IET-UK International Conference on Information and Communication Technology in Electrical Sciences (ICTES 2007), Dr. M.G.R.

University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Dec. 20-22, 2007. pp. 908-915.

Self-Healing Antchain for Increasing Lifespan in Wireless Sensor Networks

Suraiya Tarannum 1 , V. Anitha 1 , A. G. Priya 1 , Rajeshwari Adrakatti 1 , L. Nalini 1 , K. R. Venugopal 1 , L. M. Patnaik 2
Department of Computer Science and Engineering University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering Bangalore - 560 001 2 Microprocessor Applications Laboratory, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560 012
1 1

Abstrast– A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of a large number of randomly deployed sensor nodes. These sensor nodes organize themseleves into a cooperative network and perform the three basic functions of sensing, computations and communications.This paper proposes a flat-routing technique for such a network consisting of homogenous nodes. It is an energy-efficient data gathering protocol where sensor nodes in the network form an Antchain. The role of Antchain head and Antchain tail for each data gathering process is scheduled by means of a Time Division Multiple Access technique which ensures uniform depletion of energy among sensor nodes. The real advantage comes to light in the event of the death of a node. The proposed algorithm heals the network in such a way that only one node communicates with the base station at the end of the data gathering process. Simulation results indicate that Self-Healing AntChain performs better than other AntChain systems in terms of network lifetime, average energy consumed and aggregated data delivery ratio, in addition to being a highly fault-tolerant, flexible and adaptive system. Keywords–Wireless Sensor Network, aggregated data delivery ratio, energy efficiency, network lifetime, antchain.

cm in diameter and 1 cm in thickness) [1]. Of the three domains of sensing, computation and communications, a sensor node expends maximum energy in data communications, which involve both data transmission and reception. Hence it becomes important to minimize power consumption for communications in order to have improved performance and hence to increase the lifespan of the network. Sensor nodes are deployed by aerial scattering within the target sensing area. Their absolute position can be determined using a Global Positioning System. WSNs are now being applied to environmental applications like forest-fire and flood detection, health applications with bio-sensors implanted in the human body, homeautomation and smart environments. The other applications include environmental control, military applications such as battlefield surveillance, nuclear, biological and chemical attack detection and reconnaissance, motion-monitoring which can be used to detect worn out parts in machines, motors, airplane wings and bridges. WSNs are subjected to resource contraints such as energy, bandwidth, memory and processing ability. Among them, energy is of prime concern since it is severely constrained at the sensor nodes and there is no way it can be replenished because of the sensors being usually deployed in hostile environments. The lifespan of the sensor nodes can be increased by saving the energy consumption of the network. Efficient routing techniques are employed to maximize the lifespan of the sensors by reducing the number of messages in transit and hence the total transmission cost. In the event of a dead node, the network is healed and the flow of messages is continued. The nodes close to the base station (BS) will be depleted of their energy at a faster rate than other sensors because the nearer the sensor is to the BS, the more information it will relay. This is referred to as unbalanced energy consumption problem. Designing algorithms to overcome this problem is a major challenge in WSN. In this paper, we present energy-efficient flat-routing algorithms to improve the lifespan of the WSN. The

I. INTRODUCTION A Wireless Sensor Network consists of a large number of ramdomly deployed sensor nodes. Several hundreds to thousands of nodes within tens of feet of each other are deployed throughout the sensor field. The node densities may be as high as 20 nodes/m3 . These battery powered tiny sensor nodes possess computing, sensing and communicating capabilities. The sensor node components need to fit into a matchbox-sized module. The required size may be smaller than even a cubic-centimeter, which is light enough to remain suspended in the air . Sensor nodes are low cost, estimated to be less than a dollar, consume low power (0.5Ah, 1.2V) and operate unattended. The total energy of the sensor node is in the order of 1J. The total average supply currents of the system must be less than 30µA to provide a long operating life. Sensor nodes are powered from Lithium coin cells (2.5


