25 Panvel 7 33 Kopar-khairane 0 34 Airoli 0 51 Sanpada 15 32 Mean 10.0 80.13 Housing built by CIDCO <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 51-75 76-100 101-150 150+ Vashi 11 30 22 14 15 3 2 0 Nerul 7 57 18 8 7 2 1 0 Belapur 0 26 10 33 20 11 0 0 Kalamboli 24 37 24 5 7 2 0 0 Panvel 10 33 16 18 22 1 0 0 Kopar-khairane 0 20 10 42 18 9 1 0 Airoli 0 30 28 17 18 6 0 0 Sanpada 0 61 18 12 9 0 0 0 Mean 6.14). Dev = 21.

For both CIDCO-built houses and privately 6000 built houses.50 16.14 Housing built by Private Enterprise <15 16-25 26-35 36-50 Vashi 4 2 2 14 Nerul 0 6 6 6 Belapur 0 1 2 2 Kalamboli 0 8 0 0 Panvel 0 0 1 1 Kopar-khairane 0 91 5 5 Airoli 0 0 0 0 Sanpada 13 60 2 2 Mean 37.09 13. Mean = 16. Table 5.94 10.67 que groups.8 Frequency of Houses built by Private number of houses occupied between Enterprise nodes (Table 5.0 30.15 Year of Occupation before 1980 1981-85 1986-90 1991-92 1993 1994 1995 Vashi 11 28 24 8 9 14 5 Nerul 0 6 29 10 6 35 14 Belapur 4 23 24 11 13 18 7 Kalamboli 0 5 31 10 11 37 6 Panvel 0 11 14 15 14 34 12 Kopar-khairane 0 0 0 20 18 34 28 Airoli 0 0 47 14 12 16 11 Sanpada 0 0 0 0 8 48 44 Mean 1.75 2. Dev = 18.38 29.78 12.88 15. Families began to reside in Nerul.0 can be divided into three stages: early.8).63 18.0 40.0 6.41 150+ 2 0 1 0 2 0 0 1 14.16 51-75 14 8 33 5 18 42 17 12 5.00 0 Tenure: The growth of Navi Mumbai 0.50 15.0 60.2 ncy N = 19127.67 76-100 24 23 9 0 24 1 0 5 3.76 7.00 11. Dwelling size was selected 8000 based on type of house.2 (Figure 5.83 3.67 and mean 10000 16.13 21.88 Standard Deviation 3. Panvel and Airoli in the latter 1980s and in Kopar-khairane and Sanpada only in the 1990s.0 The frequency distribution of houses built by private enterprise shows a 12000 standard deviation of 18.50 2.0 50.75 3.88 9.0 20. Cases weighted by population slow phase in the 1970s. middle phase in 1980s and accelerated phase in the 1990s.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 53 Table 5. Only Vashi and Belapur had a household population in the 1980s.13 11.50 14. the dwelling sizes 4000 selected was 26-35 sq.69 10.99 5.86 3. m.0 10.12 101-150 8 5 5 0 8 0 0 2 3. corresponding to middle income Fre 2000 Std.38 Standard Deviation 10.15). There is a great variation in the Figure 5.50 . Kalamboli.

53 32.27 Kopar 14.20 2.28 55.63 17. Cases weighted by population Migration from Bombay is usually Figure 5.05 4.2 2.79 deviation Frequency Thane 3.17 . 7000 6000 5000 4000 The standard deviation at the regional scale is 20.28 3. Movement within Navi Mumbai shows desire to move to a house of the homeowner’s choice.0 20. not entirely accurate as families may have shifted after their first place of residence.34 49.25 0.15 24.0 movement within Navi Mumbai.25 (mean=30. 3000 Previous Place of Residence: The two variables describing previous Std.94 0.04 6.58 4.19 Navi Mumbai 35.78 0.0 80. 1980s and 1990s account for the entire span of growth of the city.16 Previous Place of Residence Island City Western Eastern suburbs suburbs Vashi 18.00 0 describe migration from Bombay and 0.23 49.45 Standard 5.54 0.32 5.62 2.54 7.04 2.06 6.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 54 The three time periods of 1970s.39 Within state 3.18 5. which can be attributed to the pace of construction.0 60.0 30.26 5. This is because any house in Navi Mumbai would be better than the existing living conditions in Bombay.54 Outside Outside state India 4.34 66.19 26. These N = 19127.57 5.56 Belapur 10.65 10.25 place of residence are Bombay and 1000 Mean = 52.78 39.82 3.8 Navi Mumbai (Table 5.9 Frequency of Tenure the first stage of relocation where the choice of house is not very important.8) (Figure 5.07 19.79 2.05 1.23 4.94 11. It is thus.36 17.42 0.14 5.39 Panvel 3.0 50. Dev = 18.75 2.25 1.4 0.36 0.4 4.8 0.51 20.25) and 18.2 2.44 2.16).43 Sanpada 17.0 70. Only the middle phase was selected as a representative variable.58 13. this table only indicates the year of occupation of the present accommodation.3 68.83 5.63 9.29 4.23 Kalamboli 5.1 5.25 (mean=52.63 Mean 11. However.0 10.85 0 6.9).89 47. There is a very large variability.11 2.94 Nerul 13.34 13.58 5.53 2.45 0.46 3.55 23.51 3. 2000 Table 5.16 Airoli 8.82 4.0 40.5 2.26 6.

45 Islam 6 5 4 5 2 6 3 7 4. eastern suburbs and Thane have been summed up to obtain the variable.38 2.01) at the regional scale and 9. This variable shows the families whose most immediate place of origin is Bombay.0 55.46 The variables Hindu and Muslim were selected for analysis.0 60. The Hindu population is the majority and is homogenous.17).35 Sikh 2 3 7 6 1 1 1 3 3.33 Buddhist 1 0 2 1 0 2 5 1 1.54 (mean=53) at the sub-regional scale.50 1. However. Frequency .0 40.2.0 45.56 Mean = 53.0 N = 19127. An analysis of the other minority populations also show very large standard deviations. Table Ethnic Status This construct is very important because it is the construct that creates segregation in India. The means of the religion variable correspond with the national averages.00 0 35. Bombay.10 Frequency of Bombay as Previous Place of Residence The variables.98 Christian 6 3 6 4 2 2 3 9 4. Dev = 9.0 75. Ethnic enclaves are formed mainly by religious and linguistic groups.75 Standard deviation 4. This variable shows diversification of the population based on a cultural variable (Table 5.0 Cases weighted by population Figure 5. from Bombay and within Navi Mumbai.17 Religion Hindu Vashi 84 Nerul 88 Belapur 79 Kalamboli 84 Panvel 94 Kopar-khairane 89 Airoli 88 Sanpada 80 Mean 85.75% and the standard deviation is only 4.00 2.67 Jain 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 55 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 Std.25 0. western suburbs. There is a large variation because there has been migration from the rural areas.0 50. it is more important to analyze the minority religions to see if they are forming ethnic enclaves. island city.0 65. The Muslim population is 4.75 1.42 (mean=26. The mean is 85.0 70. 5. Religion: This variable is very important for this analysis because India has a number of well-defined religions.60 Others 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0. The standard deviation of the families whose previous place of residence was Bombay is 9.75% of the total and has a standard deviation of 1.13 0.

