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Branko Dimeski, PhD1 Meri Boskoska, PhD2 Milco Prisajganec, BSc3


Mr Branko Dimeski is assistant professor at the St. Kliment Ohridski State University, Faculty of Administration and Informations Systems Management, Bitola, Republic of Macedonia

Ms Meri Boskoska is assistant professor at the St. Kliment Ohridski State University, Faculty of Administration and Informations Systems Management, Bitola, Republic of Macedonia

Mr Milco Prisajganec is a computer specialist at the St. Kliment Ohridski State University, Faculty of Administration and Informations Systems Management, Bitola, Republic of Macedonia

   From the research findings and results. comparative analysis. The principal research objectives of the paper are:  to search for the main advantages and disadvantages of using electronic. from highly positive to highly negative. The research summarized the following results and findings:   the electronic. efficiency and effectiveness. speed. insufficient political culture among the residents and political parties which is expressed in doubtful acceptance of using the electronic.  conditions of implementation. the following principal conclusions can be derived:   in recent years. possible computer defects.  various experiences of implementation of electronic voting in different countries in the world and the expressions that exist in the literature of their successful or unsuccessful implementation. parliamentary and local government elections. E-voting. Besides the fact that there are numerous noted disadvantages. in order for the electronic voting to be successful implemented there are a certain conditions that must be met. The scope of the research is covering explanation of the abovementioned objectives and will depend on the knowledge that already exists in the literature and is provided by different authors that made past research on electronic. by adopting the positive experiences and in the same time. many countries in the world have already implemented electronic voting at different times as governmental projects under different titles. In some countries the system was successfully implemented while in the others it was unsuccessful. The concept was being searched in a literature for the recent years and primarily is based on the usage of information technology. and during the research. the disadvantages include: communication problems.  2 . eliminating the negative characteristics that can happen during the introduction and the subsequent implementation of the electronic voting system. its advantages overcome the disadvantages. For the purpose of writing the paper. E-voting during an electoral campaign. E-voting. E-voting is characterized with numerous advantages as: transparency. and finally. These experiences can serve as an indicator for future successful implementation of the electronic voting in many countries in the world. without adopting an appropriate legislation. E-voting and possible fraudulent behaviours that can result in revealing or abusing the electoral data during the voting process. electronic voting is a very popular way of processing electoral data. the deduction aspect will be applied. there must be a strong political will and personal confidence among the politicians that the electronic voting system is a way ahead better than the present way of voting and counting the votes. the system of electoral voting can not be implemented in the country/countries. so far the system was implemented in many countries in the world and there were different experiences. we employed different methodology that will be based on:    content analysis of various governmental documents and research papers that are dealing the issue of electronic popular voting. adopting the basic laws or needed legislation that is of necessary importance that will permit mass and free usage implementation of electronic voting.ABSTRACT Electronic voting or popular stated E-voting is one of the most innovative ways for electoral voting during the presidential.  basic laws or needed legislature that is of necessary importance that will permits mass and free usage implementation of electronic. In other words. availability.

The place where the voting ballots are printed. the procedures and techniques for identification of the personal data of citizens become more technologically sophisticated. During the printing process there is a need of using a special protection paper in order to avoid a potential emergence of falsified voting ballots. the so-called concept of e-voting that will take place in this paper is internet voting of every voter by using a standardized personal computer and unique so-called digital signature.1 Economic effects Without any deep analysis. INTRODUCTION New elections are underway. the people that are involved in the printing process and the transport of the voting material to the voting units must be maximally secured by the police forces under the conditions of rigorous security measures. where to go for voting.  speedy process of the available data. There is no need for printing the electoral ballots. Virtually. Many analysis shows that people that did not vote have an extraordinary reasons for not voting. there is a strong influence that comes from the crowded voting places as well as the pressure that the voters feel before the election day and even the decreased confidence in fair and free democratic elections. poor weather conditions. legislative framework supporting the e-voting procedures and the most known examples of the practical usage of e-voting in the countries in the world that have already established a tradition of digital signature and electroning voting machines/systems. In addition.  transparency.1. business travels. too many crowded voting places. In the following parts of the paper. filling the voting ballot etc… On a moment it seems very complicated and very simple prescribed procedure that is present in most countries worldwide. there is a strict procedure of counting the votes. that the potential advantages of evoting are the following:  economic effects. can be very complicated and expensive procedures. annual vacations. the process of personal identification.  efficiency. 2. In addition. the overall conditions of implementation. well trained personal and huge amounts of public money. and in that direction. After closing the voting place. 3 . for example: everyday family commitments. we will try to answer the following question: Is electroning or popular stated e-voting a necessity or fiction in today’s level of democratic system of society? 2. In basics. we all know that as the information technology got its scientific peak. the subject of our analysis will be the potential advantages and disadvantages. packing the voting ballots. As a concept that is widely known as one of the main innovation of the usage of the information technology in the public sector. All previously described requires lots of time. we are checking our name in the voting ballot. During the classic voting there is a permanent need for additional staff on the voting places to ensure more fluid of voters. By that. their transport to the central election commission under highest security standards. A process that is very complicated and expensive. we strongly believe that there is an immense need of a legislative support in order for every citizen to be required to obtain a personal digital signature. his/her registration in the ballot before voting (by manual signature and finger print). there is a need of required and prescribed personal identification procedure of each voter in the voting ballot. The graphic design of the ballot from the technical point of view and considering the fact that the text and the logo on the ballot must be printed in different languages in order to promote clarity and to avoid potential bias to some voting groups. and  voter intent. it can be stated that the e-voting is by far cheaper comparing to the classic voting. there is a strong need of his implementation in the personal documents of his/her identification. The biggest importance in describing the whole concept of e-voting is the digital signature which is expected in a very close future to become a personal characteristic of every citizen with the right to vote on the election day. visit out of the country etc.  availability. THE ADVANTAGES OF E-VOTING There is a general agreement among many authors in the literature.