An idea to save energy through extra relay nodes by eliminating geometric deficiencies of the topology is proposed in [11]. This is a heuristic algorithm possessing a property that adaptively assigns transmit energy to each node depending on how densely the nodes are distributed. In this article. the network is kept alive during the desired lifetime with minimum energy expenditure. This is an optimizing technique designed in order to minimize the sum of products between flows and distances. Section IV explains our proposed work and Section V describes the performance analysis. consisting of a collection of only those nodes that are one-hop away. A solution is constructed by using both this heuristic information and information provided by previous ants using pheromones. This uses a heuristic information on the potential quality of a local assignment. the radio range adjustment that saves energy considerably. eliminates typical redundant computations in a distributed environment and uniformly maps complex multiplications over all the sensor nodes by introducing an extra bit-complement permutation stage after the first (log2 N )/2 iterations. reduce energy consumption and build a fault-tolerant system by detecting all the dead nodes in the network. based on the subject to be covered and sensor deployment mechanism as well as on other wireless sensor network properties. the optimal locations of the relay nodes together with the optimal energy. Thus. The two objectives studied are to maximize the network lifetime and to minimize the application-specific total cost. This works on the basis of a virtual cluster. The minimum energy data gathering technique is modeled as a directed minimum energy spanning tree. Prithwish et al. [16]. [2]. have proposed a Channel Adaptive Energy Management protocol. An attempt is made to systematically minimize the total energy cost in the network. Simulation results through augmented cost metric indicate a 10 times increase in energy efficiency. that exploits the time varying nature of the wireless link. Chin and Tuan [13]. Different coverage formulations have been proposed in [15]. have formulated a constrained multivariable non-linear programming problem to determine both the location of sensor nodes and the data transmission pattern. Cheng et al. they have presented a recent contribution addressing energy-efficient coverage problems in the context of static wireless sensor networks. [6] have presented a power-efficient broadcast routing algorithm which effectively exploits the broadcast efficiency. Energy efficiency is a key design criterion for these sensor networks. propose a novel population-based algorithm which was originally designed as an analytical tool. A routing protocol characterised as a Hybrid Routing Protocol is proposed in [5]. Max-Min Ant System is one of the best performing algorithms as a basis of parallel implementation. in [8]. it leverages on the synergistically cross-layer interaction between the physical and the MAC layers. A distributed N-to-1 multipath discovery protocol which distinguishes itself from other multipath routing protocols is proposed in [12]. In [7]. decreasing the number of messages in transit and hence the total transmission cost. To prove the advantage of their work. they have demostrated the MAX-MIN Ant System as a function of time in two well-known travelling salesman problems. Scheduling sensor nodes to alternate between sleep and active modes is an important method to conserve energy resources. The paper is organized as follows: Section II presents the related work while Section III describes the background. without additional hardware and with minimal additional complexity. Section VI contains the conclusions. Moreover the communication overhead involved in this architecture is less. An architecture to monitor WSN with different levels of details and focus on the design of computing network digests is proposed in [9]. and has the favourable ability of choosing multiple nodes at the same time. Knowing the sensing locations. but with a lower power consumption. simultaneously in one route discovery process. Finally. The impact of overhearing transmissions on total energy costs data gathering and dissemination is investigated in [4]. The impact of communications when Ant Colony Optimization algorithm is parallelized for Travelling Salesman Problem using message passing libraries is studied 909 . Marc et al. RELATED WORK San et al. These advantages are achieved by lowering the data rates of users exposed to unfavourable channel conditions. This protocol significantly reduces the control overheads as well as the flooding time for collecting information of the network topology through route query packets. It is able to find multiple node-disjoint paths from every sensor node to the base station. each sensor node can intelligently access the wireless medium according to the current wireless link quality and the predicted traffic load. [10] have proposed the Quadratic Assignment Problem. Specifically. Lin and Kwok [14]. The Ant System uses ants in order to obtain a solution from a scratch. given a finite number of sensor/aggregation nodes II. when combined with a topology management scheme is formulated. have formulated an algorithm called Lagrangian Relaxation Power and Rate Control which achieves relatively higher average system throughput. The key feature of this proposed scheme is that it draws one short packet transfer delay of Proactive Routing Protocol and the small control overheads performance of Reactive Routing Protocols. Simulation results indicate that it can achieve as much as 40% reduction in energy dissipation compared to the traditional protocols without channel adaptation.Self-Healing Antchain for Increasing Lifespan in Wireless Sensor Networks algorithms are designed so as to increase the network lifetime. This algorithm reduces the number of transmissions. A relationship deduced between optimal radio range and traffic demostrates that one half of the total power can be saved if the radio range is adjusted appropriately in a linear network. A power efficient algorithm for computing 1-D Fast Fourier Transform over single and multi-hop WSNs is proposed in [3]. to realize an efficient utilization of the energy.

