DON; FEB 20, 1958



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Mr. S. F. Hoerner
Mr, We H.*Mihel Mr. L. We Ward

Aditor and Contributor Project Coozrinator

- Contributor - Contributor

Mr. T.

.e Bueruann





11T, AY-7• INADMT••.









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showing the major parametric relationships of size. and sppei Is con- hydrofoil boats acstually built. This first volume presents the more general asperts of design and development of hydrofoil oraft. The material is arranged under chapter headings as indicated in In order to give the reader some knowledge of the Table of Contents. as distinct from the more specific hydrodynamic • #information in the second volume. sidered next. a brief historical review is given first of the dve.1 . typexs and of The influence of sit. All that can be said at this time t regarding configuration and x--neral design of hydrofoil systems is "presented in a form which is believed to be understandable to the engineer engaged in the art of hydrofoil-craft design.oped. Ep.HYDROFOIL HANDBOOK VOWUJN I DESIGN OF HYDROFOIL CRAFT INTRODUCTION The Hydrofoil Handbook is subdivided into two volumes. I .-d CODFIOENTTAT.0. the background of hydrofoil research and development over the years.

construction materials and machinery types ar discussed.. and speratien of such oraft. design. . .. &'. woae analysing and calculating performance characteristics are of presented. Inc. . including such aspects as take-off. susceptible to revision after further experienrm is CON•YDITD I- 0. The advantages (and dl ýadvant7-bq).. ns foil-strut configuration and the nalysis is made of the various design studies • Mortaken to date by Gibs & Cox..s have predominant application in small sizes . of the various Arrangement of oomponei. Naance and stability of hydrofoil boats are analysed to some extent and prastlal sonditione oonulueiona affecting the design are made... is based up"s the experience the authors have eaquired in analysis.CONTFIDENTIAL INTRODUCTTON and power in hydrofoil craft.Irg the choice of configuration is given. considered.erience is still of the ocnolusi~ne reached may be cor•itdroed tentative and gained. parts of the foil system - as systems are reviewed. design of hal• ane indicat '. applicable to hydrofoil a 'rit in Structural loading . Kull shape. speed and turning. A synopsis of major considerations inflken. It is felt.a methods for strustural. with indicatic.-d Ln higner spe9ds compared to displacement-type ships..--. in one of the Appendixes.. Finally.ption was extracted from available !valuation of this material In preparing this vol'im.' that hydrofoil L.•p publications en existemg hydrofoil boats.nd g4neral are r. li1mitd$ sone lines this ex•.

performed under direction of the IL. are natrally involved to some extent. The results of these studies are more detailed than could be presented in this handbook. For example. more should be knowr and presented on It is hoped ejrnamie stability.CQiNFIDENTIAL T!NTRODUCTION howover. and their personal preferences in doing so. it does not yet give the answers to all questions which may arise in the design of hydrofoil boats. that information based on admittedly limited knowledge should be inclu. the authors have presented the results of their own studies. It should also be admitted that this volume is not complete.vy's Office of Naval Research at Gibbs & Cox.3 . structural weights and machinery aspects. from outside sources.Id rather than omitted. on certain aspects of hydrofoil boats. no information is available In these instances. The judgement of the authors in selecting subjects and conclusions. that further development work (including operation of full-size boats) will establish the experience necessary for the treatment of these items. * N COfNPWTD'NTIAL I - 0.. Inc.

A po .2 L~~j.'ý'e 14.

ye Progress in the development of hydrofoil boats was slow. a surprisingly large number of hydrofoil boats have been Never- deesigned built and tested during the last fifty years. The desire for speed was net by the airplane.1. however. and hydrofoil experiments paralleled the development of the airplane. has better riding qualities and/or higher sustained speeds in a sel. therefore. The attractiveness of the hydrofoil-supported craft over the conwater-borne craft iv that it can be operated at high speeds with the hull out of water. indicated as followa. Hydrofoil systems mA~y be classified under foiir basic typeq.2 . CONFIDENTIAL I .CONFIDENTIAL HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT K 1. . INTRODUCTION The principle of a hydrofoil traveling through water and supporting a hull is basically the same as that of a wing t..*. hydrofoils have been given more and more attention. substituting a more efficient lifting surface (the foil) for the large hull. with the advance in marine technology and the urge for higher chip speeds. Another important feature is that the foil not influenced by waves to the extent that the hull would be. thelesej. the hydrofoil-supported craft. while efficiency of trans-I port was uet by the displacement ship operating at slow speeds. The fact that the principle -hould apply to water as well as air was known prior to the turn of the censtury. the drag of which becomes * k.ravelirg through air and supporting a fuselage.ventioial ir Lis CO oexcessive at high speeds. In recent years.

7 I Submerged Foil Systems. as required. CONFTD!NTTAL - 1. etc. Such configuration" employ units of two or more foils arranged one above the other. Control of the craft's height relative afforded by the alternate aubmiargence to the water surface is and emergence of one or more of the foils. with planing surfaces at the forward end of the craft. as required. This configur- ation employs a large load-carrying foil completely submerged. b. similar to a ladder. Submerged Foil with Planing Surface Control.) that change the angles of attack of various foil components in relation to the craft.1IAL HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT a.CONFIDEK. Control is afforded by the planing surfaces maintaining their position at the water surface. Control is (maehaniealt electrical. as required.3 . Surfaoe-Piercing "V" Foil Systems. This configuration employs V-shaped foils whose tips pierce through the water surface. Control is afforded by the increase or decrease of toil area. 0 G. while the craft trims to i' diffsrent angles thus imposing changes in foil angle and consequent changes in foil lift. thus changing the lift. as required. This configuration employs afforded by remote means fully-submerged foils. Multiple-Foil "Ladder" Systems. do .

4 Oenerally.1A . been explored almost concurrently in the early experimental years. but actual developmente of usable craft proceeded roughly in the chronological order.CONFIDENTIAL HISTORICAL DEVELOTP1NT There are . Progress is uients.wv variations of tha above systems and various comMost of these configurations have binations of different elements. go listed above. CON fl. continuing in the developuent of all types and arrange- The historical review presented herein will describe briefly the elments of the various systems# their development and performance characteristics. however.TNT I . somewhat greater efficiency and refivoment of control. and some of the actual craft that have been built and ""perated utiiuing hydrofoils. each type of system is somewhat more difficult to design and perfect than the preceding onej attaining.

but actual developmnts of usable craft proceeded roughly in the chronological order. each type of system is somewhat more difficult to design and perfect than the preceding onel attaining. however. somewhat greater efficiency and refinement of control. ard some of the actual craft that have been built and C. The historical review presented herein will describe briefly the their development and performance elements of the various systems characteristics.CCNFIDENTIAL HISTORICAL DEVELO4PMENT There are marn variations of the t'vi' systems and various com- bination3 of different elements. oentimung in the development of all types and arrange- Progress is merts. Most of these configurations have been explored *lmost concurrently in the early experimental years. r I- ~t CONflD1TZAL . Generally. iperated utilising hydrofoils. as listed above.

1.5 . ilW length of hull in ft resistance in :Lb total weight in lb total weight in tons i V speed.CONFIDENTIAL HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT NOTATION L R pi :. usually in knots lift over drig ratio L/D iit CONFIDENTIAL I .

preferably at three points. talŽe-off iýwell as landing on the "hydrovanes" was very smooth and in t1h'l preferable to the heavy pounding on ordinary pIn'. Between 1908 and 1918. lateral stability is readily obtained.. By combining A natural type of height stabilization is two such syste-!. f1cpt rrpccJ-. one at each side of the boat.n- COIITFThNTIAL I - 1.Forlanini's (and Crocco's) boats seem to have been in the neighborhood of 1.CONFIDENTIAL HISTORICAL DBVEVLPMNT 2..5 tons and 75 Hr. i i-. fuidoniI utilizing ForIaninl's results. thus provided.6 . . By arranging two or more units in tandem fashion. This multiple-point method also employed in most longitudinal stability is of stabilization.00 or 500 lb/ft 2 total projected foil area. applied sets of V-shaped multiple foils to Peaplare floats (Figure 1. reaching maximum speeds in the order of h5 knots. with betwron 60 ard 3200 HP. The average foil loading in this development wae in the order of 1. also provided. MJLTIPLE-FOIL LADDER SYSTEMS At the turn of the century (1898 to 1908) ForlaniniI was experimenting with multiple foil systems attached to the sides of a boat rungs of a ladder.000 lb total weight. He and hs ar.1) in order to facilitate their take-off. Reportedly.noriates In the "ItalianNavy successfully onerated more than ten differerit sepplanps between 1hO0 and 55. is of the later designs of hydrofoil craft. losing supporting area as the unit emerges from the water and gaining submerggd area if it becomes more deeply immprsnd.

In thiq rerpect. he reports that it became somewhat difficult to er'-9n fo-s.. l " HISTORICAL DREVLOPIENT (01 F0RLANINI BOAT ji~ ()CROCCO BOAT t •(C) SUIDON FLOAT EARLY ITAL'NI DESIGN1S (REF... or boatn) rtquired to lift the airplane weight out of the watto'... CONFl. 1) FIGURE 1...1 also realized¶ the influence of the craft size xlpon tho dmimnsions of the foil system (in relation to those of the flont. In tht- necessary size for the heavier seaplanes....7TYITIAL I -1.7 . .



The maximum flying speeds of the airplanes involved at that time were only 60 to 130 mph. The Italian development evidently came to an

end when, even in taking off,, the aircraft speeds grow into one class higher than those of water craft. Cavitation and ventilation mutt have Nevertheless, references 2

pored problems which could not be overcome.


to 5 prove that interest and experimentation in hydrofoils as a means of assisting aircraft in take-off, were resumed from time to time. Experiments with multiple or ladder-type hydrofoil systems were later repeated in Canada. A 5 ton craft designed by Ba2dwin was built

and tested around 1918 by Alexander Graham Bell's research group on a lake in Nova Scotia. Propelled by a pair of aircraft engines and air-

screw#, the craft reached 70 mph.- 60 knots (probably in smooth water).
The Bell-Baldwin craft had an appearance similar to an airplane, with a cylindrical fuselage and stub wings supporting engines and lateral, foil


For illustrations of this design see references 6,

25 or 27. around

Another multiple-foil motor boat was designed and billt 1942 for MACA2 .

Arrangement and appearance appear to be similar to No rs•iilts sepm

the Canadian craft described in the next paragraph. to be reported, however, on the NACA boat.

The Canadian Navy 7 recently constructed a hydrofoil boat in th order of 5 tone. principle, The configuration, typical of the mlnilftI.-foll Tested in waves between 1 and

is presented in Figure 1.2.

2 ft height, the minimum resistance of 20% (Figure 1.3)

highor th;,












CC? t.Tbi.Y\'TTAL




} i" /
















3 FIG~URE 1.

the Bell-Baldwin's optimuim smooth-water valie (whi-h can be derived from refer-ence 6, as I n the ordpr cf ilb"'). At

~nry raite, bcamr~n of
v-H po.1bly b"_rueiwlq h-crc.fo, ,i •yst.rm I

interference between foi]h and siipportinfy rtritr
of ventilation, the effie-ci.y of tn,, l~d,!,r-t, rr

generally low.

Disrefrardinr this aspect, tbm


bo-lt hans
frfraýhn of

ueccessfully operated at hiirh sr.med in ro(orh
this craft are prrknt',rd in rrferrnnep 27.





A more modern multiple design (using V-shaped folls is the boaýt designed by John Hj, Carl & Sons8 . A 12 ft model of the 53 ft craft is shown in Figure 1.4~. Employing one central strut for each of the


foil units, the mnuber of corners is effectively reduced. The struts The are raked and the foils are ewet. 1hack, to reduce, ventilation.

Carl boat, originally designed for 33 tons, has been built and tested
in half scale size with a displacement of somewhat more than 6 tons. Figure 1.5 shows a calm-water mInimum renlrtnnce ratio of 13% for the 53-foot craft. The maximum speed obtained with A Pair of h50 IP airI'hoto-


craft engines and air propellers Is between 70 and 80 knotsi. graphs of this craft are p~resented in referenre 27.



0'53 FT.