e-voting increases the democratic and institutional capacity of the country.3 Availability On the election day. The efficiency of e-voting can be seen from the internet voting in Estonia. packaging and transporting it to the nearest voting place etc. and his/hers attitudes around the present and potential issues in society. the voting results are counting on the so-called central basis. All that information is of enormous help for each voter in deriving his/her decision for which candidate to vote. each voter can change/update his/hers voting decision many times if he/her change his/her voting decision until the end of the election process. but requires all essential steps in elections to be subject to public examinability. each voter can vote from every personal computer that is internet connected. This immediate feedback can be helpful in successfully determining voter intent. During the elections. to vote and to change several times his/her voting decision. 4 ORG Election Report highlights problems with voting technology used The Open Rights Group : Blog Archive » ORG verdict on London Elections: “Insufficient evidence” to declare confidence in results 4 . even from their homes. inside or outside the country. All that enables the authorities to organize less number of voting places with less people that will be involved in the organization of the elections.5 Efficiency During the process of e-voting. disable etc. there is an option by which the voter by a single click on some of the candidates. prisoners. In addition. which means that. If they have a regular internet connection. annual vacation or business travel inside or outside the country). regional and central). in some sense. his/hers political party. as we said before. practically. the higher percent of turnover is in direct correlation with the higher democratic representation of the candidates. The reports of the voting turnover and the election results are extremely accurate for every voting place and they are available in every moment. can accomplish his/hers voting right from the place where he is at the moment (his home. the concept of e-voting is very suitable in a sense that they can vote from any place.6 Voting Intent Electronic voting machines are able to provide immediate feedback to the voter detecting such possible problems as undervoting and overvoting which may result in a spoiled ballot. But. political program. campaign. working place. to make authentication. the computer considers only his/hers last voting decision as a valid. 2.). 2. inadequate audit procedures. Taking this into consideration. that will cause higher percentage of people that can use their right to vote. 2. filling the necessary voting records. The decision did not ban electronic voting as such. The final election results are available shortly after the end of the electoral “race”.2 Transparency It has been alleged by groups such as the UK-based Open Rights Group4 that a lack of testing. As a consequence. 2. every voter. the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany found that when using voting machines the "verification of the result must be possible by the citizen reliably and without any specialist knowledge of the subject. Off course. and insufficient attention given to system or process design with electronic voting leaves "elections open to error and fraud". Its enough to be fulfilled the conditions that are prescribed with the law and the voter can vote by using his/hers digital signature as his/hers personal identification code by logging to the voting internet site." The DRE Nedap-computers used till then did not fulfil that requirement. That means that they can be viewed by each voter in every moment. There is no need of manual count of the votes by the members of the election commissions (the local. hospitalized. each voter had been able to visit the electoral site. Their update is current during the electoral process.2. In 2009.4 Speed In the moment when the voter votes. can obtain a detail information about the personal and professional background of each candidate. As a result. that for a certain population groups (sick. during the electoral process.