Language: The variable language is very important in the Indian context because civil violence due to language has taken place across India.74 3.31 3.80 5. Gujarati is the language of the adjoining state.11 6.6 12.16 16.32 7.44 2.59 12.46 Sanpada 63.11 6. This has been used to study if there are any ethnic neighborhoods formed due to linguistic considerations. 54% of the population speaks this language. The Muslim population and other minority religions show a nonuniform distribution over the study area.32 0.93 Airoli 42.49 11.22 Std.76 Kalamboli 55.99 10.64 2.60 5.36 4. Punjabi is a northern language.74 2.75 Belapur 40. Malayalam is the language of the state 1000 miles away.48 3. This forms a major minority language.01 9.29 2. and there is a large population of Malayalam-speaking people in the greater Bombay region.11 Frequency of Hindus Figure 5.77 1.72 1.27 2.41 4.92 5.50 3.72 0.47 3. Malayalam and Kannada southern ones Table 5.73 Hindi Gujarati Malayalam Punjabi Tamil Kannada Bengali Other 13.37 2.83 6.53 9.96 5.57 3.50 2.22 The two languages selected are Marathi and Malayalam.32 3.56 3.26 2.23 7.98 (mean=85.00 0 0 Figure 5.31 9. Bengali an eastern one and Tamil.68 1.4 N = 19127.00 Frequency 1000 2000 Std.9 N = 19127.17 13.Malathi Ananthakrishnan 5000 Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 10000 56 4000 8000 3000 6000 2000 4000 Frequency Std.78 Kopar 67.98 8.19 5. . Mean = 82.18 Language Marathi Vashi 42.33 2.67 1.12 1.29 2.75).13 13.68 4.65 2.27 16.04 1.04 3.12 Frequency of Muslims The Hindu population is spread uniformly over the study are with standard deviation 4.87 Panvel 66.35 3.19 8.08 3.50 1.34 3. Marathi is the local language.14 2.66 2. Dev = 3.53 16.81 7.34 3.13 14.97 1. Marathi is the local language.99 1.90 2.72 1.33 5. Dev = 4.08 11.43 8. Hindi is the dominant language of the country.79 Mean 53.91 2.50 3.69 5. dev 11.5 14.82 3.66 2.20 0.41 Nerul 45.48 5.91 Mean = 6.

The standard deviation is very large showing some areas have more Malayalamspeaking persons than others leading to the conclusion that ethnic enclaves do exist.68) at the regional scale and 3. The descriptive analysis suggests that the urban social pattern is not defined by homogeneous socioeconomic classes.6) at the sub-regional scale (Figure 5.6 N = 19127.19 Spatial Pattern of Variables Variable Regional scale Number of earning members Uniform Income Non-uniform Education Non-uniform Demographics Uniform Family size Uniform Type of housing Non-uniform Tenure Non-uniform Last place of residence Non-uniform Hindu Uniform Muslim Non-uniform Marathi Non-uniform Malayalam Non-uniform .0 7.19). The distribution of families with Marathi as their native language is not very uniform (Figure 5.5 20.0 Cases weighted by population Cases weighted by population Figure 5.13 Frequency of Marathi Figure 5.9 N = 19127.13).5 10.77 Mean = 6.0 20.26 (mean=7.6).5 15.0 0 2.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 57 6000 6000 5000 5000 4000 4000 3000 3000 2000 2000 Frequency Frequency 1000 Std. Dev = 3.00 0 10.77 (mean=7.0 50.0 80.5 25. This pattern is more apparent at the sub-regional scale rather than at the regional scale (Table 5.14 Frequency of Malayalam The standard deviation of Marathi is 11. which have formed their own enclaves.22) at the regional scale and 15.0 30.0 22.73 Mean = 46.0 17.0 60.00 1000 Std.0 70. The standard deviation of Malayalam is 3. Table 5.5 5.0 40.0 12.14).73 (mean=46. Dev = 15. There is a non-uniform pattern in socioeconomic variables as well as in the ethnic variables. This is probably the result of the many other linguistic groups.73 (mean=53.

985. or principle components.728%. income. However. Hence. migration.Nodes 5. . The variables were weighted by the total population of each node. secondary school education. The communalities of all the variables are very high. nearly 90% of the variance of the 8 nodes lies within a 3-dimensional space. the variables selected were number of earning members. explaining 90% of the variance.347% of the variation.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the regional scale uses the eight nodes (townships) as the cases for the study. The number of variables used in the analysis could not be more than the number of cases. The outputs obtained from the SPSS program are used to determine which variables. the assumption can be made that all the variables are significant and are useful for the study. The components with eigenvalues greater than 1 will be used to explain the variance.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 58 5. as PCA limited the number of variables to 8. The use of PCA as a method of analysis was limited by the small number of cases. religion and language.824 and 0.468 explains 43. Thus. Cumulatively these three components explain 89. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix D).18. The total of the communality is 7.771% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 1.845% of the variation. family size.3. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 3. The constructs described on page 1 suggest the need for 12 variables.902 explains 23. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 1. are needed for the complete explanation of the difference in the data. and three components were obtained. A PCA was run. tenure. The principal components obtained from the rotated component matrix are used as they are more simple to interpret. and in a range of 0.818 explains a variation of 22.3 Regional Scale .

5 1.5 RELIGION 0 EARNER EDUCATN INCOME -0 .5 Component 1 Analysis weighted by population of each node . 5 -1 FAM.15 Components in Rotated Space 1.0 education income earner family size tenure religion language migration -.SIZE LANGUAGE va r i a b l e s Figure 5.16 Loadings of Principal Components The eight original variables are combined linearly to define principal components. It does not directly express which. components contribute more or less to the overall data association MIGRATN TENURE . The loadings produced by the principal components analysis for the variables is used to create bar charts to better visualize the magnitude of the loading.0 Component 3 0.0 .0 1.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 59 Figure 5.5 0.0 -.5 Component 2 0.5 1 loading 0. if any.5 -.5 C o m p o n e n ts 1. These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component.0 .

Sanpada. Panvel. only two clusters were formed. Vashi. As the analysis was constrained by the reduced number of variables. 5. Cluster analysis of the scores from PCA ensured that the data was standardized in the same manner for both types of analysis. Nerul. socioeconomic status and ethnic status. Airoli (Appendix E). This analysis does not show any differentiation based on variables of ethnicity.3.17 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) . As the number of cases was only 8.20 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Family size Previous place of residence Tenure Component 2 Education Income Component 3 Number of earners Language Religion Name Family status Socioeconomic status Ethnic status with high number of earners. The three components correspond to family status. Analysis of the raw data was not carried out because the SPSS program did not weight the raw data while running a cluster analysis.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 60 The three components are (Table 5.2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis was done using the scores obtained from the principal components analysis.20): Table 5.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three components with eigenvalues above 1. Kopar-khairane.3. The cluster analysis shows that the two of the Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine Cluster 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 +---------+---------+---------+---------+---------+ Node Panvel Kopar Sanpada Nerul Airoli Vashi Belapur Kalamboli -+-----------------+ Cluster 1 -+ +-------------------------+ -------------------+ +---+ -------------+-------+ I I -------------+ +-----------------------+ I ---------------------+ I ---------------------------------------+---------+ ---------------------------------------+ Figure 5. this PCA does not directly correspond to the descriptive analysis. 5. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had the nodes Belapur and Kalamboli while the second cluster (Cluster 2) had the rest of the nodes.

. houses built by CIDCO.75 explains 25. linguistic groups speaking Marathi and Malayalam.463%.4.453% variation and Component 3 with an eigenvalue of 2. high school education. 2651-4450. migration from Bombay.917%.01. 13 variables were selected for the analysis. These were: families with one earning member. and the high percentage of families in the selected income range for Kalamboli. The main reason for this is the high variability in the language data set for Belapur.690 explains 24. The rotated component matrix is used here for interpretation and discussion (Appendix F). The variables were weighted by the total population of each node. explaining 73% of the variance. male and female population of the age group 25-45. Hindus and Muslims.1 Principal Components Analysis (PCA) The analysis at the sub-regional scale uses the 23 sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi as the cases for the study. Component 1 with an eigenvalue of 2. The PCA shows the communality of the 11 variables to be 8.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 61 nodes are different from the other six. The attributes of the principal components are (Table 5. household income range of Rs. and three components were obtained.581 explains a variation of 23.21 Attributes of Principal Components Principal Components Variables Component 1 Education Income Ownership of house Previous place of residence Muslim Component 2 Marathi Component 3 Number of earners Malayalam Demographics Hindu Name Socioeconomic status and Muslim enclave Ethnic status Ethnic status with high number of earners. but interpretation would have been more difficult. tenure of house in the 1980s. More components could have been used.4 Sub-regional Scale .21) Table 5.Sectors of Vashi 5. families with 4 or 5 members. Component 2 with an eigenvalue of 2. The extracted sums of squared loadings of the first three components is cumulatively 72. From the data. A PCA was run. 5.001% of the variation.

