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THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES

Ikhwanu-s-Safa

he Lowei

Sak
Ait' Laiii

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Hindi

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Oriental Penmajiship.

^rPe

I)ici

...ionary,

Pers-

nar of the Persian Languag
IgUB

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GRAMMAR
OF THE

AKABIC LAITGUAGB.

BY

E. H.
FELLOW OP
ST.

PALMER,

M.A.,

JOHN'S COLLEGR, AND LORD ALMONEE'S nEADP.Il AND PHOFESSOR OF AUABIC IN TilE V:<IVEKSITY OF CAMBRIDCiB,

LONDOIST;
Wm. n. ALLEN &
CO., 13,

WATERLOO PLACE,

S.W.

rUBLISllEBS TO THE INDIA OFFICE,

1874.

WM.

H. AlLEir

&

CO.,

PEINTEBS, 13, WATEEIOO PLACE, VAJJL MAll, 8.W.

TO THE

HOIs^OUEABLE

AND VEEY REVERENJi

GERALD WELLESLEY,
DEAN OP
AlTD
ST.

M.A.,

GEOEGe's CHAPEL, "WINDSOE, lOED HIGH ALJIONEB

DOMESTIC CHAPLAIN TO HEE MAJESTY THE QUEEN,

THIS WORK
IS

BESPECTFIJLLT AND GRATEFULLY DEDICATED.

:r-,r;ir'

The Tables and Yerbal Forms. Arabic grammars written little In all previous for the use of Eiu'opoans.PEEFACE. etc. I have followed the system adopted it to by the native grammarianSj believing be more suitable than the the same time I have in Greek or Latin methods. Another feature in the work is the addition of a glossary of the technical terms of Arabic grammar.. Broken Plurals. and literature has thus been This deficiency I have eudea- . not scrupled to At make such alterations the order and arrangement of the various parts of the subject as appeared to me necessary for aiding the memory of or facilitating reference to the book. so as to exhibit a glance the correspondence between the various forms. I HAVE endeavoured in the present work to furnish the beginner with a trustworthy guide and the advanced student with a complete and easy book of reference. by means of which the Student difficulty the will be enabled to translate without classical commentaries which accompany the Arabic poems and other standard works. fully have been careclearly at tabulated. and a most valuable aid to the critical study of the language comparatively neglected. too attention has been paid to Prosody and the rules of versification.

VI PREFACE. L^V^'i] LiJ J^^^ Sheikh J^assyf el Yazji of Lebanon. edition. c_jIj:J' by Dr.t!l c-^k^ a commentary hj Mo- hammed Makhzumi on MS. wMcli be found to contain all that is necessary for a thorough understanding of the system. I believe. Professor Arabic at Cambridge. 1st JtiHiiidi/. P. voured to supply in will. E. Bustani. John's College. 1854. C. 1867 c-JlUl <. yUl Dr. n. and to the Eev. Beyrout. but for kindly giving me many me valuable suggestions and criticisms. 1857 and el Yazji. C.. ILiD L^h^ by Sheikh Kassyf to In conclusion. Cambridge 1871. \iL:L 'ij^\J\ Jj: el Sj^lill (^. not only for carefully revising the proofs. 1866. of John's College. . the poem of Dhiya ed din el Khazraji (a in the University Library. Wright. Yandyck.. St. Peyrout. Beyrout.^ u^[^ by Dr. Taylor. who final revision of also aided very materially in the the proofs. P. PALMEK. Cambridge) ^J>jy^\ J-c ^_^ yLvll Lus'* . tlie section upon Prosody. Br.L^ ^ ^M\ ^\. .-. ^ i^\]^^\ J^ L^{^ by the 2nd late Beyrout. I have express of my gratitude to W.^ by Dr. Bustani. and for the Prosody. chief works The which form the basis of this grammar are the following— ^L^i ^U^ c^l:.

.....—ACCIDENCE. » 6 Correspondence of the Vowels and Semi-vowels Hemzeh Meddah The Vowels Jezmeh Teshdi'd ..... .....— ETYMOLOGY. » 13 The Pause Anomalies in Writing 14 15 Examples for Practice in Ptcading .. 20 23 . PAGB ' v 1 3 6 6 Vowels Tenwiu . 16 SECTION II. SECTION The Alphabet Numerical Value of the Letters Orthographical Signs .. or Sukiin .». 8 ».. 11 .. » .... as Signs of Inflexion Hemzet El-wasl Hemzet El-kata' .TABLE OF CONTEIfTS. L— OETHOGEAPHT. .. PAET I.. 9 9 9 10 11 .. The Measures of "Words 19 Hoots containing Semi-vowels Acsimilation . . ..

»..'.. Jje 3rd Conjugation. 31 Derived Conjugations . . The Aorist The Imperative 39 41 .. Jl«i » * 12th Conjugation. 32 33 Root) 33 Signification of the Derived Forms to the • « First Group (adding One Letter 4th Conjugation. » .. J^l. JjtJ].—PAETS OF SPEECH... . Jx-uj* 7th Conjugation. PAGE The Verb Different 24 Kinds of Verbs 24 Parts of the Verb 25 26 26 . Jj-^1 The Tenses of Derived Forms (1) (2) f3) 39 39 The Preterite .. Jxsi 33 2nd Conjugation.Vlll a:ABLE OF CONTENTS* SECTION III. Two 35 .J^ .. 35 36 6th Conjugation. Tenses of Verbs The Preterite « ThoAorist 27 Moods of the Verb The Imperative 27 29 Forms of Simple Verbs 30 The Noun of Action . „ 37 37 38 38 38 Third Group (adding Three Letters) 10th Conjugation. tj^dj] 8th Conjugation. 37 ». J.^^*Ji 39 39 13th Conjugation. J^ri::--!]. 11th Conjugation. Second Group (adding 5th Conjugation.. » -.. 9th Conjugation. ^j£\i 34 35 Letters) .

•. Agent 51 51 (10) (11) of Superiority (or Comparative) of Excess or Intensive The Noun . Verbs having Hemzeh for the Medial Eadical Derived Forms of Verbs with Medial 3... 62 62 Hemzated Verbs 1. .... ..»«.*.. Nouns Derived from Verbs (1) (2) Noun Noun Agent of Unity of Species 46 46 (3) . Hemzeh Verbs with Hemzeh for the Final Radical Derived Forms of Verbs with Final Hemzeh .... 52 53 Note on the ITse of the Tables Table Showing the Correspondence of Irregular Verbs -o^ Forms Derived from Verbs 56 58 59 59 Paradigms of Irregular Verbs I.... Doubled Verbs Derived Conjugations of the Doubled Verb Preterite of the Doubled i 59 Verb 60 ^ Aorist of the Doubled Verb CI Imperative of the Doubled Verb II... Verbs having Hemzch for the First Radical Derived Forms of Verbs with luitial Herazeh 2.. ...... . IX PAGE The N"oun of Action ...... . ..TABLE OF CONTENTS. . .. 62 63 63 G4 65 65 ...." of Action formed with of 46 47 (4) Passive Participle (5) (6) (7) Nouns Mim 47 48 50 51 The Noun Time and Place Noun Noun of Instrument of Quality of Colour or Defect (8) (9) Noun Noun ... . - - 42 43 41 Tables of the Derived Conjuirations — Active Passive u Quadriliteral Yerbs 44 46 • . .

Measure Jjtij Jxs Aoristof the Hollow Verb (Mediall) Imperative of the Hollow Verb (Medial \) . ... 74 75 75 77 • .. Jaj 8 Subjunctive Mood 81 ...1 X III. 66 67 68 68 69 70 71 J 2. .. 1st Energetic » 2nd Energetic Imperative of the Defective Verb (Final Preterite of the Defective . Subjunctive Mood etc. 74 . Assimilated Verbs 1. . PAOK . Measure Jxi> Jxi Aorist of the Hollow Verb (Medial j) .. Measure Jx>u . ...... Measure 80 80 Aorist of the Defective Verb (Final ^) Moods of the Defective Verb (Final ^j). . • 74 74 V..) 79 79 79 79 •) Apocopated (Jussive. 73 73 Hollow Verb (Medial \ )...... . Initial TABLE OF CONTENTS. J^ 77 78 78 Aorist of the Defective Verb (Final j) Moods of the Defective Verb . .. Jwtjo J. JxJj^ 71 Imperative of the Hollow Verb (Medial ^) Preterite of the 72 Hollow Verb (Medial i_c). Measure Jue 72 72 Aorist of the Hollow Verb (Medial ^) • . ...%i 80 Verb (Final ^i).. Initial ^ Derived Forms of Assimilated Verbs IV. The Defective Verb Changes in the Termination of the Preterite Changes in the Final Kadical of the Aorist Changes in the Final Eadical of Nouns Derived Forms of Defective Verbs Preterite of the Defective Verb (Final ^). Measure J^.. Imperative of the Hollow Verb (Medial ^5) Preterite of the .. The Hollow Verb Derived Forms of Hollow Verbs Preterite of the Hollow Verb (Medial j)..

) *. .etic 'O^ 81 81 2nd Energetic Imperative of the Defective Yerb (Final ^5). 83 83 2nd Energetic Imperative of the Defective Yerb (Final ^). . XI PAGE Apocopated 1st Enero... 99 Imperfectly Declined Nouns Indeclinable 100 103 .. Measure J. Measure J. as Strong Yerbs 88 89 The Noun Primitive Nouns ^ 89 Nouns Derived from Yerbs of 90 91 The Genders Nouns Formation of the Feminine from the Masculine .uj J. Measure J. 1st Energetic etc. Nouns of The Numbers Nouns 103 .. . .TABLE OF CONTENTS. 2. 84 85 . .^^ Ji^J 84 84 84 Doubly Imperfect Yerbs 1.<ti) ^<^ Aorist of the Defective Yerb (Final ^) Moods of the Defective Yerb (Final J ) Subjunctive Apocopated (Jussive. 93 Common Gender Note on the Termination Declension of Nouns S" 96 97 97 The Cases The Ancient Declension 97 98 The Cases of Nouns with a \Veak Final Radical .o Preterite of the Defective 82 82 82 83 83 83 Yerb (Final 3). .. Initial J • and Final j or o j_> .. . Medial and Final j or Formation of Yerbal Nouns from Irregular Yerbs 86 87 Hollow Yerbs Declined Indeclinable Yerbs ..

Table of Broken Plurals from Triliteral Feminine Nouns Table of Broken Plurals from the most common Nouns 4.Xii TABLE OF CO^'TENTS. 144 144 147 148 151 151 Noun of Relation Abstract Noun The Diminutive The Pronouns Personal Pronouns . 139 140 140 141 Examples of the Declensions of Regularly Declined Nouns .. . Form ^j^li Table of Broken Plurals of Quadriliterals General 133- .\i 131 Table of Broken Plurals of the Feminine Agent. • * Imperfectly Declined Nouns Declension of Nouns ending in a Weak Letter ... Verbal 114 121 2. . . Table of Broken Plurals from TriliteralJfouns ..... . Plurals of Plurals Irregular Plurals 139 . 5. View of the Formation of Broken Plurals . 3.Quinqueliterals 112 112 112 113 Note on the Formation of Plurals Tables of Broken Plurals 1. 6... Form Js... 104 105 Regular Masculine Plural 106 108 110 Regular Feminine Plural proken Plurals Plural of Paucity 110 Ill Gender of Broken Plurals Forms of Broken Plurals Ill Plural of Quadi-iliterals Plurals of. 134 139 7..>^* Nouns . ... 122 Table of Broken Plurals of the Masculine Agent. 142 Formation of Nouns not immediately derived from Verbs . . PAOB The Dual The Plural .

II. etc. Interrogative Pronouns .. The Numerals . . The Tenses of Verbs I. Xlll PAGB Changes in Towels. ..— THE YEEB AND THE NOUN.TABLE OF CONTEXTS.. 169 169 . The Imperative . The Preterite .— SYIS^TAX. . 173 which Apocopate the Aorist of two Verbs 174 176 177 The Energetic and Jussive Mood III. . The Aorist of Verbs 171 . . 152 153 A Yerb governing two Accusative Pronouns Signification of the Inflexions of Verbs Note on the Pronominal 154 154 156 157 Demonstrative Pronouns The Relative and The Article . 158 158 The Cardinal Numerals The Ordinal Numbers Other Classes of Numerals Particles IGO 163 165 165 Prepositions Conjunctions 165 » Adverbs Interjections 166 167 Imitative Sounds . 168 PAET II. . . The Moods The . 171 171 '. . . .. . Indicative Mood in the Aorist Change of the Vowel 171 The Subjunctive Mood 171 The Apocopation Particles of the Final Vowel of the Aorist . before the Affixed Prououns . SECTION I.

. 208 209 209 Construction of the Numeral and the Thing Numbered Agreement in Gender of the Numeral and Thing Numbered 213 215 The Use of the Article with Numerals .»«. .. State or Condition or 192 The Genitive Prepositions Dependent Case .Xl\ TABLE OF CONTENTS. 5. 207 207 208 Two Nouns in Construction .. 195 195 ..... 188 189 190 191 "Words Defining or Specifying the Action . ... .. in .. ... . Concordance of Nouns and Epithets The Noun The Numerals of Action as a Qualifjdng Epithet .. The Cases of Nouns 177 178 178 180 The Subjective Case The Agent and the Yerb Concord of the Yerb and the Agent The Subject of a Passive Yerb 184 188 The Objective Case 1. ...... The Gender of an Adjective Qualifying Two Nouns ..»». in Construction 201 201 Of the First of Two Nouns Of the Second of Two Nouns in Construction . TheYocative Apocopation of the last Syllable of the 199 Yocative ....<.. » .>... » ... Other "Words used as Prepositions . 197 198 A Sentence as the Complement of a Preposition . . . .. .. Nouns used Adverbially The Cause or Effect of an Action 4... .••.. Construction Separation of ... 202 204 206 Other Modes of Expressing the Relation between Nouns Ellipse of the First of Two Nouns in Construction .. The Object of a Yerb . 200 201 Nouns Nouns Definite and Indefinite in Construction .... 3. 2..... • .

Verbs of Praise and Blame Particles which Resemble Verbs Position of ^1 in the Sentence 250 250 Use o{ ^\ ij\ Cases in which either or ^j] may be used . 222 222 of the Infinitive or Noun of Action as a Verb . 3. 252 . Approximate Verbs Verbs Denoting a Mental Process . of the Agent. 5.. . Simple Proper Names 219 219 221 Compound Proper Names Constituent Portions of Proper . Parts of a Sentence ^ . and Passive Participle. 238 239 Concord of the Subject and Predicate Inversion of the Subject and Predicate 240 241 241 Omission of the Subject "Words Affecting the Subject and Predicate 1. Names . 1 251 Loss of the Final ^ in the Particles ^\ and .TABLE OF CONTENTS. 244 246 247 248 4. 219 . 234 235 The Subject and Predicate Omission of the Predicate »... XV PAGE The Ordinal Numbers Dates Proper 216 217 Names . Abstract Verbs 242 2. Nouns which Govern The Use The Use like Verbs : .. ^t.. . . . The Noun of Superiority 226 231 Other Words which are Cognate to Verbs SECTION IT— THE SENTENCE.. as a Verb 225 . . . . Intensive Agent.

..... Forms ......*. . and 3.. PAGE 6..XVI TABLE OE CONTENTS.. 279 Certain Adverbs of Pleonastic Particles Time and Place « 280 283 . .. Description iN'ature of the Descriptive . and 267 267 Apposition 1. 4. Eelatives or Conjunctives 256 258 Other Conjunctives Nature of the Eelative 259 to the The Pronoun which Eefers Conditional Sentences Protasis and Apodosis Antecedent ... Apposition of Substitution 276 276 277 Explanatory Apposition Admiration . lill. .^i. Noun . Corroboration . 5. ..1:^ iX.. Negative Participles 253 .. ». 268 » 269 Concordance of the Descriptive and the 2... 272 273 3......<. 263 On Certain Involved » . 266 li. . » SECTION III. The Absolute Eelative Sentences IS'egative 254 256 . 266 i_5j^ 2.. ... 270 271 Simple Apposition Particles Employed in Forming the Apposition .. 1. of Expression 264 265 Exception. ![ ..— THE PARTICLES AND INDECLINABLE Particles • .... 260 260 262 Inversion of the Verb and Xoun '..<. .»<. WOIIDS..

. iLii Defect 304 .Ai^TL_jU-j!ii (J) 302 Simple Deviation Deviation 302 ^^3ulTi»jU-pi Compound . SECTION I.—PEOSODY. (—ai^^ ^ vJ^ of the Second Circle Circle. Metonyma Adverbs of Time and Place of the Principles of Arabic 286 Syntax Summary 287 PAET Nomenclature III. jii^f ^JjMj 300 301 ^^^ Diagram Scansion of the Fifth Circle Variations of the Primitive Feet 1.• • TABLE OF CONTENTS. 291 Elements of wbich the Feet are Composed Quantity . The Third L^L^UyJ J Circle Diagram of the Third The Fourth Circle.— THE METRE. 302 (_jl^Jji Deviation {a) <S. 292 293 * . "• • 304 2. Words Expressions Compound tl-'Ul:^ 283 984 285 2. .. XVll PAGB Indeclinable 1.^ The Normal Feet 294 295 The Circles TheEirst Circle i—iUi:'^^ yj J 295 Diagram of the Eirst Circle 297 297 298 298 299 The Second Diagram Circle.2U"Jjl J Circle 299 300 Diagram of the Fourth The Fifth Circle. <U^i. 3..

. ^li J^li^^ Sixth Foot. Eighth Foot.j^\ 347 . 'S^y\%r The Trembling Metre Examples of J:>^i 338 339 8. ^^tj^ The Swift Metre • * 346 . T=^c^. . Fifth Foot. PAOB Tables Eepresenting the Variations of the Primitive Feet First Foot. y ^pTJ^ The Exuberant Metre Examples of Ji^jh' 326 327 330 331 5.:^ A-'A^Ksr The Extended Metre Examples ^O^ of ^.^X^-l 9 '" 318 319 3. . ^J^\siy Third Foot. Luif^* 312 313 The Metres Tables Exhibiting the Different Metres 1. -jjfj:^ The Trilling Metre \ 334 335 Examples of ^jA 7. J^l(jTj:^ The Perfect Metre Examples of J^lill 6.^M 4.• •• XVlll TABLE OF CONTENTS. j^^U^ll^ 310 311 Seventh Foot. J^^TpC The Punning Metre J'*^'^ 342 343 Examples of 9. L^TJsT The Outspread Metre Examples of 322 323 'L. ^\^ ^ 9 . 307 ^fi 307 308 308 309 309 Second Foot. Examples of ^. . 314 314 315 • • • Jj^'T^ The Long Metre Examples of Jj^f 2. ^^fLcll^ Fourth Foot.

.". Different kinds of Rhyme .>.. .. . . Glossary of Technical Terms used in Arabic . 360 tj^c^l Examples ...... c ^lj2fjl^ The Doubtful Metre Example 13.•».... Vowels of the i_^^-£ Faulty jc^ll ^'j!..— THE EHYME..TAELE OF CONTENTS. ^^~ _^I^TJ^ y The Flowing Metre -waL*J1 350 351 Examples of _ 11...••.«<. ( of Cjl. ..<. » 367 - 16. XIX PAOB 10.. t:J . . ••«•»..csr The Docked Metre . .•••' • « ujLJ^ ^^3^7 The Examples of Light or Easy Metre 354 355 358 u-g_«g'^i 12. 15.J^^ 358 360 ..» .. < ^J\k:^\ jsT The Tripping Metre ..»....... ..^ The • Consecutive Metre * i 370 • Examples of C^j\S:^\ .. 377 'i05 Index • • i t t e » « f ' « t t • • • . .-* Xlilj ... .. 374 o75 375 Rhyme .. 371 SECTION II.. Grammar <* Poetical Licence APPEXDIX... *iii^Tj:^ The of Curtailed Metre Example 14.. 373 373 Consonants of the cUjIj ... cl-Jju^t .. . .. \ 362 363 of ^Jl^^u^'^X ... 366 '» Examples of i—jj\ic^\ • .....U":>2T ^ -> V.

.

" J^ku^ to say *. and is formed by a repetition of the imitative sound. 26. Others are formed from common use. in The same verb may have which case it has a different noun of action for each." Page There 47. as S 9 9 < j>." ji:^^' to be girt. in the text." Foreign nouns are also often employed in the formaa girdle. and is ." . (Ji^=. add This kind of quadriliteral verb is often onomatopoeic. as^^i^ to gargle. after line 7. s ^ after line 13. „ 17.uj in the name of God. to the first paragraph add: is another noun which resembles the agent in form. are derived from triliteral roots." tion of quadriliteral verbs. Page 12.: ADDITIONS AND COEEECTIONS. „ fata „ fatan." : jJ^. ostensibly or derived quadriliterals. add'. different meanings." ^_^y^^ "to whisper. /or ^^j read ^\^» „ „ 16. Some quadriliterals are formed from obsolete triliterals. J}j^' jiPage 45." from phrases in j^ (Hebrew '^^&>). line 25. to rush with a noise (water). ^ ^ it to fall prostrate.to say ^IlL> V\ ^ J^^ ^ ^1 " there is no strength and no power but in God . as (_p2:>^ The culJLs^. as S^ God to become a pupil. as i"»j ^ qSa^^ to say AiJ^ ^^^^ 1 praise be to '* .

f>y the word read ^y>j and ^." Jjti „ I J5j „ ^Is.rUJl *~)Ij <^-wi!U^l tiLJl the qualificative re." ^y .jx3 to the list of Nouns of Excess add : as Jjj- immense.-'." merciful. line 22." a drunkard." as J^i '- S^ o 'a lion. J^ when : it has the significait is tion of J. to Jj^A^ add (when derived from transi- tive verbs). sombliDg the agent noun. for c-jo^ and ^. in the heading MEDIAL HEMZEH. for initial hemzeh. "joyful. line 3." Jxi „ s L_-^ ^ juj „ (^l/». to the account of the a noun of time and place add : Adding to this -^ noun gives the sense of abounding in. j^ ( good. add as afoot-note This happens when intensive." t_-J^ Page 50." j^ ." etc. as c:-^r* C'-^. in which case it is Page 95. read Page 94.5>-j The form J^." is'jurfU *a place abounding in lions. ." Page 53. in the last case -»:>. derived from a neuter verb. when derived from hollow verbs. J." It is of the measure J-tii a3 ^y iJ^ "to be joyful. Page 64.--' "brave. to second tabic." l::-w* .. is frequently conr^f^^) tracted. „ jjcls „ (when derived from neuter verbs)." hard.XXU therefore called ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.^'*) dead." "thin. to the words 5." J^ JUi as yis>- sweet.is the form actually in use. >j »> "> >> >> >> >> >> „ „ 12.fj' „ „ 1." to drink.cli. .

63." ii. „ 19. add : Feminine nouns of as J^l:^^ it this form (J^li always con.i" „ after or»Jl „ „ I father." . where Page 99. SXIU Page tain the •J\ 95. 20. „ „ 3. line 18." 304. for four letters..^:J . heading of the page. line 9." read the addition of from one to four letters. ^ 344. ^jxiiwi* ." "for ijj-" „ „ „ . lines 8 and 9." „ „ „ „ 146.^sPreac? Pages 327 and 329. line 28. 1.' "add or Juj: servant of. „ „ jlfJb. „ "for J.. » „ » }> !-'> >> j*^ >> (»-'• 100. . /or "for ^^ " read " for . „ „ „ 365. „ .«. meaning of d-M j. 333. j> . „ "for^" „ „ "for^.. „ 3. . \^\ = jj^>. for ^'j b 1 read >\j\b]. „ for -. „ 11. line 2. 348. ADDITIONS AND COERECTIONS. ^^xA.sT Page 332.« rea^? jJ-^li::^./or jy 1 ii J 1 . (j^jli ^ iJo_ Verily is a neither aged. 18. etc.^Jj^] read ^jJj^\ u the addition of one letter to a foot of „ 306. „ jy^^^ (j:^b j\^\i^ • ^ ^ ^i"^** ci^li... >> 12 '-'J 2. /or ^^)xU:.lUi J cow so in Kor.. S >> f ^9 i» 5 >> c.

.

THE ALPHABET. The Arabs write from right to Their alphabet consists of twenty-eight sonants. all con- . letters.-ACCIDEi^CE. PART SECTI0:N' I. (1). left.ARABIC GRAMMAR. L— OETHOGEAPnY.

2 ARAEIC GRAMMAR. . ARABIC LKTTEKS.

initial. c c . « k and (J/. final a. 6 wlien medial and -«_ fijialj change their form slightly. re- spectively.. and when medial or DETACHED. become i and C and re- spectively. j». when when ^ initial and medial. becomes ^ and ^ becomes a. when re- spectively. becominc.. . ^.. THE ALPEABET. ^. initial and medial. i_ when . becomes and medial. j^ t_f when initial j ^^ ^ -.

ARAEIC GRAMMAR. as will be seen from the lowing table HKURKW. iu their numerical order they exactly correspond with the alphabetical (and also nnmcrical) order of the Hebrew or Phenician alphabet. and confol- sequently of the Greek. . used as mimerals .

by tlio grace of his Creator On the day of his accession the world holds festival in his liononr. fortune smiles ! upon him with might and happiness. words or sentences containing letters the sum more of the numerical value of which gives the date of any event that may be as required. The Arabs of Morocco arrange their letters in a slightly : different numerical order.: : CHRONOGEAMS. and written . The sum of the of the numerical value of the letters contained in the sentence ^fJ\ J^y^ ^ makes up 1283." that to say. thus In ordinary transactions the Arabs make use of the following cyphers borrowed from the Indian. the date Mohammedan year corresponding with 18G6 of the Christian era. throne. memory these are usually woven into in the following upon the accession of the present Sultan of Turkey Abdii'l 14-Ziz. In order to be still easily retained in the verse. O The thus letters in their numerical order are arranged in a series of meaningless words to serve as a memoria techniea^ This use of the letters as numerals is confined to is mathematical works and "chronograms.''^ ou it he was estahlished on the . writing the date (in the words).

The vowels are re/. When the vowels are an^ doubled. "giving the n sound. and a^ as signs are written above and below the letters. i. i. — spectively — in ft. they are This is pronounced respectively un and in. from left to right. and dhamm denote the sounds a.g. by the hardness or softness of the preceding consonants like those of the consonants. same manner as onr own." The vowels thus Jcesrahy doubled are spoken of as tenwln fethah^ tenwin tenwin and dhammah respectively. These sounds are modified . and — sigiis as Fethah.e. — fethah. the reverse of the Arabic writing 1234567890 \ r r e e. they can only be approximately rendered in English. The vowels. while feth. -^ — . OETHOGEAPHICAL VOWELS. The vowels and other orthographical dhammah. TENWIN. (3). 1 V A H * lAvr 1872. (4). and form is still preserved in the con- . tenwin or nasal vowels are intimately connected with the long The old Arabic. called %^^ tenwin. and dTiammah denote the hesr. hesrah. SIGN'S.: 6 in precisely the ARABIC GRAMMAR. u. as in full . thus 4^. seems to have declined its this nouns with long vowels. The student must therefore learn the correct pronunciation of the language orally. — JcesraJi^ pronounced — u. like the Nabathean.e. i. in fat .

"of a king." falls the father of the on the words musa" and futher. noun school boy to mus«. namely father." Nominative Genitive Objective y>\ abli. — the stress is laid rather on the word is itself. "a book. or of. as though the vowels were prolonged .. a. are to a certain extent neglected and This is exactly wnat happens in the declension of an Arabic noun." but l1S\^* '-r'^^ KiTAm^ malikin. akhd. but when when it is it either in construction or defined by the article. alch'i. ^J\ alt. is also worth observing." »s possessor. ! J dhd. is mentioned only in its relation to another word. in confirmation of the above hypothesis." the natural accent musa Latinorum. etc. a certain stress will be laid on the vowel which indicates the declension. that the regular plural forms are nothing more than a prolongation of the terminations of the singular." "mouth. — that is. and the long vowel becomes consequently shortened." lLnL* malihjfi." brother." of a father. we decline an English or Latin mus<c." — the dropping of the tenwin in these cases being equivalent to the shortening of the long vowel. ijtf'h Is lJ'^ ^^'^- ul aha. ^^^ dhu. " the book of a king." while the case signs shortened. fu (^^ famun). ^\ i^^ \s>~\ ahliu.: ORTIIOGRAPniCAL SIGNS. is the only difference being that in Arabic the change expressed in writing thus: t_->li:^ Icifdbv^. fu.. 7 struct form of a few nouns expressing the most primitive relations of life. apparent as if This at once fashion.'' etc. From its this it follows that tcmv'm is the sign of the indefinite noun." but in the combinations boy. and therefore pronounced without reference to any other word. and It absence implies that the noun is definite." a father. m. When the word is indefinite.

o S- ^^x^y* i mli7nin(ma» 9 9 ^^y muminm. Ai^y* muminoXxxn. accentuation. and that alone would remain shortened. (5). the principle above advocated. imply an extension of the meaning: thus. thus. ARABIC GRAMMAR. fall upon the by the natural laws of but one. the others being either neglected or Arabic . IN'om. but ever of the short superscribed employs only the letters \ ^ ^. \ > Genitive Objective ^yy* ^ ' inuminaiiu. . for instance. is pro: nounced ^xa^ mefatih here the long a is shortened by u. '%9 % ^ Objective \^^y* muminsio. the tone would." is declined MASCULINE.. i^^y mumm&tan. Ij ha^ jj hu^ ^ hi. Singular. the earlier Kiific writing makes no use whatvowels. Genitive \j^y* fnumtnun. ^ S i 9 ^ 9 i- f Nom. is in the modern dialect neglected altogether.— 8 . The process actually takes place in modern the word -s^-J'H* mafdtihu. When last two or more long vowels come together. " • ^ . No distinction appears to have been originally made in Arabic between the long and short vowels indeed. and the short having already undergone the shortening process in the ancient language.^ jwMmwatin. j CORRESPONDENCE OF THE VOWELS AND SEMI-VOWELS. correspond to the weak consonants or semi-vowels In Arabic writing the long vowels are formed by a combination of the two . to ^J^J^ "a believer. From this it follows naturally that the short vowels ^ i ^ t/. long. Plural. ^ 't? o CL?\L«. LU\:>^y muminkivm. ) FEMININE.

: : . = <2. or T without the hemzeli^ and is called meddah. MEDDAH. causing it to incline (to the sound of kcsrah). or t^ „ They occur both In nouns t_-jlui in the moods of verbs and in the cases a book. (8). — — of nouns. genitive or dependent case. THE VOWELS AS SIGNS OF INFLEXION. \\ (7). e. . In endeavouring to pronounce a vowel without a consonant. effort with : the muscles of the throat this the Arabs represent by hemzeh \ . 9 HEMZEH (C). Imaleh^ i.e. word JJ^iW pronounced ennes . ORTHOGRAPHICAL SIGNS. In the case of thus ^ aa the second allf is written over the first <^." nominative or suljective. z. we make a distinct. "prolongation." as in the The long is sometimes pronounced like our a in face.. . ' The vowels used in the translitcratiou of Arabic words throughout this work arc to be pronounced as iu Italian. though slight. this is called \ .g. in "whicli form alone it can act as agent to a verb. The vowels -^ or are used as terminations of inflexion thus. or J nominative or subjective. \ for the objective. w.^ ^ and ^ preceded by fetliali form diphthongs ^ hau (pronounced as ow in now) and ^ hai (pronounced as y in hy). j1 mi^ ^\ eV. and the long vowels accordingly become at the it beginning of a word ««.

is called quiescent. 2. it was done. bit" (not ba-Icesrah-td). rr depending upon or proceeding fi'om some one. OR StIKUN. Jjtw j^l may do" (conditional). c-_? hu-fethah. 1. as <-_> A ha. JEZMEH". ^ In spelling. such a combiinadmissible : — Two quiescent letters l::^^ * nation. expressing state or condition. dependence. as this case the c:-^ hit mark -^ is placed over the last. "rest. Two In consonants with a short vowel between. If such were the case. And in verts jxh^ he does" that he (active)." expressing — an action. . Some philologists have supposed that the Arabic language was origi- nally monosyllabic. dependent on the pre- ceding word. (9). -^ resulting in a certain condition. There are only two kinds of syllables in Arabic. the above suggestion as to primary signification of the vowels will enable us to understand the letters.g. and objective state or condition lurk in the respective vowels themselves. as bist is the letters of pro- longation are considered as quiescent. the vowels are (t '- always named after the consonants. arrangement of ideas in Semitic languages in groups of three or triliteral roots." orjezmeh. corresponding with these vowels.xi preterite passive in Arabic contains all three in proper order. genitive or dependent. From this it would seem that some such significations as action.: 10 (^^\::^ AEABIC GRAMMAR. for instance. <JL~^ Id-tdkcsrah. consonant with a short vowel. ba". cannot come together." and is called siikun. "cutting A letter without a vowel Note. The fj. bls^ ohjective. off. e.

letters. Letters of this class are called <Lw^^ They ^jj^'^ al-huriif ash-shamsiyeh." for a similar reason. "strengthen- (sCO 6)." and is written thus —. The mark of reduplication is called ing. but in a grammatical point of view. H TESHDID. are just fourteen in number. facilitate the utterance of the first they employ a hcmzet el- wasl. are called kj^^^ The remainder ^. would bring two beginning of a word in the in all such cases the hcmzet (as will consonants together at tlio manner cUvasl just indicated. not al-shemsu.j^^ cd-lmriif al-Jcamari7jeJi. liquid.OETHOGEAPmCAL SIGXS. Like all other permuta- tions of letters in Arabic (of this is obviously which I shall speak presently). merely a euphonic change. the English word "smith" in an Arab's mouth would become ^^L^| ismith. When the article it is ^! al precedes any dental. half the alphabet. itself is assimilated with and the letter JJ^I doubled to compensate for the elision. thus we say ash-shcmsu. (10). and must therefore be treated of at greater length. "solar letters. The heinzet eUvasl is important. it. or "point of conjunction": thus. teshdld. comprising. not only in an orthographical. HEMZET EL-WASL (11). Such cases are be seen in : the rules for the conjugation of verbs) the following . is and employed." because the word J^ lunar "sun" begins with one of them. at The Arabs cannot utter two consonants together but to the beginning of a word without a vowel . In many words the rule for the formation of the word and for the addition of the vowel points. or siUlant letter.

" ' Passed by a son ^*)j *^Mj <J^y '--tl/^ I man— tmrartu hi-rajulin w'ahnimin w'amnin ) — a man. wi . 12 (1 j. *-^i tmraun. a son. *ij j^ ihnamiin. the anus. VII— X.ABIC GRAMMAR. oaths. istun.: a . man.. etc. thus . simple triliteral The imperative The preterite of tlie verb and verbal noun of the derived con- ugations (3). jM^:^^' tthnatdni (feminine). sylhible In y^\ and lljj^ the vowel of the second may follow the pointing of the succeeding vowel thus ^y«^ :/*!? *-j\j (*-f'i c>^j J^J "*^^ P ' ^ ™^^ —^ »> so^ —^ J^^o jaa rajulun wa'bnumun w'amruun ^ ? ) came ^ ^'^^ ^ o^^ ravca. Ar.^ aimnmm.^ i"^ ^^. a woman.) daughter. ihiun.jI .. tvaslah — ' j1 is placed over tlie uJ^Q \ ihnu H-meliki. a/t/ with waslah. (2). two ("numeral). I Vy^^^ ^^1j ^^"^ ''---^iL' —a son — Raaitu rajidan w'ahiaman w'amraan ) man. is elided in pronunciation. a name. (When the word ^\ occurs be- tween two proper names the iUjl ihnatun. mark thus. a . S '^ \ j^uj^ ithndni (masculine). a alifi^ not written. and the alif to denote this fact . The Jiemzet el-tvasl^ wlien following a vowel." but rather an 1 Strictly speaking the hemzeli should not : be written m these words. : The following nouns S-'O. _ SO jjJi s ^. . *-j) ismun. not ihnu al-meliki.^1 iinraatun.

^^." '^ "them. OETHOGRArHICAL SIGNS. ^^ "me. as j^ "extend. it will be observed that the '' vowel of the second a which in the case of Jo?-j man " remains un- changed." ^ . l:ut "you. Jjtl) In other cases pronounced with Sometimes the hemzet el-tvasl comes after a letter which has no vowel." take kesra/i." j^ "you." where it denotes the it is first person singular of the aorist. k>-1 akhuitu Hhija^ The words *Up "I write out the . Hemzet el-kafd^ "the point of disjunction. 13 Here syllable. After a iemv'm the hemzet el-wasl is pronounced with kesrah. of "doubled" verbs that of which the 2nd and 3rd (2) radicals are alike." takes dhammah. since. and in such cases the foUqwing rules must be observed:— (1) The quiescent letter in the following words takes the vowel fet/iah : pronouns).. The final letter of the words jJ« "since. In such cases of course not elided. ^ "from." "their" (affixed pronouns)." "your. HEMZET (12). or is felt is hiatus" (because a hiatus before the vowel intro- duced by it is pronounced). EL-KATA. except parts of a verb wV-. in the other two words varies with the final vowel." "my" (affixed "witli. At word first (3) the beginning of a sentence Jiemzet el-tvasl is pro- nounced — (1) Wiili fethah : in the article ]}\ and in the (j^t. All those last con- which have no vowel on the (3) sonant take kesrah. either a radical letter or ^^Ujt a sign of inflection prefixed to verbs. (2) With dhammah it is in the imperative of the is form of verbs of which the aorist all of the form liesrah. as in "I act." syllables consisting of All other monolast of two consonants the which has no vowel." and the imperative is.'.

When the -f- latter occurs in the middle of a word. s ''rralnmi. sentence. The single emphatic ^ which is sometimes added to the imperative and aorist of verbs. HldJii Wrakmdni Wralim. the dots are omitted. 1 u^ \ Hemzet el-katd always written in full 1. Sj Words <2 kill of one letter add a in the pause. *-^ Bismi I . it is t «. tion at the end of a sentence thus ^:^)\ J^}^ ^\ . to distinguish from the letter of prolongation. with or without temum^ becomes in the pause as iU^ ijLi'Xs^^ dhammah t^ becomes pronounced jd-at rahmah. The final short vowels are dropped in pronuncia." contain signs." L:u^L>- "I came. is stands at the beginning of a i.. as IjjJ <. (13). as rah and for J ra and j ku .14 alphabet. as '^y* mu'-minun^ "a believer. as ^ -iU pronounced at the end of a sentence Jl idhrihd. el-tvasl^ when but when it written is following a vowel or temvm." When it ^ is so used. are dropped. THE PAUSE.::^f\jj pronounced nun^ ra'aitu Zeidd. also becomes Ij T.. all the short vowels and orthographical The learner is referred to the examples in reading given at the end of this section. a perusal of which will render him familiar with of the letters. and introduces dhammah is or — kesrah^ the alif^ which serves as its prop. AEABIC GRAMMAR. all the possible combinations Hemzet written T.. changed into the semi-vowel analogous to the short vowel. ^xq- nounced j'd'a Zeid and marartu hi-Zeid) but temvin fethah { I . not . as Temvm and jjJj kesrah and aj 'l:>- cij^..

ANOMALIES IN WRITING." \si> hddlia. and in the following instances (1) : The niin ^j in the following words is not written. "this. pronounced ^»in«). "but." cul^^^-: samdwdtun. (14). as mentioned above.l . 'Omar. as iJjj Zeiddn. Ujs." (-!-C!_jl uldilca.as. ^ *' ar-Rahmdnu. "God. with the first letter of that immediately succeeding ^J^ j^l and ^ when followed by U. two hundred. " licavcns. is occasionally found in the construct form of a plural noun as S: \ \^ \j> . pronounced lAmrun to distinguish it oblique j^. pronounced marartu hi-Jcadh. "the merciful (God). '' f' ' -• '. when also that letter terminates a verbal form as V r* As dharahii. but assimilates it. ANOMALIES IN WRITING." iX^L* ^^>-J^ angels. ^^ycjv^. Arabic is pronounced as it is written. miatun." ^yij thaUthuna. ^. dhdrihu Zeidin. native ^j^^^. imatdni." J is A wmo written but not pronounced in uXiljl uUlJca." ^ Idkinna.^^kc (nomi. : (4) Alif is pronounced but not written in the following words i^\ alldhu." maluilcatnn.. "Words like ^li. — (1) After ivaw. ^l. "thirty. except in the Pause. lj^Jj thaldthun)." (2) a prop to tenwin fethah (3) In the words ^\^. those " in the direct and oblique case of . . become U^. This . ^ "a hundred. <( the strikers of Zeid. in wliicli 15 the temvm Jcesrah stands for a 1^ which has dropped out. reject the temvm in the pause as ^Uj cL^'i^. from ." . ^'^ „ becomes 1 j^l or (2) An alif \ is written but not pronounced . "those. "three." (3) uld'i. jJjl ula.." liU (fern. I " "that." tliCj dhdlilca.^£.

" TT^ae^ ." s (8) • wdw is pronounced as alif in ^ .^i tvasl is retained <^j Zeidiin Ihnu M." i^J^ saldtun. ." near.^]^ IhrdMmu. as ^^Ji. cer«?«'. tainly." ^xa. for t-^j'^ David . pleased." j^i when it occurs between two proper names where a correlation exists. In this ease a small alif is generally written it is to perpendicularly above the consonant with which (5) The Hornet <Uj1 *<uJ phrase II Jijj ." when these words are in the or having singular and stand by themselves. the hemzet ^. not being in construction .. i^-'l Ishdhi.. ^^f*J^ Nomdnu. i^. GEAMMAE.)nrm." (2) In the article jl when following J J "to. in the name of God." ic^^^. (15.^>\ Urn s " I \ ^ haydtun." If e'Jw with the el- second proper name forms as • r-^^^ the predicate of a proposition." as i^u-J'^ to the man." ^zi fata.^«<^a. until." . as jj-Kc. the article or a pronoun affixed is when not standing by themselves alif generally written instead of wdw. life.' 16 Jt^j>j AEABIC. Isaac. Ismail." (7) 1^ pointed with fethah or tenw'in fethah at the silent." ti'Jo /«(/a. ^ Zeidu'bnu Sdmrm. el-wasl is omitted — (1) from the word j^\ in the \ ^ for ^U) *«:V lismilldhi. for ^^wjjj heads. Ahraham." (jwujj Ru-us. is ^ omitted from such words as ^ ^^ It t-^i JDd^ud.^r*r^ Sulaimdnu." and sometimes in the proper names (^Is 'Otimidn.) EXAMPLES FOR PEACTICE IN EEADING. be pronounced." ^L:^ upon. when?" jglj laid. end of words he is is the vowel \ a only being pronounced a youth. Ishmacl." i»ij zaMtun. Zeid (is) the son of Amr." . Zeid son of Amr. (6) (( . ^\ ild. yardhd. prayer. to. ^^^ maid. y 9 %hi sa zii ri dha du khi ha ju ihi ya hu wa ni ma lu Tea hi fii ghi a dhu ti ^ha su . alms.

! Z. for a year. -^1 f xo<*0 O-^ X OXC-^ X-CJ "^O ^ tva'Udhi fi ^l-haydti dlaihi fi U-liarhi fi 'z-zamdni linndsi lil'haydti 'd-dunyd lalittu ila ^l-yaumi lilluhi xOx ^o-o y i X '' O X tca-kadha 'lldhu hdda dhdha ^jtimd'a Bi-al'i man wadattuhufaftaraknd And after that God ing. bhd ^ ju 'd ^ ihi b td y la u?l ^\ i jl » dk ai au u a md lu led k'l fii ghj- ^(i i'l dhd su shi sd zu yd yu. and when we 2 . decreed a meet- (May) he ed) by whom I love (be ransommy father — we parted. 17 jl ^^ ri b dhd _jJ ^^ M}. hit wi wai wd ni c o S^ mudh js sar -Li Jci. ux u*"^ das v^ j'^ r^ jj zur saf kam lal dur i.dw0 taslhnuhu dlaiya wadda fa^ftaraknaliaiilanfalammaHtakaind His (only) salutation Farewell!" to me was Wc were parted met. ki ka{ ^j ruh ^ haj Ow" tJ-^v^ ij:-^ c:-^ fut c? i_--J kd Unidk had o^x mit c>^ lit tab <— ^ ox u^.EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE IN READING.

" said I." fa-kultu lastu Sulaimdna 'bna Ddudd fa-kdla inna Icaldm'i lasta tafhamuhu And I said. whom Alleged Philosophy in his defence '• The arguments I use are sound. .• ." said I. dnaita nafsaha mdkulan wa-mdkudd wa-kala arifu mdkulan fa-kuUu lahu " You mean that you yourself are hobbled fmdkulanj and fettered ! And said. Then said he. flraX-rt! takrau haban dnJca masdudd min aina ania wa hddha tadhlcuruhu 's-shai'u I see that you are knocking at a door which is "What have you to do with this thing which you mention? shut against you." " I'm not King Solomon !" was my reply. . : 18 AEABIC GRAMMAR. "l am not Solomon. pretending to God dogmatically. the science of philosophy.'' ^ This may be paraphrased as follows : — I lately found. Atheist. "Tou do not undcr- the son of David !" stand my speech. A foolish Said he. /cat? raha yalcfuru hi W-Eahmdni tak- wa-jdhilin yadddiji 'l-ilmifalsafatan lidd "Went and denied the existence of the Merciful An ignorant fellow. Alluding to the Mohammedan legend that Solomon understood the language of beasts. " all sound and little sense." " Just so. Said he. I know that it is so by common-sense /'wiaMZfl?^/" Then I said to him. " You do not understand my speech. " Tou talk of matters far beyond your reach You're knocking at a closed-up door.

consisting of either three or four letters. but by inserting letters in the root. (IG). in fact. treats only of by which the meaning of the root e?^ is modified. THE MEASUEES OF WORDS. c_. for obvious cuplionic reasons^ exist side in the bv side same root. like the letters used . cJ and ^. Thus in English we add the termination to express the active participle or agent of a verb.— ETYMOLOGY. however. and m(j to express the infinitive or gerund . maker. prefixes and the grammar of those languages and affixes. Every Avord in Arabic may be referred to a sig- nificaut root. and pointing the latter with the vowel kesrah^ gives the sense of the agent or active participle thus the 3j«^ becomes Jxli ''one who does. 19 SECTION II. THE MEASURES OF WORDS. The letters (_J and c_j." For instance. as make. In Arabic. a mere formula. Jxi fdl^ signifying mere action^ is taken as the typical root for exhibiting these modifications. and ^." and all tliis Avord is measwe upon which other agents of this kind arc formed. the insertion of an allf between the first and second radical. It is.. cJ and j cannot. and the formulcc thus obtained are called the "measures of words. In Euroj^ean languages significant roots are irregular in form. making. the triliterals being by far the more common. such modifications are obtained not only by prefij^ing or affixing.

20 in AlgeBra or . and depend upon the principle above advocated that the three weak consonants ^ ^^ are respectively homogeneous \ to the tliree vowels -^^^. To understand how a vowel can change one weak consonant into another analogous to itself. and then proceed to form "measures" of nouns and verbs in the . root J we substitute the signs (i) (2) (3). ARABIC GRAMMAR." cL^^. "killing.^ in J^li we may substitute any other triliteral root . ROOTS CONTAINING SEMI-VOWELS. the vowel changes the weak consonant into another weak consonant analogous to itself. for as (a + h) may represent (2 + 3). we must investigate the nature of the '^measures" above described. so for the triliteral root J." Jj'^ "a murderer. (4 + 5).U 3^ where i1j^}J> katlun." <lJj^ dharhm. and obtain the same modification of meaning as " a striker. changes are called the Permutations of weak consonants. When the vowel and weak consonant in any derived form are heterogeneous. "striking. If." and ^jIj are said to be the 3^1j of the re- spective triliteral roots to which they belong. (17). any otlier numbers. when we should rather have thought that the consonant would be stronger than the vowel. The triliteral root may contain one or more of the \ weak consonants or scmi-vowols ^ ^ in which case These certain euphonic and other changes will take place. instead of the three radical letters of a significant * i.

ordinary manner. following 21 we sliall obtain such results as the .THE MEASURES OF WOEDS.

but ^'ij'* therefore miwzumm and ^j>4. and the natural accent penultimate would leave that alone long. : This. for they are the only ones in which such a difficulty is likely to arise Jv'cil iftadla : e. In the 1st person (. the last form. and become ^jry^ mudfiun and (.g. is other than instance. This can only take place in dental or pcdahil letters.— . In the 3rd person preterite active of the same verb Jli the two fetlialis conquer the j. the ordinary laws of yield.^* muijkinun are repugnant to the ear. -^'^ .IJli the long J being quiescent conquers. for when two which it impossible to pronounce together occur in the same . euphony require that one should vowel conquers: e. would be ^. aiid the rule holds that letters two quiescent cannot come together. therefore. and the accent falling on it. have been LJ. from jj. and in Arabic the The measure JUj^. then.t^v* muktnun. weak letters occasionally letters as. and the word become as Jj we actually have it. on the while the ante- penultimate would be absorbed. from ^\t. in pronunciation. it becomes ci-Sy but this is naturally shortened . '—'•*? Forming the measure from the root we should . must originally falling. I have before suggested that the old Arabic had no short vowels . 22 ARABIC GRAMMA R. is the general principle of permutation When to it a vowel and a weak letter which is not analogous come together in a form. A permutation of takes place.g. form then the softer of the two is changed into the cor- responding hard one. "would be ^'^y*i and the measure Jsxi^.

as . I shall content myself for the present with the 'principle just given.^* makatta for cl-iC* maJcathta. for jjc^ maddim or when two letters of the same kind come together. and the form becomes w_J. for the operation of the natural laws of euphony which produces every such change. This naturally occurs when the same letter is repeated ju^ without the intervention of a vowel. and t \s. although this last is kind of assimilation is optional. always the same. (18). • 23 have L-jj^\ idhtarala as the soft t . The it principle involved is however. Instead. is. CLi will actually sound like the hard '" the latter is -^ \-^ ^ written instead. reserving the consideration of the less obvious permutation for cases in which they occuiv . would be unpronounceable. this. therefore.l:..jt Another euplionic change of which ccptible is letters are suc- ASSIMILATION. however. of burdening the student's memory with a long list of 7'iiles for Permutation and Assimilation. which then doubled. as ^J. is One letter is often assimilated by another. RemarJc— it obvious that in practice cases will oc- casionally occur for which the foregoing rules will not at first sight entirely account. ASSIMILATION.

The Particle (including the preposition. all the letters but may disappear. three letters They are either simple or augmented. sound and zvcalc. of speech. The parts of speech in Arabic are three :— 1. The Verb. see that the multifarious phases all can assume are capable of being reduced to a few measures easily remembered. subjunctive and energetic moods. 2. We which however. conjunction. it encounter. These are further subdivided into active transitive and neuter. well seem a formidable thing for a beginner to shall. sectio:n' III. DIFFERENT KINDS OF VERBS. (20). from ^] atdj "he came. and interjection).24 • ARABIC GRAMMAR.— parts (19). The Noim (including the pronoun and adjective. and what we are accustomed to call the participle).. the shortened form of L^l Ui. An Arabic Verb with its fifteen conjugations. its active etc. one may happen that in conjugating. THE VEEB." . 3. and are intimately connected both in sense and form. Arabic Yerbs are of two kinds. may and passive voices. and passive. as in have been one i^ ti. adverb. The simple verb cannot contain less than or more than It five. so that a simple form may seem to letter. as they depend more or less one upon another.

" letters It may also happen that some of these occur as radicals in a verb. aorist. (21). or by employing one or more of The letters thus employed to augment or conjugate servile^ verbs and inflect nouns are called and are con- tained in the last three words of the foUowincj verse ^ "Ci -O y P Pl --O P i^'s- I asked the servile letters concerning their name . are nothing root more than derived verbs formed from the simple the sense.— active and . and third radical letter of a triliteral verb as the . 25 The augmented verb certain other letters.e. all derived forms. safety and ease). and did not he: J^.. arc taken. as ''striking.wJj j^t«i {i. but in such a case nothing save a knowledge of the grammatical measures student to discriminate. PARTS OF THE VERB.— preterite.. fifteen conjugations. These last. action is con- JI^* from which ." cl^ dharhim. and imperative . whether nouns or verbs. second. by the addition of certain letters which modify or extend The noun which expresses the simple sidered as the source. they answered. passive three tenses. however. and this occasionally supplies the place of the . The Arabic Yerb has two voices._J fd^ c auiy J lam respectively. is fonned either by repeating the second or third radical. : THE SERVILE lETTEES. will enable the We or are accustomed to speak of the first.

therefore. TLUllAL. terminations c:^ l::-^ C--» . Ui - < f ''l • . l::-^^ Jlxj ^ 3rd person. words are ranged in grammars and TENSES OF VERES. Masc. Note.J-«i ^. in the third person singular masculine. and to the passive . In simple verbs the preterite active of the form Jxi.. is (22). are in reality- separate pronouns serving as nominative or agent to the verb. Fem. it has been found convenient in practice to treat the third person all singular masculine as the form from which derived. X o . or J-o. The The Fem. a masculine pronoun is said to 1 This paradigm applies equally to the forms Jjti. etc.— As this noun of action is variable in form. * THE PEETEKITE. Ui. Again. 26 infinitive or gerund. twiixj l::-^^ L::->Ui 2nd 1st „ „ L::-Jjti \Note. Masc. others are all This is..— : . preterite passive is invariably of the form 3*i Persons are formed as follows DUAL. which parts of the verb are wanting in Arabic. SINGULAR. Jxi. ARABIC GRAMMAE. — The O ^ .jL-^M . Juii. which arc declined in the same way u:. Maso. Fem. the form under which dictionaries.

: TIIE TENSES AND MOODS OF VERBS.] THE AOEIST. The same remarks apply and prefixes by which the persons of the aorist are formed. . The aorist active of the simple verb is formed as follows PLURAL. to the affixes 27 be implied. (23).

It will then PLURAL. ^C cox f^xs3 JjtaJ Srd person. ^^ 9 ^ ^ Masc. Masc. Fern.'O^ 9 9 o^ Ldi- L5 ^^' Jotii" 2nd 1st » Wl To the conditional form of the aorist a nun |t. or used as an be declined DUAL. Fem. persons which end in that letter preceded by a long vowel. or in a conditional or alternative sentence. It gether may be apocopated. It is then de- clined as follows 1 . Masc.Jjtij J. ^ . iUii- L^ . With PLURAL.XSJ 2nd 1st „ >» 2. P P'^^ imperative.e. SrVQULAR. (J-^l Srd person. . SINGULAR. Fem. 9 9i^y Maso.: : 28 ARABIC GRAMMAE. Masc. the doubled nun '^. either single or doubled and preceded hj : fetJiahj is some- times added to impart emphasis this tense is it is chiefly used when employed as an imperative. Fern. J-xiJ Maso.". ^O . thus: PLURAL. Fem. Fem. DUAL. lose its last vowel altowhen preceded by certain particles. i.

ji^. "Wanting . Fein. 2. . Masc. 29 With PLURAL.THE TENSES AXD MOODS OF VEEBS. the single 7im J.

Common. — if the vowel of the aorist be — — if the vowel is either — or — as Jjel but with . The remaining persons to the of the imperative are formed aorist. word beginning with a quiescent inadmissible. "let him strike. To remedy this defect we add el wasl pointed with J^\ ^'^\ . and therefore a hemzet . Fcm. ." Imperative. SmGULAR. letter. Masc. Masc. as by prefixing J _ apocopated C^^^. PLURAL. There are six classes of verbs in Arabic. as or . ranged is according to the vowels with which the medial radical pointed in the preterite and aorist. AEABIC GRAMMAE. Fern.30 . h6\ L5 FORMS OF SIMPLE VERBS. (26). DUAL.

In simple verbs it is irregular in its formation. . 31 EXAMPLES. . j^5^ To sadden. j^V. as. To be To cultivated. Jxl. MEASURES. 1J3 ^o ^^ near. _j^L to rejoice. Some verbs have different forms. e. (27). Preterite. and may take any one of the three vowels on the middle radical of the preterite with a corresponding difference of meaning To be sad. jA£depress. Aorist. This form verbs. rare in sound but common in weak <^jl cl.. Aorist. jA£. The noun of action corresponds in many respects to our infinitive. j^ To live to old age. ^ ^\^ to bo easy. Jaj 9 9 <^ (__J^ to be charming. people. 4. ^J To have a high (loud) voice. to be safe. THE NOUN OF ACTION.: FORMS OF SIMPLE VERBS.g. Preterite. ^J raise. \.To cultivate. is This form imj^lies natural or inlierent qualitieSj and always neuter or intransitive. but the following arc the most usual measures . build. c* ^ • ^ 6.i to understand. />^o^ .xsj (>i is to reckon.>^ 5.J^(j to inherit.