('c-T '



Guidoni adopted this shape in his multiple system. SURFACE-PIERCING FOILSV Another means of stabilization is by surface-piercing. No then started development of a larger. illustrated in Figure 1. ending CONFTThrNTTAL T 1. - r ~result in a stable configuration. Because of the V-shape. MEVUPMIENT 3.1. Tietjoens a German aerodynamicist. One of them is shown in Figure 1. V-shaped Upon varying the depth of submergence of such f1oilst their lifting area increases and decreases. Today. such as Tistjenu' designl4Pl5. demonhtrated small boats (in the order of 20 ft in length and up~to 2t4 knots in speed) on the Delaware River In~ 1932 and in Berlin in 1936.CONFEDENITIAL HISTORTCAT. The first example of a surface-piercing V-shaped foil seems to be Croacots design. Vert#ons is producing & hydrofoil boats in several sties.. Von Sehert*116 started his work on hydrofoil boats in 1927 using surfsoe-pioroift OV" foils.13 .' During the last war his single "V"-foil design was employed in building a larger-size boat for the German f Navy at the Vertens Boatyard1 . automatically providinlg height stabilization. respectively. these foils can Combining one such foil with also have lateral stability of their own. therefore. a small stabilizing foil attached to the stern of a boat can.6. BY 1935 he had completed 8 experime~ntal boats. pm~~rrp4r-carrying boat for the KOln-DMsselderf Rheln-Sehiffahrts Oemssmlshaft. designed to the samn configuration. foils.

!nt typical of K this development.CONTTDENTIAL HISTORICAL DFWMIMM VERTENS (REFS. most of them An example Is shown in Figure 1. 15 AND 25). CO1JFT~TIAL . During the last war i. built aid tested 8 or more boat types (a total number of K 1 boats about twice that number) for t j -m~an Navy. Schertel designed.7. The Figure also presents some tank-model results V'ý7!1tilation.i conjuncotion with the Sachsenberg Shipyard. demonstrating resistance ratios In the order of 911. sketch in Figure 1.8 illustrates the tandem arrangem. FIGURE 1. had lengthupt having Vma The boats 100 ft and displacements up to 80 tons. The 12 to 4*8 knots.6 with a 32 ft demonstration boat In 1939 of 50 HP and 29 knots. This development was intended to lead to the perfection of Schnellboats (the German equilvalent of PT boats) for service in the Eniglish Channel.

as submarine chasers (60 tonm). although Schertel-Sachsenberg' a efforts advanced A the art of hydrofoil designp they did not pass the trial phase.. the Russians took over one of the Sachaenberg boats and most of the engineering staff. At the termination of hostilities in 19h5~. they now have a staff of 1400 engin~eers mostly in the f Leniaigrad area engaged in the design of hydrofoil boats to be used for fast coiwnunitatiora. hydrofoil boats are superior to displacement craft above a certain Froude number. According to reference 20. thus favoring higher-speed and smaller-size applications. anti-aircraft CONFIDENTIAL . In retrospect.CONFMflRTTAL HISRTORCAL DEVELOPMENT cavitation and rough water had appreciable iniflue~nce. 4 t1 k'4ý 17-TON SCHERTEL-SACHSENBERG BOAT VS-6. however. FIGURE 1.. Tletjensl and SchertelA concluded that on a resistance basis. behavior and stability of the full-size craft. upon performance.7 * An far as site and speed are concerned.

LL rn k 0 CL IL * 0 >0 Z z ft a SU) w0 CC .

tzerland after the war. * Some 1 1. Von Schertel continued activities in Swi.9f It seemi. partly because of ventilation. This boat (Figure 1. thatf IATt.17 ..CON~'IDENTIAL HISTORICAL DEVEWPMNT "cruisers" (104 tons).9) is claim~ed to have been in service for thirty or forty thousand miles. K *-1O4 SCHERTEL BOAT ON LAKE LUCERNE. The Supramar Corporation on Lake Lucerne de~veloped an "excursion boat" for 32 passengers1 6 .haped hydrofril oyi tems have exporienced son'e diff~iculties when turning. Tietjens as well a" Schertel have overcome this difficulty by applying curved foils of circular-amc formn rat-her than V-9hA"ped foils of their boats ame reported to bank inboard in turnp. knots. and landing-craft with speeds up to Data of boats actually built in Russia are not known. however.I ~FIGURE 1..

2 FIGUR~E 1.K ~COMMEThIAL HIST'ORICAL DtrVU1OPHNT It is also possibl.10 COVT7'T1FTTAt 77. to combine 3 or 1*single V-roil units. 1Full-t6alt anati resistance results (Figure 1.1 I . 21).*L- ¶ w~tom T ý._ vas dcna It' aker Narnifacturing Co -Tv . BAKER BOAT FOR ONR (REF. thus *-%.11) clearly show superiority in performance of this type over any ladder-type system.10 showse arangomat of 4~ ratri'etabloe "1" shiped foils. Figure 1.* t~Be Q!t ef a 3.in Wisconsin.

. ti . ~ ....21)... -.... ....--I.. ~~~FIGURe'II T T IFT-D !T A•. . -........ .1-- .. .0. AT.. . ~ ~~ ~ US0CAl ~ iV1lM1T cI I to" W()% N I 0010 o0 ~~KNOTS 30 40 FULL-SCALE TRIAL RESULTS OF THE BAKER BOAT (REF.

1. of California 2 6 employing Grunberg-type stabilization. It was found that the planing skids add considerably to the resintance. a hump in the fuction of R against V at 5 take-off" speed is quite typical. Cons-iderable CONFIDFNTIAL I . it was found desirable fo have 10 to 20% of the boat's we1ght on the skid%. In flying condition. Another Grtnberg configuration is the 21 ft long landing-craft model built by Oibbs & Coxp Inc.I (Figure 1. Orunberg9 . Planing skids are actually a component going one rtep bpck to planing craft. In this system as well as in the later described fully-submerged types. the height of the planing surface is approximately fixed at the surface of the water.12.13). main foil. show a minimum ratio R/W in the order of 10%. Model-test results of the NACA 1 0 . reproduced in Figure 1. with pounding and a certaln smount of spray Involvpd. adjusts itself to the proper angle of attack as the hull trims about the skids. The described system may be named after its original designer. more or less in the fashion of weathercock stability. STABILIZATION BY PLANING DEVICES f Another means of stabilizing hydrofoil craft is by planing skids located at both sides of the bow. A small experimental boat was built and tested for ONR by the Joshua Randy Corp. located aft of the craft's O0 and fixed relative to the hull. In testing this boat. who proposed and model-tested such a craft in France before I.CONFIDENTIAL HISTORTCAL DEVELOPMENT 4. (•1939.20 .

d systrpm.~r :i.21 .12F I - 1. SUBMERGED FOIL K 1/0 SCALE MODEL OF 9I'D SKIDA £330 TONS L s 54 FT 0 10 to 30 40 FULL-SCALE KNOTS CHARACTERISTICS OF A GRLJNBERG (rONFIGURATION MODEL-TESTED BY THE NACA (REF. or auxil iary Lolls in the cski. 'provemen'~t reslilts frrom I riorporat~inf. FIGURE 1.CONFI'DFIII AL PA(I.10). shock ahsmrber!. Wii J3!ct? D1AllvlkP-N.

CONFIDENTIAL HISTORICAL DEVEO)PMM U0 0 °I-C w0 W xu 0 ' h .A §1- CZ I -1.22 . .

CONFODENTIAL I .23 . and only manually adjustable foils. "weathercockw fashion. is to that in a Grunberg configuration. Figure 3 calls the craft "stable After replacing the air prope ller shown in 1. ancee ratio plotted in the graph could be improved by increasing the aspect ratio of the foils. FULLY SUBM M 0 FOILS Fully-submerged hydrofoils cannot give sufficient hydrodynamic stability of their own. are obtained in a amner. the Hook configuration The minimmm resist- appears to be a favorable design in smaller sizes. to control and to stabilize a fully submerged foil configuration by means of a suitable "artificial" control syctem. Again the rear foil An investigation by the British Admiralty1 as a church# in waves. equipped with submerged.. however. possible. which for each front foil. The jockey motions are utilized to control the angles of Height and roll stabilization similar in effect follows in attack of fully submerged forward foils. A purely mechanical system for controlling a submerged foil systert was successfully applied by Christopher Hook 1 2 . A~s illustrated in "feel" the 2 Figure l.14 by a conventional outboard motor. a pair of floating and/or planing "Jockeys" water surface.lh.1. We may assume that this became evident in 191122 which was It is Richardson-White's experiments with a dinghy-.CONFIDENTIAL HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT 5.


the level of the water surface is sensed by a series of electrical contacts on a pair of "struts". combination with a tandem-hydrofoil Inc. electrically driven actuators are positioned. Several arrangements were investigated in this wayt b. a. CONFIDETIAL 1. Controlling the two halves rear toil as needed. Such a system was developed by Gibbs & Cox.15 and 1. o. in 1952 and tested in configuration (Figures 1. Through a series of relays. I! Controlling the two halves of the forward foil and all of the rear foil.16). Controlling allto alethe forward foilth of and w alle of the rear foil. f 'As described in reference 23. thus adjusting the angles of attack on suitable parts of the foil system. All of the arrangennnts listed provide control in height.1.25 . The last type of control is )'vard and only triming the basically identical to Hookt' mechnnical system of actuating a pair of forward foils.CONFIDENTTAL HISTOCTCAL DEVELOPMENT Another means of controlling fully submerged foils is by an electro-mechanical control system similar to an aircraft autopilot. pitching and rolling (also in turne).



experimental craftJ for larger-size hyd1rofoil boats.17 shows favorable resistInc.16). ance characteristics of the Gibbs &Cox. Figure 1.28 - . FIGURE 1. Automatic control appears to be optimum Figure 1.CONFIENTIAL HISTORICAL DEVEWPMENT Fully submerged foils may be expected to give t~he smoothest ride in a seaway. Another design utilizing submerged foils is that of the Hydrofoil Corporation 2 5# tested in 19!ýh. 10 -TON EXPERIMENTAL BOAT BY HYDROF~OIL CORPORATION (REF. 25). 5J. Thm advantage of an electrical system lies in the re- finements that can be added by ua5.ng gyroscope-conrtrol elements in association with the water-level sensing system to provide a variable control range and a craft behavior which is superior to that of hydrodynamically btabilized craft.15 and 1.18 shows this boat underway.18 C'CN1 TD7T TrTA L I 1. Kii (Figures 1.

this list shows a decrease of resistance and an ia. of displacement. Only test results on incomplete models are existing.o (a) (b) (c) (d) Results in Figure 1. there are also additional photographs showing many of the boats mentioned. DVMWLOPMNT 6. Type of System .CONFIDENTIAL HITTORTCAr. (and other information). including propulsion parti. Considering the resistance ratios plotted in the preceding graphs the following generalized groups of hydrofoil is chronological. the Table on the following page number" Vknots/ txafftination of the boats listed in shows that most of those designs have a "Proud. Some general analysis of their characteristics can be given.3 (with 20%) were tested in waves.Nil Footnote (R/W)min (1vbD)mnx multiple Grnbearg (a) (b) 16f 11% 6 9 13 Piercing Submerged (0) (8) 9% 8 Average minimau resistance ratios are estimated for 8mooth water.reate in efficiency with time. Gibbs & Cox found 6% without propulsion partm.7. (Aone)/ in the order of 30.7 are in the order of 45. and it IP5 . although the Canadian multiple-foil All known boats are below 100 tons boats 6 . boats may be listed. the full-scale value may be fhiier. Essentially. CONFIDM1TIAA I -I. At maximdm speed. GENERAL DISCUSSION Discussions of the hydrofoil development have been presented in references 16. 22 and 25. In these publications and in reference 27.9 .

9 5..30 r : " .n9 ~S r'w .3 700 1250 900 10 1300 500 165 30 1400 380 60 45 53 20 46 46 29 20 53 39 60 60 70-80 22 54 44 35 28 48 40 tJ Sachsenberg VS-8 8aohsenberg VS-10 16 16 1943 1943 80 46 3600 4 6 00 105 82 42 60 Schertel Zxporiuiental Russian Sacheenberg 16 20 1947 19L.v±q% .5 ? 2.7 2.6 6. Sachsenberg VSG 8auhsenberg TS 6 7 8 14 15 15 25 25 16 16 1918 1952 1954 1932 1943 1952 1953 1953 1942 1942 4.0 1.1 10 45o 10 125 10(?) 18 50 200 h5 14 23 14 20 21 35 40 22 35 21 25 ? CONPID!?iTIAL I ] . . .CJONFIDENTIAL HISTORICAL DMVELOPMENT TABLE.7 17 6.5 0.t- ''-.3 1.5 0.8 57 80 5000 32 82 27 50 Swiss SBhertel boat Baker Commercial Baker for ON! Joshua Hendy Oibbs and COX Oibbs and Cox Hydrofoil corporation 16 21 26 23 U 25 1952 1951 1952 1950 1952 1953 1954 9.7 ? 13 9 2. . LISTIN)3 A NUMBER OF ACTUALLY BUILT AND MT1MTD HYDROFOIL BOATS Design Reference Year Tons HP Lft Vkin+qs Bell-Baldwin Canadian R-100 Carl and Sons Tietjens Vertene-Tietjens Vertens Vertens WCruiser" Vertens Runabout .

