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CULTIVATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP WITHIN MARGINALISED COMMUNITIES

PO Box 150, 49c Stuart Street, Harrismith 9880 South Africa Tel: (058) 6230104 /6230649/6230123 Fax: (058) 6230107 EMail: ewet@ewet.org.za Registration no. 5961/92. Public Benefit Organization no. 930013786. Non-profit registr. no. 000-383

ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AT SCHOOLS – A SOUTH AFRICAN APPROACH
“Toward the creation of a culture of entrepreneurship amongst the South African youth” 1. Entrepreneurship Education (YES Clubs, Simama Ranta and classroom syllabi) 1.1 The need: Commentators suggest that developments within Egypt that is spreading, is driven by the affected country’s young populations with 60% that could be classified as youth – similar to South Africa who also has a large youth population caught-up in poverty and lack of access to opportunity. While the move to democracy is applauded, a high unemployment rate amongst the youth as well as lack of opportunity to engage meaningfully within their societies creates frustration that leads to instability. South African youth gave themselves poor ratings within the “Personal Wellbeing Index.” Little doubt exist, as repeatedly confirmed by various recent research studies (Centre for Development and Enterprise, Human Science Research Council, South African Institute of Race Relations, to name a few) that red flags are waving for South Africa on the same challenge. The challenge is to engage young people within economic activity to develop shared ownership there-off as well as to engage them within society. Entrepreneurship represents an approach that enables young people to help themselves. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor found little over six out of every hundred South African adults to be entrepreneurial, which put South Africa in the bottom twenty five percentage points of developing countries. Our country has a great shortage of entrepreneurs with education (according to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) as the key factor to change the status quo. Researchers identified entrepreneurship education at school as a core solution to South Africa’s unemployment problem, high crime rate and low economic growth. South Africa’s youth are the hardest hit by lack of access to meaningful economic participation. The “Door Knockers” report found in 2005 that 2.6 million out of 4 million young people of employable age of between 16 and 25, to be unemployed. A recent finding from the University of North-West indicated that an additional 1 million young people are added per annum to this number. These indicators combine with Guilen and Amit’s core finding towards a solution in that “one of the most effective ways to reduce poverty is to encourage

entrepreneurship” as stated within the World Bank report with the title “Entrepreneurship and firm foundations across countries.” With reference to Dr Mamphela Ramphele in an article in “Sunday Times” of 6 March 2011, a 70% to 80% unemployment rate amongst the South African youth is suggested. The main needs perceived by the youth (identified through surveys and direct interviews) in relation to entrepreneurship development and small and micro-enterprise creation is the following: • need to stimulate the awareness of small business ownership as a viable career option in the environment of diminishing paid employment opportunities need to increase motivation and self-confidence to initiate a small business enterprise need to obtain necessary business management skills to be able to start and operate successfully the enterprise need to obtain the startup capital in the situation of not owning assets and not being able to secure a sizeable collateral to guarantee the loan need to get access to business information that will allow the business to expand their operations and use the existing and potential opportunities need to have technical assistance and moral support when the business enterprises are initiated to be able to develop capacity to solve the emerging problems of doing business need to have an opportunity to get together with other youth business owners to share their common problems and develop professionally and personally

• • • • •

Career prospects of many children are not certain even if they secured a good matric certificate, a post matric certificate, a diploma or even a degree. Recent statistics indicate that less than 10 out of every 100 school leavers are able to secure employment in the formal sector and civil service. Young people therefore need to be empowered to become the creators of their own jobs rather than to become job seekers. The Entrepreneurship Education (EE) programme represents a pro-active approach through empowering the youth through enterprise for them to be able to create their own futures - prior to leaving school. 1.2 South African schools intended for EWET’s entrepreneurship education. Province No. No. No. Learners No. Districts / Secondary Educators Regions Schools Eastern 23 Districts 869 Schools 416 488 15 651 Cape Free State 5 Districts 291 Schools 212 106 8 331

Gauteng KwaZulu Natal Limpopo Mpumalanga Northern Cape North West Western Cape

15 Districts 4 Regions, 12 Districts 5 Districts 5 Regions 5 Districts 5 Regions, 19 Districts 8 Districts

589 Schools 1 587 Schools 1 359 Schools 493 Schools 137 Schools 515 Schools 275 Schools

630 782 940 569 667 795 340 915 74 903 264 502 256 352

22 976 32 400 24 643 12 348 2 807 9 867 9 181

Source: “Education Statistics in SA 2009” published in November 2010 by the Department: Basic Education.

Please see “Annexure 5” for names of regions and districts in the provinces? 1.3 Proposal to engage, presenting the options. A comprehensive, integrated, substantive and collaborative approach is required to impact positively upon the scale of the challenge presented above. Our youth could represent the new face of South Africa being young, vibrant, educated, organized, economically engaged and hungry to contribute. This is in opposition to the problem that so many perceive the bulk of our population, the South African youth, to be. A critical key is to counter huge unemployment through entrepreneurship education at school level. To teach, coach and support our youth such that it will enable them to fish for themselves. EWET’s approach developed from wisdom gained over the past 20 years through practical experience. The organisation strives towards continuous improvement as influenced by new research findings and outcomes of policy debates. Solutions around the challenge presented above, unpack core and critical elements required to ensure the achievement of large scale change in a highly effective manner. These “elements” represent various options for engagement to you the reader given that the solicitation of support is the main aim of this proposal. The question is “what can we do, to make a difference?” The proposal will make it clear that each and every one of us could engage to contribute to achieve change. Once the elements had been stated, the proposal will proceed to give more detail on each. The reader will find that each of these elements is anchored within activities already “actioned” rather than to represent just intended concepts and ideas. The starting point, as presented within what is to follow - represents the context of a developmental approach to youth development as practiced by EWET. This context makes it clear that the cause for youth entrepreneurship development is bigger than EWET. EWET is presented as a not-for-profit with the task and in the role of stewardship (catalyst) towards the attainment of entrepreneurship education at secondary school level in South Africa. EWET is fulfilling this role since its establishment in 1992. To create a culture of entrepreneurship amongst the South African school attending youth require attention and action on 11 elements. Consensus amongst key researchers and policy makers determined that these 11 elements are core to the delivery of effective entrepreneurship education. Each element represents options for engagement. Please note that activities to address these