Actors transform the common flat achitecture into a layered one to decrease the overhead of the sensors close to the sink. For uniform traffic pairs. have proposed Geographic Energy Aware Routing algorithm for a sensor network consisting of nodes deployed in highly inaccessible areas. while consuming low amount of energy per node. In the former. which is a chain structure. Chin and Bok [21]. as the metrics. which is an adaptive chain structure. A technique called Embedded Wireless Multicast Advantage is proposed in [20] to reduce the total transmit power of a broadcast routing tree. It performs the routing task with an acceptable overhead. As only a few nodes are involved in routing. The actors make decisions and deal with gusty events and are heterogenous in nature. provided the base station is close to the sensor field. data gathering starts from the end of the chain. The value of that energy is the maximum of all minimum node energies. The basic idea is to utilize the ”local multicast” mechanism and the energy-boundary to select the route. transmitting the data to its left-side node until it reaches the chain head which finally reaches the base station. Here the entire routing area is divided into several equal sized small square cells. It is based on the property of a wireless medium employing omnidirectional antennas that exploits its broadcast nature. the operation is similar to that of the uni-direction AntChain algorithm. which increases the lifetime of the whole network. The actor is at the center of the network and sensors transmit information to the actor. Directed flooding which is a fault-tolerant and an energy efficient routing protocol for WSN. This architecture partitions the WSN into clusters and only one cluster head is selected. in the transmission range using topology control. In the proposed architecture. it delivers 25-35% more packets. Simulation results have shown that it exhibits better throughput and good scalability. The last node acts as the chain head and sends data directly to the base station. The routing protocol selects the node with the maximum energy in one cell to forward the packet. the minimum node energy in the minimum power limitation route has more energy. A hierarchical architecture for information dissemination is proposed in paper [18]. Improvements of upto k 4 can be obtained using topology control. receive and interference power and the number of hops. thus increasing the operation time before the network is partitioned. In the first round. Li and Prasum [25] have designed a framework for evaluating the performance of topology control algorithms using overall network throughput. query messages are broadcast by the sink to every node in the network to eliminate the flooding cost. In the latter. is proposed in paper [23]. The system 910 . Actors communicate with other actors and the sink directly. Simulation results have shown that it performs better than many other protocols in terms of energy-efficiency. but at the cost of reducing the network lifetime. the throughput can be improved by a factor upto k 2 . Actors are movable and when an actor finds that the sensors around it has little energy. The communication is transformed into two layers. [24] propose Wireless Sensor Actor Networks which include resource-unconstrained nodes. Du [22] proposes an energy-efficient routing protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks. Prototype sensor networking platform and its associated development environment is described in [26]. data integrity and network life time. it updates the route using power-boundary as a metric. it delivers 70 to 80% more packets. This is done by sending data in a specific aperture instead of broadcasting with wisely chosen virtual aperture size. Han et al. Their first study was based on finding optimal placement strategies in a linear network. It reduces the total transmit. the sensor nodes transmit data to their neighbours in either directions. It is a source-initiated. Analysis and simulation results illustrate that such an architecture can prolong the network lifetime considerably and is energy efficient. in all selectable routes. This optimizes power utilization and improves the transmitting ratio. It is found that link layer retransmissions are essential with topology control to avoid throughput degradation due to increase in the number of hops in lightly loaded networks. It checks if an incremental increase in transmission power of a node can result in removal of other transmitting nodes.IET-UK International Conference on Information and Communication Technology in Electrical Sciences in a region with a certain coverage requirement. it can voluntarily move to a new place where its neighbour sensors have more energy. The energy consumption is decreased and hence the level of fault-tolerance is increased. and total energy consumption per packet delivered. have proposed the Unidirectional and Bidirectional AntChains. Through numerical results they have demostrated that the optimal node placement strategies provide a significant benefit over a commonly used uniform placement scheme. This ensures that the time until the first node powers down is extended considerably. The algorithm using this advantage is called postsweeping. leading to a net reduction of the total transmission power. each node transmits data to its neighbour in the same direction during the data gathering process. which clusters the nodes according to their position approximations. on-demand routing protocol. Data aggregated at the cluster-head are relayed to the sink by intermediate cluster-heads and gateways in a multi-hop fashion. have proposed the Power Cost Calculate Balance Protocol. Ding and Liu [19]. This strategy attempts to balance energy consumption. In heavily loaded networks. Simulation results show that the optimal node placement and data transmission pattern considerably improve the system performance. thereby increasing the network lifetime. At the same time. where k is the average factor of reduction. which can prevent nodes from being unwisely depleted of their enegies. Compared with the minimum node energy in any other route. In the following round. routing overhead is reduced and so also the energy. Son et al. [17]. The sensors communicate with other sensors and with the actors. meaning that a unit of message sent to a receiver at the boundary of the transmission range reaches every node within the range for ”free”. It decreases the average relaying load for each node and thus increases the lifetime of most nodes. The simulation results show that for uneven traffic distributions.