. Grunberg skids. CONFIDENTTAL I 1. have reached maximum speeds up to 50 knots and the multiple-system boats up to 80 knots. In a ieneral way it may be said. Statements on the smoothness of riding on foils in rough water are found in various reports. at certain unfavorable speeds. Cox#& 1952 research craft Oibbs 24 made turns in the order of h or 5 times its 20 ft length. from hydrofoil boats. higher sustained speeds are expected With regard to turning. Also.CONFIDENTIAL HISTORICAL DMVELOPMNT Considering in the presented illustrations the tested functions of resistance as a function of speed. however. The Canadian boat has similarly a critical speed at 35 The fact that Sachsenberg boats knots (probably because of cavitation).31 . stability and behavior characteristics cannot be quoted in numbers. Sohertel reports turning circles of between 3 and 7 times the boat length (of 53 ft) for his 17-ton VSO boqt. Therefore. the Baker boat shows some increase of the (RP*) value beginning approximately at 28 knots (possibly because of ventilation). and incidence control systems have certain satisfactory characteristics. i• Unlike speed performance. that all "V" foil systems. Some of the surface-piercing types seem to have trouble because of ventilation breaking-in along the piercing ends. especially in turning. $oime. following soas can be troubler_ Orbital motions combine with the forward speed in this caýe. can only be understood by assuming that this was achieved in ventilating and/or cavitating condition. ladder-type foil units.

well at all headings. that his 80 ton boat VS8 performed very in a 6 by 120 ft Meaway.3•2 . DEVELOPMENT that the foil has the tendency of flying out of the water. ICo CONFTDmNTIAL i ~I - 1. and the boat's hull may sit down onto the water.CONFIDENTiAL HISTORTCAT. Schertel 16 reports. the foil may stall. traveling at 37 knots. Subsequently. however.

ONR. Aero 1910. Nova Scotia. 10O6 (1944). p. Confidential Rpt for ONR. Hook. 3. Brit. Inc. RAS 1928. Naval Research Establishment in Dartmouth. ofS'ipply). reprinted GPO (Washingtcn) Publ. "Tank Tests on Streamlined Wing-Tip Float with Hydrofoil Attached". 2595 (1921). Graham Loll's Laboratories at the Bras d'or Lakes". September 1954. 7. .1. 10. P. "Tank Tests of Outboard Float Strnamline Body with 3. 16 (1919) No. Rpt PU-88 (1953). L"Aeronatiticue No. BT 1440 (1937). June 1939. Society. 6. 5. Canadian Aviation 1948. Gibbs & Cox. "Possibilities of Fitting Hydrofoils to Flying Boat Hull". Trani Liverpool Engg. Design of a Stable Foil System". 205. 561. Vol. 9. 25. RAE DITP Rpt. "Hydrodynamic Lift Through Hydrofoils. RAE Rpt. 1950 to 1954. Owen. 2. Guidoni. "Develo "ent of 53-Foot Hj!5rofoil Vehicle". 'The HD-14. *Seaplanes and Hydrofoils".ACA Rpt AR.COnFIDENTIAL HISTORICAL DM. 19. Land.1. a 70-Miler Developed at Dr. i Hydrofoil". NACA Memo Rpt for BnAer 1940. Nutting. L'Aerotechnique No. Grunberg. Smithsonian Report 1919 p.TOPMENT "REFRENCES 1. Llewelyn & Davies. Baldwin. 'Tank Tests of Grunberg Type Boat with Lifting Hydrofoil". A Series of Reports to ONR on Model Tests and Analysis of a f i * Hydrofoil Boat. 217. "Operation of 21 Foot Model of Hydrofoil Landing Craft (Grunberg Configuration)". King. Brit. p. 20. 'Seaplanes J. - Fifteen Years of Naval Aviation". "Hydrofoil Boat for Ocean Tranel". 63. Coombes & Davies. 48. See alao Flight. No. 19h8 p. S8. Min. No.. Canadian Hydrofoil Project Progress and Trials of the R-100. RAE (Brit. Confidential Rpt for 12. CON FPITh]TTAL I . 4. 61. 174. Nov. . Summarized by Carl & Gilruth.33 13. "Tank Tests Hydrofoil Boat with Incidýrce Control (Hydrofin)". Motor Boat Vol. December 1953. Tech Note Apro 1922 (1907 Restricted). 1908 p.

German Document 1951 (translated by ONR).. Manufacturing Co. Tietjens. 16. 1953. 24. 27. Ine. Tech. 56.L. Trans Society NAME 1953. "Sumuary Information on Application of Hydrofoils". Schiff and Hafen 1953 p. Handbuch der Werften Vol. 19. Leehey & Stilwell.3h . Gibbs & Cox. 11. 20. Rpt 13531. Inc. Clement. TMB Rpt R-335 (1948). Booker. 103. TMB Rpt C-545 (1952). p. Towing Tank Results on Boat No. KBR-SP Hydrodynamic Archive. "Hydrofoil Boats". Tank Tests of a 1/6 Scale Model. Curry. 23.". Buermann. Verlag Hansa Hamburg 1952. 2& 24. 30. lydrofoil Development for VS-10 (Model- 18. Towing in Hamburg Tank). No. 15 (1947). 27. "Hydrofoil Boats". Hoerner. No. Sept. "Hydrofoil Studies. Tech. 8 7 & 106. "The Hydrofoil Boat". See also Yearbook Deutsche Luftfahrtforschung 1937 p. Hansa (German Periodical) 1952 p. II. 12. Rpt 13531. 22. Von Schertel. 1090. 15. p. Life Magasine "Boats that Fly Atop the Water". VS-8. 17. 1361. "Operation of Servo-Stabilized 20-Foot Hydrofoil Research Craft with Fully Submerged Foils". Vertens.CONFIDENTIAL HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT l4. B3ller. 1953. Confidential British Haslar Rpt No. p. 242. "Tests of 23-Foot Hydrofoil Boat Built by Baker 21. 25. "Appraisal of Hydrofoil Supported Craft". Rpt for ONiR. 26. 1950. Xx-German Hydrofoil Craft VS-6. Tpsue of C0NFYnrTIAL I . Werft-Reederei-Hafen 1937. "Hydrodynamic Tests of 20-Foot Hydrofoil Craft". Joshua Hendy Corp. "German Development of Hydrofoil Boats". No. Gibbs & Cox. Sachsenberg Documents (1943)t No. 19R4.

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W- . This means that machinery must be fravailable on a weight basis to give the power required for a certain There art other physical principles which influence size or Sepeedi speed. discussed and some relationships derived.CONFIDENTTAL SIZE AND SPEED INTRODUCTION Gross weight and speed are basic quantities which determine to a large extent the function of a vehicle. These quantities are inter-related as a result of the performance and component-weight characteristics of the craft. such as foil area requirements and cavitation.2 W*.. These are The latter are used in conjunction with the results of certain hydrofoil design studies ito compare hydrofoil craft with existing craft on a size-speed plot. * (CONMMDI TIAL I-2.

F h a f p k for foil system for hull for machinery for fuel for payloadknots indicating I CONFTDENTIAL I .D/qS .3 .CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SPRMT) NOTATION. possibly .drag coefficient b t/c foil span thickness ratio of foil section . D W L A L/) p nip SHP drag or resistance weight in Ib.foil aspect ratio *b2/S beam of hull in ft A 1L B length of hull (also lift) Sk H CD draft of hull in ft block coefficient wight fraction (wOth proper subscript) fraction for machinery and fuel rweight Subscripts.2.L dynamic lift (also length of hull) displacement in long tons lift-drag ratio effective power (in lb ft/sec) effective horsepower shaft horsepower DlP/'SHP *rL - propulsive efficiency overall efficiency T R S edanein range in nautical miles planform area of foil sytem hours V 9• speed (in ft/sea) • q CL CD density of water (lb sec2/fte ) 0 .5qV 2 = dynamic pressure * L/qS a lift coefficient .

1) then L (:2. thus becomes SSHP. at the steady speed Vk. K• ( be written in terms of the shaft horsepower SHP delivered at the machinery.CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SPMD 1. by introducing the overall propulsive efficiency r. applicable to any condition of speed and load - indicatirg the power required for thn condItinn.1) where SHP is the effective horsepower.DV/550 .DVk/326 This relationship may (2.88 L/" Vk * P/SHP. - f considered. CONMEM-TAt I 2. This expression is a general one.2) where A Vk - displacement in long tons speed in knots L/b a lift-drag ratio This then gives the power required to drive a craft of the dP-placement Aand with the efficiency described by (L/D). '"6. which is meant to include mechanical as well as hydrodynamic losses. SPM-POW R-WLIOHT RELATIONSHIPS a.1- V . Required Power A craft moving at the speed V (ft/seal) and experiencing a drag D (in ib) requires a certain effective power delivered by the propellers P(lb ft/see) *DVj MP . The above expression (2.

100.. 21 p 0 '0' - toCCTF . .COU1FID~TNTTAL 7)1Z F. P1 S EED 7: 1 17- POWER EQUIRE FIUR .

(SHP)/. The use of the lift-drag ratio appears to be very convenient as a parameter to express the hydrodynamic qualities of the craft.3) E where the notation "E3 = "overall" efficiency = r (L/D) has been introduced for simplicity. i. (as a function may also grow corresponding to a power higher than at least Thus.3) refers to a This means that variation of It speoific condition in a particular desi. The approximately as the square of the speed. because of wave making of Froude niber) it two. K at speeds between 10 and 40 or 50 knots.<i •ONFID•rIAL SIZEI AND SPEED The power required to be installed in the craft will be that corresponding to maximum speed and full load condition. ( A cavitation evidently affects the efficiency (directly and/or indirectly).1) on the basis of this expressions which allows the selection of power for a given speed and overall efficiency "E". load or speed implies designing of a new craft for the new conditions selected. At speeds above 50 knots. A chart has been prepared (Figure 2. the lift-drag ratio is CONFIDENTIAL I - 2. indicating E values for actually built hydrofoil boats between S* 4 and 6. taken from the Table on page 1.88 (2.-r.6 . n and L/D being those values corresponding to maximum-speed and full-load conditions. thus reducing the overall efficiency to the order of 2 or 3. should be emphasized that the expression (2.) req'd 6. is Statistical evidence included in the graph. frictional drag (in Ib) of a displacement-type ship varies.30 of Chapter 1.e.

7 .2) at V 0. in the case of an aircraft or hydrofoil craft (or a fast planing boat). the latter being substantially constant between simila designs of high-speed. maximum speed. the lift Is due to dynamic pressure on the lifting Both lift and drag depend accordingly on surface (wing or bottom).3) depending upon full load.5. the overall efficiency is found to be graph (Figure 2. maximum speed and "overall efficiency" E.5. DESIGN KXAMPLE NO. To sum up. is a good measure of the overall performance.e. Therefore the lift-drag ratio for equal design conditions (i.5 10 - 5. Entering the I0 4 knots. is the quantity 9 (L/D). the power required to be installed in a craft may be found by a simple relationship (2. the specific power required is found to be (SIP/A) M is then 55 50 - 55.CONFID ITIAL STX AND SPEED ~D ^601VT times f(Froude n~umber and hull shape)(2)t On the other hand. The needed power 2750 SHP. for E . and this quantity should not vary between similar designs to any great extent. substantially constant. full load) and for designs of the same aerodynamic cleanness. for such craft. which includes the propulsive efficiency. the square of the speed. dynamically supported craft. COFTDErNTTAL I .1 What is the SHP required to propel a hydrofoil boat of I0 4 knote? Assuming a lift-drag - A- 50 tons at a speed of V ratio I/D 1 and a propulsive efficiency r 10 9 - 0. 2.2. Thus.

including lubricating oil and water consumed. To illustrate this dependence. included too. hull engineering. etc. etc. required to CONFID•'TTAL I -2. etc.e. the power available (i. but including equipment. "Machinery" includes all items required to propel the craft. mail. machinery foundations. it crew and their effects and the stores. fittings. and upon the specific weight of the machinery. as main engines. outfit. but not the cre'i etc.CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SPEED b. passengers. cargo.e. Available Power Disregarding limitations of machinery due to permissible space. i. such transmission. "Payload" is the total "ussful"load carried by the craft. "Fuel" means the total wight of fuel. A breakdown of the weight components of water craft is made as followst "Hull" weight denotes the built weight of the craft excluding machinery items. However.8 . possible to be installed) in a craft of certain basic characteristics. voyage should be considered as rPayload" (below). depends upon the margin of weight left 4 over for machinery. propellers. are Liquids that are not consumed. ( S shall also be understood to include the (foils + struts) in hydrofoil craft. excess fuel carried for the return auxiliaries. shafting. This weight component also includes the In this analysis.