2 -0 . Three clusters were formed using the 23 cases.6 0.4.4 0. 4 -0 . and the third cluster (Cluster 3) had all the rest of the 16 sectors (Appendix G).8 0. 16A. 6 -0 . 17. 5. These define which values contribute more or less significance to that particular component.2 Cluster Analysis A cluster analysis of the scores obtained from PCA was done. The first cluster (Cluster 1) had had only sector 5. 14. The second cluster (Cluster 2) had sectors 12.2 0 -0 .Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 62 C o m po ne nts 1 0.18 Loadings of Principal Components The bar chart explains the loadings of each variable on the component. These loadings help explain the contributions of the variables to each principal component. 28 and 29. WOMEN . 8 -1 loadings EDUCATN MIGRATN RELGION1 LANGUAG1 LANGUAG2 OWNRSHIP RELGION2 EARNER INCOME MEN va r i a bl e s Figure 5.

This can be translated into a middle-class population.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 63 Figure 5.75 to 2. The cluster analysis shows a segregation in Cluster 1 caused by high number of earners with a high percentage of households speaking Marathi and a low percentage of . All the components are equally important and separated only by ethnic variables. The third component is the economically active age group dominated by the Hindu population. The second component has only the population speaking Marathi. The first component is one which has a high socioeconomic component dominated by a Muslim population. as Hindus are 83% of the population.19 Dendrogram using Average Linkage (Between Groups) Rescaled Distance Cluster Combine 0 5 10 15 20 +---------+---------+---------+---------+----Sector 2 6 1 4 16 20 9 10 15 26 21 3 7 9A 8 10A 14 29 12 17 16A 28 5 -+ -+---+ -+ +-+ -----+ +-----+ ---+---+ I ---+ +---+ -+-+ I I -+ +---+ I +-----------+ ---+ +-----+ I I Cluster 3 -------+ I I -----------------+ +---------+ ---+---+ I I ---+ +---------+ I I -------+ +-----------+ I ---------+-------+ +---------+ ---------+ I I -------+---------------+ I I -------+ I I I -+---+ +---------------+ I Cluster 2 -+ +-------------+ I I -----+ +---+ I -------------------+ I Cluster 1 -------------------------------------------------+ 5.3 Discussion The principal components analysis produced three equally important components with eigenvalues in the range of 2.4. As the Marathi population is 53% of the total population. it represents a majority of the population.58. It appears that there is a segregation based on the ethnic component. Each of the three components have an ethnic variable in them. Again. this component also describes the general population.

Cluster 2 shows a dominance of households speaking Marathi. and distinctly driven by an ethnic component at the sub-regional scale.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 5: Presentation of Data 64 households speaking Malayalam. 5. At the sub-regional scale as there is a smaller percentage of CIDCO-built houses. In summary.6 Conclusion The analysis of the data shows that the urban social pattern appears to be non-uniform at the regional scale. individual households have exercised their choice. PCA and cluster analysis brings forth the variability of the data and shows which variables and which cases cluster together. although the government policy was to prevent the formation of ethnic enclaves. . the outcome of the implementation strategy shows otherwise. and a strong ethnic component is seen. The descriptive analysis of individual variables also shows this non-uniform pattern.

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Figure 6.Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion A preliminary interpretation of the data analysis in the previous chapter shows the details of the social urban pattern are best seen in the sub-regional scale. 6. All the other nodes are in the second cluster. a brief interpretation of the regional scale is described here before proceeding to the detailed interpretation at the sub-regional scale.1 shows the spatial distribution of the clusters.1 Cluster of Nodes of Navi Mumbai . Cluster 1 has two nodes close to each other and BOMBAY Airoli Kopar-Khairane Kalamboli Vashi Sanpada Nerul Arabian Sea Belapur Panvel possibly influenced by one another. However.1 Regional Scale Figure 6.

education and language. previous place of residence and tenure while cluster 2 is affected by income. 1 2 Figure 6.3 Average Linkage between Variables Analysis weighted by population . 100 Panvel 80 EARNER EDUCATN 60 FAM. have an equal influence on the two clusters. Figure 6.2 shows that different factor scores influence the two Airoli 2 1 clusters. The variables.3 shows the strength of variables.2 Average Linkage between Factor Scores Analysis weighted by population Further. Cluster 1 is influenced by family size.SIZE 40 INCOME Kopar-khaira 20 LANGUAGE MIGRATN 0 -20 1 Sanpada Kopar-khaira RELIGION TENURE 2 Figure 6. number of earners and religion.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 66 3 Figure 6. Cluster 1 is linked to Factor score 1 0 score 1 and cluster 2 to score 2 -1 Factor score 2 -2 while score 3 exerts almost equal Factor score 3 67116 67116 67116 14543 14543 14543 -3 N= influence on both cluster. which are contributing to the clustering.

3. Cluster 2 (green) has sectors 2.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 67 6. 15.4 Clustering of the Sectors of Vashi Cluster 3 (red) has sectors 1. The grouping of the sectors into three clusters is shown in Figure 6. More variables could also be used to study these cases. 8. 16. and 26. and Cluster 1 (yellow) has only sector 5. 28 and 29. 10. 9A.4. 21. there were twenty-three sectors. . 20. 16A. 17. 14. 9. 4. 28 12 29 26 10 15 9 10A 9A 8 7 5 6 4 1 3 2 17 16 14 20 16A 21 Figure 6. 10A. 6. 12.2 Sub-regional Scale At the sub-regional scale.

Cluster 1 is Factor Score 1 8 0 -2 influenced by all three scores. Cluster 3 is an outlier. . This is a socioeconomic construct. Cluster 1 is also differentiated by Malayalam. 1 2 3 Figure 6. another ethnic variable.5 shows that the 4 2 three clusters are influenced by different factor scores. income and the language Marathi dominate it. Cluster 2 is the most significant.5 Average Linkage between Groups Analysis weighted by population 120 EARNER 100 80 EDUCATION INCOME MARATHI 60 40 20 0 -20 1 2 3 MALAYALAM MEN MIGRATION OWNRSHIP HINDU MUSLIM WOMEN Figure 6.6 shows the average linkage between the variables. Factor Score 2 -4 cluster 2 more strongly by score 2 Factor Score 3 1892 1892 1892 738 738 738 -6 N = 16497 1649716497 and cluster 3 by score 3. Ownership.6 Average Linkage between Variables Figure 6.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 68 Figure 6. but dominated by an ethnic variable.

9 Distribution of Income The pattern that emerges on mapping of the number of earners and income variables does not show any particular pattern (Figure 6.9).7 Hypothetical Sector Pattern for Socioeconomic Variables Figure 6.1 Socioeconomic Status and Sector Theory As discussed in the literature review. The two variables selected were income and number of earners. Figure 6. Figure 6.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 69 6. the study of many cities across the world shows that the socioeconomic construct displays a sector pattern.8. The colors red and orange are immediately above. Figure 6.7 shows a scenario that could be expected from the mapping of any of the socioeconomic variables.8 Distribution of Number of Earners Figure 6. In both maps the median range is represented by the color purple. .2. and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes.

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion


6.2.2 Family Status and Concentric Zone Theory The study of many cities across the world shows that the family status construct displays a concentric pattern. Figure 6.10 shows a possible scenario in Vashi for a variable representing the family status. The variable selected to describe the family status is ownership of apartment. In the descriptive analysis, this variable showed a great degree of variability. The purple color represents the range within which the mean falls. The colors red and orange are immediately above, and immediately below the median value while yellow and green represent the outliers or extremes. Figure 6.10 Hypothetical Concentric Zone Pattern for Family Status Variables The number of sectors which falls within the mean range is very small. Sectors which have slightly more or slightly less percentage of apartments built by CIDCO are represented by red and orange. It is important to note that five sectors are colored green while one sector is yellow (Figure 6.11). This shows a high degree of variability in the data.

Figure 6.11 Distribution of Ownership of Apartment

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion


6.2.3 Ethnic Status and Multiple Nuclei Theory Multiple Nuclei theory supports the spatial pattern of the ethnic factor. A possible solution is mapped for any ethnic variable in Figure 6.12. A language variable and a religion variable were selected from the data set for mapping. The mapping of language and religion variables shows a segregation of both of them. Yellow and green colors, which represent the extremes in the data set, are present in both the variables (Figure 6.13, Figure 6.14). This is especially true of the variable Muslim, which shows a largely non-uniform distribution.