d) = Eelec ∗ k + Eamp ∗ k ∗ d2 (1) (2) and to receive this message. Firstly. A) with a set of N nodes and a set A of directed edges (links). when the energy claimed by each packet is relatively small compared to the battery capacity. • build a fault-tolerant system. The simulations verify that the static scheme outperforms leading dynamic routing algorithms and is close to optimal. For simplicity of notation. farther from the place where the sensor nodes are deployed and not located in the sensor field. BACKGROUND AND MODEL Our energy model assumes that every node in the network is equipped with an omnidirectional antenna. j). • Average Energy Consumption: It is the amount of energy consumed by the nodes in the network after a stipulated amount of time. path where it is assumed that the energy requirement can be different depending on a node’s neighbour. Assumptions The following are the assumptions made for the WSN consisting of a large number of sensors : • The sensors are uniformly placed and each of them are equidistant from the base station. Lin et al. d) = ET x−elec (k) + ET x−amp (k. . the protocols should thus try to minimize not only the transmit distances but also the number of transmit and receive operations for each message.. We also assume an r2 energy loss due to channel transmissions. d) ET x (k. PROBLEM DEFINITION We denote a wireless sensor network as a weighted directed graph GW SN = (N. • reduce unbalanced energy consumption problem in the network. • Average N umber of M essages: It measures the average number of messages used to perform data gathering. that is optimal in the large system limit. • Each of the the nodes in the network. III. The last node acts as the chain tail and sends the aggregated data to the base station directly.[27] have presented a simple static multi-path routing. The energy replenishment rate can vary from time to time even though overall process is stationary. B. are equipped with a Global Positioning System. The sensor nodes are labeled with node IDs 1. This process continues sequentially until the last node n is reached. 911 . Contiki which are based on event based concurrency model. In our work. receiving a message is not a low cost operation. • reduce the energy consumption in the sensor nodes. • In the first iteration of operation. The model is described by the following set of equations.. • Chain tail consumes more energy for transmission than other nodes in the network due to the bigger aggregated packet length transmitted. • increase the scalability of the sensor network. The average energy replenishment rate depends on three factors. • The physical ID of sensors are consecutive. • Aggregated Data Delivery Ratio: It is defined as the number of messages delivered to the destination with respect to the sent data messages. |N |. where different classes of packets can have different energy requirement for the nodes along the path. The size of the network packet is assumed to be 336 kbits in all our computations. Lastly.. The communication stack includes an adaptive energy efficient MAC protocol and TCP/IP layer. the data gathering process starts from the first node (node 1) which acts as the chain head and sends its data to the next node (node 2). nodes where heterogenous energy distribution is allowed across the network. • The nodes have limited energy and the base station has unlimited energy. The OS for sensor devices are TinyOS. ET x (k. IV.Self-Healing Antchain for Increasing Lifespan in Wireless Sensor Networks consists of sensor hardware. The metrics used for comparison are: • N etwork lif etime: It is defined as the time taken for the first node in the network to be completely depleted of its energy (dead node). Contiki provides pre-emptive multi-threading for applications that specifically require it. A. the data gathering process being similar to the first iteration. • In the second iteration. Possible approaches for a distributed computation of the optimal policy is outlined along with heuristics to build the set of pre-computed paths. 2. It is designed to be portable across a wide range of different platforms. Secondly. we assume the receiver sensitivity threshold as 1 (0 dB). • Base station is fixed. The objectives of our algorithm is to: • increase the network lifetime of the wireless sensor network. The transmission power required to reach a node at a distance d is proportional to dα where the proportionality constant is the path loss factor that satisfies 2 ≤ α ≤ 4 and is assumed to be 2 for free space. • The nodes are static after deployment. A = (i. the Contiki OS and a communication stack.. • Antchain Operation T ime: It is defined as the time taken for the last node in the network to be completely depleted of its energy. we assume an energy model where the radio dissipates Eelec = 50nJ/bit to run the transmitter or receiver circuitry and Eamp = 100 pJ/bit/m2 for the transmit amplifier to achieve an acceptable Eb/N0 ratio. Algorithm Recursive-Bidirection is a flat-routing algorithm consisting of n homogenous nodes equipped with the same amount of energy. node n acts as the chain head and node 1 acts as the chain tail. the radio expends ERx (k) = ERx−elec (k) ERx (k) = Eelec ∗ k (3) (4) For these parameters.