The following assumptions are made as to the primary functional dependence of the items on the primary variablest "Hull" hh/4 '• - kh installed (2. the armament. There are some marginal items difficult to put in one group or another .5) "AMAchinery" r2240 V "Fuel" "TFuel A • 22- CT [SHPA -)installed "Payload" Ap/A -k where A with (SHP/A) a a T installed - gross weight in long tons subscripts as above - specific SHP installed machinery specific wýight lb/STIP . In a military craft.overall fuel rAte lb/SliP per hour - endurance (full power) hours along with "ni" and "c" "k" indicates weight fractions which - - CONFIDMFNIAL I -2.9 . ammunition and extra crew required for such purposes are considered as payload too.CONFIDENTITAL SIZE AM SPEED operate the craft. All the weight items must be included in one of the four groupings.common sense must be used to place these items. since their sum must be equal to the full-load displacement.

2.2240 •A/(m + cT) (2.kh . (1 . Assuming that the fractions kh and k - have been fixed. Considering a certain type of engine with certain values of "m" and "Oc" and considering a fixed high-speed endurance T.kp) as there remains the fraction of the gross weight p indicated in equation (2.R/Vk may be used. if tfte range instead of the endurance is specified.8) range at Vkin nautical miles Vk .maximum speed in knots CONTIDMTIAL I . including the fuel for a given endurance. where R t (hours) (2. the relationship .10 .7) Values of "m" and "c* for typical engines are also given in Appendix "A".6) . giving a relationship between ther variables as followst S1.available for fuel and machinery. the maximum power possible to be installed under these conditions is thent (SP/&) available .6) Some numerical vtlues for the weight fraction kh are given in Appendix "A". The quantity (m + cT) is seen to be an effective specific weight of the machinery.CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SMED are constants in a particular design* The sum of those weight fractions must be equal to unity.kh -p * "Minstalled 2240 (m + cT) (2.

weights for shafting. propellers and other component parts of propulsion have to be added before entering ( the value "m" into any calculations.illustration.CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SPEED It should be noticed though that the speed V is available.7) as well as the required power (equation 2. presented fo.e.2. not a basic quantity in establishing (SHP/&) A chart has been prepared (Figure 2.11 . ____ m +cT It SHP 6.3).2) illustrating the above relationship (equation 2. by thus: (2. This chart may be used to block out a certain design.88 vk N should be noted that in using basic engine information (such as given in Chapter 3). i. A design example is [I: CONFTDr.NTIAL I .9) f equating the required power to the available power.

CONFINTh1WAL SIZE AND SPEFM it.2 CONFIDENTIAL I-2. K' li itL ) I T !pmul! "4 4ý gif! ~ .ti N .88 K REOUIRED POWER VERSUS AVAILABLE POWER FIC4URE 2. gOITi~iS .12 .5AND 91' 2240 II SHP _ 6.

4. a line can be drawn in the lower left-hand part of the graph.1) the upper left-hand part of the graph indicates a weight fraction for (machinery + fuel) of p o 24%.4. The payload fraction is then . CONFIDENTIAL I - 2. (b) What is the range of the craft considered for a specified I I payload of 10 tons.0.0. For an assumed hull-weight fraction of kh od. L and the payload is 4 .h) with an average gasoline engine (having c a0.7.55 (as in Example No. the available payload fraction is then kp .2. .6).2.1 . . which is equivalent to k the hull-weight fraction k 0 0- 0. a range is obtained in the order of Ra 350 miles.0. For this value and for a value of SHp/A .1. the endurance is found in the lower right-hand part of the graph (Figure 2.1 .2) in the order of T . the value (m + cT) 16 lb/AP is obtained. A similar variation of endurance (or range and payload) can also be found if comparing a heavier but more efficient Diesel engine (with c . on the basis of a specified range of 300 miles? ...13 . the endurance is in the order of 21 hours.4 . Assuming now a "typical gas turbine". Comdinning now T= 21 hours with the speed of 40 knots. Two such lines are shown as examples. the available endurance is found to be TI_16 hours.36 50 w 18 tons.O.4 value with the value of 55SHP/ton * in the upper left-hand part of Figure 2.o. a compound engine (as given in the graph).10.o.5 hours. it is found that (m + cT).For Combining th41 the weighE fraction p .24 .0. Using however. 2.36.2? .2 (a) What is the payload of the craft considered in Example No.Traveling at the maximum speed of 40 knots.CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SPEED DESIGN EXAMPEI NO.0. For the characteristics (m and c) of the particular machinery involved. Using the gas-turbine line in the lower left-hand part.2.

therefore.11) above (as it actually should be noted that ti. giving the maximum speed for a craft having a certain performance. c.10) or (2. It is seen that there is no direct influence of size on speed. Maximum Speed By equating the SHP required for a certain speed (2. why is larger displacement craft have higher ranges than smaller ones the beneficial decrease of the Froude number with increasing size This is not true of at fixed speed. is essentially In fact. CONFTDEITITL I - 2.3) to the available power on a weight basis (2.* range too.7). the only reason independent of sise for a given speed.11) c. it p. t~ot expect lncrenies in range or speed as the suie is increased.) in (2. depending on the range. m. One should.10) ( A similar function. Also. vkmx- 326 . does). which increanes the efficiency E. only connection between the two arises when size affects one of the "constants" (1.14 ..CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SPEED [.• -326 X Pl~m + cT) is: (2. certain weight characteristics and a specified engine the endurance$ - depending on Vk. a relationship can be derived. etc.- c R/M The (2. however. hydrofoil craft.

5 3 V2 . as well as by the dynamic lift of the foil system In flying condition.coNg DExT. and dynamic pressure 0. The lift Of the fOil system depends upon foil area.knots s fi§Ii" CL W lif'v coefficient 'weight weight . iift to support the weight Of the craft is thrfret ' 790 2 V CL 0 LVk2 The foil area required (2. coefficient.be expreec-• . CO1D2. UENCE OF PH'YSCAL SIZE at _Hull Versus Foil Dimensions 'One fundamental characteristic of hydrofoil craft is due to the requirement that the craft be supported buoyantly by the hull when at rest.15g The foil area may..lb -tons by the aspect ratio "A" and the maximum foil span "bt with a factor k to represent any aux flarfoil areat.2.12) where S * total foil area (f) 2 ) sec 2 /ft4) " density of water (Ib V Vk = speed .TAL SIZV AND S__ED 2.ft/sec speed . The implications of this statement are developed F': in this discussion from the basic lift mechanism in each case.1AL I .

IAL SIZE AND SPEED S -kb 2/A (2.. .2.15) V where L B 9 " length between perpendiculars in ft beam between perpendiculars in ft.15)0 required to support the weight of the crqft. giving for the required hull beame . draft in ft * S=block coefficient 'Length and draft of the hull may be expressed as ratios of the beam.16) Having derived relationships for the foil span (2. ian CONFIDENTIAL I . beam and draft required to support the craft is therefore L B! M 35 A/% * (2.13) The foil span required for given speed and load for the configuration to be studied is therefore: bo 28.1b) hull beam (2. The product of length.16 . vk s The buoyancy of the hull depends on its submerged volume and on the unit weight of the water (corresponding to 35 ft 3 /ton).CONFIDETM.((BA %1/3(t)3 / and the (2.2 Al/2 aLl! 2 kl/ 2 &/2-(.

as the size is increased in a given type of craft.17) states that two craft of different size but with geometrically similar hulls and foil systems (and employing the same lift coefficients) will have different ratios of linear foil in th dimensions to hull dimensions.CONFIDENTTAL SIZE AND SPEED expression may be written which describes the ratio of this typical foil dimension to the typical hull dimensiont 4 b/B . Since such a Variation is not compatible with powering relationships (Equation 2.6 (A~l 2[ ~113 (2. Mhile the hull and foil-system geometry may be adjusted ii order to delay this growth. the result is a growth in the foil dimensions in comparison to those of the hull.11 and the following equations) dictating a more or less constant speed. for a given speed or power. The term (Ai/ 6 /Vk) represents the effect of site and speed on the foil-to-hull dimension ratio (b/B). there will. be a size. respectively.8. This term is the Inverse of a Froude number (Vk/Ag/ 6 ) based upon volume or load.17 . The second bracket describes the geometry and the proportions of the hull. unless the speeds are likewise different -"ttio of the one-sixth power of their displacement. beyond which the structure of the whole system and especially the connections between hull and foil sy'ten (strutm) CO2FIDE7IAL 1 I - 2. The expression (2. nevertheless.17) The first bracket describes the foil system geometry (it also includes the lift coefficient).

that a constant configuration is obtained upon varying size and design speed in such a way that the Proude number (V/All 6 ) Is kept constant. Weight of the Foil System An important consequence of growi"nZ foil dimensiions Is the structural weight to be spent in building them. for instance. a) This mechanism is It is indicated there constant. b... If...tentatively assuming that the weight per cubic foot of foil may be constant In a family of.3. the in the upper horizontal line. that for V foil system outgrows the hull dimensions upon increasing the size b) & in the left hand vertical coluyv4 that the foil-system dimensions shrink (for constant hull s12e)# upon increasing the design speed.CONFIDENTIAL SIZE ANDL SPEED will become unwieidly arnd difficult to design. boats designed for a certain conitont speed of operation -the foil-system weight fraction is seen Inc~reasing as W3/2/ /2. CONFIDE:TMAL ."1/2 This relationship means -uhat the foil-weight fraftion doubles.I c) along the diagonal line. illustrated in Figure 2. upon Increasing the size of the craft in the ratio of )~to 1. . for example.

1 . ini .CONTrFIDMIrIAL SIZE AND SFEFD zi U. 0 -j ILL oW crn a.1 MI0 2.

.?0 .. FUEL HUL ..h illustrates the variation of the majort weight tractlons of hydrofoil boats As a furnction of size0 As indicated .SYSTEM -WEIGHT FRACTION AS A FUNCTONPO SIZE A...in Appendix "A"# the hull-weight fraction-(without foil system) FINAL SIZE LIMIT PAYLOAD. I . INCREASE OF FOIL.2...CONFIDENTIAL S3TZE VV~D SPEEDV Figure 2.4 CON FTD7!.... FOR CONSTANT DESIGN SPEEr3 FIGURE 2..7 AT.

(foil volume). Operational Limits on Dimensions The previous section describes the effect of size on the ratio of foil to hull dimensions.) as the size goes up.if A is increased. as the size of the hydrofoil craft is a critical size increased. disregarding very small sizes. here is Never- one mechanism which contributes to a size limitation ( of hydrofoil craft. etc. there are ways of improving the design and reducing somewhat the foil-system weight below the assumed relationships of WF*-. however. Finally.21 . Naturally.* This is not necessarily a final. of course.2. Appendix "A" gives soma data that no from design studies to show this effect. the absolute foil-system dimensions as such may present operational problems (docking. provisions have been made for retracting the foil system. Disregarding any ratio. at constant speed .CONFIDEIAL SIZE AND SPEE decreases slowly as the size fraction. the machinery-weight seems to increase slowly with the size A. limit on L CONFTVTr)TT A! I . assuming.s which in smaller sizes are assigned for payload and fuel. theless. therefore A can be expected where the weight required to be built into the foil system will hr . increases considerably as pointed out above. It appears that the limit on size for conventional harbor operation mny be found in the order of 1000 tons. system fraction. Essentially.e taken away all of the component. Lhe The foil- sum of the two components may be regarded to be constant. on the other hand. o.

CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AMD SPEED size. CONF'IDTFTIK-L I-2.22 . The analysis illustrates. a large poorly-proportioned structure. Other operational difficulties may be encountered with respect to coming along a pier or another vessel (because of the foil spanr being longer than the hull beam).e. however. as some different type of operation could be developed (in a way similar to the development of airports in avio•tion). one difficulty encountered in large hydrofoil craft) i.