Figure 6.12 Hypothetical Multiple Nuclei Pattern for Ethnic Variables

Figure 6.13 Distribution of Households speaking Marathi

Figure 6.14 Distribution of Households which follow Islam

Malathi Ananthakrishnan

Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion


6.3 Summary The set of figures below shows the mapping of the cluster analysis as well as the individual factor scores.

Figure 6.15 Clustering of Sectors

Figure 6.16 Score 1

Figure 6.17 Score 2

Figure 6.18 Score 3

Although the four maps above (Figure 6.15, Figure 6.16, Figure 6.17, Figure 6.18) show that there is a different colored sector within a group of one color, the multiple nuclei pattern is not very obvious. However, looking at the descriptive analysis, principal components analysis, cluster analysis and the mapping collectively, the multiple nuclei pattern can be inferred. The descriptive analysis brought out the fact that the spatial pattern is

6.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 6: Interpretation and Discussion 73 not uniform or heterogeneous. examining the policy instruments and policy goals. The principal components analysis shows that the cause of this spatial pattern is ethnicity. However. a pattern did emerge at this present stage. . as the pattern is not uniform. scaling down the study to stories of individual households to reach a more detailed level of interpretation. The aggregation of household data at the sector scale has limited this research from drawing out the finer details of the spatial pattern. the pattern is strongly influenced by factors as year of occupation of the house and reasons for moving. The policy of the government to promote social heterogeneity influenced the type of residential construction in Navi Mumbai. The mapping of individual variables and factor scores verifies that within a fairly homogeneous group of sectors there exists a dissimilar sector. This is the multiple nuclei pattern of an ethnically driven spatial organization. Future research could involve: • • Delineating the pattern at intervals of time to study the change in pattern. • • putting forth a new theory to generalize social pattern in planned cities in India. In conclusion. As Navi Mumbai has been constructed over the last 25 years.4 Potential Utility of the Research This research is a starting point for further studies in spatial patterns in Navi Mumbai. The clustering indicates that some sectors are dissimilar from others. the policy has not been successful.

This particular case study was chosen for two reasons: Navi Mumbai is the first planned city that is not a capital city or industrial township. Bombay is the financial and economic capital of India. Partition and the first years of independence were. Navi Mumbai is still dependent on Bombay for much of its activity. The Muslims came to India as invaders. One of the social objectives in the planning of Navi Mumbai was to use the government machinery to diversify the spatial distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. Areas dominated by Muslims are common in most cities in India. Households would normally place this preference based on how much they can pay. sector theory and multiple nuclei theory. Planning policies in Navi Mumbai were strongly influenced by the teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. and provide an infrastructure which would promote ethnic heterogeneity. India. strongly influenced by ethnic variables. It was also influenced by the concept of the city as a melting pot (Engel. 1991). The review of secondary source material shows that urban social patterns have been studied across the world. religion and language. Every effort was taken by the government to make Navi Mumbai an independent city and not a suburb or satellite city to Bombay. However. and the government had a specific social and political agenda. The culture of this race of people is very different from the Hindus. The segregation is attributed to the ethnic variables. These theories explain the urban social pattern . The thesis addresses this social objective. The other feature that is unique to India is the existence of many languages. The draft development plan of Navi Mumbai had very strong functional and social objectives. The government hoped that this would distribute people based on socioeconomics and break barriers based on religion and language. The government had a very practical interest in avoiding ethnic confrontation. The important objectives of Navi Mumbai were: attract some of the immigrant population. This was the first cause of separation in residential neighborhoods. The government also decided to take up most of the initial building construction. It was hoped that a majority of the residential construction could be achieved though a policy of swavalambhan (self-reliance) and swatantrya (mutual selfhelp).Chapter 7: Conclusion The purpose of this thesis is to delineate the urban social pattern of Navi Mumbai. Three leading theories put forth were concentric zone theory. The religious divide was used in the partition of united India into India and Pakistan. caste. and formulated a policy to support it. Political and administrative boundaries in independent India were decided on linguistic lines. raise the standard of living and reduce social inequalities. Navi Mumbai is separated from the metropolis of Bombay only by the Thane Creek. Religious tensions have always existed in India. thus. support an aggressive industrialization policy. Traditional Indian cities have always had a strong ethnic component in their urban social pattern. The Hindu laws and treatises specified residential locations for different castes. Ethnic enclaves have always characterized traditional settlements in India. Housing would be allotted according to the preference of size of dwelling provided by applicants.

and histogram drawn of the variable selected from each data set. special emphasis has to be given to the ethnic components. The methodologies were techniques of multivariate analysis. The methodology used was that of social area analysis. In Navi Mumbai. the family component showed a concentric ring pattern. sector theory. Four methods were used to analyze the data. Next. The software package SPSS was used to do the analysis. the scale was smaller. Two religion variables and two language variables have been selected representing the ethnic construct. The similarity between the . the analysis allowed a more detailed interpretation. Generally the socioeconomic model showed a sectored pattern. Using the secondary source material as reference. Analysis was done to map the urban social pattern of many cities across the world. grouping of variables is expected to be under the three constructs. Twenty-three sectors of Vashi were then analyzed. and demographics. and ethnic segregation showed a multiple nuclei arrangement. At the regional scale the analysis was done between the eight nodes to study their similarity. family status and ethnic status. is an analysis primarily of economic variables. then the pattern will be explained using the existing theories. The concentric zone theory relates the pattern of cities to population mobility. Social area analysis broadly classifies variables into three constructs. family status and ethnic status. The second theory. Mobility and immigration are the key variables of this theory. The hypothesis put forth in this study is: no significant difference in key variables is expected and hence no social segregation will occur. Heterogeneity of the population is detected if these three constructs emerge from the analysis. Wedge patterns representing income groups are the outcome of the theory. The constructs of the social area analysis have been found to correspond to the three theories. This hypothesis is put forth on the assumption that the social agenda put forth in the Development Plan has been successfully implemented. In the case of Navi Mumbai this is important because of the policy to prevent segregation based on ethnic variables.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 75 and its change over time. The other variables selected were number of earning members. The second methodology is principal components analysis (PCA). The multiple nuclei theory proposes that patterns could be arranged around several centers. The first methodology is a descriptive analysis. income and education under the socioeconomic construct. These are socioeconomic construct. and the sub-regional scale of the sectors (neighborhoods) of Vashi node. The variables selected are reduced into a smaller number of constructs. socioeconomic. These scales were the regional scale of the nodes (townships). The data at both scales is tabulated. Since. The PCA reduces the dimensionality of the data into a more interpretable form. Succession and invasion based on social and economic status is the basic assumption of this theory. Analysis of data was done at two scales. A variation in the data greater than 15% on each side of the mean is considered as unequal distribution. If H0 is false. The variables selected under each construct were drawn out of experience of the researchers. a cluster analysis was done of the cases of the data set. family size and type of house under family status. That would indicate that enclaves have not been caused by individual variables.

family status variables concentric zones and the ethnicity variables a multiple nuclei arrangement. In Vashi only 64% of the houses were built and allotted by the government. The center is an ethnic enclave surrounded by socioeconomic variables. it has not succeeded at this stage. The pattern could. The interpretation of the descriptive analysis shows that the distribution of most of the variables is not uniform. The hypothesis was proved false. 2. they were mapped under expected and observed conditions. Control is maximum when the government owns all the houses. and clustering to the urban social patterns detailed in the secondary source material. This indicates that the urban social pattern is strongly influenced by ethnicity. The final stage was mapping of the clusters. although the policy is noble in its aims and aspiration. The policy has not facilitated the distribution of the population based on socioeconomic criteria. allotment procedure. Distribution was originally controlled through allotment of government-built houses based only on purchasing power (and indirectly socioeconomic status). As the socioeconomic variables are expected to take a sectored pattern. Even in the houses built by the government resale has taken place. The interpretation of the analysis also involves comparing the descriptive analysis. the socioeconomic variables also show separation. The research brings to the fore many questions than answers. graphically representing the analysis. thereby. The objective. This can be attributed to two reasons: 1. The extreme value range in the mapping is important because it represents the dissimilarity in the distribution. However. The distribution of these variables shows segregation. however. physical design and the institutional framework need to be examined closely to realize their full impact and to understand the results in their context. be explained using the theories of urban social patterns. . The principal components analysis shows that the variables are not grouping under the three constructs. • Was this an experiment in enhancing quality of life or is it a method for the government to exert social control? • The concept of the melting pot has to be re-examined. The spatial distribution of households is still characterized by traditional Indian values of ethnic segregation.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Chapter 7: Conclusion 76 nodes and sectors is determined from this. This is especially true of the ethnic variables. How important is it to promote integration when self-sorting has been the natural process? • Can the Modernist synthesis seeking homogeneity in heterogeneity be used as a template for the Indian culture? • This leads to the question: is the objective valid? Does it have to be redefined or is the implementation strategy to be modified? At this stage it appears that a detailed analysis of the policy instrument and policy goals must be undertaken. The overall pattern of Navi Mumbai is one of multiple nuclei. Redistribution shows that people have aligned themselves based on ethnic variables. In conclusion. All three new constructs are dominated by an ethnic variable. None of the variables selected display a uniform distribution. A moral analysis of segregation has to be done in the context of the Indian culture. The urban social pattern is best explained as one of multiple nuclei.