32 AEABIC GRAMMAE. Neuter Jy«i MEASURES. . and 3rd Classes. 1st. Transitive J-xi . 2nd.

adding letters to This implies a corresponding distortion of the meaning. In the following account of the signification of the derived forms these numbers are placed against the measures. but they are described in a somewhat different order. y "-V ^-^ y y See Es-Sheikh Hasan el-Burini in his commentary upon Ibn el-Faridh's verse \^yy^y y i^ t^'Ci-^ yy ->'i3 y ju^ f^ y y (^ y '^ y c -o 9 -i-^ y y ^> ^f:\ ^^\ A_^." O-^ yy-^y ^ y yl^^L. The prefix of hemzet the root gives a transitive sense to neuter verbs. and the fourteen derived forms are numbered and so on. 2. y <J ^ ' y ^ 's. and a doubly transitive transitive. which in verbs strengthens or intensifies the action/ and in neuter verbs imparts a transitive sense.. or causal sense to those 1 which are already of the It is a commonly received theory Arab grammarians that a " redundancy -it's- of form generally indicates an extension of meaning. or intensity." Adding two or more letters to the root to modify the original meaning. Distorting the original form of the root as well as it. Prefixing clj to imply "consequence" or "effect.)\ c^oU . ^. 4:th Conjugation^ J^sT.: SIGNIFICATION OF THE DERIVED FOEilS.i liL-^-i^ ^. SIGN"IFICATIOIT OF THE DEEIYED FORMS.. and indicates either colour. 4. FIRST GROUP (adding ONE LETTER TO THE ROOT). up to 15. The simple 2. triliteral verb is considered as the first conjugation.. Adding one letter to the root. defect. 3.-£> y y -i. 3. cl Jcatd to (20).. 33 transitive 1.

at a certain time. asjll "he broke to pieces. as in front. 3p1 "lie caused to descend." Ind Conjugation^ Jxi." for sale." c^-rki "I cut the rope in "he Attributing to." ." fromjli" "he broke. intensifies the Doubling the middle consonant of the root. The following are the most usual significations ." CJ^\ "he caused to strike. as C^\ "he prone." Transitive or causal as irom L-jja." from Z<> "he throw him on his face." ." or making for." Exposing or displaying: ^Ol "he exposed from ?l? "to sell. regarding as. to. if neuter. as jlS "he ^ -jj looked upon him as." A transitive this verb occasionally becomes intransitive in fell form." as J^jV\ Lp/i\ " The land became Being or becoming in the morning . most usual significations are Transitive. truthful." from 3JJ '4o descend. meaning Its and makes it." pieces. or proved him. a place : jy^t " he went This will explain such forms as 3?*^ "^le ad- vanced. as. or making out to be . Going to 'Trak." >• L_?j^ "he regarded him or proved him a liar." from ^li "to be Intensive or frequentative." ^jt "he retreated. transitive." ^^ji "he sent forward. as ^^\J\ "he was " ^^^\ " he was in the evening." from ^ ^\ cut.: : 34 ARABIC GRAMMAR. Turning into desert.

may be as ^ letter." used in the " he wrote same sense without the preposition to CJ^ him." identical with that of the English . make it transitive. as LlJiV^ "he was he was affected ." from CJj^ "he struck." from I^IL is skin. to peel." from jIp- "a skin. This use is '^almost verb formed from a noun as to water. to sldu." Z:l^ "he addressed him by SECOND GROUP (ADDING TWO LETTERS). It sometimes implies repetition as t-jLtU ' he doubled." The form jll: would mean "he Avi-ote a book. expresses the consequonco .!i- 35 used in deriving a verb from a noun ." "he was brought forward." When the original verb requires a preposition to the 3rd conjugation .THE DERIVED CONJUGATIONS. This form j. etc." an idea of reciprocity ^iL- to the action as Jj'Ij from ''he killed ." From this sense comes that of experiencing or afraid. of the j»lft5 2nd conjugation 3-^ so as ^ys "he brought forward. The insertion of alif between the first and second ." 4." The notion party who reciprocates the action is always implied. ac- quiring. by the prefix of cls. asyL.jli "he fought with of a second blows. This. ord Co7ijugaiion.\i. radicals gives ''he fought. ^}s. ^th Conjugation. "he travelled. ." or "he disclosed. but is sometimes used to express simple action. jkaj." i." j1^ "to ''he pitched his tents.e. as " a tent .

which in such a word as this. as sly "he reclined his head on a pillow. from Ji. that the former will have an active sense." follows. therefore." come somewhat in the following manner A hypothetical form ^^j^ must ill. as J=Jl^' "to feign illness. one." from cl-^ "to inspire with fear.. JjU* Thus. with the same results as in the 3j"'«^" 6th conjugation." When will the original root is a concrete noun.-» "to be can only mean that his illness this. This cu) . but passive only inasmuch as it is consequent on the other." from ^ 2ud conjugation from ^I." from Z^ 2nd conjugation (from fjll) "a pillow. thus "li® ^^^^^ one of the parties jili engaged in a fight between two.^ "pride. is formed by prefixing to the 3rd conjugation JIlS implying consequence." have existed. was merely for the sake of affecting a second party." or SzIj "he removed the other party to such reciprocal action will become ^Cj it "removed to a distance. is The sense of feigning sometimes contained in this It appears to : form. and could ." from tion of (3^ 3rd conjuga- This prefix of cls to forms which signify reciprocal action. again." "he fought. this form imply simply adopting or employing. 36 ARABIC GRAMMAR. while the latter will be passive . if it be said of any to a distance." ^th Conjugation^ J^ul-." ^(i "he grew proud. with the fear with which others inspired him. necessarily limits the idea of reciprocity to one of the two parties concerned." and Jj'115 "fought against.

it approaches sometimes in meaning to Joe and J^ll^ thus we can say cIjI^ or tl?!^^] " he drew. ^itli Conjugation^ jilsU tlio This conjugation expresses state or condition reJ(xi ." lI-1^^ profit. the 9th conjugation . sulting from the action of the simple triliteral verb as a. j^^sjUJ will that he effect mean was one who was i. the only difference being that while the last indicates the state or condition resulting from. asj-^j^ "ho made bread for himself. J.^^ "I cut it. This does not differ materially from the 7th conjugation. of noun used to express a colour or quality as we shall presently sec. or exhibits the effects of the action of the simple triliteral verb. or to gaining In this way .'" ^'i^\ "it was cut.." ?> \J%^\^ or \J*. or was in a collected state. only 37 mean that he displayed it to deceive another.e. • The form is. the 8th conju- gation conveys the notion of being affected by the action as 'icjf^ ''I collected it." It is necessarily neuter or passive in signification. ^^M .' 9th Conjugation. he assumed illness." From this idea of "being in a state of" the form obtains a reflexive meaning." L^^\ "it was feathered to- cether. and the prefix i± limiting the consequence of such action to himself. afflicted with illness in order to produce an upon another. 8//^ Conjugation^ Jj." "he took to a trade. THE DERIVED COXJUGATIOXS.^^:^\ "tliey disputed.jt-^i\.«l.

Jjtk-jU This conjugation implies asking or seeking. and is merely an ex- tension of the 9th conjugation ^^M^ both in form and signification ." From the sense of "desiring" comes that of "desiring to be." ^jX^\ "he was proud. ^ll^^ " to be very yellow. jl*. e. 10 th Conjugation.). asyxu-^ "he asked pardon. formed from this by doubling it tlie last con- sonant to imply action." Finding or considering a thing to be possessed of the attribute implied in the original verb. as great. This is of very rare occurrence.j^^. "The to clay began to turn into stone. being a characteristic letter in the is formation of derived conjugations (see 4th conj. as in the 3rd conjugation.g.38 appears to "be ARABIC GRAMMAR.e. chansred to the hcmzet el wasl." or "petrify." THIRD GROUP (aDDING THREE LETTERs). especially colour or distortion. here This form is used to express any quality which as." The inser- tion of the \ may. The licmzet el katd." become stone-hard. is very conspicuous." iljlL\ "to be hump-backed. as lii^^j. " to consider grand or mighty. 11//^ Conjugation." "desh-ed to be thought into." and hence becoming or turning ^^y^^-^M i. convey some ." fromj^! "red." from (Ij^y "a hunch-back. and thus making into a verb. y^^\ "to be red.

^^^\ but these are very rare. as jli. and jll^J^ 39 be of may therefore mean to a brighter yellow colour than other things of the kind. THE AOBIST. "to be rough. words . and it must be left to practice and the common sense of the stu- dent to distinguish which may or may not be employed. Jj-^j^. . and may be which regarded as varieties of the quadriliteral verb. cJlis. ITo verb is susceptible of all these forms ." The grammars give two other forms tion jjil^l . (30).THE TENSES OF THE DEEIVED CONJUGATIONS. like the case-endings of a noun. the measure. of the final radical is is a termination of in- and it is affected by particles or other governing of. ulAii. (1) THE PEEXEEITE. as ^T^lji^^ "to be very rough and rugged. J^^^U 13//^ Conjugation. therefore independent and accidental to. those in use will depend upon the nature of the original verb. (2) etc. 12th Conjugation. of I shall speak further on. The 3rd person singular masculine of the preterite last section. idea of reciprocity. has been already discussed in the The re- maining numbers and persons are formed as in the simple triliteral verb." from ^A^ . THE TENSES OF DEEIVED FORMS. The aorists of derived : forms arc pointed according to the following rules The vowel flection. These imply great intensity. — 14th Conjuga- and 1 5th .

thus 4. .: 40 AEABIC GRAMMAR. In derived verbs consisting of four take dhammah letters the prefixes is — and the last radical but one pointed with kesrah —.

Preterite. prefix. is The imperative of the derived forms formed like that of the simple verb. too. and apocopating the final ^^ijli Jjli "he fought.THE TENSES OF THE DERIVED COXJUGATIONS. (3) THE IMPERATIVE. namely." As if it in the simple verb. as Aorist. JUi^jSUip jUij[J_." "fight thou. 11. sup- press the hemzeli^ but do not otherwise change the vowels until the last .l^. a hcmzet el wasl is prefixed. as ." ^all. from the aorist.etc. as 3. JUi)-. "thou fightest. he necc^mry to the prommciation . have also the fiual radical 41 doubled in the preterite.]. by re- moving the pronominal vowel.

: 42 ARABIC GEAMMAE. thus — they may be ranged in . are regular in their formation gi'oups. THE NOUN OF ACTION. (31). The Nouns of Action of the derived conjugations .

or more Exhibiting the effect of the action of the root 8.. Preterite. TABLES OF THE DEPJ^^ED CONJUGATIONS..bcJ s 6. Eoing affected by the action of the root 10. Asking for or regarding as the original idea ex(J-XAl—M 9 XO^' 9 (J-x-ij 9 O^O ^ \x^J\ pressed by the root Aor. express9 ) Doubled o >-» ^ s ex s -^ ox or iUjtiJ 4... .. act. One 2.. FERST GKOXTP. radical. act. < — . i Imperative..act. ^ -Si ^y 9 -Jj z'^'' Consequence of Consequence of .) Aor.. U £•_. J'^l . 3. Aor.i^j pass. ACTIVE. ^C * j ... Jj. i Aorist.\ Ci FOUKTU GROUP. L " "i prefixed to root.. ^_ pass.ij Great intensity 3. act.Uli L/^ I JUi or LL:li. 9 ^^ J^li:^ Aor. 5...-« Aor.. 1 • pass. modifying the sense of the root. SECOND GEOUP. letter added to the root. Two 7. Inserted expressing reciprocity or emulation alif. J^ . Noun of Action. act. 2. o -'o Colour or defect 11. U c- THIRD GROUP. expressing action )^i c c J^^* j J>*il 9 3.TABLE OF THE DERIVED CONJUGATIONS. . 9.£. ing action or intensity Prefixed alij. J^. ^. Ui. ^o '-J. . 43 (32). implying consequence. letters added.

. PASSIVE.u ARABIC GRAMMAR.

" . 45 Examples of qiiadriliteral verbs." ^^^\ " it (a crowd) thronged.—-"Jr^j ^'he rolled (it) ." Jxll'l " to creep with terror (the skin) .QUADRILITERAL VERBS.

" letters striker." it is . NOUNS DERIVED FROM VERBS." aj^^ "mode or style of departure. '^ formed by simply adding to the lN"oun of Action as j%j^ "departing" (7th parture. or quadriliterals. as of Species is of the form ii^ from triliteral ^ij "he all rode." from verbs of more than three formed by changing the first letter \ of the aorist . they therefore range themselves naturally under the same head." conj. formed in the same manner as the iNToun of Unity as j%. etc." "one blow." and from other verbs . The The "Noun of Unity from triliteral 1j^. these conform exactly with the ordinary- forms of quadriliteral verbs given above. tri- literals it is of the measure as CJJh "he struck. persons. principal forms are the following (1) IfOUIf OF UNITY.j> verbs is of the measure A-bJ. from ^_^)j ijlllk)! "one de- (2) NOTJN OF SPECIES. The Noun verbs. derivative conju-' In the formation of gations.. From all derived conjugations. as CJjJ "he struck." 12^ it is "mode or style of riding. Certain nouns derived from verbs may be con- sidered as particular forms of the latter. (34). The Agent cl^U "a it is is formed as follows :— From simple 1.1c li. tenses.: 46 ARABIC GRAMMAR." (3) AGENT.1 " departing.

^ .O to be generous. ^ia^il /^.isa^w^ one who deduces.s». as— Preterite.r>-_vj to roll. . ^ j>--V< a roller." it From letter others is formed by changing the initial of the aorist passive into ^ mim pointed with dhammah . (4) PASSIVE PAETICIPLE. into 47 U mim pointed with dhammah. From measure the simple triliteral verb this Qf-s-*\ as all is alwaj^s of the ^^j^-* ''beaten. and pointing the Icesrali . fV^* °°^ ^^"^ — Jsx^i to deduce. penultimate with ' ^ Ij as S '-' ^ P ly ^ 9 '' 9 ^.NOUNS DERIVED FROM VERBS.L> ^. *^1 . ^^^^ generously.

— .^J\ to deduce. it must be restored. Jjlii'« fighting.p\ to honour. ARABIC GRAMMAR. . wlietlier derived or 9 otherwise. tliau three letters.. then retains the Jcesrah . (V^ honouring. the wdw^ as shall presently see.« deducing. J^ ^ A. . contrary to the general rule. as Preterite.isa*«. J. . is apocopated in the aorist : we in form- ing this noun. In verbs commencing with j waiv and pointed with kesrah on the middle radical of the aorist. 48 "Verbs of . however. _. .j'li to fight. and the penultimate. more S .

KOUXS DERIVED FRO:i VEEBS. / O SOX • j^ ^^j I . Koun ^^ f 9 1^ '' of Time anil Place." j^'.g^ NounofTiri3 '^ Preterite. i. S ^ y «_li5 to rise. or rites of the Ilajj.>. as Aorist. '-r'^-^K f-r^y^* a. In all verbs commencing with aorist is even when the second radical of the not kcsrah. chase. time or place of setting (of the sun).^ a place in which a promise is performed.<. the second radical is of the Koun as of Time and Place Aonst. /- kesrahj . the "West. a^-^.^« 49 "a place or station.-. . The penultimate sometimes." from fSi\ " to remain stationary. (JXuu:. ^'^i 9 ft^^ t4-^'* ^ ^'"'"^ *^^ P-^^^^ "^ rising (of a star or constellation). jjh.e. to set. ^^^^j ^j^^^. takes even when the last-mentioned rules do not apply Preterite. of this form 1 Aonst. 4 .^ • ^/ «_Jj to put down. Noun Time Preterite. cLCJ to perform the CS^'-^ a time or place of sacrifice.. » .^(.. X:*^-' t^>"* ^ P^^^^' All verbs having in the „ licsrali iii . of performing the rites of •he Hojj. i. (Jj^-* a ^^'^^ ^^ V^^^^ ^^ rising (of the eiin).j J^jsT'* a mosque.. the tvatv is restored and the Icesrah retained in verbs of the form Preterite. Aorist cV"tJ «kc» as iju:. • > T^^ •• K V . iXs-' to adore." As in the verbal noim formed with mm. > ^ ^ . a time or place of striking." from '^SJ^\ "to buy.e. but rarely. as ^^^^ p. . the aorict retain that vowel noun . . y po X /VJj to risCj ^JJ^. pointed with that of vowel . the East.

aj "an adze.: : 60 to slaughter. L::-^i^ a place e:^ / to grow. with which they anoint a box for alkali or soda. <LijtL« as iHs'^* a box i.e.03^^^ y Eare forms are S ?l~ 9 S 9 (^ f JffO^ (J:sa.« ijxkyt as kxw-^ a snuff-box. also an oil-jar. . . MEASURE.X-u*-' 1^***^ a dwelling. where a plant grows. S ox ^L<s to dwell. "When a primitive noim it is of course irregular.^ kiL. i^j^ a file. (Jj^. to iji ^^^^^. the most common forms are EXAMPLE. XicC _ a sieve. antimony. p f <^ ^ l^JLu*. ^ -^ a place where one leans with the elbow. fusuallv in words with \ s a s (^o'^'St^"^) a strainer. iJiJtS^ M'^ ( I but sometimes in sound verbs). fj Si^ the parting of the ^^ / through the nose j^i j=^ the nostril. ^ . to part (the hair). ^'^X^ a pestle. JUX^ • ^l:iL« a key.5>- i^^sT time or place of slaughter.. AllABIC GEAMMAE. or in which kept. to rest the elbow. (7) NOTTN OP INSTEUMEIfT.. ^_^^ r> ." When derived from verbs. j'j^'* a . to breathe hair." ^L^ ''a knife. /- ^ ^ fall. as X. used to pound with ^ 9 ^^X« 9 ^ f an instrument for oiling 1^ 9 ^pyc or varnishing. ^(^^ x- ^^^^. for liolil. ^^ weak final radical. the eyes. ' tLj -s:r* The same form it is is used for the instrument with whicli a thing is applied. a place in which one falls. anything ^ .

(10) NOUN OF SUPEEIOEITT (oR COMPARATIVE). as ^^y^^ "handsome. From all beside triliteral verb it is identical in form with the Agent as 3^-^* "equable. This noun is called by the Ai-ab gi'ammarians '4he Attribute resembling the Agent." be observed that the 9th conjugation of the derived forms is nothing more than this noun with its It will final radical doubled to give it action. as ^J^. J." from ^\Ji." and imi3lics the exist- ence of an inherent quality." from ^. simple .-e! . It is seldom formed from any but neuter verbs of the ^\^i^ 'd." from Ja^I." from . JA i^\ God is Greatest. NOUXS DERIVED FROM VERES. as and J^. and. in fact.. more accomplished. moderate.1>-. and regular in formation on the measure ^"^ j\J\ "brown. This is is properly ranked with the its Noun of Quality." JS^^\ "having a slender waist. trans- form it into a verb. . From 3-fli triliterals it is irregular in formation. as OjJ ^^^ j-^^ Greater than Zeid. J. *i-ii Jxil as t\JJi\ more learned.>ki "accomplished.!^ measures J^*. (9) NOUN OF COLOUR OR DEFECT." '^^\ "squinting. This form serves for both comparative and superlative. 61 (8) NOtJN' OF QUALITY.llU "thirsty.

/* sick. and has not. (. it is ARKBIC GEAMMAR. . ill> J^ „ 1^. The most common forms Jbu ^1 of this noun are : as j\^ -^ a great helper.^^ ij'^j^'* <_»:'.. «J^ a vey tnithfiil person.t-iwu*^ a poor or wretched person. it is From word all other verbs made by the addition of the Jv^^ "more" or "stronger. 52 If indefinite tive. - J. „ u^j ^'^ apostle. is always of the fii'st-men- Jjtst." as more or L*U::j\ jJ^\ most vengeful. therefore./. It follows from this that the Koun of Superiority.. . as i" . a comparative or superlative force.iw^ a very lazy person..=- ^\ Stronger as to redness. the word 11a "stronger" employed instead. when formed from simple tioned measure triliterals. comparative and if definite superla- When is its nse is impossible. . followed by the adverbial accusative of the noun. jL. because the form^^t. <f^_j^ wounded.. signifies the presence of colour without reference to its degree. JbtL« Jjxj . one entrusted with an important mission. -b^ (11) TnE NOTJIT OF EXCESS OS INTENSIVE AGEXT.. Q^^ a very ignorant man.

^^^ this by the table page 32 he will see belongs triliterals. The dictionaries will tell ? him on that i^jl makes its aorist i-rir^!. cautious. ^ i O X S . .: NOUNS DERIVED FEOM YEELS. By the addition of is 'i to imply unity. {j^*-^: Most Holy. corre- sponding in this respect to the four-letter group of derived verbs. ^ UUi „ . This last 63 to tlio form is often equivalent in meaning passive participle J^.—li will be found of great assistance to take anj^ of the roots to the student which have been given as examples and construct for in the preceding pages himself the various derived forms dictionary. CiJ'^ Discriminating (a of the Khalifeh Omar).. Other but rarer forms of the I^oun of Excess are •TCP J^ <LLsi as S ' ^-xz very heedless. o^ „ itCs'^ a man who laughs a great deal (with the i" of unity).^«. -' luV*- Note. . In all the above cases tlie addition of a consonant or long vowel appears to give a sense of intensity. to the third class of simple . bulky. title jjy:^b . still greater in- tensity given to the noun as iUlc a ViTj learned man. by means of the tables and the root cljyi occuriug Thus he may take the several times on page 47. ^\>\j a reciter.. Jjxj .

and by substitnting l^ for J we get C^j^l which . (the dots implying that first any letters the and second radicals are unchangedj ^^^: Passive (Preterite). is the imperative of the verb in question.-Jl^'. Noun of Action in mim. J-ilJ = ( JjU? J.e. Passive (Aorist). class 56—57 is (3) then we find that the imperative of this (1) ^ for i (2) J for x and Jj^\. of Time and Place. ^^ ^ •' f before c_-^ui« And so on with all the other forms.i^ L^j^a^ Again.e. . c_. amongst the derived conjugations.^* • Patient. the importance of it early acquiring practice in cannot be over-estimated. s S y. Noun of Unity. .^ t__j. suppose we wish to form the third . Aorist. its to the noun is of action. . coming between i. we find that for transitive verbs the form 1y^ and cl^ belonging to ^ noun of action should be CJjl Similarly Agent. ^ )j^ \ s. of Action in mhn. (all intermediate letters remaining unchanged) Noun of Action. (the letters represented by the dots being unchanged as before) Noun Noun Ci. tabic on pp.U» which is the proper form. AJ = L^j " "^. of deriving its forms that Arabic As diff'ers it is in this all method from non-Semitic languages.C . . ^ = as 9 _.. t_-J.-. i. we get Patient. we have then Preterite. ' aj. 64 In tliG AEABIC GRAMMAE.e. Agent. Coming next this class. i. . J Jx . .

every fresh root that he learns adds some six or ocabnlary together with seven score of fresh words to his the different shades of meaning of each. when he a has once mastered the table. 55 that the learner speedily begins to appreciate the fact that.: METHOD OF USING Anotter advantage is TIIE TABLES. The following table shews the correspondence between the various derived verbal forms r .

(35). TABLE SnOWIXG THE COEEESPO SIMPLE .

.. or Intransitive Noun Noun of Superioritv uperiority Superlative). .^'i » l.. Noun of Noun Agent.li .^] . Patient.tv.li bti^ J. of Time or Place. Noun of mil of 'ii. .. and I Agent. | (Com omparativt' Intensive Auent. j I I of Quality. Instrument. Action in mi in.ddins^ a to liouii '^i^ the of Action..^« "Wanting VJ^ !. of Noun bpc-cies.(] OF FOEMS DERIVED FEOM YEIIBS.« Jx..^ Lc.. s ^^ ^ 5.> )> »» » )) >^ S" -^ O y' 151 . ?j Ic .-# Wanting: Jx..

Irregular verbs are those of which the second ana third radicals are alike. Hollotv. Sjk of which the final radical is a weak (for jjl) " he (for made a raid." jll "he first asked. in which one of the three radicals is hemzeh\ as 1^1 read. letter . They Doubled^ in which the second and third radical are alike. or ^ or ^^ . lEREGULAE VERES. Defective. letters ^ or ^^ 1 Y._:^') J 'J (for Jy) "he said." 1^' "he III." JuJ "it was dry. . letters ^ ." J^ "he repaired "he had be noticed that the weak consonants or semivowels are \ licmzeli (not alif)^ ^ ivmv. but only as a prop for It will : hemzcli or as a letter of prolongation. which have one of the weak for the medial letter. TIemmted." ^l? (for "he as sold. as recourse to. in which the radical is either j or ^^. and ^ ya alif is not regarded as a consonant at all." ^^VJ (for ^j) "he threw. and a verb may have to." Y. (36). as j^j "he promised." letters in the place of the [As the occurrence of either of these weak fiist radical affects the forms of the verb but slightly. Combinations of these may of course occur. Assimilated.: . as ." "he took." all the three radicals weak. which contain one of the are of five kinds weak I. the inflection is assimilated to that of the sound verbs. and in the inflections of the two last letters as jk^ lor jju«." ^^j ^J). which an assimilation of takes place for the sake of euphony a II. whence the name]. 58 ARABIC GEAMMAE.

THE DOUBLED YEEB.
(37).

59

PARADIGMS OF IRREGULAR VERBS.
I.

DOUBLED VERBS.

j^ "to extend,"
PASSIVE.

y

"to

flee,"

^^

"to

bite."

60
It will
is

ARABIC GRAMirAR.

be noticed that in the 3rd and 6th the

\

(which
in the

the characteristic letter of the conjugation),

is

passive changed by the

(which

is

the characteristic

vowel of the

voice), into the corresponding semi-vowel,
etc.,

namely

J.

The forms 5U, 3U5,

as well as

3U

(for

jjU), in the agent, are exceptions to the rule which prohibits a quiescent letter

from following a long vowel.
this exception

There are two reasons which make
sible
:

admisit

first,

that if the long vowel
to distinguish

were shortened

would be impossible

between such forms

as the 3rd conj. active and the passive of the first; and, second, because
letter is

when

the assimilation

is

resolved, the first
e.g,

found to be only apparentlij quiescent,

jU =

jjU, and not jjU/
TEEXEEITE OF THE DOTJBLED VERB.
PLURAL.

TENSES OF THE DOUBLED VERB.

CI

resolved whenever the second of the two letters would be
quiescentj

because otherwise

it

would
letters

violate

the rule

which prohibits two quiescent
together.

from occiu-ring

The

passive differs from the active only in the vowels.

PLURAL.

G2

ARAEIC GEAM^iIAR.

IMPERATIVE OF THE DOUBLED VERB.

The same remarks apply
It will

to this as to the other tenses.
fern,

be noticedj however, that in the plural
el-tvasl is
PLURAL.

the

hemzet

restored

by the

rule (25) given on p. 29.

YERBS WITH INITIAL HEilZEH.

C3

DEEIVKD rORJrS OF VERBS WITH IXITIAL HEMZEH.

64
PASSIVE.

ARABIC GEAMMAR.


TERES WITH FINAL
3.

nE:!J:ZEH.

65
\.i>
1,3

Yerbs with hemzeh

for tlie final radical.

to

congratulate," 1J "to create," Cs^^ ''to rust,"
read," j^p- "to be brave."
PASSIVE.

"to

:

66

ARABIC GRAMMAE.

The

tenses of the hemzated verhs do not differ from

those of the sound verb, thus

VERBS WITH INITIAL

WAW.
jA;

67
in the aorist,
is

(2)

when

the verb

is

of the measure

the J of verbs beginning with that letter
that tense.
1.

di'opped in

INITIAL

J.

i;; "to promise," ^y^^^ "to be afraid," ^SJ "to let

alone,"

^^^ "to
PASSIVE.

inherit,"

ll;5

"to be beautiful."

68

ARABIC GRAMMAK.

2.

INITIAL

^,

^;
,-uuj

''to ripen,"

^J

"to be dry,"

^^

"to ascend,"

to be easy.
PASSIVE.

THE HOLLOW VERB.

G9

lY. THE HOLLOW VERB.
[In
order to explain the a hypothesis.

nature of

a medial j or ^j,

I must

make

Let us suppose that the names "hollow" or

defective" really

mean what they imply

;

namely, that the
defective

holloio

verb has no medial radical consonant, and that the
actually defective in the final radical
;

verb

is

we may then

represent the
;

hiatus by the
refer

mark *

as

we

should do in ordinary writing

and

if

we

them

to

one of the six classes under which the sound verbs

are arranged, all difficulty vanishes.
dictionaries

Thus Jo,

aorist

Jyij,

is in

the

and grammars said
aorist

to be a verb
it

with a medial

.

of the

measure

J^,

J^.,

i.e.

belongs to class 1; see (26).
^'°^

In
is

this case the

Jb

stands for Jji and J^^V.
first is

Jj-S!

'

^-^^

second

an

obviously euphonic change, but the
since
If,

not so evidently required,
J.-J kabaJa.

Jy
*i
;

kawala would be as easy

to

pronounce as

however,

we

regard

it

as a really hollow verb, the
its

measure will
»

then instead of saying that

medial radical is,w be hollow),
let

(in

which
it to

case,

having a medial

radical, it could not
it

us refer

the class of sound verbs to which

belongs,

namely

J-'^ij, (_Ui,

and
i

*3,

J*^J. Here
in

the tvro fethaJis in
,

J*3

coalesce into

;

and the

— dliammah

J

* i^.

from

its

position in

the peuultimato,

where

it

naturally receives an accent, retains the long sound which
to

I have already supposed
forni is

be inherent

to all

vowels

;

see (5).

The

then written JyJJ, and the ^ thus ohfained
Similarly c.u, aorist

is

treated as the

radical letter of the root.

j--^^.,

with a medial
^^^Jti
,

ya

(_>,

may

be written
>

c*j and
is

referred to class 2,

J^;

be-

coming ^*J, 9*r^.
hypothesis, but

that

«u, ^-^„-

This

is,

of course, merely a

it at least

suggests the jirinciple of the permutations

which take place

in the forms of Arabic irregular verbs.]

70
ci;

AEABIC GRAMMAE.

"to

sell," Jli

"to say," ujU- "to fear."

PASSIVE.

TEXSES OF THE HOLLOW VERB.

71

made by

prefixing U to the aorist, and pointing the last

radical but one with kesrah.
PEETEEITE OF THE HOLLOW VERB (MEDIAL
ACTIVE.
PLURAl.
Fern.
•"),

IIEA9X7EB

(J**:'.

W**

*

DUAL.
Fem.
Masc.
9

EINGVLAR.
Fem.
o
-'

Masc.
y

Masc,
^

yi^9

^ ^

ei^lj
<l9<j9

Jlj
^
of"

3rd person.

CCOC

CO

UiJj

c:^1j
9

l::-Jj
O
9

2iid

1st

PASSIVE.
PLTJRAI/.

DUAL.
Fem.
Masc.
9

SrNGXTLAR.

Fem.
y-O

Masc.

Fem.

Masc.

:^L
<)

JJj

3rd person.

;o

CT

r^:

Uuli

ij:^
9 O

u:^

2nd
1st

Ui
AOEIST OP THE

HOLLOW VERB (mEDIAL
ACTIVE.

j).

PLUHAL.

72

AEAEIC GEAMilAR.

IMPEEATITE OF THE HOLLOW VEEB (mEDIAL
PLURAL.

•).

TENSES OF THE

HOLLOW VEEB.

73

,

ARABIC GRAMMAR.
P.'^^^
y,'^'^

AOEIST OF IHE
PLURAL.
Fern,

HOLLOW TEEBS (MEDIAL
DUAL.
Fem.
y
.^

!),

MEISUKE J*A> J*j.
Masc.
9

SINGULAR.
Masc. y y y

Masc.

y

Fem. 9 - y
(

y y

liUr (J
e;

...liUr

sLsT'
y y

uJls^ 3rd
9

person.'

^

y y

^i\=^
9

«_jUi^*
y'i-

2nd
1st

^ „

PASSIVE.
PLURAL.
Fem. y <^ y 9
Masc.

DUAL.
Fem.
y y 9
Masc.
9

SINGULAR.
Fem.
9
,

Masc.
\y

y

y 9

^

y

9

y 9

y 9

4_Jlikr'

uJl^
9 y 9

3rd person.

y

<^

y

9

y

f

^

9

9

yUl^
9

c;^
9

y f

y

"%

ji\s-\

1st


^J^^

f.y^y y,yy

IMPERATIVE OF THE HOLLOW TEEB (mEDIAL
PLURAL.
Fem.
Masc.

1),

MEASTJEE

jJ*JJJ

DUAL. Common.
lili.

SINGULAR.
Fem,
Masc.
o y

c;^^

y

^l^

L-i:i-

2nd person.

V. THE DEFECTIVE VERB.

The

defective verb

is

that which occasions most trouble
its

to learners;

the rules however which govern
all

per-

mutations are very simple, and are
following table
:-

contained in the

CHANGES IN THE TEEMINATION OF THE PEETEEITE.
y y
a.

becomes

»

(
\

In the Preterite of the 1st conj. only
.

;

in all the

\

,

^

(

derived forms j becomes

"

't,
i_f

like

c.

I.

^y
Here the
final

vowel

is

dropped and the

^_f

is

c.

^
iy

^

<

then silent, ihefethah alone being pronounced.

This letter
d.
>'

is

called short altf.

4 becomes remains unchanged j ) e. A. become f^?^\ become cS g. ( i_> remains unchanged i^^) . p I become c5.PERMUTATIONS OF THE FINAL SEMI-VOWEL 75 CHANGES IN IHE TEE:!JIXATI0N OP THE AOHIST. 9 d'. ( .

and (C^." satisfied. is alif or wdw or ya is known as In the (verb with apocopated . from the Alfhjeh^ an Arabic Grammar.76 ARABIC GRAMMAR." ^J "to be ^^ "to run. p <5 ^o ^ >> _ '- o5 S ^ i-t tt % 9 o ^ o 4 S ^ O ^O-^/ o ^ X X «> op O • -Ci fx-xx Any verb of which the last radical defective. and to express the apocopated all mood you must so cut off the final weak radical in three . ^^j "to throw. by doing you will be following a fixed rule. by Ibn Malik. in mnemonic verses. ." PASSIVE. J^^ ™^y express the subjunctive mood. final) alif you must suppose all moods except the in such verbs as ^ J*^." jjl "to make a raid. In both cases you must suppose the indicative mood ."_^ "to be noble." DEFECTIVE VERBS.

rOKMS AXD TENSES OF THE DEFECTIVE VERB. . 77 BERIYED FOEMS OP DEFECTIVE VERBS. Verbal Noun.

78 ARABIC GEAMMAE. .

Masc. I I SINGULAR.MOODS OF THE DEFECTIVE VERB. PLURAL. 79 BX7BJUNCXIVE MOOD. Fem. 3rd person. ETC. '4/^ 2nd » I* "•t iBt APOCOPATED (jussive. Fem. / DUAL. Fem.). PLURAL. Masc. Masc. .

y o" <> 9 • yj ^^j 9 c:-N-'«^ 9 2nd 1st „ ^ 9 c:-:r^j „ AOEIST OP THE DEFECTIVE VERB (FINAIi ^). (fII^AL j). o-- y 9i^y c ^_5^y g ^^c-V.. bk-i» SmOULAR. Si co^^ c<'o ^^ V y '-^^^J o-' * 2nd 1st „ ^ u-»^ PASSIVE. 77. y ? "^^J Si <" \^J y 9 3rd person. SINGULAR. Tern. 1 \^y . Masc.80 ARABIC GRAMMARIMPEEATIVE OP THE DEFECTIVE VERB PLURAL. PLUEAL. PBETEEITE OP THE DEFECTIVE VERB (fINAL ACTIVE. O O'' ^ ^' . Maso. Masc. -' DUAL. ACTIVE. MEASURE J^. Common. 9 ? i^ SINGULAR. o'J 1st Energetic (^^j}i^ ^ i^j^^ 2iid >r U. . Fem. t/ DUAL. y 9 Masc. ' Masc. Fem. p. p. PLURAL. ^_s). 2. Fem. Masc. 3rd person. 79. Fem. y f^y SINGULAR. Masc. i-o^ oi ^o^^ •Si wjil {i^i'cS 2nclper3. y vy y 9 (^y y iy >» '^-^ ^ 1st »» See note. Fem. Fem. 5 See note. Masc. *J ^ l5'*^ ^^^ person. •J „ PLUEAL. Fem. J-"" • DUAL. Fem. Maso. Masc. Fem. DUAL. p Masc. Fem.

Fem. Fem.. DUAL. 1st c- MOODS OF THE DEFECTIVE VERB (fINAL ^). L5^' LS^- '^^'^ person. 81 PLURAL. 3rd person. Masc. gi «. 3rd person. Ci -^ Masc. Fem. Masc.^ I. Muse. Masc. ^-). ujV /^_5^. Fem. PLURAL. u L^y !/ L5^y L^y 2n(i L5^J' 1st APOCOPATED. G-' G^ ^^y -r^ yy W'V' Gt 2nd Ist „ „ 1st ENERGETIC. c. DUAL. ltV u^v ^. Fem. Fem. Masc. "Si •» Fem. >'G-^ SINGULAR.:^^. Masc. w > Lf^ DUAL. PLURAL.1 cJ^y' cr^^y 2nd ^^^ „ eJrr'V 6 . SINGULAR. Fem.MOODS OF THE DEFECTIVE VERB (fINAL PASSIVE. SINGULAR. Masc. Blase. X G'' Fem. DUAL. Masc. PLURAL. C/^ Masc. Fem. ^ G'' G-^ ^ G^ ^^rV . Fem. MEASURE JjtL J-ti SUBJUNCTIVE. SINGULAR. Masc. G^ . . G^ 3rd person. Fem..

.-' 2nd „ PEETEEITE OF THE DEFECTIVE VEEB (fINAL j). ^ ^ y y 1 Uk*s 1 "-"^J L^J ^^^ person. Fem. Fem. y 9 \^»a >««£' i. I ^^"^J 9 •iii'j L<fJ 9 ^^^ person. SINGULAR. ^c-^j^ Masc. DUAL. «. Masc. * Masc.. ^J'^Jl ^rr^y Wanting. ^^A 3r(i person. DUAL. 2nd energetic PLTTEAL. PLURAL. Fem.*. yy 9 Masc. Fem. "Wanting. Masc. Masc. Common. '' t. o -^ Masc. Fern. 9 1^ y 9 9 Masc. MEASUEE ACTIVE. < ^ cJ^' PLURAL. ^j^Ji >» '. Masc. J^A. Fern. 82 ARABIC GRAMMAR. L*::-. Fem. DUAL. MEASUEE (J^ij J-*i PLURAL. >> . rem. Fem.^). DUAL. " >} WVA^ u:^*^ PASSIVE. SINGULAR. "Wanting. ^ (*jI 2nd person.*? • JL^^j ^^:^j 9 2nd 1st „ ^ ^ !. ?J 1 '^> See note. SINGULAR. 9 9 <^ 9 9 ''9 Xa^^s 'J UtM^ ^-^^-^j 2nd let . p. f'^ '.^ i^J^ er*J '.''' IMPEEAXIVE OP THE DEFECTIVE VEKB (fINAL . Fem. ^ o 1st Energetic ' i^^^:'^j^ ^ <. C-»*5 SINGULAR. 79. Masc.

x'OX "^"^^ person. Fem.). Fem. X Ox ^y X ^ox /lTV. PLURAL. xox tc-*/ O xox xox i^ir:*. 8INGULAH. •^ t/ DUAL. PLURAL.\ „ » t^-/ SUBJUNCTIVE.MOODS OF THE DEFECTIVE VEEB (FINAL j). xo? u«i J ltV" kS^J 2nd . Masc. 83 • MEASURE JjtO l/*^ SINGULAR. 1st » . W/ L^j" APOCOPATED (jussive. PLURAL. xox Masc. X o/* C5*^y C /lT^' xo? 3rd person. X Ox O^ Masc. X X ox * ^ Ox Masc. . Masc. let „ PLrRAL.). XOX xOS ^j\ PASSIVE. 3rd person. O X o^ DUAL. XX ox Fem. Fem. X X OX Fem. SINGULAR. X 07 xxo? xxo^ Masc. Fem. X xox Masc. Fem. u5^j^ ETC. o X ox Ist XOX ox uy Fem. ^r DUAL. X o -^ ox Masc. Fem. Masc. AOEIST OF THE DEFECTIVE VEEB (fINAL ACTIVE.

Fem." ^=^^ (initial^ and final measure jIIj Jxl). 1. Fem.o 84 ARABIC GEAMMAR. ." PASSIVE.trV c. J-^ Masc. Wanting. Common. fjir'J. JIasc. PLURAL." J^^ (initial^. SINGULAR. . . (38). Wanting. Masc. Masc. DUAL. Fem. ^\y^Ji O ^ -' ^ o^ e. Wanting. measure JxlJ Jli). \J\ (initial ^ and final cs-. "to follow close upon. u**^^.-J-. t). measure J^l- ^). DUAL. MEASURE (J*^. AVanting. and final o. 2nd energetic. " to be sore-footed. ij. INITIAL^ AND FINAL J OR ^J .--^^^' 2^^ 1st „ lilPEEATIVE OF THE DEFECTIVE VEKB (fINAL PLURAL. o — 2nd J. ^^js m- i^j^ 3rd person. Fem. t/ -' ^^^ person. „xoxo 1st Energtic i^---^jj^ -ii P ^ c i^ri'l o y xo 0^0 Wanting. X xO SINGULAR. " to guard . ^^^^^^ DOUBLY IMPERFECT VERBS.

"^^ ^^ "^^^^^^ irrigated. VI RBS. "to wrap." ^^J ?) (final measure Jxi.DOIBLT liirERFECT 2. tj:. . (_5^ (final ^. (_>. PASSIVE. MEDIAL J A>-D FIXAL _j OE. measure jAi J-^j)? ^^Q).

FORMATION OF VERBAL NOUNS FROM IRREGULAR VERBS. . Treterite.86 (39). ARABIC GRAMMAE.

and can present no difficulty. from verbs with a medial weak radical. the strong form jjljt. (40). A few verbs with a weak medial radical pointed declined like strong verbs. The formation of the remaining nouns is 87 regular. with Jcesrah are Preterite. is used. in the form Jxit. . HOLLOW VERBS DECLINED AS STROXG VEEBS.. as not jQ HOLLOAV VERBS DECLINED AS STRONG VERBS.

the foregoing in which examples of each kind of irregular verb are given. all difiiculties as to . . INDECLINABLE VERBS. ARABIC GRAMMAE. The student until is recommended to practise this process all he is completely familiar with the permutations ." ^li "perhaps. the conjugation of shall find that verbs containing weak radicals will disappear and we such a thing as a reaUy irregular verb does not exist in the Arabic language. which have only one They are— (1) ^J "he is not.^li . depending upon the action of . the corresponding form is of Ua will obviously jy. "come. find to be J. 27 (23)." which have only a (2) preterite. which can occur in conjugating a weak verb tables. person for the i of the A further reference to the table of persons in the aorist. but the remaining vowels of the forms are constant. Fern. first \ teaches us to substitute the prefix of the 3rd person. The following which are only found in the impera- tive: cyla "give. particles. the form required aorist is The final short vowel -^ of the variable. p. (41)." Jli. Indeclinable verbs are those tense. the aorist of the third of the measure J-s becomes which m this case will bejjUj. and therefore exert a stronger influence upon a weak letter." These are declined like a regular imperative. will enable him to correct his exercises. etc. which we be 'jli.S8 third conjugation. thus— PLUEAL. Mase. but j^ by g ^. SINGULAR. and we get o '^^' ughdu. By applying these principles. Again..

(42). Primitive nouns are those which cannot be referred to any verbal root. PEIMITI^^ NOUNS. 1. which is. adverbs. . however. The following are the most common forms of primitive nouns. and interjections. 89 Some grammarians include properly a verb. not is most frequently found in the II^. expression (Trf it ll^ ." THE NOUX. "take and di'ag along" = "and so on. literally.THE NOUN". In the category of nouns the Arabs include also pronouns and certain prepositions. Nouns are either primitive or derived. Triliterals.

<bjt^ office of viceroy. etc. the principal of these are the following. 5 c:jUj roar r • . Pains of the body are of the measure J'*i. Sounds are of the measure S .. as ds^^ craft.sET an old woman.^ headache. S '^ d^^ \\ agriculture. artizanship. ff^O^'^ jLti Jijti Jj>. 3.^ neigh. and corresponding more or less to our participles. I have already treated of the nouns immediately There are a great many other forms ex- derived from verbs. \ as ^y cry.P ^^ or 2r^ J-r.. EXAMPLES. 2. as cijk. ijljj office of vizier. pressive of specific ideas which may be studied with advantage .90 ARABIC GRAMMAR. liver complaint. office of secretary. Primitive nouns sueh as "a horse. iJ^UsT trading.tailoring.i-j quince." "a camel. 1." cannot of course be reduced to rule. 3. Si''-' MEASURES. NOUNS DERIVED FROM VERBS. dJ^Uri. S •i\j bray. EXAMPLES. Jw*-' cough. (43). jL«i S -'O J^^r JJ stout (a camel) «r y ^ o ^ JiUi :tijA. and must be learnt by practice. i_.>*i7^ cloud. ^Uj (J j-i^s "whistling ^S- bark. ^ (J*-y^ sob.*i Illje . <-^U$ fXij catarrh. Trades and S^ -' offices are of the measure Ajl:. Quinqneliterals. MEASURES. tLJi^ office of Caliph.

etc. and may therefore be The neuter does not exist. have only called of the common for both. Colour in the abstract. There are only two genders in Arabic. 7.^ " bolting.THE GENDEES OF NOUNS. "^^ . as J^'Oi' X^J ij hJ^ a drink (of water. aversion. filings. ^^^1^ palpitating. as revolving. trifle. jkJ a 8. commotion. ^j^ s^o. 5 5. 9." running ^uV refusal. riiglit or avoidance flight.> ^ ^^o' a fragment. 6. Small pieces. 4. . - J^jj^ I jfjCJ:^ running. or emotion are expressed by the form ^i^. . but its place is most gender. by lUi . Ch~^J departure. 91 Motion. by 3^: ^s J\. a handful.J filings. by lUi ijAs>' redness. Sjj. masculine one form and feminine some words. ^U5 I THE GENDERS OF NOUNS. | . as yellowness. by iJUi iL^^y clippings. fluttering. as sweepings. however. j\J^ jlij flight. A small portion is expressed by ly^ iy^ a broken 'ixoL!^ . (44).). as crust. and sometimes 3^ . off. commonly supplied by the feminine. refuse. A small i?-'0 ? quantity.

" Nouns ending in i'.: 02 ARABIC GRAMMAR. "a dove." "desert. as o^U "a it . fire. are feminine as Proper names of women." >' " 7. as J^ "Egypt. sublimity. The following 1." and some proper names of men." ^j "foot. as jJ "eye. unless the sense be opposed to ctaJ^ "Caliph . 'iCX^^ 9. "most beautiful" (female).") Collective nouns." J^ ''shoulder." All "broken" plurals. d^ '^Illnd." (Some others J. ^Ls>. as *U. be masculine. ^Ij^ "red. especially 8." The double parts of the body." 13j (for [If this it ^<j "remem- ^__^'^) "the world." 'J\^ Mary. i'Sllc " Obeideh." ^X " wine". ^U'li "grandeur. as ^^_^^ "Sulma" (a proper name). to females. brance. as "tooth. . as ^l^^\ "Khansa" (a proper *T.?." ^ is not a grammatical termination." Nouns ending in o." 6. as 3. 10." ^^ ^^ " the north wind." "hand." J^l^ "pregnant." ^^s^ " Talhah.] Nouns ending in ^T. ^lITf " Syria."dove" (the genus dove)." 5. as^^ "wind. but belong to the root." and nouns applicable only mother. The following nouns are considered as feminine. fire." li "liver." Proper names of towns and countries. as It "a \^6>-\ "a sister.s** name). or wine. striker" (female).-? which are not double are also feminine." Names of wind." 2. may 4. when they add i" to express an individual of the species.

. altliougli tliey 93 lieads giveu do not all come under the above.THE GENDEES OF NOUNS.

^i J*j. ijL»jJ jjbr£ naked 3.94 ARABIC GRAMMAR. . ^1 /x o S ^*rf>' greatest.. '\jLa _' ox j^bjc*. j^ 'i\y%\ a patient woman. as S- /x P jy^ i^^j a patient man. i^j^ ^^ ' smallest „ t/r*^ j/^ first (for JV) o „ „ J^i j^\ 4. ^ and 2. j^ when it has the signification of J^Ij has no S ^ different form for the feminine. has for feminine ^x o S -1 *lii red as xo ^ fem. as a young girl. j^y^ ^ o -- X O X ^L^i But J^iti ^^^ and ^2)^ make their feminines in the usual '^\xi\ ''OX manner ajLe and S as «?x ^ <^x j^U#jJ repentant. ^\ ^xoS ^i-tf^ P X o yellow . as a youth. jlsl „ t^-jy. fem. •'^ when it expresses the comparative or superlative . l! before I become ^ . angry. makes its feminine ^Jbe as fem. il:xi iNoims of the form J^ „ make their feminines in ^S^ y drunk. fem. fem. S c-JJo-! hump-backed „ 5. (for^^n) o>^l Jiet its when it is descriptive of colour or deformity .

as o^ s^ a riding horse or camel. with the exception of jl^ '^an enemy. <U^JJi. . ^^sJls^ menstruating. !. S y S y Sy y y j_-uLi) ?/ Sy . fern. ^ j2. >a girl with swelling breasts. while ^\^i with the meaning of J^li makes ILxi in the feminine. ." fem <LX^* • y ^ sy y / speaking the truth. ^Ir* s ' a divorced wife. .fj^ <1. THE GENDERS OF NOUXS. Nouns which by females neither require nor take a feminine termination. their nature can only apply to 7. S S y -»»aJ „ ^jf^ Sy y • y t^-k! „ AiJal.'»L>. . nice. . . The other forms of the intensive nouns also J^.lir^ '' 'Lsz .y>- i\^\ a wounded woman. Jl^. / y _ an intercessor. as ^J-^ls*- pregnant. being nouns of instrument. 95 Eut J^ S with the signification of J^ti^ makes lly^ in /> the feminine. ^U-^.» oX ^fy* spy '^. y o f^." fem. do not take the feminine termination. as spy murdered man s'i-y 1^ J^l^i ij-^j a y ^y^ y 'i\'j^\ 'J a murdered woman man • 9 y f^j'>- J"^ S'i-y a wounded S ^ . fem.^«. S-' L-JyL>~ a milch camel „ „ 9 y • fjy^j a messenger (one sent) 6. and J-*l^. ^¥^j Vice versa for the s S S J-^ ^ in the sense of J^^« has only one form masculine and feminine." fem. a helper... ^-w^ y ^-z ' y a poor person.

The following nouns ^eil. are used either as masculine or feminine jli] .: C6 ARABIC GEAMMAE. (46). COMMON GENDEE.

And sometimes uce versa.. as ^Ic " a 3. [I shall use the terms subjective.. a female In primitive nouns slave it serves to mark the feminine generally a slave girl" (as a class). The termination the feminine gender or unity.' <OUj:?- " camel drivers. 1 In derived nouns it generally serves to mark the feminine of the individual to which the quality or action applies. accusative or objective. as "^ "fruit.. as 7. " ^j " a reciter. as <Sj^U DECLENSION OF NOUNS. lastly. and genitive or de- pendent.] These cases seem originally to have 7 . tt»Li Sometimes distinguishes the individual from the species ." ^\^j reciter. and objective as more in accordance with the principles of Arabic grammar. is written C-? . boy" it (as a class). It is used also to compensate for a letter i^-*\i\ which has been dropped or apocopated. as^>i^sr"aglft. it is used as a sign of intensity. as 'L^ V* y And. as <Uj\^ striker" (as distinguished from a male striker). dependent. the nominative or subjective. THE (48). i^ —The pronominal CU (fem. 2. for /^y|." 'L*ks. 8. 97 "NOTE ON THE TEEMIXATION i expresses either if." Note. (47). " a very learned man .) ^ J ." gifts." i'." 4. THE CASES OF NOUNS. ' -- ^ as c^j-i and a at the end of nouns.^ "a fruit.I . Itdistinguishessingularfromplural."(«_i:sr' 5. Arabic CASES." f~ '^ It serves to corroborate the plural." 6. at the end of verbs. . as J>"*'^ a camel driver. as *iU a learned a professed man. polishers. nouns have tliree cases.

. i. yu^ a book. Dependent Objective ^-'l4 of a book. noun.e. Subjective t^vtii a book. the nasal vowels. succeeded for the indefinite. .: 98 AEABIC GRAMMAE. 7). and the short vowels were em- ployed in the definite noun. \ and ^ (see To these temvm. been expressed by the three long vowels ^ p. thus INDEFINITE.

" and ^^ may be declined in the ordinary manner. 99 Or tlicy may take \ in all three cases. or after the ancient manner.THE A:XCIENT DECLENSIO]!^'. IjsIjI J. as P . thus i(M >^ij : Subjective M \i\ Dependent Objective Aj\ <^j Ai\ ^j^} As Ul::jli J^-^ r J lAb Jj b IjUjI . " Verily her father and her father's father Have reached the same limit to which she has arrived.

j^lj „ Obj. ^j . of.^xj ^^^ ^__^ 15^' i. "With Article." MEASURE.." ^ji^ ''a DEFINITE. 74) must be remembered : Nouns Nouns Kouns in Cs as of the measure Jxi from verbs with a final . as Uj for LJj. of . in ^^ or change that termination Examples: dj "satisfaction. in the root. ^r?*^^ }> s^^ k^^^^ ^JliiJl (regular) ^t^^ i^\i W^ (regular) IMPERFECTLY DECLINED NOUNS. U?J LiJ i l^ i „ ijJ^ i ilJj Juti Subjective ^^:.J „ . ^}S* t^^ . ^:J is"^"^^ ^ (^'^ ^'^) Dependent Objective . INDEFINITE. from l^J ( .^^' *^ (^^ '^'^) ^^ C^'' ^^ for „ '^) . Certain words are not susceptible of temvin. Jjo Subjective uj^i for y j^j ^ •-ij \^j -^ 1 i^U^ ^ :(Uij Dependent Objective Uij . (51).^j). Such nouns may be arranged in four classes.U'J Subj. following results (already treated see p. of the measure jij from verbs with a final 1$ into o"j as ^is ^. change the ^ into ^'by/'. the form Jj * * * whether from a final radical^ or ^ make their termination ' ^J^^y* . 'With Pronoun. 100 ARABIC GEAMMAR. (>l^ Ijh^ (^^*^^ ^-f ^ Depend.." Cadi. into Nouns ending T by ^'. .. and employ fethah both in the dependent and objective case. ^Jxs "a youth. change the of more than three from letters. .

2." ^ "some." Note. 3.— IMPERFECTLY DECLI^'ED NOUNS. ^^1 plural of ^"XS (fem. ]^ouns of the form ^l«i.ViI. a. ^ c.y^ the one who lives. and do not make their feminine in as !. if are analogous to the numerical forms above given. — Such it is Si'S ' proper names as J." first.-j or^»J are declined. Note. and such words as "all. ^ 9 9 . descriptive." ^' "few. the middle one of which quic scent. as originally j. I 1 ( jl^i y - tens. 9.. . as ^1^\ ft " more accomplished." g^ "some. ^j^\a^ j> fives. a. or which the middle consonant is pointed with u vowel i^cli^i "Joseph.\ ones. J. — Such words as «_j ^ four" (fem.*^* five by five. if they are adjectival or i'. are declined. which moreover make the feminine in i. Distributive or collective numerals from 1 to 4. ' JLx^t ten by ten. Nouns of the form nouns of colour or deS' scription. to ^-^ ?-y'* ^'^'•"" tXr^^4 one by one. ^^ ^°^^''- Some grammarians to ten . . the it because an Arabic word.' J Is.Omar. „ J^'J the loiterer. then' original form jA£. d." which J-tit. 1. and other nouns of the same form. J-^J Zuhel (the planet Saturn) 1. and not making the feminine in .). ) ( ? -' 1 foiirs. of^^^i). being neither descriptive nor comparative. -' o ^ to j ' o ^ ^s^. in as Foreign proper names of more than three letters. 101 Proper names which have been changed from . and the second." '^\^ji\ "Abraham." J^t "red. include the remaining numerals up viz. because is has three letters.