3. e-libraries etc. From that simplicity. there are many arguments that point to emergence of some irregularities. he asks himself: This is too simple in order to be real? That’s one of the reasons. 3. why he expresses distrust and is suspect of using computers for voting.  communications.2 Vote confirmation Naturally.1 Privacy The basic characteristic of every contemporary voting system is the requirement for privacy during the voting process. But. what is questionable. According the first. That can allow the voter during the electoral process to change or to make the necessary corrections of his/hers voting decision for a several times. But. By that. uses his digital signature and by using several manual computer “clicks”. But. Some of the abusive activities that can lead to criminal activities during the election process can be: corrections of somebody else vote/votes. DISADVANTAGES There is a general agreement among many authors in the literature. that is just a temporal distrust to the electronic system that can disappear parallel with the distrust that exists against any other electronic transactions in everyday life. In order for the system to guarantee a 100% anonymity of the voter. releasing false electoral data. Technically. In other words.3. that the potential disadvantages of e-voting are the following:  privacy. with one person or group trying to satisfy their own interests. revealing a personal voting decisions etc. 3. overall. A second alternative is when together with the voting result. He stands in front of the computer. the voters can give their votes after securing an 5 .4 Communication problems It is more than sure that a big problem could emerge if in the moment of voting some part or parts of the communication infrastructure that connects a large geographical region gave up. but when in all that we put the human factor in a combination. Realizing the fact that during the process of e-voting. we have a higher degree of anonymity but it is very hard to create a mutual link in a case of any possible error during the voting process. and  inaccessibility. many experts agree that the question of voter’s distrust during the process of e-voting can be eliminated and easily solved by using the contemporary information technologies.  vote confirmation. is the issue of securing his/hers anonymity. there is always a possibility for abuse and falsifying the results of the electoral process. hotel reservations. 3. the e-voting process itself can generate the problem of voter’s distrust and suspect in a sense: Is my vote considered? How it is processed? etc. In those situations. not more comparing to the classic paper-based voting. we become conscious or become distrust about any public reveal of the result of our vote. it is possible for the process of identification to be fulfilled just by fulfilling the basic law requirements for voting. If we analyze the increased turnover rate during the e-voting process on one side and the decreased number of irregular votes on the other side. until the end of the election process. and simply. electroning trade. as: money transactions. after the voting the system will just register the vote. we can conclude that the possible emergence of voting irregularities is neglected. we must identify ourselves with the digital signature. the voter’s requirement is to properly identify himself/herself and to vote.  abuse. But. the digital signature of the voter is registered at the same time into the system. he votes. The level of voter security can be set on a higher level and there is no need of any distrust or suspect of the results during the voting process. there exist two techniques that are contradictory to each other. those technical defects can be short lasting and easily overcome and can cause just short time inaccessibility of the voters to the voting place. that’s not practically feasible. The main problem is that during the e-voting process the voter does not receive any paper confirmation about his participation during the voting process. The abovementioned security problem is present in almost every electoral process and not just during the e-voting process.3 Abuse We must agree that since the humanity exists until today. But.