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Glossary of Terms Term Cuadra Jali Masjid Padas Panchayati Pucca Purdahs Purushasukta Rashtrabasha Swadeshi Swatantrya Swavalambhan Vastupurusha mandala Vastushastra Meaning Spanish measurement Carved screens Mosque Subdivisions of the cosmic universe Self-government Durable Enclosure Hindu treatise Language of the State Fullest utilization of local resources Self-motivation and self-help Self-reliance Terrestrial representation of the cosmic universe Science of architecture and planning .

S. Gadgil was appointed to formulate broad principles of regional planning for Bombay and Poona. D. Maharashtra Regional and Town Planning Act 1966 was passed. Bombay Municipal Corporation decided to prepare a development plan for Greater Bombay. Bombay Metropolitan and Regional Planning Board was constituted. The Bombay Metropolitan regional Plan was approved by the State government. State government notified privately owned land in Navi Mumbai for acquisition. CIDCO was designated as New Town Development Authority for Navi Mumbai. The Board published the Draft Plan with recommendations to set up a twin city. A Committee under Dr. G. Development plan for greater Bombay was submitted to the State Government. The Gadgil Committee recommended regional planning legislation and regional planning boards. R. . CIDCO was formed. The study group on Greater Bombay recommended a rail-cum-road bridge across the Thane creek. Barve.Appendix A March 1958 July 1958 February 1959 July 1964 March 1965 March 1966 January 1967 July 1967 January 1970 February 1970 March 1970 March 1971 August 1973 October 1973 Study group on Greater Bombay set up under the chairmanship of Mr. CIDCO published its Draft Development Plan.

. where schools and sports grounds are located: V7. the territory of the town: V3 dispose of immediate accesses to daily needs: V4 reach the door of his dwelling: V5 and V6 send youths to the green areas of each sector.Appendix B The 7Vs (les sept voies) The 7V Rule was studied in 1950 at the UNESCO’s request (Le Corbusier. without interruption. the man of the mechanical civilization could: cross continents: V1 arrive in town: V1 go to essential public services: V2 cross at full speed. One discovered that with 7 types of roads. 1961).

52 1.96 27.44 2.23 21.38 3.83 17 61.00 35.17 8.00 0.89 4.00 29 82.28 3.04 26.06 5.81 7.77 21 63.19 19.48 2.29 4.07 30.31 20.26 2 57.26 23.26 4.22 26.58 20.25 .71 11.57 8.03 1.22 std dev 9. 1 64.63 2.43 9.16 1.31 3.01 6 65.57 23.08 8 52.29 22.81 1.37 11.48 7 62.42 5.38 38.68 16.76 2.09 16 65.73 0.28 21.76 1.86 0.41 6.01 25.25 11.39 2.72 2.49 3.15 5.69 29.16 10A 50.33 6.43 12 65.70 14 77.09 8.57 15 72.79 4 1.76 9A 74.67 28.64 5 46.40 6.79 40.60 16A 71.43 2.92 9 73.00 0.86 28 52.15 9.77 10 74.62 mean 66.08 5.60 24.83 0.13 6.10 0.52 18.58 9.42 2.54 0.23 20 69.85 3.16 30.35 7.51 26 77.64 3.59 27.81 4 70.89 2.64 3.89 5.Appendix C Number of earning members Sector 1 2 3 no.99 3 68.

18 10.00 35.Household Income Sector upto 1251.33 11.11 1.51 5.90 2 1.84 18.09 2.45 6.15 16 1.00 20.7500.07 35.36 26.89 45.15 9.29 8.00 17.37 11.48 27.46 21.82 2.47 26 0.35 8.49 4.00 0.18 15 0.52 4.14 25.46 8.09 39.00 21 2.00 10.90 14.77 14.87 30.10 15.74 5 2.16 24.65 0.55 42.47 12.73 47.19 16.28 4.96 33.67 7.47 0.94 4 0.00 24.97 0.76 8 0.59 18.90 24.39 34.59 2.62 3 1.71 34.00 10.47 28.68 34.49 23.78 10A 0.41 12.21 stddev 3.26 1.00 28 0.42 .72 0.64 6.63 40.17 22.15 15.56 7.48 6.90 11.49 22.4451.45 5.38 10.00 2.86 21.00 0.99 23.07 18.14 10.57 25.49 3.78 17. Rs.53 1.23 10 1.88 17 0.11 24.80 5.06 9A 1.92 3.92 21.38 7.77 12 13.48 0.26 16A 0.92 30.19 20 6.75 26.2651.00 29 0.15000+ no.62 7.13 3.58 0.41 8.76 23.00 0.39 31.53 1.51 24.40 8.74 28.27 7.48 39.77 22.00 35.97 7.57 1.20 4.39 20.87 0.59 9.63 4.66 9.30 7 11.55 30.72 44.75 6 2.61 16.70 17.89 37.94 37.04 4.07 13.09 13.07 0.45 38.10 23.35 14 0.00 4.46 17.00 4.00 25.125 2650 4450 7500 10000 15000 0 1 3.79 18.16 12.86 10.47 15.02 4.08 32.22 3.81 16.41 37.82 36.76 0.52 11.02 7.10 27.18 6.15 1.45 12.97 9 2.10001.26 12.97 28.00 16.28 18.20 3.45 mean 2.36 36.77 26.70 3.15 8.39 4.18 25.

13 51.28 7.58 9.54 25.46 5.65 1.16 2.00 14 2.68 5.30 0.14 0.38 8.26 48.78 5.18 7.09 5.67 4.92 5.81 4.19 0.43 4.07 1.38 3.68 1.03 50.03 34.35 10.09 11.06 4.80 9 3.94 7.23 3.88 9.91 32.24 8.Highest Level of Education Sector illiterat childre primar second high vo-tech BS MS PhD no.24 4.97 9.02 4.47 8.05 2.05 0.80 2.97 0.58 2.60 17.80 12 0.44 1.34 16 3.50 11.90 22.30 1.65 4.03 44.87 5.75 4.01 15.57 12.27 10.03 4.77 2.43 2.60 9.00 26 3.98 31.69 31. e n y ary school 1 3.55 2.09 46.06 2.83 2.81 19.71 7.81 5.89 6.95 8.14 7.48 5 3.81 0.06 8.63 1.37 2.44 37.11 2.81 42.54 2.51 7.07 8.12 stddev 4.80 17.94 43.95 13.91 17.71 3.38 4.48 0.26 1.01 45.25 2.64 0.92 36.92 2.15 1.42 2.26 9A 1.25 11.32 3.81 14.18 3.14 0.15 13.59 29.03 9.98 29.95 9.90 12.11 34.82 30.39 35.00 mean 3.92 3 2.41 14.94 3.69 26.06 1.98 7.37 .44 7 1.68 4.91 5.73 2.24 10.71 9.64 0.01 11.59 3.45 6.43 22.00 5.71 34.40 1.23 3.94 4.28 11.07 9.24 0.68 12.35 2.72 30.64 4.72 9.34 16.08 0.73 3.24 44.18 27.15 3.75 27.41 0.61 9.60 6 2.52 1.00 29 1.64 0.21 3.40 0.50 20.47 28.44 2.87 9.63 20 19.47 2.87 15 4.68 4 1.27 12.81 5.52 31.48 16A 2.95 2.08 13.55 3.06 2.85 5.54 33.61 2.12 1.79 3.63 4.30 59.38 37.00 21 13.45 0.64 2.12 0.74 40.82 15.96 3.65 0.89 20.64 4.27 47.28 10.42 23.90 32.29 1.19 4.73 2.32 5.01 0.45 7.15 2 3.97 1.00 5.85 34.45 11.35 10A 1.55 9.18 21.11 12.82 1.31 10 3.91 17 1.50 14.41 8 4.74 2.25 28 0.49 16.