— Compound proper names are treated of in the Syntax. 4." feminine Jf^\ but if the first syllable be pointed with j-^ as J.. as Ijjj or if they appear actually part of a verb. or if is S. plurals. Proper names ending in ^\ Proper names having as ^!iV^£ 7.or ^T. plui-als "Shammar" (Shomer). as Ou^ or Ju^ Hind (a woman's name). as <!^^ and 5.^-* mark the (2) " a rock. liUjJ "repentant.Ij^ "naked. 6. Proper names of /£??w«/e5 not ending in letters. —Proper names ending in al^Lli . they may be either declined or not." "red." they are de- clinable." (4) De- scriptive passive adjectives. as ^t/j (3) Broken feminine. and the middle one quiescent. >> Ifote. if they have more than three they have three letters the middle one of which pointed with a vowel. but if they is are of three letters." or -^XisJ^ "friends. letters 8. a verbal form." or substantival sense."JIi." or make feminines in l^ as ^U!>jj fern. . as t-Ll^J "Zeinab" (a woman's name)." ^J^j "remembrance. whether masculine or feminine. (l) if that termination ^T." Proper names. " Yazid. s. as ^J^ "pregnant. as s^^] "Ahmad". The following nouns ending in J. are imperfectly declined. as ^2." JVoie. 102 ^' ARABIC GRAMMAR. Jil " Hell " . drunk. as^_^^ "wounded.^P if they have a "a flint. as . Broken which have two after an .

1^\1^ ''places of worship. arises from the respecting the shortcuing Exception." ''mosques. as "polishers." f* and ^ " silence though indeclinable. as in the following verse OC -C : O^ «S^ '' 9 9 9-'? O fO-O 9<i-i^^ " • 'Tis as though he in his beauty were Joseph's form." [The omission of tenwm in these forms probably operation of the principle advocated in (5). which have three letters after the inserted alif^ the middle of such letters being a quiescent oj as ^^l^« "lamps. when definite drop the tenwm and become former a^. were his (Joseph's) t-i-j^t.— IMPEEPECTLT DECLINED NOUNS. the difference in meaning being that the vaguer and more general.] 8. THE NUMBERS OF NOUNS. There are three numbers in Arabic nouns. (52). father's heart. inserted as " 103 alif. dual." Where u-il^. Some nouns /ol--: are altogether indeclinable. singular. though I. is ^." " Sibawaihi. of vowels which do not receive the accent. is improperly used for INDECLINABLE NOUNS. plural." Note. as Sometimes by poetical license an imperfectly declined noun is % made 9 declinable. aJjl-Mtf —When a i" follows such letters. in And as my grief. the plural is declined.—kVi indeclinable nouns when in construction or preceded by the article take kesrah in the oblique case. and . (53). p. as ^'ojliAj^ ! " Niftawaihi." i^jJ "beasts of burden" (for ulop) J--/^^ or ." and AoIIj " candles.

104 AEABIC GRAMMAR. THE DTTAL. MASCULINK .

intra quam duoe cucurbita) inclusse sint. pi. although the insertion of the euphonic the more regular method. Words of over five letters may drop the final cdlf in ^ is the dual. 'i^\ buttocks.testicles. (55). The plural in Arabic is formed either by affixes or by a modification of the original form of the singular. instead of the dual of the noun J£i^.. ." dual or i^^jU-tflj The two following nouns <L. men.^^ JjJ " two apples. as in English we say ship." This verse presents an instance of an another grammatical peculiarity." dual for a radical letter.. the numeral ttvo.j:r>. ships . pi. . the use of J:^l. as in the Persian idiom ^. If the termination lie 105 added to the root without "being a feminine sign. j^IjLjIj as ^U-?li "a jerboa's hole. man. you change it to j. I." THE TLrEAL. as it u^^V^ or ^^jLU If it be substituted _j*uOj 5lir(from it we may either leave unchanged or change into wdwy as t^^^'^-1^ and ^^^l^. as may either leave it unchanged or from ^UL " a sinew in the neck. namely. THE NUMEEES OF NOUNS. There appears to be an ellipse of some such word as til £^ grain. in forming the dual reject the fcmiinine termination in the following verse from the Ilamdsah as "Fit quasi duo facta ejus testiculi hue illuc fluitantcs pera essent e corio ac longo jam usu attrita.

as J^^j 4. as f^_^ wounded. and are of the masculine gender.— 106 ARABIC GEAMilAE. provided they consist of a 1. 3. for The regular masculine affixed form is only used Nouns of a participial form derived from verbs making their feminine in i and signifying rational beings. and diminutives of ordinary nouns. jThis i an expansion of the singular -^ r- „ oblique' mination 80 f^^ — . (56). a little man. patient. 2. made by is . provided they denote rational beings.- una = 5j uu. and do not end in s. Fem. EEGirXAB MASCULINE PIXTEAI. 6. first . . It cannot be used in nouns which are common to both jy^c genders. the plural Masc. single word. Diminutives of proper names of the description just mentioned. . Proper names of men. addition as ter^ ^» ^i^ nom. plural (jy-^>y Eelative adjectives ending in J>. the singular be is a regularly formed : participial measure. ' " ^^ ) This is an expansion of the regular feminine CLi] ) affix i. The kind is called teclinically a regular plural the second a broken plural. for as —un=»u. The regular and objective If plural has only one form for the dependent cases. Nouns of the measure Jxi] provided they have the comparative or superlative meaning.

I. Mrrr^ e. "When the last letter of a noun is a weakj of the aorist of verbs and of nouns < j^^'^ a judge. i^y^'^^ earth. as aQ^ ^^~"« pl- ^ u:^ . world.. etc. universe. „ „ . „ ^^tsl^^s^y* . ' „ * ^^\ ^ijj _jj possessor. between twenty year. ? '-^ ^ and 9 take — and — . ^^^ . Dep. I nouns of which the last radical cut off and a added by way of . of the class of plurals last mentioned is that in the dependent case they may be .. ." "^. Before a hemzet el-ioasl these lose their -. ^ or tcnwm — the rules given on p. Together with all nouns similar is to the last.g. .i JU ^j\ jLs. they are ^^A son.Li^j "a thorny v * A peculiarity plurals.-o ^^'^ respectively. h. compensation. thirty. forty.Ji2-.. plural (^»ij ^\i^ family. as <LjU tree. i^ y "' "a hundred.'S.THE NUMBERS OF There are a few words wliicli NOr>.'c .) <lu-: cardinal numbers. ^y^j^ s^^j^t: twenty. ^J*^ Obj. and I 1 . (And the other and ninety.2^ Mustafa. 107 to the form exceptions rules above given. ten. plural { .. 75 for the change in the termination must be applied. treated as broken and declined throughout Sub. plural i^^ i.e. \ tjy^^ by z.L^ . ir'-'.

cS^ji. plural CJU^o ." i' l^ pi. nouns of the form llxi remove the sukun and point the second radical like the first. FEMININE REGULAR PLURAL. as <i." iNouns substantive of the form ^xi (JL'Lj . In construction with a following noun the regular plural loses its final ^.^-." iJ^. cL>1j^ li pL K ciLjlli "glanders. pi. Some- times it is retained improperly by poetical license. as JjJ iJ^us the strikers of Zeid. unless the is second radical be weak. [The Benu Hudheil do not observe describing an ostrich. as the following verse. radicals are alike. make their plural ilihti . in which case the sukun not removed. (57). the all When sukun the second and third retained in cases in forming the regular feminine plural. proves ' The brother of eggs going to and fro night and morn. as in the verse " And the soul shall rest from its sighing. as "rejection. making the plural cJh6 . and sometimes letter for the sake of euphony If the weak is be ^ the dhammah must not be employed. In forming the regular feminine plural. this rule.j an egg.— 108 ARABIC GEAMIIAE."] If the noun be adjective the sukun remains. by one of their poets." becomes Cl^l A A (from final ^) „ „ dj^j'^ (from final ^5) ^LIj . "attack.

ff. as . these follow the ordinary rule of per- mutation." *T when in construction becomes ^T in the dependent case (see p. because the Arabs are averse from the sound p.l^>- "retirement.j "a state or dj-nasty. fcthali. . If the last radical be weak. /j\^^ "his women. which results ^ with kesra/i." dep." the plural Nouns substantive c:-?i«i of the form aI:^ make as Ij^ pi. sense. as i^jj pi." . as in <L!jJ "vicissitude. ciJljl^*) ^Ld^ * the month Eamaclhan. or cb\jl. but if the second radical be weak. N..j .j The regular feminine in nouns plural in &J\ is frequently used which have a neuter l»U>.J or cL'l'iJ. may either remain or the letter be pointed with fctliah (IjiS'yLj ^ thus. 9 is 2 iU." the sulcun may remain and from pointing the letter be pointed with fethah. But if the second radical be weak. 14). THE NUJIBEES OF XOUXS. such change must not be made. as lL'I'. 60.!>jlj " bribery." and sometimes cbllUi tlie [The Benu Tamim allow mliin to remain in this S^ 9 case." "a chamber. ci. e.". i" 109 ci? whether singular or plural becomes when followed by a vowel.B. See p.j considered by some as equivalent in meaning to S o^ ij. and it mlun may may be pointed VhMCo." the sidim . bath. c:j^'»jS "pinnacle.. subj. note i-- 2. as pi.the remain. f^Uj. pi." Ijylt " his brothers. as ^^jj " perpetual rain. But if the first radical has dhammah or kesraJi. as tj^\ "brothers.. ciJuUr.

slave „ iU***^^ . is neces- three and ten. (59). where only one sarily common to both. Jv». This is common to plurals of multitude also. jJujI „ JUk>-) . (58). There are four measures of the plural of paucity: J}xi\ as Jjf-ji from Jjf-j foot. The The this plural of a plural cannot be less than nine. it is for the most part formed on the measure of the regular feminine by affixing isj\. So also a plural form. plural of paucity. The The plural of paucity expresses any number between any number from ten exists.> ^l^i dress. PLTTEAL OP PAUCITT. .>- load.. /»ii. BROKEN PLURALS. plural of multitude denotes to infinity.110 AEABIC GEAMMAR. <L*Ii . and the plural of multitude. There are two kinds of plurals recognized by the . iSki <LL*il . cannot be less than three or more than ten (unless be the only form of plural in use for a particular noun. in which case there can obviously be no such limitation). Arabic grammarians namely.. When plural a plural of such a noun is required. but most nouns have two or more forms. as well as the sound or regular plural.. (This only occurs in words which have the penulti- mate a long vowel). Che plural of paucity.

" if they have not a singular. inserts That which an additional letter among the . That which " ^^ apostle. PITJEALS. as 2. I care not for their collecting Every crowd {ov plural) is effeminate/'' FOKMS OF BSOKEIir' PLURALS. are called analogues of the plural •*JLsl <u^ GENDEE OF BKOKKX (61). BROKEN PLURALS. as "lion. original letters of the singular. That which changes the vowels only.e. And talked of mm'dering me . Broken plurals are invariably treated as feminine. (unless the singular be distinguished by asys-. Ti "people/' "a tribe. 1. 3." trees. class.4. as J-^j the plural of 2." Sli plural of Ju-t . There are three forms of broken plurals. — . HI' The first and last forms are capable of having a second plural formed from quadriliterals. j\^j plural of Jb-j . Kj -^ ^ p -^ ^ y O^ "CJ Verily my people collected togetliei'. thus a certain poet says. as and plural nouns i'." rejects a letter." \ L^--). i. (62).. them on the ordinary measure of J-flil ^\i\ and The sound plural and the plural of paucity denote several individuals^ while the broken plural denotes rather the whole (60). Nouns implying multitude.

\ \ changing the where the first radical of the root occurs in the second place of the measure (4) (3) (2). It is worth remarking that the letters used in the formation of tenses. (65). last (4) excluding those mentioned in the paragraph. broken plurals are formed from triliteral nouns and from some of die quacbiliteral verbal nouns treated of in p. (3)1(2) CD. (s-":0 U '(4) ^ (3) "^ ^ ^ L. plurals are the viz. or doubling of a consonant. and the in use. 46. >>. ^^ Thus from . c:-~J'^ . the increments they are both in nouns and verbs. as j. \. And from fii'st '(3) ' (j) . y^ will be found to embrace all the forms Ac^l*. s^= ^^ Ji^l^ ^ 1^1:^ ^ "jewel. plural J-^u. be regularly represented by the signs which J^Ul*. . J ji . . The measure for the plurals of quadriliterals. the all long vowels. where the radical occui's in the first place (1). (CI).^ ^-(2) -(J) u^-^ quince." we get into ^). for just as they modify ." s>- we have . as the position of is ^ any of the three radicals I'll* in the form (1) (3) -(2) immaterial. tesM'id.vhich are used in the formation of in these. are strictly analogous._^Jvij: nightingale.'^ (J) ^ j NOIE OX IHE FORMATION OF PLCRALS.^ S. PirEAL OF QrADEniTEEALS.112 Irregular AEABIC GEAiTilAR. (1) _^li 'i '^ = ^j}l^ i (the ~ ^ "key. may f. In words of five or more letters all above four are cut off in forming the plural. same as those fact. J^ll^ . PLrBALS OF Qri>'QrEIITERALS. etc.. „ -. (63).

the vowels are the characteristic and really important part of the form. tion of broken plurals from quadriliteral nouns make (4) (3) '(2) that is j-4 u 4^ but the — is is the most important form to preserve. the horizontal line at the top of the page gives the measures of the plural. as in the measures of the verbs. Two main 1. (65).* = (4) '(3) (2) (1). ideas seem to influence the formation of plurals. TABLES OF BROKEN PLURALS. 2. These are further influenced by the nature of the vowels used.* Plurals are for tlie most part irregular. In the measures of the broken plurals. examples of every form of broken plurals in left The hand column contains the measures of the singular. and to t_f .\-A. the the I therefore yields and changed word becoming ^j'li. but some measures are of more common use than others. The following tables will be found to contain use. 113 the action of a verb in a manner corresponding to the modification of the form. . . as a careful study of all the forms will show. and should by the rule forma(1).. Marking the opposition between singular and still plural. The addition of one or more letters to express an addition to the sense as in verbs. TABLES OF BROKEN PLURALS. so they modify the nature of the noun. They thus will therefore exert their usual influence upon a weak for the letter l.

ARABIC GRAMMAE.114 1. TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS .

TABLE OF BROKEN" PLUEALS. a y>> . 115 FROM TRILITERAL NOUNS.

116 ARABIC GRAMMAR. TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS .

.TABLE OF BROKEN PI.TJRALS. 117 FROM TEILITERAL S 'oS l^OTT^S— continued.

118 ARABIC GRAMMAR. TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS .

.TABLE OF BROKEN PLUEALS. 119 FROM TRTLITERAL S -'O "SOTJl^^S— continued.

.120 ARABIC GRAMMAR. TABLE OF BBOKEN PLURALS FROM TRILITERAL XOUNSconiinued.

I TAELE OF BROKEN PLURALS. 121 c I— -^ P3 H % O Pi Pn CO (J P-! w o Pi pq P^ w o -»: oi .

122 ARABIC GRAMMAE. 8. TABLE OF BROKEN PLFRALS .

s -^ JUi . 123 FROM THE MOST COMMON VERBAL NOUNS.TAELE OP BROKEN PLUEALS.

124 ARABIC GRAMMAR. TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS .

125 FROM THE MOST COMMON VERBAL l^OTJNS—contimied.TABLE OF BROKEN PLUEALS. .

126 ARABIC GEAMMAE. TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS .

. Not from hollow verbs. 127 FROM THE MOST COMMON VERBAL lH OJJliiS— continued.TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS.

128 ARABIC GRAMMAR. TABLE OF BROKEN PLURALS .

TABLE OF BROKEN PLTJRALS. JUi . 129 FROM THE MOST COMMON VERBAL ^0X1:^5—continued.

CO P o iJ o o H o H o CO p Ph o o fa .130 ARABIC GRAMMAR.

1^ pl. .^ perfect... jLJ^^ purified. FORM ^li. S<iP Not from defective verbs. rare. <Ujti defective verbs. Plural of paucity .^^-.>. s ^ ^ J\^ servant.« p Ss- ruler. 131 4.. . l_-. . 'is\i for tU-J seller. (^^ .-^ warrior) (rare). jFt"^ " J^ merchant.'ls:'^ comrade. u?. c. „ (*^^ \^^^^ „ e_^>iJ:» seeker. ^l:>pl. Not derived from J-cli pl. jj\j „ j^ JU helper.77 (j^ >. J I) „ j^y sleeper.. ilJlo Rare. 'V^'-i plunderer. s ' ys-l. ih „ rider. . *jl. J. ^'^^^ merchant. f \. _-^Ui . J^l) S '' pl. „ /•Lj sleeper. ^s>\a pl. 'r- drinker. workman. j^Rare. 'J ^li „ *Lj standing. -%llr pl. ^ X i? 5- '. » ^^-j peasant.i absent. j>\^ „ i jS^ magician. follower.^Vj „ j\^\ helper. «_5 Ij .^!^ „ iLL*. -Jblj pl. .BROKEN PLURALS. j-^j thirsty. BROKEN PLURALS OF THE MASCULINE AGENT. clean. tt'ls*^ comrade.

132 ARABIC GRAMMAR. ^^— continued. . BROKEN PLURALS OF THE MASCULINE AGENT S ^P Not from defective verbs.

133 s^ iH^lj -» 5. FORM . BROKEN PLURALS OP THE FEMIXINE AGENT.BPtOEEN PLURALS.

6. BROKEN PLURALS (3) '(4) \\2) \l) .131 AEABIC GRAMMAR.

OF QUADRILITERALS. '(4) OK (3) ({2) (i) .BROKEN PLURALS.

BROKEN PLURALS .136 ARABIC GRAMMAR.

(3) \\2) \l) . 137 V) -.BROKEN PLUEALS. OF QJJADmLlTERALS— conimued.

.— continued.138 ARABIC GRAMMAR. miO. BROKEN PLURALS OF QUADRILITERALS.

139 PLURALS OF PLURALS. „ „ i^yl „ „ s^ it* *t» water. 7) contains a general plurals. ii^*«3 and ^^y^^ S (rare y O ^(^ ^Lu3\ man. s ^i „ ^/^^^ and poetic) and ijj\j From relative adjectives a collective plural may be 'i)^ formed by simply adding the feminine termination ^tiLi SLafiite. (66).". The table opposite this page (No. 97 (47).lEREGULAR PLUEAIS. (67).^) gifts. coll. Plurals formed from singulars obsolete and other than those to which they are referred. pi. Cl^'U. as. /I motlier. JjJ jU (o^V. the broken plural. see (j^. pi.jO J. » view of the broken See p. S'' c:jL^^ it as if from A^. queliterals are Jkj (^J>j) pi.^ . In the measure of the quadriliterals and quinformed plurals of plurals. Or a regular plural may be formed from . pi. S^ *l-«3 O women.«l 'CS S 9 *i mouth. ^C-^Li) the Shafiite sect. thus. pi. pi..!?. iU^l The two following are also irregular.b hands. of pi. of pi. IRREGULAR PLURALS. pi. but it must be a feminine plural road. . (t^^.

DUAL. as t«^j. a man's name j ola ffmd. EEGULAELY DECLINED 1. yy o ^ ^ o Qy ^ 9 <UJi\^ S <-• 9 ur:^' \. signi- PLURAL.^ ^' o ^ i-^^ls^ ^ o 9 Dependent Obi active do. PLUBAL. <Lja^ SINGULAR.^ a woman's name. >> Masc. do. do. Masc. Fem. NOTTNS. Nouns derived from a verb (except jist) and desinner. do." noting rational beings.^^'\y* Subjective ' ^ c. do. EXAMPLES OF THE DECLENSIONS OF NOUNS. "a DUAL. Masc. Fern. s^ iX>J^ s<^y i^\ Subjective ^ y y <Axa JljJ Dependent Objective do. Fern. as fication in men having an intelligible j. as Sjj Zeid. Masc.^.Ii'* Mohammed (Praised). Masc.140 ARABIC GRAMMAR. (68). do. Masc. Fern. Proper names consisting of is tliree letters the middle of which quiescent . SINGULAR. fern. do. IjkX^ \jkjj 3.* ••^ x^ ^3>. l^X^ LJiX^ 2. Proper names of Arabic . Fern. PLURAL. . Fern.

I'roper names of men or women not included in classes 2 and 3 of the previous section: ^l^ "Othmau )j L2j Fem. 4. y P ^ (^ DUAL. IN'ouns of the form Jol.)l ur y ." PLURAL. Masc.r: . Fem. 9 .IMPERFECTLY DECLINED NOUNS. 1. SINGULAR. S ^xo-' ^o^ ." «f ^^ f'} it^. whether comparative or ' l^. 9 Masc. ami and IJ' ( Objectiv 2. S o ov ^T.? descriptive of colour and deformity. Subjective y rr'f. Masc. IMPEErECTLY DECLINED NO0NS. Masc. as j2jI "more accomplished. by the last addition These are declined like 'j^^ in the but one. 9 SINGULAR. Nouns of the form Jiri.***J >_^u. as x^\ 'lions. Fem. ^'^9 ^-ij yyi^ *V*N-^. \^\ 1 and Objective 3. 141 (4) (3) (2) (i).' 'O 9 .j •O -^ ^^. y 9 y '^'i- Kl) )Ui A^iil Subjective Dependent •^ c. "Zeinab. paradigm . their feminine and which do not make of I. Broken \ plurals." PLURAL.Uj>^ -J U' . and those ending in PLURAL. except those of the form \ (4) -.j y Xo ^i> /Dependent \ V^^XZ ^-y >".j i_\~.^ Dependent Objective i'wVi 1j<-j^ (69). Masc..\ Subjective iJu\J (A~.±^i\ ^^o. DUAL.(3) (2) (1). adjectival and descriptive. Masc." ij^j apes.

(3) 1(2) (i). ^Tpj ''a These are declined quite regularly. Nouns ending in the hemzeli being radical. J^l^J I Subjective Dependent and ^. Broken plurals of the form . \ ' Objective (70 j. -^. DECLENSION OF 1. (4) -.^li^ as ^jd ''dirhems" (drachmce) 9 "keys. (4) (3)1(2) (i). as PLURAL. NOtTNS ENDING IN A *l. ARABIC GEA3IMAR." y^ t?' i-li." . WEAK lEXTEE. reader.142 4.

PLUKAL. WEAK LETTER.^^^^ in the dual. jj. 6. 143 I^ouns endini? in M.. regular is want- J.^vl XX ^k/0 Subjective <* _^ X X or _-3 x^ r I Dependent and Si-C: •^^ (ObjecUye 6. Nouns ending PLURAL. .3£ Similarly etc./j or .. J» •Si XX un. 5> X Regular plural wanting. ending in Tfor j DUAL. --- Zs. SINGULAR. ^j:j Dependent Objective do. DUAL. J>-1. • DUAL. 96 (56). SI iw— •1 . The plural ing. in Jr for DUAL.DECLENSION OF NOUNS ENDING IN A 3. ^lii Subjective See p. ':j . 4.\ £\ "Zachariah. . SINGULAR.h^ ^Jlc 'Ijjoi Subjective „ <.. SIXOrLAR. tl>1. l. Triliterals PLURAL. as A. l^<! Dependent Objective X do. etc.j^^ Objective Broken of this.^ I ^ 1 ( Dependent and See p. for JjI. note. 130. ^1. in ^ I ." PLURAL. 96 {b^). make ^^j-Jt. ^X Regular plural wanting.. l*. plurals in *l are declined like the singular Proper names of men ending 6INGULAB.-ic Subjective !5> X See p.

" rel.. o'^j. ^Js\i uW^ . 74 c). uj^jj rcl. or the signs of the dual and plural. in .^ (witliout tlie Kouns ending temvin) are similarly declined in the dual. formed by rejecting letters. relative affix. more than two as "^-i . the of the two is ^ pointed with fethah and the second changed If the also into ^." rel. Csyp^. ". as J^l? "a fold. The noun of relation all formed by affixing the i" syllable J>^ and rejecting such inflections as the of the feminine. this. ^jr^y^. of the two 7jds ^ stand in place of a ^ it is changed into that letter." rel. is (71). first but yds if preceded by only one is letter. In nouns which themselves end in the termination the relative is J)-. if preceded by J^^." lsy^\ ^ "youth. is ^ When the third or fourth letter of a word it is the short alift or ts (see p." lsj^\ . J^j "two Zeids. DUAL. NOTJIi OF BELATION.^li Subjective ^Ij L^lj Dependent Objective FORMATION OF NOUNS NOT IMMEDIATELY DERIVED FROM VERBS. — for j^ or ^^. as <LC relative JX^. as changed into before the l^ "staff.-i. so that the two are identical in form. 7. and adding the termination rel. 144 ARABIC GRAMMAR. SINGULAR. as Jj^ first "an Arab village. Quadriliterals ending in PLURAL.-.

"Mustafa" (chosen). ^^J^^^ In forming the noun of relation from nouns ending in long alif^ when radical. as "inimical.the ^Xg' p. . it if the short alif is the fifth letter in the apocopated altogether before the termiuation is\ as ^ll?- "a bustard. or in nouns ending in letter. When final t/d the termination of a noun is — occurring after the second or third letter.THE NOUN OF RELATION. the same rules must be applied " which were given as ^TJ in the case of the dual (see p.* (see p. as ^T^I^ "red." V-'^ a word. tribe of Juheineh. the noun of relation should be formed with^. j. this is is changed into wcuv ^ .V^.ljlj . ^U^ "a sinew garment. 104). it f^li^ "a fawn. and being a substitute for the with iemvm .^." o'^. If the penultimate in nouns derived from verbs is ivcak^ of which the final radical 'i ." ji-Jl^ "grand. the final yd follows a quiescent letter. ^li "a judge. ilss:^x^] noun of relation. it forming the noun of If. remains unchanged. is -.^j." if and lj^=^ "Hanefite" is . but is 115 word.i "a and reader." forming the relative: as '^j'^ "a descendant "of the ." "lofty. ^TI." Jc. "jT^I. if it be a sign of the feminine. %Q. and preceding letter relation." however. 75)." Ls]^'-. as note If 2). as pointed with fclhah in tZfjili. the yd is retained thus 2^ ? a proper 10 .-Ii. occur as the fifth letter of it is rejected altogether in the rel.L1^ and J/^lIi. as and derived from verbs with a sound middle for jji ( = j[^Ac y^)^ '^-^'trPT ^^^ -^r^) the yd J/^Lc is dropped in of 'Ah'." rel. (a sect) but the final radical sound^ or the medial tvcak or doubled." in the neck ^\^^ But ''a . 'XrlL.

146 name. "Leopards" (name of a (title of jl^t "Helpers" Zfj^^\ • the companions of Mohammed). may be changed or not of the pleasure: ZJ^ "Taghleb" (proper name tribe)." is or v^ "father. 'i^i^ AEABIC GRAMMAR. but not otherwise. vowel is changed J to fethah in Tbut it forming the as j^^ "liver." Jj>\^ "." o'^ "promissory.! • last portion only." If the second letter of a this word be pointed witli kest^ah. In forming restored to its relatives from plurals the noun must be regular form. letter is restored. s J^IXj the last. as j^^iT/ "religious duties. . J<Li^. or of which the medial letter has a vowel in the original form." first Jlr <LlI:^ "fifteen. the suppressed letter." In words of which the last letter has been apocopated without any compensatory hemzeh being added." ^'p/j '1 "Ibn " el Walid. relative. unless the portion be the words "son. as j\aj] tribe)." JfJ^r^ if the kesrated letter follow either more than one at letter. as ij^ "a promise. IS'ouns of relation from compound words are formed by first adding the termination ^^ to the " portion and rejecting ^ ." J^Jj ." tlf^-ij. c/^^^-t. J^-lxf or founder of an Arab ^u5. as uJCIXj "Eaalbekk. if the last radical be a weak as 'L^ "marking. ''fall." in which case the noun Lt of relation made from the juJpr^.j^uX^. unless the plural be used as a proper name." hlS^\ u^S\\'^ '"Abda ' ^^ ^ In forming the noun of relation from nouns of which the first radical has been apocopated." l^„^ \ -OJ^ "excellent. asjo "Abu Bekr.

!. (72)." l^ "divine. as ^S (for ^^j). is dropped." theological . From the Noun of Eolation an Abstract Substan- tive is if.md the com- pensating i.^-:j. ABSTRACT NOUN. as (for ^^J). principally used in technical or scientific terms as ^3U1^ jjjlj!^ "corporeal. . asyif. letter is restored in forming the relative. it takes the form of even though the original radical be ^^ " or IjZ ^^' ''filial.[)\ But if the compensating hemzeJi has been added. if it exist. ^^^ JJ^J. and 2jl "lip" (for 1^'i.". If the last letter be an allf^ it is doubled." ^i-i labial.THE KOUN OF RELATION." jf^i "external."^3ori-p''bloody!" In words which consist originally of only two letters when the last is a sound consonant. as "how much?" ^ tvaw^ it is rel.." ^jl^^j "spiritual." irregular Yery forms are f\l "Syrian.). as in (a proper name). '^ or "^ • but if the last letter be a always doubled." Li works (especially Christian) the termination £^'!! as \ "a god." . may be as "^1 '"' restored or not at pleasure : if restored." j2 "of Yemen." "internal. this j*? may be either doubled or not. is ". formed by the addition of the feminine termination "divinity. and either hemzeh or who ^ is substituted for the second alif thus obtained. or the middle letter is quiescent it in the original form. as 147 the missing 0\ (for^l). as ty\ "paternal." (These are declined" lilve ^'J). Another form of the relative termination IS This .

(for Ifj^^) ^. but 1-." dim." dim." ^1^ ." dim. ya of the diminutive." dim. 148 ARABIC GRAMMAR. i^^or ^T. the inserted alif of such forms as the broken plural 3^1. "divinity. all if the follow noun has more than three - which the inserted are pointed with hesrah^ as ^j^ is "a drachma.^ "a key. 'i^] m.i>i ^zj^ ^kingdom (of heaven)." l?/is used instead." l^. Jji^ "a small bird. •^jli^. ^-^^. j^*^.^-i Jj^ "a the lion. ^ill«. (73). such letter retains fethah. J^j* letters. is restored. c-^.^... as cJ^? (for ^j?) "^ door." dim. In such nouns. "loads.J-ilsi.. The diminutive is formed by inserting 1 (quiescent t/d) after the second letter of the noun. a balance. is if the additional letter one of the feminine affixes l. r{J^ "red." dim. . and pointing the initial letter with dhammah and the second letter with fethaJi^ as J^-j "a man. 'j^j-^ In nouns where the characteristic vowel has changed a weak radical into another weak radical homogeneous with itself.^^^. a proper name. or the termination 'J\ added to proper names original pointing with or epithets." THE DIMINUTIVE. 'S^\ jU-^1. ^UU. J^^^^ J^j^ "drunk.j ^^^' ^^5- ^^^ ^^ it weak letter occur after the 1 -. "small. ' ' 4. such radical . becomes as f. not a radical." dim. j^-o^ letter before the inserted 1 of the ^ luaw^ A quiescent is diminutive changed to as ^j\^ ." "deity.^'.." dim. aim." dim." dim. as its ?^5 "a date. ^j^ dim.15 (for ' ' 410 weak "a fang. as c:j. . however.

is influenced by the kesrah characteristic rules of permutation already letters of the form.2s:. The reason teristic 149 for these last two rules is ohvious. because the charac- vowels of the diminutive form are dhammak at the beginning at the end. letters are compensated by inserting a as ^_^}^ .." dim. participial prefix * mim.j^ i is added to the diminutive. letter.2j. as slave boy. In nouns of four of -.-. ^-. which of the the third is a long vowel. If anything has been substituted for the apocopaterf letter." restored in the J^x>j. as *j (^V*^) "blood.a-!. eye. yd by the ^i^. as j»i-. as Js^jSl^ formed by applying the above all after and rejecting ^^. In words which are feminine in meaning. as ^^jsX^-* " deducing. ^-J-i for *--»]-:: When there are more than four is radical letters in the word.k«." Sji*'^' In nouns of two letters from which the third has been is apocopated." dim. c-j.. such apocopated letter diminutive. the diminutive rule for quadriliterals. are derived forms of the simple triliteral noun the diminutive is formed by rejecting the servile (or but not the characteristic) letters of the derived form. . it is dropped in the diminutive. such long vowel coalesces with the ^lli. the feminine termination as . jM house. and becomes given. but which or verb.s^. <__>.. In nouns which contain five or six letters.... such vowel -. as '^^A^ "Z.::^. the fourth " quince. but not in form. diminutive. or which are arbitrarily considered as feminine. Ji* . "weak letters which may "When the last syllable of the noun of more than three letters con- tains a long vowel.2^ amtated. ' ami. dim. and kesrah and consequently these vowels influence any occur in these respective positions." ^^-^^ . THE DlillNUTIVE." for Sometimes the rejected ?/d -.

as AJ^L "poets. "daughter. tl<:JU "that. "a Cadi. Diminutives of plurals of paucity. c/|i "who. Jl^ "who." the feminine termination cj assumes diminutive. tllCbJ I "Baalbekk. Zeids. LJl. this is only obtained from the singular." yLs." cbbj." ilS\sx. Declinable nouns only are susceptible of . In 1^^] "sister. which becomes aLl^l ." fem. are not sus- ceptible of a diminutive form is .a diminutive. or of regular plurals. as U "that." eJiJu^i).. however." . of I the compound. as ^S^\ ribs. which then inflected with a regular plural masculine in the case of rational masculine nouns. this as j^Ij is letters of which a radical not restored in the diminutive. may be *J-»Jl . ARABIC GRAMMAR." tli. Abd d^-^." bSi. 150 for '\a^." bj. as tsJ:. its usual form in the illL In nouns of more than three has been dropped. ." fern. .' Broken plurals of multitude. o^^ "camels. and their initial vowel always fetliah "that." e^^ioc^ Jdmds. instead of dhammah." e-jil^?- (from J/i^). case "lip.k>- ' ' lI^-Lxj aJJIjoj: " fifteen. ^^jyi*)^ (from^l£). Diminutives of the demonstrative pronouns occur." (from J<i>)." J^y by the foregoing ^^^J^ijjj. substituted letter be tbe femiit nine termination. "Hinds." ^ is retained.i. and a regular feminine plural in the case of feminine or irrational 3jii& nouns . obtained ^j>vj rules. allah. is IJ though rarely. unless tlie J^." ^lilj^^. in which.A^ <u«. Compound nouns take first the diminutive only in the as part . C".

separate and PERSONAL PRONOUNS. lose Ol is their first vowel and become ^^j. 2. ^ before the conjunctions ^ and j may . 151 THE PRON"OUNS.i pronounced ana (not and). The affixed pronouns are : . affixed. and is considered in poetry as consisting of two short syllables. 1. The separate pronouns are 1st person 2iid 3rd These only express the nominative ^a and case. ^^. (74).: THE PERSONAL PROXOUNS. The Pronouns are of two kinds. ^i and ^^!tj.

" "my sins. the el-wasl follows the plural masculine mm must be pointed with !" — . If a hemzei pronoun. when preceded by to kesrahj as ^'bi." (nom. is "of my book. — or ^'j change their . as ^l::| etc. the letter of prolongation. person is added to the form cCJ\ expressing admiration. After a long 4'i. It is not unfrequently first employed when the pronoun of the j2s1 l^." IP verbs. This confusion actually takes place in nouns." ^Q "perhaps. ''my book." may be used." and J\ "that." The pronouns Jcesrah of the third person. dhammah " (of) his book " j:^!^ " upon them. the inconsist flexions of which." "near.^ "as if. as Ijlk^ " sins.il^^ ETC." As the addition of the affixed pronoun serves to . and objective). BEFOEE THE AFFIXED FEONOTJNS. as Ij}:4 "writing. vowel ^^ becomes ^ . serves to prevent confusion in verbs. as ^'hJ\ *^J-c "peace be upon them The feminine termination Tbecomes ." sense of ''enough." ^J\ "but. there being no distinction between the various cases of a noun when the pronoun of the first person is affixed to it . when they would otherwise be absorbed by of short vowels." It is also used with the particles ^^^." The nun of particles precaution often used with certain which resemble "that. such as lj\ "verily." l^i^ll^ "her writing.. as ^ j^ ! \J^j^^ ^* " How much I need the forgiveness of God CHANGES IN TOWELS." N." 152 because it 4rtAEIC GRAMMAE. but is more fre- quently rejected. ^^ "from." geneWith li or £i in the rally with 'JS\ "with.before the affixed pronoun.B." y." It is always used with 6^ it "would that. (76).

plural of the preterite. a long j introduced . as " I gave thee it." iJ. both referring to the same person. the natural order of the persons must be followed. the word being used as a peg on which to hang it.'-i "his strikers." A TEHB GOVEEIfING TWO (77)." the second may be b]_ either joined or written separately. as i^ " they wrote it. 1st preceding the 2nd. 7). 153 make The the noun definite. as Ijj^ (by Similarly the mute \ is di'opped in the third person masc. N." If the two pronouns are joined.^\ of these happen to be affixed pronouns. When a verb governs two accusatives.— THE PEESONAL PROXOUXS. P.^L£\ "I gave thee the it.TIVE PEONOUIS'S. the affixed pronoun of the person singular for lJ^^." folis When pronouns of the second person plural are lowed by another affixed pronoun.B. and both iS<u2o. as d^ "I was (3) he. thus iM lL^'. tlie tenwin necessarily disap- pears (see p. as jJtj o'ol we worship." where it is ^KA^ <jl^ would bo preferred. where two affixed . and the 2nd coming before the 3rd." first With the ^ /. or sative where required to place the accufor the pronoun before the verb ''''Thee sake of emphasis. pronouns would otherwise come together or (2) where an affixed pronoun would immediately follow the pronominal termination of a verb.75). The (1) separate form with U]_ can onl}^ be used in a case like that given above. il) of the regular plural and the ij of the dual are ilj'c^ omitted before the affixed pronouns. as "his two books. ACCTTSA.J^ and o coalesce into ^J .

ARABIC GRAMMAR. and so on. the prefixes for the aorist. namely.>0 -' OS ''I f ? 9f'-"' cS between the two. that the prefixes and affixes by which the different persons of a verb are formed are in reality nominative pronouns : the affixes serve for the preterite. Jij expresses the mere f^pjb /. . The last rule assumes a fact -which the student will do well to bear ia mind. the tense itself being indeclinable : thus act of killing " in the preterite Jij expresses the mere J^ "he killed" {^q fethah representing the pronoun is Tie). DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS." and is thus declined PLURAL.^krl iy%L-J^:2. (79). /> . as S=J^\ gave you it. (^Ji^ is "l killed" the pronoun I in the preterite of verbs)} and so on." etc. which in nouns assumes the form <^:Ji:xi i). The Demonstrative pronoun is U "that.z\ "I it" f4^^ "you gave. (j is the pronoun she with the aorist)." ^^.^'o^ act of is killing" in the aorist: "he kills" (j the pronoun he with the aorist). NOTE ON THE PKONOMINAL SIGNIFICATION OP THE INFLECTIONS OF VERBS." "you gave (^ appears to have been the origmal full form of the termination of these pronouns). (78).: : 154." gave you. J^* " she kills. LSi.^ "she killed" (the fethah again the pronoun and lU is the feminine termination.

Ul. as di^ j see p. d/lj I Subjective Dependent lI/Ij tl>-J .: : . and (Objective More usually the emphatic J case the \ is interposed. PLURAL. Masc. Fem. Fem. • P 9 "i M M _jJ Subjective (_cj Dependent MJ IJ Objective For the ordinary demonstrative denoting distant ob- ^ jects ! J is compounded with the asLl^^i "that. ^or^!^. Fem. Masc. DUAL. in wliich is written defectively in the singular." DUAL. SINGULAR. Fem. Masc. it is fully declinea as PLUKAL. Ij is 155 it seldom used by itself. f Masc. Fem. d/. 99). and li or cp at the beginning. and when forms a compound the feminine singular assumes the form ^l or /i at the end. THE DEMONSTRATIVE PHONOITNS. affixed pronouns cJ. SINGULAR. Fem Masc. 15 (3). 9 "When J J follows signifies "possessor" (seep. ' ^ -. 9 . In the dual the two liquids J aud'^ coalesce into ^ . Masc.

" wliicli declined as follows ^LURAL.: 156 ARABIC GRAMMAR. . as Ui) "this. is defectively wi'itten.

species i^jiS\ " the horse " (as distinguished from the camel.' as In certain proper names. declined [cT* Fem. of excellence .). \_Note.:>. C^ SINGULAR. as lijQ\ "Al narith. ""^^^o-"" is sometimes. and \. 157 rarely. DUAL. name or sohriquet'. It is used with 1.e.« l^ is indeflinable.—\^ and that is. Masc. ^^lliit "mankind." . Fem. (81).''. to specify The The individual as ^S^\ "the Cadhi" (in question).— THE ARTICLE. il>. ^wS "the (idol) Ashtoreth.jj5t etc. 4. this and the relatives. 'L\) ^^"* regular noun.] 'J\ A "who" is declined like a compound word may be formed with (fem. which will then have the sense of KXA "whatsoever." 5. O X • ." as first "whosoever " The portion of this compound declinable. THE ARTICLE." the city (i. its compounds are for also indeclinable. 2. Maso. Mssc. To make an epithet into a proper lit." is "-soever. "the ploughman. The article ^t is indeclinable. nouns . ^O^ Li)""* o^o -^ Subjective o o^ ^ j^/# Dependent Objective] L. endings the inflexions number and gender not being considered by the Arabic grammarians as declension. as the Prophet). though very PLURAL.^\ I*. etc." inir To distinguish an individual "El Medina.« Fem. they are not susceptible of inflexions for case. 3.

1 . of the Eelative pronouns The use and of the Article is treated of in detail in the Syntax.158 ARABIC GRAMMAR. (82). THE mjMERALS. THE CARDINAL NUMBERS.

159 .THE CARDINAL NUMBERS.

i^/-o>w 100 <o 1000 the numerals go- vern the singular of the noun numbered.. Thousands compounded with units follow the rules above given.. treated as a thing numbered. A. MASCULINE. . Ou v.*j Jlj 900 1000 ^.. 90 100 1..<) iu. . v. they are for Thus . and from 100000 upwards the 6000 7000 8000 9000 T. "When the hundreds are compounded with units. 3000 to 10000 the broken plural is iJJ used in the oblique case .^ mi-atun. t....'] y 800 A. 4 5. The word il. i t.. [tOU* . ^. is oblique singular c^ jA ] V.. aL't* {J*^' case of the singular. " ^j L« f.L» "hundred" is com- mon 200 r... .> is pronounced as if written o.. i\ \ "a thousand" is common to both genders. 300 400 500 600 700 r. • case. to both genders... 2000 3000 r...>. 4000 5000 f. from 10000 to 99000 the accusative singular ujl used.. r.. which they put in the oblique !. i. IGO ARABIC GRAMMAR.. as " a hundred men. they are put in the oblique c 1...e.....

161 .ORDIXAL NUMBERS.

162 ARABIC GILiMMAR. . MASCULINE.

cLJi^« three by three. consisting of two ^rlj quadruple.: : — : : VARIOUS CLASSES OF NUMERALS. consisting of three. square.-* four cbj . 1. J once one time. OTHER CLASSES OF NUMERALS.^1^ s i^ p r->_y* triple. And so on. 'O y J_ft. by one. The adverbial numerals ^ ft ^ ^^o^ a..^ -^J "^ j\j o^ liJ^lj or Lj[i "i. L3I3 or i . These are imperfectly declined. twice. The distributive numerals are jls^-l •? or JkT*-*^ one yO ^ . consisting of four.j ij^. double. The adjectival numerals are S '9 I S _P ^Uj dual.. are formed as follows {lit.:?^^ two by two. thus also use the objective case of the noun of fjj^ij^ . etc. 2. <ijj^ <^ij'^ he struck him once. ^J^ treble.^ twice.^ y ^^i . •-J or <i'i3lj i--^ thrice. etc. And so on.. And so on . And so on. --O ^O *Uj jc^* or (^i>J^ u. by four. one turn. quadruple. j-^. 1G3 (84). threefold..). "We may unity. . fourfold.-« The sin<?le multiplicative numerals are ^ y 9 y «. 3. \S^ 4. twofold.

: — 164 6. ARABIC GRAMMAR. etc.^ half. The recurring numerals «." used with the tens." ^. ^ f ^''^ U^ 6. ^j^^ Ujj every fourth. cj^^jj or 4-lJj or cj^ij a third. and XXX. 7. 147.* ^Ij^ _ '^ parts of. ^^J " a few more." as -g-^tb. hundreds : thousands." ^. U^iy^ cJ/ ^LrT' "^^ ^ P^^*'^ ^^"^^ parts. . j > ^he plural of these to fractions is of the ^ *: ^/' ""^''atPTith ) form 3Q5 by the use of The fractions above a tenth are expressed the words ^ ^ " part. S 9 > »' S l^> \ '^^J ti. " And we sent him to a hundred thousand or more." used with the units from 3 to 9. as "The Greeks are conquered in the nearer parts of the earth. xxxvii. as l^ ] Iji^ " upwards of ten.iJdn lilJ are every third." — Kor." —Kor. 1.. Approximate numbers are expressed as follows : ^j ''a few. Fractions are 5 O fc-ji.-vjJ ^t Sometimes the words "or they exceed " are used in imitation of the passage of the Koran. S ^ ».. t^J a fourth. but they shall conquer after being conquered in a few years.

with. followed sense. Conjunctions." and similar also expressions. The separable prepositions are Jl .^9 *-&.— : PREPOSITIONS." . changes their dhammah into — .. are written as one word with the following noun) or separable. pronouns this is pointed with fethah). see LU . by the number. The namely inseparable . t__j in. by by (a particle of swearing). etc. Similarly el-I3elia Zolieir has 1 65 " I kissed him on his cheek. U.''* about. J to (with like. are used in this PAETICLES. The prepositions are either inseparable (i. (85). when joined with the affixed pro- 9. Under the head Particle the Arabs include Pre- positions. 9 This. by. (86). PREPOSITIONS. prepositions are five in number. Adverbs. jl J^-^jj U " what exceeds.e. nouns >. and Interjections.&. (ditto). and counted a thousand kisses or »ssr ' therealouts.

The J\ principal separable conjunctions are "when. and. (87). These are not pro- perly reckoned as particles." L^J "in the midst. All prepositions take the following nouns in the depen- dent case. CONJUNCTIONS. u_i and so (as a consequence of what has gone before). The conjunctions are also either inseparable or separable. The inseparable conjunctions are .: 166 ARABIC GRAMMAR." etc. . jy "above.

oj ^.w^l then. of c which the most common are yes. never." which . • rather. ^1 whether. ^1 UJJ> Jj nay. Such adverbs as S^^t? "afterwards. UJ not yet. etc. The t \ principal interjections are: oX i)\ lal Uij ij ci> ah! alas! oh b W f\ ! ho ! etc. 1) -5^ when? Jji> ^ \ how? where ? whether (interrogative). . separable. J .. . and are therefore not included amongst the particles. not. not. or j^." are not since they are not.. not at all. list. COJfJUNCTIONS AND INTERJECTIONS. are merely nouns in an adverbial case and indefinite nouns in the adverbial accusative. A great many other words are used as interjections. LlXJuji) there. ^1 U1 ^1 ^ won't K 3 certainly not. is all). tive of or (alterna- Us not. (89). 0=r^ \S\ . verily. INTERJECTIONS. but are in reality verbs or nouns. no.'w ever. \Sj1 "ever. loJi ^ S . and as such need not be . J never. here. in that case. UJ 1 only. strictly speaking. as included in this particles. Lii only (and that Si already. u]. cLyil^. 167 Or I/. All particles arc indeclinable.." (^Cj "before..

J^ Tak. which treats of the inflexion of words.168 ARABIC GRAMMAR. with their influ- ence on other words. „ „ sheep goats .. They are all fully described. sounds are indeclinable. discussed in the Accidence. sound of a blow. Note. IMITATIVE SOUNDS. . l!>- lid hd. A' d. and they neither govern a following word. nor are governed by any preceding one «=>• J such are Used in calling camels to drink.. Imitating the cawing of a crow. „ stone falling. Tdki. in the Syntax. ^^J> U>- Ji ft. \z Ic „ jjli Ghdki. —Imitative . jjll? „ .

SECTION I. unless particle." Kor. in citing a verse of poetry. employs the expression. The Preterite denotes a completed act. 18.-SYNTAX. by the context act is by some Thus the may be completed only at the moment it. and the Imperative. THE PEETERITE. I pardon for its sake the crimes of time gone by. ix. such as na- . There are three tenses in Arabic Aorist." Or the effect may still remain. THE TENSES OF TERES. but the it time at which defined took place or is left indeterminate.— 169 PART II. the I. when the speaker describing as God all bless the day on which thou art saved.—THE VEEB AND THE NOUN. —the Preterite. So an Arab author. js\h\ Jli Uif ''as the poet says^ Or it may express a foregone conclusion. as He » only shall repair the Mosques of God who believes in God. (90).

^J^ past. are lost. The particle j^ restricts the preterite to a time actually ." The Caliph reproved him add ^ for his want of politeness. in precative sentences.^ 170 ARABIC GEAMMAE.<-i ctill or in cui'sing." "are a dead man. CX^ i^ p I CJj\i " God -^ you " ! —whereupon the Arab replied -*o ^ ^ ^ . then you may consider this. "if you do that. as granted. designating the action that had taken place before the occurrence of the event which There is we a well-known Arabic jest about a Bedawi. namely. replied curtly 1 the Caliphs whether a sheep which he was carrying was for "no. who. as " (91). and bless told him that he should always as above. I will rise." where "you apparent preterites. as IfHij '^\ ^XS\ "may God 3 perpetuate your existence I" And you ! with "not." or "are a dead man." We use * the pluperfect." are very From common this use of the preterite results another use in Arabic. as lLsXj lL-Xj ^\ " if you rise. that / have risenJ^ A similar idea seems to influence the English colloquial idiom. turally occurs in hypothetical or conditional sentences. namely. t^^b ^ "may God not bless The preterite of the verb is "^ with the preterite of ^li jjj another verb equivalent to the pluperfect." But the pluperfect is more usually expressed by the j^'. namely. you are lost." to Here the idea expressed seems sition be : " if this suppo- be granted. on being asked by one of sale. tl." in averting anything undesirable. too. you have risen. preterite preceded by the particle with or without the conjunction J. as '^i "Zeid had stood up. as ^ S-'j ^^^ "^ "Prophets have come to you before me.

in answer to the ' Two of these inflexions. (93). prefer to mention the circumstance or condition resulting from such previous action. The aorist is susceptible of certain inflexions' to express the various moods. The Aorist denotes an act not yet completed. The . has the apocopated form of the aorist for in tlie its parallel verbs. preterite. II. This change takes place when the verb is preceded by any one 1. 171 on the contrary. ^^\{ — ^\ ^p "then. THE MOODS OF YEEBS. In the direct or indicative mood. (92). somewhat indeterminate in respect until defined by the context or by particles. THE INDICATIVE MOOD. Like the of time. the dependent." 3. — remaining case. are describing. of the following particles may ^J ''that" (Latin ut\ visit you." J-^Ji j^^ J miser will certainly not be liberal. to express the subjunctive mood. the -?. CHANGE OF THE VOWEL IN THE AORIST. it is THE MOODS OF YERBS." in that case. ^J='((^1 = J ^^C as i "it will not happen that") = "certainly not.and jective cases of nouns.: ." 5 ^J} ^! ^ "I "the wish that I 2. The aorist of a verb changes its final vov*^el -^ into jl. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. arc identical with the subjective and oband the Arab grammarians give the same name to both. the Arabs. . THE AOEIST. the it is aorist ends in — used in all direct narration.

L_s^^^ C/^^^ 2^^^ the thief (for he repent'' ^] j^)." and after the conjunctions and uIj.Uj li "Do not punish me so that I perish. /-xo^O • 9 O-^ O -^ "what if?" 'LA\ J^jJ ^^\ '' tlien thou shalt liJI^T enter Paradise." in answer to the question allU ^[ "what From if I believe in God?" ^^1 ." . that. cLC»>/J^ JSU Job "Do you eat fish and." where ^j^\ ^ is equi- valent to ^^CSA J Jl^ "till that I meet my death. drink milk (at the same time)?" Ci3jblj ^je>. or meet my fate." ^) _^ "in order to. so that I ? may go to him t- i l^ is also understood with the ellipse of some other word after j^. '^JS C-^^iij c^U ^-^^ you" ) JJ J or till ^..*i*li j^jJ^ gi <!iJl Juj Jj& "is Zeid at home. as ^1 dTjjl jl u^v^n ^^u^^ "I u/. especially." 172 question ARABIC GRAMMAR. the real instrument in forming the sub- junctive mood." ^ "in rfi^J order. and changing the _L of the aorist into jl. The ellipse of ^1. takes place after the particles J "to." ^-"^^^ i "l carae in order that I (for may visit Cjj^}. J-mjIi j^Jlb es**)^ "l am content to flee and save myself." jjL^ "until. as m\ Ci3 ^Ji'y L5 " That God may pardon thee." .^^ will brave hardships.0)." ^Jl < > JLj. this it will is be seen that the particle expressed or understood.

its joints (a cane spear) 1>\ it sliall come ^J^^ J J^ "unless that it come straight.e. two The cases in which one verb loses its final syllable are the following . except in the instances given above. (94)." I^. as a SjissT^ i>j^ t Tell him (to) dig it. The aorist of the verb is the only part of speech which can lose its final vowel altogether.li U "God will not of J\ with the aorist in fethah.B." xOS 1 P X ? oS f-0-<3 OxO-O I -C X ^ X O^ " X -Ji-O X y OxO X x X ^x'' > • *'* XX xl XX O "x /oi X " Those who believe in God and the last day will not ask permis- sion of thee that they should not engage in the holy war with their pro- perty and persons." The conjunction ^t with the subjunctive mood must occasionally be translated as a negative." XX? ox yox (^jo-b JJJ ^>^\ -Si^-O p ^^ "Catch the thief before he catch you. —The change of the final vowel of the aorist to always implies a subjunctive or subordinate condi- THE APOCOPATION OF THE FIXAL VOWEL OF THE AORIST. is rare. fetJiah tion." ^^^JUI t__>A. " in order not." After the affirmative particle in such expressions.: THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. in either one or The apocopation may take place verbs. as torment the righteous. U-ijlj or j1 173 ^yi cLyLf " I will break straight. although it does The suppression sometimes occur." i.tJ c'Ul .

as a past negative sense to the *ij J He did not stand. There are thirteen particles which apocopate the aorist of two verbs jn*^ ^ o J-wwC' ^ If you are lazy. and dawn had not yet appeared. (95).." * The hemzet it. . with it which the article . its When him preceded by strike. requires a vowel to precede in order that may be pronounced the su/cun of the apocopated aorist jjioj is therefore changed into kesrah — (see p. 13)." <!j JsT Vy^ ti'*''V. whenever thou come what thou commandest (to thee). ARABIC GRAMMAR.: 174 1. IJj After tlie particle J nsed in an imperative sense." Thou wilt find him whom thou commandest coming ^ "Whosoever." the _s~l ' "^^^ ^ J "^W" " He came.^ i__alj ^ shalt -^1 e:^^ to U CUlJ' UJ^ lI^jI • "And thou. c."] ^ c_J." wMcli always give aorist. shall be recom- pensed therewith." LjT ^1j ibt .'* Whosoever does evil. you will como to want. J loses vowel." is \Note." and U] ''not yet. as Cv^^ "let Zeid strike. —This ^ the regular form of imperative for all except the second person. After prohibitive. commences." PARTICLES WHICH APOCOPATE THE AOBIST OF TWO TERES." Ui^ " Whenever that. as ^^J "do not strike. After J "not. el-wasl.. as t-r^-ii " so let 3." 2.