elements further, are being unpacked at point 3.2.2 after the 11 elements had been introduced? (i) The first element entails the achievement of broad appreciation and support for the importance of what “entrepreneur” entails within a secondary school setting. A shared understanding amongst all relevant stakeholders is important as well as how it presents solutions to the challenges of youth unemployment and youth engagement. Within the “overview” of this proposal we presented Jeffry Timmons’s definition. Just ask any student, teacher or education management person whom you know “what an entrepreneur is?” to see for yourself how important this element is. Emphasis here is on “EE” & “YES Simama Ranta” meaning, South African Youth strengthening the South African economy through their entrepreneurship. Impact pursued is on broad based “entrepreneurial awareness” towards the attainment of a “culture of entrepreneurship.” Please see description in 2.1? Core actions: a.) Entrepreneurship Education (EE) Simama Ranta b.) Youth Enterprise Society (YES) Simama Ranta c.) Execute promotional activities during Global Entrepreneurship Week (GEW) 15 – 21 Nov 2011 d.) Sustain facebook group: Entrepreneurship Education South Africa http://www.facebook.com/home.php? sk=group_173117492735501#!/group.php?gid=107413179299892 Follow us on Twitter @ArieBouwer (ii) A second element relates to the utilisation of good syllabi materials within the classroom. Emphasis here is on the Learning and Teaching Support Materials (LTSM) linked to the National Curriculum Statement (NCS). Please see description
in 2.2?

Core action: usage.

Basic, Intermediate and Advanced materials for classroom

(iii) An appropriate teaching approach to entrepreneurship education by teachers represents the third critical element. Emphasis is upon EWET’s training of teachers in facilitation skills. Please see description in 2.3? Core action: Facilitation workshop for entrepreneurship education educators. (iv) The continuous training and development of teachers in the provision of entrepreneurship education is next. Emphasis is upon EWET’s training of teachers in the delivery of entrepreneurship education. Please see description in
2.4?

Core actions: a.) Youth Enterprise Society (YES) “Advisor” workshop for educators; b.) Small business training for educators; c.) Entrepreneurship Education Association for educators. (v) Learners who are learning about entrepreneurship within the classroom, need to practically apply the theory for entrepreneurship education to be effective. Emphasis here is on EWET’s Youth Enterprise Society (YES) clubs which functions as experiential learning laboratories for youth entrepreneurship development. Please see description in 2.5? Core actions: a.) Sustain Youth Enterprise Society (YES) clubs. b.) Establish new Youth Enterprise Society (YES) clubs.

(vi) Businesses, businesspeople, parents and all who care about learning and supporting students to become creators of jobs rather than job-seekers, need to engage as a community in the development of the entrepreneurial capability of our youth. Emphasis here is upon EWET’s collaboration within the context of a Local Partner (LP) at local level. An important element of such capacity is a developed educator who is able to deliver EWET’s core services within the community. Please see description in 2.6? Core action: a.) Local Partner host consisting of collaboration between business, community and government as EE partners within a specific location, b.) Local Partnership training / facilitation workshop, c.) Lead educator developed locally to render EWET’s core services to schools. (vii) All entrepreneurship education efforts locally, at municipal _ or district _ or provincial _ and national level must be driven based upon clearly defined objectives for assessment, review and improvement purposes. Please see
description in 2.7?

Core action:

Identified and agreed upon objectives

(viii) Appropriate entrepreneurial related action initiated by a learner/s themselves must receive support to break the shackles of “learned helplessness” as manifested through “blaming, entitlement, victimhoodsyndrome” and related social ills. Emphasis is on youth leadership within the YES clubs together with the development of the youth entrepreneurship movement.
Please see description in 2.8?

Core actions: a.) Learner leadership within Youth Enterprise Society (YES) clubs; b.) YES leadership for municipal, district, provincial and national levels. (ix) Critical to all efforts had been and remains EWET’s work in close collaboration with the Department of Education’s Basic Education. Please see
description in 2.9?

Core actions: a.) Working with individual schools; b.) working with district offices; c.) working with provincial offices; and d.) working with the national department. (x) all learners have to receive exposure to career options open to entrepreneurs as captured within EWET supplied competency material and project activities. Please see description in 2.10? Core action: a.) Entrepreneurship Education (YES) competency – “Entrepreneurship as a career.” b.) Support entrepreneurship days at schools. (xi) core to effective entrepreneurship is an extended collaborative network as well as attention to address poverty and other social challenges as part of “outreach” to clearly illustrate how society at large benefit from the actions of entrepreneurs as an integral part of entrepreneurship. Emphasis here is upon such actions through YES clubs. Please see description in 2.11? Core actions: a.) Outreach by Youth Enterprise Society (YES) clubs; b.) Networking amongst Youth Enterprise Society (YES) clubs; c.) Youth Enterprise Society (YES) graduates Alumni Association.

2. Introduction: EWET’s developmental approach to youth development: Engagement with children requires from EWET to appreciate and respond to outcomes of importance to the child’s particular age within her/his specific community setting, while walking the road with the child over a period of time as the child develops. The context within which EWET is able to achieve this impact over time is through: the involvement of volunteering adults from specific communities whom we capacitate; peer support within clubs; and through enabling children to impact upon their own life and their environment as an outcome of their newly acquired entrepreneurial, leadership and other skills. This systemic and process orientation enabled EWET to achieve a substantial reach in terms of children at school going age and beyond. Childhood developmental outcomes that EWET pursue could be summarized as follows: Learning to be productive: To do well in school, develop outside interests and acquire basic life-skills; Learning to Connect to adults in their families and communities, to peers in positive and supportive ways and to something larger than themselves; Learning to Navigate: Competence in social settings, risk taking, coping and reaction to challenge. For “early adulthood” summarized outcomes are: Productive: Economic self-sufficiency, work steadily, further education and training; Connectedness: Contributor to community, active in religious institutions, politically active; Health: positive health habits, healthy family/social relationships.