16 31.58 16.38 17.88 17.66 8.19 6.48 15.25 3.45 14.56 4 3.48 12.87 5.59 7.34 3.12 8.32 2.97 35.74 17.32 13.82 16.41 16A 3.42 6.68 10 5.54 3.97 5.11 16.47 13.91 14.20 14.29 6.87 4.40 stddev 1.85 16.74 16.27 3.56 8.00 21 4.26 9.40 20.23 2.05 2.59 12 6.98 1.73 9 5.88 28 5.89 21.12 2.89 29 4.20 12.15 7.25 6.35 3.04 7.46 42.13 3.32 9.52 2.80 4.04 4.00 8.02 3.93 28.69 11.96 4.Male Population Sector below 4.86 10.91 2.66 6.43 7.02 3.43 9.12 36.38 11.44 2.52 9.12 14 5.73 9.40 7 2.24 5 2.93 13.60 4.93 10.76 13.87 9.81 2 4.32 37.94 21.39 5.62 8.80 1.77 34.93 2.46 4.00 27.86 3 4.97 37.61 4.99 11.90 11.54 4.78 29.02 5.60 6.26 2.59 4.04 10.60 23.59 4.04 4.57 27.36 16.43 4.65 5.65 7.29 3.35 3.29 2.49 19.62 0.97 5.42 11.22 4.12 7.73 14.60 13.42 14.35 29.89 11.69 6 2.78 6.08 12.67 12.80 30.12 3.34 3.03 31.00 8.26 3.83 12.11 6.76 12.07 6.96 8.90 .74 4.59 5.36 32.70 3.20 11.02 17.84 8.17 20 8.60 8 3.40 34.41 1.59 5.57 20.89 12.63 3.84 17 3.75 12.45 8.30 5. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 4.84 12.66 1.57 10.21 9.01 10.37 8.82 10.44 15.19 11.99 1.10 2.24 12.87 7.81 2.56 3.98 8.77 15 3.82 16.46 2.87 8.80 3.52 15.18 33.18 30.24 6.14 4.71 9A 4.77 5.68 7.78 3.67 12.95 2.51 2.82 29.12 2.84 19.34 20.83 34.14 5.79 33.48 17.55 35.35 26 6.60 12.65 46.57 mean 4.35 16 3.02 1.87 3.91 5.25 10.38 12.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.71 18.60 4.39 4.40 4.56 14.67 3.42 10.28 31.51 15.90 10A 2.29 6.

27 7.01 10A 6.44 4.35 3.78 2.22 39.84 3.72 10.84 34.31 12.29 4.35 2.83 .45 17.71 6.62 3.23 4.20 5.32 12.14 32.39 11.89 4.50 1.96 3.87 17.98 10 5.07 7 2.80 5 4.35 3.15 6.27 41.00 13.74 36.52 6.35 1.29 5.14 20.79 6.87 8.56 47.87 2.38 3.86 12.00 3.90 9.32 3.32 15.17 4.32 1.08 2.43 13.11 11.51 10.32 12.19 5.22 40.55 9 5.39 13.63 9.14 7.06 28 2.11 2.58 19.86 7.06 3.13 5.06 0.72 10.55 12.57 1.06 15.5 6 to 9 10 to 16 to 22 to 25 to 45 to 60+ no.35 38.33 3.60 11.98 9.36 9.94 8.66 17.76 33.83 5.43 4.43 4.00 5.85 9.77 6 3.29 9.14 6.40 2.31 5.76 9.07 6.07 10.57 3.09 16A 4.03 20 8.22 14.06 45.13 14.61 10.65 12.87 7.71 12 6.57 0.35 5.48 mean 4.46 8 4.01 9.82 5.07 6.91 10.21 32.41 4.77 17 4.43 12.11 11.09 2.60 7.00 5.82 10.08 5.93 3.35 3.57 3.28 5.28 stddev 1.99 11.14 4.21 14.55 7.25 9.25 16.77 3.46 1.06 2.29 17.31 3.46 18.22 13.96 11.92 4.30 33.97 21 5.49 6.97 14.17 37.01 10.71 38.66 4.77 9A 3.58 42.09 1.88 16. 3 15 21 24 44 59 1 3.40 11.78 5.66 2.54 39.03 14 4.93 11.39 11.14 26 7.79 34.07 12.44 5.49 16.18 52.80 5.90 38.96 7.80 2.60 4.59 8.Female Population Sector below 4.15 13.89 2.83 5.64 6.71 5.29 6.15 3.53 7.56 5.81 11.06 5.74 41.29 4 3.48 1.09 2.58 15 4.71 8.03 6.78 11.13 16 4.42 12.86 6.18 22.82 2.82 9.55 4.29 12.39 13.88 6.86 7.13 38.68 12.34 4.72 38.39 3.22 7.45 15.96 10.16 3 4.29 12.86 40.72 2.78 29 2.64 6.95 10.98 3.04 10.57 13.99 3.16 37.83 4.68 3.09 1.88 2 4.

86 12 0.66 22.35 13.29 0.26 8.Family Size Sector single 2 to 3 4 to 5 6 to 7 8 to 10 no.58 1.82 6 3.71 14.38 14.99 8 0.57 19.37 54.34 2.68 0.02 2.53 6.82 12.83 14.49 5.86 11.49 64.17 54.63 15.95 1.67 47.46 2.00 26.29 7.18 2.19 55.46 54.95 1.05 stddev 0.56 50.64 10.95 10A 1.88 36.93 32.85 66.30 9A 1.90 4.05 66.28 21 0.14 14.79 33.29 50.21 54.00 29 1.99 26 2.15 20 0.98 2.24 16A 0.00 14 1.50 7.00 15.87 52.19 20.72 15.30 61.46 15 1.99 0.23 46.56 25.90 17 1.14 2.03 5 0.33 41.40 7 0.43 34.00 28 0.68 0.11 1.64 19.92 12.57 57.88 10 0.00 mean 1.48 9 1.53 .07 12.16 9.51 30.23 0.71 24.00 58.64 1.67 0.14 4 0.52 62.18 26. 1 2.09 1.97 19.45 1.82 51.73 20.43 44.19 3 1.86 1.83 22.16 44.47 20.29 54.23 12.91 11.51 59.36 0.00 0.00 19.92 1.55 23.00 1.67 14.92 55.45 62.30 44.41 63.93 16 0.87 2 1.57 11.07 28.23 36.82 9.40 9.23 28.04 20.

19 0.60 19.80 0.00 0.52 0.51 0.13 28.00 0.25 62.21 6.00 5.02 5 22.00 0.00 0.72 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.17 2.39 4.13 2.00 0.00 0.00 12 17.30 0.00 2.78 12.74 13.68 0.81 0.62 0.75 stddev 37.00 0.12 3.38 9A 2.00 92. Pvt co.07 3.58 .81 76.16 4.12 23.35 39.00 0.00 28 0.67 0.01 1.00 4 45.00 2 48.97 0.00 8 35.62 0.47 0.00 23.96 12.18 0.00 14 53.86 0.15 17.00 0.86 0.00 0.02 mean 53.00 0.40 1.00 15 82.00 0.00 53.00 0.00 38.83 35.00 92.00 0.73 0.00 29 42.58 8.12 0.10 0.91 76.19 3 61.21 46. House op comme society rcial 1 100.00 0.87 20.46 9 98.15 85.00 7 89.00 0.61 13.00 0.00 0.18 0.00 16.96 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.07 0.82 0.00 97.14 0.00 6 92.Pvt Other no.00 10A 2.00 10 83.38 0.00 16A 7.36 0.23 26 100.68 2.00 0.00 0.31 20 100.Type of Housing Sector CIDCO Pvt.90 0.00 16 83.77 0.13 0.77 0.82 0.00 21 99.33 0.40 6.56 0.00 17 0.84 36.13 39.82 7.