Increasing the speed .at more or less constant displacement weight - we will first disregard any influence of cavitation.even though without increasing resistance . This fact is favorable. it is understood that the foil sizs required (and the corresponding weight fraction) decreases as the design speed is increased. the resistance ratio D/L rem-irn. As illustrated in Figure 2. the machinery-weight fraction is bound to grow (under the conditions stated above) as the design speed is increased. however. Therefore. Assuming now that in doing so. a) Machinery Weight From what is outlined in the preceding section. Increasing the power means increasing the machinery weight.5.the resistance (in pounds) is found to be independent of the design speed. there will be a critical speed at which so much power and so much machinery weight is required that nothing is left over for payload and for fuel. and it makes hydrofoil boats superior to displacement-type ships (within the proper range of Froude numberig).makes an Increased power output necessary. constant (as explained K in a previous section) . This linitir speed CONMIDT•TAL I - 2. INFLUENCE OF SPEED ON D99TON Considering next the effect of design speed upon the characteristics of hydrofoil craft .COVFID IAL SIZE AND SPMD 3.23 .

Since in most cases power may not be available to drive the craft under super- cavitating conditions. At any rate. means possibly a jump in range. this problem may be attacked in (1) By attempting to delay the onset of cavitation by reducing foil loading and thickness ratio. the point of inception may in the present state of the art be considered as an upper limit on the speed of non-cavitating systems. propellers or both begins to become a problem. speed. the point of incipient cavitation can be thought of as a dividing point between two different regimes of design.5.CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SPEED b) influence of Cavitation At speeds in excess of some 35 knots. system is concerned. a fully-cavitating system of less (but reasonable) efficiency may be designed. This through the transition to avoid erosion due to collapsing cavities in this range. CONFMDENTIAL I - . as is indicated in Figure 2. This implies a less efficient system due to lighter loading. although cavitation does not form a definite barrier to the design. (2) Accepting the situation. cavitation of foils or As far as the foil two ways.

the speed of incipient cavitation can be expressed by a critical value of the cavitation number p/q. the only other way of postponing cavitation and of increasing the maximum speed . therefore. coefficient. although not Reference 3. the latter is the sum The situation is. maximum dynamic pressure q (corresponding to speed) for a given static pressure p. In hydrofoil operation. therefore.2. therefore. Chapter 12) shows the critical speed of inception for various thickness ratios and lift coefficients of the hydrofoil. as a consequence. be in the pursuing the design principle of avoiding CONFIDENTIAL I. improved by any increase in submergence. The critical speed may. to a large extent.CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SPEWD As explained in the cavitation chapter in Volume II. of the atmospheric and hydrostatic pressures. (reproduced in reference 1 and in Volume II. is to reduce the lift can be done by increasing the foil area.5). vicinity of 50 knots if cavitation. Since a certain minimum thickness ratio t/c is needed for reasons of structural strength. For a given foil section and a specified a loading there is a critical cavitation number and.26 . the critical maximum design speed as mentioned before is reduced below the theoretical limit in non-cavitating flow (see Figure 2. and.f hydrofoil boats without encountering cavitation. This The parasitic resistance of the foil system (and its weight) is increased in this way.

lb/ft 2 ) which Beyond this point. The required foil area. however. Qualitative considerations and recently published4 results of a theoretical investigation . of speed). c) Foil-System Weight The dependence of the foil-system weight on size for a fixed weight is discusseo in Section 2-b.19) W/qCL W The volume (and therefore the weight) of geometrically similar foil systems may be expressed by 33/2. therefore giving WF/W S312/1~ wl/2/v3 (2. constant weight per foil volume). of course. suggesting that by applying proper camber in the lower or pressure side of the foil sections.design speed There will. as follows. (2.27 . be a limiting foil loading (in should not be exceeded because of cavitation. Follqowing the same assumptions a relationship can be derived (i. on the . load. V the foil weight required may be constant (be independent CONFDENT TA!.2.asis of lift and speed is S coefficient.e.20) where V . I . therefore. between foil weight and speed. hydrodynamic efficiencies may be obtained which are not very much inferior to those in non-cavitating condition.give promising prospects.CONFTDENTIAL SIZE AND SPEED Drag coefficient and resistance ratios in super-cavitating condition are higher than in non-cavitating flow.

the speed required for the foil system to provide dynamic lift. fact.28 . the foil size decreases appreciably .21) where k.as illustrated in Figure 2. to give a minimum combined weight fraction. d) Structural Effect Upon increasing the design speed of a craft of given weight.5. Differentiating this equation. -iing equation (2. Since at the same time the load on the foil or the foils.. The latter may be thought of as contributing to the and dynamic support of the craft through producing. that (for the foil-weight function as tentatively assumed) the machinery weight should be 3 times the foil-system weight. renains essentially constant. The sum of the two weight quantities possesses a minimum at some point between the condition of excessive machinery weight (with small foil size) and the underpowered large-foil craft. see Figure 2. - The following functions indicate this amplified in section 3-a. the minimum combined weight is found for 1i (2. and k2 are suitable constants. there might be configurations in which the CONFIDENTIAL I - 2.0 VOMIDIENT IAL SIZE AND SPEED The main speed-dependent weight components are foil system (WF) rachinery (Wm). and equation (2.20) the combined weight fraction of foil system and machinery is found to b W W(F+m) W(F~m)• & k klW1/2 / k 2V (2.22) ii k2 v - 3 kl(Wl/2/V3) This means.5).

CONFIDENTIAL I - 2. the L sections may have to be higher for structural resons.3). speed hydrofoil boats is expected to increase as some function of the design speed. In other words. As a consequence. - the required foil area decreases not only directly because of size but also in relation to the hull dimensions (as illustrated in Figure 2.CONFIDENT'IAL SIZE AND SPEED loading ratio W/S of the foils is unfavorably high. Upon decreasing the size of a hydrofoil craft. an upper 6 limit in speed. a lower "limit" in size. the thickness ratio of the foil Finally. air resistance component of the hull (growing large in cormparison to the foil area) is design speed. The consideration in the preceding paragraph may also be made in terms of size. or. The foils may be very small while the struts required tobtansmit the hull weight to the foils are of the same size and at least the same strength as in lower-speed designs. therefore. and such a limit in the "Froude" number (V/A!/ ) can be predicted too. expected to become appreciable upon increasing the the resistance ratio of high- All in all. Also.29 . above which design and performankce of hydrofoil craft would become less faVorable again. the structural design of the resulting tiny foils may cause some difficulty and the hydrodynamic drag coefficient (or the D/L ratio) should be expected to be increased on this count.

6. Such a curve is Figure 2. a curve of maximum speed payload. Inc. speed an a function of this weight allowance (equation 2. investigated. These design studies deal with submerged.CONTDENTTAL SIZE AND SPEED li. berthing facilities maximum duration. as a function of the Figure size of the craft. The Appendix should be studied in order to to "Payload". are included for the crew for the period of No specific use was assigned to the boats An arbitrary percentage of weight was assigned. POTENTIALITIES OF HYDROFOIL CRAFT a) Results of Design Studies An analysis of the design studies carried out by Gibbs & Cox. automatically controlled foil craft capable of i. a payload of 20% and a gas turbine unit as listed in Table III.10 or 2.30 . gain an understanding of the criteria involved and the results. and type of engine may be calculated. however.11) and the above information in conjunction with a particular engine and assumed Appendix "A"). shown on efficiency (Table III in versus displacement for specified conditions of range.e. Appendix. is the weight margin fuel and payload. CONFIDENTTAL - 2. This information ir presented in h of the By using the expression for maximum. The principal result of Appendix "A" left over for machinery. assuming a range at maxiinum speed of hOO naltical miles. is included in Appendix "A". living and operations independent of shore facilities.

~'-~C~ '. 0 rO 0. >0.-r w - *.r. (D ti0 0a CCZWC Q 00 0 (r 20(n. _ _ 1-- S..tr 0. .LN> LL~ w- NI OC1S - *t'. 4 W L2 0 -J~ - - ~~~~ - . X 0. . LLI 0 0 - z z 0 '4U.

not occupied by any existing above the "Froude" line craft.2. i.e. high impact in a seaway.. .32 . and Figure 2. these could be operated in this should also be noted that the maxlmtim-sppt-d line for the hydrofoil craft selected for illustration.6. built over about 100 tons. and that hydrofoil craft could potentially bridge this gap.CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SPEEDl WhIle this curve should be taken only as an illustration of such an analysis.6 is taken from this plot. crosses the line S(. to the same degree. there is a size (around 1000 tons in Figure 2.6) beyond which the possible maximum design speed drops off rapidly due to running out of machinery weight. It and it they have not been is assumed that this is because of This would not apply to hydrofoil boats Therefore.. "B" gives a size-speed plot showing the areas occupied by various types of craft prior to 1952./ •i/6) 12 at A I000 tons. region.b) Comparison with Existing Craft Appendix "B" gives the results of a statistical study of size and speed of existing water craft along with a discussion of the possible meaning of these results. This indicates the rrobability CONFIDENTIAL I - 2. the basic characteristiqs are probably true of hydrofoil craft in general. While this might also be true of planing boats. It is seen that there is an area between 100 and 1000 tons /. This discussion should be Figure 1 of Appendix studied in order to interpret Figure 2.

The generally higher speed of hydrofoil vessels shown on this line as compared to planing vessels is due to the higher efficiency of the former. I - 2.CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SPEED that hydrofoil craft over 1000 tons would not be practical as the potential speed would probably be less than that of a displacement vessel.33 . *1 Y CONFIDFNTIAL.

Cavitation. the size and speed potentialities of hydrofoil craft appear to be as follows: a) Hydrofoil craft do not appear to be practical in larger sizes. above 1000 tons for several reasons. Development of boats running at very on the basis Different high speeds seems to be feasible. of aircraft-type light-weight machinery... CONFMDF. increasing the structural complexity 6raft. beam.. appears that at the present state of development a speed limit on account of cavitation (in there is the vicinity of 45 knots) that cannot be exceeded without penalty.. b) Hydrofoil craft are essentially in a high-speed category.. design principles apply in this speed range..34 ... - . the most important of which is the abnormal growth of the foil system with size.v. i... etc.. • . o.CONFI-DIENTiAL SIZE AND SPEED 5.. .. has considerable influence upon the design (thickness ratio of foil-and strut sections and lift It coeC:!cient of operation).. .. and making the physical dimensions (draft.. however. ..... ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . therefore.. causing a decrease in the weight available for machinery.) unwieldly.NTTAL I - 2.e.. rnt r'•'-'•' ""° .. ... SIMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS From the foregoing analysis.

thus giving acceptable values of range.2. cruising in displacement condition *ight be considered. In moderately large sizes. CONFTDENTIAL I .35 . however.CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SPED c) Hydrofoil craft are likely to be limited in range (while foil borne) as compared to displacement vessels.

Theory About Lifting Foils at Zf. Gibbs & Cox.36 COFIENIA - . 2. OWC Tech Rpt 13531 No. Inception of Cavitation on Hydrofoil Systems. Hoernar.CONFIDENTIAL SIZE AND SPEED R~EFERENCES 1.13531. Rpt for ONR . Inc.. 8 (1952)."o Cavitation Number. Tulin and Burkat. 1954. 5 (1952). O&c Tech Rpt 13531 No. Design Study for 400 Ton Hydrofoil Craft. Taylor Model Basin Confidential Rpt 1954. 04udy of Size and Speed of Hydrofoil Craft. Hoerner.. 4. 3. CONFIDEINTTAL 2. dated Feb.

. 2. 4. This chapter deals with the preliminary design of hydrofoil craft drive.?s •"c+ntrc:. machinery and Aspects affecting the design of hydrofoil craft have been taken 'eli1tion of the from several of the other chapters of the Handbook. foIl systep. arrangement. aid ''NT: .CHAPTER 3. components-is discussed in 2ight of thry physical such as hydrodynamics.]. Ftructi:rer rir.ci.. SELECTION OF CONFIGURATION Introduction I. Hull Characteristins Characteristics of the Foil. 5. involved. System Configuration and Arrangement Structural Considerations Type of Machinery Influence of Stability and Control 3. - the basic blocking out of hull. 6.