This graphic depicts a crucial lesson that EWET learned over the years. This lesson had an important impact upon EWET’s approach and strategy. Since EWET piloted YES between 1994 and 1996, impact and momentum had been attained once the learners engaged within YES club activities. Within MetsiMatso, a small village outside of Phuthaditjhaba, learners sustained YES operations without any adult support for an extended period of time. However, these learners grew up, completed school and grew into adulthood. What remained was the community at large, the school with its extended involvement of a broad range of stakeholders and the Department of Education. The YES program was scarcely observable in contrast to previous years. EWET realized how important it is to capacitate the community at large in order to sustain long term impact, which is now observable on many sites where EWET delivered through building local community capacity with “Huresic” as an example. The approach of working through a “Local Partner” and later on, the Entrepreneurship Education (EE) model with its 3 components of in-classroom, clubs and “Simama Ranta” competition was born. 2.1 Promote Entrepreneurship Education at secondary school level

Element i: The promotion of entrepreneurship education at secondary school level is catered for by EWET through the “Simama Ranta” (uplifting the South African economy through youth entrepreneurship) competition. “Simama Ranta” is presented in two formats. Entrepreneurship Education “(EE) Simama Ranta” represents a national schools competition while, Youth Enterprise Society “(YES) Simama Ranta” is a national competition amongst students. A. The annual national business competency competitive event called “EE (Entrepreneurship Education) Simama Ranta” is core to EWET’s promotion of entrepreneurship education amongst schools. The competitive event had been structured in such a manner that it impacts upon all secondary schools across South Africa through being open for their participation regardless of whether schools utilise EWET based interventions or not. As such, the competition has a formative impact on how entrepreneurship education is being approached. In short, the following 11 principles and the response of schools to the principles within a Portfolio of Evidence (PoE), determine the winners. The principles cater for: developmental appraisal; performance measurement; and whole school evaluation: (i) a clear definition of entrepreneurship that is inclusive of thinking, feeling and doing is in practice amongst all at the school; (ii) good quality entrepreneurship syllabi content are being used within the classroom across a range of subjects as it fits with the National Curriculum Statement of the particular subject; (iii)teachers involved in the delivery of entrepreneurship education follow innovative approaches to teaching, aligned with facilitation; (iv) continuous teacher development takes place in the field of entrepreneurship education;

(v) in-the-classroom entrepreneurship education theory is linked to the practicals there-off within extra-mural activities; (vi) members of the community and relevant stakeholders are involved within the development of the entrepreneurial abilities of learners which manifest itself within a “culture of entrepreneurship” within the school’s community; clearly defined aims and objectives to be attained by the school with entrepreneurship education directs efforts, serve as measurement for progress attained and determine new strategies; learner initiated and learner lead entrepreneurship education projects secure support from the school in a manner that enhances the selfmotivation of involved learners; co-ownership of entrepreneurship education within the school is illustrated through joint action that involve teaching and administrative staff, management, the School Governing Body, the district offices and provincial offices of the Department of Education;

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)

(x) learners of the school receive exposure to career options open to entrepreneurs through promotional activities based within the approach to entrepreneurship education; (xi) the school use effective outreach and networking strategies as an integral part of its provision of entrepreneurship education.

The 2010 nine provincial winning entries had been posted on the internet where it can be viewed and downloaded in “pdf”: http://www.ewet.org.za/competition.html at the bottom of the page. B. Learners who excelled within entrepreneurship education could enter for selection to participate within the YES (Youth Enterprise Society) Simama Ranta competition. This competition is open for entry to all students older than 16 years of age and who are either in Grade 10 or Grade 11. Learners are selected for participation based upon their demonstrated competence within the following 8 areas: (i) understanding of entrepreneurship as a career choice; (ii) understanding of importance of business ownership in a market-driven economy; (iii) understanding of financial, human and social capital requirements in operating a business; (iv) ability to determine entrepreneurial opportunities, according to industry, location, etc; (v) knowledge of fundamental business methods such as planning, financing, accounting and managing; (vi) skill in determining scope of potential consumer markets and customer needs; (vii) leadership role within extra-mural entrepreneurship activity; (viii) a workable start-up producing some income. The selected 8 learners who won from 9 provinces are invited to compete within a 3 day event that went as follows up to now for illustration purposes: on arrival participants from provinces got into 9 teams. Each participant received 1,000 Simas – YES Simama Ranta’s own monetary system with 1 Sima equalling the value of 1 South African Rand. Thus each team had access to 8,000 Simas, depending on individual team member’s willingness to share his or her money with the team. Members from different teams could easily distinguish each other through different colour dots that they wore on their name tags. On the first evening, the teams had to compete with each other in an auction where 9 “lots” or groupings of equipment with consumables were presented to them. YES members received at arrival, inventories of the lots as part of their registration packs. These lots were organised by EWET around a specific business idea although the idea as such was not announced. Participant teams also out-bid each other for a specific site for the location of their venture. The auction coincided with tremendous excitement and the teams started to jell with different members assuming different responsibilities and roles. The next day, the teams had the morning to set-up their businesses in order to start trading after lunch, within the marquee tent. Business development support services was available to participants at a fee and a bank, if they needed such assistance. Businesses initiated consisted of: “Advertisers.com”; “Ocean Basket”; “Radical Beauty Saloon”; “African Foot Print”; “Siyazibonisa Cinema & Photo shoots”;