. receives a message from the BS... with all nodes equipped with equal amounts of energy. say p and q. The aggregated message finally reaches the BS... The data gathering process starts from this node (i in each iteration) and sends it to the next node.. (i) The first UniAntchain is formed with node 1 as the chain head and node p − 1 as the chain tail and sends the aggregated data to the base station. The last node acts as the chain tail and sends the aggregated data to the base station directly as shown in Figure 2. In the subsequent iterations of the data gathering process.. init).... This process continues sequentially until the last node n is reached.. now becomes the chain head with node i acting as the chain tail.. the data gathering process starts from the first node (node 1) which acts as the chain head and sends its data to the next node (node • 2). init). BS)) begin n = N umof N odes.. the role of the chain head and chain tail are rotated among the nodes as: If node i was the chain head in the previous iteration. • RBI(Gwsn (N...... Recursive-BIdirection operation in the event of the occurrence of dead nodes. 0 CT • CH − Chain Head CT − Chain Tail BS − Base Station Fig. say p and q as shown in Figure 4. several UniAntchains are formed as shown in Figure 1. the data gathering process starts with node 2 as the chain head and ends with node 1 as the chain tail.... // Forward Direction send(M.. 1....... 2. There are two kinds of iterations for the transmission of the messages-Forward Direction (FD) and Reverse Direction (RD).... end case RD : begin init = n. node n acts as the chain head and node 1 acts as the chain tail. i). //Send message to chain tail for i = n to 1 begin AggregateData(M. //Send message to chain head for i = init to n begin AggregateData(M. In the FD. p−1 CH p .. // Reverse Direction send(M...1)....... i . for (i = 1 to n) // Energy initialization begin Ei = E. n−1 DN CT CH − Chain Head CT − Chain Tail DN − Dead Node BS − Base Sation Fig. 912 ...... In the event that a few nodes die. end end end • BS • • 1 .IET-UK International Conference on Information and Communication Technology in Electrical Sciences BS TABLE I R ECURSIVE -BI DIRECTION A NTCHAIN (RBI) 0 .. The data gathering process starts from this node (i in each iteration) and the data is sent to the next node (i + 1) and this continues until the last node is reached.... several UniAntchains are formed between nodes p + 1 to q − 1 and from q + 1 to n. q q+1 . end msgKind = F D.. Recursive-BIdirection Antchain (RBI) is represented by an edge-weighted graph given by Gwsn (N. (ii) In a similar manner.. then node i + 1.. send(M.... E is the energy of the nodes and BS is the base station... q−1 DN q ... In the second iteration.... end msgKind = RD. BS).... the data gathering process being similar to the first round as shown in Figure 3. The protocol steps are described in Table 1.... SHANTCHAIN in first iteration • In the first iteration of operation. the data gathering process starts with node n − 1 (chain head) and ends with node n − 2 (chain tail)...... In the third iteration... in RD the chain head being node n.. In the fourth iteration.. 1 . send(M. E. Intially all the n nodes are furnished with equal amounts of energy Ei .... Self-Healing AntChain (SHANTCHAIN) is also a flatrouting algorithm consisting of n homogeneous nodes. E....... the chain head being node 1. switch(msgKind) begin case FD : begin init = 1... i).... then a single UniAntchain is formed consisting of all the alive nodes with the chain head and chain tail chosen as explained in previous step. In the event that only a few nodes in the network die. i + 1). send(M.. This continues till the last node.... BS)..... n−1 ... • This process continues until the last node in the network is completed depleted of its energy (dead node).. p−1 CH p .. BS) where N is the number of sensor nodes..... end msgKind = F D. receives a message M from the BS. Similar to FD. send(M. which finally sends the data to the BS........