2 .CONFTDEN' TIAI CONFIGURATION NOTATION A L W F 5 S V FL displacement in long tons lift of hydrofoil (also length of hull) lb) weight of craft (in safety factor stress in lb/in2 "wing" area of foil speed V/Tg 2i Froude number density of the water q = 0.aspect ratio number of struts in one foil "aspect ratio between struts t/c T m c Subscriptst o for normal operating speed thickness ratio of foil section endurance (hours) specific engine weight (lb/HP) fuel rate in lb/HP per hour t for take-off CONFIDENTI AL I .3.5 S V2 = dynamic pressure - CL L/qS " lift coefficient angle of attack of foil b c A n foil span foil chord - b/c .

which advantages exist. or by conclusive practical experience.'-FITDENTTAL CONFIGUPRATION INTRODUICTION In the preliminary design of a hydrofoil craft the main featires of the craft are established by the selection of foil system. some of the more which the deadwvight is commercial requirements of the craft. foil craft is Finally. that there are regions of size and speed in should be kept in In mind in the preliminary design stag'e. This should be done CO NF IDE1T • AT. the pr-nr:pa. a situation which is Moreover. not nfw in other fields of engineering design. it must be obvious from Chapter 2 that th. important but which are considered to be outside the srope of this presentation. characteristics (size and speed) must be assumed. in of which there is This means that uncovered. An attempt is made to limit this type of material to that which can be rather definitely established by physical reasoning underlying a basic selection.3J. there will be some aspect of preliminary design left cases the designer must rely upon his judgement. I . there are other criteria. important considerations in this selection of components are discussed. etc. which may be. transmission. machinery.hese comparatively little the case of hydrofoil craft.3. hydroand This highly suitable for some purjoses but not for others. the way in and other components as well as by the determination of utilized to meet the tactical or In this chapter. habitability..3 . order to proceed with the selection of components. in t. such as attractiveness.

CONMTDFNTTAL I - 3. The assumed size and speed may turn out to be in which case a new selection must Methods of analysis for incompatible with the requirements. the main purpose being to meet whatever requirements have been specified for the craft. with. be made and checked against the requirements. mastery of these methods is necessary in order to proceed with the design.)j .2&NJD'2AL CON:rT IUA~TION in the light of the relationships presented in Chapter 2. use in this regard are given in Chapter 4 and in the later chapters. On the basis of such information. the present Chapter deals with arriving at a sensible selection of a configuration which can then be analyzed and improved upon.

a hull which has proved success.. -e. to give buoyant support. At speeds equal to and less than take-off speed the hull is reýquired 'In operate. Roughly speaking.ri should not be taken :.. . Thus a of a hull designed for a.1- calling for dIfferent h .r. namber at take~-off speed will vary with size types of. . Froude for &ma..: -e •. -A-w• baised upon CertaIn asesumptions as to speed-oieng-h rag... at va. [ Indl. or to b( unstable.. HULL CHARACTERISTICS The hull of a hydrofoil boat performi much the same funcLion as that.. >.-oft' fspeed (of 20 knot.ssumed take. AnTother factor which influences the hull fc'.t. hydrofoil craft may in genre-al resemble tht conventional boat.ff speed will be adequate for a h yd rofo l craft if certain other requiremren-t are rnet.ly a'. (in floating conuition or at rest). (T.a~.gh-- CONFIDENT3 AL T .Jous conditions of loading. h'ulI for di. the..tru Fo'r trhls r S-I~c ~r..s. designed for a speed cloe .- low chine found on planing boats Is cert'al.-in v~r. to throw spray. 'he-r'cfrete.'uJ without foi•s at.. h rem ect E. 41on hp cutting ai requ' red lengfh of si~d#e -. etc.t . i. of any other water craft. with reasonable resistance characteristics and absence of any strong tendency L• squat.. .n un Yanule of the . a speed near take.e.1) te. I..fferent sizes.Fde~ratfon 'h1r.- trends lmn'olved.?l Table he however) as anything more thb•.ed l. Table 3.. and to provide enclosed space. of conectiing thp foiln to the hull through stru-.C:OMF7 i)EN TIA'f CONFIFuRATION ].ated for Froude .crt 11.ak) cff.s for exarmpe).m is the r.ter r_.

C 300 - 1.5 5.18). The chine type hull haw the additional advantage of being less expansive in construction as compared to a round-bottom shape.1 Approximate average values of "Froude" number. (see Chapter 1.hOO 40 0.0 5. displacement-length ratio and of the resulting displacement for various types of marine craft.WONFTDENTTAL CONVIGURATION out most of the speed range. this type of hull is usuoaly found III connection with hydrofoil craft. TABLE 3.2 1.9 2.5 2.2 1. Vk Hull Type A (L/oO) 3 A Ton up to 1.0 and up up to 0.5 - Ship-Type Hull Destroyer Type Semi-Planing Planing Hull Stepped Hull 150 80 140 1ho 10 700 and up 100 . Figures 1.5 CONFIDE!TIAL T 3. although some notable exceptions exist.2 and 1.6 .

2 attempts to classify these types according to the method employed to vary lift to provide stability.2 Various Types of Foil Systems Type reefing surface-piercing planing fully submerged Shape ladder systems V-shaped foils planing skids * submerged foil Method by area by area by area by angle * considered here. with submergence in order TABLE 3. an important step in the block- Examples of different foil types are given in Chapter 1. Surface- CONFIDPTITTIAL I-3.CONFID ENTIAL CONFIGURATION 2. which is Inherently staU~. or a submerged foil Aystem which requires the additional complicat-on of stabilizing skids or of foil angle control (automatic or mechanical). CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FOIL SYSTEM The selection of a type of foil system to be compatible writh the basic concept of a particular craft is ing out of the design of the craft. only for stabilization The first thing to determine is whether to use a ree'Llng (orsurface-piercing) foil system.7 "47 I_77 -- . Table 3.

and the lift coefficient "CL" i. they have to be stabilized by means of a more or less sensitive electro-mechanical apparatus.o".'j - 3. as in conventional airplanes).•• .• A • ? . •-:•-•• •. paratively small. however.CONFTDENTIAL CONFIGURATION piercing "V" foils appear to be efficient (low drag) and comparatively simple. As illustrated in Figure 3. With regard to stability.e. speed "V".. ii applying fully submerged foils. expected with respect to stability. On the other hand.control. preferable in smaller craft (at higher Froude numbers). essentially serving as &.... suggested that this tyrj of design is Appreciable advantages are more suitable in larger-size craft. "L" of any foil system or wing depends on the fluid the area "S". especially in waves and in turning. The latter type may either be "canard" (with the control surface forward) or "airplane'" (with the smaller foil in the rear. It is.: which in turn depends primarily on the foil's angle of attack 0.. The lift density .-•• •. area stabilized configurations are desirable. tandem systems are more suitable The "single" foil types are for larger craft (low Froude numbers). therefore.. seakeeping and banked turning In the resulting systems.1. - •'. relatively small high-speed craft are desired for operation under moderate conditions. the two may either be or one of them may be com- approximately of the same size ("tandem"). Generally..8 : '•: ... two foils are required in longitudinal arrangement.:•-'. .and stabilization surface. lift Ventilation originating from the piercing ends restricts their Where coefficient... CONFIDENTIAL I S:•.

1) is satisfied. and this coefficient will approximately be constant over the flying speed range as the area changes.2) CONFIDENTIAL T - 3.3 may be suitable for such systems.0.(dCL/do( )C q S (3. therefore.9 . the drag of this area at t13 maximum speed of the c•-aft. must apply at take-off (subscript "T") at normal operating speed (subscript "o"). CL 1. so that equation As an upper practical limit.0 may be assumed (because of stalling) for plain sections. Equation (3. is. The required foil area naturally follows as a result of the speed selected or specified. and with a view toward ventilation at the ends of surface-piercing foils. fixed. corresponds to and The flying speed range.1) where dC1 1 aq - lift-curve slope 0. a lift coefficient in the order of CL . therefore.CONFIDENTIAL CONFIGURATION L- cA0o. their wetted area The design of this type hydrofoil has to take area to facilitate take-off. Considering fully submerged hydrofoil systems.5 V " dynamic pressure For reefing systems. of course. coefficient necessarily varies as a function of speed. (VO/VT) 2 - (CIICLo) (8Iso) (3. and Their lift Sinto account both a sufficiently large (3. flying speed is obtained for maximum (total) foil area (boan) Minimum submerged.1) is true at any speed at which the craft is wholly foil-borne and.5 sv .

ST .So. This means that in flying condition (if reached by some boost of thrust) available power and foil design may be compatible with each other. but This would indicate an lowered.0.3. In a poor design. take-off may be made impossible by high hulland foil resistance (hump).CONFIDENTIAL CONFIGURATION For a fully submerged system. CONFIDENTIAL I .10 77 7" .25 (for example). in a craft of reasonable performance. that the craft would not be able to take off. accordingly: The speed range is VO/VT For CLT F CLT/CLO(3) i 1 (as mentioned before) and for CLo . a the speed range is 2. The increase in foil area so that the take-off speed is reduction in take-off speed reduces the "hump" resistance (and increases the available thrust).


?). The location of the other components of the craft [eico It al al. is placed in a reasonable locatlion near the tLow or stern.s su!3c for machinery and main foil) st1all also be given. there being variations of each such as chain drives or vee-drives (see Figure 3. There is another consideration having to do with the relationship between foil. In either case it is assumed that the smaller of the two foils.. I.e. machinery location.r .ng the center of gravity of the complete configura"ion. CONFIGU T-ATICN AND ARRANGEVENT Having determined the basic type of the foil system in Section 2. A cursory study of the situation shows that foil configuration. and since the machinery is in general the largest fixed weight that can be shifted in this manner.C(&JF'.-. these three items will be.. Because of this.N'f IAL CON'Uf I•(! A P TTON . Transmissions are either "right angle" (involving bevel gears) or "inclined shaft".and engine location in the airolane and canard rys•t m. IIF 17777 *1W T 1. the particular configuration must be determined. and type of drive (assuming underwater propulsion) are inter-related to the extent that one should not be selected indeDendently of the others.Ortance in vary2. discussed together in this section. the "auxiliary" foil. that tnere is a specified load distribution between main and auili. its location is of utmost ir. The machinery location is either forward or aft in relation to the center of gravity.

and aft for the canard system. number of struts (to reduce drag). it that with a single shaft. it is then evident that the most compatible machinery locations are forward for the airplane. system is below the center of gravity of Proceeding in this manner.2 it is seen that all the different types of drive Since the foils likewise follows require one or more struts for support. require support. I . In order to provide reasonable foil separation. the the craft configuration. speed foils have aspect ratios of 4 to 6 and slower craft in the orderf of 8 to 12.CQNFIUIr:TIAL CO •P'IGI' PATIlON foil in each case (for example in the ratio of 2 to 1) -o that tho center of lift of the foil. CO 11. The resulting inter-relationship is obvious in attempting to make attractive combinations of the various types of drive and foil configuiraticrn.7 A1. two struts may be utilized. is poor in this regard). more struts and higher In practice. T. There- fore. one or three struts should support the related foil and for twin shafts. (to provide necessary balance) the engine and the main foil will follow each other. it is found that Likewise.1D1. With a minimum low aspect ratio foils result from This is desirable for higher speeds where For lower speeds. respectively.1-3 . Moreover. From Fignure 3. the temptation is strong to combine the two. high aspect ratios result in the best characteristics.3. structural considerations.2-b with the engine aft. center of gravity of the craft will follow the engine location. the engines should be placed in such a manner as to minimize the length of shafting (notice that the vee-drive in Figure 3. drag due to lift is minimum. the center of lift tends to follow the main foil around.

- •. • .4..• •.•• '' '• • .•--• • -. The question now arises as to what type of drive to use.... A vee-drive (integral with the engine) might also be employed in the case of the airplane corfiguration in order to cut down the installation angle of engine and shaft.... shaft.14 •... :••. :• • • .. If in the latter case the right-angle drive (which does not seem to be readily available) should involve too much development work.. For example.. dire:ctional stability (as explained in Chapter 6) and turning performance (as described in Chapters 4 and 6) mus• be taken into account. • . . CCONFIDEN'T IAL I - 3.. drive forward may be considered at some cost in weight of shafting (see Figure 3.•.. The use of an inclined seems to be indicated for the airplane configuration...2-b).• • ..• ---- -__ : ... ". ... in a configuration with an inclined-shaft drive and two struts on the rear foil.. a vee. . The question of the number of engines (and shafts) may be decided from considerations of available engines and required power.:•.. It is assumed in this regard that location of the propeller(s) forward is undesirable from the standpoint of vulnerability. . twin shafts would be preferable to a single shaft for which an additional strut would have to be provided.••.. It may very well be that the lateral strut area required is larger thar found necessary for structural support.. therefore.CONFIDENTTAL CONFIGURATION1 With regard to size (and location) of the struts. utilization of existing foil struts may be considered - as mentioned before.. :nd a right-angle drive seems to be most suitable for the canard arrangement. As an additional factor in this regard.

type of drive and foil configuration .15 .recognizing that there will be cases where some compromise on the optimum combination must be made. 1 " 7777777"11 CONFIDENTIAL 1 3. an effort should be made to avoid additional struts and excessive shafting in a configuration. by careful consideration of the inter-relationship between machinery location.CO VF IDENTIAL CONFIGURATION In conclusion.

without exceeding the especially true of foil systems designed for high speeds with high foil loadings and small thi kness ratios. The expression may be simplified somewhat and rearranged to show the limiting "aspect ratio between struts": "A"max" (A/n)max -115-t5c F where A n aspect ratio of the foil number of struts W/S (3-3) - - G' -yield F stress factor of safety Chapter 5.16 .18) gives the requirements on the foil section as discussed above. aspect ratio and foil are impossible to use. The foil section and the rest of the notation as defined in is assumed to be solid as a limiting case. STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS In selecting the foil configuration from a hydrodynamic point of view one cannot lose sight of structural requirements. certain combinations of loading. The foil tips outside the such a way struts are assumed to be cantilevered and to be dimensioned in that the deflection curve of the foil has a horizontal tangenL at th3 struts.GCNFIDIENTIAL CONFIGURATTON 4. yield stress. This is There are section which for a given material. Structural considerations are presented in Chapter 5. Equation (5. CONFIDrNTTAL I 3. the latter necessary to avoid cavitation.