“Simma Pops”; “Excellent Coffee Café Services”; “E-zone radio station” and “Team 2.” When the businesses started to operate on the afternoon of the second day, around 110,000 Simas were in circulation. With-drawls and deposits kept the bank up to date on the financial status of each venture. Original signage by the business ventures made an impression on customers that consisted of members from other ventures as well as adjudicators, teachers, visitors, donor representatives, and others. Ventures that ran out of consumables were able to replenish their stock through purchasing from wholesale that was provided for. YES members amazed observers with their creativity and in dealing with their group dynamics for coming-up with pricing strategies, smoothing their production lines – where relevant, negotiating deals between businesses, etc. Everybody experienced the excitement of the market place. Business operations continued until lunch of the next (third) day. The afternoon saw the liquidation of the ventures with tough negotiations with the bank to determine a reasonable prize for their stock, equipment as well as for the site that they bought at the auction. All monies were deposited at the bank to enable the bank to determine which businesses ended up with the biggest balance. The winning businesses were announced on the evening of the third day. YES Simama Ranta represents a simulation utilised as an assessment centre where each of the individual participants are continuously assessed by business people and by their peers. The ratings received during each of the sessions are consolidated to rank all participating learners from first place downwards. Exceptional entrepreneurial talent had been unearthed amongst these young people during past “YES Simama Rantas,” which lead to career opportunities offered to them. 2.2 Syllabi Element ii: Entrepreneurship Education (EE) is anchored within the classroom’s Learning Outcomes and Assessment Standards that flows from the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) of the Department of Basic Education (DBE). Subjects such as Life Orientation, Economic and Management Science, Business Studies, Accountancy, Economy, Mathematical Literacy, etc. all speaks to EE. This enables EWET to reach each and every child that attends within a particular school. EWET works in partnership with DBE to assist schools with effective EE implementation through: the provision of Learning and Teaching Support Materials (LTSM) that lessens the work load of teachers with the use of syllabi materials combined with training and technical assistance; and allows for learners to practically apply the theoretical knowledge gained in the classroom within YES clubs. 2.3 Teaching Approach Element iii: Educators who volunteered their involvement within Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and YES, indicated that such involvement was either their first or their most significant involvement within enterprise education. As such, it added value to their ability to educate learners on entrepreneurship while this involvement impacted on their ability to facilitate the learning processes rather than to regress to an instructor mode. This finding furthermore reflected upon the very limited knowledge base on entrepreneurship

education that we have amongst South African teachers. EWET developed and deliver the “facilitation workshop” to cater for this need. 2.3.1 EWET Workshop: The facilitation workshop consisting of: setting the scene for facilitation; preparing the ground; the club handbook; key concepts; facilitating an EE activity; facilitating yourself; facilitating others; facilitating a group; practical facilitation exercise; guidelines for a facilitator; intervention training; working on different levels; practical, and evaluation of workshop. EWET found that the competence to apply facilitation amongst teachers required special attention as this approach to teaching is crucial to entrepreneurship education. 2.4 Teacher Development Element iv: EWET provides the following training workshops to capacitate teachers for the delivery of entrepreneurship education at secondary school level: 2.4.1 EWET Workshop: Teacher or “YES Advisor” training that covers: what is YES (entrepreneurship education); club operations; club structure; starting clubs at my school; a local partnership, teachers as facilitators (brief introduction); facilitating activities; running the clubs: activities of whole society, activities of teams; the YES & EE Simama Ranta competitions, and ends the workshop with evaluation. Teacher training here serves as an induction to entrepreneurship education which enables educators to immediately apply what they learned. 2.4.2 EWET Workshop: Business training for teachers: this workshop compensates for the low levels of business ownership rates often found within communities that EWET service. As such, the workshop covers small business content such as registrations, employment and labour legislation, pricing options, market research, tax, wholesale and retail, and other core elements. This workshop enables teachers to be more effective in their support to learners within the context of entrepreneurship education, while it also happens that the workshop awakens the entrepreneurial spirit amongst educators. Many teachers developed the competence through YES to operate a business on the side-line in order to enhance their income that bodes well towards the creation of a culture of entrepreneurship. The possibility exists for the education and training of teachers within EE to gain credits in terms of the Skills Development Act, within the context of Further Education and Training (FET) which is important for EWET to continue to pursue. Entrepreneurship education (EE) became a key to unlock the involvement of teachers within the broad context of child and youth development. EE touches on academic achievement, personality development, livelihood challenges, leadership, career guidance, economic participation, roles and responsibilities of a broad range of stakeholders inclusive of policy and decision makers as well as officials. Clubs developed support group characteristics. Central to these complex interchanges is the teacher, often with an extended work load. A group of teachers involved within YES got together some years back, to work toward the establishment of something such as an association of entrepreneurship education teachers, similar to “AMESA” – the Association of Mathematics Education of South Africa. This initiative was a response to the unique challenges that teachers face such as a small knowledge base, when they

engage within entrepreneurship education. The South African Council for Educators (SACE) encourages the involvement of teachers within activities such as EE while teachers receive recognition within the context of their Integrated Quality Management System (IQMS) for such involvement. In excess of 1000 teachers had been involved in EE since 1994 with some of them doing exceptional work demonstrated through the achievements of learners from their schools. These teachers could serve as a base for membership of the intended association, while the award winning exceptional achievers could serve as the founders of the association. The harnessing of these talents, knowledge and experience is an important foundation for the training and mentoring of teachers who newly enters the field of entrepreneurship education. Dissemination of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) within their areas could be done, by the schools with a proven track record in entrepreneurship education as anchored by the specific teacher/s involved. They serve as pockets of excellence in EE. An association will enable such sharing while contributing to achieve impact on scale, in assistance to EWET that requires such additional capacity amongst its educator beneficiaries. EWET will provide institutional support and coordination for the Association of Entrepreneurship Education of South African for efficiency and cost saving benefits. 2.5 Practical’s through YES Clubs as laboratories for youth entrepreneurship development: Element v: Each YES (Youth Enterprise Society) club initiated within a school involves 60 members: 15 Grade 8 members – called YES Adventurers; 15 grade 9 members - called YES Pioneers; 15 grade 10 members - called YES Champions and 15 grade 11 members - called YES Entrepreneurs. Young people who graduated from YES are called AYES Alumni. Each society of 60 members and 4 Advisors (volunteer teachers) meets once a week under the youth elected leadership, to take care of business that affects their society through adherence to parliamentary procedures. YES Adventurer, YES Pioneer, YES Champion and YES Entrepreneur teams with 1 YES Advisor (Teacher) for each team, meet independently once a week during which time they execute projects and activities that relate to 17 business competencies. The challenges faced by the YES members in achieving the 17 competencies creates an awareness of enterprise - the Adventurers & Pioneers, taste of enterprise - YES Champions to mini-enterprise - YES Entrepreneurs. These 17 competencies are: Life Skills; Understanding the market economy; Business Ideas; Evaluate the Community; Setting Goals; Market Research; Plan the Business; Plan Business Finance; Plan Human Resources; Business Promotion; Selling the Product; Business Accounts; Business Records; Leading and Managing; Business Communications; Entrepreneurship as a Career; and Our Business. EWET supplies 68 competency booklets that contain two activities and a project each, to the YES clubs as part of their Learning and Teaching Support Materials (LTSM), together with other supplies required for club operations. Growth Panels involving at least 2 local business people assess the attainment of each of the 17 business competencies by the YES members through the utilisation of rating sheets supplied by EWET. A case study exist of young people who were overcome by their socio-economic challenges that they had to face at home resulted for them to engage