175 U^^ and aill U " Whatsoever. I will sit. jj^rsxj 'LA*a:>~ CX»*^_^.l»a>. o"^ "Whichever. have [in both the above examples Jjij and y J-*^ are for J^j ^ y and J-/*^" for the sake of the rhyme. (. ^* "Whenever." -£i ' '' O-^^ O <0j\ lLsS jiA^." i__5^l.THE APOCOPATED AOEIST.. death will reach CO* U*^^^ 9 \ O O ^ -iii. ^1 "Wherever.ljli "whenever descends." ^ o-»o 9 ^S ^x ^:. ijl J » Whenever poverty patience. for to Him .'^ seekest. ye will know me." are.:LJy^^\ jl. you encounter .^ ^ O t-i^ Where you sit.] Ul^. it \^\ " Whenever " (poetical)." assails you.s^ However you good luck." tXs^r c-^Jlij* SI- U.^ ^.-^.^ (S^j'^i V'^^* " Wherever ye you..w«Jl -(t-Jl "when I pat off my turban.i jO' ^'^l." the wind sways it." UUiJ' i^Asfj j^\i U " Whatsoever good ye " Whatsoever thou do. God knoweth thou shalt it. God will grant you U§ K*>- "However." ^'*^." t< ^Lk-j-M cdi LiJkj M By whichever ye call on Him.<w>Jl belong the most excellent names." turn.x> ^Jl iO J<AxJ' t< j_^.'* \i\ and o^ -'^ . find. Where you success >> go." J'.2J" <^ vJ ^"'". «--^Ji)3kJ' U. L/**!.

thus U J4"J P^O" nounced rajulu mma. which makes J}L cuX with Ik. U or not. except ^ ^^-T. which is then doubled. to give greater emphasis: as . and j^ do not apocopate the '' aorist unless joined U= soever. especially in the jussive. interrogation. command. 77 /^ ^ <-^^ ^'* '-^ certain man went ^^^ out one day. or prohibition. ^^^ THE ENERGETIC (96).b '• *^^^ ^*^' ^°y ™^^ whatever. when the clause is aorist of the second not introduced by one of the conjunctions J or uJ. is —U after an indefinite noun equivalent to the English "a certain." U and ^ are never joined with U . and ^^ are true particles. U they are '^ all undeclined." The n the ^ of of the tenwin in this case always coalesces with U.' 176 ARABIC GRAMMAR.•'.^^ cT? ^y.^ ." as /*V." JUSSIVE MOOD. as "visit CS^j^\ iAjj me —I will honour you." or " any whatever." \^ ^L^-j '•^^. AISTD The is syllables ^"and added to the aorist or imperative give greater force to the expression. and the second stronger than the first. In a conditional sentence. the remaining eleven are really nouns implying a condition or hypothesis jj^ . They are used in affirmation. its last syllable is apocopated. the rest may be either joined with Note. The affirmative J is also generally prefixed in forming these still moods. J.

j_5'JJi (5^ it fS-^-xJ ^." which shall — Ivor. " my children. direct or subjective. The prohibitive is obtained in the same manner. " Ye shall surely see hell . ii. 177 " We see tlie turning about of thy face in the heavens .^Iyor.THE CASES OF NOUNS. as in other languages. (98). 139. yes. conditional. or objective. (97). so do not. In Arabic short vowels are used as terminations to express the different cases. 12 . We have already seen 30) that exists only in the second person. God has chosen the religion for you. oblique or dependent. ye surely shall see it with the eye of certainty life. —THE is IMrERATIVE. 126. and that for the other persons the apocopated form of the aorist with the affirmative J prefixed is employed.:^ '^^f^l *^ Go down from both together. then shall ye surely be asked concerning your luxurious III." —Kor. — is accusative. v^^li 1**^=^ L^. — is genitive." etc. The Imperative it used in precisely the same manner (p. pray. if ii. THE CASES OF NOUNS. but we "will surely cause thee to turn to a point of adoration please thee. — is nominative. and there shall ii. 36. come to you guidance from me." . by all apocopating the aorist for persons and prefixing 1 . die except ye are Muslims.

The agent 'Amr." Both the subject and predicate of a simple sentence in which the simple copula pressed "e's" is either omitted. When they are pronounced with an n (4) p.** THE AGENT AND THE VERB. The following require the subjective or nomina- tive case The agent or subject of a verb : j. an ambiguity would otherwise arise. 100). or ex- by yb . as ^^ ^J^\ CJji "the youth struck John." follows the verb. as Vj^ tl^ "Zeid struck This order must be invariably observed in the : following cases 1. (100).: 178 ARABIC GRAMMAR. struck. The agent is put in the subjective case. and the aorist the only tense capable of being modified by them. from the noun being unable to exhibit the case-endings (see p. sound called ^i"^ (see [In verbs only _L and' JL are used." / yo OS *Jlj Axi\ Knowledge " God is is useful. 7)." The nominative or subject of a passive verb as jJj tl^^ "Zeid was struck.] is THE SUBJECTIVE (99).jJ tl^ "Zeid ." . p. "When. Zeid is standing. CASE. and the object of the joj action follows the agent. 6)." ^J^ y& diil the living one. furtlior In nouns these are doubled to express indefinite the nature of the thing (see so doubled. as *jljj tf Jl>.

as ^li "Zeid stood. as tXjJ i^j-^ Zeid struck me." Similarly. as l«il uVJ tl^ "Zeid's slave struck him" (lit. in such a case it is not we must not say fjuj '^Jl CJJi because admissible to make the pronoun refer to a noun : not yet expressed in other words. jJJ lii)." ^* H \j\ ^\^ IjjJ <__^J U "No one struck Zeid but I." verb The agent cannot be e. is When word ^1^. in answer reply. as ISjJ 3." or (2) inseparable from the verb.THE AGENT AND THE YERB. the relative cannot precede its antecedent. to the question Ili ^ "who stood?" you may 1^ "Zeid. cl^ U." as (lit. but separated fl altogether from the verb. 2. \^ji "thou verb the object of the action separated from the agent and ^^l by the word i\ "except. rules If none of the above-mentioned apply. when the agent has an affixed pronoun referring to the subject. as lLj! il/J U "none struck but thee. you ." where the pronominal . though the may." But the agent immediately follows the object and verb when the object is an affixed pronoun and the agent an expressed noun or separate pronoun. suppressed. the agent separated from the verb by the the object immediately follows Ijf \\ Ij^j the verb. is The agent "thou either (1) exjDressed separately. l^ jjj i^j^ U Zeid struck no one hit Amr" Ij *'Zeid struck not— save 'Amr"). affix tL' is regarded as the agent or (3) expressed." is verb.^. "his slave struck Zeid" = ^P . 179 When When the agent is a pronoun inseparable from the didst strike Zeid. as lI^jJJ didst strike. as in the above example.

as jjj \j\s." tt The two Zeids stood.ISO ARABIC GRAMMAR." t\j. S^c L^Ji J^ J U "No one has struck 'Amr but Zeid." [As there would not be any ambiguity in the case of !'[. The Zeids stand. this rule is not always strictly observed .] CONCORD OF THE VERB AND THE AGENT. as jjj \jA£. masculine. When the agent of no matter culine singular." j^." ^ 4Jojll i?o^ ^ (lis fy' " The Zeids stood. either put the agent last or not." ^^ Ji>sy)\ A^'sj^ "The two " Zeids stand. f\ >'j i. is." \jA£. k-r-Vf^ ^^^ "it is only Zeid who has struck Amr. and is properly placed after the verb. the object precedes. The agent is always in the subjective case.!. the usual order is preserved. the verb put in the mas- iX>J *li' "Zeid stood." . as grammatically speaking." the action is restricted When <# by the particles UJ^ or ^Jj to the object. is But if the action of the verb restricted to the subject or agent. fs 'Si) c_jyi? t« " Zeid has not struck any one but Amr. as o '' iro^ y ^ \jA£. is what number. jkjjll >. I may ^J^ j. (101). J^J ^J^«^ UJ^ "it is only 'Amr whom Zeid has struck. but in the case of \^\ it must never be deviated from." jjj ^oiS-*^ *^h ' "Zeid stands.jj i^ji or CJJi "Zeid struck 'Amr.

181 With 1. <::^^\i " The Hinds stood. either be put in the feminine or masculine singular in the following eases If the agent be not really feminine. and follow the verb. but only femi- nine from a grammatical point of view^ as ^"^ "^ } " The sun rose." 3.: : CONCOED OF THE VERB AND THE AGENT. as c:^s*ll? ^^^1 "the sun (it) rose. as J^ CJi { «' The trees put forth leaves. as " Hind stood to-day. as •^ 1^ \ " The Hindus stood. as fc\:J5> c^^li ^^Hind stood/* j^ljc^J^ u:i-^^l5 'The two Hinds stood. Even when the agent it is really feminine." o ^-^ ^ P c -Ct % If the agent precede the verb. provided a word intervenes between and the verb. If the agent be a broken plural. a feminine agent the verb is put in the feminine singular in the following cases If the agent be really feminine. If the agent be a collective 9 noun or the name of a species.'' ." 2.'* i^\x^\ 2." 4." The verb may 1. no matter of what number.

in the they are in fact employed like broken plurals. as in J^3 -P. but .'r^^^ cS.: — 182 ARABIC GRAMMAR. Oh! doves of Nejd. if ye see our tents. who Say. such verb agrees it logically in e:-^^:!:?"^ gender. fettered . then say: Such is fortune difficulty succeeding ease. ^^ she rose.' LT'JI^ J^9 i O ij 9 yy S (^ 9 j'o^-o y y y y y J**^. as rose not save Hind." 4xx& ^li U " there The names feminine of Arab tribes. pharar is in chains." the "the men assembled and (they) but in the second logical broken plural requiring the grammatical con. and person. the intervening When word is 'i\ . generally put . number.b ul "^^ Ay*^'^ "Oh! doves of the Arak tree. far from his country in a nigged land. though rarely. iJ^ r*«^ r^'^J^ C^^'^ uiy^ ^^r^ SJ^. y i^ L5^ J^^^^ y' ^ y y ^^. even in the second person. 9y ^^^ yyy ^. As with is also the case in the broken plural. Ilind. with a feminine agent. or a broken plural. the agreement preserved. we say are conscious that we are speaking of a decidedly. carry the message of a lover recovers not from his intoxication." namely. A regular feminine plural. either in the feminine or masculine singular. seems to be when we female. when a second verb occurs referring to the same agent. may sometimes. take a feminine singular of the verb which follows the followino: verse 9 9 it. the verb 1\^ is more elegantly put in the masculine." The reason that for using the verb. struction with the feminine singular verb IjJli. as \^Uj Jl^r^^ said. when expressed and imit mediately following the verb. which is refers to the same agent.

such as j^^' A "a tribe. "Hind" the further definition of l::-. the real agent. hence we say.*!!? on the contrary. we proceed to define clear that in further by naming the agent. It is speaking of a woman we more often have the feminine idea in our mind." where the pronoun sentence its cL^'^is it. and occasionally even in the feminine plural. is that the verb is regarded as complete in affix or suffix. "he rose(lmean)Zeid. or it rose. while the is is the real agent or nomi- word "Zeid" only a further definition (I of the same." seep." "birds. and for the apparently arbitrary manner in which the verb is made either to agree with it or not. IL ] " The sun rose. if any. gender is present to our mind when we come verb. while the verb remains unchangeable. the pronominal being considered as the real nomiitself native to as j^jj '*\3 it.ll^ noun expressing an entire species." Another reason for this arrangement of the agent after the verbs. 154(78). /•Ij Here the pronoun understood in native." it sarily present to our mind we begin by and having done so. vague affirmation of the action having taken place. itself." frequently takes the verb in the feminine singular. so too xji u:-^Ij "she rose mean) Hind. as 111 "sheep.COKCOBD OF THE VERB AND THE AGENT. to the it. as J^i^\jJ\^ y. but that in the case of a merely grammatical feminine." or a ^. "when 18 o we are speaking of anything which is not neces- a " he. we le/jin by mentioning the noun.a^£jt. and If. by which we predicate something concerning collective noun." . she. the gender may come as an after- thought . as feminine.j c:^)b The children of Israel said. as in the jj.

" or an afhxed pronoun." o^'^"' see myself carrying bread 1>^ . but as a well chink of death. then. however. (102).^1. but as they are collective nouns. as joJ tlj-i It is "Zcid was by some struck. as^H c-si'-o JSl ^^ ^-^^-r-^ I wonder at the dates being eaten. especially a verbal noun. they take any following verb in the masculine plural. a past passive participle. according to the rules for the construct state of nouns." The passive state or condition may be expressed by a noun. It is always in the nominative. J^ Jt^^ ^^b^ ^^1 upon my head.^? )!^ c-^ U ''none was struck but thyself. either an expressed noun. as l::. can the tribe of Kilab hope to remaia mistress of itself? They have not revolted from thee criminally. as (JLo^^ "thou wast struck. as I y «>-' ox -^ p^ " Thou art master of both men and is genii." — 184 ARABIC GRAMMAR. the subject will be in the sub- ." If the noun be. how. from which the birds " I^or can night o'ershado-w them nor day (protect them) can their horses or riding camels bear them . nor away ! The names of Arab tribes are ordinarily feminine ." or a pronoun separated from the verb intervening word. The same rules which apply to the agent of an active verb apply to the subject of a passive verb. '^:?^^ "I are eating." neglected when it affords the THE SUBJECT OF A PASSIVE VERB. in which case the subject will be in the dependent case.

" If the as transitive verb have more than one object. it is a noun used adverbially." is used transitively with two " he brought them the the first accusatives. as l*. first U^J Ujj ^^J^] objects "he gave Zeid a dirhem. li. thus t__>L(ll *i>liT scripture." and in the passive object." becomes the subject the of such of the passive verb. in either case the noun must be yet) declinable.i>j^ juj ^JaJt "Zeid was given a dirhem. becomes the subject. the second still retaining its objec- tive function." is "who of frequent occurrence." ^U^ (/3) >-. Jll^ 'j^ march was marched. his slave) (is) beaten..« (a) An undefined noun if used as a proper name. as -^^ fasted lo^V (* " Eamadhan. : serve as the subject of a passive A noun governed by a preposition (when the verb governs by means of that preposition)." TUE SUBJECT OF A PASSIVE VERB.'^^ In the Koran the expression ^^Lpl \^^ have received the scripture. provided restricted in meaning by some following adjective. and the other remains in the objective case. (y8) J." " a good Here we may say in the passive." where "by Zeid" is regarded as the subject of 2. jective case. as with a verb.o The " fast of Ramadhaa was kept U-^jLj He marched a march. as <uli 185 ^'j C^j^* ''Zeid's slave (Zeid." but we cannot say simply ^IJIjJ--^ ^^ . of ^\ "he : came. ^1 being the 4th conj. The following may verb 1. and is explained by the rule above given. as J^^ J^ "Zeid was passed by." ^j-.

The following examples remarks ACTIVE. im- it was disputed about. witlioiit " a marcli was marched." 05 ^^ y^i-i-o "The Sultan could not take him. juj ^^jJ J«l>- "he '' sat by Zeid." the preposition with *' When its case is stiU retained." " Zeid was ordered ^ to kill o 'Amr." ^o-^ ^ ^ ux "He escorted Zeid from to el-Medina. will illustrate the foregoing PASSIVE." a verb which governs with a preposition is put in the passive voice." The verb is then strictly ." "He could not he taken (his mO taking was impossible)." and glory to God.: 186 ARABIC GRAMMAR." Bagdad "Zeid was escorted from Bagdad to el-Medina." " I ordered Zeid to kiU 'Amr. So too l-O «)dl\ we say." •^U-O • -^ " 'Omar brought the Prophet some Arabs. as ale C^^. iS^. n) ^^^-5 -^~j he recited the formula jJJ i_^jJ But we cannot say aI!1 ij-1^ ^eid was sat by. " he disputed about it." " The Prophet was brought some Arabs." ^•t^ "TheChildrcnof Israel were given a Scripture. because neither ^^jJ clinable.-j." ^o^ ^o5 "Zeid was given a drachma. ^ ^ -' V^Jrriyi^^'^^^-t "God gave a Scripture to the Children of Israel." the qualifying adjective." "He gave Zeid a drachma. as 'dis." or nor ^U-v are de- ^Usu -i^.

is by no less a person than incorrect and \n^ilgar. and which take the complement in the objective case: for example." y I x^o^ cS ^ ^ c t-x o^ Sometimes even before a noun omitted. CXc C_?»^>. is noun being put in the objective case as . chap. Generally. 10 : "Guide us iti the right way. and therefore. the purely transitive verbs govern the objective.4^-*Sf " The thing (masculine) disputed about.] This idiom is almost parallel to the English vulgarism it: by which aboutP I have translated "The thing disputed This will explain all such idiomatic expres- sions as that contained in the passage of the Koran. ^\ "he came" governs objective without the intervention of a preposition. 187 personal. the masculine form only is used. as <^ may sometimes be X ^o^ £ o t"^ o-^ for > " He could not do that. the tho&e against been gracious. however. the preposition omitted. " The thing (feminine) disputed about. i. in forming the passive participle. / 1 introducing a proposition. thus cslc LiL. the pronoun alone being altered to express the gender. the the preposition . Before y. not of art way of those to whom Thou hast whom Thou art angered (of those Thou angry with).: ' THE SUBJECT OF A PASSIVE VERB. —Nothing the but practice can teach which verbs govern by a preposition." JSfote./^1 [CII 'iJipC£\^ although used Paris es Shidiac.

The following require the objective case : The object of the action of a verb. 6. 5. The cause the action.' t. Ijoj eu-l^t "I showed to Zeid 'Amr in the act of going away. ." or two objects and a word defining the natui'e or period of the action. 1. THE OBJECT OF A TERB." The verb itself is frequently omitted in ejaculatory sentences. 2.'- ^ p^ / o-- 63p:> for ^ c:. Words defining or specifying Nouns used adverbially. or the state of the object. 1.^3 X ^ ^ -'Ci destitute and needy.tc—o Ju-^ \ Jc^lM " The lion.^ "I "I thanked him.e." ^--sil C^j-^l for -»i:U lI^j^*! ordered you to do good. (103).itJi\ iJk^l " Mind the lion. action The object of the verb that upon which the Ijuj falls." A verb may have two objects. . Words following particles of exception. I "He supplied means to the ''CSo-O^ o>'^. as U^." fi^^. as Oill^L* \y%s. the lion ! i." THE OBJECTIVE CASE. but the object remains in the objective case. vocatives (not addressing a person present). is (104). and a few other instances of which details are given in the following paragraphs. Words expressing the state or condition. as -'•'Sc-O ^ ^ .<3 ^ - C5 ^^j.>'o." .»^C-t''->0'' AEABIC GRAMMAR. 4. as \\{j oj^ "I struck Zeid." 188 . or effect of the action.j \jiX^\ " I gave Zeid a dirhem . 3.

^^ i^f:^^ we (I mean the Arabs).'Jj ^xox /yo 'X tJj . but the noun defining or specifying the action . as Jj^j (^ lj^"^^ ^-'^^^ cr^ ""^^ (the gifts. -o ^'yox X c5:iJ.'''' AVOKDS DEFINIKG OE SrECIFYING THE ACTION.. J ijL^jJ ." ''i:iJ^ I struck him a whip" (for with a whip. X I knew some science.J X ''^{k^ "Thou didst strike him (with) the " " i'x0-"0 -'xo /"jJu^ blow of an unjust man. CASE." The objective case used in parenthetically intro- ducing a definition.-.") 9 Oxx I sat the best of sitting.e.J!." Arabs) are the most liberal of those who bestow 2. your brother!" to iJS^\ Attend is your brother.-i 2JI lLSj. -^ -5 J' ^ o -»-uJl Ji^ '—^/^ > ' D^arched all the mai-ch.e. y ^w •!.e." ^Jllill L_J." X O XO.— THE OBJECTIVE {^\j-\ i. These will be best understood from the follow: ing examples ^ O »' ^ Ox x b • XX cl^l) r^ or ." C^xOx ." X S'Ai) <!C'IiJ c_>^^i!l I looked at him with the look of one in anger.o J^oj^'s — blows.J 'l struck a blow.O XOX Oxx I ^jjt^ • o -Si \ tjAxi i^:^j£. scjuatting." or P 9 xxoS ^^y^s\ the blow of a whip. 189 CS\^\ (J-1| t< Your brother." xo tljl JkL?X Ix/j^OXx iG' Li^ l!ry-j jkL>- ' I flogged him three strokes of a hide whip..J 'l struck him that blow.'jj ' I struck him one blow <m." i." In some instances the governing verb may be understood. L-jj)tl\ ^xx\ 2. (]0'5).:>- u:-N«»l:>O ''X X i^O-'O-^l ^L^i^iUl o -3 c:_?Jots I sat in the posture called ^L=i.^ if.J or .

" without repeat- The governing verb always understood in such sentences as the following A^J La^ J 1y* " Gently" gently" " wishing well to Zeid." Jl^^ J )b)l "Welcome !" Z«^.) O X J U/«." CyO •'Ox 5" OX jl/Ks:'! C-?^ ClJj-tf Jl)JJ Zeid has a voice — an ass's voice.e.e. as ^^si [lit. last (106.K-J J_. NOUNS USED ADVERBIALLY." ^\ ^Uuo "Glory ^y y ^ tlcU? <? to God!" is to {i. and trodden on smooth ground. The is objective case used in this defining or specifying sense.\b ^J^\ J U.«j To hear obey" ^^ ^9 i X !> . ^ " whom have you may answer is : \sjj "Zeid. is." i. {i. \^ e^j j (as it L^l c:^').e. U^. [pray God give] drink) to Zeid.— 190 remains in I. 4J1 ^Uu: o ^J p xc-S .) In the few examples the objective case may be considered as simply adverbial or objective. {i. objective case.'* .Ai. like the second object of a doubly transitive verb. "act to — wish well (lit.e.*-:1 }. ARABIC GRAMMAR.e." Amongst the jS^*" defining or specifying words above re- ferred to are to be included adverbs of time or distance.) tlie ^L "Welcome!'* *_fSij^ ci^^AJf you nave arrived a good arrival. j^jj not affected by a change of voice. Ij^ tl^ "Zeid was struck a severe blow." So in answer to the question lLjJj struck?" you ing the verb.") 3. to Thou hast come wt re) thy family. as Uj.^^\ >• LZ-J\ Ox Thou art my son really. as ^ 9 o-gj •' L^ ^-ii-^^ I prayed some time.

" But if the place be definite and determined. as a house.0 X o X 9 ^^ ^ j^.." ^o-o o tJjwJ^ ^_.*JJ article. 191 'ox P (^ P lyt^\ (y. as ^Vj or I sat cLvH>.aI\ t—^V t-i-^-^Jj^ I sat near the Emir. as " in a place.9^ ci^AuL?- ' -JO-'-' o <• o t«v. '-^:^i^ 9-' <|J I fled fearing.— THE OBJECTIVE ^C PC'-Cl — CASE.. as ^ L." J6J." I sat a long time in an easterly place. as l::-J^jT.^ "l beat my son to correct him. is (107). and of the nature noun it is better to use a preposition.f^ iJLij^ *_jJl I walked twenty days. oxx iy^^ ci^^J!) "I fled for fear. etc." Li^-r^ 9 ''l O ^ o." ." \^ and adverbs of assembly." place.. when they u^\'k^'* are immediately de- rived from the verb." 4.!^ o^ p "I walked I all day." ^ t^y c-o 9 c/^x ujt}U' ^\ 1-::-^^."I sat in Zeid's is when the place indeterminate. ." But of a if it be defined by the substantive." Other instances of nouns of time and place used adverbially are 50-./." \jlt^ iljsxi '-^Vr' I marched a mile. used. as came for the butter.." J^ ^^ c:^-. .J1 ^-« ^.j marched part of the post or day's march.^^ CJp. Lii-v^-s "l fasted Friday. The cause or effect of the action it put ad- verbially in the objective case if be indefinite and of the nature of an infinitive or verbal noun.^. ^ 9 O^ X liyi. a prej)osition must be ^ lL-II^ " I sat in the house. THE CATTSE OE EFFECT OF TUE ACTION.

" y ^^o-<3 9 y U-j^u^ ^yi^\ Ic. as in the above examples.e." The word thus used in the objective case must be a derivative and indefinite noun. jj # ^ o p .192 If it ARAEIC GRAMMAR." in the sense live. as JJ^l^Sl ^ o^jJ^I-^ It is ^ "with. it may be either used adverbially." obvious that in such a case the noun governed by ^ cannot be in apposition with the subject of the verb.^ Jjj z*!:^ -."Zeid came '^ riding. as L^l.=^ ^-^y** '-^^'^{y^ "I fifid fearing slaughter.***^ ^-^^"^j "l ' '"•^^'^ ^^^ horse saddled." which is an Such idiomatic expressions as UjJ j ^ O uL^/l-ij U •'OX " What is your state and get on with) Zeid?" {i. and must moreover refer to a preceding definite noun. <?-! Zeid's standing up so quichhj pleased me. In the case of such an expression as ^iSs^^j^^VX^ ' the ." of J "and. for the translation would then be. or with a preposition. expressed by the objective ^U. marched). STATE OE CONDITIOIf. "but in a state of construction with some other noun. ellipse of the verb J^lS. is (108). how do you ^XOX y ^ o5 ^ jj j ivT* '^-^^ 3 ^-^ •— ^ ' ' -^^^ ^"^^ 3"°" off for a dish of porridge ? " are explained by an 5.. he of tlie nature of a verbal noun. {&cil. State or condition case. "Zeid marched and the road absurdity." takes the objec- "Zeid marched with the road." Jiii\ i_Jji:^ "l fl6<i ^^^ ^^^^ of slaughter. as Joiill (_J.

a primitive to express condition. in this case is generally ^jjJiJLU introduced by the conjunction came and the sun was j.ii^ jjj 5\^ Zeid came running " but . as IjJj j^sS^ <«-il? "the moon xosq fidV^ a primitive noun signifying " the full moon")." to ^y <*^i/»ii him mouth mouth. 193 Emir came alonc^^'' iSp^» altliough rendered grammatically definite by the affixed pronoun. as ^^. if it noun may be used adverbially is explanatory of what has gone (JIj being before. ^ J J*^J iji'^^ "Zeid came me not running. at the same time). as Zeid came to I spoke to yy it ^^ ^\j ^£ sSi^^ JjJ LJ^ lJ^ 5 [:>- me (with) his hand on his head.-^^' In such an expression as ^^\ ^ '^S^^ 13 ji'u ^\1 ." tl/. either be used or omitted." A it verb or a nominal sentence may stand in the relation of an adverb expressing condition." y P y y y p 9 LTs- y -^ Ix^w tJ^j (^^ '--^.STATE OR COXDITION. provided it by some epithet or description.regarded as ." preterite requires j ^ J^j *\j3- The JiJij Jv5 and also the particle jJ . as "Zeid came riding.Ij ^^^ ^ manias slave laughing. or be in a state of con- struction with a following noun. the J ''X 9P may ^ . as %^^ " Zeid J jyj ^U- rising (sell. if it bo negative. The preceding noun dition refers. to which the noun expressing conbe qualified may be indefinite. to requires the^. Similarly. as j^A-^. is properl}'." If the nouns forming the sentence tiave pronouns affixed to them." A verb it in the aorist thus used does not require j '•'• . indefinite in meaning. as VCb (J^^ (J^^ is:'^^ i> -^^ accomplished man came to me riding.

" a father." And also with the numerals from 1 to 99. Zeid. a by way of correcting him." ^ o -3 -<: ^U '- P '6\ jo: VJ Zeid is greater than you in wealth. 172). as ^y ^ L>J J^ii^ ^-^^ "l A. eat fish "do you and drink milk (at the same time)." an idiomatic expression of admiration." the conjunction J requires the following verb to be in the There is in all these cases an subjunctive (see p. before the Emir." How good is Zeid quA a man.rJ^ I bought two measures of com." The adverbial the following \mJ6 S) «fO^ accusative is used in such sentences as V 9 C. ." I raised the Sheikh in power. ellipse of some such expression as " your eat fish state is that—" that eg." ^ & \^ <)JJ lit. "do you and your state is ( = whilst) you drink milk. The following sentence contains an example of each of the various uses of the objective case: P^ -f o-- ^ ^ O ^ 0. of the objective case The syntax may be summed up by saying that it is used objectively and adverbially. "to God his milk-flow. conjointly with severe blow Amr. 194 ARABIC GRAMMAE...^-- Zeid was happy in mind." How noble is Zeid's father qua Gotl bless him for a horseman.: .0 ^ c 5c-c^ -'S^c^ -o 1^ ^ ^ ''i- 9 o^^ I struck.k:o>- hsxe a mithkdl in gold." ." It is also used occasionally with words of weight or S -"O measure. on Friday.

Companionship." 5." all ^." in the senses of those prepositions in English... ^b ^ "God is a sufficient witness." or "from. 1.^^^ "I went out frojji the city. The prepositions which govern the oblique ^^*4*:' ''with his signifying — 1. as sJ^\ "^y L::." Correspondence. for a is as *^i^ CJ^\ o^. 3. as J^'Sb "with a pen.. In the predicate of JJ-l. After a preposition. as i^ i_l^i>j from ij^i "he went. (110). as Jlk. the sense of which. and with jjJ which it is said to be in a state of construction. as tribe. t_^ dirhem. as 111 ^/^ "Zeid's slave came to me." . as P O '- X ' <t:oJk^\ . signifying — 1." PREPOSITIONS." 2. "he carried it away. as alJlj " by God.^ "I sold the garment 4. case are: c->.PREPOSITIONS." Instrumentality. CASE." This gives a transitive sense to a neuter verb." 2. defines or determines. and employed in two instances.^ l::-^^-->- I went out/ro/w the city. is The genitive case is peculiar to nonns. it When following another nonn." employed pleonastically with the agent of as lo^f^ certain verbs.i^\ ^^ " God is not unjust. As a particle of swearing." 6. "Of. 105 THE GENITIVE OR DEPENDENT (109).

" "from." as ^js. as c^ L/"!:^!' "®^^ ^^^ ^y I'iglit. "from off. the p." "away from.-«." from." as j^j tir? ^^ "greater than Zeid.196 xoj'-o ^ ARABIC gea:vimar." ^«^. signifying — 1." satisfied as lj^^\ ^^ LjaI^ I. as &^1\ "to him. / iL«j L« jji turned thereby) away from all else." \^ i^'^. 1." 2. /^-w-J^ l::^-^^^ ijMKsS\ I shot the arrow from the bow.'* A^ j^x^ (*^'^ ring (?/ iron." I ^ alH k— ^^ <:iJ^'.65) ^ in |j|_ and in ^jJ "near" (see becomes quiescent. "there came not to me any oney ^ ^f^ ^« J\ "to." When |1^ followed by a pronoun." where ^^ implies the "distance from." as ^Jk^l^ < W ^\ Jl L::." as 5Wi ^-:s- ^ iJL^J^ I drank some of the water.xJ:> am occupied with the love of God (and p y ^ «. In comparison. is (j-^ sometimes governed by another preposition." as climbed upon the mountain." — J^i^l^ L:u^. "Eather than." ^^ "I ^J^ also may be governed S^^ . "Upon." 3. ''than. with this life ratlier than the next?" de)^ or "Some of" -a (like the French "any. y <j »*-o P -^ o jjUj^l cTJ? w*^j^^ '^rr'^l Jj Avoid pollution /ro?rt -A." ^^ cLi-xxc (Ja Have you ani/ news?" as ^^\ And by analogy with the preceding." "off." ^ the "motion c^wVai-^ ^Ic. idols.?^^'V ^j^ "are you 4.bj "l went to the city." "until.*Mtf> I fasted until sunset.

as i^T JI ^^ c^." as ^1^ ^J "Zeid (is) like the lion." 2." as J." and serves to introduce a sentence.3 "I came down from roof. t'alldhi. as J are particles ^3ilj dll^j by OTHER "WORDS TJSED AS PEEPOSITIONS." as J^^^\ (rebelled) af/ainst the king." ' of swearing. 9 is pronounced with the imd/ehsce it (7)— if preceded by a kesrah -r full . above.." If the particle U be affixed to Oj? it signifies haps. conversely." JUll ''belonging to. as 1." Against. cIjJ "many a." %~ "until" (limiting a continuous relation). as ^LjJ *j i J^JJ (iJj " many is a generous it. as ^U is " on him." as "At" (pleonastically). but <jjj\j hiliehi." "probably.PREPOSITIONS. signifying— 1." literally " from upon.U " I struck him/or correction. ispionouncedvcry and broad: thus. l^T^ c^^^^ "at Zeid I struck. man have in I met. p 197 off the <^y by J}^. "but few." 1 It is worth rcmarkincj that the long alif in the name of God p." or. 3." dS "like." Sometimes a pronoun followinsr afiixed to indefinite which case the word must be ^j " and in the accusative "per- case. v> -^ '^ as ^ ^o-iO 9 <-> ^\1^\ ^:^ l^jU\ u>v^ " I slept yesterday until the morning. "To. (belongs) to Zeid. and the noun which it governs must be indefinite and qualified by a subsequent adjective. '' J^ ^y^ "he went out Ji also becomes ^jl with j^jJ pronouns." dj and God." (Ijj must begin the sentence. w'alldhi." *' the property 2." &zj_^ " For.ot.Tj jjJ l^J " perhaps Zeid is standing. as . as l^-j many a man. (111). but if preceded by any other vowel." as c^.

. They have the accusative form without tenwm.. Absolutely.yy y (^ P9 yi^y JkXJ ^-.j is introduced by l->. "Since. often the An entire proposition. as (t^i lju^\ ju^ <cjU t« "I have not seen him li. as Jo) ilj." etc. as . (112). are used as meaning respectively "before" and "after.l:^. is it complement of a preposition." jo^ <)i:iJ^^ "l 2. jy and SiJ. in which case its does not change terminations." in the sense of "at all.' ^^wi-lll <^^ Two Many "Jli other nouns are used as prepositions." 3^ "over." jo^. "since.iilu«. J-Ji ^ -o "Two " days before the death of Zeid." i. they are defined . since Friday.j. as s^j^ /^^ r:y^ ^^^ its (many a) night like the waves of the sea has let down curtain of darkness. iSi.^»-." Eut Jo^ and j^ also take the nominative. A SENTENCE AS THE COMPLEMENT OF A PEEPOSITION." as ju« <i^*." hours after sunrise.*^'! A»J — U 1.-j noun still continues Jr^j in the genitive case." 198 IJj is ARABIC GEAMMAR. j^ J signifying Z^jt." prepositions the length of time by which ." sometimes govern the genitive. and all meaning "except. i^. but the <J." 1 jjb l:»^»j (a^) jw* &zj\j t« "l have not seen him ' at all* lately." as have not seen him since Friday.jU L« " I have not seen him since.j. often omitted after 3.:. verbal or nominative. such as "except.

g. . \jS . it is more often put in the objective case. l^^ ^^ " generous Indeclinable and imperfectly declined ^-"iins do not of course take the — i. ili^-j Ul.J.. S\..e.." But the noun qualified not in construction.' her help weepijig. it is put in the nominative case withoiit 'S^j b iemv'n. being nevertheless directly addressed. i." t—i-l^J Ij "0 Joseph. when a blind man says.«j *lilj U^^ jJJl is «:. Gt. of which the is the more common. or not directly addressed." " " — 199 THE VOCATIVE. but is indefinite.>- \^j b " Here is somebody take my hand. particles are Ij. is put in the objective case is When the noun in construction. The departure is to-morrow. e. ll^. as ^^ Ij Oh Moses ! !" ^\i Ij "Oh Cadhi " ^r^^ ^. case. as it Ij aI!^ s^ b "Oh a 'Abdallah!" Or when Ulll? governs another noun in the " accusative. The vocative first.' ^U aU^j is By God ! she is not a How good the child." The vocative 1.^^J\j\^jWJ Proclaim.'" THE VOCATIVE. as L?^ thou who art ascendinji. however. "Oh i=rj Zeid!" "Oh man!" man " ! If. ''Joseph avoid this. ^s^ if 'd. and not by a sub- sequent adjective.. as iJt-^ >—^Url etc. ! When as ! it is undefined. Ij^jb They usually govern the noun in the subjective either expressed or They may be j^:: understood. be as so qualified. mountain 2. as it :vji. and her armour silken attire" (said by an Arab who was told of the birth of a daughter).•v. !. (113). ! " Oh Sibawaih . Ij.

crj'ing for help. the vocative it expressed by putting in the nominative case 1 and prefixing the word 1^4^ " masculine.! Oh you woman is there The name of God ^i seldom put in the vocative. consisting of two nouns. <uLli. vocative 2. as OX'' . and provided they do not resemble any part of a verb in form asyit^ vocative Jiix^ " Oh ! Jaafer. APOCOPATION OF THE LA. more generally used in addressing the Deity with- out a vocative particle." and l^u for all "feminine. in a state of grammatical construction. In proper names of four or more letters provided they are not compound.ST SYLLABLE OF THE VOCATIVE." numbers. which is then put in the oblique !" >> jjjj l) "Oh " Oh for Zeid (to help me) ^^^ When is V. (114). but when it is." i'U. In the following cases the last syllable of the vocative 1. may be all apocopated In substantives having a feminine termination. as jJ-sliJ \ \j^\ Oh (thou) the accomplished !" ! 'i\ ^ \ l^A.. 1!?Ij "Oh! U " Oh sheep.: " " 200 In ARABIC GRAMMAR. vocative ! no matter of what gender. J i^ P'''^" fixed to the noun. the Jiemzet el-wasl b ya-allali^ or iUl may be either retained or elided." . or of a whole sentence. case. But the word is ^I^iJl. for the (what a) wonder ! the noun has the article prefixed. as Fatima. as cUi\ U ya Hlah. or expressing wonder." .

An indefinite . OF THE FIRST OF TWO NOUNS IN CONSTEFCTTON. Oh my ! companion.'' state of construction. l> compounded the last half of two words not in a may be apocopated. we have already seen.: ." p -^ p Here the loss of the tenwin makes the word it j*li definite in both instances (see p. Of two nouns in construction. slave of a man. fore further to define it is not necessary therearticle. Sometimes." ^ 9 ^ 9 Jj>-j /!£. In proper names like l1^ t^<J^* 201 ''Oh! Ma'di Karib. (115). the first invariably loses its tenwin. the distinctive mark of the definite noun. I^ouns are either definite or indefinite. (IIG). by prefixing the From this results the rule that the first of two nouns in a state of construction does not require the article. FOUNS IN CONSTPtUCTION. . 7). noun or is rendered definite by prefixing it the article Jl by placing as in construction with another and following noun. as ^j^x^ The vocative jCa for ^^-s-l^ " rare exception. NOUNS IN CONSTRUCTION. The loss of the temv'n is. when the two nouns in con- ." is a NOUNS DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE. The use and application of the construct arrangement of nouns will be best understood from a study of the following examples jJjs-Jl j*Li 9 The The slave of the man. however.

" or "belonging to.'" drink boiling water Avliich tore their — Kor." the 4:5- »1\ ^^J\ "Mohammed." called The book "The life of animals" (name of a work on natural history). and what If it present. sentence or quotation may occupy the place of the second of two nouns in a state of construction." OF THE SECOND OF TWO NOUN'S IN CONSTRUCTION." noun may be followed by two complement two such nouns be an agent quality. may have is several complements in construction as 'i3[^jA\^j ^-r^^ (*4^ ^^B. as ** The hand given of fate gave to him to drink the cup of.e who knows what first is hidden. first of two nouns be a participial form. the preposition J "to. come to be regarded almost as a single prefixed. ^1 " a son of the king. as LL<UiJ Sometimes an indefinite nouns in a to it. serving as a especially if the first of or a noun expressing an inherent 'L^xi^\ j_Jlj t^AJb Jk^s'^ ** A victim arriving at the Kaaba." of be necessary to leave the two nouns between indefinite.202 struction have ARABIC GRAM3IAR. as state of construction. and yet to express the same relation them as that implied by the state of construction. handsome of face. If the xlvii. A noun with it. as . as expression. and be used in the sense of a present or future tense. A. 17. * and they were entrails. (117). the article iJj^n j^^»-^^i may be 'L^\ The "Ufe ^^s^\ of this ^vorld." must be used with the second noun.

" ^^<1^'\ U^ij " The fountain-head of wisdom." ^j^\ jjllii-j sl/tw^l C^^ y^< " 'T^® creation of the heavens." j^lkLJl '^'J^ -:s^J \ " The king's treasury.^amAjI Those who meet their Lord. e. 203 ^J\ if it cljjli " the striker of the man." ." Those who are unjust to their ^'J^ own souls." \ ^jlj^lirr*^ J-^ " All created things.1^1.JkH i^i The '^'^^ silver of dirhems." j:jLs'*^-ui Incrcate (other than created).: ' ' NOUNS IN CONSTRUCTION." ^IlLjpil '-^}^ "The writer * of the treatise. as J^^i^ c_j." " The king of the land and the sea." (jiu^ijlll y>- The heat of the sun." and especially govern two nouns "the already in construction. state of • relation of the second of two nouns in a construction to the first— 2." ^^ ." may The take the article.^ ^*4^ ^ Creator of the earth. the relation of the determin- ing or defining noun to that which it determines or defines—will be best understood from the following examples <0J1 L^'Ls^ ' The wisdom of God/ <Lii LJl^ An ess of silver." _jl^ Jj^ '^^^ ^^^^ ^° disbelieve. J^ J^ j>-|^ (_^LiJl. as S^y^u^\j it 4-?)^-^ striker of the head of the man. »^j^ . >j&^ .

L) J 1 -*ri." y o ^ ^^U^ di-ciaJ /^s*^ J-c^ -A." <_. (118)." and lJ-o-C imply simple possession or endowment. to preserve the indefinite character of the a preposition must be interposed.. j^ j ^^ ^}S. and yet first." "His mercy. ^y^ fern. '^\ C^^\^ "companion.^ " daughter." a) waterskin belonging to the tribe have I placed the strap thereof on a shoulder of mine accustomed to fatigue and used OTHER MODES OF EXPEESSIXG THE EEIATION BETWEEN NOUIfS.LuJ\ ?-:lr*' "Q^ic^ °^ (^^^ reckoning. etc." have seen that when two nouns are in a state of if it be required construction." dJ^\ JU J^^l^ " sister.^£=^j ^\ ^ U^j "A mercy from God." . ^ Jii t-^o-^ " A thing most pleasing." 11?^ *y . wom-out turban." ^ " brother." "son." "^\ or .. " The best of creation." 3J masc. ^ " The most learned of philosophers.i\ h2^ "And (many to travel. the first becomes definite . jx v^i^ .^\^j. as in the verse of Imru Kais ^^.i "father. aj3\ as iU^j "God's mercy. as "wealthy.: : 204 o • ARABIC GRAMMAR." (i^Tjj "learned." mercy of His.\." this ^ 'U^j "A is Sometimes construction used merely to give 'al importance to the noun. companionship. is also expressed in Arabic by the use of the following words "possessor." 6z. The idea of possession. We to express such relationship between the two." "mother.

" the name of one of the companions of j^HiiuJl yi\ Mohammed).LOCAL NAMES AND SOBRIQUETS.\ " Mother of Vices " (wine).e." ." ^1 and uL-oi^l also << imply being endowed with a quality. ^^ c^^Li:^ \ <^\ Abu Shiah" ( i. t_j1 205 and ^t imply that the thing expressed by the following noun proceeds from. 'Li\^ are the converse of l^\ and (a traveller). ^\ *. sXijs "Umm or * Tarfa" (mother of tamarisks." Trusty (the brother of confidence). father of Shiah. it was not so." ^xA\ '- ^\ >> 0-0 S jj»x]l ^i>\ Eich (the brother of riches). They are used localities. as and in the names of ^\ "Abu Hurairch" ("father of the kitten." . Ujs^js-I ^y^'^ ^aa ^ »^i ^1 is also used for "fellow." Latakia tobacco). f^^j jjI Abu Pu'ah" ( father of perfume. l::-^:j * The daughter of the mountain (the echo).:^. 'ijjjb qualified. Father of watching" (the cock). or has an intimate con- nexion with." \\^ as jj--^! ^M ^\ Son of the road Son of howling ojl (J-jpl (a jackal). the person or thing so in forming nick-names. name of a valley in Sinai). ^ P^ o y jo (^O L» JUuJ yoi>. as Sincere (the brother of sincerity).—^\\Q complement of ^i aorist. o Ju' No! by him (through whom) are preserved. a sweet-scented desert herb name of a mountain in Sinai). may be a verb in the as although such construction y 1 is rare. iJO ^i\^ and c:--." Note." as "this garment is the fellow to this one.

*^^ ~S " In such a sentence ^ "^i^l ^^i^j" which is an apparent exception.Ji 1^1^ Jkj * Before ^e was numhered amongst those slain of (by) a fawn. son of Kclaon. of Teim.*' Ooo J-. as *pijT jf "all the tribe. viz." XX O V X c ^ii -Sj-o # -Sii-O X X -Jjx *'When it was the reign of Nasir of (literally.j111 jUi! Iju-1 iJt Li>j ^bi ^^ of Shera. ARABIC GEAMMAR. He was a lion rending tlie lions Some words. as J^ " all. 'the Ifasirian days'). construction occurs in the following verse The same of Ibn el Faridh 1 jljj i_<." ELLIPSE OF THE FIRST OF TWO NOITNS IN CONSTEUCTIOK." . of the descendants of Adi. l^li iX) <Ui\ -s-lij "May God and the ^xO-O X cut off the hand of foot of him him who O-O -Ci said it. Mohammed. the same rule holds.: " 20G . and (every) hospitality) ? fire kindled by night a fire (of *> X xl ^^x " I saw the Teimite. for it is equivalent to t^^^ ^=-1 J^ "every one will die." require to be placed in a state of construction with another noun in order to complete the sense. The first or second of two nouns in a state of construction l^li may be '^ understood in such an instance as cut off the ^^ l)^J (^ -^ ^^ f^^ "May God foot of hand and him who said it." for <d:>- t . (119)." X X O-Ci ^^xp X X Ox >'S " Do you think every man a man." as ci.

-^xkJ "some of his fingers were cut off. as It has seemed good to many of the polytheists that their associates should kill their children.^-^j S'IaI^ ^1 God!) of 4_$'J»jj its master. . The a objective complement is frequently inter- posed between two nouns in a state of construction.i\J\ ^^^ L::. as 6jt. of a Jew. The last of the two nouns gives the gender to the qualifying adjective." sometimes inserted expletively between the two nouns." ^>'*i^ ^uisi cJy ^lidb They ^><:n ^l-J^ ^^ cJy. (121). — It is forbidden me ! Oh would that were not forbidden But these are perhaps nothing but poetical licence. one day.li>Jl lijs- U^ "As the book was written by the hand.' SEPAEATION OF TWO NOUNS IN CONSTRUCTION. the first is when noun of action. or whatever other word serves as the predicate. (120). 207 THE GENDEE OF AN ADJECTIVE QUALIFYING TWO NOUNS IN CONSTEUCTION.* 4^ -^-.: " UNUSUAL CONSTRUCTIONS OF NOUNS. as in the following examples £-»5^L: ^ U^lj' *xil Jjs> Are you leaving to me my companion?" Verily the sheep hears the Yoice (by \^j Jjol J CI. com which (the locusts) scatter the grains of the rich ears of grows on the plain l^ is as the flails scatter the cotton grains.J i^_2io *-_.'' U." The two nouns in construction may occasionally be separated. as Oh sheep that should be as a prey for him to whom it its possession is ! lawful.

the epithet will also be as indefinite." The rules for the concordance of the noun and epithet in gender and number are the as for the agent and verb. used as a qualifying . If the noun be definite." But if the noun be indefinite. CONCORDANCE OF NOUNS AND EPITHETS." ^„/^\ ^^\ ^jl ^^\ ''aid us THE NOUN OF ACTION AS A QUAIIPYINQ EPITHET. or have an affixed pronoun. instead of an adjectival or participial form. however. the qualifying epithet must also be definite.L? Jft-j) may take the Devouring lions. as CiJu . as ^^\^\:^\ ^j^1>\ ^"^ji^ "The mighty Book. Slender sharp swords. as of Moses. as against the infidel folk.Jut^ /ui Numbered days.JUib-^ jj-*o cUiJ.208 ARABIC GEAMMAR. Sometimes a noun of is action. A collective noun may be qualified by an epithet. a broken plural epithet in the feminine plural." is also rendered definite by prefixing the A-^^ Li**'^'* '-r^''"-^ "The mighty Book A.in the masculine plural." If the noun be in a state of construction with another noun. c:. the qualifying epithet is placed after such compound expression. *—-'r^'J UT^ ( Firm mountains." "The faithful Abraham.^^\ P iJ\::^ • "His honoured Book. and article. ^-^ s-'^ "^^ ^^ same book. (123). (122). Occasionally.

" i^J^'j one woman. obedient and virgins.jli of this occurs in the Koran ''^'^. and the same shape.). tJJ^S. as 209 3^ but "justice. adjective. is (124). and is therej^js-I fore employed in a of the state of construction. J Jcr ^^j U"^ Two just men." Ibn Malik in his Alfi'yeh gives the rule as follows They frequently use the noun But keep to the singular of action as an attribute.J (^^*^ Perchance his Lord he divorce you will give him wives better Ixvi." For the simple numeral one in the abstract j^lj is 14 . and in being definite or indefinite. CONSTETTCTION' OF THE NTJMEEAL AXD THE THING XUMBEEED. as ^_^Lll ^^j^i^^ "one men. j^lj (masc. oULu^ e. gender. and preserves its own fjSs:.) i^ always a substantive." ^'^^'^ u^J men. epithet.^* Irr^ ^^I'j^ if ^ ^J'^ — Kor. the masculine gender. as jo-ij J::>j one man.) one^ used as an i]/«]. \J' ^. fem." sl^l "one of the women." Sometimes 5y "an unit." it then agrees with the noun in case. as Cp^-j a just " man." An example \)ij\^ <^l:. 5.: : THE NmiEEALS." instead of ^Al ''just . than you true-believers." Ok^l. as jLi 3j "of one used. iJ^^J (fem. it remains always in the singular number." is used."' number and THE NUMERALS.

" accusative. as we have seen. From 11 to 99 the numerals govern an accusative of the thing numbered. as ^ 'ijt. as in the expression J^^ (l) liuj ''two colocynth gourds. as Very \>\^\ rarely they are construed with the 'L^:i^ "five dresses" (see p. as ^^\ Jl^ji ^jy* "I passed by ^ y y two men. The thin . for greater emj)hasis. as ^j^-J '^^ ^ ^ "he had three sons and five daughters. as JU- 1 ^j^Jj " three men. the numerals agree with the thing numbered.ij\ "four birds" kjb^^ {i. either used as nouns From and 3 to 10 the numerals are substantive." or (2) they may be regarded as adjectival. Where always there is a distinction of gender. 210 ARABIC GEAMilAR. if possible the plural of paucity. From one to ten tlie numerals are declinable and follow the ordinary laws of construction and dependence upon verbs and particles.kJ \ should be introduced. however.1j "three girls. the ^-.. the units must." ci^lij c_U. 194). "iiine of the family. four individuals of the class lird) ." cT? '^'^l to From 11 struction 19 the numerals are.e. governing the genitive of the broken plural. agree in gender with the thing numbered." The use of the numeral Uvo with a singular genitive." is rare (see p. and placed yj^Ad>~ c:.'*l^j after and in apposition with the noun. 105). "When the thing numbered preposition "^^ is a collective noun. Tloo is expressed by the dual number of the noun J^•l^ sometimes. indeclinable. the numeral ^:^\ may be used as well. and are therefore subject to no laws of con. and agreeing with the noun in gender.

Dependent Objective . an adjective may- either grammatically or logically." is a masculine noun." the p. singular masculine Ijb. as jjj . moreover. .Aj y ^ y .^A^ "Zeid's twenty (horses. " 1000. and with the units (Jjijt.4. CSjUts. After the units it put in the genitive singidm^ thus forming an exception to the rule on p. is ^'100.u*^]. : cUw*^ ^Lu. 158) for the case of the thing numbered. 158. i:^M*j'^s>. Some few decline the last part only. ^ being dropped by the rule given in 108." In the first place iJ^lJ agrees grammatically with the . thus Subjective J^s. as ^^''^^^ ^^oj" Twenty dinars of Nasir's coinage. case [In this some grammarians decline the inde: clinable numerals -^ e. We place may use all the numerals as ordinary nouns. The unit and the word i-jU. follows the ordinary rule (p. coalesce.u*>ri. kISJLs. which implied. ''„y ^i^JSi These are your fifteen (camels). ^ kiil Give some of your fifteen (camels).^ <. and them in a state of construction. ^U and i-!cJi.rL ij Take your fifteen (camels). ^ o ^ -' << * ^ " ~ 1 jtXt^' au*. etc.). y y y y .Jlt-s- ^ o / <U. being nouns substantive.THE NUMERALS." is a feminine noun.) m the second logically with is the feminine broken plural J-J 155. ^U. may.*/t^ j. 211 numbered being put in the agree with it singular.g. y V' a«g. ^ ^ •?. govern the .

and behold and. those already described require the application of the various rules given as each : ^- iS- -^ / ^ 'Between the Hijrah and the Deluge there are 3974 years. In very large amounts the word be repeated after each numeral. as ^ ^ -s? / its As for the province of Gharbi'yeh. |jU forming one word aJ^Jj .a 212 ARAEIC GEAMJIAE. From this it will be seen that the last numeral mentioned governs the case of the thing numbered. The higher numerals may tives. the amount of revenue is two millions one hundred and forty-four thousand and eighty military dinars. fifty-three. with ^ is in the accusative case after (^j^-^^^j HjU each set of numerals being connected by the conjunction j. genitive singular. Numbers compounded with case occurs e." must and frequently the thing numbered is also so repeated. also be employed as adjec- following and being put in apposition with the noun." Here is in (-J^Jl is the genitive broken plural after the genitive singular after ^/*J. ujiJl. 1000." it was full of large fishes — \ . it. according to the rule for the construction of nouns. as He drew hundred and the net to land.g.

as *:. collective nouns. ^'^l (Ir* In^. the numeral 4^i:-^l -Ij'^j.AJ\ ^^ '^. such as those mentioned in j^.a^^\ ti_jl!)j. is understood. C-J^JJ And this holds even when the individuals arc expressly feminine. {^. as they are then the things numbered. This is also the case when the thing itself ''and there are feet (feminine).* some of them which walk on four"— <S(?.j^ 'Four sheep. and require the . as 9 y '^ y 9 9 y yy -Gis. this rule does not hold. (125). If the words j^j and S or any similar immediately follow the numeral. is put in that gender expected). — mules. although ^^^ ^^^--0 is the plural of a masculine noun. I have already said that the numeral agrees with the thing numbered in gender.? it opposed to the grammatical gender. as Lijul^ ^x!l\ Axjjl 'Four sheep — females." (poetical for Here. 213 AGEEEMENT IN GEXDER OF THE KUMEEAL AND THING NUMBEEED." kJI ^ ^ ^ 9.<. <^ 9 P w^ y yy So my shield against those I feared Was three persons — two budding maidens and a young woman." " Three ducks. as jJj! ^ ^ The is 9 (^ logical agreement is to be preferred even when PL. not as WO might have With p.THE NU^TERALS. and when construed with the numeral must agree with the grammatical gender of the word.9." jj^t) kJ^ C-J^j "Three ducks c£-*ljj_." epithet. Ill (60). yet because the persons referred to are feminine.

" an noun is necessarily concrete. ''the (number) three ./». numeral to agree with them in gender. 157 (81). ^^/--'ci." . as CIjIs^I IjL' "The yy^li) <-0 three Talhas. The article is here used to express the abstract or general nature of the noun./^ yy ^ yy i^ ^ Ailj L*5>- .A£ iLu. as ^Ul iX*cl » <^^\ ^3U3 ^J "l . as "LjAS i»j:^ 15^11 "three is half six. When things of different genders are included under : one numeral the following rules hold From 3 to 5 the number of each species must be separately expressed From 6 to 10 the numeral agrees in gender with the noun immediately following it. no matter in y yy ^ yy what order i^ ^ hXp^t \s*^ 1iA-»£ .B. ^U^ JUj J "l .lrs. female and male camels.." fifteen female ^ i^ y y ^y yyyyyy^y h . whatever the gender may be. seep. indefinite e." N. have eight handmaids and servants.A£ ^*»A/*^ ^Jc-c "ihavefifteen male and female camels. have eight servants and handmaids.^ if JCs£ "l have and male slaves. and the logical agree- ment therefore holds good." is From 11 — 19 they come.: : 214 ARABIC GEAMMAR." For nouns denoting y y ^ y ." ci^?^ "l have fifteen lU?-_j li\i iJLs. as ^y y y -^ (^ the numeral always masculine for nouns denoting rational beings.jlkS ^/." four Zeinabs." P ^oi Cl>LijjJ\ «jjl " The For the numerals in the abstract the masculine form is always used. But in proper grammatical names the sex alone is regarded." .:>- ^'^^ o * I ^^^^6 fifteen male and female slaves. irrational beings the numeral it agrees in gender with that which immediately follows •i^y .g.

JU-")Tcij£ "the three men." adding the therefore by the ordinary rule to the last only. JI^TlLO y y "^ "the men's voices." see p. female and male." In the last example the article is used to generalize the noun. 157 (81). ordinary nouns in a state of construction. and may take the article." with . too." The prime of life is the age when man is stationary. male and female. IjUj "seven fundamental precepts.'*.g. between thirty and forty.Ju ^yt. 215 And when ^ ^^ ^ ^ •'O^ ^ the noun does not immediately follow the is numeral. the numerals yy may be y 9 <^ treated like ordinary nouns.^_j 'tjlj t* i^-l£ ^jo*^^ ^Ai^ I have fifteen camels. the latter ^^ o ^ always in the feminine.'iJ^ (^ ^^ l^ ijlLz ^^^'^rL o Axe o " I have fifteen camels. 201 (11 G)..^\ j-^rJ And the seventy returned with joy. last as one word.!^! article "men's voices. as o ^ o ^ ^l) ^ J. e. (126). >- y ^ yt^y y yy Li y y ^y J." y y we get in both cases.g. As. The rules for using the article with the thing numbered are really the same as those which apply in the case of e. may the numeral. although in construction with a jJlIi noun. in some cases. the same two nouns in a state of construction are so frequently used together that they are regarded at so. as (I "^ -*o y y yy -.THE NUMERALS. "With regard to the use of the article. JU-j ^1j "three men." THE USE OF THE AETICLE WITH NriTERALS. see p." is equivalent in construction to Jl^j c:.