For is more convenient. however. it 5 to determine such loads.3) is illustrated in Figure 3.CONFIDENTIAL CONFIM TRATION The maximum load experienced by a hydrofoil craft operating in waves is higher than the static load (corresponding to the weight). Such a graph • values) can easily be made up for other materials (having different for different values of F. Methods are indicated in Chapter comparison of various designs. Equation (3. and F as a factor combining the ratio of total load to design load (load factor) with the material factor of safety.3 assuming two representative materials and a factor of safety F4. COTFTDFYTIAL T 3-137 . to express W as the static design load on the foil. Foil configurations with values of "All fI( exceeding that given in the graph are not possible structurally.

000 lb0/in'l "AIIAX L %It t"o% -.000 F Hlinle "A MAX 20% -. 10 % 0 400 600 1200 1400 W/S (lb/ft.4 FIGURE 3.VANADIUM 060.3 CON•TDENTTAL I .CONFIDENTIAL CONFIGURATION .3.-i% t/.-- NICKEL .0) CAST ALUMINUM 6"24.c 0 400 600 1200 l60o W/S (lb/ft') - 1 I b) .18 J .') LIMITING ASPECT RATIO BETWEEN STRUTSFOR F.

.3 gives an aspect ratio between struts of "A" W 3 for the stated conditions..10%. r CONOIDENTIAL 1 3.• is found in the graph for t/c . .• '•• • "• '•i'rf' .19 [ - .AL CONFIGURATION DESIGN EXAMPLE Check the feasibility of an aluminum foil (with IT 24. Including the cantilever foil tips (each assumed to have a permissible aspect ratio outside the struts equal to 0. Figure 3. material (steel withC5 Employing a higher-strength 60.000 lb/in2 ). a value of "A" . which is appreciably higher than that for aluminum. supported by two struts.10% cannot be exceeded because of cavitation. • .000 lb/in2 ).:..10_0_ _I_ ""I .5 "A"). assuming the loading to be 800 lb/ft 2 and assuming that a thickness ratio t/c . a total aspect ratio in the order of 6 would then be feasible.

possibly at the expense of fuel consumption. The engines available for hydrofoil application include internalcombustion gas engines (such as those in aircraft). A good measure to us when trying to decide which type of engine to estimate the total running is best for a particular application. TYPE OF MACHINERY A typical hydrofoil craft appears to be a high speed craft in which the machinery constitutes a larger fraction of the total weight. more suitable. required. . be placed on machinery of small specific weight. therefore. . is [ V time "T" at high speed per trip and to form the product (m + cT) where "mi" is the specific weight of the engine and "c" the fuGl rate. Table A.3. . .j:•jI:• ••( -. between two different types. high values of T call for low fuel rates at the cost of machinery weight and vice-versa.. and possibly some of the new lightweight diesel engines. of Appendix "A" gives some estimates of total installed weight of machinery and auxiliaries. n ..CONFIDENTIAL CONFIGURATION 5. / :• •L. . therefore. gas turbines which may be compounded with other types. A tabulation of the estimated characteristics Also. Emphasis should.II i of some of these engines is presented in Table 3. . Cross-over points usually exist Depending upon endurance and range one or the other engine type will come out to be CONFTDvNTIAL 1 3.20 F . Obviously.

Indeed. A possible answer is to cruise in displacement condition at some low speed at a fraction of the maximum horsepower. since this amount of power is likely to be little in comparison to that of the main unit..21 T7meV I. this proposition may be made even more of attractive by using the same fuel in each type (for example. . at a comparatively small cost in weight. The craft must have a radius of action large enough to allow for patrol and other tactical requirements. it may be worthwhile to provide an extra cruising engine. Any selection of cruising radius and length of high-speed operation would be possible in such an arrangement. which would have a better fuel rate than the main machinery. CONFIDFNTIAL I - 3. diesel fuel in a diesel Sengine for cruising and in gas turbines as main engines)..ýGO Wi DENTIAL GONFIIGURATION Another consideration presents itself with respect to range. An example of this application is shown in Reference 2 of Appendix "A". course.

40) 386 2. 5E 0.22 3.42 0.0 2. 63 44.38 5.20 (288) (0. in (lb/HP) per hour Hours Between Overhauls StAtus of Development Approximate Dimenslons: Length (ft) Width (ft) Boeing Gas Turbine 160 2900 - Chrysler Gasoline 200 3800 Packard 16(e) Diesel 800 2000 (1200) Packar Gaso 14 20 25 28 (0. 4' (b) Bare Engine in lb "Specific (lb/HP) Accessories in lb Specific (lb/HP) 1.30 1200 Hardware 5.53 O.53 976 1. with 6 instead of 8 cylinders. Liquids (d) in lb Specific (Ib/HP) Sub Total in lb Sub Total Specific NOTES: (a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (64) (43-) 6' 16 7.7 Hard 12 3.44 60 0. at continuous HP.65 65 (0. All turbines are geared down to the quoted rpm values.41 Hardware 4.1 3.7 4430 5.52 5.36) 53 0.CONFIDENTIAL Engine Type Continuous Rating (SHP) at run per minute Maximum Rating (SHP) at run per minute Fuel Consumption (a).0 2. Height (ft) SWeights 2.7 On Paper 10. The gear weight is included in the "bare" weight.8 0. 75 1. Foundations in lb Specific (lb/HP) 32 0.9 230 2. not including lube oil The specific weight is based on continuous output not including ducting weights not including fuel Mark 12.6 1103 4. is testing Values in brackets are approximate or estimated. """Ni flt7~FI___PP"* .

3 5.3 0.33 4.00 (550) (0.8 8.4 2.40) 16121 6109 4.36 691 0.80) (1600) (0.4 5.09 584 0.8 7.85 1000 On Paper Hardware Development Hardware Testing On Paper Testing 10.75 500 3250 2900 0.49 (0.43 (3200) (0.1 3.22 .41 2500 2800 (0.53 976 1..5 5.80) (640) (0.30) (680) (0. tpm values.79 TABLE 3.3 8.5 5.22 (288) 4430 3.A 17.3 6.65 Ious output i is testing ited.7 4.72 4800 1190 0.40 10165 (0.54) 3.42 510 4324 1.40) 5360 (0.03 LIST OF MODERN LIGHT-WEIGHT ENGINES WHICH MAY BE CONSIDERED SUITABLE FOR APPLICATION IN HYDROFOIL CRAFT CONFIDENTIAL I .40) (1600) 9721 (0.64 1000 0.0 8.89 1900 1.3 3.0 3.36) (432) 6' 16 (o.34 0.18 (1530) (0.75 (1380) (0.90) (510) (0.40) (640) 2700 2.8 5.58) 750 2000 0.14) 7. eight.35 3.8 2.3.36 3.43 940 6725 2.36) (1300) 7350 3600 2. 0.86 1500 0.40) 6490 3700 1.Packard 16(e) Diesel Packard W-100 Gasoline GM Allison Wright Gas Turbine Gasoline Fairchild Napier E-145 Diesel Gas Turbine Metro-Vick Gas Turbine 800 2000 1400 2000 1600 1700 2400 1750 1600 2350 4000 l100 (1200) 0.45 700 3045 2050 0.7 11.78 4.

3. motions happen faster owing to the denser medium involved. therefore. does not appear to be practical. there are 'two foils required in fore and The choice between aft locations to provide longitudinal stability. with the additional restriction that height must be governed within narrow limits in calm water and in waves. four foil ýmnits). The stability problems of hydrofoil craft are basically similar to those encountered in aircraft. is certain applications. and may be useful for three.NTIAL CONPIGURATION' 6. A number of foils greater than two or foil positions greater than possible (for example. Furthermore.1 T "II:)7. CONFIDENTIAL I . it can be shown that. Similarly. Certain general recommendations can be made. INFLUENCE OF STABILITY AND CONTROL General The subject of stability and control (particularly in waves) is a difficult one on which to give definitive advice to a designer of hydrofoil craft. Manual control of these motions (and of the flying leve). although hydrofoil speeds are con- siderably slower than those of aircraft.23 . "canard" and "airplane" arrangements (see Section 2) is primaril4ya matter of considerations apart from stability (such as craft size). There are two stabilizing elements (foils or foil ends) required in lateral respect. "tandem". however.

both for reasons is somewhat forward of longitudinal stability and passenger comfort. the type of flight path is important. although equations of motion have been formulated and some computor studies undertaken.TIT'C . In general. an intermediate flight path is Finally..CONFIDENTIAL CONFIGURATION In waves. accelerations being When the waves are much higher than the flight path should held to a passenger-comfoit level. the craft motion will become increasingly oscillatory until eventually a dynamically unstable condition will be reached.2h C-~ ~~~ 7C~. desirable. In conditions a level path where the height of the waves is with very little less than strut length. of such craft when operated in established. As the CG is moved aft.- CONFIDENTIAL I - 3. lined in Their static stability can be appraised by means as outMethods of analyzing the dynamic characteristics a seaway have not generally been Chapter 6. the best center of gravity location. As the CG is moved forward from this point. change in height is optimum. motion. essentially contour the wave surface. of the position -which would result in equal load per unit area on all hydrofoils. for moderate-size waves For smaller hydrofoil boats. whose strut lengths are restricted. Longitudinal Characteristics Most hydrofoil craft to-date utilize inherently stable configurations. strut length (and longer than boat length). certain wave cunditions are expected in which it is no longer practical to fly such craft.

there are certain conditions that should be observed in considering foil aeparation. for a large foil separation. However. Generally. the larger are the variations of its submergence for a given amplitude of pitch angle. the static stability will finally be exhausted.CONFIDENTIAL CONFIGURATION are more highly damped but the craft is less inclined to return to equilibrium until a point is reached where divergence will occur. an acceleration imposed upon one of them (by encountering a crest or a wave) Is likely to produce a (different) acceleration in the other surface (at some distance from the first one). the angle through which the craft can pitch without causing a foil to broach and causing the hull to touch the water at the other side. a craft with a high undamped natural frequency will be responsive to water disturbances (orbital motions and waves) up to approximately ý:e undamped natural frequency. The farther a given foil is from the 0G. Thus. Since it is usually desirable to minimize craft reaction to waves often seems to (except for low frequencies and large amplitudes) it be convenient to restrict foil separation. Such coupling effect is not a major consideration in conventional airplanes where the CG is close to the CONFMENTIAL I . Upon moving the CG still further to the rear. In a system of at least two lifting surfaces. the higher will be the undamped natural frequency of the craft.25 . In addition. the greater the foil separation.3. is more restricted than for a shorter foil separation.