themselves within delinquent behaviour inclusive of drug abuse. Fellow YES members refused to give up on these members and kept on visiting them, attempting to engage them within the constructive activities of their club. They emphasized that they are fellow members and they need them to contribute as they did in the past. Finally, they made the change to disengage from answers that further complicate their life, face the challenges while pursuing constructive solutions through their active engagements within YES clubs. Other examples of a child who rescued their family business from collapse and expanded it for his parents to have employment in Kimberley; YES members who got a feeding scheme in place for pre-school children in Ladysmith; the first YES president Hilda Komako who overcame childhood pregnancy to become a pillar of strength and business leader in QwaQwa; etc. Thus YES developed into a peer support group that served as a caring community, who lives the spirit of “Ubuntu.” EWET’s realization of this role of the clubs opened our eyes to observe and appreciate many similar occurrences. EWET’s delivery of YES focuses on sustaining current YES clubs as well as on new establishments: 2.5.1 Sustaining YES Societies Evaluations and assessments made it clear that support is required after a YES society had been established and had been operational for a year, to avoid “fall out.” Such support consist of the issuing of required materials for the new year, refresher training of educators who functions as “YES Advisors”, orientation on changes made to YES as well as on services and products added, motivational site visit also with the object to monitor and evaluate. EWET has in the region of 300 schools that keeps on expanding, with a national spread that require this kind of support. Please see the third paragraph below of 3.2.6.2 to see who’ll actually execute these assignments? 2.5.2 Establish new YES clubs Social investors often request EWET to service as particular town or area with the implementation of the full Entrepreneurship Education (EE) approach (syllabi, clubs and Simama Ranta) or one of the 3 components such as YES clubs. The demand for EE implementation from learners, teachers and/or schools is extensive although such requests could most often not be responded to due to a lack of resources. Delivery of: the one (YES) club component; normally leads to the implementation of the remaining 2 components of (EE) syllabi; and of “(EE or YES) Simama Ranta” at a later stage. Typically, when approached to service a particular area, EWET would: assess existing social infrastructure within the community to select a local partner to work with; engage with the Department of Education locally and at district level to gain support, approval and collaboration; select the schools to be serviced; engage with the staff of the school to inform them on EE and to solicit volunteer teachers to be trained; train the teachers who’ll proceed with informing students and invite learners to apply for membership; proceed to full implementation with EWET providing the Learning and Teaching Support Materials (LTSM) as well as other services and supplies as agreed upon. Dissemination of YES clubs materialise in the following ways, depending on EWET’s satisfaction for meeting quality assurance requirements and EWET’s

management there-off: (a) by EWET itself; (b) through EWET Associates; (c) through selected teachers from amongst the intended association for entrepreneurship education (existing “YES Advisors”); (d) through the district offices of the Department of Education; (e) through a teacher within a specific locality who had been capacitated to fulfil this role as lead educator; (f) through a local partner with an established relationship with EWET. 2.6 Community Based Approach Element vi: Local community support and ownership of entrepreneurship education (EE) is crucial to serve as the support base for the young people involved. Such ownership could be situated within: (a) the school’s educators; (b) the whole school; (c) the School’s Governing Body (SGB); a group of caring people from within the community where the school/s to be serviced are based; (d) the District Offices of the Department of Education; (e) the local or district government; (f) a local business who engages for the social benefit of learners in schools in its area of operations; or, (g) a registered not-for-profit, public benefit organisation who wishes to expand its range of products and services to include the delivery of entrepreneurship education to secondary school attending youth. Any one of the Local Partners (LP) serves as EWET’s entry point towards delivery. (h) Sometimes it happens that individuals from a specific community request EWET to assist them with the initiation and establishment of a community based organisation or non-government organisation in the absence of the availability of such social infrastructure locally. EWET responds to such request with its “Partnership for Development Models” (PDM) approach to create a local home for entrepreneurship education (EE). The people involved as EWET’s Local Partner play an important role within the attainment of the development objectives of the participating young people as described in point 3.2.1 above. 2.6.1 EWET Workshop: Local Partnership training covers the following content: checking in; mental models; team learning; partnerships; a first project; personal mastery; systems thinking; shared vision; and workshop evaluation. This workshop demonstrated its ability to enable diverse stakeholders to work together for the common good of their community. Critical to the local capacity requirements of a community is to have a local educator who has the competence to render core EWET services to participating schools within the locality. Our country’s vast distances and increased presence of Entrepreneurship Education amongst schools causes for a saving in the traveling, accommodation and human resources costs when a local educator is capacitated to render some of EWET’s services to schools locally. This approach enhances the level of autonomy and therefore level of ownership within the local community while contributing to sustainable delivery. 2.7 Monitoring and Evaluation Element vii: Establishing targets and evaluation is a part of regular operational procedures instituted by EWET to manage programs and deliver services. Integrated monitoring and evaluations are captured within: each of the eleven elements that structures this proposal; the eleven principles of school assessments of “EE Simama Ranta”; learner assessments of “YES Simama Ranta”; ongoing assessments of learners involved and teacher assessments. The current scientific research study for Phd degree purposes represents a further

initiative in this regard. The overall qualitative and quantitative target will differ in accordance with the specific assignment that EWET executes. In general, EWET structure its assessment in accordance with the following: QUANTITATIVE TARGETS YES Societies: Societies: # of YES Societies in operation Adventurers Pioneers Champions Entrepreneurs # of new YES Societies to be started Adventurers Pioneers Champions Entrepreneurs # of schools participating in YES programme # of locations of YES programme # of YES society meetings/per society Members: # of business competencies gained by a YES member # of YES programme graduates # of YES members starting their own businesses