public elections are required by the National Voting Rights Act of 1965).5 Inaccessibility As a problem can emerge in the rural places where there is an absence of internet connection and in some places even an absence of electrical power. Brian (November 2006) Let The Recounts Begin. King County.8 Under a secret ballot system. a significant cost. Software used on DRE machines must be open to public scrutiny"10to ensure the accuracy of the voting system. Furthermore. arguing that humans are not equipped for verifying operations occurring within an electronic machine and that because people cannot verify these operations. Other possibility is using lap top computers with permanent internet connection. thee is a necessity of organizing an additional voting places that must be equipped with personal computers and registered voters must come to the certain voting place in order to vote. When electronic ballots are used there is no risk of exhausting the supply of ballots. psychological intimidation etc. 3. we must agree that such a cases of diversion are present even during the classic.asp?articleID=6218". and counting of ballots. including security analyst Bruce Schneier.. But. 11When administering elections in which ballots are offered in multiple languages (in some areas of the United States. A second report was released in September 2005 detailing some of the concerns with electronic voting.alternative way that can be workable and realized during the planning process at the beginning of the elections by the central election body. In those regions. the 5 6 7 Friel. Potential disadvantages exist as well including the potential for flaws or weakness in any electronic component. but Key Activities Need to Be Completed" 8 Thompson. An electronic voting system can be involved in any one of a number of steps in the setup. and because voting machines can be compromised. titled "Federal Efforts to Improve Security and Reliability of Electronic Voting Systems Are Under Way.DRE machines must have a voter-verifiable paper audit trails. analyzing both the benefits and concerns created by electronic voting. electronic ballots can be programmed to provide ballots in multiple languages for a single machine. and ongoing improvements.5 In May 2004 the U. these electronic ballots remove the need for printing of paper ballots. For example. distributing. Bruce (September 2004). nor any expected output with which to compare electoral results. Others also challenge the use of electronic voting from a theoretical point of view. National Journal Government Accountability Office (May 2004) "Electronic Voting Offers Opportunities and Presents Challenges" Government Accountability Office (September 2005) "Federal Efforts to Improve Security and Reliability of Electronic Voting Systems Are Under Way. different methods of election fraud become possible. Electronic voting systems may use electronic ballots to store votes in computer memory. Charles Stewart of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology estimates that 1 million more ballots were counted in 2004 than in 2000 because electronic voting machines detected votes that paper-based machines would have missed. Off course that in some cases. the problems here are with the computer.. openDemocracy What’s wrong with electronic voting machines? 11 "http://post-journal. The advantage with respect to ballots in different languages appears to be unique to electronic voting. some computing experts have argued for the broader notion that people cannot trust any programming they did not author. but it is the computer security experts who need to be listened to. and thus may or may not introduce advantages into any of these steps. electronic electoral results and thus the accuracy. The Post-Journal 6 . Ken (August 1984) Reflections on Trusting Trust 9 Lombardi. It has been demonstrated that as voting systems become more complex and include software. Systems which use them exclusively are called DRE voting systems. paper-based voting using methods such as: physical violence. note that "computer security experts are unanimous on what to do (some voting experts disagree. voting. Hence. collecting. Emanuele electronic voting and Democracy 10 Schneier. honesty and security of the entire electronic system cannot be verified by humans. federal election law to provide ballot access in Chinese. Electronic voting systems may offer advantages compared to other voting techniques. the operations cannot be trusted.S. Additionally. Washington's demographics require them under U.S. With any type of paper ballot. Government Accountability Office released a report titled "Electronic Voting Offers Opportunities and Presents Challenges" 6. there is no known input. the technical incorrectness can be abused with purpose of blocking of some voting places which voting results are known in advance. but Key Activities Need to Be Completed"7. Verifiable ballots are necessary because computers can and do Critics of electronic voting. not with the fact that the computer is being used in a voting application).

we think on required presence of digital signature for every adult with the legal right to vote. accompanying all the necessary documentation for identification and implementation. especially in the developing countries. so that she will be available only for people that possess the original digital key. LEGISLATION We must agree that the basic pre-condition of implementation of e-voting in the country’s system is the existence of appropriate legislation that will allow legal introduction and e-voting implementation. can happen any distraction from third party and the result might be information change. we can be absolutely sure that there is a 100% security through the process of identity identification without any possibilities for eventual abuse or falsification. and normally. which function to perform etc.1 Digital signature The electronic (so-called digital) signature is electronic non scanned version of the manual signature that is regulated according the positive law of one country. compiler trust validation.2 Computer literacy E-voting process requires the basic knowledge of computer literacy of the voter. That’s the basic reason. 4. 4. 4. 5.e. But. is there any possibility that through the process of information transmission. It is necessary to have internet coverage on the whole territory of the country. thus electronic ballots are not guaranteed to be less costly than printed ballots. According the techniques that are used in the process of generating the digital signature. In addition. One of the biggest problems. how many to make available at each polling place. etc. and  Identity Check (Authentification). The computer shortage in some parts of the population can be solved by installing the so-called centralized voting election units in which the government could provide the necessary number of computers and internet connection. We strongly hope that that will happen in a very near future. CONDITIONS OF IMPLEMENTATION 4. to result in a significant number of wasted ballots.  Information secrecy (Confidentiality). It is necessary that the voter be familiar of using a computer in a sense that he will be able to use the internet browser in order to get with the web-page over which the voting is implemented. By that. each voter to get a short and clear guidance in several steps in order to see how to vote (i. at the very least. is that the digital signature is obtained upon the request from the individual user and is not mandatory requirement posed the country. all abovementioned is not some sort of professional knowledge. That means that the document with electroning signature sent through internet is equally important as a manually signed document. In other words. the cost of software validation. They argue further. But that does not have any meaning if the voting process is web-oriented and like that will be available to almost everyone. Providing accurate identity of the person that emerges as information sender. Securing information privacy during the transmission process.). installation validation. where to vote. A condition that in present days is fulfilled even in some less developed countries. Any strategy that can assure that Chinese-language ballots will be available at all polling places is certain.3 Informatics Infrastructure The contemporary informatics and communications technologies are characterized with heterogenic structure.county has to decide how many Chinese-language ballots to print. delivery validation and validation of other steps related to electronic voting is complex and expensive. There is a general agreement that three main goals can be fulfilled by using the digital signature:  Information integrity that is transferable (Data Integrity). 7 .e. to know how to use the digital signature. why all present or potential voters do not possess digital signature that can use during the election process. there is a need to educate the voters how to behave during the voting process i. Critics argue the need for extra ballots in any language can be mitigated by providing a process to print ballots at voting locations.