Those for for the tens. singular and plural. i.: 216 the article.." Wherever the numeral. as in the example given above JUt) f--jiJ\ The seven fundamental precepts of the law. and as such govern the thing numbered in the dependent case." . and are therefore susceptible of the feminine terminations. Those which are not placed in construction with the following noun of course take the article. 102). L^^^^Lll ARABIC GRAMMAR." p. is so frequently mentioned (see This will of course apply only to the numerals from 3 to 10." THE ORDINAL NUMBERS. without refer- ence to such noun." GllTi-Qi "the life of this world. ^ ' ( The fifteen she-camels. r " The fifteen dirhems. (127). takes the article. and a qualifying adjective follows. hundreds and thousands are the same both genders. and are subject to the same laws. The ordinal numbers are regarded as agents or qualifying nouns. p -uJ-o ^ ^^-^ >- ^ o -$ S J U^ ^--Jl "the seven fundamental precf. The ordinals for the units (except the first) are of the form Jilj. and to the hundreds and thousands. and not the thing numbered. this must take the iL>j^^Ul article. _ . those which are considered as nouns.e. cepts of the law. scilicet^ ^\]liQh. . as tf^^O ^^X^xOx c* ^_ ^ . . them is that in to The only thing remarkable about the compound numerals the article may first be added both portions or to the only.

225). dates." they say. In dates the cardinal numbers are used fol- lowing the word preserved dll) in the dependent case. as t_iJ^ ." etc. word i«^5. counting from the first day." But if the article be used with the ordinal. "the second of two. . In employing the ordinal numbers for day is frequently understood as with us . J In the year 1396. four. the e.. Similarly. as given to the ordinal. tens..^ ^ ." the Arabs say.." DATES. For our expressions "one of two.g. and they are connected together with the conjunction j. like a which may therefore either govern noun or a !^^._^^ . thousands.^^M^ * Liux-j ''^J.-i ." is Here the true agent sense verb (see p.. for "he makes a fifth." "one of four.g. ixij\ «_jlj of four. or according to the following system . (128).\ " He makes a fifth.: ' THE OEDINAL NUMBERS. the order is units. ^UiJj > .'^^ 28 th of the month Ecjob." The day of the month is expressed either in the same manner as with us. "he is the fifth of four.«j ." "the fourth of ^Ij One One of two.^ i^J^ ' c. hundreds... as ^jSi \ 217 etc. ^ (j^ UAr^ ^ -J ciT?*^^^ " "^^^ ^^^^ °^ ^^*^ month Eejob. e. the con- struct form cannot of course be employed .

^-r JUJ " .j^ On fourteen nights re- to maining of Eejeb.<3 ' On y-y'O O^x ''^O^O being passed." ^ '^ 4^ ^ f^ y ^ yUs- 16th „ t-T-^^j i^'* '-^.^ i^^^^ ^^o. O ^ '^ ^ • O^^O^ ^ 2nd „ 3rd „ to 10th „ JUJ nth „ r.O 15th „ •'x o o In the middle of Eejeb.^:iA»*^ of Eejeb" (iti meaning the " blaze" or white mark on a horse's blaze forehead). being understood before |oy^< eleven nights of Eejeb (j"^ l::^Ic^ S^-i*. .*'« U^>o^ y y ^ ^.218 X ARABIC GRAMMAR.^ being understood before ^j-Jj .u£ J" y Kj y 20th to 27th >7 «> " -y y ! y .M'. 12th „ „ „ y y (^ 13th 14th O.luUj 19th „ „ -r^>' c.9 J^^ ^s^-'o y _-c>-i * -c or -^ '^ J.)! On the first night of Eejeb being passed. -^ O ^O^- ^'t s>-j i^t dJj J." ^ ^ 03? w^^ '' ' \ ) r 1 "0^ the now moon or the 1st Rojeb ^5>-j iyj or ^ ^ y<i.t*^^ ^Ac r-^." «_.A..

(131).^^^ either Simple. (129)." SIMPLE PEOPEE NAMES.J ''-^Jj^ I passed [But Arabic nouns employed as proper names.in Arabic. X 28tli *^ 219 o ^^ ^ t. i_jL. VJ-1 Composed of a sentence." 1 d-uij saw Joseph. PROPER NAMES. us \\ ' Zeid.] COMPOUND PROPER NAMES." Compound. (130)." PROPER NAMES. name of a celebrated Arab To this class are also referred such names as j^.^^^^ Eejeb ^r^J c^* ^^ c.rr^^^ X ^ c ^ . Proper or names are Lre " aJJ\ j. as wvlir* "laudable.<J4J Joseph came." the poet and brigand. as 'Abd'allah.»-. by Joseph. A mere proper name. it not having an intelligible signification . LjU "He took an armful of wickedness. as 9 9 P ~-' i-jy ^ U. is only inflected with not susceptible of — and — and and being is tenw'in^ cannot take the article. definite.'i> .5-^ s -^ ^Z r On tho last night of 30tli ^ »-^^jcr?J*?'°^J^~'°Olr'°o!/^ ' ^ or !*• \ Reieb. as eiuuer oiuipie.." are regularly declined. and having an intelligible meaning. 1. Compound proper names as are of three kinds.

in this case the first portion is subject to the ordinary rules. and — in the and oblique." ox ^ ^\ Cl^jj^ " I passed by 'Abdullah. is always in the oblique case. it remains quiescent. according to the governing word itself the second part." ARABIC GRAMMAR. ajj^ Cor^ posed of two nouns in a state of construction. Such names remain uninflected and uninfluenced by verbs." which have verbal forms." lLXJjo '^z^}j tliLl-x^j ''—^J/^ " I saw Baalbekk." I saw I ij!\\ l-«o Ju£ Ox . as cJ'^Jjs" "Hadhramaut. etc." ^ passed by Baalbekk." 3. thus aJll Jui ^U^ ^ 9 oS ^ -o ^^ o X • • "'Abdallah came. being inflected . as iljj ^/J^ " Madi-Karib." But if the first portion of the word end in ^^ . Compounded of two words of which the second has become a mere termination.* I saw Taabbata-Sharran." \jS^ LjIj l::-v>\. or^^ "Shammar. and the second follows the rule of a simple proper name taking only objective — in the nominative.o..« "I passed by Taabbata-Sharran. "Baalbekk." Of these the first portion is invariably pointed with — fethah.^. \jL LjIij c1-J." . as \^ LjIj s\-9> Taabbata-Sharran came.220 ''Yezid." t£<I. being governed by the first. particles." 2.\*xi l::-^j^i 9 Abdallah. as jIc "'Abdallah" (servant of God). as cLCIxj i^ " This is Baalbekk.

e. as IjQT J^\ nose'. 'iSi!:^\ aLljL-tjl Abd- 'Abdallah ibn 'Omar. or . the -v^ name must always precede. single words. they may be arranged in any order whatever. the order is "Zcid 'camels Name and Familiar Name come "'Omar immaterial. When the Name and come together. especially if they are well-known individuals. three celebrated authorities the traditional sayings of Mohammed." and when all three come together. Plural ojl ciJUJ.^ ^\ sJk being proper names of men.*^ Abubekr. etc. for and 'Abdallah ibn Masiid. animals. as j^jj^jU-M ''Zein el-'Abidin (ornament of the worshippers) is . and which are employed generally." the ^11 or Title. viz. as^<j ^l^. as in the generic is name of only the first portion capable of receiving the inflexion.." as^^t " father of Bekr" Title (first born). (132). they When may the name and title are both either be placed in apposition." or^^ . as MASC.PROPER NAMES. Proper 1." but when the together. ordinary measure for " the three quinqueliterals." "mother. But such compounds 2. the dI-1 or Familiar tl^t Name. Singular ^. names of men consist of three portions: 2. FEM. The w^ Name. 'Abdallah ibn 'Abbas. 221 In forming the dual and plural of proper names composed of the words Jj\^ or l::-Jj and another noun.ftl J| a jackal. may make allahs." their plurals in the . which or 'A always composed of the word ''father. lULti i. CONSTITUENT PORTIONS OF PEOPEE NAMES. and 3.^ jjt "Abubekr *Omar. ^^J as aJI ''Zeid.

" When wine. has a passive sense.4^1 c-j-i i. THE TTSE OF THE INFINITrVE OE NOUN OF ACTION AS A VERB.9 ^ '' 9 ^y- \ " I passed by Said Kurz.^> .. S ^ asj^ j." ^JoUl\ ^J tX*x^ ^Ij^ "Said Zein el-Abidin came.e.^^ ^\^ ^'Sai'd Kurz came. i^jL ^^ '-^^?'^ "I wonder it at Zeid's drinking the wine." ^^jjUll ^^j ^1 j»-£ i"^. as . ^^ ^^^-r^'^ "I wondered at the drinking of the at its being drunk." of-' ^ 9 oS^ I saw Said Kurz.222 they ARABIC GRAMMAR."Abdallah Zein el-Abidin came. JjUII ^^^J "^-^ '"H'l/^ "^ NOTINS WHICH GOVERN LIKE VERBS. as Aili ^^JjU)^ ^j^J Jk-x ^U.!^ "l saw Abdallah Zein el-Abidin. may be placed in construction. the infinitive or verbal noun as may jA^\ govern jjj another noun in the objective case. or one is com- simple." But if they pound and one - are either both compound." passed by Sa'id Zein el-Abidin. is When the noun of action separated from its com- . they are always put in apposition." S<^9 ^' y •^9 9 '' Safd Eurz came. (133)." "^^." governing the genitive. As in English." ^ .

" Feeding an orphan in time of famine. as \xa. can find means thereto. will be f y'O y 1^ numbered amongst them. provided they are equivalent meaning to the noun of action proper.. Jk*j as IcljJl i^\^\ L^5ll2£ After your giving the hundred she-camels grazing at large. when the noun ^^ of action is defined by the from article. <i/»." ^ ^\x^\ Similarly. as He ^ y forbade people generally from any one addressing to ^ s^ y' him or writing him as my ^^ lord and master " ! ' yy^^^ y Ox„. thns t^l L«-»uj <Ui-w. the latter of the genitive.-^r' ^ \^ jj|^ clh:i»j\ 1^ -£> ^^ 9 His pilgrimage to The House (Mecca) who y -i." y-ii y it -" «^^:J1 15^*'^ ^:^^^=*- "My love for him taught me piety." And vice versdj the objective complement may be put in the genitive. ^^ *^A^ jk*j c:-J»/»Jl iJj Jow After his driving away death from me.NOUNS WHICH GOVERN LIKE VERBS.^ /•^^ 223 is put in the objective case instead (**'^> Feeding an orphan." ." of y ?i^ ifju£ ^J.^ ^-r^j-^^ J-^^ ^ "I did not desist the striking Misma'. plement." you /•|XJ -y 1 CS^ljJLxi y By thy associating with the generous.r»-i ij I The remembrance his servant." Nouns which in are not properly nouns of action may take the same construction." f'y(^y my y y lord's mercy to y<i-JS y yi^-api^y The Caliph's slaying Jaafer took place in this year.^3 '-r^.

" If the verb governs its complement preposition. as <uJ "m^jS^ J^&joJ^ "Abraham's asking par- don for his father. or its subject. especially in it the adverbial accusative." This is especially the case in neuter verbs. ^ iLj. it when is in construction frequently takes its objective com- plement with J. for Amr on Note. — It will be seen from the foregoing examples fulfils when the noun of action the function of the verb. When with the noun of action undefined. constructions are found with the nouns of The same action from doubly transitive verbs.. (jj-^/Lil jj*js:***^ The sun's warming the is earth.*-si \ AtJ . as \. as Verily tlie people were shocked at Mohammed's giving Amr poisoned bread to eat. that. either the subject or the object may be noun expressed by placing it in construction with such is of action.lli:i!'l Mohammed's waiting Friday.224 AEABIC GRAMMAE.^lkiLJ^ ^ ^jj^ ^^^ rebellion against the Sultan.t>s. and the object in the objective case. struction with a noun expressing time the subject of the action will then be in the subjective. Jc^-sr^ <^." instead of ^_j)s\s^ \^S\ ." And if the noun of action is itself in a state of conor place." Vice versctj the -noun of action fi-cquently repre- . as ^^aKsr \^\jS\ "To please me. the by means of a noun of action may be used with a similar construction. as .

(134). AND PASSIVE PAETICIPLE AS A VERB. J3 or by the preterite with U. when thus used." is (a man who) if it is striking.NOUNS T7HICE GOVERN LIKE VEEBS. as ^^y <'0 sometimes joined to the agent jI^ ''^\ Ja " do you believe me ?" as vi and with the noun of superiority. So too the intensive agent. it must be put construct form with the oblique case. as l_^U Ui> "this (is the man who) struck Zeid. case if it The agent may govern a noun in the objective 1 refers to a present or future time." \jAS.'* 15 ." (135). 225 sented by the aorist of the verb. ^^j*o He who thrashes Amr/ <U^ *y^ ' A great tyrant to his tribe." The pronoun ^^ of the first person. although properly is used only with verbs. preceded by the particle y. Or be negative or interrogative." that you should have THE TJSE OF THE AGENT. INTENSIVE AGENT. OfOx X ^ '-0 S •Ji-OCOy' " (There is) another than the Anti-christ (who) inspires me with more fear for you than he does. or is going to strike. as ^-^l«* \y^s. as Lyj i-r^U jji "this Zeid. as ^ o • S -5^ ' \jAS." They would have liked perished. as fast is better for j^ L^^^" ^\ ::^ Vt \jJj That you should you. Joj U ' Zeid is not striking Amr. Jv-J c__>jIj1 *Is Zeid striking Amr?" in the usual j^jj If it refer to a past action.

If the fixed.Y* S O j^j .^\j^\ J-^^ J^ "Hind " -^^^ is (^ (J^J^ U^^J^ *^° °^®° ^^® ™°^® accomplished than the two ffluJ i women. ^«ii C'jtr^* ^J " Zeid . just as you say <uLi j>jj <-^ "Zeid. and agrees in case with the is gender. (137)." ^^ J-ii^ J^-J^ " ^^^ ^"^^ "^^^^ accomplished than women.226 (136). whose slave is beaten " construed with the genitive. and in this case remains always in the masculine singular." AVhen the noun the objective case. number and f y'oS-^iTl"' noun qualified by it." "The Hinds are the most accomplished. The passive participle may govern the nominative . S^^ ^'•) it takes ^J^ . like its verb thus.mr. as C • O llT^ 9 '^Oi •r^ O^ *-^^ 9 y^s~ "•^^^'^ ^^ ^°^® accomplished than A. Jiiib "Hind is ^Jiii Ll^''^J-JiJ \ \ ^^'j^^ " The two Zeids 4J1j1jc£!\ are the most accomplished. it is noun of superiority have the article pre- considered as a superlative." more accomplished than Dad." It may be followed by an undefined noun in a state . the most accomplished." If it is to be used as a comparative." so also you say. AEABIC GRAililAR. THE NOUN OF SUPERIOEITT. as is <uii: '-T^jr^ ^jj ^^ would mean Zeid with a beaten slave. his slave beaten. dual and plural the or agent governs its it complement in but in the does not lose its temvin^ ^ may be dropped. as J^i^^ J^iJ\ Si\ " Zeid the most accomplished." • .

Those formed from verbs of loving.. as ''^ •' -' or . as llli^ J. 227 it in wliicli case also remains masculine singular..'"'^t 1 plished of the tribe." But its if it be followed by a definite noun in a it." 'i\jy*\ J"*-^^ >^--^ Hind is a most beautiful woman. of construction with ^ 9^^s.:. hating." Those formed from intransitive verbs require the same preposition after derived.^ f^^ J|^ l." etc.S ^^ it.-*^^ more beloved of God than any other.^ b lJ/:! Ul " I know the truth more than you.THE NOUN OF SUPERIOEITY." and they take "the the subject with believer is . ^^\ ^.riJ ' ZJ^\ la> "he seeks more after knowledge than you. object with c_>." or The Hinds ( are the most beautiful T (( II. state of of construction with it may either agree or not with noun. Comparatives formed from transitive verbs take the object in the dependent case with J .*. as them as the verb from which they are . ( The two Zeids are the most accom- :°^V^% . as 9 ijs!^j aS\ kX»J Zeid iC is a most generous man. :r-»i himself.IJ . • ' The first construction is the most approved. etc. Those formed from verbs of knowing.^>^^\ "the God more than ^Jl^. take the object with believer loves also J as as auvoij ^^ a. It 1 01 (the) women.^=^1 e. as take i\\o S:^ j...

they will be susceptible of three different constructions. farther for praising and more eager God. le. according to the point of view from which they are regarded. as I L^\^ ^i." where ^ ^^\ ^^ is for A similar ellipse occurs in the sentence ^j which c." tiy ' "He left us. in the plaws of our NOUNS EXPRESSING INHERENT QUALITIES."*^^ ^'^>' ^^^.1. ^^"^ \ J ^\ J-J^ - 9 y -'O-O 9 9 Zi y [In this example the article and noun of quality are considered as equivalent to the conjunctive and the verb. the noun of superiority expresses the greatest possible degree of superiority. in worldly things. prompter to good..rr^ L5^ '^•:? J^ ^ . "He is more abstinent from sin. Thus we may express in Arabic the idea of " the man handsome of face. i^^\ is .: 228 ARABIC GRAMMAR. as ^ .^^^ L^^ Li. when we had most need of him. (138). Nouns expressing inherent qualities may govern like verbs. rise Frcqueutly this use of comparative adjectives gives to an elliptical form of expression.b ^ will be explained further on.. ^^'1 = ^^*M> uf^^ and if pointed with . ^ 0''*^»' enemies.* ^j^ "he needs me more than him." in any of the following manners 1. Followed by U.

" etc. • > 'J \ s ^ ' S 9 ^ t A man In (l) we handsome of face. implied in ^J*us^^ remains unchanged." y -^ • ^ >. eitlier 229 considered as tlie is agent or nominative of such verb =" who the face handsome. ti." man handsome P O ^O-O f9L." "^'^^ handsome of . . 202). In declining these forms of expression.:>"i. 201 (112)." c^-jl \ _ S^:?^^ ^-w*>- J>^ fJ '-^ I passed by a of face."] 2. thus ^:?- J ] _ ^^ • (j*A«=9- iJ^J «i'* ^ ^f <^5^ ' -^ raan liandsome of face came to me. ^ ^^^ .^ > I' '' ^'-^ P i^?^^\ ^i. i^'^^ '^^=^ "handsome of face. The genitive it is obviously inadmissible in the other violate the rule for the construction examples. or whose father's face handsome. the last word.^t lu**!*- ilp-t ^-^^rllj -^ ^^^ ^ face. may also say &." the article being pretixed to the compound in a state of con- expression formed by the two nouns struction (see p. whose is face is handsome. ) " The man handsome of face.NOUNS EXPRESSING INHERENT QUALITIES. ^. as the adverbial accusative = Similarly. ^-^1 "who is handsome as to the face. see p." or if pointed with — ^ ^"^t. <Lj1 • '^ '^-^ or ^^^j U:^« 1 . which is considered as the subject of the verb.^^\ ^^^'\ J^r^i^ which is merely the ordinary construction.:^* or ^^. as would of nouns.

S o ^ in the other cases the Avords c'." ^^li-.-* -'- P^^^^^i by Dien fair of face.b "' ^^^ ^^® ^'^^ handsome face. as J"^ r? ^^^jr^ l^j^i\> y I passed by a man fair of face.^ i^ y l^:>-j And similarly where the adverbial accusative is used." 9 P 9 P ^^ ^ y A.^." of When adjectival.^^j i'^^:>- J^^^ i^'^-u.A^si^ "-^jf P i^y *'l passed by a vroraan fair of face. "fair of face" is expressed by the ordinary is state of construction. " ^-^^^ 9 9 t^ ij"-^-^ ^ (J^V. y 9 ' I saw a woman to 99 fair in face." o ^o-o y y y y 9 ^ y d^^ ^ l:.^\ i:." L.^ 9 o5^ '." man handsome i f p<j ^ <^-a ^ ^ -o 9 os^ ^=rj jj*»*^^ l)?^^ ^-^.*ur>- i^^^j ^J^l:>- There came me two men fair of face." lk:^i.M*s>- 'i'^j^\ l::. though not in ^^^% (^am:s- case. the ejtithet "fair" of course it and agrees with the noun of which is an attribute." of face came to y ^ ^ o~o \ 9 -Oi-O i^^y c^:p-j i^.^^-^ a:>-j.J-:^ rJ '~~1J/'* "*• P'^^s^^ "^y ^ ^^'^ ^^^'' "^f face. implied in the latter Avord must therefore agree with them in gender and number.^ ^ Li"^^^^ 9 -^^^ ™^^ handsome me.:>-j cUAy»j>- iX^l *-^. fair in face.« |^»^s»- " I passed by women fair of appearance.>^^ *~{/!/^ ^'^-J y ^ ^ f^ y ^y y y ^ ^o-." Uf?-j ^.\." ^o^ k'^^ yy y y _^y c^^****" LiJ^'^J iS'^^^^ There came me two men L.«*^ ^ ^ y iJ^^yV y 9 -a ^ '^—^Jr'* ^ passed by the of face.jj <> " ^^^Jj^ CL." ." But y . etc . being ^^J*'*^> considered as the subject of the verb." yy .%. as (^AuTsJ. '-^ passed by a roan fair in face.! ^_^ i I saw a -woman to fair of face.230 ARABIC GRAMilAH. as ^:>- »! \ ^^yMS>.

OTHER WORDS WHICH ARE COGNATE TO VERBS. and the subject is distinct from. <uli 231 ^ly i<-^r^ "^j '•^^ll. 1. " ^ ^^^ ^ ™^^ whose slave was sick.u-i) " There is a difference between" = cj^." it will be necessary to change sion as V^\ the form somewhat. the noun qualified. and we cannot say ^ ^'^:>-\ a:>-j ^* have never seen a man whose father is handsomer the than he.^ i^ % ( 9 '' 9 G?^ - Jo J ^-. Words which contain verbs may govern an in themselves the objective case like Such words convey either sense. and the noun with which comparison same which is is made is qualified by the adjective. (130). meaning of verbs.' eyelids. but preceded by a negative statement.' But *'I there must be two distinct ideas in such ijji an ex^-^iL' pression. il." however.^ In such a case ^::--j[. i. the proposition be affirmative. and say ''I If. the adjective may assume the comparative form.KOUXS EXPRESSING IXHEREXT QUALITIES.£ |J cw* (J. tOUli ^^ ^-^ib " ^ ^^^ ^ ™^^ whose slaves were sick. the form of the sentence will be ^lo-l ^^\ \~^j u." because the sentence contains only one idea.<^ ^t^>-\ ij^t J^ ^^jy* passed by a man whose father was handsomer than he. Powdered antimony with which the Orientals blacken the edge of the . as A past 1 j. In the comparative of the adjective in such an expres- ^^1^ J>-j} ^^jy» " I passed by a man whose father was handsome.S &^^ ^ ^^***^^ ^_^i »-^lb ^ it is "l have never seen a man with kohP in his eye handsomer than in Zeid's eye. a3 0-' o^ 9<j 9 O^^o-O \ o^ y .

" = t_^-j]. as lS^ Take care Begone! of Zfid = ]JJj VJl." 2. Certain adverbs govern like verbs." ^." ." = "Look sharp!" last ^^^1 "Delay Sometimes. ^-'. as jojj.)Il of the J "-^V.! " Beware lion 3. may also take the affixed pronoun of the second person. tliey sidered as nonns of action." An <ltf imperative sense. " Here's Zeid for you !" ! i\-.^* complement." An aorist sense. before you) = J1j. Also some prepositions with their Iju) eases.. as or <U Silence!" = Hold your tongue." ^1^1^ C\j^j = "Gently with.a5. "Oh!" ^\ <j^J^\ cy!^l "I wonder. "Hasten." (it). " gently with 'Amr. Sj^j " gently "= it is considered as an imperative. as A precative c:^C»A ^*.a. as f^ ^^-V. as in the example." "Go on !"(?«^. as Avith j^^ gently Amr. as itvj uliojJ C3S»\'^\ = Uj sL "Take Zeid. in which case it is still followed by the accusative.^T "Away with" "Amen!" = >^ " Be it remote. as if or ijt "Alas!" = = t^-^*^ "lam in pain. or deprecative sense. in which case may be conthey may either jjjj take a complement in the genitive. 232 ." when or they may be nsed adverbially without a l^^. ARABIC GEAMilAR. ^ii I—5^" — .. " Answer our prayer..


OTHEE WORDS WHICH ARE COGNATE TO VERBS.
All the above are
there
is,

;

233

irregular

in their

terminations

however,

one form

which may be derived
used as an interjection,

regularly from any verb, and

namely i\^j as

J^J "Comedown!"
c-jI:;^

=

Jj-jl-

Write away!"

=

e^-iL

"Words of this kind conform exactly to the verb in their
functions; that
is,

they govern, but are not governed,

nor are they put in construction with a preceding noun, nor

may

they be preceded by the noun which they

govern.

"When they
and I
final

are followed

by

a verb in the aorist tense

in such a connexion, as tl^Cjcj-ti l^ " hold your tongue,
will talk to you," the verb

which follows has the
p. 176).

vowel apocopated as in the example (see

Note.

—Some

of these
indefinite

words are susceptible of temvin,
;

and are then

while those which have not

temvm are

definite:

thus, X^

means "preserve
Li.Jli\
;

silence in

this particular

instance," lL^CJI

but

^

means

"be

silent" generally, IjyC

^CJ\.
their cases,

Adverbs and prepositions with
native, as

when ih^j

follow a negative or interrogative particle, take a nomi-

though some verb implying "abiding" were

understood, as

Jt«

cl^JcLi t«

You have no

property

lit.

property

(remains) not with you."
^^JJ

jljJl

-s

(_o>

Is Zeid (abiding) in the house.

But

this

may

also be explained
p. 236).

by the

rule for subjecl

and predicate (see

.

^

234

ARABIC GnAMMATl,

SECTION II.—THE SENTENCE.
PAETS OF A SENTENCE.
(140).

A

proposition

consists

of a

subject

and an

attribute or predicate,

and enunciates the existence of

the former in relation to the latter.

The word
^'Z^" is used.

express-

ing this relation

is

called the verb.

If simple existence

be predicated, the substantive verb
(141).

A

sentence or clause beginning with a noun
*\i

is

called a nominal sentence, as

sij

"Zeid stood up."
either major

When beginning with a
as joj yfi

verb,

it is

called a verbal sentence,
is

"Zeid stood up." The proposition
and predicate, the
i^jj
/•Ij

consisting of a subject

latter consisthis father is

ing of a complete clause, as
standing
;

''^j

Zeid

or minor,

and forming the predicate of another
in the above example.
j:^!::-*

proposition, as ai}

llj,

It
jjj

may

be

both major and minor at once, as
his father's slave
is

<uic

a.j^

"Zeid,

going away."

included a verb, as j^^j ^'he runs," where the pronominal agent is implied, see
(142).
clause (in
is

A

which

p.

154)

may
it

serve as the predicate to another clause, in

which case

may be

placed in apposition with
it

it,

without

the intervention of a conjunction, provided

occur after

an undefined simple noun, as ^-^i "he prays," in the
following sentence, ^•^„

u^/

'-^

*'
i

r*

I passed a

man

praying," where
thet of
If
it

j^L::^ is

considered as the qualifying epi-

Jj>-j

occur after a definite simple noun, as

J-if'j

%j

A^

; ,

PARTS OF A SENTENCE.

235

"Zeid came running,"

it is

considered as adverbial, ex-

pressing the state or condition of the noun.

The

aorist

indicativ^e,

following a preterite without

the intervention of a particle, often implies an act con-

sequent on the past time implied in the preterite, as
i^jLl

*u ^J^

''^®
(JIl5^^

came

to

a fountain of water to
consisting
of or

drink."

If the

minor clause,

con-

taining a verb, occur after anything but a substantive

noun,

it

may
s
^ y
>

be considered either as an epithet or an
5o

adverb, as
^

•o^oS

iUjJl

(Jjr,U,« .^J Ijjb

This

is

a blessed notice which

we have

revealed."
1^U-j1

J-*3^ jLksM Jd^^ "Like the

ass

{Jit.

like the similitude of

the) carrying books."

In the

first

of the above examples hdyA
,

is

regarded

either as an epithet of J^i

and
;

in apposition with tZ^ll*

or as adverbial of condition

and in the second \jU\ ^^^r
1

stands in a similar relation to }C^^
really definite noun, but
species, see p.

.

This

.lis-

1

is

not a

merely has the j( which marks

157

(81),

and

is

considered to be general

and in a manner
examples of

indefinite.

The Arabic grammarians give a great many other clauses, which, by standing in the position

of an inflected noun,

may

dispense with the conjunction

but the examples given above will enable the student to
understand the principle of
all

similar constructions.

THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
(143).

The

principle

which I have already suggested

for the concordance of the

Agent and Verb

(see pp. 182,

183), will apply equally to the Subject and Predicate of

236
a sentence, and
it

ARABIC GEAMMAH.
will be seen that the following rules
it.

naturally result from
1.

The predicate
If both

is

always in the nominative or sub-

jective case.
2.

subject

and predicate are

definite, it

is

usual, for the sake of perspicuity, to insert the
yi>

pronoun
for the

masc. sing.,

*j&

masc. pL,

etc.,

which serves

simple substantive verb " is," as
ii

/j-iUl

ijsM
\

•&

cdSl

'

God

is

the living

— the self-subsistent."

^^:^f^

>J& cL^ji!jl

" They are the prosperous."
is

"Where the subject

a personal pronoun of the
is

first

or

second person, the pronoun of the third 'person

used to

form the copula, as CX^\ tl^Ty^

lil

"I am the Lord thy
is

God."

The

subject in Arabic

is

equivalent to what

some-

times called in Latin grammar a pendent nominative^ and
the predicate
is

any thing which
SUBJKCT.
;?

is

afterwards affirmed

concerning

it,

as
PREDICATE.

ox,'
l::^*!);'

o

uJ

£
I

II

jj.-.,*^

The sun

it

rose."

This must not be confounded with

^XaiT

l::^^!^

'Hhe

sun rose," as such an expression, consisting of a verb

with

its

agent,

may may

of itself form the subject to a subse-

quent predicate.

The

subject

indeed be either a noun, as ^li

SJ
\)

*^Zeid (is) standing;" or a detached pronoun, as pU^is ''he
(is)

standing ;" or more than one noun, as

<Ji;li^

^•*^

*'Zeid, his servant (is) going

away."

The
"Zeid

predicate
(is)

may be

either a single noun, as Lli ajI

standing;" or a sentence grammatically con-

THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
nected with the subject, as
(is)
ii^l

'

237

IjU Sjj

Zeid, his father

standing;" or a pseudo-sentence,
(is)

asj\jJI

^^^\ lLSS^
it

Sjj

"Zeid

he with you or at home ?" or

may
"Zcid

consist
(is)

of several nouns or epithets, as^li)

1^ jjj

a

lawyer, a poet."

AYhen the predicate
substantive verb "e6'"

is

anything other than a verb, the
omitted, as

is

pU

jjj

"Zeid(is)

standing."

"When the predicate
J-J.'^ (jlXi^li
,

is

a verb,

as

in the sentence

no

ellipse occurs, since the

pronominal

ter-

mination cb

is

considered as the a^rent to the verb ^jL,

and the sense

is

regarded as complete

;

see p.
;

154

(78).

The

subject, if a noun, should be definite
it

but in the

following cases
1.

may be

indefinite

:

If the predicate be an adverb or a

noun with a

preposition (in

which case the sense
i^'S:-s.

is

complete), as
a book."

ju-JuS

I have (with

me
(is)

is)

tjs>-j j\ji\

^

In the house

a

man."
particle, as

2. If it follows
j\j,]\

an interrogative or negative
Is there a youth in the

^
LJ

,

^

J-ii

house?"

J^ U

"

We

have no friend"

{lit.

no friend

is to us).

3. If it
jS

has an adjective qualifying
ijl'y* L/r^j
-^ helieving

it,

as

,i

^*

j^
it

man

is

better than an infidel."

4.

If

govern another word by means of a preposi-

tion, 2i^'^^ 'j^'\
5.

If

it

is

^^ Zlj "a longing for goodness is good." in construction with another indefinite
i'jllc.

noun, as

^^-i)

t-iJl

^j^

^^

lA^ Jj^

"An

hour's

justice (is) better than a thousand months' worship."

238
6.

-

AEABIC GEAMMAR.
j^l^

If

it

occur in a prayer, as iCli

"peace (be)

upon you."
[It

will be

seen that indefinite nouns under these
;

circumstances become really defined

they are therefore

not really exceptions, although the grammarians give

them as such.] The predicate should be
•Abdallah."

indefinite,

but

it

may be
"this'(is)

definite if the subject is so also, as fiil ju£

\ssb

OMISSION OF THE PREDICATE.
(144).

Sometimes the predicate
It^li 1.::--.=^ j>-

is

omitted, as
!

^—^\

I went out, and behold
{scilicet,

the wild beast

was before me)."
:

It is always omitted in the following cases
1.

not for Zeid,

l>j i^ "were it After i^ "were not," as \J*1 'Amr would have perished" {i.e. had not
etc.).

c3^

Zeid come to the rescue,
2.

When

it

precedes a noun in the objective case,

which could not serve as the predicate, as
"

L^U

o^

my

journey (was performed) walking."
it

f^ "were

not for," though exercising no gram-

matical influence on what follows,

may

take the affixed

pronouns, as iSp,

^ip,

(-li'iy
;

,

etc.

These represent the
,

genitive, not the accusative

for

one says c/^y not

^^^,

see p. 151 (75).
3.
^vl.rli^

After j "and," in the sense of

^

"with," as

man
4.

Jj^J 3^ "every man and his own trade," i.e. "every and his own trade should be found together" {ne

sutor ultra crepidam).

When

it

is

any form of swearing, as

^\.xii

Cjj^

CONCOED OF THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.

239

"by your
life (I

life

I will certainly do so and so,"

i.e.

"by your

swear)."
it

5.

When

is

an

infinitive or verbal

noun serving
i.e.

instead of a verb, as

J^'^'^ "good
may

patience,"

"good

patience (be mine) = I must be patient."
(145).
its

The

subject

consist of an adjective with

substantive following a particle of negation or inter-

rogation, in
Jj.VjjTIj^''^'*

which case the predicate

is

not required, as

"the two Zeids are not standing."
stands instead of the proper predicate.

Here

the word

JU

CS^^ ^ij^""* J^ "are your sons beaten?" In
Cji^pi^ serves for the predicate.

this case

In these instances, as in the case of verbs and their
agent,
it

is

not necessary to put the word expressing

action in the plural number, to agree with the

noun in

the plural, because
(see pp. 182, 183).

it

is

mentioned

first

in the scutenco

COXCORD OP THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
(146).
its

The

rules for the concordance of the subject

and

predicate or attribute are almost the

same
;

as those for

the concordance of the agent and the verb

p.

235 (143).

If the predicate be a participial or true adjectival form

and follow the subject, it agrees with the subject in gender and number, unless it be an irregular plural, in

which case

it is
t/^
'-'9

put in the singular feminine, as
9

^^S

' ^

^J^^y*
Sy
^
9 9 9^-^^
^

i\y\ ^li
9 '^<Z
^

Both his parents were true believers."
-^^^ hearts arc blind,

9

9

^o^

i^lj ^y^J^ J

^y^

L?'*^

though the eyes

may

see."

Eut

if it

precede the subject, as in negative or interit is

rogative sentences,

put in the singular, as

240

AEABIC GRAMMAR,
two men coming in?"
going out."

^J^^)^ J^^^^

-^^^ the

Jls^^ TTj^
If the subject
plural, as ^j^}j
is
'^

^

^'^^ °^®° ^'^^ ^^t

a collective noun, the attribute

may

be

Ji

all

are obedient to

Him."
it

If the subject is a demonstrative pronoun,

agrees in

gender with the predicate, as
All\

it

were, by anticipation, as
sio-ns."

cubl

CJ^ ^

"these are God's

D

INVERSION OF THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
(147).
rule,
1.

The predicate should
it

follow the subject as a

but

necessarily precedes in certain cases.
it

I
as,

When

naturally begins
particle,

the discourse,

for

instance,

an interrogative
j^jj\
i.r-o\

J

^

(t

"

Who

(is)

in the

house?"

u_a-^ " How (are)

you?"

2.

When
its

it
;

consists of

an adverb or of a preposition
the subject
^^^^ wealth.*'
(is)

with

noun

and when

is

undefined, as

JU
When

c/t^

-'-

ti\y»\ j\j!i\

^

In the house

a

woman."

3.

it

has an affixed pronoun referring to the

subject, as l^^*-l^ j^jJl

^i "in the house

is

its

owner"

(the master
4.

is

at home).
is restricted

When

the subject
l[j

in

meaning by the

particles C*j} or

as
Ziid only
'

JuJ j\Ji] j-3 \^\
/
-'^^-•OCi
?

is

in the house."

^ -^

^

-'

g.\2\

SI

J^*-^^

ici-!i

^

The

apostle has only to deliver

his message."

:

WORDS AFFECTING THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE. 241
5.

If the initiative and empliatic particle
Vi\s jjJJ

J

precede

the subject, as

^^Zeid is standing" (the one stand-

ing

is Zeid).

6.

If both the subject

and predicate are

definite

;

or

if,

being both indefinite, they act together as the subject to

some other predicate not yet expressed, as
clio-l jjJ
jj;
Zeid, thy brother

."

^

J-iil

More

excellent than Zeid."

OMISSION OF THE SUBJECT.
(148).

The

subject

may
it is,

be omitted when the context
as

indicates plainly

what

JjM
i.e.

c->Ul

The
" This

first

chapter."

Jj^^ S-'V^^

^^

is

the

first

chapter."
^ C*
^
r^<

Or

conversationally, as in answer to the question
are

iJL-ol

Jil^

"how

you ?" the answer may be J^l "

ill."

WOEDS AFFECTING THE SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.
(149). Certain verbs and particles affect the subject

and predicate both
following
1.

in furm

and meaning

;

they are the

The

abstract verbs.

2.
3.

Approximate verbs.
Verbs denoting a mental process

4. 5.
6.

Yerbs of praise and blame.
Particles

which resemble verbs.
particles. 16

Negative


212
AEABIC

GRAMMAR

1.

ABSTRACT VERBS.

(150).
j^o
jUtf>

The
was.

abstract verbs are
Cl^b

He
He

He was or did something
in the night.

became.

^**1

^

He was or did something in
the morning.

J^J t*

He

ceased not.

^^^^
rA-jl

He was or did
dawn.

something at

ly U He
_xaj
\

left mot off.

He

desisted not from.

^s**l

He was or did something
noontide.

at

(^
something in

U*

He

relinquished not.

<Jb

He was or did

the shady part of the day.
^^A**.«l

^IJ

U

Whilst he remained.

He was or did something in
the evening.
jufcJ

He

is not.

These verbs are called
J^lf

^l

j^^l ''sisters of the verb

."

They

put the subject in the nominative, and the

predicate in the objective case, as

Uo

IJ

,lf

"Zeid was
is

generous," and
not liked."
\_Note.

\y^* ^^4-^

u**^

"^^

ignorant person

— These verbs each express a particular condition or
and imply that the subject
is

phase of

existence,

is

in that particular condition.
to express state or

Now,

the objective case in Arabic

always used

condition, see p.
case.

192 (108), and

is

therefore evidently required in this

In the simple sentence J^i J^J you merely mention the subject,
affirm of

and then
mttn";

him

that he

is,

generally speaking,

a generous

but in the sentence Uj^.i jjJjI**

Zeid became generous,"

you

affirm

something more, namely, that he has entered upon the

state or condition of being generous.]

Of

these verbs

^^13

U

and

^^
U

are used in the pre'*^\

terite tense only, as V^jIj

cLXj

\\j

"be generous

to

Zeid wMle you remain able."

.

ABSTRACT VERBS.
[The abstract verbs can never be preceded by
for instance,

243
their predicate;
wV",

as,

we must

not say c:^.<J
before the

'
i

JlJ l^ or

Jj

U.j

b

But the predicate may come

noun which

is its

subject, as

The

others, as ^li

and the
^,i

like,

may be

used in the
i

other tenses, as C^X>-

"be wise," and

L-^f ^jJ

"do

not cease to be trustworthy."

j^y generally takes the preposition j with cate, as Jibls^: J'?J \j^ "Zeid is not a fooL"
with regard
to the order of the

its

predi-

In the case of the abstract verbs the same rules hold

noun and predicate

as

those for the ordinary verb and
ject

its

agent, or for the subp.

and predicate of an ordinary sentence, see
p.

178 (99)

and

240(147).
abstract verbs

The
verbs,

may be employed

like ordinary
dis-

putting the agent in the nominative, and

pensing with any further predicate, as
j^'iX

^

"The

affair

was

{i.e.

took place)."

^j^^ -4^^

Amr

passed the morning."

"What took place from our act and deed took place

:

and God

is

good and most enduring."

In

some

cases
c.'! <-'^^

^l^
^^

need
'^

not

be
is

expressed,

as

^^

^'"^ c;l 3
it

^-

"What

said is said,—
"j
\

whether
are for

be truth or falsehood," where Cli
^^L
J, if is

L«l-

''.1

'J' IjI-* ^li

The noun
^

of action of the verb
for ^

frequently cmand
is

JWs

an abbreviation

-kj

}\ "to the end of

it,"

equivalent to

our " &c."

;

244

ARABIC GEAMMAR.
itself,

ployed like the verb

with regard to the governis

ment

of the object, but the subject
it,

put in the genitive

in a state of construction with
y
<^

as
thy being strong and others

y

o^ /

^

lL.x*i Ll^-.i

^f i

\^

"--^^y^

"From

weak."

The agent

of the

same verb may be similarly used, as

Mohammed, who was

a prophet

when Adam was yet water and

earth."

2.

APPROXIMATE VERBS.
are of three kinds.

(151).
1.

The approximate verbs

Expressing the fact of the action of the verb being
,

near or on the point of taking place, as ijjSj]
*'he almost
2.
its

jIs

,

(IJ^

"

Expressing hope, or expectation, or probability of
,

taking place, as ^j».
3.

^^,

(J^^^l

" probably he
lljt,

."
. . .

Expressing

its

commencement, as

^p^,

J-'«r>

^iLc,

l^t, "he began."
all
p P
C>

These

take the aorist, as
y

P

y o.<3 ^
\

kJiw

jli-S (jw

jl^ "

The horseman almost

fell

"

C^

^

^.) LS*'^
iXjJ

Probably Zeid will stand."
'

A.(:;j

Jjwf-

Zeid began to speak."

These verbs are only used in the preterite tense, except
'S^

and

uliCijI

,

which have an

aorist, as Sij^ 9 • 5

,

uJ^y.
.

the latter has also an active participle, CS^y^*

They

must precede the noun, and the noun must precede the
predicate.

APPROXIMATE VERBS.

245

^^£ and
tlie

tlXijI , expressing contingency, generally take
j^t

particle

governing the conditional mood.
:

With

ol^ it is

generally omitted

but

it

is

always used with

^J1>.

and ^^X\\ never with the verbs expressing com-

mencement.
1.

^-I^,

CS^L^ and
ic***^

^Jl^l^l

may be

used impersonall}", as

11-.-W 'y^r-^' jm'

You may

perhaps hate something.' perhaps come.

gjU

^^^

Ciw.t

He may

2.

i^luc

may be preceded by
it

its

noun, and
or not, as

may

either

agree with
y

in
O i

number and person
^ ^

/'--

So^
"^.{i

*Jij

eJ^

L_s***'^

Perhaps Zeid may stand up."

or

y

9

y

i^

"i-

^^

>

Perhaiis the

•O**)^

two Zeids may stand,

p

P-'

oS

or

yy

/

y

9<^^ y

Perhaps the Zeids

may

stand up.'

3.

In the other persons of the preterite of ^Js. the
pointed with
is

^

may be
4.

Jcesrah^ as

c:-^:^*!*^:

"perhaps thou;"

but fethah
^^Ic

the more usual.

may be

followed

by an

accusative pronoun, as

^lli "perhaps he," or
lu^ is also

cJlLs "perhaps thou."

,

sometimes used with the negative

as

"I

liave

no power

left in

me, and devices arc not likely to do any

good.

That has come upon mo which makes me forget the gazelle and
ghazal (a form of poetry)."

tlie

inter- . as ^ 14^:^* x>»^o^^o^ \^£ \si\ o^i l::^^^ " I showed to Zeid Arar in the act of going away.: : 246 A. to suppose. these are added adopt . They are Jlrito fancy. as an after-thought. jjx^ down as. liL'Jv-s ^. *^ cXc x ^ to count.*it "verbs de- noting a mental process. to Jx?^ in the sense of to make into. suspicion. case.rj J>^.. (152)." ^\j to see. \j^s." 11^ and o-tj may be j' used in the 4th conjugation with the double accusative. *. or before a particle of affirmation. ^j^ to perc'ive.\.-^^^ " 1 made Amr know Bekr as truthful." When these words are used parenthetically. to find.^ one and the other adverbially. C'w>U iX? C*£ u:. J. are called c_j>yjLH J'. to set ^ To to think.--5 sXst].EABIC GRAMMAR." to cause to turn into or become. VERBS DENOTING A MENTAL PROCESS. or calculation. These verbs govern two nouns in the objective as the ordinary objective ^jli UjJ liL>U l::-^.i to know. to reckon. Verbs which express certain knowledge.z^-^)a Amr truthful. as (to be) 1 " I saw Zeid " I thought an accomplished man.G tUJ^"^ "l took Bekr as a friend. 3.

i require a definite agent or nominative. the sentence . j4^ "^Ij^ Lii-vtlc U "l did not know whether Zeid was Amr. a good man. 247 rogation. of praise (153). agree with the agent in gender and number. VEEBS OF PRAISE AXD BLAME. \jJ!p- ^L> is may be used as an ordinary transitive verb. _' . being placed after them in the is thus— joj J^jl 1^ "lie Predicate.ij:.> o^^ i. You may also say Joj iJ^j 1^ with the same meaning is but in this case the grammatical explanation Predicate. Advetbial." ajIs Jup l--« l::^^!^ knew (it) — certainly Zeid is standing.-^:^ JcJj "Zeid ^^^^ I is (I think) a fool." stand- ing or 4. ."it is agreeable. latter. of the compounded two words \Z^s." and Ij "that. and Jj. o^ l^lrs. a man (namely) Zeid. Jul). is (he) (£110.— VERBS OF PEAISE AND ELAME. in conjunction with which they serve as a predicate to a 1x1 noun.* J li ji^z z*^ Jk-S e:^:^ I thought Zeid was not standing. The verbs : and blame are four in number. namely x^ ^ ) For praise. literally. as . ^'"". I For blame. and ^H." ^'"™ subject. hoAvevcr. Good is the man (namely) Zeid." the demonstrative pronouu being considered as the agent of the verb." ''--'^~^ tjV 'Hi ^^ truthful (at least I thint so)." o/ subject. The subject . or negatiorij they naturally cease to govern the noun. Good **j. "J is Zeid.

and the predicate in the nominative case ." ^li "as though.^ ^\^ '^^^S verily." \^t}\ c:^ "Would that youth could return. (154)." Examples aJIj \j^^s." ." ' "that" (emphatic). except IJ^iX." "Yerily Zeid is Jli Ijdj standing. They are *-^^-^ JjJ "probably. — the l"* two men — the two women — the men "We may also add to all these verbs. PARTICLES WHICH RESEMBLE VERBS. ^ \si\ Ijdj ^Ij "l have heard that Amr (is) coming. etc.^ ^^\ "but. for they put the noun or subject in the objective or accusative. U ^l^.j1 ^ "As ^^ *' if Zeid were a lion. Ul^j..." is iJr^ >yo < "But Zeid a miser. 5. . Zeid!— Hind the women. — of the praise implied by \x^ is therefore merely a nomi- native in apposition with Ij. as "Bravo.— 248 : — ARABIC GRAMMAR." These are exactly the reverse of in their mode of governing." would that." etc. Certain particles resemble verbs in their action upon other words." Ju. thus Uoli Sij ^ ^ "Zeid was standing." the jk^»::Jl .05 -f 9 » "that." . and say U*.3 1 This is only a stronger form of the particle \ heing added as in verbs (see p. 28).

[The reason for the difference appears to be that U not really pleonastic." is (Xj is sometimes exempt from this rule.* _jJkxJl Jj«] "Most likely the enemy are approaching. as lUlJ Gjj ^\ "verily Zeid is standing is . signifying commencement." \S}j j^-^^ ^ ^^ ' Verily in the house is Zeid. unless its consist of an adverb or a preposition it noun. 249 forgiving. If it some- times used with ^\^.PARTICLES WHICH RESEMBLE VERBS." ^\^ ''verily In such an expression as the house is its ^l>-lojllll ^ in owner. as pjd Sjj \^\ "vcniy Zeid is standing." it necessarily precedes. as Ifij LyJ Ucx^]. but means something like " the fact (is). the' regular order must be preserved. " but if it be joined ^\ to the noun. but. art the Liberal as L-Aib^\ l::^! CS^\ "verily Thou One." Jli. If the pleonastic C* is added to any of these particles. as CSsu£. it must be repeated in its detached form with the predicate." but tl-lljITcLj* lL^A^ "verily Thou art the Bounteous One. because it a relative pronoun cannot precede the thing to which refers." If the subject of ^^^ be an affixed personal pronoun. does not exhibit this effect. in which cases \>^l\ may precede is it." The with predicate of these particles follows the subject or it noun.] is The particle J ." ." and therefore becomes the it real subject. as CJj^ljJl^ "verily in the house is Zeid. the order reversed. being indeclinable. they cease to govern the noun. be joined to the predicate. ^\ Verily with you Zeid. <iJjl JjJ * There is little doubt but that God is JJi.

IJl^ \si\ cLl^ "where. as ^UJ Ijjj Or after a particle of swearing.1 IN THE SENTENCE.1 particles as .\^^ "by God ! there Zeid standing." USE OF ^ is . ^1 is used where something immediately introduced by the verb..!. L^JiJ "I said." man— he is certainly accom- y% >. to is introduced by the is particle J\^ aj." and " sit where there is Zeid ^>St\ J4^ sitting.' \L^\ ^j:^^ "I knew that thou wert standing. a sentence." Jli ^ y aj! 9-^ ^JJ\ 9 . as JU JU Ijjj ^\ s_sf^- "' ^^^® heard that Zeid is standing." "behold.. <J*^ "He came 9 <^yy me who — verily he is standing.' ' rJ J^lj djl Jsf '^y» "l to passed by a plished. -' 99^> Or simply "I add a fresh clause. iXJiJi J in such an expression as "I knew it— there is Zeid standing. as 2i\i IjoJ ^ " Verily Zeid to is standing. -. full of visited him." Or as beginning of a clause connected with such "then." where the thing sworn J.250 ARABIC GEAMMAR.t used in commencing. POSITION OP is .! fjo'." . it *." t\ "is not?" * as Ijli \:si\ ^ c:-Jj "l said verily Zeid is standing.. as J^l ^J ^^jj^j ^^." . \ 1j[ ." After such expressions as etc. at the and certainly I was hope.^.' ili i^y^ l^ f\ "Is not Zeid standing?" Or ''S^ before the particle . or wherever is necessary to break the grammatical order and begin a fresh clause.

/c-'-^ ^c~o -S -' the truth like as y o^<-S you utter. And when God be yours. In the following cases ^\ indifferently 1." the actual words of the speaker.: . as O 9 i^ y y ^* y i.1 MAT BE USED.^.! introduces that complement. ox THE USE OF Ciol o'J^-^ It ''. AND vj ^J ^^'-^ 251 jj-ili is my opinion that thou art accomplished." j5t>Us uli^jl ^ijlib^l "My belief (is) that thou art truthful..1 the oath not preceded is God 3. ! —Zeid j^ by J.-^jli <L>Ji\>^ l::^^~ 'I wonder that you are writing. and ^] may be used implies conseto After the conjunction i_J." 2.\ c'i. Even where preposition. as IjL* Sjj /Jll J "by standing.' " . 'j the verb governs its complement with a ^!. to the and that I have made you superior whole universe. 7." . is when the subject of ." as t«l ' Is not Zeid standing?" S Py ^i-o aJii -OJi ^•^ )! ^^ Ajs- Undoubtedly God is forgiving.1 OE . as is V?^ ^ti j^U ^%.. ' I praise God.." After such an expression as "I said. where it quence." B-emember my bounties wherewith I have been gracious to you. 44. After a particle of swearing." j^. it ii." — Kor. r CASES IN AVniCH EITHER .* "he who comes me (he) honoured.. (155)..»ikiJ ^ ^ JJ\ Uil^ (J-^^ ''^^ "it is ^x o/^o^^ c.." promises you one of the two parties that shall — Kor viii._. as *' when it introduces SJi ^jt " ajJ\ j^^ ^\ the first thing I say is." After C\ "is not?" and *jIj Ij^J j^j^ y^i "undoubtedly.

Ixxv.r^ O' "as if —Zeid were a . and generally takes J before predicate.j ^\ <^:^^z *I knew that it (the fact) was thus — Zeid was standing. <L*llic collect his bones " — Kor.J_ following.>*«csr\ man think that ? we shall not 3. may be shortened into ^]^. I knew that Zeid was standing.jI ••> ''. as *jli Jkjj 1^1 ij:^^AX£." If the sentence begin with a verb. or else by a negative Si ^ J-^ " We know that Zeid has come." j-4>^jjJ ^ j^LwJ|\ t^. the latter must take the particle j^j or J as . ^t. and the predicate must consist of a sentence. circumstances ceases to its govern its noun." ( J appears to be used in . "^l^ and J^G.. they then govern under the ^. as iXjJ ^l:s- or (^.— 252 ARABIC GRAMilAR." lor ^li j>. particle. and predicate can only be a complete sentence or clause.) this case to distinguish it from the negative ^\ ^1 has for its its noun an indefinite pronoun understood. as jklt j. as ^UH jjj ^\ "verily Zeid is standing. Of the particles treated of in the foregoing paragraphs. ^IS has also an indefinite pronoun understood for its noun. ^. namely. it commencement of such a sentence be a declinable must be separated from the particle ^t by one i_Jj-j of the particles jj. ^Is and ^jC] '." /»yij' (_J»-j (^^ J-xj He knows 'Does that you will stand. LOSS OF THE FINAL ^^ Ilf TEE ABOVE-MEN'TIONED PARTICLES.' If the verb. ^\. lion. those ending in ^.

NEGATIVE PARTICLES. If the negative be not as f-^l^ ^j S "there is no man present. '^ kj^ '-^^ though Zeid had not come/' o yl. do not come before the noun. 1/' 253 stood up. afterwards qualified. ^^ never governs a following word. (156).: KEGATIYE PARTICLES. and becomes a mere conjunction. 2. cbS and ^\. it M^-^t Xs-KL lL>^ j i'UJ^ *ju "rebels repent not the hour for repentance. as ^^^^-^M^^* lyl^ ^^^J "but they were of the unjust. are when when the noun as is predicate not both mentioned together. as UjIj Joj U "Zeid is not standing. The particles of negation. j^Jj. If the predicate 3. or the usual order of words be disturbed. according to some grammarians." Juj j*lj jJ a j^li As though Zeid had Jcj. S ^ "^ it does not exercise this influence." 6. f. as Zeid is S o^* ^ ti* j\L V\^ ^J nothing but a poet." % governs like a verb— 1. If both its noun and predicate are indefinite." if But if the negation be afterwards qualified. The following are the rules to be applied if U governs a word in the objective. the negation be complete and continuous. 195(110)5. U." 6A and can only govern a noun of time. and the order of words correct. 88(41). because on the its final removal of ^ it ceases to have any direct con- nexion with nouns. and p. see govern words in the same manner as the verb p. C-?V." is tVJ J li L* Not standing Zeid. dl\l> ll\lS\ <j:A^^. can never govern ." for *A^^ ^^^.

as cblL«^. WiQfethah be used to represent the objective case.) in the town. and the .g. 106 and 140).254 a noun . as 3^1:?jjJ is not a fool. ARABIC GEAMMAR. the reason for this is that the whole species is the subject defi- of the negative. 157 (81). ^^1^ to corroborate the negation in this case it exercises no grammatical in^t. as j^JJl ^^ (orcijll^j^) t^lL*^ "there are no believers (fem. as lj\ . although its may still the feminine plural makes both dependent and objective S iuT (see pp. U "Zeid When the negative particle it % denies the exist- ence of a thing absolutely." .e.) in the city. predicate in the subjective case provided only that both f noun and predicate are undefined.-A^l J c^v"*"^ ^ "There are not two moons in the sky. and that the noun. and species nite." ^ ^^^^ t There are no believers (masc. see p. it puts the noun in the objective case.t fluence on any following words. as (JJ^UJl ^^." THE ABSOLUTE NEGATIVE j^i^sT iLiU (157). 1 ." is U frequently used with the particle ." Duals and regular masculine plurals are used in the regular objective case. as If the j^jIj introduces ^^j l "there is no man coming. always in a manner A^\ '' knowledge in the abstract" {la scienza)." noun be grammatically unconnected with any is other word. e. as in the example is . governs in the same manner i. others say that is it may govern it if the proper order of words preserved. If it be a regular feminine plural. as He has no temporal authority except over the feeblest of madmen. the tenwin dropped.

asJ^jjT^. There is no travelling servant present is '* [In the last example the tenw'in because the noun is dropped. either or both may be used thus There is no strength and no in power but God. nor is Amr . and there not with us a woman. 255 If the subject of the negation be immediately connected with any other word." i In such cases as the above each separate negation. as "There is no one with us going-up-a-mountain.^ \s>." The in the prefixing of an interrogative particle to 1 does not alter its government. and i is repeated (such nouns being undefined.UJlb ^ temviii is retained. and introduced by the of the above constructions ^). as it not Zeid is not in the house. the U^x. should be repeated with "When there are several nouns to be denied.by-Zeid present. unconnected with any other word." j-iU- i^ji \j.i J^J ^t "is there no man house?" . but in a state of construction with the following one. not on account of f." no passer.^1 "There 1 is jo\s^ jS^ As. and there is not in the house a man. interis vening word or words from the negative governed by the latter. or separated by any 1).] But if the noun be definite. .ABSOLUTE NEGATION.