YES Programme Support System: # of LPs in operation # of new LPs # of YES Adult Advisors # of new Adult Advisors QUALITATIVE TARGETS  level of satisfaction of YES members  observed improvement in academic performance of YES members  perception of school principals/teachers of the YES programme  perception of LP=s members and other adults involved in the YES programme. 2.8 Learner driven Youth Business Leadership from within YES clubs Element viii: (a.) Each member of a YES club receive a club handbook as part of the Learning and Teaching Support Materials (LTSM) that covers: a draft constitution for the club; code of conduct; organizational structure; functions and duties of office bearers (president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, public relations officer, constitutional advisor, team chairpersons), executive committee functioning, inauguration, temporary committees, conducting meetings, keeping minutes, budgeting, planning for year, what good leadership is, etc. (b.) It is from this strength of youth leadership at club level that EWET propose to escalate the existing leadership structures to promote “economic citizenry” amongst the South African youth. The leadership structure to build will be at municipal, district, provincial and national level. A voice from this “YES” youth lead “rights-based movement” will enable these young people to engage with those in positions of authority and power together with duty bearers in order to hold them accountable for children’s rights. Emphasis is from the perspective of the provision of access to economic opportunity as a children’s right in order to combat poverty. The youth leadership plays an important role within the

advocacy of young people right to access to economic opportunity. They furthermore have an important role to play in support of emerging entrepreneurs amongst the youth. 2.9 Collaboration with the Department of Basic Education (DBE) Element ix: (a.) School premises represent the sites for YES club operations since 1994. EWET follows a bottom-up approach in reaching learners through trained volunteering teachers. Collaboration from teachers and school management is excellent. Such cooperation as evolved from 17 years back as it advanced from local schools to district offices, to the provinces to national within the Directorate Rural Education. This collaboration is build upon mutual respect and trust between DBE and EWET as it evolved over the years. (b.) Stronger engagement from the District Offices saw the School Management Developer (SMGB) overseeing progress with EE implementation as a school governance matter that gave teachers freedom to engage within EE while also reporting. The Chief Education Specialists (CES) and Deputy Chief Education Specialists (DCES) gave their endorsement and support. The Senior Education Specialists (SES) co-facilitated some teacher training workshops with EWET. Of critical importance is the Education Specialist (ES) from the District as well as the Heads of Departments (HOD) at the schools for actual delivery of Entrepreneurship Education Syllabi materials in the classrooms as well as it’s linkage with the practical done within the YES clubs. The context of these developments is the ability of EE to speak effectively to the National Curriculum Statements (NCS). The 11 principles on the basis of which all schools compete to be the: (c.) Provincial; and (d.) National winning Entrepreneurship Education (EE) School as captured within the annual “EE Simama Ranta” competition. The principles speak to the principles on the basis of which the Department of Basic Education (DBE) measures individual school effectiveness in terms of: developmental appraisal; performance measurement; and whole school evaluation. These developments bodes well for the mainstreaming of entrepreneurship education (EE) within the Department of Basic Education (DBE) such that the possibility for each and every secondary student in South Africa to be exposed and engaged within Entrepreneurship Education, may just become viable. EWET is tirelessly working with DBE and with a broad range of partners to realize this vision. The learners gain credits within the context of General Education and Training (GET) as the work they do integrate with the National Curriculum Statement of the specific subject they are working on. 2.10 Career options open to Entrepreneurs Element x: EWET focuses specifically on career options open to entrepreneurs within the broader context of the Department of Education’s general activities on career guidance. Three competency booklets called “Entrepreneurship as a Career” pitched at the “basic” (Grades 8 and 9), intermediate” (Grade 10) and “advanced” (Grades 11 and 12) levels caters for this priority. Each booklet contains two activities (in-classroom) and a project (in YES clubs) to be facilitated by teachers and executed by learners. This forms part of EWET’s Learning and Teaching Support Materials (LTSM) supplied to schools. The underlying principles

are that: entrepreneurship represents one career option amongst many others; there are many career options within the field of entrepreneurship; and some of these options require further study, a clear message that academic achievement at school is important. EWET makes provision to support schools with entrepreneurship career days. The schools themselves decide on the format of the entrepreneurship career day. Examples are: a market day where students trade with the school’s community normally for fund raising purposes; invitations to successful entrepreneurs to come and speak to learners; visits by learners to successful businesses in operation; a day at the school allocated to their Youth Enterprise Society (YES) club members to advance entrepreneurship; etc. 2.11 Collaborative Network and Outreach Element xi: (a.) EWET’s own existence and the support that EWET gained over the years for its work bear testimony to the fact that entrepreneurs care about the communities and people. A reality that demonstrates the sentiment of entrepreneurs that goes beyond the mere profit motive. This “outreach” is being inculcated amongst participating learners the effectiveness of which is illustrated through a number of YES society projects over the years such as: caring for the aged; cleaning-up campaigns; etc. It is and had always been core to successful entrepreneurs to care for those less fortunate contrary to the perception sometimes held, that entrepreneurs are driven only by greed which represents one of the seven “deadly sins.” This “outreach” represents a core element of YES society operations. (b.) While some schools implement a number of YES clubs, others have only one such club at their school. Interaction through networking amongst the schools who are involved in the delivery of entrepreneurship education provides for the opportunity to: share experiences; build a shared support system for key stakeholders from within their community such as business people, local government and people of substance in civic engagement; joint activities and action; as well as coordination. Networking started spontaneously amongst schools located within some geographic areas. The resulting impact is such that all schools are encouraged to engage locally within such activities in order to enhance impact and to contribute to the creation of a culture of entrepreneurship. (c.) A component of the Entrepreneurship Education (EE) network that is evolving is the “graduates” of EE that EWET calls “YES Alumni.” The increase in YES societies were followed by a substantial increase in graduates of the YES programme to a number of around 12 000 young people. In September 2007 EWET brought together some of these alumni and engaged with them to better understand their needs and to find out where they are. All demonstrated a commitment to YES and some YES Alumni engaged themselves in a voluntary capacity to initiate and support YES societies. 3. The eleven elements in action in delivery The composition of all of these eleven elements jointly works together to achieve the effective delivery of entrepreneurship education. Flexibility exists in the application of the various elements dependent on the needs of a specific local community. What is described below represents two approaches to delivery. Firstly, a description is given on how implementation proceeds in response to a