50 12.38 10A 0.26 28.00 47.00 13.57 18.Tenure Sector before1 81-85 86-90 91-92 no.60 94 13.82 2.72 3.82 8.57 12.65 31.16 9.17 6.00 28 0.95 8 24.24 3.82 4.17 12.29 41.63 3.92 11.30 6.66 0.56 6.19 8.66 14.00 6.31 16.63 1.02 44.64 10.49 21 13.40 95 1.64 27.61 18.42 12.82 5.34 13.09 29.87 6.52 1.38 15.61 12.86 7 42.62 4.62 6.61 6 51.60 7.33 9A 0.15 18. 980 1 43.38 56.49 32.08 93 3.09 25.88 3.32 6.30 6.00 31.94 4.15 .11 17 0.81 6.18 31.74 4.87 7.49 12.00 0.50 12.13 11.38 37.35 5.36 21.75 7.57 stddev 18.57 14.76 5 49.00 31.19 5.17 14 0.44 48.03 75.85 5.33 18.06 13.00 0.00 0.46 36.54 24.61 6.88 0.82 5.03 10.16 5.73 6.80 39.16 7.53 20.56 4.05 20.83 8.73 4.29 12 0.00 0.00 0.68 20 0.67 36.95 3 11.00 48.56 16.39 14.05 6.56 16A 0.88 4.82 24.11 15.00 0.50 16.13 11.23 22.00 0.21 0.86 33.42 7.60 1.00 0.45 6.87 1.33 6.91 6.82 12.94 12.82 48.00 4.86 4.09 16 27.06 1.65 17.93 10.07 4 5.22 52.54 6.43 32.83 26.56 9 0.74 6.42 0.87 1.95 5.71 2 39.87 0.92 2.02 17.07 8.00 35.27 1.86 mean 12.52 12.14 1.10 40.00 20.19 9.00 29 0.43 20.37 7.85 4.64 15 8.87 10 0.99 12.71 11.28 26 0.26 7.35 28.59 38.52 7.

00 39.33 8.48 15.77 6.67 2.77 2.83 8.50 27.00 30.23 18.23 3.17 5.26 0.36 4.00 4.00 30.85 33.00 28.52 2.69 5.00 0.47 36.25 12.67 3.13 26.20 8.02 22. city suburbs suburbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10A 12 14 15 16 16A 17 20 21 26 28 29 9A mean stddev 21.33 7.00 0.43 17.52 22.64 2.30 2.82 3.45 0.79 0.33 8.17 5.02 9.00 21.20 6.26 12.00 1.12 7.17 8.00 4.55 3.38 5.38 2.42 8.19 17.29 8.76 0.29 .29 0.10 16.29 20.24 23.62 29.03 24.26 3.95 12.98 3.00 32.30 0.58 0.60 4.51 6.45 2.53 0.85 47.83 18.67 25.64 0.94 28.01 Navi Inside Out of Intl.32 27.84 2.69 4.14 0.35 15.25 31.57 28.33 4.74 31.Previous Place of Residence Sector Island Wn En Thane Vashi no.90 2.30 14.30 34.05 30.35 21.25 4.48 20.51 10.63 2.00 26.62 4.05 18.00 1.95 9.71 5.39 2.10 4.74 28.81 4.62 0.00 2.00 20.23 12.37 1.60 0.00 0.44 5.37 10.76 3.63 5.40 8.00 6.26 19.00 45.76 11.45 21.67 8.80 37.26 7.00 0.08 0.55 8.00 23.14 6.88 2.32 8.69 2.31 5.87 3.00 24.50 6.07 5.76 3.09 27.15 0.19 27.00 33.61 12.52 1.83 2.68 3.63 15.53 2.03 6.54 5.62 0.48 17.00 0.45 3.80 4.33 0.93 3.15 2.10 16.93 8.82 6.58 14.42 3.39 4.26 2.54 1.71 20.96 18.07 3.03 1.92 7.26 23.46 1.30 4.98 0.42 4.88 12.15 2.51 7.05 19.02 47.83 3.99 7.00 31.67 7.33 0.24 7.39 0.57 1.81 0.47 6.90 7.46 0.64 7.53 2.69 35.73 4.27 0.90 10.03 15.54 8.73 25.24 1.42 26.58 9.58 2.00 38.92 4.74 36.94 5.10 17.09 0.91 2.24 5.63 0.17 25. Mumba state state i 24.31 0.33 4.58 0.60 2.88 1.09 5.54 3.00 19.33 0.

83 7.09 15.19 3.77 3.54 1.97 4.90 26 48.34 12.86 4.32 17 21.75 14.71 12 8.00 6.53 9.70 10.29 2.34 4.44 7.14 1.73 2.62 1.13 7 37.72 12.64 10.57 14.43 7.36 10 44.13 20.58 2.32 1.00 1.23 9.37 4.55 32.83 8.92 3.13 4.61 5.49 10.50 10.09 8.46 17.87 12.76 14.52 19.27 7.30 4.29 2.84 12.28 24.67 0.73 0.00 11.22 3.71 8.32 7.38 0.96 5.90 17.76 5.55 8.26 13.92 20 60.31 3.00 4.63 1.08 7.49 4.44 5.36 11.32 9A 20.03 9.79 12.30 1.05 9.61 1.77 8.15 18.89 3.26 3.32 2.21 9 50.86 8.63 16 54.85 1.00 4.23 2.30 9.43 4.57 15.56 8 22.27 0.47 2.73 stddev 17.92 14.59 1.90 3.70 6.64 3.96 2.05 2.00 0.87 17.67 4.54 4.57 20.36 6.42 3 32.66 8.54 21 61.00 12.83 14 19.17 16.54 7.57 1.99 16.90 3.43 14.89 4.99 3.29 3.66 10.Language Sector Marath Hindi Gujarat Malaya Punjabi Tamil Kannad Bengali Other no.48 mean 39.00 7.73 2.91 6 33.33 6.29 29 25.53 2.82 3.96 6.10 5.29 15.85 5.12 2.98 3.40 2.21 0.69 28 28.22 2.43 24.81 4.15 16.84 4.71 1.73 3.85 0.72 5.71 1.38 14.49 9.00 12.17 16.70 8.67 15 57.97 10.49 10A 24.46 5.09 6.95 4.52 0.76 3.79 16A 51.56 5.98 4.47 2.93 1.33 29.37 4.39 4.44 2.76 4.57 17.03 2.66 10.91 2.21 21.10 4.26 2.62 7.76 12.26 5 77.29 .92 1.45 2.00 9.55 3.03 16.60 2.93 9.61 14.10 2.93 4.36 6.27 2.63 2.27 5. i hi lam a 1 51.97 3.17 9.54 27.85 5.20 4.75 4.33 13.08 4.74 4.00 1.57 4 46.15 2.36 4.27 7.19 2.51 3.17 20.81 5.90 2 44.18 10.98 6.00 0.29 2.43 16.82 4.24 7.29 0.03 17.

32 2 80.16 0.34 6.73 1.86 1.53 1.42 5.75 5.00 2.75 0.62 20 86.00 26 86.73 1.23 0.43 0.43 1.64 5.71 0.86 22.20 0.13 0.00 0.00 16A 91.78 1.44 0.00 0.00 10A 72.37 0.00 0.00 1.51 0.53 3.00 29 86.95 0.33 0.57 4.05 0.74 1.00 12 79.53 4.85 0.00 0.00 6.32 6.20 10.76 5.18 11.29 9.11 10 80.04 6.46 0.00 9A 73.65 9.43 1.52 3.88 0.66 3.85 0.76 8. an st 1 79.04 5.21 15.15 0.68 0.24 0.92 7.69 0.61 1.13 8.93 8.00 0.10 0.22 0.33 0.00 1.17 2.88 0.25 stddev 6.78 3.54 0.55 4.72 4.36 mean 82.40 2.51 2.82 7.91 0.70 2.17 0.00 4.32 2.36 0.45 2.03 0.42 0.41 0.64 0.59 3 75.99 0.00 0.Religion Sector Hindu Christi Islam Jain Sikh Buddhi Other no.00 21 81.21 0.00 0.28 4.19 5.82 10.36 1.00 0.03 5.00 0.60 0.00 0.02 0.82 0.50 4.43 1.68 1.00 1.88 0.61 4.00 6 83.00 7.66 8 72.31 0.00 16 88.70 1.17 0.26 6.82 2.55 1.40 0.09 0.16 15.42 1.00 5 81.79 0.00 17 85.49 .13 5.47 4.60 1.45 2.47 0.00 14 88.64 9 84.42 0.52 0.68 0.92 1.00 7 76.60 8.00 0.00 28 100.81 9.70 0.01 6.56 3.00 0.00 0.20 8.09 6.00 15 83.98 0.67 1.32 1.62 0.57 4 84.02 0.62 0.26 5.85 7.46 1.17 12.00 0.80 3.47 0.