(159). pronoun. noun." RELATIVE SENTENCES. RELATIVES OR CONJUNCTIVES. The pronoun referring to the antecedent. In interrogation we may add the demonstrative pronoun and say. for in- ^^ "who?" and U "what?" are used.l\j ^jJ\ J^J^ (2) (3) (4) JVl^^ literally. The man who T saw him. scilicet Cj^^l to thee.: 256 ARABIC GRAMMAR. must be expressed." «_~2JbJ| = ^ ' J->^3icj ^_^ jj into which it pops. as jjj ^^^ lA J^j if it is i "there is learned than Zeid. when (as it sometimes l^y^ lS^^\ though rarely is) it is joined to a verb in the aorist. it If the predicate would be otherwise ambiguous. or particle." (2) in such expressions as ( ^J^^ "the 228 (138). as in the following verse And he ena of entices the Jerboa with sh'ihah^ out of the hole at the it its lair. and out of the hole by which \ enters. "who is that?" l3 IJ. (4) The (3) The c -Si- qualificative clause. beautiful of face" (3) = a^j see p. The relative sentence in (2) Arabic consists of four relative or conjunctive parts— (1) The antecedent. (158). as ^J\j i be obvious. definite i^'^'\ is for definite antecedents only. as *'the striker 'd^j\ t_>?^^T j i^jds\ and the struck." But tood." growing in desert. it no man more may be under- " there no harm. "what is that?" ^3 ^ The article Jl is regarded as a relative: (l) when joined to the agent or passive participle. thus / iZ. especially ia " SMhah" a kind of sweet-smeiiing plant tlae the mouatain distiicLS. .

3I "which" (of two or more). else of the same nature the noun so specified being put in the accusative. as Or l^^J t—c-.RELATIVES OR CONJUNCTIVES. and making incursions upon the enemy in the morning. never have heirs. and raising up dust therein." 9 C S"^' e. article. the bands of prophets.^iJ ^_^U1 ^ji\ ^-?^l ^^sT "We Arabs are the most hospitable of men to guests. c..y ^ 'W^^^4^"* \cJ^ " Wc." *-^l. \^\^ \zJ\ are occasionally used to express something particular." and 1^1 may be omitted. provided the noun thus specified have the article. \_Note. and striking fire with their hoofs against the stones. as iUL=^ 'C^O-O \ \^\ ''^i U JL^\ /-^Ox ^^1 \ God ! pardon us — we who are a special so (y^^ \d ^^ ^'^ band." ^i. when the latter is thus used as By the horses rushing about breathing hard. 257 —A verb is sometimes put in apposition with the agent and the as a conjunctive . 1 — 4." —Kor. as He S _j^ ^9 09 of them who pleases is standing 09 me.] etc." 17 . and distinguished from anything ." may be used in four ways.^ "We \A will do so and — we the tribe in question. "the one who." C^)\ \^\ ^J^ J^l "l will do so and so— I individually.'i- ''P-ii's.

^t "that. U. as J^-. Hs^ J^jJ c^^ "thou " it is hast brought me a man as —and what a man it ! If follow a definite noun. unless specito the contrary.t J^-yl ^ '*^^." i^< and U are always masculine singular. or relatives are reckoned the particles ^. ^. 1 Although these are indeclinable. admiration if it Ly the come genitive after also used to express it an indefinite noun. Amongst the ^^^1. as {lit.258 --I 4lEabic grammae.." ^^ i. the pro- referring to them must agree in gender with the thing for which they stand. OTHER CONJUNCTIVES.:^^- J\ "that. is followed .) did not please me. noun ^*^.^_^ I saw a man who me. as ^. ally defined L5 "l ^ A^\ ^ (her) y 9 "-^^j o '' I saw a woman who " (where t^9 of women nine). agrees with it. who) did not please me oy -^ -^-Sc-*o ^ 9 ^ is femi- and ^'^^^0 ^ (V'^^ i^^^j'j it is "^ visited people who honour me" (where plural). or to avoid ambiguity. as c^/tJ (jiij' ^^ (^1 l::^-js- I wonder at that you stood.t.. the substan- . ^j ^^^^" "2^eid came to me —what a man The and number is)f" ^ and U. (160)." with a noun and its attribute. o"^ jjj put in the accusative.) did not please "i jj-^ ilujol ^j^ '*^Jj -^ saw a woman who (fem. conjunctives ^!." with preterite or aorist of verbs." (masc." I wonder at that you should stand.

''* 9 pi- tS-O jli i^\ 2. or a preposition with noun. five verb '* 259 ^^jJCj '' is " being understood." p is generally used in this sense with such verbs as j^ of. as . you cannot say." as in the following examples l::-^-." "to like" or "to be glad seldom with any other.^-^ p K.: NATURE OF THE RELATIVE.'- Se came I to me wlio rose. 1.js*." "that. The relative must be one of three things: A sentence consisting of a subject and predicate. as tl/jki^ (^^iJ^ ^i-.^^ J c:jlj." the heuveu ^i. as l1(." U "what." is used with either the preterite or the aorist." joj J J.." But the meaning must be complete .4»>^n |J U ^ ' To God (belongs) what is in and in the earth. ^ "if. its tj?^^^ c:-^.\ I would that Zeid would stand. NATURE OF THE RELATIVE." An adverb of time or place." aorist.j1 ^ ''I or ^^4 "that" with the I ^^G c:--v-. . Juj <-^'-V^^ "l would that Zeid had stood. as is l5li CvJ ^\ I have heard that Zeid standing.'lJ saw him whose father is standing." "that.l I like him who is with you. Ijjj ci-^-J U>^« ro^ -a I wonder ichaf you struck Zeid /or." ^ >jl5 Jo".\i ^^'<^\ L<J^^=r 9 i^-i.\i c p *yi_. (161).p- have come that may visit you. l/»^ l:^^-^-'^ I wonder what Zeid is standing for is (but this last construction rare). as A.' ^ ^ 4.

can only act as relatives to the article l}] when it is considered as a conjunctive (see above). of any but the third person as the pronoun is rare. (163). for instance." " The fair of face." nor j*jJl ^jJl 5^_ lie came who to-day 3. ^iyi u?^^ Lk. (162)." These. as in the proverbial expression (for ^Ij e^t iU^lj "its U ^i\ "decide what you are the decider" decider")." literally " I am who I gave you the book. a passive participle..^ -J ^^ '^\j>- He came whom ^^ jJl They two came.z\ ^'^\ "I am he who gave you the book. however. this correlative pronoun idiomatically omitted. as i^\-J^\ CS^ul3. THE PRONOUN WHICH REFERS TO THE ANTECEDENT. il3o ti^ST^T^ "he came who by you " ." is Sometimes. An agent. pointed with fethah^ and intro- . as I struck. both of whom I struck. though rarely." " The beaten." CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. The pronoun which it refers to the antecedent agrees with in gender. or a noun expressive of an inherent quality. In conditional or hypothetical sentences the is apodosis _J generally introduced by one of the particles and cJ The aorist subjunctive. as " The beater. and person. number. 2 GO ARABIC GEAMMAR. The use referring to the antecedent although we do meet \j\ with such sentences.

'V.^ij to ^^ CS^Jj^ LJ|^ i^O' b> "won't you come 7." time . you use such a sentence as jU> CS'^^y JJ ' . must be in the indicative mood. asCi^-y^^^^ lI^C^Ij ^ijj "visit me and If the command be a noun. and I will do right 4. in alms j^jI* I Hope.^J uJ^l i5 "I do not know your house or I would ^ *\ you. Precative. and you will meet with good treatment. as a. is used in the apodosis of a conditional of this there are eight cases." >----i. and I will honour you.i j Ju^il ^ ^ j j^^ili ^U away ^ j\ J lt^ " would that J-'^J I had wealth to give 8. 261 duced by j^ or proposition 1.^^i ^ ^ i ^^:xj Ua:^ Jj:. in negation. as CS. ^)^'} ^ ^ ^j>v^ visit ul/. as l^^U ." ^_5t?'^. us? we will honour you.. and 2." Desire.C:i u^^^^^'^ "perhaps our friend will come. 3. ^ Prohibitive.j' )!1 "will you not alight with us. 233). . as " 2eid is so ill that they have no hopes of his recovery ." 6. The aorist subjunctive it always refers to future if the present be intended. Imperative. in li the course of conversation.0 <). t_i .. Urgent request. as C3^\ ^y^^ ^ "hold j^ your tongue. as i. Note." or when. and we will honour him. as tlCLc i-^'-iM ^^J ^-y^^' ^ ^'do not strike Zeid. or he will be angry with you.-#^." not a real imperative (see p.JJ^ tirvTl j ^^ ^JV-^ t>:l^ ^.y-! J* ' ^^^ Zeid a friend he can lean upon?" 5. Interrogative. as ^." CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. the aorist is pointed with — dhammah. I will treat you well. as \j^=>- ^." Similarly.\^ " ! J-»^li ^j ' I^ord aid me. Polite invitation.

the former must be apocopated. uljp. as lL. as of (_j prevents the apocopation of the <^^^ . the protasis be an and the apodosis a LLvil? preterite. as (lit." The introduction aorist. if you have done you are unjust. "have won. I stand.e.AJbJu Is L::_^*Jij ^ "if you do not go. meaning. as You are it. however. If the protasis be a preterite." k_^Jbjj j j' i>_. you will win. be no apocopation.. your companion will not go. aorist. and it must not be preceded by any negative particle except JJ or S. or ^ ."^ lL^ ^\^ "if thou standest. you will win" i.— 2^2 ARABIC GRAMMAR. (] 64). see p. neither must ." unjust if you have done >Jll? (. above should be aorists of verbs. then —in that case— I think you are speaking the truth. J-^" ^\ "if you have patience. as ji^ -y^j "if you have patience. The protasis and apodosis of conditional sentences like those given If. at least in . your brother will rise too. PROTASIS AND APODOSIS." as we should say. aorist." i_>wc5-Ui i_^ji>jj)! The apodosis t-::-Ni^ may be even (^1 M^ya t::-^\ for omitted. there can." If both be preterite.J^ ^.e." in reply to some previous question expressed or implied. and the apodosis an the latter cLJ^ltf ^\^ may be either apocopated or not. 170.' r*yV." In the protasis of conditional propositions the verb must not be it preterite.^ (*^^ L::-^/J ^ "if you rise. . imply a request or be a neuter verb or be governed by any of the particles I«. of course. "as good as won").:i-Jli L::-J>xi ^ A% c:^! "You are unjust it i.

but the sense will be 'ij^^^'^ still present or the pro- future." (2) Zeid Zeid — I have struck him. ( .INVERSION OF THE VERB AND NOUN.j^ '^j iz. or . as U-il 1:1=^ ^^> ^V \j\i "when mised term of the future tosrether.'tijc ^ i-i lU\^ Lvj ^^^^9 lAki Zeid have passed by him. ^ be " if you have patience. 2G3 In the apodosis. (1) (2) (1) Object. xvii. although the verb preterite.ij3\j>j\ 'Z^^^ struck (1) mc." life comes.(2) (3) ment of a proposition (1) Verb. 106. particle i it may either be apocopated or not (_i. iNVERS^ION OF THE VERB AND NOUN." have struck his friend's (3) <ll-sjs-Us (li l::^-^ Joj —I —I slave. We have already said that the proper arrangeis . but if apoco- pated./Kc. may be placed as i<r. should the verb be affected by any of the reasons which would have disqualified it from occurring iu as ^ilixu^i ^-^jr^ the protasis. we will gather you —Kor. mostly put in the Even Jo if the aorist be used." Either tbe agent or the object. struck Amr. the apodosis must have the preterite. it must be introduced by ^. as (3) . (165). it must be introduced by The particle L^^. in the protasis always refers to present is or future time." (4) \ '^ ^ -' iL>j>-\^ his slave. aifirnlative or rendered negative by the . (3) (2) Agent. JoJ f^j^ Ze'id. however." If it an aorist. or by by hid friend's slave. then you whether . first. shall succeed.^ i^.

" This is a . as dcj^ )ju. as \ . and '"^^-^^ Zeid — they were beating him "Zeid . of whicli the verb with object ^J^ is the predicate. regarded as the subject its and object dzjja is the If the object of the verb which thus precedes itself it be preceded by any word which ordinarily introduces it a verbal proposition^ l13o^ ^^j^ ^." Amr they ON CERTAIN INVOLVED FORMS OF EXPRESSION. 'iJy^. will " if" being always used with verbs. There are certain involved forms of expression which. as ! Vj ^"^^ it is put in the " I went out. it will be well to notice:— (1) jJj Sx. but (and) as foi' Amr S 9 ^ <Uj J \\S£.j *Ij "Zeid rose and sat. or jo." for ii4ljJj J ^r'*>*i <X'J (J^ Zeid was killed. e. (166)." \'^\ being used wdth nouns.* ^ ^Kj ^ ^ S "^ -^ ^ ic.-i nominative.j j^]^ is put in the objective case. it may be put either in the nominative or accusative indifferently.2C4 In (1) ARABIC GRAMMAR." ^ O. Qj ^1 and the clause thus obtained of the proposition. 9 ^ij I was an enemy of his father. I sent but as for Jaafar him away. is In (2) some word governing Ijjj is understood.A^ > CS^-. the second noun is in the objective case.>." When iCL^ an exception is implied. although they occur but rarely. If it J be not preceded by any other word. Zeid its is regarded as the subject. the verb predicate. as " If Zeid you strike him.g.^Ji>ii\ iri*^ J XKsrr* (j-u3s5»- Mohammed sat down. but as did not kill him. — I stnick him. he." ^\ — — But behold if it be preceded by any other word. strike you.=>-^ LZ-^ " I was thy friend.

and say. simple case the actions 265 so . (Jio^j i^ji "you struck him. 179). of which the agent expressed afterwards in the usual way.. which are particles partaking of tho nature of verbs." "When more than one agent of the verbs must agree with it is expressed. from the nature of the case. It is better." where agrees with it as occupying the most important position. Toothing but the agent can be so elided for instance.. where the second agrees with as the nearest. follow closely one upon another that they may be is almost considered as one verb." because in this case the i in au. Zeid. . QJ ^i--^j 1^^:^ "I thought was standing. being in fact a correlative pronoun referring to a noun not yet expressed. IxTj you cannot. (167). one or other in number and rose tense. form an exception to this and you may Zeid's father say. as cy(^\ Ixs^ UIj "your two brothers the first and sat. or ilS\^^\ ^S^e it j *lj. and Zeid thought I was standing.^ would be ambiguous. which are nouns ik-j and l-iU-. which is inad- missible in Arabic (see p." first (2) fjoj lL^jJJ j ^J^J^ "Zeid struck me. and Zeid struck you. as though the speaker were mentioning in passing as a reason for the action described by the second. in all such cases to adopt the usual order of words." . EXCEPTION. The words used is in Arabic to imply exception . a. are— 1l which \ls. a particle ^ and o>~!. as " he struck me — so I struck Zeid. .^* ^ j^j ^^li EXCEPTION. and I struck j*jj This seems a mere ellipse of the agent in the it verb. last rule. however. '^ and ibt GoTi the cognate verbs.. say.

" Otherwise 's^j 1]^ it is j*'\i put in simple apposition with the noun. and follows the .' Jkj ." i^\jj^ (*y^V '" passed by the people except Zeid. -»£ Jks- b c:j ^. i\i\jJ: iX>"l ^Ip." . " I passed by but Zeid. if the preceding clause fjoj i\^ is neither negative nor interrogative." If the noun to which exception is ^\ made be understood. Oy' *1 -a lt-oK t« 9 t/^-* ^ 4ij^ ^\ <-::^jj^ U 2. place the thing excepted in a state of construction. as j*j£1T11j " the people use— except Zeid. Zeid..L* No one came except Zeid. is the noun excepted and following put in the case in which such noun would have been.'* r^i and ^ij-^ • ^ and t^j-j. but^i is declined.' ' 2G6 ARABIC GRAMMAR. ^1 .'* . "i] takes the objective case. same rules ^}\ as those given for the noun following ^ as j^ (*y^^ (*^ '— -i. as Jo-t U "no one rose but Zeid.l/'* -^^^ people rose except Zeid. as •TO'' tfi ^ -^ X jjj 1'!^ ^['i L« There rose not save I saw but Zeid. being nouns.t U I passed by one but Zeid where it is either declined or not." where it is put in the accusative. to 1. ^y^ is indeclinable.'* Iaj. <\>\j^ 5^^ \^ ' None came but Zeid.

fi. as J^IIjTj^j ^1^ "Zeid the accomplished came. If U H be omitted. -^i Li-^'^ t* vx ^ O'' "l saw none but "l Ox X lijjjJc c:-?. and LiU-. may ^\ take either the nominative or i genitive after as ^yj SJ uL^ is ^^\ ^j. they may be construed with the oblique case. 2G7 Zcid.'* U ^ A passed by no one but Zeid. see 207 (121).1. (1G8).. especially Zeid.'* where it is declined. t /-o^ >_jiL] 1 'y m.. X y 3. \s£. y~. \lz and particle iX having for the most part the U prefixed.j is U JL^ ^." it. APPOSITION. are generally construed with the iJ-.wbat \ is beside (or free Jjj Is- U ^Tp^ . and exorcising no p. the second first 1 — But if the first is put in the it case which the declinable." In the jjj ^^ first case Jyj KZ^ "i considered as equivalent to a. but this U--0 is rare.oni) Zeid.'* Jk). and are both in the subjective case with be indeclinable. (jjj \11 U Z^jT^U ^ " The people came except Zcid." . influ- ence on what follows." ) ^i^^. I saw that man." where the noun and qualifying adjective are considered to be in apposition. as would have exhibited had '' been J^ illO j *-^. ArposiTiON.^\ "all the people pleased me. and liilp^.y Ur. "especially. and in the second regarded as the complement of the particle ^ and in a state of construction with it U being pleonastic. objective case. . "Words in apposition are put in the same case.

To this class belong it what we should call ad- jectives. as.: 268 If the ARABIC GRAMMAR. as i^\ passed by a ^J Jj>-^ ^jj"* " •'' man whose father is generous. but tlie cannot be too strongly impressed upon that there is student's mind no such thing in Arabic : as an abstract adjective. (113) 2. 3. Thus in the expression 1)^ Jp-J "a generous man. ^i ^^_ "^jj* "I passed by a generous man. toQTwil^r. by ! a vocative particle. strictly literal translation will therefore The be "a man. ^* (Jlial Ik-^y Simple Apposition. 1.^i does not signify "gener- ous" in the abstract." or to some- thing connected with the noun. Corroboration." rather than of "the concord of adjectives and substantives. Explanatory Apposition. much as The Descriptive either applies to the noun itself. 4." the word l. five kinds of apposition lil-otj Description." of what kind the context must define. noun has lost its case-ending accidentally. but rather means a " generous being. jjJ Substitution. it for instance. 199." This will explain how is that we speak of "apposition. (169). and which would lead misconception. a it generous one." a phrase which could have to no meaning in Arabic. see p. may take either '' — or — . as 1^1 jt ^^J>^\ j^j Ij "Oh Zeid the generous There are 1." . DESCRIPTIOIf. 2.

•' H handsome. The Descriptive must "be A derived form. as s S . A a sentence consisting of subject and predicate may stand for the descriptive. (170). possession JU i ^^U ^\ ^j as J-=r^ cu^ <-^^f* "I passed by a man 4..." j^ jojj ^^^jy* "I passed by (thisj 3. A demonstrative pronoun." Or consisting of a j^assed verb and a its object." ^*^{ u^?." from . as though had ^ J prefixed see p.APPOsiTiox. 2G9 NATUEE OF THE DESCPJPTIYE. it must be limited to one individual. A noun introduced by some other noun implying as. as in . 1 2. as Zeid here. 9 ^oS j-iil more accomplished. 1. as "^^ VS\ Ji-j ^f^ "I "I passed by man (whose) man who father as is standing. the foregoing example. the possessor of property. "I passed by a man The noun thus qualified must be expressed and if it be indefinite. The verbal noun is sometimes used as a descriptive. J^l ^^^' J4>? ^^* loves knowledge." . and be masculine. 208 (123)." and it must stand by . of Beyrout. ^ ^ from c_^." but this is for itself c^i "a possessor of justice.o." from ^y^." A relative noun. as a just Jj^ jlc Jj^jj lI:"^ "I passed by man.

as came. or daughters are —accomplished. its 1 So too an adverb or a preposition and jijj\ case.L?li ^'^:>'j '^^^^i}) I sa^ two accomplished men.^t>—0 % 99^1^"^ 9^ 9 <i-*0 _^ " The man came whose daughter is— or whose two. it the descriptive applies to something connected it with the noun. and in taking the article or not. see p. or parents • —accomplished.^ "l passed by an accomplished woman. the descriptive in these and in similar examples sidered in every (138). as i^\A ^\y ^\ ijbT ^ J=r-^ ^y* In is "I passed by a man whose way parents are generous. (171). as the case ••C-O P 3? may be. it When the it descriptive applies to the noun itself. follows in gender. follows the preceding article." CONCORDANCE OE THE DESCRIPTIVE AND THE NOUN." When and case. given for the concord of the verb and agent. as 178 " The man came whose father are is — or whose two ^0. 228 .^0 9 parents." In these cases the singular or the broken plural may be used at pleasure. and case. as or ^y (Jjjc^ Jsr^j ^^'\ 1 iiive a man with you" " in the house. according to the rules p. see (100). noun in number and in taking the agrees with what but in gender and person follows.270 ARABIC GRAMMAR.'^ (J^liJl J^J^ ^^^ The accomplished man j^-. con- equivalent to a verb. number." short." iLLjli i'^j^l) cl-?." 99 y^ % 9 ^.

as jjj J \jt in its detached shape. as '- J CS-^ '—"Vr* Passed by thee and by Zeid. with its noun.t J 1^^ J^ ^ " The property is between me and thee.. they must agree in tense." cLC." —Kor. Simple apposition of two kinds. SIMPLE APPOSITION. is (172).APPOSITION. The first is when two words by a simjDle conjunction. grammatical are joined and logical. . the second may be a verb.'* Jkxiij _j ^yi) rises and sits. as to-day. 271 2." If the first it word be a pronoun forming part of a must be repeated "Zeid and I verbal form." unless a word intervene." If the first IJj ^^r^^ <^:. I and it Zeid). fJi O y\^^^i^9yt^ ^^^\ c_^Jjij ^^ "Whosoever gets up and goes I will honour him. ^[^^ *Ji_j Zeid and llmr came to me. And by ing. the cavah-y making incursions on the enemy in the morn- and raising up dust therein. as ." If the first of two words so joined be a participle govern- ing a noun like a verb. came. c. I i-i:_Jj^ came in (lit. as lAxs J aUj He He rose and sat. as j!r^ i 9 i^ ^j . ^. which case need not be so repeated.O must be repeated. the preposition 0>.^3 "I and Zeid went word be a preposition." If the words thus connected are both verbs. 3-4.

" ^j^ "even to." S j^j A:^ . even i'LluJl i_5^^^^ r^"^^ "The i*'^^ pilgrims arrived.! as ^^ J. Zeid or *Amr with you ? " "j." <_J "and." implying sequence or consequence. noun may have a noun as in the verse Oh ! many a fair one of the tribe of el-Awdhij.V 5j i^2J "is ^ either 1' "either. asJ^jSjj as *'Zeidand'Amr. PARTICLES EMPLOYED (173)." " not.' 'Lj)." series. as ^^X« 1) ilj "then." implying limited progression. mother of a boy who has crawled and is beginning to walk." where ll^ ji is equivalent to a participle. tion J IN" FORMING THE APPOSITION." implying simple disjunction.^jwU^ CIjU "The people died." as l^^r U^_j lyii U]^ ^^lo-j "and he learned law or grammar. as to the Prophets." implying progressive ^Xc 11 j^j 'A^ "Zeid came and then Amr." implying simple conjunction. The particles employed in forming the apposi- are— "and.M y^^>. as^J^l "Zeid or 'Amr came." jT "or. even to those walking on foot. Similarly a verb used as a in apposition with it." implying simple negation." Ji j^J i^. as jjil "Zeid came —not 'Amr. A^ "Zeid rose and 'Amr. "or" (after "whether").— 272 ARABIC GRAMMAR.

the initiative ^^'J '^\ cannot be repeated without verily Zeid " [not l^j J^ noun.APPOSITION OF CORROBORATION.'»-c (j^ . as lUs s{j lUi juj is standing. (174). too." 3.0 xj Yes." it be required to repeat the affixed pronoun.j A ^p. It may.:j- "but. be repeated separately in its nominative form." "or rather. however. 18 .-j>- Yes. The corroborative apposition takes place either (2) m (1) the words.. by thee" [not tlX^. as lI^I tl^ ^X'* " ^ passed by thee—thee. came to me. k^Jj to me. the word to which it is affixed must also be repeated. simjDle repetition by way J^l:?- of emphasising the Zeid." alternative. as 4X-01 ci^J jk^ ^l:»^ X ^ . Zeid word as ^\ JkJj <ro^ so-^ A. as u[ ^^'. struck.." its So. but Amr did not o ^ o 50^ jJJjj^x ijSj ^\ ^*Ip- L# Zeid came not to me. to 273 Jj j^J j^b as^^ "Zeid came me —nay rather *Amr."Zeid came come." as J ff ^^.. or the sense. *. but Amr ha3 come. The first consists of itself. as clio ulio i^jj^ "I passed by thee. a lion came." iTo^ ^ ^ ^ fcXjj ^j^^ *xj Zeid sat.' (J^U. CORROBORATION. <-r^/* '"-^ ^^^*^ struck. yes ! Or it is the use of synonyms. Zeid standing.^ A lion. ''nay. sat down." y ^ ^f^ IP i^rsT C/^ •l. certainly Or "Zeid If it is is the repetition of a clause. ! .

-«Jj\ L:j?"^V^ J "'^^ Zeids themselves FEMININE. x^ o X »ro L ^. ] The Hinds themselves ." i^ CLJ y* I passed by. as 1 Ox X Jl ^-^{. \^\^ after the particle of restriction Uj5_. ^. as J^sS agrees in number with MASCULINE. by the words or "essence.r^ »Ji) "Thou hast struck me — me. him —him.xj'y'oi . etc." jjuli "self" or "soul." " they — all of like. tlie If the pronoun be inseparable from position. am he who provides them with livelihood. and who defends their and none but I or the like of me protect their honour. 274 ARABIC GRAMMAR. X verb or pre- it L -t must be repeated '^ in its detached form. " i1 UT i_S^. as Ol *^ "no one got up but me." it In one case a verb in the third person singular has the corroborative detached pronoun following first in the person." L5 I rights." and "eye" with the affixed pronouns. which are expressed its in Arabic as follows my our —your—them — — thy—him—her— — are rendered j^^i self selves.' By the " apposition of corroboration" which takes place is in the sense meant such expressions them. the noun..*» "mi Thou hast struck 1. A^JiJ J^ij \ f i Zeid himself .1 — thou..xo^-o jo'^Vj-^^ ~x UL-gM f carne to Lsi^^ '^^^ ^^^ Zeids themselves me. namely.ej jc^ ^ ^ Hind c:^^^- herself U^^ijl lO^*^^ ^^Ijj^ c:-j\j>i^l The two Hinds themselves > came." and the : as "he himself.

or by the word %^. both of them." ^in 'propria i^^^ lu\s:^^ '* We may also say a^A-^ persona^ ' as A^ssj sjj A:>- 'Zeid came in propria persona^'' and so on.-:di ^jjM^b ^-^jj^ '^I possed by the two women. both of thoni. The HinJs themselves." If or ^ it be necessary to repeat the pronoun affixed to "self. as is -^ "he y a thoroughly learned man.^\ "altogether. as j^A--c ^^JwS-Il ' The Zeids themselves. and placed tiX>." it ^^." = "all. 275 "J^ used in the singular only.uiij l::^! l::-^ -J as thyself didst strike.") I % ^ o -^ o—o ^ji*." " ^^)>^}\ •*^" The two men came." by the dual word ^K. ^^^ U>i>iii j*^iJ ^\:>- "The people came.L' is to be repeated in the nominative first." is etc." employed separately. "both of them." are used in almost the same manner Arabic as in English." Thou ^J«-c ^ = '-r-N-a He := himself struck.l3* =" selves..-^'! 7--^^' ^ c:-^-^ '^ met the army all-together. . HOW EXPRESSED." J«.' "SELFj" "selves. all of them." '*-^^\ in" " altogether. ^•:^^^ construed in the same manner as -"ll. is "All of them" "all. as \ fern." (The word '^ Jl2T(2!S 1J'^'^>^ ^ ^ kj is often used to express thoroughness. In short the words J^IJ Ji " self." y t^ % ^LjT ^ ^ ^^A-zsA ^^z J And on his family altogether. detached form." l/i.^^." expressed either by the word Ji with the affixed pronoun and agreeing with the noun in gender and number.

is (175). your brother.. of four kinds Simple substitution of one word for another conit formable to in meaning. one of them over another.: — 276 ARABIC UEAMMAR. as fvjj tl/»k1 ^X^ "Zeid.." loaf it — half of it — most of word Substitution of a or phrase to correct a state- ment respecting is a person or thing." To those prophets have ^ ^ V -i-^? ^Lc ^^xj j»-a>uLij J-j^^ lL$3j we given pre-emmence. enemies to each other." 4.:^- _ (Ui^ Juj I like Zeid Pyox oS >'pxx i. as O'- two parties o ? . larly Explanatory apposition defines more particu- something that has gone before." 6. as a third of 3. as 9 P9(^ SOX xxoS i^i-js-1 X 9 <t«K _ tU." — his knowledge —beauty etc." garment. This 1. (176)." are expressed "Each "a mntual by J^j to the portion." 2.rjl c:^\ "I eat the it. came. *yiil ^^ doi^J^l ailj c_r_. Substitution of a word or phrase to correct a lapsus Unffitcv. or a statement erroneously reflection. ijy j\ ^ji i^jj L-^]^ Zeid was plundered— his mare — his 4.jj^Jj made through want of " I rode the horse the — she-camel.ox — speech. as ." repeated for each of the action.^. and to imply that it not the person himself or thing it itself." ''one another. as tjU\ iJJj^jT . but something connected wdth him or 9 9 ^^ PP (^ which ' is meant. and /X^OS oS jJx imply that a part only was X -Si-O / o OS yxoy CxS meant. other. APPOSITION OF SUBSTITUTION.> o^ p o Ox ^_/i*j jkX£ t/^iv XX CPx^^xOi? xo (*-^*^'V wi '5~^1 X (^ Go down. EXPLANATORY APPOSITION. Substitution to correct a statement respecting the to whole of a thing.

(11) in apposition may ' be pointed with dlmmmah or fethaJi^ as *^ cJi "^I) ^ ! Zeid.5). but there are • See p. ^^ ^. 277 Si\ (JJ^-o-l^ "^Xs^ •v • ' Your friend Zeid came.*^"* I) "Oh! ilohammed." 'Hi tJ-^^ '-r'j^^ ^^ "I am the beater of the man —seep. may be put either in the subjective or objective unless it be followed by another noun in a state of conit. (*rr^l/l V. as l^li ijj tUi many forms of expressing admiration God bless him^ for a horseman " ! = " what a fine horseman!" b)|^ bb^j J ^^." ^\ J-U. struction with objective." In these two examples the word "Zeid" in explanatory apposition. p. . 194. There are in Arabic. vocative. said to be ^^CjT^ji^. end of note 2. and consequently lose the noun to which either it is see p. °^^^» s*^^ of ™y brother. ADMIRATION. 60. the intelligent." the word occur between its alif^ two proper -3.— If ^^J V." ^ JiWl Sij b Zeid. is Zeid.. • the friend of God. (177). "Oh! • the Prophet.' " APPOSITIOX OF VOCATIVES. 202 (116)." 154-^ c^^ iV^o^fe. ADMIRATION. names." 9 See note. as ^ in which case it must be put in the " -W j. the son of Amr. 12. A noun (substantive or adjective) in apposition to a . "0^ Abraham.^luJ Ulj " Bravo ! Selma ! bravo ! bravo ! Such as these are of course irregular.

*u»-\ /'I <1L' How <« handsome noble he is Zeid !" *. and cannot occur in any other position in the sentence. her tears pour down. J^] U takes the accusative of the thing admired. The thing if it adaiired need not be expressed with J. being sufficiently The complement may be a ^t or U. although not expressed.. weeping for Amr.i\ How is " ! The thing admired must immediately J«t follow the forms U and J Jjtj!. . my two ! friends. and how patient she used to be!" where ]^--sl ^^li I* ^ stands for U^l ^l^ la U ^ .^] l« be already sufEciently obvious from the context.« Jxi\. how fit is it for a man of intellect that he should seem patient " etc. as ^^fj'*^ <Ufcu5^^ ]jj\ ^ U« "How How handsome is Zeid!" is handsome he !" (2) J Jjet governs the thing admired in the genitive c_. as proposition introduced by "Oh.. (1) (i) Joef U. in this case the pronoun obvious. and (2) . viz. two forms which may be derived regularly from any verb. as "l see Umm Amr..278 ARABIC GRAMALVR. the thing admired. as by the preposition jjjj .

l^t for Zeid. as .: 279 SECTION III. 16G (87). PAETICLES. iL'iil f. viz.iiLu." etc.^jS SjJ A^ ^' "if Zeid had come.' . s^j ut lit. as cJ u-*:'"? ^ ' Is it dlhs (syrup of raisias) in the vessel or ^ yO " '' honey?" the iar or in the t--o s- \'1\ J *\ (.e. there are it some others \Yhich will be necessary to indicate. and followed by J in the complement. after the formal exordium." see p." i. 1 interrogative. as 'icl. I would have honoured him. (he is) going This last is chiefly used to introduce a subject.O<Ljl^l Jl "is your dihs in leathern bottle?" Ji> asks a du-ect question." as Jll^." '^ "as for. "after praising God.%j C\ "as away. as ' ft ' jjj aUs^ Did Zeid stand up?" Is Zeid standing ?" o-fc li ' Jl. as in the phrase with which. In addition to the particles already treated of in the course of this work.i When J^ji OS an alternative follows. "as for after.\ it is introduced by ^*^. Of these the following are the most important used in conditional sentences. — THE P ARTICLES AXD IXDE- CLIXABLE WOEDS. (178). and is never hsed in alterna- tive questions. most books commence.

" on formally taking leave of any one. to ^ ^1 "yes!" <)J3^. as liyj) U *^ ]I \ "Ho! that one there. having neglected it." 280 S'-'' ARABIC GEAMMAR. CERTAIN ADVERBS OF TIME AND PLACE. by God I'M last are also The two course Ij> . commonly used for 1 Id Egypt \^i\ is is ^ \ "yes!" and in Syria and els^vrtere is ^\ frequently prefixed to Jo r . >*3 J. Yes. when used with \j the past tense.J& gives '\^\ a future sense." rogatives or oaths. the detached form of the pronoun often intervenes. yes." Oh. used in solemnly opening a petition. Is not?" (before an oath)." ^b -c?- ^\ "Yes" —used only with inter^_f ^ ui ^T t*l "Yerily. as equivalent our "farewell. dis- V\ is also employed in making a " Hulloa !" When this is used with the demonstra- tive pronoun 1J. thus. ^^A is an interrogative of place. 'Yes. especially by Turks. certainly!'* "Yes. a aUIj (< "is not? "(before a vocative). . tl4^ signifies "where." are used with the future tense to excite or encourage to the performance of an action . ^ •' o J-fe Jjj *Si " Did Zeid stand up?" JU »-4X Jji " Is Amr standing it ? If used with the aorist. ' ^J^ * also used." Just so." \3 L^J^ li "Ho! you there. . they imply blame or reproach for Q (179)." and is generally joined to a sentence.

" refers to past time." used with a negative. and may have either a nominal or a verbal sentence for their complement.xed — ^jJ governs it noun in the genitive. which governs in the accusative. declinable as an ordinary noun." .] .. it is (all three terminations being recognized) signifies ^'everj" it is it used with the negative. refers to future time even when joined with the preterite tense.jJ ^jJ becomes \_Kote." interrogative or conditional. as . with the sole ex- ception of ij^. "how." \d\ "when. ^-jO with the its aflB. as ^." "when. and refers to future If be placed in construction with another word." requires a complement. is is is ^\ "where?" ^^bt i.j^\^\ shall be "when you II^ are. ." ^Ic time.? ^ ^.^lil j^y: "for ever and ever. as ^^-." ilVJ "on that day.jj^\ "yesterday." . but the adverbial accusative of the noun (ij^ ^2. interrogative or conditional. ." refers to present time." but in construction it means any day that it is is past. or ul "when. bj "at all. "when. 281 ^jJ or tjjJ signifies ''near" = jc^." it jlJ^ and j^* = j|^ ^j^ "since. This is not properly speaking a particle. CERTAIN ADVERBS OF TIME c c AJs^D PLACE. pronoim. he rose. If it is with any other word. as ^." with the t-i-^:o>- article. as Lj U " I have not seen him at all." ^il "now. declined.'-< interrogative or conditional. as ^jtjuli "and when «i\ I saw him. and referring to c'<^\j past time.T "time." cJ^J j| "then (when was so)" ^r:^ "then.

^\ u\. ji with the aorist expresses hope. t^j and X^U P^jy /••. " a liar will speak it it is used ironically. "thisis ''asjad. I suppose. being the more em- phatic of the two.s. o ^ i^llaLJ^ ^\i\ ci-^-S" ""Where the Sultan stay. as r»^^\ <~^lj •J»J The Erair is mounted" (said to people who are expecting his coming). or makes an assertion.» ^ imitate the construction of JU as (^ P 9 ^ ^ $ «0 P ^(^'- ^ \ i^ju5 ^-jjl^n f-AX> JJi "This is the day when their sincerity shall profit the sincere." With the preterite implies the accomplishment of an expected action." who tells "certainly not.e." stays. j^\ 9^9 Sij j\ ^g)\ ^\s>9 i^ "My father came when Zeid was Emir. ." I^Sl:." is used especially to introduce a comment t_.ja j nponor explanation of a difficult word. there will I Note." J^ and lJ*!: are used with the aorist of verbs i_jj-o to im- part a distinctly future sense. Jjj ^ lj>- Zeid came — he was riding too. it may be in English is by " I suppose." y j^s." said to one you to do a thing.^ li-J1 (^. e. j^j^o-.g." ^ ^ijjl>- ^^ Since the day he spoke to me.:j^ ^ O^ /»»j fc ""When she came to her house. as ^^d^\ j^^.." as^lU«J ^ j*juj rendered " the traveller ji approaching. "l sat where you are f ^^ o -o X y'i." Like its English equivalent.282 S S £ 0-' O AEABIC GEAMMAE. L-^ is" ji. jJj the truth. jJj J^ S^ ^ ^\ (-I-jL* "My father died i^-v^Jj^ P when Omar was born. i."^**^ 1 jj& gold." j^ ''that is. — jijj." i/yuJU" u::^! p o ^5 \ '-^-^:r*" -J. I suppose." sitting.

as with \ in such sentences as U. . 2G.. neither we nor our U in conditional sentences (see p. see p. U^ "like what" whilst. after ^. : INDECLINABLE WORDS. U after '^^ and ^^^ in which case it does them from governing the genitive as before. '^S U " Zeid is not standing. (180).: .e.uT L . . Indeclinable words. 175). The preterite and imperative of verbs (see p. as IjIj jj^. note the pronominal prefixes and affixes being considered as separate words). not prevent U U word \\ after cl^j." after that " when "when?" Zeid went we went.] after the negative U.sr L^".-!! U "we have fathers." whenever. (181). so used. are the following Particles. — In U-uS it is and Uii U and the to which joined should always be written as one word." J "to" S is sometimes. The aorist when followed by the energetic ^ or ^." the \_Note." = " as." l^^ as ll^ ITj ^<^ ^ ^' INDECLINABLE WORDS. as 197 (HI).." never been polytheists. Pleonastic particles are ^-j after JyTi "it is not. 254.j "that. those ivliicli do not cliange their terminations to indicate the different cases. though rarely. 2S3 PLEONASTIC PARTICLES. i." see p.

2. Compound <-ibljl-^ expressions. Certain adverbs of time and place. The relative pronouns ^ and U. ^ ^^ • O'' i^\j!:l\ '' 1 JJi This wine is middling. 231 (139). COMFOtrifD EXPRESSIONS. the above. is however an exception. or metonyms. y y ^ "i- ^' jlL£.'^ I JLs. which have been already described. 158). see p. The demonstrative pronouns. Ss-\ (»::-y.-L-s' — = ) evening. Jk5». . 2." evening. as ^Uu. the first portion being declined as an ordinary dual noun (see p. The compound numerals from 11 '' '' to 19.^ ^^'1 so comes to me morning and i^AjM^ ^\s>^\^ * U." y ox S ^9 . ujj^ compound are pointed with fethah jLs. (182). Nouns which serve In addition to as verbs. is my next door neighbour" house liouse=liouse to house). when joined to the affixed pronoun of the person.— 284 All nouns. Compound adverbs fV^ i«^V. 3. there are 1." jjortions of the t^ j^nout. Interjections. 1." yis."Eleven "l saw came. i^sA ^U. 1.lj '-^jj^ 'l passed by eleven.::^^ i-^W" U^ So and so ijiit. cJ^ ) of time ^° and place. first AEABIC GRAMMAE.K eleven.

J:^ "how many?" is This construed either with the adverbial accusative. 220).'^ ^'^^ he suffer How many Ah ! griefs that the physician cannot heal does would that my saying 'how many/ could express it!" 4." J Si. the latter is always in the accusative. as ^z^ ^ u:-^^^\ Lii-vO i. \^ "so and so. JclS "how many !" The generally a sentence. ^ J^^ i^V ^^^"^ ^ c." which always take the accusative. as IS-I ^J |i!^ "How many slaves have I?" predicate of this is 3. or with the genitive. with or without ^^^ *Jk^L> aS > How many dirhemsi*" C^'j^ cry r^ ' If it is separated from the noun to which it refers. These are So and so. in- declinable. as in the verse i'^j ^^y" ^^. 285 is 3. The first portion of compound proper names (see p. / These are used with or without the conjunction j.. (183).» ^^« <y ^_^li The affair was so and so." also repeated with or without the conjunc- may be . tl>3^ Cl^blii METOXTMS.:^. ! cL'bll^ METONYMS. as i^y^jJ^^ s 2." "so many.::-Jj I said to him so 2." ^ o < ^ o '. as Uijj \j>^ ^'^ "I tiave such and such a number It of dirhems." and so.

l^J Ijo ^ \'6^ ^ Ijo U\i u." 3. ADTEKBS OP TIME ANB PLACE. as AEABIC GEAMMAR. Some indeclinable adverbs of place may be used absolutely without a governed noun. (184). They are before .— 286 tion. and are then pointed with jjjj — dhammah.^* "I liad so many dirhems.

they are all what we should abstract ideas. The following to 1. in analyzing the sentence ^^J^ "^{j A^ "Zeid the generous came. that the verb sl:>-. \ ^^. But we discard our preconceived notions as to the concord of substantive and adjective. If of we analyze Arabic sentences by the rules shall find European syntax. is directed. as in Euro- pean languages. 1y)\ is the nominative or agent to is and that ^J^\ an adjective agreeing with jkJj. I should prefer to say that the true explana- tion is *l=j- He came" I (the agent he being contained in the word ^l>-). (also in apposition with the agent or 4. 2." . Arabic nouns are call all concrete] that is.— SUililARY OF THE PIIINCIPLES OF THE SYNTAX. (185). as Js^cL-l^ "the book of the man. and look at the question from an Arabic point of view. which their real agent. we if them full of anomalies. Juj mean Zeid " (Zeid being the name of the agent J-c uJ and therefore in apposition with it). and do not express The verbs contain is a pronoun inherent in the form. 287 SU^MAEY OF THE PRINCIPLES OF ARABIC SYNTAX. >jiJ 1 The generous one" with the name). we shall find them consistent and logical." rather than say. \ Consequently. verbs. 3. etc. One noun may define or determine another. nominative case and verb. are the principal points of Arabic syntax. such is a state of dependence indicated by the dependent case.. which the attention of the student Sentences are composed of nouns. substantives. and particles.

must be an object on which the action as \ja1 juJ «_Jli " Zeid struck 'Amr. place the so-called agent But also if the verb is active or transitive. indefinite The tenwin." Both subject a7id predicate are put in the subjective case with dhammah.. except be a proper name." . as jjj IIj "Zeid rose hastily.u*^ to the state or condition of the agent. PREDICATE. The agent "he" being contained in and the name of such agent being subsequently for the sake of clearness.. the pronoun used to supply its place. the thing about which we as are going and some statement concerning SUBJECT. it." is generally omitted. there falls. by the addition of the article. The simple if logical copula "z5. as CJj^ '*Zcid struck." The If object is put in the objective case with fethah. as ^jT^y* ixj "Zeid he (is) standing. connected with that which immediately follows 5. JiXi jjj Zeid (is) standing. nature of a noun is expressed by The and. of a subject and predicate." The ooj predicate may consist of or contain a verb." ^^Zeid.''^ namely the verb. stand by itself. if definite nature of a it noun by the it loss of the tenwin . it. is to mentioned hence it follows that the natural order of words after the verb. A sentence naturally consists is. The absence noun. unless it of both temvln and article is shows that the be a proper name. further explanation may be needed as \l.^^ This is properly ^^ He struck. is emphasis be required.288 ARABIC GEAMMAE. that to speak. it is neuter or intransitive.

as dition — is clear that by the such state must be expressed by the objective U. however.-. case. is 289 always expressed Vy the ohjective I have said that both subject and predicate are put '' in the direct case. putting the subject in the objective case. in bis condition of Zeid iJie tise of the ohjective case). as in the sentence Zeid (is) stand- ing.— SUMMARY OF THE PIUNCIPLES OF THE SYNTAX." i. and the predicate in the nominative. like. 19 . Some ^'^^^ ^^^ are exactly the reverse of ^^^ see p. my subject." Here the predicate is introduced by a second or subordinate initial particle J." "Ci X S^^ Jl. ^ ILL:>- iLs " Zeid became a tailor. The explana- tion of this seems to be ^ IjkjJ I am going to speak of Zeid. State or condition case. thus lUl) \sij is ^J\^ "verily." Hence the rule that ^JS and similar verbs put the predi- cate in the ohjective case. we wish to express existence in a state ofis. the fact of becoming^ that it of assuming a certain conrule above given. — or. and is tlierefore properly put in tbe nominative). Particles modify the sentence by extending few. form the predicate. 6. or re- stricting the action of the verb. *juJ Well a — (J) be new is standing'' (wbicb last becomes. If. as it sverc.e. Zeid standing." in which tlie logical copula "is.5li S}\ (^li if- Zeid was standing." and 'a noun or a verb with its true inherent pronominal nominative. {ivhence qud. predicate. ^j. 248 (154).

290 These are ARABIC GRAMMAR. the principal points which the student these. siich as the to Ajrumiyeh. Having mastered and made himself familiar with the further details given in the course of the work. should bear in mind. This he will be able do Avithout difficulty with the help of the Glossary of technical terms at the end of this book I i . he should study some easy native oi-ammai-.

consist of "feet." the second the or "hind-part." y«-O^ ^rA^ or "^ house of hair The parts of the^-i-l •JJ'J or l::^-j verse" are named after those of tlie^ii. SECTIO]^ I. the word ^'j^ signifying a "pattern" or "standard of comparison." called ^'\y>A ^) "portions" when spoken of as integral parts ." 9 "a house of "a tent." thus: —Each of the two is hemistichs of which the d^ Jjs-^ is composed called a c\^^ "one of the two of the tent. since enables him to correct the errors of copyists and printers. ^^^^- tween "a verse of poetry." It is also called J-U:^l *bj from the name of the inventor of the system.—THE METEE.291 PAET III. to understand passages which would be otherwise obscure. and. in this way. NO:\IEXCLATUEE. (187). The Arabs have instituted a fiinciful comparison beliJ-j {lit." flaps which form the folding-door is The first of these called the Jl^ or "fore-part." Each of the ^l^^J^ (sing. A knowledge of Prosody it is absolutely necessary to the student of Arabic." ^X^ poetry") and (cloth).-PROSODY. "tent. (186). The technical name for prosody is i^*y^\ ^l^.

e. not. is called I^^ "fragment. the foot of the second all 9)^^ is called the ^Tjcj[ "be- ginning. are called J-^ll5 (sing. t^-j. i. The the first two hemistichs ^s\pi^ rhyme together. "representing the measure by parts of the root J*j " (see p. The elements of which the feet are composed are syllables." but in its primary signification is means ''extent" or "space. its resolution into the constituent feet J-^l^'. ." ELEMENTS OF WHICH THE FEET ARE COMPOSED. The two rhyming hemistichs with which the poem commences are called the ^Ll." the general term JA^ The metres means are called J^=r (singular J^r). or "tent." and determines to what sub- division of a particular metre the verse belongs. (188). 19)." and applied to the "space" covered by theyti. cbl-jT). The scansion of a verse." A complete poem in Arabic is called Is^i ." .292 of the Terse . or "class. merely long and short . J^*/^. This word it ''sea. as in Latin prosody. pi. ARABIC GRAMMAR. but when spoken of in the abstract they ^xki)." and the remaining parts are included in "stufiing. called ^^^ "cutting up. as it is the last foot of the second '^j^ called the lIj^. The opening first foot of the verse is called the jl^ .e.^ "exordium." A poem without a ^LLiL* and consisting of only a few verses. but certain rhythmical sounds or notes namely. The last foot of the first ^Vj^ is called the determines the metre . is i. and is same rhyme repeated at the end of every second hemistich throughout the poem. it should contain not less than thirteen or more than one hundred and twenty distichs (i^-^.

QUAXTITT. 293 .

\ of Ij't ''I. a certain number of feet are constructed which are called ^^J^. ARABIC GRAMMAR. ^xil. i = ys. NORMAL fi:kt. the \^ of which. 19). **^XJ^ /J^^ ^ c/^ J^x« \ c •'-ST* jjj + ^j^^ O-oli •ifi^ J^Ji + j^Lfi^Aii- .«j&. 2 always tvritten in noting the scansion of a Terse. (^j and are pronounced before a hemzet el-wasl. also This may be written . 4. THE NORMAL FEET. with which j*^.jlcll. re^^resented They consist of combinations of the elements by a word of the same measui-e formed from the root JjJ (see p. is of the affixed pronoun long.U->*J ^ The termination ^^ is represents the tenwin. y . Jj^ so too the — . *. The The .^ s P(jy S-'-' C/ S-- • • L/» S^ -' > o ^ S yy ??'*-?'* '^!^ "*" oy o^ o .Lili^ OP S P '^ ' S'^ i^ p y ^ si/ . OF WHAT COMPOSED. etc.^. or standards. ARABIC SYMBOLS. (190). From the elements above spoken of. LATIN SYMBOLS.> •• y ^ y . /^ S 9 O ^ S ' — + c^ . tliiis — or — ^\=^J. *j. is long=j. and regarded P o as if composed of the following elements : ." is sliort.^ 294 3. as is explained further on.

-* c^' .:. which I will give and explain in detail. if instead of beginning ujion element we begin upon element 2. 9 • 8 7 6 3 2 1 o -^ o • o ^^ c. it is The elements 10 which composed are 4 1 ^' • O'^ Kow 10 if these be divided into feet thus. in all of which the number and con- secutive arrangement of the elements are the same a . viz." be- cause it is composed of of 9 7 feet of various lengths. THE FIRST CIRCLE (192). (191). wq shall have a different effect produced.^ cJ' uA^^ we have down the first c/>XJ metre of the circle. In order to exhibit this corre- spondence. of the measure formed from the root J*j !N'ow. thus . the being for obtained by beginning on different element each metre. They are fifteen in number. 295 THE CIRCLES. the Arab prosodians write these groups in five circles.. although the consecutive arrangement remains the same. J.r^ ^ ^J e. each containing a certain number variety of metres.. The first circle is called UL. The various metres j^ used by the Arab poets consist of combinations of the eight feet described in the hist table.yL The same i. but divide them- selves naturally into five groups.-' u.^^\ 'S^aricd. second line being obtained by following out the rule laid of representing each foot by a word .— THE FIRST CIRCLE.

» O ox o y cr-: X>JkAW. viz. .* ^>X*-11 -' LaaJ (<J'J^ (J^^ O ^ O-O i X -Ji («_>«i^ ^^ ^ t. commencing . the point at which each metre begins . 10 9 O XX o ^ 6 O XX 4 3 2 ^j ^:o ^j O ^ x X o >> X O >> X ^ cy wliich is i-^ii the second metre of the 4. diaj^jram of the circle exhibits all the have pointed out in connexion with this part of my subject. at the we have . a verse in recalls word J^l. jua^U Again.'l( c. The two outer circles contain the memoria technica verse.Uli liA*^ / xo X \ which is the third metre of the first circle. with ^J^ which j^._ ' X ^^ X By commencing ).>a^5^ a verse is obtained in for l^-^jf. which suggests that measure.: 296 I ARABIC GRAMMAR. 12--«a-1 . Thus we obtain the three metres they are usually represented of the first circle as ^ xO X o^ X o? oxo*' o^ X oy oxo^ The following for the circle verse will serve as a memoria technica XX O-O ? O X <> c o S J»x«U L->w« jj »_**«. 9 circle.jjy(. all the metre of SixiA) and similarly with ]=Lj the verse affording a complete specimen of three metres with a rhyme for each. The facts I followins. beginning on 1 we have 6 3 10 4 C y^ c y O ^ — Ox ox C cT*^ tj^ O ^ X O » ox o . viz.

-j ^^i ^= O^ P ' . . — That in selecting a word as the representative of the elements forming any foot. ^^'j being represented by^. viz. a form must be chosen which actually circle. exists. Note. ^U. consisting of seven letters each. 207 contain The next three inner . circles the conventional feet of each metre the commencements being also noted.reeinir. c-iiii^'^l i("jlj." '05 because all its feet agree in length. J^^xi but when ends it is represented by ^xs. being indicated. it when beginning a foot. because ^w form of the root jJe could end in ^oco-o p> THE SECOND CICRLE (193). ^ O ^o-o ^ y 1st ciecle. * The second circle is called •'•M "ac. This is exhibited very clearly in the The same element the foot ^JJ = ^^^^i.. THE FIEST AND SECOND CIRCLES. J -V b. as ^^. It contains two metres. The t\70 innermost circles contain the Latin symbols and the Arabic elements.

J^^'^-* cA"-?^'* .j!j.'^\ i".: : ^ 298 ARAEIC GRAMMAR. o c ^ oy '"' o c ^ ^Jt^ ^rr^^'^-* . feet are "brought on" from the '' It contains three metres.l_CA^ C-«3 9 ^ f -> •Si o^^-' The feet following diagram explains the formation of the and metres ^occ/-^3 .Lcli^ j^-Jk^li^ ^-ilcU^ The mcmoria techiica for which is : .>y» ^ 2nd circle..»Jl ^"yJ^ii." because circle. THE THIRD CIRCLE (191). t_ilj. ^:xs. J-' P '-^ o P<^-a The third cirelo its is called e^L^-^^i "hrouglit first on. viz. . o/' 9 O? ^ ^9 it P '^ ^ 9 ^^_jll ^u.