. the chain head is node n. i).... it is clear that both algorithms consume the same 913 . wheras in UniAntchain.. with the chain head as node n. which was 8565mJ (milli Joules). There are two kinds of iterations for the transmission of the messages-init f orward and init reverse.. This continues till the last node is reached. the response time was found to be very high. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS The effectiveness of RBI and SHANTCHAIN are validated through simulations. end msgKind = RD. it is clear that upto 50 nodes.. init).. init reverse)... q q+1 . BS) where N is the number of sensor nodes... the role of the chain head is rotated as i+1 and i−1 respectively..1)....... when the number of nodes was increased beyond 500....... which finally sends the data to the BS. which also applies to Recursive-BIdirection. in init reverse.... The network lifetime was found to be longest for SHANTCHAIN.... // Forward Direction init reverse = init reverse − 1. Intially all the nodes are equipped with an equal amount of energy Ei . end end end arrive at consistent results. Under the given conditions. In this way... i .Self-Healing Antchain for Increasing Lifespan in Wireless Sensor Networks BS TABLE II S ELF -H EALING A NTCHAIN (SHANTCHAIN) n−1 CT 0 1 .. The initial energy of all the nodes was assumed equal.... i).. V.. q DN q+1 ..... n−1 CT CH − Chain Head CT − Chain Tail DN − Dead Node BS − Base Station Fig. send(M. the role of antchain tail and its corresponding antchain head is rotated among the sensors in each iteration. The system performed according to specifications as long as the BS did not crash and until the last node in the network was active and alive... Average Remaining Energy is defined as the amount of energy dissipated on the nodes. // Reverse Direction init f orward = init f orward + 1.. the two terminal nodes of Bidirection take the role of the antchain head and antchain tail alternatively..... send(M. n−2 CH CH − Chain Head CT − Chain Tail BS − Base Station Fig. for (i = 1 to n) // Energy initialization begin Ei = E.... the message finally reaches the BS. 3. SHANTCHAIN in second iteration BS 0 . p CH DN p+1 . BS). and in init reverse. In the similar way... the same node acts as antchain tail in all iterations. receives a message M from the BS. The sensor nodes were deployed on a 50mx50m area with the sensing radius of each node set to 1.. The data gathering process starts from this node (i in each iteration) and the data is sent to the next node (i + 1) and continues till the last node. send(M.. receives a message from the BS.. which were scaled to a maximum of 200 nodes.... the number of nodes selected were five.. end msgKind = F D... end case RD : begin send(M.. This is due to the fact that in our algorithm... E. In init f orward.. E is the energy of the nodes and BS is the base station.... switch(msgKind) begin case FD : begin send(M....5m... In Bidirection. From Figure 5.. The data gathering process starts from this node (i in each iteration) and sends it to the next node.. BS)) begin n = N umof N odes... the chain head is initialized to the node 1.. BS). decreasing steadily with other algorithms and lowest for UniAntchain. Our investigations are based on the simulations carried out by using OMNeT++. i + 1). Healing the network due to dead nodes in SHANTCHAIN SHANTCHAIN is represented by an edge-weighted graph given by Gwsn (N. the chain head being node 1. The chain head had to receive a message to initiate the process in the network. given a stipulated time.. //Send message to chain head for i = init f orward to n begin if(i + 1 ≥ n) then i = init f orward AggregateData(M. E. 4.. //Send message to chain tail for i = init reverse to 1 begin if(i − 1 ≤ 0) then i = init reverse AggregateData(M.. From Figure 6.... Several simulation runs were carried out in order to SHAN T CHAIN (Gwsn (N. init reverse = n. p−1 p .. end msgKind = F D... init f orward = 1. Initially.. In each iteration of init f orward and init reverse. the time taken for the energy depletion of first node and is quite rapid and slows down as the number of nodes increase. send(M.. In the init f orward..