Retrieved November 28. 2007. The U. It also mandates some form paper trail audits for all electronic voting machines by the year 2012 on any type of voting technology. Diebold settled that lawsuit by paying $2. The California Attorney-General decided against criminal prosecution. 12 13 "Legislative Committee Resolution Awaiting BOD Approval".16 A voting date has not yet been determined. 15 During 2008 Congressman Holt. Senate companion bill version introduced by Senator Bill Nelson from Florida on November 1. 2007 15 The Library of Congress. it requires states to provide the federal office with audit reports from the hand counting of the voter verified paper ballots. Romania. Information Executive Oriez . Jr.1 Documented problems There are a number of problems with voting systems in Florida since the 2000 Presidential election: 17  Fairfax County. Switzerland. Retrieved March 3.  On April 30 California's secretary of state Kevin Shelley decertified all touch-screen machines and recommended criminal prosecution of Diebold Election Systems. Venezuela and United States. Belgium. This bill would appropriate as much as 1 billion dollars to fund states replacement of touch screen systems with optical scan voting system. $30 million given to pay the hand counters. Charles Oriez. Charles (July 2004). Some voters complained that they would cast their vote for a particular candidate and the indicator of that vote would go off shortly after. Brazil. This bill estimates that $500 million will be given to cover costs of the reconversion to paper ballots. those who do not primarily speak English. 14 Another bill. 2008 16 Election Archives. states that the General Services Administration will reimburse states for the extra costs of providing paper ballots to citizens. November 4. Germany. a Democrat from New Jersey.In the summer of 2004. Ireland. Tim. 6. necessitates the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology to continue researching and to provide methods of paper ballot voting for those with disabilities. On February 17. Holt. 2008.  The Premier Election Solutions (formerly Diebold Election Systems) TSx voting system disenfranchised many voters in Alameda and San Diego Counties during the March 2. 2006 the California Secretary of State Bruce McPherson then recertified Diebold Election Systems DRE and Optical Scan Voting System.S. One. would act as an amendment to the Help America Vote Act of 2002 and require electronic voting machines to produce a paper audit trail for every vote.6 million. "Voting out E Voting Machines" Time Magazine. 2008 17 The Problem with Electronic Voting Machines 8 . 2004 California presidential primary due to non-functional voter card encoders. Norway. Estonia. Italy. proposed by Representative Rush D. the United Kingdom. 2007. this bill has been turned over to the United States Senate Committee on Rules and Administration and a vote date has not been set. Retrieved March 3. VARIOUS EXAMPLES OF THE USAGE OF E-VOTING IN PRACTISE Polling place electronic voting or Internet voting examples have taken place in Australia. "In Search of Voting Machines We Can Trust". and the costs needed to hire people to count them. This bill provides the public with the choice to vote manually if they do not trust the electronic voting machines. has submitted additional bills to Congress regarding the future of electronic voting. but subsequently joined a lawsuit against Diebold for fraudulent claims made to election officials. $100 million given to pay the voting auditors. the committee's chair. France. called the "Emergency Assistance for Secure Elections Act of 2008" (HR5036). described some of the problems that had arisen around the country. November 3. 6. HR. Virginia.811 (The Voter Confidence and Increased Accessibility Act of 2003). the Netherlands. the Legislative Affairs Committee of the Association of Information Technology Professionals issued a nine-point proposal for national standards for electronic voting. India. 2003. Canada. because of an increasing concern regarding the insecurities surrounding the use of electronic voting technology. Also. The legislation also address requiring audits of 3% of precincts in all federal elections.13 Legislation has been introduced in the United State's Congress regarding electronic voting including the Nelson-Whitehouse bill. This bill was introduced to the House on January 17. Currently. (July 2004). and those who do not have a high literacy rating. 12 In an accompanying article. Information Executive 14 Padgett..