9 -Si .« .J_^ . ^ >X^>^'J«<v..w^« 'V^. viz.H^IAi .^V S " ^ Xj^.: THE TniRD AND FOUETH CIECLES.^ fA. \ ijb The fourth circle is called cate. which are six in number." from the intricate nature of its ^^^^i "the intrimetres.. w^i^-/^'^ ^j-^^*^ X O ?0-0 9^ THE FOURTH CIRCLE ^-oA^ (195).^ji^. j^.o..^**''* iX^^UjM^ ^i-Mi..J\ 299 »XX*">.Hieli And tlie mcmoria teclinka is : '^ o •o ^ o^ The following diagram shows the analysis of the cii'cle • X o co-o 9-^ ^ 3kd cikcle..

contains two metres.: : 300 9 ARABIC GRAMMAR... The fifth circle is called ^ii:..-^1 The memoria technica is The following diagram shows the analysis of the circle y O ^JC-O P y <» 4th ciecle.) l \ S"jb. d-^jl^^ '^y}'^- TIIE FIFTH CIRCLE JUX4. viz. xO^ .^^! "harmonious.LilL* j^lxaiijcu-^ i^jixii'j. ij (19G).yL^li:^ ...J^ tli . .u*^ d-?j»." it because its feet all harmonize in length."ii^ .

and ^^i^^^ and thus boiug written in full. ^^^o 301 t_:>^. j\ iJjc^ <L:u£. Note.^\ J_jxi Jy6 Ji^xi CSj\s^\ (or ^i\}\) ^li ^UU ^li ^li is And the memoria technica L5^ jUj ^ ^ jl llii'l. I The being omitted. C -f-^ <!oJ Ajij 9 P Pi^^i^ty ^Ir. the words must be written as they arc pronounced.:iu^^ i'j^j. /.U:. — In representing the scansion of a ^^-zl^-' verso. (197).— THE FIFTH CIRCLE. SCANSION. .^ The following diagram shows the analysis of the circle Si -?i--o py ^ 5rH ciECLE.

^ -^ «iO ^ ^ ^ ^ --o ^ ^S is represented in scansion as follows C G : ox .302 AEABIC GEAMirAE.

l^li^*. which becomes J^(s^. which becomes ci^'lili. as the k of ^Xx-kx. ^^'t ^ quiescent. 297. 303 . then becomes jU^\ is making the second and by letter of a foot quiescent i when it has a vowel.ill. quiescent. the suppression of the second letter of a foot with its vowel. as the of . apply 1. ^Ixi^uy^. we cannot. VAEIATIONS IX THE NORMAL FEET. of ^. and subsequently . which then becomes and is changed by 297. i^l^lxL*^ . Note. Note^ to ^if 'X« or as in .! »_i::Jl. i-j is the suppression of the a foot when . by the the j!aij is 1 rule given in p. as the of the i_s ^ of Ji^xi which becomes ^y^ of a foot or of ^i..^^ as ^" or ^^. when it is which then be- comes i»o-^ and is changed into ^^*lt* fifth letter of ..m. is because.*. although the seventh letter part of a juj. > is the suppression of the fourth letter of a foot quiescent.^l!fi^. •ff-r 297. p. the ^^ to the foot ^'j^^^. which becomes . of a foot. as the ^ of !^5%Ij. Note. the suppression of the seventh letter of a foot is when it quiescent. 297.]!^ll^ lJ^ is by p.jj or "^«/-" nor can we apply the ^^ the foot [Xx^jLl. as the ^ of ^. when this has a vowel.* becoming ^^^JJl^. for instance. part of a to j.^Lili. of ^ILu. ^\J'.lSl or ^'chord. becoming j:Lz\L^^.«. or the ^ in ^.-^ll^.UliL«.^^. t_U^i is making quiescent the I fifth letter (^^yd^ll^. as the ^^. JVofe. as the p. —These modifications can only occur in a i. it is . Note. fifth letter jii is the suppression of the I when it has a vowel. because the second letter is although considered as quiescent. which. which then becomes M*i. into ^rU'X^.

as the suppression of the i ^ of "^J^sLU* l}^^^.. as the addition of ^ to ^j' at the end of which then becomes ^Itlj = ^^Ij^Irl/. as of the ^ by rir. which becomes ^u\s. which becomes ^i£'iL* j->jj.l COlirOTJND DEVIATION". . 297. is adding a quiescent letter to a \y*^ J^j at the end of a foot. is Amongst the former are JJ^ Jjy which adding a ^^sJ>. leaving 297. j^l ^ii^l ^^ . as at the end of a adding ^ to ^Ullu!. The "iSs. rendering the of ^-l^ll* quiescent by <l^z and suppressing the j_^ by (^. = ^. . as . leaving J j_lv* or of the and of ^j%:li leaving JfiiiJ is I the concurrence of ^^ and tla^. ^1^. Note. leaving l::J. or.«. (200). lijtll DEFECT. — 304 ARABIC GEAMMAR.[^ i---uaJ is the addition of a quiescent letter to a i—jiJ^ l1->^ at the end of a foot Jjij^^. by by 1^^-.. . 2. 1}y>. Jl>- is the occurrence in one and the same foot of ^-^^ and ^ . Note. \ the concurrence of the suppression of the ^ of j^] ^Ixu*^ . as ^^ to ^Lcll'.* = ^^xii^ 'Q^ and by (TtJ^. by p.) ^jJJ^) i__Jl?-'-.is and of the by ^.*. p. leaving J-C^ is ^^i'ic. and of the (^ ^ by i^.cl-ll Q^i) to a ^^^-^ foot. the concurrence of :. as the suppres- sion of the of i^UU'U by J^\i and cJc^.'lcU::^.J». {I. consists either in adding to or taking from a foot.^11^ = J-^li.

1* j5\ from the end of a as of foot. at the same time making the preceding letter quiescent . c^^^ jJ. .' from the end of a as of the Jks.L* wliich becomes J^« ^^ is the suppression of the last letter of a ^^^^ jJj at the end of a foot. or similarly in ^ . as of the c-j of tL'Sj^l* which then becomes iljju. or J of % is re- moved) = ijois !J.« = ^<f^^ . . wliich becomes %Ij = ^U Ij. which becomes \kx^ = J^x. . the suppression of the entire foot.— . foot. the end of a foot. t-i-i:^ ^f^ letter at the end of a . which then = jj^tji^* the suppression of one of the two moveable cL-^£j letters of the c^'*"^* j^^ in ^i%lj. as the suppression of ^J from j^^'sS* and making the J jJi is quiescent.^ll^ J quiescent in ^L^U». as the removal of the ^ and making the becomes is j.^'« . VAEIATIOXS IN THE NORMAL FEET. which becomes . as of the ^1 in iji' ^L^'i^ becoming ^^^ = or in ^'ji~^.xji::. which becomes I is the suppression of the last letter of a ^^X^ jJj at . making the remaining quiescent the as the suppression of the ^ and making J. d^i from cu'iJiXt. is suppressing a ^-ii u^ll at the end of a foot. 305 Those foot are <_Jio- wliicli are forraed by taking away from the which is the suppression of a uj:-. 20 . which becomes ^^jUU or ^^f6 (according as the £.i^ C^ ^^ ^^^® end of a ^]y6 LlckJj .i the fu is the suppression of a j/. the foot then becoming ^AL* = the suppression of the second letter of a ^m. from ^^l^ljb^. foot. and making the previous consonant quiescent.* J quiescent in ^UlU^.^.

S ft.and Jl^ in ^J. which lecomes cbi!^-^ = Jy^ • There are some kinds of ilr. the being suppressed by the foot ^Ul^ s -^ ij>. as of the ^^^^s.-^'X-* . as the suppression of the _ .^ L:^- o^ ^Li is the concurrence of Xjk. the foot then becoming = J^ J^. which resemble the elil^j in being used as occasional licences or variations in the feet. ^Lo and 9 of the ^ by .r5 w ^ by uJa^. and is not affected by any "ji» of the other licences or variations. — 306 si» is AEABIC GRAMMAR. making the concurrence of Xp.. and not being permanent changes in the feet con- tinuing through the whole poem. is and the -. at the beginning of a verse. which thus becomes Jj is = ji^xi . more frequently occurs in the beginning of the verse. first letter J is the suppression of the of a ^^•s-'* J^-|^ at it the beginning occurs of a verse. making the = Jj^* • . the same as Vj^ when it occurs in a foot which is perfect in all other respects. ^ iV^ ^'j^ *j^ is the suppression of the first letter i of a j'^i'* of ^jSj--?i. as the c:-? at of c:-'i. Of these are ^i~ which is the addition of one letter to a foot of four letters at the letters at the beginning of a verse . or of one or two It beginning of the second hemistich. jLi . the ^ being suppressed by "^^ and foot J. the making the last letter of a ^*J^ ^j quiescent the end of a foot. when the foot in which is also aff'ected s by the of 9 9 licence called . by j^iiJ . its occurrence at the beginning of the second hemi- stich being rare. ..^A-^li-« .*jl*.and (»_£S in ._^J. .

VAEIATIONS IN THE NORiTAL FEET. leaving ^^J^Ai is the concurrence of first ^^ * . TABLES EEPEESENTIXG THE YAEIATIONS OF THE PRIMITI^TE FEET. ^ 1^ IS the concurrence oi j^^and k«^. and ul'j^ is occasionally so employed in the metre (201). the \ first removing the : * and the second making the ^:iLilj quiescent is the first thus becomes = ^^<tl^ the concurrence of j^^ and (Jlc in ||^^ll<. and L_o m .. 307 at the be- \1J^ is the suppression of the a> of ginning of a verse. the first removing the ^ and the second the 1. Name ' JiM. FIRST FOOT. ^-^J^i'oJ^ : the removing the I the third the ^ and the second making the quiescentj the foot then becomes J is sometimes thus employed as an incidental varia- tion of the foot in the metres i^ijX and iS-c^'^* . . L '-. .>iit m j:^\i^ . of Foot. leaving ^j^^^.

308 ARABIC GRAMMAR. . Name of Foot. SECOND FOOT.

FOOT.TABLES OF VAEIATIOXS m THE L.. . . ^ 309 ? ^ FOURTH Name of Foot. XORIUiAL FEET.^ficlj.

310 ARABIC GRAMMAR. Name of Foot. . SIXTH FOOT. o ^ o ^ o ^ ^J^^ku>jy*.

311 SEVENTH FOOT. I .TABLES OF VARIATIONS IN THE NORMAL FEET. ^\r. Name of Foot.{JcJ*.

ej^^tl*. 9 ^ ? O ^ EIGHTH FOOT. Name of Foot. .312 ARABIC GRAMMAR.

(202). Now in tlic Press.K^ is said to UjLT l^. employing these and the foregoing The verse my x-c -- edition' of the ^ ^ y Poems of El Beha Zoheir. accordiug ^^^ A from single instance will suffice to show the method of tables. is the second cJ J of the first ^^j^ of this metre called J^y^^ (p- 314) . THE METRES. SOS) of the second foot ^^i--^'!* (the normal CJj^)^ is we shall find that the variation ^. p. this seldom employed i^^/tj in its integrity.. l^. according to the variations of which the Jo^^l is susceptible. the . Each of the fifteen metres (p.' t_>^Uui" ^U^ Sii ^ 1^'*^'*^* (*^ J^ be ^i^^\ ^3 15 ^^ the second class of the metre l!^ow. the two variations ^Jl^ll• and being the only ones in use.. Thus. first metre Jj^lJ \ has for its normal ^*j=is the foot ^^-^U. which list is the actual C^^j^ of the verse in question.-L* equivalent to the foot ^^IxU-. ^J^-^^ In tlio of variations (p. . 7. 313 THE METRES. 303). J:'jl2lt These two classes of contain respectively four to the variations of the and two subdivisions. however. under the article we find described the process by which the change 1 is made. if we turn to the table (p. 295) may be subdivided into classes. These classes may be further subdivided according to the variations of the cl/p .* in practice.

. TABLES EXHIBITING THE DIFFERENT METRES.314 AEABIC GEAMMAE.

1 «'b The examples first of 1. -^ ^ o • »o y' If 's "-5 Is \ J i I- 'J 1- o CM *3 p M . and 3 are from the treatise of Sheikh Nasif el-Yaziji. * 1. ll "3 \ cs -^'A \ f n ^ •0" ^. they form a memoria technica. 10X0 METRE. * These are examples of .1^ 1— til r v-0 4. tlie word tJLJlLI serving to recall to the student's mind that they illustrate the metre J)j]^.^S'PP. . :3^ 1.. 2.^. 315 (^•'p').

making them re- spectively tlif . foot in each hemistich loses its last In the first hemistich the first foot suffers Jj (see below). J^« and (I^Lll*. pj. ^^pj. and jy sometimes ^y^\ . o 16 ARABIC GRAMMAR. affects quiescent letter of both ^. 1. <«jis. licence called ^lL..'x O? yy 1^9 py 9 yy o?o^ where the second quiescent letter. the suppression of the seventh quiescent letter in a foot. the suppression of the foot.— j^. can obviously affect only [^l-rll*. Both licence licences cannot occur in the same such a form as Jcli^ being impossible. as O*" ^y 9 9 y -'^ 9 9'' O? 9 9" <^ P "" 9 P • in which every foot except the CJj^ loses cent letter. . This exclusion of one by another is called ^'IjlC Examples: — OC 1.'iJU and |^Lcli^. as o >> -- ^ C (> O^ 9 "" O C . its fifth quies- a 2. which becomes foot. licences permitted in tliis The the metre are J^j and fifth wlif ^^J. Of the occur.

el as in the ii same kasidah Imru' Kais says S y y ^oS-i ^o ? y yy y -^ ^"^ * ^ S yy * Instances of ^^^ . . 317: where j and JvIj are respeetiyely prefixed to the verse 2. pii' where. the verse begins with ^^IXI (l^^|.)' « where. instead of J^^' .^ being ^ljt« first -. and the rhyme concludes each distich in the poem. The the Jij.-.<'' the ^ij. it follows that in the first first distich the J^^y^. But since two hemistichs rhyme together.correspond.: : : LICENCES IN i_jLjT.yi and d/Ji of a poem usually differ. and the dji S 1^ -^ 1^ 9 . . . but in the . ^^i-^ll* . Thus oi'. * An instance of l^ ^ y . the verse begins with IS^ (j l«). . instead of ^j^. and JJ-i will . couplet the *-J^" ^ ^O''• /^ becomes ^Lcll^ like the <Uj> The y y may be 9 repeated in the course of the poem.

-- o V >3- a "5 «/»y^ ^<f 5- ^3 J yTcO p^g P'lg IS [s oi •s I . • xl ^ IS •^ .-^ 5i) ^T) ^i) ^ 3 o -j be o ^*\^ H.o r— /'V JD = <u H ^ .< •^ o 1% Ha .^ J P H M -A .a W H 1 o CQ n C3 V^ c4 V •«« <ll 00 a> ?^ .I 318 ARABIC GRAMMAR.•5 .

•c-o >> o ^ EXAMPLES or SjS^ \ f 319 ^^%^ ^'.i^ :5 • \ CO : \ ^3 1 ^ ->\N so.^'T \» . ^^•%^ \ 3 "- rr-( '"^ .j o 03 P-( 'A M pi? =i ^'^ X '^ Nr9 3^ ?\ 4 "b '^ pa :*!} o a 1 .S. •Jr^ /^ "> vr9 -3^ n.

-. ^[^ be confused with the third.2r^ in the t>i^ ^^. ^jX as in the second of the two following verses o where ji and 2. The 1. of which the first verse is . j^ are added to the metre. not allowed.^iU tl/^. namely. . In the the . but El Akhfash permits this ilJ^ is of such rare occuris rence that El Akhfash declares that only one aJu^i found in that measure amongst the poems of the ancient Arabs. 3.: 320 AEABIC GRAilMAR. and first Jli> in j^%l-'. in ^Uli and ^.J%li. (^^^^ the same licences are allowed as in yL^ but in the first cl^ only '^j^ is is allowed. licences allowed are . one by ^U^LH. it In the second J^*j^. or would El Khali'l does not allow ^2r^ in the it: ^^.

e. (i.<J^it invented a metre called reversed. Vt f y y {^ p r it 9 y y (.: YAEIATIONS IN ^^2\ ^.%li ^. i70.A-ii 21 . as jc^v^'I. The modern Arabs have which consists of ^. and few.Uli ^j%li ^J^li ^-^li . if any..x ^ O J" 0-^3 Ox-i? O)'''-^ <i > y -ii y 9 ^ vJ- yxx O^-' 9 '^ ^ <^ 9 ^ p ^ y' where the seven-letter feet in the first hemistich suffer The metre '^i^\ most difficult is considered by native poets as the of all. examples of it occur in the later writers. 9 y ij 9 y y 1^ 9 y (^ 9 y y C-C ^ ^%li ^li ^. 321 the loss wliere all the seven-letter feet suffer uJi of the seventh quiescent).

T^ :3 d^ p? H • J ^ ^ Ph K P O H W H I \13 ^^^ CO J' -t) '0^^ \I3 .322 AEABIC GRAMMAR. a ^ ? ^ '^ ^ V ?0 ^i^^iiia^^ oj t>Jft»1 ^ (4^ ::/ .-l)^ r?v . (-1 CO > ^ (.0- m — *I-. ^'^ (.1 ^ Pi "*.

ra CO 'A .A-" ^i*)^ 13 ^1. oil.EXA:5rPLES OF 323 \ q o 14- % 5> • >"> w J > .J ^.. I t4^ ^1 •J .<.VJ 'v-i '^—i>. ^ .v'u . J oJ \ -3 ^ . u]n b o x-^j :o4 'I \ ») j.:/-^ 1!^' J ^ ^.J!> '^J . w \i^ \3 J- o^ V3 1 <.

also admissible . iJ=: 9 y (y ? yv. 3. and 1.f^.'Of L:^. . the words ^_5^0^. may be used in the "^L^ of this and of the tlil^j the feet ^^Lli and ^l. ^^Ll<:r^ of '' c:^l^ o^oy U^UJ Of o.^^ol. licence called ^Ji- The metre .* suffers ^ and •-IE -^ jl=s-.*!. cluding the upright alif\ are the metre by all added over and above j^.324 ARABIC GEAMMAR. ^^ o • o ^ c-o y ^5 ox^-^ c-^ i» o-^ The verse belongs to the second clyJ of the third consisting of eight letters (inj_^j^.p iy 9 y o J? -'oy o c ^ c >> x"-' of ^ o *• --Of where all is the seven-letter feet suffer 'Qs. of Of o^ o y so-* OfO-'Oy for By ^^j>- ^Uili***^.:^ suffer j!^. 2^ ^^ sometimes in the fii'st tl^ o>' of the second ^^js^ as Oi-o y y(y9 -' o^.iU.'-''* O "--C/S ^ X JU^^^-w^ I. t- P y- 1^9 y> <^ 9 y <^ ' yf ^' y ^' '' ' t^ ' y <^ 9 y 9 where every •!»< foot suffers ^.>o^> -'^:'' -^ «.\ Of y '^'jj^^V. ^.

r^ the foot (^.'«i« becoming ^^^. 325 J^: ^^y ^Ixi ^Uli ^_^uL« ^^Ly ^Ly ^Lli ^^ ^If. J.t^* = ^^S. ^f. as in the following verses of 'Obeid ibn al Abras _^j juC* J-^^ i_^J J.jS- of this metre a somewhat unusual allowed. The may also suffer ~'^j^» . ^^xi .: VAEIATIOXS IN l^^^TjS^ 4.. as in the table._^Lj .-o .2.j1 y ^y ij^ -"^ » ^y y 9 'iy 9 J where the ^^j^ and cLvJ arc sometimes times ^^!^. as I In the third licence is ^^. It is also allawed in the first CJji of the second ._^ J P Ji _j y y.and CSji both being sus) ceptible of .i 9 9 ^ y J (jwAi'* u^*j ^j ^Ji jXi -ipy — O^O-O 9 i'^' i?/o^ C-'_j^t_j-« C_J^Ia**^ (. the J^^j. called k»^ \ ^i:-* . .C>» and some- If the ^^^^-^ of every verso in the is poem is the metre ''Jls>.

.326 AEABIC GRAMSTAR.

.'O-O ? o ^ EXAMPLES OF^J^l^pC- 327 ca o ^ is .

J 1 it -will be identical with the Jrs- ^J-sr* is . but if the foot ^:J_cU^ occur once only in the course of the poem. o-o y Similarly. if the "Ci Jju occui' in every verse of it.>£ y ?y yi^9 y yL.yy y o ^ - y 9iyy ._ ij 9y ^9 y y '-'9 yy LI/ 5"^ i '^ ^^ ^ "' I ^^'iLili^ 1 If the c_^«-2i occur in every foot in the second ^jO^j^ of this measure. y"}. Jib: Q 9 -s^v/: y o -i . it sufficient to stamp it as belonging to the metre J u.-o '^ y y«o — yy ' . > S >' -y -' -Ji X jUj 0. as y t. Ji^.yy y ^ o 99 y y S>Oy y y y ^ . 1— ^~ i \j ^ ^ c ^ .328 AEABIC GRAMMAR. and ^'ij. all the feet in the yl:^ suffer ^^J^ . it will resemble the S 9 ^y -o 9 ^ y .> >> ^^-^l^d ^ ^^i^^'l-^ P jJ.l o -^ ^ ^ 9^ ^ ^ where 2. licences The following (cjl^J) are allowed in tliis metre: c^-^^.^ ^ y -i^y .si Oi> ij\:il P ^^^J 9 ^ ^X ? X yy yy The K- fii'st tlJ^ of the '^9 first ^^^ may -I- suffer J^.

329 Of the il^s-j . 307): 1^. but they are not considered elegant. 1 lL -^- ' .IL (seep.^c-o yo x- VAEIATIONS IN J^^]^^. u^^^i a^d 1a^ sometimes occur in tliis metre.

_ 5-^ y H » 54. H O P^ J^ ? g ».330 AEABIC GRAMMAE. 4 n3 )<i a -JV. -^x lO [^1 VI 1_ — »- — V. 1_ n H O U 'V -i "1 n'l ^^-^ H^^ } .

^• ^ _3 = \-1 • * 1 N ^'^ ' o ^v^ o-O o 05 '^3 •^ •"^J J — "I . -A X -A -A 3 1 . 331 O (.1 »-<^^«l -^l 73 i=l t>\ CO .' EXAMPLES OF /ul^i. ] ^3> 0^ 1^ ^J 10- v^ '^ ^o= — b »_ i- .

i^U':-^.^^. The licences occurring in this metre are J. Jajj^ which may be employed in the ^jy^ and tl^J as well as in the body of the verse (Jil^). p.aJ:\ . and contains in the becomes c^ial^J.e. if only once in the poem. X o.^ occurs once in each hemistich.— : . . proves J to be /L«o. ^ '" o.[h^ jJxljb^ il^j-i.^ ^ where the foot ^l^U:. .further modification of table. '. but the y P -^ Kasidah is • O-^^O-' OXCy^) X" X^ --O ^ 1^ 9 t^. having become c^Ll^ in the suffers the . first Thus the verse of the above example might be supposed to belong to J^J- \ . 311.Iwh^ c i o -« . Zoheir) examples of the jUJt in the JL^\ lS^]. S. see The following (from El Baha. the verse will resemble >>-i it . and Jjrk 1. j^\.i»'o»' o^ o ^ o O^OO? 0?0-'0? OCO^^^^ 0?C^07 first ^ji^f- O^C-'O^' O/C'OJ' and in the second CJJa of the . ^^»*i^ ^LsU::^ ^jLzXkx^ last foot ^J^^Xsc^ ^Jk£. If jUk^i occur in every foot. i. 332 ARABIC GRAMMAR. The J^'i^. but the occurrence of the foot . and body of the verse An example of ^l^^ in the Jj J^ foot is ir.

333 OC^O^ JO^ Oi" --^i" Of ^^J' o^ ^^ 9 t.' o ^ -i ^ >• i. f ^ ^^ 9 . py o^ .VAEIATIONS IN J^lLjl^^.

2 .334 ARABIC GRAMMAR.

p y^<^/. EXAMPLES OF ^ji^\ 335 i^ O >^1^% % •<3 i 1 »^ ^ Q o 03 E n r _j.\ s^ \ ^j» ^3 l-i^ \ ill 1^ I -^ J- .

•Ji X i" o-o X XX f f xxo-o X -ix Here the and the ^. in the first foot J.t first foot becomes J^\i . dropping by j:^ the and £ fifth * of i. . fJcJ and sJs^ are allowed in this metre..lc is doubled by poetical license. (^^r^ : ^^^ V^ and • -^ X-p^ (*j^ also occur. XX where 2.lf/ is of the measure first ^pSt for formed by dropping the and seventh of "^^sSsC*. 336 «?o^ ARABIC GRAMMAR. .^iijT ijjji I^^>-M) • OXO *'tS XX > ^xcxx'gi Here the first .X ^'i^^cll^ .l^»xl^ in J. becoming ^. Jox • (V^j j^j 1. .L^ll^ X X 3. all X ^ but the ^^^^^ and tl^ suffer ^Ijl. j first foot suffers X. cJ:: i^ 9 XX i^ ^ 9 ^^ O9 ^^ p ^^ X • where rox all but the *• ' cl/^I^ suffer lJb^. • Here J-ill.

_ 22 . Instances of <. the word '3H\ occurs at the boginning of the is and over and above the ordinary number of feet by the licence called ^^. * see p. 305 (and Errata).VARIATIONS 4. (.j^ EST ^J-^l^pT. Q 37 Where verse. o> .

4 CO -• r3 ID > O o \3 ^J < \ o <\ H V) .-^^ 1-1 1) l^ C3 H o J ^^ ^ J J .OOO O OQ AEAEIC GRAMMAR O i""!) -(J »y 73 d c.

f'<St< EXAMPLES O'E y:^)\ ^".9 OOt ta .

# ^y .

with or without ^J^*-'?!*. . or JIX (see table. y -S. o is sometimes . O -Jl tl/^J-X^ 1 J .J.^^ . each an instance of f-. and the . 310).^" (see p..^ ^ ^ ^ *' 9 <5 O ^ ^UaJl^P C-O^ ^ -^ y 9 4 Wj o u. by Ibn el Uibblriyeh. p. ^. alternately in a poem composed in the rejez metre but as the verses consist of a series of distich is rhyming couplets.jJ Eejez is the only metre in which is allowed. A series of Fables and Aphorisms in verse.2. 317).. cr^l^ ^^-^ J-^ ^ ^o-o^ -'O-'O -^<^* y >* -^ J^l^^_^iill^yl i^ J^l.^. J -^-^^ x- 4^ J ^^^^ \ \ .^:liLJ«. 111 The first and second CSjs of the first ^^ may be used . •• •'- where the tl^ . .^ J a.^^yi and L_^ of the same verse should therefore alwa5^s agree thus in the opening verses of the Kitab es Sddih tv^cl Bd^im'.__J^^X»J ^ Jj^J'* _J (J/J^S^j o ? t.-^ \ P 1^ > VARIATIONS IN j^) j^^. sometimes and sometimes such a licence * (J^.

342 AEABIC GRAMMAR. .

^-^ -/ . 3- . I^^J X_J XJ J J -^J •Ix- T a ? ^1^ X t O M O (..1 .^ o M P4 -ej X X :=^ 1-. M O •^ r> </3 ^ •J x^ X ••> \^.EXAMPLES OF J<«^51 43 U ^ S -.

i%li . / lSw»<j c^ ^5 ^ o >?^ ^ ^Lii cLLi ^%u . ^ the ^^ i-Jl:>-jj .^.:r^%li O^ ^ iT o^ «-^AW^ C_^-^. UUi l^ %^ 'i^ [^' ^i-^li c:.^%^ c. 9 ^ ^ 2.P Mi Of 1 ^ p ifo ARABIC GRAMMAR.^%^ cJ^^ c. S f y' 'TO'' In the j^-aL* c_->H.^^li c^'^li o.f c ^ y i.^ . c:. "T . u¥ In the . 51 '' S .2r^> <—^j ^^^ J^ occur. ^: >* X x>' ^ -.

^li ^%li ^%li J^li ^^li ^iLli . ^Ip- may l»e employed.^ ^ -3 -o » o VAEIATIOXS IN J^J\^^. 345 And 5-C ^ of the <U-£.

? 346 ARABIC GRAMMAR. »-S'»i^ »?""-' — \ o J -I !l<! •^ -> H \1D Oi r. H (< a •^\ O s "i"^.i •^ o> • ^ H H O H < ^' h "•J -J .

.

348 ARABIC GEAMMAE.^: o ^ -^ ^. The o ^ S^ licences allowed are 1^^ j^.' -' •»• ^ ox '- P oS^" OP^x PO--OP OP ^P 2.^ C5 •O-' S ^ ^XO*' ^y ^ ^ . o-* ^OP O^'O-'O-' (j y f-' opo^op oPO^oP In the 4 th j^^. O^O ^o .» t/j" -- op ^9 op ^^ In the 3rd ^If-. o -" ^ OP -'p c^ ^ . and jl>>. ^ o» p c^ o I o » ^ ^ Oi'P-' 0P0--0^ OP ^y P >'.

^ ^-Axi >=r.•53-0 « o VAEIATIONS IN ^^\j=^.' 349 •TO .. J-^ _ oy y y s^ ^ '' s -' ^ py^ y .' *• 3. ^icli .^^ -'- t>^^ ^ d^ d^ . y^ y I J^jiT^.. ^y c.

350 ARABIC GRAMMAR. .

.\ '^'J- r< . o GO ^'l ^^J ^ M ^:1 "> ^^= -N ?^ i -6% :-. EXAMPLES OF Lj^S -I 351 -I \ 1 CO '^*^ .V3 '1 a. \3 O U ^ o .l n o.

^ . O >• P ^^t/—o ^^ In 3rd ij^^^^ • . and J^i. but . ^'yf-^ and ^CX must not be employed Si. ^j^ : X i? ^ X ^ S " ^ ^^jyjcl^ LiSiy6 J^^ J^^ (-::j^_j*i j^Ia^ In 2nd X 9^ ^^•/i.852 ARABIC GRAMMAR. The licences whicli occur are "^^^ . ^ _ cannot be used in the second and third in the first.-' 1.

O^^ y'' S P ^ y^-' ^ jLai^ C.w< Cl^^iUi ^jJ^ 23 .lU.Jti ^^^^ .VAEIxiTIONS IN j^^\ j=s^..I.^J. oDd z.riu...

.354 ARABIC GRAMMAR.

Ls:' 355 .. u_a-..EXAMPLES OF • 1.

'' • -» ^ ^o^ *y ^ ^•o-o ^ OC^ i^Lts L5="J^ o'^ i^'Lcli ^^JJ O?^ ^ j^^^li ^Ij:?^^ O? V. and JsLi.« CO^ «_i::>A<*^ ^ ^jj^rli l*^ o -' o^ -i ? o5 sM ^ y cr? -'Isli 9^9 ^'lij" P ^ Pl^ y 9 " L« ^ >-/». 1. JO -' Licences: ^^<^.i I) O^O 9 9 C^ O 9 J«_ix. ^^-^^ c?^ CJ^* o^ -^^ O^^ 11' -^ J.^^J OC- O-'O^ O? jJ «_i:i^. as .3. (^. /iLi: •^ oy ^ 1^9 y " 9 ^ '' O ' CxO ^ ylcli J?-U^ ^jJ'Lr'i .'C/x 7 Oi'^-' O? ^y r^9 ^ ^ P O y^ X-y^O -^ ^(Jtj^^i^c. .56 ARABIC GEAililAR. and tl^.!. as well as in the body of the verse.t^ In second 9 ^ tl^ of the first J^^j^u) ^ O ^ '' •4.* CJlcli 3. 1^^ is allowed in the Jots.«.

.'IcIj becoming ^^ij^i-^ in the cl^.x*lj also occurs in the first lIj^J: . 357 <7 f^-.:sr .^ L'^ U^ *i:>-J^j<_> l_Jlijj ^jirr. .VARIATIONS IN o . I 1 t-iJ^irl . ^j\j^\ L-J \j^\ ^j.. . ^.

.353 AEABIC GEAMMAR.

^ is is sup- an instance of the suppression of the ^ » -o p ^ o5^ c ^ X where the . This rule called ^j^^*.9 ^ ^ 9 9*^-^ . ji.. the pressed . 9 ^^^ i^9 ^ ^ P 9 ^y L. o y I-' '' OOU In this metre the ^_s and ^ of the foot ^^-fl^* cannot is both be retained at once.- VAEIATIONS IN cjLi^l^^. sU^ £*Lj i^LuJt_^A ill ( jj~o the (t. In the verse given as an example above.Lcll^ of the first foot becoming ^^U.^ suffers i-Icf jki) and C^ occur.

.3G0 ARABIC GRAMMAR.

YARIATIONS IN . ^:x^^T .^ Cl^ift.^.. . as in the verse: l».« cannot both retained toofethcr.^>^ ^ '' P O -^ V C- '(_ ^ c A^i-iJ^ and ^. 301 In this metre the "be i_J and tlio .:^ .^^-i^l are of very rare occurrence in classical poetry.'tiiei-.''^ j\x:Ji^ 9 ^ 9U <- 9 ^<^ 9 9 ^ f <^ 9 d^j*xLi» ^ -' ^^xx:. of c:^*i'».ti. In the example the ^ has hcen suppressed by "'^Ir The following the is an instance of the dropping of ^ : They are only very rarely retained togc.

362 ARABIC GEAMMAR.•q^ \ 1. N <1 «4 .1 ' JL) O H ft h NJD < -\ o ft 1^ W H L'-b li o \ h .

y i^pu^ EXAMPLES OF 3G3 «9 n O I D >^. ^ 11 o ^•^ -^ U ^_5 o -."^ ^ ^ V t"^ P4 A i1- '1 »-:?' « J X- -i O .A .J. "^3 V.

and * -'• e.^?^ j^^'ljLJ jjS ?. An example of this licence is Ci-O' -^ 5^ X •- -- ^^ .— — : 364 This metre the first is ARABIC GEAMMAR.. also occur?. jil^ J in the first and third foot ^L^\^ ^^%lj ?JU^^ ^^J^^ ^3%li C<iJ^l J^U^ J^li. but if the C-jJi suffer ij^^'tlj. k-ai.^-^* 2. ^i^: 3. licences are allowed The following ^^.2r^ also. very rarely used in its full form as in «? example.r^ ^^'Lxi . it may not suffer .

VAEIATIONS IN ^^' where the cl^ is sometimes |[^%li and sometimes |^Jj*I* .

I ( 3G6 ARABIC GRAMMAR.-\. ns- ^"^. a . K ^ ^^. .. S < it.2^ r^ ^3. pa u H O a '3 T. ^^1 < r^ I— Ph 1^ I— H w H "3 • .: ^ 3 »o J K1 ^1 --. .

:^s \ "0 -J <. ^-s. S o CO ^3 '>^ W &^ "J V •'J "b J .3 M n o la H'^ :. 4 = y- W ^•') oil O •:> C-) 111 -> •> .EXAMPLES OF 367 a '? "J «* — v^ '] J v.

o J^ J^'e J^ C/^'' L.J and <y may also be used. ^ <^9 o C py 9^ 1^9 9' oy 9-' i. . .O J_j.O Jxj Jj*i 4_J^' occurs as a variation in the metre. so that there is an alternation between ^^xi and ^ K.sr* '.^ " o 08 AEAETC GRAMMAR. J^li OP^^ jU^ 9 9:^ 4^^ji jl'j P ^ $ J^ 9 w>l-u*i jl^:* jlsl 9 9 y 9 9^ 99^ J^xi 99^ 9 9 y J^*i J_jxi Jj. 1.<e J^. 9 9 '' 1^9 9 ^ ^99-' C^-* \^9 9 ^ O/C^ ^^!_jxi 99^ J_j« J*-* j^!_ye J_j.i. When the cl^ the ^j^^y^ may also suffer the same modification. 9 9y 9 9^ 09 9^ O / o^ <Jy^ Jy^ Jy^ J^:' fii'st Jy^ foot is Jy^' J^^i Jl>6 where the "^J^. 5 c is t_J.o J^« J^ Jjxi SC'^ iTc^ J.9 9^ 99^ J_j«i i^ 9 9 ^ j*i ^^x^ J^. thus : O/'^ i^f?^ ^99' 9 9 1^ 9 9 i.o J^.

J^ J*^ wlicre the first foot is 24 . SG9 2.VArjATIONS IN t__JjlO]^^. f): Jy^ J)^ Ji'^ J^^ '-^ J>^ Jjo .

.370 ARABIC GEAMMAR.

1.>^^1 o^l Oi .EXAMPLES OF CJ.

a modification of this metre. in Chri&tian churches in the East — bells having formerly been prohibited.''^^ spout. to serve instead of bells. in which every c becomes ^-1^ . .372 There foot is ARABIC GRAMMAR. and then called i^\j^\ J^ drops from the naktis. the effect of this is to it make is the verso consist entirely of long syllables. t is an example : 1 A wooden board suspended by chains and beaten. or ^^iv^\ ^^-J "striking the The following C'v.

—THE EIIYME. distinguished by the number last of vowelled letters which intervene between the' two quiescent Name of Rhyme. (203). letters. is comprised between the ' two quiescent five letters of a verse. . DIFFERENT KINDS OF RHYME. There are kinds of Lili. or Ehyme.373 SECTION II. last The Lili. viz.

it this is always considered . as ^lL« for ^y^^vowel • AVhen the pronoun following the Cs^j has its so pronounced.-^. ^'i^ is the vowel of the letter preceding the the fethah^ lIjJ. . s ARABIC GRAMMAR. by the addition of the il^ the vowel between the letter i of the pronoun when it occurs as <LLp and the ^tr^is 1^ J the vowel immediately preceding the ^^j. and \ ^ it in the words 111 j^^' > jrr-f" • -1^ U" is an of prolongation coming before the ^^j but .J . (pronouns). which is called J-^. . j»-^i".. made long by the dhammah preceding words ^i-o. as in the words Jw^l•. 371 U. JjI^ The J-ri. as the \ . separated from by a consonant. lli'i end in a vowel. .-^^ when the Ls}^ is ^^*. is a letter of prolongation coming before the ? ^^. but with kesrah and dhammah J and ^ are not often expressed.j. the the \ is usually written. latter.. This additional letter of prolongation is called iJ^ t_5 may take s" after it ^ for its ^. If the as long. whether be written so or not when it i^fethah. cClns the vowel of the J. (205).j may differ in every verse. ^l-^. as 11^ and --j^. as kesrah. VOWELS OF THE Lilj J"^ oll3 is is the vowel of the Jc. and as the kesrah in jijIj. the letter understood is called '^ij^ t^ij. which becomes long . . as the kesrah m t_f j^--j . unless preceded by a long vowel. and the letter of prolongation in the and^.

faulty eiitme. and . when ?'** JLu-jy« when when it has a i'j^-* it has neither. of vowels in the fV~'') or j_v^ yq-v.' : — POETICAL LICENCE. i -. A similar interchange may take place in the l^r^y are invariable. c^U* \ with ^-k« . 'ij^ja POETICAL LICENCE. Ix^^ when Iji^j^ it it ." The Arab writers on Prosody enume- rate the following making an improper interchange j-.5>-^ . 375 In the ridf the word S-^ ^ and ^ may interchange. *TLj1 repeating the same word as a of a rhyme in the course poem unless at least seven verses intervene. is considered as rhyming with j^^s. o^-?^* • ^\^\ changing the H£^\ substituting a cognate consonant for the JfjJ. in the 1^^^" q-v. Every verse should contain a distinct and intelligible proposition. has a (_Jjj.). s t^ ^j-*--. is Any departure from the preceding rules called ZJ^ "a jlL. 1^ c^-'^^ \ so connecting a verse with one that follows that not complete until the ^ ''\^\ y the meaning of the first is second be heard or read. and fctliaJi The ^ilj is called dJilk* when it ends in a vowel. for instance. fault.'u. The only is poetical licence which is considered not to be a blemish that of making an imperfectly declined . ends in a consonant. lS^ (206).3 fy' ? ^ j^\ (207). as a j_5j.

. if that be a quiescent letter. or vice versa . as ^J'^y. as cl- ^r^\ of C< . and are nearly always noticed in the commentaries upon the poems in which they are found. etc.<^ for for ^j^\j u^^. p. and the abbreviation of syllables. the suppression or insertion of vowels. The reason why it is approved of the Arab doctors say. as in the this is ' noun example on is. however. that to its original state..^:^ Other and more violent licences. as ^!^ for 1j^ y . as M ^j. Dropping the hemzet el-Jcatd altogether. p. JU for ^J'^^ Jit j^\l ]^ 'ji^ f^ Throwing back the vowel of the hemzet el-lmtd when so changed on to the preceding consonant. take frequent liberties with grammar and orthography The meet the exigences of their metres. 103. . only restoring the noun The Arab in order to poets do.. the improper use of the tenwm and teshdid .^ lor U . : 376 ARABIC GRAMMAR. declinable. as IkJ\ for Vice versa. such as the lengthening a short vowel. changing a hemzet el-ivasl into a hemzet laitd. liemzet el-katd into following are the principal of these licences Changing a a hemzet el-wasl (see ij .. . Changing a hemzet el-lmtd of prolongation. 13). as they occur comparatively seldom. for ^^ . The ^ when interrogative. is frequently omitted. as [Ji^\j into the corresponding letter t_^. need not occupy the student's attention. as may be expected.

M apposition. 4_> the last letter in the context. . the alphabet. insertion. the com- the article. y'^ ^i O-O/'' 0'£ i. APPEN^DIX.'! mg by causing a grammatical action means of the conjunctive adjfctive o'^-^^ • to cease to take effect. ^1 ""-I A.^jx::ii \ ])roposition beside the antece'ii\S\ dent (subject or agent). U^' J. in ~\A^\ <LI>-1 answer to a ^IS i.^L^\aLij\ forms implj'ing tensity. Jl«^l cJ- relation of connexion.e. particles. subject. iXrsri jL^ll t_$-A! enunciative. plement of a verb or an adverb of condition. sequence. of a certain period of time. .::j1^1 the verbs mentioned on p. •5.5:ull i. cLji apposition according to * ^ t \j^ ^_^ui>-l 1 .sr*^^ \ ownership. 9 ^ o i '' ^\s^] j^UjJ^ inchoative. {.. .?«.\£. . (J llo.. \ the homologous letter CU. * letters. . d. alphabet (arranged in nu- b 5^cA!1 j^£jL:>^1!1 expressthe quality of a thing merical order). A:>-{i\ accordinc: a full licence. speciality. assimilation of two hollow. GLOSSAEY OF TECHNICAL TEEMS USED IN AEABIC GEAMMAE.s^<?r of fethah.y\ . tentative question. >lii-\ occultation . <JLi\ S:»~ t \ anything that has hap- ^ ^ 1 Jk^J I commencement pened. Jlr^l units. _5«:5-l I etc. 2 12. ^ o i ^-. anj' part of a nunciation of the j^. . especial.-^^ the . 'if.i:?-i a dull pro- extraneous .. in- d. . which render a noun definite.

serving to retain or ticle correct what has been previously >*U enunciated.ja-j|. suppression of the (j before J. t^. <jj\. J which are then doubled to compensate for the -' ^ ^o-o S ^ S "^ as- elevation.^-^]. A. tip of the tongue.--:].\ indicating the employment of means. etc.^=>' o'j^\ similation of the last letter. «? ^ o o ^i Xllj^ insertion with nasal A\3j^\ XJlkiL^'l expressing disdain. <L-Lj\ (consonants) ing something unexpected. *^\ noun or pronoun. Jljcj-j). O ^ . demonstrative pronoun. or ^. withahomogeiicousletterbegiuningthenext species. sound iiP is still heard. which are then doubled.). sound. aid. ^J and ^.-. used in forming the inflexions the letters .].. noun of instrument. ^litj. being absolute and com- plete (a negation. in a natural sense. t_jlli:j-jj. similation of the last quiescent consonant of a word with a aJ \jc.378 AEABIC GHAMMAE. i'lrs-U^ \ introducing a new pro- position independent of the pre- \^\ the word L^Uignify- ceding.J\ calling for •i^ homogeneous letter commencing the following word. future. ^ i ^ o ^xc ^J /liJ^ suppression of the before ^ and loss. etc. depression. woid. \. ^-h^\ L5^^^ letter j^lijWssimilaeluding all tion of the last quiescent consonant of a word with the same the individuals of a species.-y\ «_> formed with the J\ the four increments. even when not quiescent. difficulty of pronunciation. i' of the aorist. ^_fj\jc^\ metaphorical. . )\ exception. A^\ perfect noun. interrogation. dj ! ><-. with the same letter beginning the next word. extension.^ ij^\ all ^\. ^\. even including the properties of a when not quiescent. instrument. ^J^:^ Jtji:4 \ (li^i-^J^ assimilation JUii. CU S o. in a metaphorical sense. jCm-:]. . of the last letter. • iLi ^ 1 w]. beginning the next word. Jliia-:]. ^ Lj lxx-. ^Li:.]. \\\s. but a slight nasal ij\xx^\ metaphor. tj^ -:]. the nominative of the parj_m' .

^^ o-ci . t_-J»-u»:. -.^iib < .]\^ *-cl noun of exaggeration. real or concrete noun. ^JiJS^~ »Jl accident. quality. Jjo«J\ *U. pronoun -5 =j*a^ 5- .^ adverbs which per- —o>> o. comparative or su- L:. noun of unity (of spe- cies). i.£liJ _ \ -jj. (^ICJ J ^. finitive. ( ^h -J]. j.:^^ (*-=! a Ox 0-0 >• o concrete noun. 5 U j! 1 w]. concrete noun.Ijij^l *l/«-j\ demonstrative -^^ («— noun of relation. -o ^ o o -C. --^ I implied or understood. noun of time and place. <)il?- of a verb in the category of (see p.jJl ^)x. jju^\ •r >> *«. or epithet. J Ju^/«. passive par- iJo-Ji X X 0-*3 i' -. c 4:j1 w]. to the verb J^jtA/*] \ »^\ patient. Jk. .l numerals. y o i X O C S^iiU \ j^\ noun of abundance.»ii_:Jl A-j]. t^Axl r •Ji numeral. -o Co.<ii ^ 9 -So. ' 1 ^ *-j\ noun of (*-^i species. ^^^ wl. ^-'O—o c o ^\^1 >*-ji noun noun. a vague or indetermi- k_^/j. quasi-in- J.is Jt^\ a real noun.\<z^ <-•]. 5 <J ^ r " perlative.^. j.•' noun the of unity.]. i \ '*--l t noun of time <^k. xO. c o.<3 P 285 (183). O verbal noun. pronouns. Jljti^\ ^U. ^-. o x ^ O . noun denoting the vessel is in which a thing noun of contained.-* ^o^o-o ^\ i O diminutive noun.-. 0-«3 00 x/iO and infinitive noun. agent.-jI ' " r . io jS s .y^ \ «.•!. J *~:' 379 nominative of "^ *" o jJ-.. j^J\ quasi- i^t^ O '' ^y X ideal or abstract noun. S o or jXji^Ij. 'X X ^ f o . 246). q. ^ _ j.^j-i^ X and place.»-« *-j\ an expression equivalent to a noun.. '-So. of unity (of time).-. abstract noun of neric noun. *-. real or e. o P O/O-O i* noun opposed particle. "yt^:5- t^=r collective ge- <L-wjL-XJ1 . such as those on p. form the functions of verbs. x- intensity or excess. ^jjtij \ ^^J\ noun of action. o c.GLOSSARY c-Si 0"F GEAMITATICAL TEEilS. X O£ ticiple. ^^ CPlJ (Loxs) \ mJ\ collective noun.1. w]_ possessive noun nate noun.

. ttcjjju^ ^ the Eiver Euphrates. ^|^|1 urging or exciting to the performance of an action. a subject and predicate. insinuating (the sound of a t-r^-s''^! is vowel which JlxJl verbs signifying not written). aJLL^ . ^j^U^n JUil approximate verbs. . (vrr^'y C^^Il Jlxil verbs im- iX^'^ radical. J^l.. 4_jJu»j1^ a iruJl^ fixing. of a complete proposition. jl^l^ clear pronunciation. feeling. mental process. using a long for a short vowel (see also p. principles.S8U 0> ijJ-J X** -^ ARABIC GRAMMAR.J 1 bers on the measure of the agent. 9 ^ X Ls}^ ^J^li JL-A^ j^ ill nouns derived from numCT? ^"^ a construction as cpi i. being see U-i| in poetry. attribute. t^-^Lsl radicals. jUii Verbs of sense or s \lk^l technical. a yo-'c^^ ^ ^c-o S ^ C expressing the idea of agent and patient at the same time. f J-tfi root V^ ' JUil J inchoative verbs. 374). «. '^r* J'^^ l*l. (. plying doubt or certainty.^ t-JJiJl JL-oi. i. jU. . consisting i. (J^^\ being absolute. -<^^o ^ ^ • 1 ft. state ^ StS '"' J •OS o p •oS JUil. general.^.ZJ\ya\ interjections. j*jjlj ^^1 JUil verbs of praise ^"^\ connexion. ^y surd verb = j_C£L£« doubled. 5 of jU^i s iilJ:>] implying. proper name. u_jy:| declension of nouns ing vowel points. J 'v<e-l} its distracted or diverted from add- original object.j^i^ 1 As>\\^\ technical or conventional term. giving letters their proper vowels.?. ^}^\ proper name formed of nouns in a OU-sl^ relation of the subject to the state of constniction.Kil^ inchoative verbs.-^LLI! JUil verbs denoting a o'< Jj-tfl roots. and blame. wonder.i-i} enunciating an idea compiised in an antecedent proposition. ^ two 'U-jI imperfect nouns.e. of con- struction of two nouns.

180 (101).) of grammatical influence.j>~\ •A abbreviation for etc.q^.^ f'-'i- \ ^ c_i.4-.GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS. itJJjJv^K^ t-jjJl long . etc. J-.^^l.ciiJl ^x:\ the form ^^\ when signifying comparative or su- perlative (as distinguished from the same form in the sense of colour or deformity). ^\x^\ depriving its (a verb.. complaint. 74.^'. i'J-i. («_ii\ Lx^] the \ added to a word to express grief. %.. see p.^ <. etc. the ter- mination *| . «?«/. 9 iXj-rO -'OS see c ^A. propinquity. the ter- mination ^.. in violation of the rules given on p.J\ c^al^^ a formula em- ployed to express an unusual concordance between the verb and the agent when the former agrees in number with the latter. t. if. s^ ^ «r 381 ^<-5 9<i-0 'L^\j ^^\!t^\ incomplete verbs.2Ji-« I—aJ^ short «?«/. ^\ = /i^-^\ adhesion. i._ ^j^ isolated «///".

^jij^ ^\j the termination iJ. . «_) Jd a rhetorical figure. intoning.<}C. ^^ distinguishing. hope. Si ^^ J ^ \ despoiling a word of its a former statement. tl. of part for the whole. effacing the idea of the existence J \ cyphers in ordinary use. explaining. uJl^^ ^^ J'^J substitu- ^^Ja^sr a gentle request vitation. <y ^ " j\j view the termination Cl^.. X^lj perfect or attributive verbs.'Jkij putting (a iJ:^ Lj-J \j feminine. a pun. or in- tion of the article to express the idea of the second of two nouns in a state of construction. i^-_W) making a letter quiescent. CLi t-jLi. ^ ^ compassion. i_^-S J composition.) first.3 ^u J^-'' appositive. (_iJiJ a series of distinct words indicating one and the same object from the same point of S^ 9 . giving the hemzeh its •«_jjj\ *Lc rhetoric.. .. i ^\ substitution grammatical influence on i^\ ^ jj -sT / what follows. ^JJ^ ^Lw^vrsT' being homogeneous. of a as Jti* . <- ^. cKJ^ Jj^ enunciating the same idea from a different point of view. *UJ indeclinability. emphasizing. j*r{/ / writing the numerical (a negation) completely ^ s .882 ») ARABIC GRAMMAR. >'- of the thing denied.j]. j^Lj explanatory adverbial complement. LUi\ substitution correcting Jj>sr constant renewal. .^ making light. }V . ^^"^ *j 5- ^JJuxJ expressing a portion of a whole. arrangement. . for making energetic. y» ?0**0 \ o^o-o ^ ? ^^ JilJ ^^ i^V^ J^' Jja substitution <UxiJ dual. off the last syllable ju^\j corroboration.^•"^ rhythmical prose. etc. J chaunting. ^. 'i'j^\ ^-A2sC" full value. 200 (114). *^-J-' . letter. /r o' **rJ- J cutting word. j^^sP to express disdain. synonyms. . 'Ji\: See p. allit- eration. writing a single for a doubled letter.