000 .8538 81659 53.Appendix D Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics EARNER EDUCATN FAM.0403 3. Deviation Analysis N 73.064E-02 .446 55.000 .133 100.0814 4.2091 4.939 MIGRATN 1.SIZE 1.1087 9.7800 3.6486 81659 86.890 3 .SIZE INCOME LANGUAGE MIGRATN RELIGION TENURE Mean Std.946 24.000 .000 .926 EDUCATN 1.875 FAM.005 99.660 98.571 55.9974 81659 49.000 .000 .429 5.845 4 .862 6 8.2670 81659 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.832 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.7870 81659 37. .796 .571 2 1.6705 5.000 .202 5 .314E-16 100.356 95.8271 8.8863 81659 28.000 .000 8 5.293 3.000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.320 79.039E-02 1.955 89.928 LANGUAGE 1.985 INCOME 1.4115 81659 32.824 RELIGION 1.879 TENURE 1.6076 81659 8.851E-17 . Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Total % of Variance Cumulative % 1 4.867 7 1.9885 16.

136 .SIZE .902 -.785 -7.379 -2.202 -1.347 43.862 LANGUAGE .470 EDUCATN -.358 .878 -. 3 .728 89.796E-04 TENURE .900 FAM.430 .845 Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER .201 .101 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.455 .484 EDUCATN .255 4.156 .926 .702 -.293 INCOME .804 .766E-02 MIGRATN .880 .107 INCOME -.118 22.898E-02 .381 .278 .236 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.888 -7.155 -.244 -.SIZE -.685 8.634 4.Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings 1 2 3 Total 3.383E-02 .317E-02 -8.468E-03 RELIGION .822 .951 .771 67. 3 .230 MIGRATN -.902 1.264 .937 -.454E-02 Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 EARNER -.347 23.925E-02 TENURE -.230 RELIGION -.446 .882 FAM.881 LANGUAGE -.468 1.818 % of Variance Cumulative % 43.

617 7.174 4.Appendix E Cluster Case Processing Summary Cases Valid N 8 a b Missing Total Percent N Percent N Percent 100.0 0 .946 4.0 Squared Euclidean Distance used Average Linkage (Between Groups) Average Linkage (Between Groups) Agglomeration Schedule Stage Cluster 1 1 5 2 2 3 5 4 1 5 3 6 1 7 1 Cluster 2 6 7 8 2 4 5 3 Coefficients .299 10.581 2.0 8 100.108 Cluster Membership 1:Vashi 2:Nerul 3:Belapur 4:Kalamboli 5:Panvel 6:Kopar-khaira 7:Airoli 8:Sanpada 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 .919 9.

9768 15.721 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.000 .0375 Std.5535 LANGUAG2 6.722 RELGION2 1.527 MEN 1.000 .801 RELGION1 1.889 LANGUAG2 1.000 .000 .000 .1339 10.3183 EDUCATN 40.9142 3.856 EDUCATN 1.000 .5760 INCOME 27.9421 LANGUAG1 46. Deviation 7.3839 RELGION2 6.8628 WOMEN 33.000 .9759 OWNRSHIP 66.675 MIGRATN 1.000 .9628 7.836 INCOME 1.7307 3.0484 MIGRATN 52.7324 3. .7719 3.5835 Analysis N 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 19127 Communalities Initial Extraction EARNER 1.Appendix F Factor Analysis Descriptive Statistics Mean EARNER 66.4424 RELGION1 82.000 .3934 9.568 WOMEN 1.855 LANGUAG1 1.6247 4.9114 MEN 38.5580 35.571 OWNRSHIP 1.000 .000 .

487 EDUCATN .093E-03 MIGRATN -.448 .441 5 .458 LANGUAG1 .522 -.803 8.638 97.473 .096 .937 34.257 87.246 .131 .391 LANGUAG2 -.819 72.042E-02 .565 OWNRSHIP .424 RELGION1 .359 3.136E-02 .238 91.748 .854E-02 .098 2.915E-04 .581 4 .698 6 .475 RELGION2 .000 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.071E-02 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.937 2.455 23.688 6.794E-02 .290 2.466 4.265 95. .239 MEN 0.453 49.938 8.373 -.200 8 .777 -.592 WOMEN .838 9 9.917 2.917 Component Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total 1 3.750 2 2.463 72.500 4.816 -5.657 -2.564 11 4.001 24.612 .896 98.843 34.127 -.523 81.427E-02 INCOME .734 10 9. Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .234 8.161 57.Total Variance Explained Initial Eigenvalues Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings % of Variance Cumulative % 25.310 .436 100.538 .773 -.740 15.001 25.438 22.880 -.831 99.935 7 .690 3 1.

113 RELGION1 -.709 .804 MIGRATN 0.524 .316 -.575 5.333 .704E-02 INCOME .201 .351 -.214 .742 -.130 .399 WOMEN .774 EDUCATN .795 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.120 .136 OWNRSHIP . a Rotation converged in 6 iterations.658 RELGION2 .210 .647 9.Rotated Component Matrix Component 1 2 3 EARNER .246 LANGUAG1 .366 .869 .240 .877 -9.141E-02 MEN -. .046 -.855 .596 -.110 -.610E-02 LANGUAG2 -. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.231 -.

449 8.151 2.558 4.584 .108 2.799 5.411 1.918 .487 3.751 .052 11.574 .515 1.142 13.309 6.840 1.904 2.837 1.726 4.653 .114 .Appendix G Cluster Agglomeration Schedule Cluster Combined Stage Cluster 1 Cluster 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 2 9 1 12 9 15 3 12 1 13 9 3 1 8 1 1 3 12 12 1 1 1 6 10 2 17 14 18 7 16 4 22 20 23 15 11 9 19 8 21 13 3 12 5 Stage Cluster First Appears Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Next Stage 0 0 3 0 0 5 0 1 9 0 0 8 2 0 11 0 0 13 0 0 12 4 0 18 3 0 13 0 0 19 5 0 15 7 0 17 9 6 15 0 0 17 13 11 16 15 0 20 12 14 20 8 0 19 18 10 21 16 17 21 20 19 22 21 0 0 Coefficients .032 1.

Cluster Membership Case 3 Clusters 1:1 1 2:2 1 3:3 1 4:4 1 5:5 2 6:6 1 7:7 1 8:8 1 9:9 1 10:10 1 11:10A 1 12:12 3 13:14 3 14:15 1 15:16 1 16:16A 3 17:17 3 18:20 1 19:21 1 20:26 1 21:28 3 22:29 3 23:9A 1 .

India. India.Mar. Knox. CO.Outstanding First Year Graduate Student. College of Architecture and Urban Studies. L. Pune. • Registered Architect under Council of Architecture. 1997 – May 1998 Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. Aug. Department of Urban Affairs and Planning.July 1996 . Worked as an intern with Narendra Dengle Architects. P. • Awarded Virginia Citizens Planning Associate Fellowship .May 1994 Worked as an intern at Historic Boulder. Pune. Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. VA Bachelor of Architecture May 1996 University of Pune. Professor. 1994. . Virginia Tech. New Delhi. Blacksburg. Boulder. O.Malathi Ananthakrishnan Date of Birth: 30 June 1973 Education: Master of Urban and Regional Planning May 1998 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 1995 Worked with the Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage May 1993 .Reclaiming a derelict river. India May . India Experience Graduate Research Assistant to Dr. • Won first prize (three member team) for Formica Interior design competition. USA. April . • Student member American Planning Association. J. 1994 . 1995. Browder.May 1997 Worked as an Architect with Suyojan Architects. October 1997. Aug. • Rank holder of the University of Pune. • Won first prize (three member team) in a design competition .July 1992 Honors and Affiliations • Invited to Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society. Pune. May 1997. Dec. 1996 .

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