Poor ballot design was widely acknowledged as the cause of the undervote. 9 . 2006:  During early voting in Miami. the Supreme Administrative Court declared invalid the results of a pilot electronic vote in three municipalities. California Secretary of State Debra Bowen commissioned a "Top to Bottom review" of all electronic voting systems in the state.  Napa County. Election officials attributed it to calibration errors in the touch screen of the voting system.19 Cuyahoga In Finland. the votes were not recorded. because it was proven by the General Intelligence and Security Service that one could eavesdrop on voting from up to 40 meters using Van Eck phreaking. The decision was forced by the Dutch grass roots organisation Wij vertrouwen stemcomputers niet ("We do not trust voting computers").000 person "undervote" in a congressional election.20 Waldenburg. about 10% of the total number to be used. On October 30. Karkkilassa ja Kauniaisissa" . 2007 resolutions (for Diebold Election Systems. NY University Law School released a report with more than 60 examples of e-voting machine failures in 26 states in 2004 and 2006.18 There were many problems in the United States general elections. voters had logged in. this is a case of disappearing votes on touch screen machines. and ordered a rerun of the municipal elections. selected their vote but not confirmed it. The subsequent investigation found that the undervote was not caused by software error. California. 2006 the Dutch Minister of the Interior withdrew the license of 1187 voting machines from manufacturer Sdu NV. 175 precincts also resorted to paper. Humboldt County. Hart InterCivic. Hollywood and Fort Lauderdale. She engaged computer security experts led by the University of California to perform security evaluations of voting system source code as well as "red teams" running "worst case" Election Day scenarios attempting to identify vulnerabilities to tampering or error. Instances of faulty technology and security issues surrounding these machines were documented on August 1. an improperly calibrated marksense scanner overlooked 6. 2009-04-09 http://www. In Pennsylvania. The system had an usability problem where the messages were ambiguous on whether the vote had been cast. National elections are to be held 24 days after this decision. California: A security flaw erased 197 votes from the computer database. In a total of 232 cases (2% of votes).21 2008 United States Elections: Virginia. Florida in October 2006 three votes intended to be recorded for Democratic candidates were displaying as cast for Republican. Sequoia Voting Systems and Elections 18 19 20 21 22 http://www.wijvertrouwenstemcomputersniet. March 2.html?pagewanted=3&_r=1 "KHO: Kuntavaalit uusiksi Vihdissä. 2001 in the Brennan Center at New York University Law School. Arkansas: The touch screen computer tallied zero votes for one mayoral candidate who confirmed that he certainly voted for himself and therefore there would be a minimum of one vote. 2004. Ohio: The Diebold computer server froze and stopped counting votes then the printers jammed so paper copies could not be retrieved for many votes and there was no way to be sure of the accuracy of the votes when the votes were being counted. In Indiana. The Top to Bottom review also included a comprehensive review of manufacturer documentation as well as a review of accessibility features and alternative language requirements.technologyreview.692 absentee ballot votes. The end results of the tests were released in the four detailed Secretary of State August 3. Counties in those states also extended poll hours to make up for delays. Examples included Spanish language ballots that were cast by voters but not counted in Sacramento in 2004. and Texas: Touch screen voting machines flipped votes in early voting trials. Talous ja politiikka. a b c Poll Workers Struggle With E-Ballots[dead link) http://www. and left the booth. Florida: There was an 18.nytimes. YLE Uutiset. a computer programming error forced some to cast paper ballots.2 California top to bottom review In May 2007. 22          6. Tennessee.