This ensures linear depletion of energy of the sensor nodes. the number of dead nodes also increases. Antchain Operation Time is defined as the time taken for the last node in the network to be completed depleted of its energy. resulting in higher operation time. As seen from Figure 8. This metric applies well to RBI and SHANTCHAIN algorithms. the number of alive nodes decreases greatly. which is because it permits only one node in each iteration to communicate with the base station in the face of occurrence of the dead nodes. during the first ten iterations. 8.IET-UK International Conference on Information and Communication Technology in Electrical Sciences 140 300 120 UniAntChain Self-Healing AntChain Recursive-Bidirection 250 Recursive-Bidirection Self-Healing AntChain AntChain Operation Time in ms 0 50 100 150 200 100 Network Lifetime(in s) 200 80 150 60 100 40 20 50 0 0 0 50 100 150 200 Number of Nodes Number of Nodes Fig. our algorithm has more number of alive nodes giving rise to a ”live” network as compared to RBI. 9 8 7 Network Lifetime versus the Number of Nodes in the Network Fig. Due to this. Compared to RBI. whearas in RBI several UniAntchains are formed depending on the number of dead nodes. In Recursive-Bidirection. SHANTCHAIN consumes less energy. Number of Nodes Alive versus the Number of Iterations amount of energy until network lifetime. undeterred. Average Energy Remaining versus the Number of Iterations Fig. the number of nodes communicating with the base station also increases as the base station is far away from the place where the sensor nodes are deployed. this time is decreasing. In our algorithm the death of a node is postponed to the maximum extent possible due to the rotation of the roles. The operation time gradually decreases as the number of nodes increase from 50 to 200 nodes. our algorithm forms only one UniAntchain consisting of only alive and active 914 . which is illustrated in Figure 7. Simulation results indicate that for less than 50 nodes. 5. In contrast. Even if a node dies. 6. as the number of dead nodes increase. 7. As the number of iterations increase. the network is healed by detecting the dead node and eliminating it from the antchain so that the operation of the network goes on. the number of UniAntchains formed also increase proportionately. Antchain Operation Time versus the Number of Nodes in the Network 50 Recursive-BIdirection Self-Healing AntChain 40 Average Energy Remaining in J Number od Nodes Alive 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 30 20 10 Recursive-Bidirection Self-Healing Antchain 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 Number of Iterations 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Number of Iterations Fig. With the increase in the operation time of the sensor network.

A Simulation Study of an Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Mobile Adhoc Networks. 3473–3479. Another metric of importance called the Average Number of Messages measures the average number of messages used to perform the data gathering process. 40(8). 2004. An Energy Based Power-Aware Routing Protocol in Adhoc Networks.Self-Healing Antchain for Increasing Lifespan in Wireless Sensor Networks nodes. Ajay Gupta. CLEI Electron. I W Marshall and X Peng. Ness B Shroff and R Srikant. 2005. Energy Aware Routing in Sensor Network: A Large Systems Approach. Special Issue on Recent Advances in Wireless Sensor Networks. Power Efficient Algorithms for Computing Fast Fourier Transform over Wireless Sensor Networks. 1647–1651. Bjorn Gronvall and Thiemo Voigt. J. [16] Peng Cheng. Energy Aware Node Placement in Wireless Sensor Networks. Japan. Effect of Overhearing Transmission on Energy Efficiency in Densor Sensor Networks. [24] Han Peng. 3210–3214. July 2005. July 2004. pp. This is overcome to a large extent in our algorithm. Parallel Multicolony ACO Algorithm with Exchange of Solutions. IPSN’04. A Comparison of Power-Efficient Broadcast Routing Algorithms. Second International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS’05). thereby increasing the delay and degrading the network performance. In Bidirection. Sensor Network Protocols and Applications. The above two drawbacks are eliminated in our algorithm as one and only one message is in transit at any instant of time and which is the aggregated data from the alive nodes. D J Holding. Simulation results demostrate that our algorithm consistently performs better than UniAntchain and RBI with respect to energy-based metrics. Akylidiz. [2] Osvaldo G´ mez and Benjam´n Bar´ n. ICIS-PCM. [5] Chang Wook Ahn. Ahmed Helmy and Bhaskar Krishnamachari. 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