request received from an individual person. A second approach is more focused upon the achievement of impact on scale. 3.1 Delivery from the individual reach into the system The “overview” of this proposal presents the manner in which EWET delivers through response to individual enquiry to reach the specific school and beyond. EWET’s not-for-profit focus directs efforts to service the need to enable young people from poor communities to be able to create jobs for themselves. This focus implies that EWET is approached for delivery by people unable to cover EWET’s costs for such supplies and services. Corporate social investment and support received from other sources often synchronise with individual requests received which enables EWET to service such requests. An individual’s enquiry is responded to by EWET with the request for such a person to solicit broad local community support (2.6) for the implementation of the Youth Enterprise Society (YES) clubs or more comprehensive Entrepreneurship Education (EE). EWET calls such a person EWET’s project champion. Once and if such support is in place and EWET has the required resources, the YES Advisor workshop (2.4.1) will be delivered to 6 volunteer educators from each school to be involved, as organised by the project champion with costs covered by the social investor. Attention is given to the importance to follow a facilitation approach (2.3) to enhance youth action. The trained educators present the Youth Enterprise Society (YES) and/or the whole of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) program at their school/s and invite learners to apply for membership. Successful applicants proceed to establish YES clubs (2.5). Once established, the YES clubs work through the 17 business competencies once a week, while the other weekly meeting is spend on youth leadership (2.8). Constant monitoring and evaluation takes place during these actions (2.7). What serves as a very motivational (pull) factor for learners and educators is to participate within the “YES” and “EE Simama Rantas” (2.1 A & B) and to possibly win. This motivation, amongst others - ensure a follow through on the utilisation of the EE Syllabi (2.2) within the classroom; emphasis on further educator development within entrepreneurship education (2.4) and; ensuring feedback on EE to the Department of Basic Education (2.9). Most often, community members are driven to YES and EE implementation due to the huge unemployment crises that their youth face which ensures that entrepreneurship as a career option (2.10) receives their special attention. One of the signs that the youth start breathing the entrepreneurial spirit is their action to improve the life of those less fortunate as themselves such as in Ladysmith where YES members organised a feeding scheme for pre-school children (2.11) as one example. 3.2 Delivery from the system reaches the individual The vast majority of learners and educators that EWET is servicing, has their first exposure to entrepreneurship education through this interaction. This is followed by effective delivery through their experience of the practicality of doing entrepreneurship education which results in impact as shared within the overview. These beneficiaries are reached through EWET being contracted by an investor to service a particular area, district, region, province or specific areas nationally. Such delivery works from the system towards reaching the individual.

What follows, illustrates how the eleven pieces of the puzzle fits together within such a scenario: The starting point is to work through the Department of Basic Education (please see 3.2.10?) in sharing the “Entrepreneurship Education (EE) Simama Ranta” competition information with all of the education related stakeholders of the targeted area. Posters that define entrepreneurship within this niche, description of the “EE Simama Ranta” competition, “EE Quality Standards” and explanation of EWET’s approach to the eleven principles of EE. This sets the scene in terms of outcomes pursued while logging-in on the excitement of the competitive event (please see point 3.2.2?). A further important outcome is that EWET receive requests from schools within the targeted area for the implementation of entrepreneurship education based upon their needs analysis in line with the eleven principles of “EE Simama Ranta.” EWET select schools in line with the requirements of the investor and based upon the merits of each school. Sometimes, the investor already has identified schools with whom the investor has an existing relationship where EWET start to service these schools with “EE Simama Ranta” as entry point to set the scene for what is intended to be achieved with entrepreneurship education. This entry is at relatively low costs of the materials and distribution while impact is already attained on the creation of an awareness of entrepreneurship education amongst the recipients. Thus we start to work towards enabling learners to become creators of jobs rather than job seekers. The process of implementation then proceeds with: entrepreneurship education orientation for educators (please see 2.3.1 and 2.4.1?); recruitment and selection of Youth Enterprise Society (YES) members from amongst the learners as well as establishment of YES clubs (please see 2.5?) while supporting learner initiated action; the implementation of entrepreneurship education syllabi materials within the various related subjects (please see 2.2?); build broad based local community ownership and support for entrepreneurship education (please see 2.6?); sustain the monitoring and evaluation principles throughout (please see 2.7?); strengthen the youth’s leadership capabilities and adherence to parliamentary procedures (please see 2.8?); continue with the annual and continuous program that includes entrepreneurship career exploration as well as entrepreneurship school days (please see 2.10?), outreach and networking (please see 2.11?); presenting “Entrepreneurship Education Simama Ranta” and “Youth Enterprise Society Simama Ranta” (please see 2.1 A & B?); and preparing the learners moving towards completing their secondary education for their role as YES Alumni (please see 2.11 C?). The sustainability element receives attention through the further enhancement of educator’s ability in the delivery of entrepreneurship education as described within the later paragraphs of 2.4 together with sustaining YES clubs as described within 2.5.1. This approach allows for EWET and Partners to establish pockets of excellence in entrepreneurship education as well as a knowledge base from which further dissemination follows in the 2nd, 3rd years and further onwards that contributes to the further flow of benefits and sustainability. 3.4 Sustainability This proposal, together with impact attained over the years, illustrates the challenge for new innovations before such innovations become mainstreamed. The past few years saw greater acceptance and improvements in collaboration between core partners which is gaining momentum towards availing

entrepreneurship education to more and more learners within South Africa’s secondary education. Particularly meaningful was the presence and participation of the Director General of the Department of Education’s Basic Education at the awards function of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) Simama Ranta schools competition. These developments, together with the strengthening of the appreciation of the importance of youth entrepreneurship within the Private Sector’s Corporate Social Investment sector resulted from hard work and reflect on progress. These responses could therefore develop momentum that could be on par with the challenge of youth economic participation that entrepreneurship education pursues to impact upon. Progress that speaks to sustainability as defined by the World Bank: “The term “Sustainability” describes the ability of a project to maintain an acceptable level of benefit flows through its economic life. While this may often be expressed in quantitative terms involving the internal economic or financial rates of return, benefits may also be qualitatively assessed. For projects in the productive sectors such as industry, the principal measure of performance is output, generally expressed in terms of capacity utilization, but Bank-supported projects normally have other objectives such as sub-sectoral policies, technology transfer and institution building, which must be assessed qualitatively.” (Monitoring and Evaluating Social Programmes in Developing Countries, edited by Joseph Valadez and Michael Bamberger, World Bank, 1994, ISBN 0-8213-2989-8). Changes, adaptions, innovations and strengthened collaboration opened-up the availability of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) from the 6 schools reached during the 1994 to 1996 pilot period, to be able to service all of the South African secondary schools – dependent on the availability of required resources. This reflects positively on achievements between 1997 and 2010 during which time various schools, municipal areas, districts, provinces and delivery partners got introduced to Entrepreneurship Education (EE) and capacitated through the development of their own competence and institutional capacity to deliver EE.