The companies in question have until the February 2008 California Presidential Primaries to fix their security issues and insure that election results can be closely audited. lower quality machines had appeared on the market. Votomatic was manufactured for a time under license by IBM. the use of propaganda and agitations etc. his flexibility and accessibility during the voting process open the door to the democratic future. Retrieved March 6. the Votomatic system in particular. the way of how the politicians guide the political campaigns. flaws that could allow a single non-expert to compromise an entire election. Retrieved 2009-07-14. The machines used in Florida had five times as many errors as a true Votomatic. on time to time there will be strong attitudes against its usage by many political. critics claimed that punch-card voting machines were primarily used in Democratic areas and that hundreds of ballots were not read properly or were disqualified due to incomplete punches. stated that after the patents expired in 1982. William Rouverol. 2007. who built the prototype and wrote patents. or to a mere slit in the card. His low-level costs as a technique. he said.) and updated October 25. The negatives and its weaknesses are very small or of little meaning when compared to the advantages that the e-concept offers. Both reports found that three of the tested systems fell far short of the minimum requirements specified in the 2005 Voluntary Voting System Guidelines (VVSG). Harris. allowing perforations to be made by the voter pressing a stylus through a guide in the voting machine. Other punch-card voting systems use a metal hole-punch mechanism that does not suffer nearly as much from this fault. or to a mere dimple in the card. presidential election in the state of Florida. Their results showed that the AccuVote-TSx was insecure and could be "installed with vote-stealing software in under a minute. This technical problem was claimed by the Democratic Party to have influenced the 2000 U.S. and the 2000 presidential election Punched cards received considerable notoriety in 2000 when their uneven use in Votomatic style systems in Florida was alleged to have affected the outcome of the U. Invented by Joseph P. Retrieved November 27. We must be assure that that will incorporate some inevitable changes during the political life. As a transition to something new.23 The security experts found significant security flaws in all of the manufacturers' voting systems. Theresa. 2007 Bowen decertified machines that were tested in her top to bottom view including the ES&S InkaVote machine.and post-election activity. 2007 revised resolutions for Diebold and Sequoia voting systems. Bush over Al Gore. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT Without any which allegedly tipped the vote in favor of George W. 2007 was conducted by a source code review team to detect flaws in voting system source code. 2008 10 . use special cards where each possible hole is pre-scored. August 13. South Korea still predominantly use punch card ballots." The Voter.25 Punch-card-based voting systems. 2007 was conducted by the expert "red team" attempting to detect the levels of technological vulnerability. citizen-oriented etc. at the beginning there might be a need for more financial resources in order 23 Grossman. The report issued July 27. On August 3. The Guardian. presidential election. 7. Another report on August 2. punched cards. the time’s came when the electroning voting is becoming the e-voting concept will possess a certain mistakes.3 Florida."24 6.Systems and Software. although most states have eliminated punch-card voting systems of all types after the 2000 Florida experience. this can lead to a smaller hole than expected. "California: The Top to Bottom Review. which was not included in the review because the company submitted it past the deadline for testing. http://www. 2007 25 Riordan. 24 Simons. his simplicity by using informational technology and the internet. Barbara. A problem with this system is the incomplete punch. groups in the society etc. Princeton University. Later investigations by independent organizations showed this allegation to be false. "Why machines are bad at counting votes". The Premier Election Solutions (formerly Diebold Election Systems) AccuVote-TSx voting system was studied by a group of Princeton University computer scientists in 2006." The scientists also said that machines can transmit computer viruses from one to another "during normal pre.S. 13 September or to a hanging chad. Wendy M (30 April 2009). Some of the systems tested were conditionally recertified with new stringed security requirements imposed. In addition. But. Inc.

Introducing and using of e-voting is in compliance with the main recommendations of the European Parliament of Ministries enacted in February. without any difference where he lives. by adopting the positive experiences and in the same time.  7. education of the voters and education of those that will lead and will control the voting process. speed. works or is present in the election country or outside of the election country at the moment of the voting process. In some countries the system was successfully implemented while in the others it was unsuccessful. As was mentioned above. And. eliminating the negative characteristics that can happen during the introduction and the subsequent implementation of the electronic voting system.1 Recommendations for future improvement In December 2005 the US Election Assistance Commission unanimously adopted the 2005 Voluntary Voting System Guidelines. from highly positive to highly negative. These experiences can serve as an indicator for future successful implementation of the electronic voting in many countries in the world. insufficient political culture among the residents and political parties which is expressed in doubtful acceptance of using the electronic. Besides the fact that there are numerous noted disadvantages. 2009 on e-democracy. including opportunities to vote privately and independently. E-voting is characterized with numerous advantages as: transparency. Some groups such as the Open Voting Consortium believe that to restore voter confidence and to reduce the potential for fraud. the countries must be conscious of the advantages and the benefits of the e-voting process. for the countries to start enacting legislation. which significantly increase security requirements for voting systems and expand access. in which there is an overview of the main directions for e-democracy development in member-countries of the EU.for the whole system to start function well. as an equal legislation to that of personal identification documents of every adult citizen in the country. so far the system was implemented in many countries in the world and there were different experiences. possible computer defects. in his technique that will enable for every voter without any pressures to give his vote. availability. the disadvantages include: communication problems. without adopting an appropriate legislation. This is one of the main reasons. In other words. imposing mandatory requirements for introduction of the digital signature and electroning ID identification. in order for the electronic voting to be successful implemented there are a certain conditions that must be met. considering all the advantages and disadvantages of e-voting process. there must be a strong political will and personal confidence among the politicians that the electronic voting system is a way ahead better than the present way of voting and counting the votes. Also proposed is the requirement for use of open public standards and specifications such as the Election Markup Language (EML) standard developed by OASIS and now under consideration by 11 . the system of electoral voting can not be implemented in the country/countries. efficiency and effectiveness. all electronic voting systems must be completely available to public scrutiny.    From the research findings and results. many countries in the world have already implemented electronic voting at different times as governmental projects under different titles. and finally. electronic voting is a very popular way of processing electoral data. we are sure that the future is in electroning voting. adopting the basic laws or needed legislation that is of necessary importance that will permit mass and free usage implementation of electronic voting. for individuals with disabilities. The guidelines took effect in December 2007 replacing the 2002 Voting System Standards (VSS) developed by the Federal Election Commission. the following principal conclusions can be derived:   in recent years. its advantages overcome the disadvantages. The research summarized the following results and findings:   the electronic. E-voting and possible fraudulent behaviours that can result in revealing or abusing the electoral data during the voting process.