S9 ^^ jjJk>U adding the double a itself. for J-i\=^ a 3y.preposition.-liJ" making [^jjxf is indefinite. «_. repetition. ^^j triliteral. ^-x^" diminutive. see p. jSxj impossibility. lySxj expressing the cause of an event. ^ ^l:J grammatical in- one form to another. 6 (4). xO-<3 ^ X o X J^W XX jjS^ ^ «L»jAJ' strengthening the in- J. v_ ^ «=^ admiration.'' J appositives. X xo-<3 spocificative or discrimina- ing the hemzeh. (j-JjO leaving in suspense. f^jXj hinting. then pronounced with a nasul . ^_pt *'t S^ X «LLij (a letter) having tesM'id. innuendo. mark -^ The mark to Jl. S ox virtual. l:_ {JuJCi dilatation.^ abbreviation for ". 264 (1G6).^1:^ harmony." for Lj Jjs- he re- j^ki change. J. abbreviation for it-^:=^ plunil. fluence of the antecedent. i^ ^ J^ ^ preposition with its X noun. XX -SJ X ' Lj abbreviation lated to us. Koran). letter. S ~j^^ii^ _xi' exposition (especially of the ^-sUj biliteral. . ^*^^ jjl^ '^— primitive (noun) permissible. .^ tive. J^\ " imlijj^ inflexion. changing from fluence of various antecedents upon their complements in one sentence. 5" o -^ ^ U)JJiJ" virtually. sound see p. S ^ox j*-Sy corroborative. j\sxj numeration. S x^ making definite. . which 2uXxj rendering transitive. jl:?. and in the Koran lawful pause.jCij confii-ming. O * P O X ijAJ hoping. ^1. J^" scansion.GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS. doubling a final vowel. plural of a plural. 383 |uj \ J-f>MJ dropping or soften- y. being ambiguous.

compensation. '*>-' '^"•if-^ 'U. . ^j I ^f--^*sj SjujS^ <U... analogy of the adverbial sentence.^ conditional proposi- signify ^Ji: a_L4. ^-^s: j»JU: ^'^ f-'**=r / 'U-i^l ^^>^ H'^ IL^^r a sound or regular sentence which" follows the ^^-* ^--^J^ ' plural.writing the a letter to quiescent.'99 ^Jj F^J'*^ plurals of paucity. ^ylJ s-J \ \^ apodosis of a condition ing a state or condition. <^J:>- mark — that above it is ^-b^ tion.^^ <L-.-.«^»^?- <u_^*j»- qualificative pre- position. S ^ ^O S^ O P •" J-'*^ .j^*^^ ^j-x^ i\u^^ incidental proposi- tion.:>- apodosis of a com- productive pro- mand. plural of a plural./«^ pro position interpreting the pronoun y^S^ f-'*^ broken ^_LaJ 1 which stands act predicated.^-j\ ^lL*^ nominal ^Sas>- proposition. apodosis. .384 iXstT denial. /^>.apodosis of an oath.<LLir>. <L. negation.:s- adverbial sentence.attraction. wuA* ^-^s^ regular plural.''"-^ 9^9 ij^ ? ^'^ plurals of abundance. one expressing volition. J-fi •• • for the thing or ^. proposition.proposition of two phases. .. .Jl*. L:j[^\ <lL«^ position.? broken plural.^*^ plural of paucity. *_/>:?" plural formed letters by the addition of two (regular plural). fi c^ «o ! o -^ proposition. >»-uJiJ 1 position. iiji^^y^ lUIJcLLk:?. clause.CJ O plural. ^^^\sr Is. or the mark — (see ^S^). <LL^^ sentence.0 actions of several verbs). ^^\ &^)\JLj\ c-J^. *\j!>- ARABIC GEAMiTAR. genitive case. . t_-?^jj>- X. parenthesis. response. plural. S (^ verbal sentence or ^ j_/«^ ^-»Au.proposition express- c->l^:?. or hypothesis. being simultaneous (the O'' S ** <^ I ^ 9 <L*_c.-«>:s- inchoative proposi- ^0*i^3 \ o tion. or originating something. enunciative pro^u*:»5>- gender. <L-ixi iLLt>:>- y>. one expressing time or place. <lL«.

o O"«o 1 ijs. or calling the attention.' verbial condition present tense. . ' o o c-o (j y /^jb.II Vj^Ai^!^ J^-s^ accusative. 25 . particle enunciating of the condition of that which is accessory to the thing qualified. j^5^ interrogative par- adverb explanatory •' S y— •• or f 'i- S -^ of condition. express- ing *. gloss. ^j^\ < —J/=^ the particle Jj when y 9 ^ y j^ pronouncing clearly. .initiative particle. O'Cj-^ P tf ^ 'jL^r.o -it's- ? ( y ifJ>^»--« J^s^ adverb corroborative *^-'^-. « j^sc^X I—!/>w ^tJ-*^ P ^-f expgetlcal or ex- planatory particle. .n Jl^>- condition of the <-C) -.J^\ — 5^5^ of se- V ^iLl*::^M Jlr^ adverb quence or gradation ('—^). expressing a state present at a past time. or ad- tion.--.j-.].3 9 thing qualified. mity. i^r*'^ margin.— — GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TEEMS* f kJOO H y 'C-O \ 9 y 1^% s\jeM)\ jU:>. y o 1^..*J-<? ? ^ y k-_. particle of warning. particle of condition. apocopated mood. y pl. i«_i»-tf»^J o. letter. i—ip^ 5 \-Jx:^\ -7- particle of hope.i^-A\ -"J- >- particle of proxi- ''ii^s>- apocopation.^-|l tide...tte liberty of cmi^loy- n. state. ' O . {j rd). t=_il:s-c. ^jIL|x^-| (__ip~ letter of prolonga9 ( JU- circumstance. f L. o.accident. <Ljys>.xi^ ^\\s\ accusative. y Ictter of dilatation. no opposition between the two propositions which it tliere is unites.0 9 ( t^ ^\-^V\ y y <i-M^ls». a cause. ^A:>- violent suppres- yj:^\ ^J- Ictter of repetition t sion. (_J^ particle of exception. j=^ ( ij=>- preposition. S 9 9 C_?j A. ^C c^<3 words which require the a verb to be in the 9 <^ y aorist of future particle. ing a state conceived of as being present at a future time."J^ J^ ( particle of removal.^-| \ '—^y=^ ij particle intro- - / 9 JS y S^ ducing a fresh proposition.^ coming into existence (an act). particle. L_j»*s»-*. .!»=»- ^\jii\ qv.

z.letters. 9 9 9 particles (JJ and ^^)• J-^LciH k-Jj5/=^ causal particles. interjection. P 9 9 <U^ uJp-particle of comparison.particles exnress- C)\j>^^ ^/=^ the two corrective ^ ing assent. annexa- prepositions. l?-£*]^ '—Lr=" conditional particle. ^^o-O ..conjunction.conjunction./5.particles which put ing conviction. 9 9<Y ^>. flection (J andj).rS- letters of de- ^Jd^ '—t. <LJl:j dJ^ vowel of indeclina- bility. o-5i 9 9 9 particles Jj and ^^-)- . hone hope or expectation.3SG AEAEIC GRAMMAR. jl:sr^^ •• ^ • (uJj-o and (j^).=»*!• affirmative par- y • tides. ^ J^ t_J 5^ particle of reprimand (__jj?. ^JLs^j\ i_J«. ^ ( Ji. 9 jU^|\ ' J ^=ry-^^ ^^^ the two j^^ J. expressing ^^^jTuJ^ particle | '"^"^^J^ i\3ll^^ >—tr^ ST)s»• ^o^^tive particle. ] ) esnectation. ^ -O i^\. fluence the sense. particles.S's^\ ^words in the accusative.disjunctive particle. L-J^ tide. partitive. compeUative par- J. \ particles of "hope and apprehension.e. k_i«/=.lio1\ '-^Jy=^ particles of disap- probation.^ particle of complaint. ^ particles ' ^j ^ !:X« uJ^^ particles which of inciting or invitation.particle of restriction (^^j>- I response and retribution..vowel.Ji^ i^js.particles of «.s:\ (_J«j-s'\ prepositions.prepositions.». y_ n J_\J^ U y^y ^ in> = o •• perrautative letters.». borative particle.particle of repulsion lSjZ>..' A^J\ OtS -«0 J.d\\ i—ij^>..=s:rV\ i_J. . 9 9 9 ^^^^ uJf- soft letter. and corro- 0>'C'-^ P I 9 9 j. sjj -o ? >• y u- I • j. XjU!^^ tion.=^ particles express- f^. ditional.. ^^j=^ -o I particles expressing STlijf li'p( the two initiative the act of recalling to mind.particle of ^^ \ i—iy>.». J. Loj-J^ '—ir" pai'ticles of respite ^o o-O . < ( j.^ •— v>. (__.

direct narration. — without tesM'ul. ^ ' ranged in the Arabic order).:>.iM the predicate placed weak 9 9 9 letters. 1^^^ analogy.the alphabet ' (ar- _J J continuation of the discourse.^/J \ J abbreviation for Jkb name of town" (in Geographical works). attribute.l. real feminine. t_Jj->. '*»J guttural.»- guttural letters.- reckoning by the letters. the Turkish handwriting (also abbreviations of the Arabic names of the numerals employt'd by Indian and Persian merchants '—i'j^ vocative particles.predicate. gi^\ i.LC:N-nan'ating apast circumstance as though present ^^V-t j^\ . 9 9 9 s- ^^-o. GLOSSARY OF GEAiliTATICAL TERMS. -O 9 99 -. letters. (J^-^\ i—J*j=>- letters articulated ^uJu» Jlsw <L. *J.q^. . ^ O >' L . s 9 9 »UJ precative. u 9 9 i\^\ jJs^js^ JJ'^jJ the Indian cyphers. __?.^ prepositions. ^j£ks\ t_J. » '- s- conjunctions. t'u^sa*. .^£J principal forms. *-_. o ^ 0-0 f P 9 ( it were historical present.ht 9 9 9 ^^-111 t_i. crements. >» w\Ji/*Jl -. short letters. (J^^ Jo ^ \ Jj .sibilant letters.y>.uA=. first. conjunctions.-iJl <—**P^ «i conditional particles. which put nouns in the 9 9 genitive.genitive or ing or clacking o^ -<:> dependent case. with the extremity of the tongue and lips.. servile letters or in- olxs- direct narration of a past imperative.soft letters. j>.-a ^ ^Uaji deprecative. i^jZ^ trembl- So' Jji>.) . J' >» O y'O-O Px ^ o -^ ^ short letters. and accountants.^S -^^ \ the predicate in the accusative. numerical value of the )ass^ memory. Ii2.i-^Jl J^ 4_5^^r». cles C-Ji 387 parti- (-^L^-JbJl ^i-^>.^ quinquelitcral. .guttural. 'J ^ i__J • r=^ cL-.iJ.jiIl . the numerical cyphers in ordinary use. i^tjS.^:. i. letters ^J/ used in the formation of the aorist. dliiljij 1 or d-iliil^ . c_J^. -O 9 ^ lx:>.letters of prolongation. \J^ <A^ 1 U. rang( the opposite of w_iJ« ^ 0-0 9 9 9 the alphabet.

i^Jo^j pleonastic. jli) pi. i. -^ o ^ ^X-*o / oJJ 1 <!L5j abbreviation for ^Ui "May God him!" be satisfied ^^^j with ._— relating : to the cause. nominative or subjective case.. accident. not written. c^lS gib J quadriliteral.q. uncommon. triliteral (verb).«C: the "may God him have mercy upon mark — showing that a !" used in speakiojj of those letter is quiescent who are dead. . J *jL: sound. ^Usi. — quiescence ^\Ji\ '^y^ of a letter (see ^'f^')' q-v.~_::U-j irregular. dSJl^ \ (j--j! pronouncing the CJ ^1 as (jw. cyphers.iJi (letters) formed by movement of the lips. J^ju>^ pJ the ordinary numerical s -J . fa |»U«i)l ). ^y^J ' jji^ _.q. Xj^iill X-JLSj J liquids (letters). L. <i^yi> ^ji-lij rare. i. Ax. stronger than C Uj state. i2. servile (letter).3S8 ARABIC GRAMMAR. iLk)^^ bond (a conjunction). ^ "^ I quiescent (letter). S ' a raDid J abbreviation for J^jsT* a tolerated pause (in the Koran). for <)iS^ ~.«j a privative sense. r^\ >-ji punctuating and cIjLj absence of vocalizing the Koran. G -' abbreviation ''^'^^ j-^-' rhythm. (^Uj tense.» J\j3 ji quadriliteral (vcrb^. /»j blame. that which distracts or di- AjM insinuating the sound of a in pronunciation little verts a word from its original vowel is which grammatical influence. <. as cause — the noun serving to complement the adjec- tive in such a construction as ^•lr>-^ feebleness (in tbc pronunciaisS>-^\ u.-"-"^^ tion of a letter). t_^J. time. irregularity.j 'I:^ decidedly feeble letter. f analogy. indicative mood.

GLOSSARY OF GEAIilMATICAL TERilS. y y (letters) <^'-i. tongue and the palate.jsr' formed m the upper the cavity of the mouth between . J O X {^'^SL'^ person. S o^ -i commentary. cU^ Koran\ -^ need of a proposition to complete the sense. "Jl. analogy in having pause that is allowed if necessary (in the 'O-^O 9 ' ^. iL_^^ 1 a^-w) analogue of the plural.4^i (Lwl analogy of omission. o ^ J y i^j£^^ '^l ':?"-' decidedly strong pro- nunciation. Csy^x^'* <^^ analogy JO iLjj in sense. i:i^ strong pronunciation. tLwi) 1 analogy in use. \ .%. ^ ^j^ conaiuon. S' -3 X <" P abbreviation for ^ja^j. S o^ "xJj analogy in primitive formr jS^ S <i the point where the two max- illaries meet. ijxlj] SSO ti-wi) assimilated to (analogue of) the verb. a "^Ujt5<-j]. 5<^ J^jUbij.

pronoun.J=AJ \ . P s p<^ ^ a ^ j^^^-* t—'^^. j . expression of desire.4^ attached pro- indicating adverbial con- noun represcntiug the accusative case. of place. i>J^ adverbs.. t-'ii y •^\^\j0^ t^'-^rPP i. ^\J!l^\j^^. detached pronoun. lute pause (in the Korliu).^JLU^ <^^y» . J^ adverb of time.jlsM first -j^ affixed pronoun of the -£> 9 'L.^ Q.>^ J^ aL^^ adverbial.-Ji? or second person. . 1.-^ the pronoun of sepa- nounced.^J yi:^^ '^-*r?^ --_o P .^^ detached pro- the last form of i)lural.-.-.^ (the i^U»jJ^ ^ ^l. o ^o jj-iii^^. 7-'j'. J^C ^ j_^l>^Sl^-4>«tf pronoun of the thing L) abbreviation for ^IL^ an abso- or idea (the s added to ^\).e.^ ) adverbial predicate *—tr' ^" in a proposition where the word is is jK^ . S y ^ P So^ s\i.xj u_j^ an a proposition \ when the substan- ^^ pronoun hidden. \ the Jb*u. . .:x:Uu^ refers to the conjunc- ».^.4-J i^'. pronoun jj\i j. -fc'Ar apparent (pronoun).a:^ jr^^ detacht-d U^ ?-s ' >-tf pronoun representing the accusative case. pro- J." adverbial predicate in J^«i?j^n jel' k^ju: y--4-^ the pro- noun that tive noun. .^^ _». .M^ j.' attached pronoun. or innate verb). dition of place. ^_^^I!^ expressing desire.. c ^/. j^LiJ\^*.^t«J ( an expressed pronoun.'' the form "(4) X3)f (2)^(1).4>«i understood.q. ^wi:. O^ f UPS attached pro- ^\^t k_ji? adverb ^S 0-' noun representing the nominative case. ^>^iJ ^ . (in tive verb i& is expressed. vowel c ^ rr-.^-* r. . writing the vowel — ^J the .»>*» — itself.^ i added to time and place.C*J^ u-Jyl? adverb of ^^\ ).390 j> ARAETC GRAMMAR." of •? noun representing the nominative case.1? adverb. I ration..2.. x^o ? co-«o \ f ^ S plurals of i.J^^ ^izj.

J A. iSs. jj. calling to t_ g'^ ^- apposition. governance. ^^AS. .: iJiiJ J. regime. " defect.' ju^ mind.^l£. tion from another measure).tons. contained in a iLi-ill c:-.r.«1 »£ grammatical regents. in Prosody ^jc^iz accidental. its objective J^JbiJ J^\s. cedent. . Peace be upon him !" recollection. governing word.>^*^ J-:?^^ logical regents. 5-31 -- 9 d^s.-.L«lc signs of the inflexions OjIc the pronoun indicative of genders qualificative sentence — the ante- and numbers. t'kv*^^ ^z the quality of being a foreign il^£ ^_^IJ the quality of being a pro- noun. 'LJ^i J-^^^-c regular governing JLas- jAi real deviation. not Lst^"^ *» OwJ -^O • "following the analogy of other ^ proper -cJl K^^^ name of words. Ji^jj~. motive . fictitious or con- words. per name..t j-^ ^ ^' irregular. foreign in origin. j^l-J \ i-_aLi explanatory apposi- ^?-. j2y: offering. jj^ui governing words. *£ abbreviation '* for /jLJI aJji LLJi\jtKS.GLOSSARY OF GEAMMAIICAL TERIIS p 9 O-^ <• 391 O ^ >^j^\ I—aii£ apposition formed t (( by -SJ -o particles. <^. jX^ proper name. jjlj: deviation (formed cLxU~o J-^ V irregular governing by altera- words. the tens from 20 to 90." grammatical i^c ^ 1- in a state of dJ . tween a verb and complement. number. grammatical regent. cause.xi-«J \ ^3 ^^ the connexion be1 conjunction. ji\s. foreign origin.' . preterite. 7 o ^ c abbreviation for -^y* ' name tion.-£ preterite. invitation. t>»iii contextual apposi- of a place" (in Geographical works). . jj\ _i.Ish\ cence. ventional deviation. Jk^'J^ external reminis- tiuu.

fictitious. . and numbers.. b^l ^. conven- c-. 392 /U^jjl J>^\ ARABIC GRAMMAR.V^ -J^ *i ?> . and the abbreviation for J-j . ~ .x^l ^jj^C*:. writing the vowel — ^:s:\J the vowel — the third person. ^. atal reminiscence. . of variations and not very sus- t- ceptible. mood of verbs when an it 1 alif ri intervenes between last radical.-i. weak verb. isjj shortness. or . J-ciJ separation.yi tional feminine. s s ^ *du*J -jj -r. ^"j^i intransitive or neuter. ^ then. aL-^ i inflexions signifying genders jUi.tJ verb of wonder. Jl«j . 2i^ -»i indeclinable. . <*lj' Jje perfect verb. imperfect. ')\£.«ji! Jjo conditional verb.xi verb. adventure. Jj h\s. -^ not neuter. J'tj or ^^ J*i indeclinable verb." the j^ of the energetic abbreviation for and ^l-^^-i. abbreviation for . ^ "^. j-_^o-^ _*i not compound. J. not derived cUii relation.. . contested pause (in the Koran). at that time.s.. accident. substance Jc:ls agent. paragraph. unit.yt^ Jj«i declinable verb. 5 o -. I . the second letter of a literal root.-ib>--»i ~^* conventional.'j the quality of agent. limit.^^ \ jL. j^ future. term. SfC^-t j^ intransitive. i J^ oath. a><>Lc.^ _»x not susceptible S-^iii sentence. name of a particular form of cypher. extremity. i-_fi. tri^ \i the first letter of a triliteral foot.^^J^\jJ\ Jv*^^ mental reminiscence. ^J jIc aorist or future..

. *S phrase. 285 (183). GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS.^ -o . <L-i_-i J inlro- quality. of reproof or anguish. Interposing an isolated pronoun between the at- ^^ (J. «_:s-»j . of denial. JuJ restriction. according to the authorities of the Kufic school (in the Koran). A^'i soln'qicot.w. 172. f 'L.j^l ^il triliteral — the inchoative J. •- or Jj. inversion.JiJ\ '' z*^ the J introducing the subject of an oath. ducing a condition attached to the subject of the oath.js*'^^ culi' an expression ^ • *il the J of the particle ^ see p.) pressing a vowel.> ^ the J the the of the attribute. (^\j£. ^\ . ^ P 0''c-<3 y o -^ o ^ <? '' -- jk^^. part of speech.<i:J ^ the absolute nega- " j^Ui tive. when it has a second predicate first connected with the v_ ^1j conversion. .^metonyms. by a disjunctive particle. tLi-i ^ no pause (in the Koran).^'^^ occupying no place in the analysis. abbreviation for <^* <kj\\.'i\ ^. such as ^. . neuter. J*^-?^ 1 1*^ J . familiar -u^LJJ tLirj^n j*^l the "" name. A^ the third letter of a root. 5| j^|. nickname.ijs' ^lIaJj clacking. p. a pause. as j»waJl *uj) *:i-^.^ o yoS oyo ^ noun. . O C-O 1 Cv • ^ •o ^ (j. ^o-o / tLU^ metonym. regular (form). i'jjl^ 1 expletive i? graaimatical tached and corroborative pro(y il. «^^ i'ljls"^! *ii hypothetical expressions. trembling. .^Li analogous. the separating J. 'ij^^_. seep. of corroboration. ^«j2) IS iyS writing the vowel the vowel ~. 254 (157). */.uSl 1*^ o J words resembling the relative adjective. see p. ttJJjliJl c:jljl:. sup. necessary. . ^ ^^ the imperative \ J j. according to tlie authorities of the Kufic school (in the o'Jo Koran).s:^ \ t the negative particle ^ slight pause. td analogy.

rj- (!' the J ^ responding s -• ^ •^ to the conjunctions "if.1 .304 («_fljjcJl /*i - AEABIC GRAMMAR.e. iAjU t* expletive t«. verb in which the two weak letters of the subject.. LJ_j )! <—>^. JLjUJ linguals. denying a quality plicated i. Airli -oJ stroying the sense.e. p^-'i' U \t^iat ^ion i" 1 nant quality.'* 'i^jS.^y t* the t« performing the functions of a (Lsi'u ti the I.js: \ come together. well the subject of the oath after a conditional clause.« letters. ^J^y j*i)Jb '' preterite. llii! J U* of which the agent grammatically. the definite article. which are not and the t« . noun of action. plies J "belonging to." and "if iUlj t* the l^ having a complete signification." iL^ soft (letters).*lx L* general t*. 221 (132). no pause" (in the Koran). contiguously coma doubly imperfect of [j>*-^." i^^ f'-S j^ j! J) abbreviation for i—ii^ is there "Li . grammatical. ^ufc-j 5-*/*J between the two weak j^.4-^ . ^^»/«j jj\ U« the t* of duration. see p.* I—fi*iJ complicated. JiiJ verbal. ^^. #« not. X « -o y o' LLA\ ^ indicating a predomi- \\\ ^^"' j^. known.e.U-^ \ U . Lsl:>.' existence of the species.ls-^ \ 1 . d. an interval. or nominative is not named.gj.e. iL) »i] formed by pressing the tip of the tongue against the cheek. imperfect with a strong radical verbs doubly having an incom- plete signification. Jl. 'Lxj adverbial accusatives in a pro- ^l^ t« the t* which hinders {i. ^_^aJ t* . 'Li ^c ^ ( ^^jJiij t* y kind of relabetween two nounsinconstruction which im^r-* A (letters) formed in the uvula. P -'O-O \ •'^ " *«JLS ^ t_-'U=f- z*^ the J introducing S 9^ At ' abbreviation for i^j^j^y.. literally. t« the L« in the sense *—i. i.ii.t« special L« . see Z' . position or phrase essential to the discourse.. clacking. U denying the v!Jl5 'iXJij title. "made ." or of. after such particles as which hinders their action may be removed without de- on succeeding nouns). but with i.

j-^ JV:. iSjc^ transitive. ^ 395 I wS:. words. dots above.-^ the ^ of the energetic mood when it ^jXiz^t two homogeneous letters.^ the first person.^ y P ^\^^ ^^ Aii^ two (a letter) with ajuL::.).li. \^i'' cT? ^ gj •^ ^^-^« (a letter) with two £^ . c yc. is^y y p ^^W* it. being transitive. act of (JLx:^\ having an adverbial passing awuy from. 5 O^ (^^) ^^/fu.^ explanatory. when they f- preserve the teshd'id. hypothesis. ^ s> . tCliLl^ the particles j^t^ . <U . Cl-^Ul^u^ dependent. <t». subordinate (nouns.y approximate. ij^^:::-^ attached (pronoun. ' y p iUW* compensation. i^j\iz.y p \*\s^^ transitive. ctj-ij^ having tesMid. . etc. tLix-. i\.^ primitive form of a verbal root. pound proper names of which the first portion is equivalent to a a preposition. term dependent on J^"* primitive. S y y 9 ^^j IsO^ analogous. vague and indeterminate nouns.^ susceptible of varia- tions. S -^ '^ 9 ijjw* converted. J Ui ^ Ij noun derived from J <> yi verbs and containing the signification of the same. homogeneous. j^ *^-^ vague.M)'. y9 L-ijS^ ^iL« \ dual. S . subject. ^y^-:^'0 not susceptible ^J>^\ of variations. ijrjljsr* i^ t^js.)..^ inchoative. ^j^.^ comJlsr" metaphor. dots underneath. P y'^'i.-^ antecedent of an appositive. or conventional feminine.^..ai:L^ etc. S~y 9 ^JXx:^* dependent. <U^ ^J. conventionality.*^-^! the subject of ad- miration.-.^\ antecedent of the pers mutative ((J-y ). *ix:.. (^^^'* <^_j' (^_. S~^ y 9 of verbs immediately follows the last radical. S^i^^ ft metaphorical. r^^o p triliteral. ^^"-^ indeclinable.GLOSSARY OF GRAM^MATTCAL TERMS.* obscure.^««Jj.

having S •J a vowel . y _.^. • written but just slightly pro- nouns «.ijs'* S. (vowels not between two I. s ^ ^> quies- C^=^ »»» particularized.s^ lightened. J. meddah. p y o ^ S 9 i^^s:^ (nouns) of which U.s'* ^_^»i. . - ' o ^ . ^ ^ ^ ^oS-o . . virtually in the geni- ts^ j^jS^ tive case. obvious.^^* passive.« opposite of "quiescent. S 9 '^ ^ <Lai.::^^ restricted. (state of construction). (in logic) the attribute. « (j^Jk^r^ definite.jsr* CV' having the mark nounced). i_J. limited.. ^jc^LsT* in the genitive ease. . < ^ ii_^l. q.vl S y S y At'^ Jl^ necessary meddah. 5-a -- y . '^ fS-s. ^oo-o ^ c_jLc^! \ 9^ 6^ ^9 Sy UH'-^i x* over an 1 i ^ or J-^i&i..jk. lie Jk^ accidental i*.J^ panegyric.jiijs'* losing its teshdid.^ Jk^ meddah at the beginning of a ^^ J^"^ having a place in the grammatical analysis. i X* the sign n it. <^ .SOG S 9 ij '' ARABIC GRAMMAR. 9 ^ ^ i. S 9 S >• J^^' (X^'* \ a proper name J-s^i'jL^ Jk-^ meddah preceded by a coni' sisting of an entire sentence and S S y^ -. sition.^ in the same word. . written over an \ iSjS^ moved.jsr* 'CJ-'O s- jjl complex.-^ clear. '.9 JwiJL4. S '(^9 not declined. S 9 ^ {^ tesM'id. eulogium. the to lengthen Jk." 9 <^ writing such sign. \:^s.sr^ virtually in the genitive.s'* if 1 . s <- Lsr* virtually. openly pronounced. in consequence of its position.l^-'^l . plain. o •'O-o cent (a letter). S <>. <-^ ^ word when the preceding word ends with a long vowel. losing its tesM'id.s'* apocopated. ^jJlj i:^z j^'*^\ the thing of is which the quality virtually in the genitive.s^ the second person..*I:isr^ smuggled.Sl 1^ t-jijlsT*^ 1 losing its \ys^ tolerated. ij.. ^ the latter portion has been apocopated. . 9 i^ i. . J* "^ _j^ — J/»J b j^^^os'* the special object of praise or blame. as form- predicated by the word i_^AJ U ing the complement of a grammatical relation ^^.q. ^ jj.. S 9 1^ - ^ . _sr^ noun governed by a prepo- J i^.^ ^y S ^ ^ .

^^xiiiAM^^ anterior .isry« progression. an adjective which.v. c--^'^^l j_jv>l:^l ^. ^j-* t-ljUu^^'l the person yi^j-^ k—^i^ against a proper name whom aid is sought. o^ dJ.w^ per names).l. «? as ^. having vowel JL or or indicative . units.^ ^wWlj ?. -ii f ^jk^ masculine.* virtually in the nomi- native. the thing excepted.« elevated (letters).! I ^L2-. "^ ) \ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ second words of the series called u-J^UJ' q^. understood (opposed. con<0 C_. proposition. improvised (primitive prox^. ic^i:iA«. . really refers to one follow^ (_Jjy« . a-J jkjj. ^. ^ ij-.* augmented (verb).K^.a^y* <~^^ lawful. \^^j^-* composed.. S i-'^ S ^^ 9 ^e^-2J' »-r^^7^ 4lJjO/ju. i^LjI^ I—^o^'* a proper sisting of name contikji-^x^^n two nouns in a state augmented (noun)./»J ' z ti^t put in the nominative case . compound.*u^ actuated by an extraneous lips or tongue. c. .li:x*^^l compound expresthe one called in for aid. O^ C—O 9 m y' P ^. demanded. of construction. conjunction.^^iyt posterior compound proper names con- exception placed after an affirmative proposition. enables the noun qualified to be so qualified = ^_^^-wJ. ..^*u. /»JJ1 . while seeming to refer to a preceding cause . S" thethingfrora v^hich \5^>' exception is made.»i. etc.>**^1 sisting of a complete proposition. S^ y (^ P dJi]s^ pronounced motion of the (_jJ^'^X ^vith a quick L_^-. jj. mood. 1:. hidden.'« put in the i^i:^^ 1 posterior conjoined ex- ception placed after a negative nominative to express praise or blame. and so on. iLsrr* c ji.b). ^J~>-i sion containing an ellipse of a preposition.i_. tlie /•kXi/*.>/»J ' conjoined exception. to . S ^^'f inseparably compounded.GLOSSARY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS.-* the cause which A^j^ numerical tens.4>n is sisting of two words inseparably person for whom aid compounded.] -i 397 ?o -"O^ S y ^ yc^^W -' the person appealed to. allowed. noun.

to that of the antecedent of two IxLw*^ referred to the subject. "i ^^ p of two . ^^ jjwi^ the verbal noun comj* Sy S^ ^ o -" L^y^^ -^ pointed with dliammah. ate •.Ui^ aorist indicative u 'o-o ^ «? ^ *> softened by the suppression J^^l ^-'V^^ mT? fj''^^ the first class. o ^o-' icz J^AA^ll the object from which a thing is diverted or distracted.-^^ member ^ / of a proposition.« antecedent of two .^ jJu^« the verbal noun not commencing with > 'ij^\ ^J^^^ having the value of the interrogative \.« the pronoun contained in nouns in a -=- state of construction. (^ p ^Ciau^ hidden.^2^ the quality of being a noun X-Ajlk. ^\J:}\ l^^Ly% having p '^y P <" teshcl'd.^< state of construction.]»iA. t! ( A-^ aorist.s. a verb and consisting of a single quiescent letter. y y S f o y djUL) . y^/O^O<i detached pronominal ^ P "^-v^ .. of action. S'.^My* ^.s^*^^ common rhymed gender.^ . (. I 398 2Ss:xm^ depressed i. Ci. <Li^-^^ solid (letters). understood. mencing with P ^lla. ^/«^« pronominal agent. or ^^^ a verbal adjec- S^ nouns in a tUJl t_"'l. <lJ1 JkX«-^ that to which an attri- S bute i. . as the JL-'. . as equivalent to one. .^!:^*'J agent. opposed to S ''y o P (letters). Z\ . Ajlsr* c iwi^ apocopated aorist.u^ is given. 3 M'* J^ tive. !> C\ A.sT J*AA^ the intermedi- in irjb.^i^ J. attached pronominal c agent. attri- nouns in a state of construction.« corresponding.. ^^.^^ ""-^-J^ \ L_J . y fC-£SP jLi»]l c ^Ld^ relation analogous prose. Iff* tSS-o Pt^y s *i. ( aorist of of the hemzeh.^ ^ .. ARABIC GRAMMAR. C the complement of ^^ what may be considered such noun. implied. ^/.l^. buted. "^ ." ^ P dSXfLy* participation.* concordance.^ ^ j'*^^* containing the idea of the pronoun which expresses an event. 5-^ C' jA^ « infinitive or verbal noun. sy y P t-jir\«J^« doubled.^..J ^^»i.. S y P }l<^« the antecedent .-535 derivative.o /> ^L:>-L2-* concomitance.

7 '.x. t__j.lia-^ dominant (verb). ^^o»o-^! ^^ S yL. .. ^ determined by the ."t^ in apposition .Ik^ i" submission.! word to wliicli the ( '»„h. complement governed. pre- ceded by an interrogative particle.* active voice the inchoative of which as enunciative.lia^ a verb submitting to the influence of the dominant verb.q.« active. S 9 <-^ ^ weak (verb).« preceded by it \ jt.x.v« isolated determinate i.9 JO ^T^-:*^^ ^ ^^ wW. c . word or proposition joined to another.^« ..* determinate.« concord- JU:^ \ i_c J ^£ jk^'ix. .)s and bS^^ 9 ^Llb (_jjc^ determined by the ^ article.^o 9 >^ J::jt^ special noun. GLOSSAEY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS. cLJU..«. 4>.t.v. accusative of state or condition.] serves 9 ^ ^ j»^»jt^ the tribute . the agent itself.>.t preceded by J»^.^ (_i»la. S ^ 91^^ 'ks>-y'>^ having the vowel the conjunctive adjective.« superiority. ilk « \ "whatever the first or second radical di a determinate noun. ^s. d-is uJ^-i-tV. i^^':. by the noun which by the agent the functions itself performing of an adverbial c .-X'* preceded ' by a negative particle. i . ^^ S "^9 / O^O-O ^\ »*s»^l \ ^»:j«-« logical. j.-« ..^ refers or is ioiued. general.^ ij^' wV^.x^n previously mentioned. (letters) declined.* is preceded modified ance of the adjective and substantive.. Jj\ '—L.ll:. having dia- ^. absolute. may Si 9 be.yi^-0 ' cij-^o 9>'^ 399 '''-' y 9 ^ S 9 c:^^fC^ \ * l:Ua*J^ iji. ?•*?. of the at- J 1 jX..t:x. *Lia-j^l i—iJl " i." S-a 9 aJ. uVL^ ^dla^ \ universal. k__jyt. / ^o 9 cULia^ arched ^ ^ .« article.r. i:S/%> noun.4::j«-* preceded by qualified JsxiJ \ J^'*>*'« with the govern- the noun which is by « ment ^ o ^ of a verb. definite. Lks^ dotted (letter) critical points. — . !tj«.

j specifying. identical. jj^*^ J^*^^* special complement. 9^ y S.^ ijy*S^^ having the vowel 7"- ^^'^ J_j*iJl the .^ general complement. J-^* J.^*:.-s- verbially. action.* real patient cji^t singular. i^Lcli ^2-*^. S yy y 9 object of an action of S which the jja*-:d. the complement or quadriliteral verbs described on object of a verb. specified.liLs^ adopted. deprived (of variations). the participle. 9 L.e. Ji'* resrular.is^i the inferior of two '^ complement of a verb expressingtimeorplace of action. S~y JxliJl |*U^ 9 ^UJl J». as j^uJt J^L*!1 the second patient or accusative of a verb what jjJ j hast thou done with Zeid ?" G -' U J ^ which ^(^s^« shortened. 45. -' O J_»^-« " absolute patient..^ several complements.. 45. is C not expressed. suddenness ^^ s I -^ S c o »• J^xji.^.^» <i. the verbs mentioned on p. '^ " ^t ^ H ' j4u: ij^xs. Jj^ * the patient or passive J^yU p. as <^:' in b^ J ^j:^^* adopted. • complement. J»*^< adverb expressing the motive of the action.c-x^ metonym. ^^^ (iT^ Jj^'* adverb expressing the motive of the action.. patient. 400 i'l:>-li^ ARABIC GRA^JilAE.-. f'^j^j^ Jj*^* fictitious patient.« possession. terms of comparison.* ^ f subject S^O 9 i? iJ^-'-* i. ^-Ic (_>.d^^ the L^ plural object of the action performing the functions of the agent. c:. U^/t specificative. ambiguous. ^ Jjxi^ yjJu* explained.y U3 ^ J^'^'*^ the first patient or accusative of a verb which has ' ^ ^^^ Uf^-* adverb expressing the person who 1 participates in an l::. objective comi^lement. ." used adA:i) . im- jK/^v^ ''^ Jv^* the fictitious perfectly declined complement. fv** ^ (jy^^ the real objective L_5J^ c^:. the verbal noun b^. (jyts^ passive participle. has several complements.

'^^ -^ " t^y^* having tenwin. o £ ^ •o-o .5^*-^ plurals of the form /^* S^ 9 implied.^ qualified tives. in the jj^l I* ^aJJ i^y^ ^-?^^i^ ) J^-^j^ conjunctive particle. •^ y ^ o«o ^ p ? o -' qualified by an JsS'*^ c_>>y»ai^ virtually in the o^:-^* ( iy^y* logically qualified adjective.iJiy^y^ particular conjunce. or blame. accusative. by an virtually in the ac- \s^ <-_. t_^jli^l person supposed to passed from the enunciative to the productive form.-^M y^J ^^-^y* em- j^yc^» defective (noun). uT^y conjunctive noun. • O^ *? >' <Ui. of. i'j^^» having one dot 5-^« Sp ^c c variable..X. S ^ P o ^ adver- S^ ^ •Ltflri. the » subjunctive u_j^-tfj^ grammatically adjective.^:^ cusative. S-' y >^ ^^ ^ g-. modified. mon) J P conjunctives. _^.^-. iSjuiLy CJii^Y* general (com- <il^i-^ open letters. <^A»- (^j's:»*»Jl person really ad- £ l/lj 1 1 a proposition which has dressed in the vocative.p p »r ^ to p oX i>^2^1^. ^ S o^ #• y_<^ P ^J^aii^ detached.giv t< depressed letter.(3)f(2)V).q.— GLOSSARY OF GEAMITATICAL TERMS. mood. s- <Uu«)^^ fundamental.y. P S pi^^ by an adjective. i. 26 . y o. jXX^ indefinite. c:j^*i. tive case. ^kii:^* separated. cated which one has already set about. ClJyc^^ . A JJijl — A/*J ^\^ i^^'^u^ ^ L5^' Jj^^'* ] conjunctive noun. bial accusative to express praise (. ' '(4). ployed to express the proximate occurrence of the action predi- ^Jyu^ a word which has come be used as a proper name. C—j^^^i:. OP (a letter). S-ii -9 be present and addressed in the vocative. \aLs>. o 401 S^ CO y -a ^ j^^JuJ* person called upon.^ in the objective or accusaor '— '*^T* j__c^ <l"alified. Cj-^uS^l (.^! the thing complained s. ^^ ^ -- aflirmative. 'ry^y (in logic) the subject.

person plural. j^sL- y iXJ c y£y% cmployed j_^U to express the speedy occurrence t_^n3 occupying the place ^JjiUJl ^r. « 9 »:sr * grammar. occurrence of the thing predicated. <s_L*^* j_^j words susceptible of only one application.Z^^ •- ^ of the agent. ^. ^Jl^^ s <> f iJi^^yt real feminine. of negation. -^ \ J jj c ^Y* employed speedy \j putting a noun in the ac- cusative case. l^ys-t^ pronounced with a scarcely perceptible articulation." ^« J-C::^! jj*aJ the first jJu rare. feminine. of. syntax. S 9 ^ ^ j^-^^ having iUJ6. or a verb in the to express simply the subjunctive mood.i2r>- AEABIC GRAMMAE. or of the predicate as something t_^U j occupying the place hoped S<i for.-jtJl ^/**a5 the first person. having no dots or ?'"''' diacritical 4_-v^ accusative J^-xk) or objective case. <LL»>f^ having no dots or points. letters formed by pressing the tip of the tongue against the anterior part of the palate. ^A-x»- t::. which bears the to or fictitious feminine.-s*j a real epithet. tUu*3 relation. ^L^ *" r^ LL^^y* conventional ^*JjCwuJ the Persian style of writing.—« u>:? measure. S^ O 9 g^^ diacritical w X the Arabic hand-writing. ''Y* feminine. informed us. . uJU \ denying. epithets IL* hundreds. * Ij>- . u' \^<::. points.. I Ju vocative case. adjective. D U abbreviation for - — 9^'-a \ 9 o^ Ur>^i he Jj^o^ ^. same relation je^LsJ iJi^'^y* grammatical femi- the e-s:***^ or Arabic hand nine. ) 9 i^'^y* corroborated. S^/y* corroborative. the relative pronoun.402 L. •Ci which the 9 iYa?/c does to the ordi- i_$yjt^ iJ:^J^y* logical or natural nary English printing. defective.

403 J^ in or i-_c-J all above the tens ^j absolute negation of numerals composed of tens units. a small town" (in Geographical works). £|Jcj|i o-o .js) \ .-' ^-. or > itance. ju*J itf^»*^ L5*J ymous with the verb s abbreviation for i.Cj indeterminate noun. which precedes •$ it. necessary. the initiative . fjjij conversion . orthography.'-\ij name of J l^ \ ^Jij negation of the present. -?. and negation synon^JM. particles see pp. the o xc-*o y ^ o ^ Sx:j \ f^^^'j which desin- 1 ij^i> see pp. GLOSSAUY OF GRAMMATICAL TERMS. 5" o o^ & o ^ o-o ^ o '' *^*^^" sLs. ^Liij! J^s^^jJ ij^jS) ^^y £\ expressions which abrogate. JU^J \ ^y \ the ^ which dis t:'*'^ JJ' 3 expressing concom- tinguishcs the af' ' fixed pronoun of the ] JTI" \T ^ accusative or first person used with verbs from the afiixed pronoun of the same person used with nouns. Jk-^^1 (j^3 the emphatic ^ added j_Jlj actual. after twenty-one. to the aorist and imperative of verbs.•'<.-^ spelling.--nJ^^j obligatory. so ^ J'*^ writing such sign. forming the imperative. tdaiij diacritical point. i>*»i. transitive (verb).0 ?^o X used in JO-' ^eiJ prohibition. the accusative. 9 and 12. J Uii^ 1 Jj negation of the future.J the existence of the subject. lips in mastication). the hemzefi noun..'j initiative J. 9 troy the influence of the choative. removing a vowel <-_iijJl from one consonant to another ^U the M in pause.^ ^ i< ' f'^rr^** ^^ ^ t-ry tJ^ version of an adjective into a ^j'O) the letter or sign J_. and verbs in the iy species. silent ^a. . (.Ju negation. and 11. 'i. . ^j) iy^ O XC-. sition. ^J^^Jb in mumbling (compressing ^^^^\y words which put nouns subjunctive. H^y U^ ' JlsrJljl^ the conjunction^ it when introduces an adverbial propo.

O Jt S^] j\^ the conjunction _j in jcLsl «? O y <_jLtf^ a natural adjective or such expressions as qualifying teim. uji-tf. j^Jj measure of a word. pause. *—"^^J ^ pause according to adjectiye. <_^ jlj see p.. the Kufic school (in the Koran). i.^ . s — o -^ Jlo-Ui^wTj^j.Jt-ii external. ^JxaJ^ verb. 198. full stop.e. 404 CXH -<3 ARABIC GRAMilAP^ 7. <Ll<jj^ the sign of elision ^ implying simultaneous action^ and putting the verb in the Bubjunctive. UJj in accordance with the primi- tive usage of the language. . uJj the ^^® measure of the 4__cjj period. jj^j writing such sign. axiom. ^srLiJ ^ ^Lij the homologue of feihah. usage. «_a5j fashion. a?//". » of concomitance. . quality of being an ^tfi^ . .

Alphabet. compound. 19£). 189. simple. 131. verbs used as.. of. 74.. Alfiyeh of Ibn Malik. -words specifying the. 243. . 128. 178. .r^l 242. Aorist... note. Adjectives. of. 166. Abstract noun.. \l£. Action. 178. Alif. intensive. 46. y ^ use „ 171. 172. Apposition. of derived conjugations. 76. 242. 71. of verb with a Affixed pronouns. 183.... 1. 2 8 0. noun. 52.39 Adverbial expressions. broken plurals 132. . 232.3] J 275. 152. gender . Antecedent. 274. . Alternative expressions. 268. position of. 263. 273.l^c:jl. 267.. 192. 187. 191. 250.272. „ . 274. etc. governing like verbs.. of defective verbs (final 193. 193. . q[Uotation A. pronunciation of. 72. 268. subjunctive. 233. (medial ^). 197. 225. note. ^! 278. Agent. 267. Admiration. (final t_f ). 284. changes of vowels. 147.286. 268. (medial \). Adverbs. to future time. 133. 171. 271. 80 of time and place. from the. 271. 27. „ verbs. 207. cause or effect of. always refers . before the. J ).r. C«1 279. 225. ^^ J. . 78.—— INDEX. of hollow verbs '^~^\ 275. of. 256. 277. 279. 173.. 261. of corroboration. „ of description. (medial j). .

Cases.406 AKABIC GRAMMAR.. subjective. Conjunctions. Comparative. . Ai-ticle. 182.. particles „ employed in Caliph. with numerals. 289.. „ of substitution. El Beha Zoheir. of. 194. 219. plural from relative adj ec- tives. . Compound „ expressions. „ form of words signifying. 166. dependent. 16. plural 128. of. 213. 195. 6. 256. of quadriliteral and quinqueliteral nouns. 183. 288. 157. 113. 109. forming. . 96. 228. B. noun of. 217. 295. of). 131. note. . 177.. Copula.. Common gender. gender of. the. 97. of. 234. of nouns with weak final „ general table 139. Benu Hudheil (idiom Benu Temim (idiom Broken „ . Assimilated verbs. the logical. protasis 135. mS 88. 208. Assimilation. Collective nouns. . 190. 1. 158. . 257. 184. 256. . 165. 234. with. 111. 5. 188. 332. Arab tribes. forms of. „ . of). 111. of vocatives. 134-138 ancient. 191. 139. 99. feminine plurals used D. „ objective. 236. anomalous forms note . 288. 98. of. . 277.. „ used with the aorist of a Case endings. 132.. explanatory. 177. . 215 Chronograms. Attribute. 276.. c/\ 157.. 133. n. 284. 130. 258. verb.. 196. 192. 182. use of. 234. 262. and apodosis of. 66. 256. 208..^-x 375 . 170. story of a. 268. the. the. verses ftom. of feminine nouns. . Dates. 137.. 235. of agent. names of. 178. 5. Cardinal numbers. Conditional sentences. 128. 193. 272. Apposition. 199. . Colour. 169. 23. 218. radical. 189. 244. 288. 108. note. tables of. plurals. 261. Comparison. Clauses used as adjectives without a conjunction. 110. Clause. . ' Moorish. Approximate verbs. 227. 171. Circles. Declension of nouns. 90. declension 102. . . 276. 177.

43. Doubly imperfect Dual. 269. 292. Derived conjugations.^J 374. 64. 39.309. 89. of hemzated verbs (initial). of hollow verbs.— — INDEX. Demonstrative pronouns. change of. quoted. Fractions.312. verbs. as. of assimilated verbs. 65. 85.. noun of action „ pointing a quiescent letter Exception. E. . „ . 265. . Epithets. Hamasah. 77. 3 7.311. „ „ gender of. 208. E. 59. 292. Dependent case. 85. 154. 183. Genitive case. . common.310. 32-39. . weak Hemzet Remzet letters in verbal roots. and noun. el toasl.9 1. before. Jjb 89.. 97. formation of. Genders.. 407 „ tenses of. 70. 164. note on. 14. 104.. „ grammatical. signification of. 195. 76. concordance of nouns and. 9. 84j ^^»:^-. 93. ^js^- J-4. tenses of. variations of. „ (passive). normal. Diminutive noun. 96. 63. how expressed. . 195. lil^ 267. nature of. (medial). 44. 308.' Descriptive. „ feminine pluralsuscd with combination of. tables of variatio n i n . el kata' . as an. sentence used 269. >> >> it G. verses from the. 148. 59. in the tenth conju- gation is 85. 294. concordance 270. „ . form of words signifying. 294. 208. 68. 374. derived conjuga- jS^ tions of. 13. E Feet. jr^ 266. of doubled verbs. >> Feminine. 74. 207. 91. Uemzeh. of defective verbs. (final). J> elements of which feet are composed. t3-. with other broken plurals of nouns 208. 93. 11. of. Defective verbs. tables of (active). Flight. Doubled verbs. 77.

of. the nature plained. 65. 379. note. 307. 233. 62. 88. 306." ^\ how expressed.. 266. 100. wa 'Baghim. 374. 86. 171. Irregular verbs. . 72. 41 " Is. 231. 289. 10. 72. 251. position of.— — 408 Hemzated verbs . 71. (medial ^j). 250. . these particles and 252 their compounds. 139. „ particles. in the sentence. iX ^ . (medial \).. Kitab es Sadih (the form Jl«). quoted. ... 291. Indicative mood. 267. . Cl\ cL-ii * 374. 225. 156. of derived conjugations. 167. 84. 80. J. loss of the final ^ in (medial). negative. 341. ex- Indeclinable verbs. i^' and ^ . 63. 2G5. 305. (final 153. 288. 29. 80. Inflexions of nouns and verbs. Imperfectly declined nouns. * 1 249. Imperative. 232. (initial). J^ 9. words. 197. S j> and ^\. nouns used as. ^ 1j\ . • Involved forms of expression. 52. . poem of. 279. nouns.. Interjections.. 264. 84. (final). cases where either may be used. 69. 304. note. . Jussive. Irregular plurals. (medial^). 103. of hollow verbs Jezmeli or sulcun. ^ 289. ARABIC GEAMMAE.. 8 7 „ tenses of. 283. .iii 275. 275. Hollow verb. . „ „ inflected as strong verbs.. 171. Intensive agent. ^). 204 Lili 373. 174. formation of nouns from. . 73. ^ l^ll^ 285. 253. 233.^ 374. 176. *Lc 291. lUSl 302. jAi:M Ji^y^\ Imaleh. ^\^ 174. K. Imru 'al Kais. Interrogative pronouns. of defective verbs (final ^)..

Phoenician. "^^ U negative. 126. 202. 372. 359. 177. „ JU'wtM298. 322. 371. 300. p. 326." 11. 347. 350. 289. U 278. ix. 1.. 19. ii. C^-jS 267. „ . 4th 299. 364. p Metres. 333. 328. Meddah. „ '^y^ 341. 1st circle.ii. 342. 338. JxJl 253. 177. Ixvi 5. 169. 177. numeral value written. 340. 356. 319. 202. ii. J ^ M. 285. 185 XXX. 313. 327. 18. 253. 147 „ ^\i^\ p. 258. 3. „ l\.uJ[ 325. 298. 298. 295.. U 175.331. . p. xlvii. correspondence „ with the j^l\ 329. 4. 358.INDEX. 17. iLi/£Z\ 369. Metonyms. 317. 299. Letters. p.318. 249. cii. 173 184. 291. 351. „ ^ \j^'. 197. 409 circle. 366. 9. 15. 323. 164. 315. xxxvii. 335. J 279. 357. „ L. I77. L. Koran. 19. 300. 30. 343. the. 345. 225. Metre. 362. 336. „ Jo J. 363. „ „ 2nd 3rd „ „ 297.320.7. 139. . 6-8. 36 J. 360. „ ^'l£C^\ ijL. 187 ix. 298. „ 5th „ 300. 368. Hebrew. 321.. 367. 296. 353. . "solar and lunar.319. same root. 314. 352. but not pro- „ 'p!^\ c^Li2i 299. (relative). . J^^ 374. Measures of words. p. 88. nounced. .. 254. 344. „ t^^-^^ 299. 365 „ l^Jf "^337.i. 355. pp. and Greek. Metres. 334.p.330. „ c!^/s:2\ 370. „ which cannot exist side by side in the „ i-JJ^^i 300. p.tj\ 299. 354. of. 316.c^^\ 300.324.332.2i 296. 340. 296. 44.p. 348. 339. 267.

42. „ ellipse of the first of two. Nouns of action of derived con- jugations. 216. 202. 207. cases „ 177.. „ . 48. expressing inherent qualities. used adverbially. of quality.206. 226. of colour or defect. of time of. absolute. 97. ^). 190. genders 91. 176. 216. 47. . 177 indicative. 215. 191. 208. „ tbe. Nominative pendent. 173.227. „ . of unity. Noun „ „ „ of excess. „ . 86.. 100. 78. 288. gender of. 83. 128. of several nouns. abstract. declension of. „ „ „ „' . Nouns. 236. of bellow verbs. examples of the declension of. 287. Negation. 223. 89. form. 230. of colour. 140. 171. defining or determining.. imperfectly declined. .. 50. . separation of two. Motion. of words signifying.203. 128. Nouns. 173. . El Mutanebbi. (final of relation. 184. tribes. 70. 90. ARABIC GRAMMAR. 224. 255. 201. 287.. . Agent „ . „ of defective verb— (final j). 255. „ use of article with the first of two.207. 46. diminutive. of. of.. „ gender of a word qualifying.. . 201. K. indeclinable. subjunctive.. 17. . Nouns. jlij 374. 103. 254. 228. Karnes of Arab 182. 222. . 183. 89. 206. . 171. 231 „ energetic. formation of from irregular verbs. 81. (final ^). pi.51. collective.. „ definite and indefinite. 51. „ 91. 253. and place.. Noun. of verbs. . 144. of superiority. „ of action. verses from. 184. 52. apocopated. ofsuperiority. 46. 46. 167. Primitive. C '"' ^jjd 275.215. . and epithets. Negative. . of species. 148. 147.. 31.. „ „ in wkm.' „ „ „ derived from verbs.. 51. concordance of. 201.410 Moods . 208. imperative. 229. Noun. 140-144 used as a verb. Nouns* in construction. of instrument. 171..

144. ft than one object. 279. 170. 226. which 248. wbich govern 223. »» interrogative. 164. 163. in formingappo- 272. 264. 188. . 116. Pluperfect. ^b^l^jj 151. JVun.. 125. 214. 185. 0. 188. » „ use of article with. 163. „ „ diminutives of. 161. Object of the action. 185. 174. Passive verb. approximate. 105. subject of. 110. 186. 110. 103. Particles. 164. ft )' broken. 226. 111. words. . „ „ „ employed sition. 46. Plurals of Plurals. 263. Passive of verbs which govern more multiplicative. 47. 191. with collective nouns. numbers 411 of. a (not derived from verbs). cardinal. form of word signifying. 159. 102. adjectival. 280. gender of. Numbers. 199. 158. 189. Parenthetical sentences. 215. initiative. in certain >) note on the formation 113. 253. Nouns.. 204. 160. of multitude. assimilation of. 90. 117. n j> adverbial. government of. 158. 138. Pain. 47. derived from verbs. 190. 124. 210. 171. 15. 103. Objective case. „ )} >) negative. 163. 122. 172. of. 225. compound.INDEX. 189. 289. 279. resemble verbs. 212. thin? Pause. numbered. Plurals. 158. 209. 288. agreement in gender of numeral and Patient. 213. ordinal. 184. 74. recurring. 14. 186. 160. 174. 6. pleonastic. Object. 164. like verbs. . 173. » » fractions. » »> ft relation between. 279. 225. if Pendent nominative. 123. Passive Participle. 284. 213. the. 118. position of. 163. 213. 211. to express different meanings. . 179. 193. Object of a verb. 236. Number. Plural of Paucity. 22. 139. distributive. 216.. 182. Permutation. 283. plurals of. „ „ Numerals. different pi. 165.

constituent 221. 169. 106. 156. Portions of a thing. Precative expressions. Relative noun. omission of. . 73. (medial (medial Probibitive.. Quadriliteral verbs. 151. 259. Rhyme. 112.292. Pronouns referring to tbe antecedent in relative sentences. 233. the nomina- . 221. Cs^j 373. 156. 234. of derived 39. Predicate. iljj u^iJj 374. >} conjugations. interrogative. 151. Q. Quantity. „ declension of. 23fi. 80. 154. 256. the. Roots. 262. 373. anomalies in.. 26. 260. . 187. 197. . 232. separate. 291. of. 258. (feminine). Pronouns. 375. „ structure Proper names.. Prosody. 374.^). of. 257. nouns used omission of. 197. Poem. irregular. 197. „ of. 127. 261.). 108. 196. 376. Pronouns. 170. demonstrative. „ . 91... 375.> government of. : . 195. portions of. Qualificatives. nomenclature 293. nature . 151. containing semivowels. 144. 256. 165. 151.. of. 260. as. 219. 72. plurals 112. 106. (final plurals of. E. 201. 139.— 412 AEABIC GEAMMAE. Pelative. 44. QuinqueHterals. 151. j> oblique and objective. \). 256. Prepositions. 198. 153. 71. 174. Quadriliterals. 19. arrangement 263. 82. 239. parts 292. . 20. . nature of. Preterite. 256. 101.. 77.. 374. „ „ . 237. Regular Plural. 220.. sentences. omission of. of. 293. „ 292. „ . 293. affixed. 156. 238. 151. of Hollow verbs (medial . Proposition. w of defective verb (final j).. Protasis and Apodosis.. . ^). Personal. Plural Ecgular. of. Poetical licence. expressing tive. 198. Eelatives. (masculine). form of words signifying. .

288. position of. of. >> concordance 235. omission of.. 90. 61-62. concordance 241. 236. 30. 190.181. 122. T. of. 236. pi.183. 2G1 Hemzated verb. Self. Simple Yerb. 184. 301. 174. 6.. article. of Irregular verbs. 182. Temvin. 25. V. etc. 174. Sounds. Substantive verb. tLa 374. of defective verbs. summary of. 71. 171. Verbal nouns. plurals of.240. „ analysis of. broken plurals „ „ of a passive verb. '^-^\ >> i^ 111. Subjunctive mood. 234. 114. . of doubled verbs. and agent. 77. 234. 198. 184. 287. of . 90. 189. 178. „ „ agent of a. of derived conjugations. 242. 234. 128.. 178. verbal. Triliteral nouns. Subjective case. Scansion. 43. 275. 256. Semivowels. 180. 264. i^^^\j 374. Verb. imperative. 168. prohibitive. Subject and predicate. „ and noun. 185. of. >> inversion of. 11.. „ i^y^ 266. 317. Tables of correspondence of forms how expressed. l^y „ form of words signifying. 288. 241.INDEX.265. 374. 237. Subject. „ >> nominal. Sentence. 66. «_j. 257. . 263. the. 180. . Tenses. 413 S- s ^^ 293.. selves. „ of hollow verbs. of. of Sentences. as the complements Teshd'ul. 26-29. omission Superlative. of. imitative. inversion of. words affecting. 289. 59. 169. 179. conditional. relative. . 234. 24.«.. 274.2J' prepositions. 178. 201. 239. 237. Syntax. 260.182. Trades. Verbal noun. „ omission of. 288. Tribes. State or condition. the. names of. „ in apposition with an agent and 287. of simple verbs. 288. . 56. „ . derived from verbs. 186. 8. 192. form of words signifying..

W. doubly transitive. AEABIC GRAMMAR. 199. 0A£| . with the governing two accusative pronouns. »» >> >> doubled. 200. 58. Hollow. 21. different Jiinds of. 244. assimilated.186. six classes 30. >> 292. Hemzated. 243. 74. of. 69. to.184. Vocative. 24. 68. 178. 224. >> „ » Passive. 185. „ parts of. 169.4U Yerb. 188. note on tbe signification of the inflexions of. correspondence semivowels. 8. 277. nasal. ujUJJl THE END. 25. syllable of. 200. 304. 67. apposition 6. >> Irregular. 291. -' ^). 188. sentences. of praise and blame. 154.185. 186. * >> (initialj). of. Juj 295. 59. 179. >> defective. 58. having two objects. 187. Vowels. 187. 188. 283. 242. 279. 178. f> subject of a passive. forms of. 58. object of. of. (initial J <". Verse. 66. Moods >> 27. 247. 186. the characteristic parts ot 30. 6. 9. 171. Indeclinable. 186. i f jU-jJl 302. in ejaculatory Verbs parts of. >> >> words cognate 231. 88. » governing by means of a preposition. )t >> >> » as signs of inflexion. 76. 246. passive of. 58. Words indeclinable. 189. abstract. a form. „ „ apocopation of the last >> denoting a mental process.j-K*:\ 302. omission of. approximate. structure of. which govern more than one object. 26. 265. J/1^1 ujUJJl ^. 153. Tenses of. Verbs.

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SANSCRIT GRAMMAR .'^1 158 00563 7078 TTATTttTTrnX'S f^ATCPn-RTT AlUT) ^ VV 000 6693204 WILLIAMS' ENGLISH AND SANSCEIT DICTIONARY.

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