3.5 Activity plan 3.5.1. Promote Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – see point 3.2.2 in proposal: 3.5.1.1 Distribute suitable definition of “entrepreneur” to schools on poster. 3.5.1.2 Organise and present Entrepreneurship Education “EE Simama Ranta” 3.5.1.2.1 Solicit entries from schools. 3.5.1.2.2 EWET receive, screen and short list entries of substance. 3.5.1.2.3 Execute verification visit to short listed schools. 3.5.1.2.4 Panel select winning provincial and national entrepreneurship education schools. 3.5.1.2.5 Gala function where two learners and an educator representing winning schools, receive awards. 3.5.1.3 Organise and present Youth Enterprise Society “YES Simama Ranta” 3.5.1.3.1 Solicit entries from amongst learners involved within Entrepreneurship Education. 3.5.1.3.2 EWET receive, screen and short list entries as received from the 9 provinces. 3.5.1.3.3 Verification of correctness of information supplied within the entry. 3.5.1.3.4 Panel select 8 winning entries from each of the 9 provinces. 3.5.1.3.5 The 72 winners compete within YES Simama Ranta over 3 days 3.5.1.3.6 Gala function where results are announced of best South African learner in EE. 3.5.1.4 Support Global Entrepreneurship Week 15 to 21 November 2011. 3.5.1.5 Sustains “Entrepreneurship Education South Africa” facebook group. 3.5.2. Advance utilisation of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) syllabi materials – see point 3.2.3 in proposal: 3.5.2.1 Basic EE syllabi materials for Grades 8 and 9. 3.5.2.2 Intermediate EE syllabi materials for Grade 10. 3.5.2.3 Advanced EE syllabi materials for Grade 11. 3.5.3. Advance facilitation approach to Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – see point 3.2.4 in proposal: 3.5.3.1 Present EE Facilitation workshop for EE Educators 3.5.4. Teacher development to deliver on Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – see point 3.2.5 in proposal: 3.5.4.1 Present EE orientation workshop for educators. 3.5.4.2 Present small business training workshop for educators. 3.5.4.3 Coordinate Entrepreneurship Education (EE) Association for Educators 3.5.5. Youth Enterprise Society (YES) clubs as learning laboratories in Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – see point 3.2.6 in proposal: 3.5.5.1 Sustain YES clubs in operations 3.5.5.1.1 Provide Learning and Teaching Support Materials (LTSM). 3.5.5.1.2 Training of new Entrepreneurship Education (EE) educators and refresher training for existing EE educators. 3.5.5.1.3 Provide YES supplies for clubs 3.5.5.1.4 Monitoring, evaluation and motivational visits - orientation on YES/EE Simama Ranta. 3.5.5.2 Establish new Youth Enterprise Society (YES) clubs. 3.5.5.2.1 Supply school with YES Learning and Teaching Support Materials (LTSM) and other YES supplies.

3.5.6. Local community partner capacitated to deliver Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – see point 3.2.3.2.7 in proposal: 3.5.6.1 Select Local Partner (LP) to work with in specific location. 3.5.6.2 Facilitate local partnership functioning integration with EE. 3.5.6.3 Present local partnership training workshop to local collaborating partners in EE. 3.5.6.4 Local Partner support implementation of Entrepreneurship Education in local school/s. 3.5.6.4.1 Select school/s to work with, recruit educators and capacitate all. 3.5.6.4.2 Develop capacity of local lead educator to render EWET services to local schools. 3.5.7. Monitoring and evaluation of the delivery of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – see point 3.2.8 in proposal: 3.5.7.1 Define and agree on objectives to be achieved. 3.5.7.2 Define and agree on stakeholders (groups). 3.5.7.3 Identify and agree on qualitative areas of measurement. 3.5.7.4 Identify and agree on quantitative areas of measurement. 3.5.7.5 Define and agree on project sustainability indicators. 3.5.7.6 Design and agree on evaluation approach. 3.5.7.7 Develop tools for evaluation based upon what had been agreed to. 3.5.7.8 Implement and maintain evaluation system. 3.5.7.9 Compile and submit reports to stakeholders as had been agreed upon. 3.5.8. Support learner initiated action within Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – see point 3.2.9 in proposal: 3.5.8.1 Support leadership development within YES (Youth Enterprise Society) clubs. 3.5.8.2 Support YES leadership functioning at school, municipal, district, provincial and national level. 3.5.9. Collaborate with Department of Basic Education (DBE) in delivery of Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – see point 3.2.10 in proposal: 3.5.9.1 Working with individual schools. 3.5.9.2 Working with district offices of the Department of Education. 3.5.9.3 Working with provincial Department of Education departments. 3.5.9.4 Working with the national Department of Education 3.5.10. Promote career options to entrepreneurs amongst learners through Entrepreneurship Education (EE) – see point 3.2.11 in proposal: 3.5.10.1 Advance execution of EWET’s entrepreneurial competency no. 16 “Entrepreneurship as a career.” 3.5.10.2 Support entrepreneurship career days at schools. 3.5.11. Advance outreach and networking as integral to Entrepreneurship Education (EE): 3.5.11.1 Support outreach by Youth Enterprise Society (YES) clubs. 3.5.11.2 Facilitate networking amongst Youth Enterprise Society (YES) clubs. 3.5.11.3 Facilitate Youth Enterprise Society (YES) graduates Alumni Association.