New York Times Book Review. December 23. Information Executive 21: 219-287 Lombardi. The Guardian. Brian. suggesting that electronic voting is not the only means to get a rapid count of votes. Electronic Voting Offers Opportunities and Presents Challenges. Boston: Boston University Press. 2004.2005.ISO. Lernar. 2004. 31 Grossman. Simon. we can be sure that he will become a powerful solution in order to take off aside all the voters’ inconfidence and to become a practical tool in implementing a fully democratic society. David. citing Switzerland (as well as many other countries). 2004). Government Accountability Office. Legislative Committee Resolution Awaiting BOD Approval. REFERENCES Buhrenen. Federal Efforts to Improve Security and Reliability of Electronic Voting Systems Are Under Way. particularly through the use of Internet voting. In other words. and that the introduction of public networks becomes more vulnerable and complex. and thorough a verifiable chain of custody to prevent the insertion of such hardware or software. Switzerland publishes a definitive ballot count in about six hours. E-government Review 15: 245-247 Oriez. Critics also note that it becomes difficult or impossible to verify the identity of a voter remotely. to change the outcome of the 2000 U. 9 Government Accountability Office. The ACM published a study showing that. Let The Recounts Begin. and Kurlight. the general recommendation is that the e-voting system must be constantly improved and by improving it. A country of a little over 7 million people. Friel. July 3. National Journal 965: 562-568. only 2 votes in each precinct would have needed to been changed. Robin. One method to any error with voting machines is parallel testing. When taking all the e-voting considerations above. Broadway. 2007. Benefits can include reduced tabulation times and an increase of participation (voter turnout). 2006. Wendy M (30 April 2009). CA SoS Top to Bottom Review. Emanuele. Criticisms can be mitigated by review and testing procedures to detect fraudulent code or hardware. but Key Activities Need to Be Completed. 2004. eds. Information Executive 19: 129142 12 . Presidential election. Also available online at http://www. Why machines are bad at counting Electronic voting and Democracy. if such things are present. Those in opposition suggest alternate vote counting the answer is that the e-voting in future is becoming a democratic necessity and modern concept that is far away from fiction. These can provide consistent processes and mechanisms for managing and performing elections using computer systems. Johnes. It is not yet clear whether the total cost of ownership with electronic voting is lower than other systems. New York Times Book Review. 2005. which are conducted on the Election Day with randomly picked machines. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. a b c Poll Workers Struggle With E-Ballots. the ballots are even counted manually. In Search of Voting Machines We Can Trust. Charles. which uses paper ballots exclusively. 8.S. In villages. Retrieved 2009-07-14.

Reflections on Trusting Election Archives. Barbara. Tim. December 20. California: The Top to Bottom Review.html?pagewanted=3&_r=1 ORG Election Report highlights problems with voting technology used http://www. Retrieved March 3. Time Magazine. 2008 http://www. Bruce. 24 Simons. Election. Retrieved March 6. Retrieved. Websites The Library of Congress. Retrieved.C. 2006. The Open Rights Group : Blog Archive » ORG verdict on London Elections: “Insufficient evidence” to declare confidence in results http://www.html.wijvertrouwenstemcomputersniet. 2008 Schneier. 2007. Retrieved March 3. 31. Ken. 2007 Thompson. 2007. 2008 13 ." The Voter.technologyreview. 2007 Riordan. Princeton: Princeton University. Open Democracy: What’s wrong with electronic voting machines? The Voter. Theresa. Voting out of E-Voting Machines. a_kauniaisissa_673059. trans. Retrieved 2009-04-09. Retrieved November 28. November 27. Washington Review: Washington D.