Coupling. which will contribute a lower damping ratio. In hydrofoil craft. and has been applied to a variety of fully submerged foil systems. Th-oretically. therefore appears are the rule rather than the exception. any submerged foil system (with sufficiently large CONFIDENTIAL I - 3.CONFIDENTIAL CONFIGURATION main surface (wing). to keep the gyradius of the craft as low as possible. including computor and simulator studies. It is sometimes advisable. to be of greater importance. Upon analysis. through waves. however. introducing increased time lags. Artificial Control Artificial (autopilot) control can. however.26 . most hydrofoil craft of practical configuration will be found to be overly damped. Coupling can be reduced by arranging the foils so that the product of the distances from front foil to COG and from rear foil to CO are approximately equal to the square of the craft's radius of gyration. The equations of motions can be used to predict satisfactorily the behavior of a given craft. In this connection. analyses of dynamic stability of hydrofoil systems have been and are being done. not only are the configurations usually such that the CG is at an appreciable distance from either foil - but accelerations from the outside. gyradius will also increase the range of feasible CG locations within the bounds of stability considerations. ( when it The former may be particularly undesirable in instances A smaller is necessary for the craft to follow wave contours.

first encountered. A successful control system must maintain a proper elevation above the water. they must be rotated through approximately twice the angle that would be required of the whole section. Submerged. restrict Three accelerations and provide reasonably damped characteristics. the foils and the control system should be developed together. however. For good results. The former are structurally convenient for larger craft. be predominant in the forward fbil. artificially controlled foil systems will require at least one water level sensing device and some combination of inertial references to provide proper information for control in all axes. minimize the effect of orbital wave motions. to meet the design specifications.27 .3. control surfaces in "canard" or "airplane" arrangement seem to be optimum (with the larger foil split in two halves for roll control). Control surfaces for fully submerged foil systems are either flaps or pivoting foil sections. however. With regard to hydrofoil craft stabilized by an autopilot system.CONFIDENTIAL CONFIGURATION control surfaces) can be stabilized by a properly designed control system. therefore. it seems preferable to minimize water-induced disturbances as they are The longitudinal component of control should. CONFIDENTIAL I . they must be talken into account in designing a servo system. Whether the larger area should be forward or aft is still debatable. Static and dynamic hinge moments originate in the articulation of both foils and flaps.

This condition may restrict foil separation. but variation in apparent foil angle of attack due to orbital motion decreases. while the amplitude of response in heave increases as the square of the speed and inversely as the foil separation.aft. These statements indicate that speed and foil separation are primary variables in the dynamic design of hydrofoil cr. the pitch response for a given sea the heave response varies state does not vary greatly with speed ýile essentially with speed. However. Lateral Control Rolling motions. i. arising primarily from forces encountered abeam. For a given speed.e. the characteristic time lag of the servo system should not be greater than one-half to one-third the time lag of the craft and preferably less. can be controlled forward or aft with almost equal effectiveness. The sensitivity of the craft in pitch. Thus.s CONFIDENTIAL I - 3. attention to foil separation may help to obtain a favorable configuration.CONFIDENTIAL CONFIGURATION The servo system should be capable of adjusting lift under designed loads at a minimum of twice the undamped natural frequency of the craftj or put in a manner more familiar to control system engineers. the amplitude of response in pitch at a given frequency of wave encounter approximately increases directly as the speed and inversely as the foil separation. the frequency of encounter of water disturbances increases with the speed.28 . I. for a given sea state.

29 ~ Wow . direct2-nal stability Is assured. The resulting dimensic'ns of struts (and other lateral components) may be different from or may even be opposed to dimensions as derived from structural or other considerations. A low center of gravity. The surfaces selected should preferably be furthest Bow steering is both practical and useful for hydrofoil In artificially stabilized systems. the metacentric height governs the behavior in rolling. banking can be achieved by providing the corresponding rolling moments through controlled differential flap.CONFIDENTIAL CONFIGURATION pointed out in Chapter 6. In regard to turning.or foil-angle variations. rudders (and propellers) must be selected in such a way that. As mentioned in Chapter 6.3. CONFIDENTIAL I . the "rudders" can be flaps on the strats or pivoting struts. from the CG. craft. yawing and sideslipping. under consideration of their respective moment arms. limited clearance above the water (strut length) and a large span of foil or foils. The lateral areas of struts. directional stability can suitably be judged from static considerations. are therefore favorable for lateral stability.

Speed and Range 5. Propeller Efficiency 2. CONFIDEN FIAL I 77l . Turning characteristics are treated on the basis of lateral force available in the foil system. methods are listed for predictin. rather than as a function of power and resistance.take-off distance.CONMIDENTIAL CHAPTER i. Resistance Function of Hydrofoil Craft Take-Off Performance 4. After considering propeller efficiency. maximum speed and range as a function of engine power and hydrodynamic resistance. PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS Introduction 1. Turning Characteristics Performance aspects of hydrofoil craft are presented in this chapter. 3.

such a consideration is turning. -.... a certain class of hydrofoil systems.T.. maximum speed.. There are other however....."- .. a check on take-off distance helps determine whether this would be a weak point in performance.. comparing hydrofoil craft to conventional-type ships or comparing differen+ hydrofoil systems with each other. rn:! 4 • • • •-. I INTKNDIOCTION There are several performance characteristics of hydrofoil boats which can be analyzed and/or predicted.• .. Calculation of performance is useful in basic studies.. -..A 1 rION. types of performance. take-off. CONFIDENTIAL I -1h. endurance. which do not depend primarily upon thrust and resistance.. Prediction of performance is also necessary in the selection of the machinery required and as a basis for the structural design (hydrodynamic loads)... Figure h. .... The most important ones are range and turning.l gives a resistance-speed function.. representative of This illustration serves in The defining the speeds corresponding to the performances mentioned.- ... At take-off.? S.. obtained for minimum resistance.-. certain hydrofoil systems show a hump. maximum speed is given by the intersection of the resistance function Maximum range is with the curve of full-throttle thrust available.

CAii"LATIONS a o V q S speed (in ft/sec or in knots) mass density of water (lb sec2/fth) = 0.mass of craft centrifugal force in turning number of propeller blades Subscripts: B T H indicating propeller blades for take-off condition indicating hull I CONFJID2ENTAL I -h.lift coefficient " CDp/CLB .P•.R = drag or resistance D CD L CL .resistance ratio P c F x d M Z 2 engine power in HP fuel consumption in lb/HP per hour force available for acceleration take-off distance a 2r = turning diameter.or propulsive efficiency .drag coefficient produced in the foil system L/qS .lift-drag ratio = lift I W * L/D R/W = i/(L/d) .5 9 V2 = dynamic pressure planform area of hydrofoil. so T CT n u disk area of propeller propeller thrust =T/qSo .P RFMAN:F.parasitic drag ratio weight of a craft (in lb) l/(RIW) .D/qS .advance ratio .W/g . .V/ind propeller.propeller thrust coefficient rotational speed of propeller circumferential velocity of propeller V/u . also )ropeller diameter .


and frictional or parasitic losses.63 5 co W 1.00 CONFIDENTIAL T h "{7 77 . and it also decreases as the advance ratio).00 1. the induced losses involved in the jet of water (axial velocity and "rotation") which is left behind . the propeller efficiency has a certain influence.11Fý' ArMýI IT' ' T. theory1 For indicates certain minimum values.ER EF?1CTIENCY As far as performance is a function of the available thrust. al propulsion by means of water propellers. Using convention- the characteristics of They are such propellers are basic for all types of performance. as the hydrodynamic dil*c loading CT e T/qSo is increased.85 1.35 1... in Pigure 4. The number of blades z is taken ?+ of the propeller is into account by using the effective advance ratio to the ratios listed as follows: for z t = a - corresponding 2 3 4 / = = 2. RýFEJA. the induced losses.2.V/ind increased. as shown The corresponding maximum induced efficiency decreases. discussed as follows. Induced Efficiency Propellers have two ways of dissipating energy.

.4 CT 0A .6 .CONFIDENTIAL PMRFMRMANCF CALCULATIONS 1.0 i3 1.fl 0..4 UJ.8 U . W 14 0 0O02 0. .- 0.8 - - - - -'0 .0-0. 1.6 0.2 Marine propellers are usually designed so that their induced efficiencies are between 80 and 95%. CONFIDENTIAL Ih.2 1.4 1. ) AS FUNCTION OF THRUST COEFFICIENT FIGURE 4..6 If *I~R IS 2.0 ~ 1V : INDUCED EFFICIENCY OF PROPELLERS (REF.

= 1.0. may be selected to correspond to CT = T/qSo = 0.1000 lb at Vk 0 30 knots. Figure 4.:A: ~ PYFQ"1.the hydrocdynamic loading T . ft o.VRjk1I! CA77I.2 where T So a - thrust (in d 2 1/4 - lb) disk area and the dynamic pressure q .2600 Ib/ft 2 then The required disk area is SO 1000/0.5 9 V2 . CALCULATION OF INDUCED PROPELLER EFFICIENCY In designing a propeller to prcoduce a thrust o.2 indicates an induced efficiency of rji CONFIDENTI AL 1 3.7 30/170 .2 d l.85.6 2600 ft.Al (IONS DESPIN EXAVP11JE NC o L. propellers tips is the ci~cumferential sneed of the u - di n/60 =170 ft/sec (for a number of blades z 3) and the advance ratio is V/u 2 For an assumed propeller-shaft and the diameter is speed of n = 2000 rpm.7 . .l .

OI/cL (h. h 8• . total efficiency. which is appreciably higher than in air propellers. the blade-lift coefficients are correspondingly low (below CLB = 0.2 demonstrates the calculation of Experimental results on the characteristics of marine propellers are presented in publications such as references 2 and 3. Total Efficiency Design Example No. As a consequence. 4.- + 0.1O and 25%.CDP/CLB = average or effective parasite-drag-lift ratio of the propeller-blade sections. CON•FDENTIAL I -.1).CUiPcT"A M~F~~ANfF !TONS The parasitic losses can approximateiey br taken Into account by -- ----.O. This quantity depends upon the sectional coefficient CLB at which the the minimunm shape and above all upon the average lift bladbs are designed to operate.7 where 9. their parasitic losses are between .2) CDp/CB To avoid the onset of cavitation (and possibly for structural reasons too) the solidity of marine propellers is usually high. In marine propellers. in the order of . drag-lift ratio is .


4 0. 1 Figure 4.IENTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS DESIGN EXAMPLE NO.C N.4 and 0.6. C a 2 CT 12/"S" * 0. the loading increases at a This is done to avoid Operation - lesser rate. cavitation.11/0. - can only be maintained for short emergency CONFIDENTIAL I - 4. h. of such propellers above a design speed in the order of 35 knots at reduced efficiency periods of time. Using equation (4.3 presents some statistical evidence (taken from Gibbs and Cox files) on the maximum efficiency of marine propellers as a function of the speed of advance.5 " 0. Above 20 knots. r " 67%.& is j Equation (4. and the efficiency decreases accordingly.7 0.2 CALCULATION OF TOTAL PROPELLER EFFICIENCY Assuming a solidity ratio "s"' SB/So 0. however.1o . The dck loading (in tons/ft 2 ) roughly is seen increasing.5.10 + (0. so that CT is reduced.1.09 found to be in the order of 11%.2).C2.h9.1) then yields l/q - 1. the average lift coefficient in the blades of the propeller as is approximately considered above.2) .332/. thus keeping the thrust coefficient (CT) between 0.

. and this advance ratio can be Resistance characteristics selected to coincide with maximum efficiency. for example) are designed with a view toward avo4 ding cavitation.. high speed marine propellers (for destroyers.. The resistance is comparatively constant._5 MTENTIAL PERFORMANCF CALCULATIONS Hydrofoil boats are usually thought-of as operating at higher speeds. . hump resistance at takeoff speed (if any hump) may be equal to the resistance at maximum speed. it seems to be throughout the operational speed range. as illustrated in Figure 4.. indeed. necessary to design the propeller for maximum efficiency at a speed which is tentatively 90% of the maximam.1.=. In conventional displacement ships. . the propeller is ratios and it is no longer possible to have nearly maximum efficiency As in aviation. . the total propeller efficiency may be in the order of 60%. of hydrofoil boats are basically different. .. Between 30 and 40 knots.. necessarily running at different advance As a consequence.. Somewhat Z-*duced efficiency has to be should be checked that take- accepted in the range of lower speeds. Cavitating Propellers As mentioned before. and it off is insured. A very suitable application in hydrofoil craft would be a variable-pitch propeller. l . the resistance increases with speed in such a way that the propeller can be designed to operate at an approximately constant advance ratio A . This means that their solidity is very high (in keep the thickness ratio and the lift the order of 70%) to coefficient in the blades as CONFIDENTIAL S• . -. .. between 30 and 50 knots. .

12 h7 .NI. however. having efficiencies which are of the same order as those of destroyer-type propellers. hO Fully cavitating (and/or ventilating) propellers have been for many years in racing motorboats. even at reduced efficiency. The design of cavitating propellers is still hampered at the present time by the lack of an adequate theoretical system covering highly solid designs and cavitating section characteristics. Their efficiency is consequently lowered (by some comparison to a propeller designed for more However. record speeds exceeding 150 knots.evidently because the vapor bubbles are collapsing in the fluid space behind the propellers (rather than on the blades). the characteristics of cavitating blade sections can be improved over those of the flat-sided shapes which are usually applied in marine propellers. that the fully-cavitating propeller For example.DENTIAL FC PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS Low as possible. it seeme possible to design fully-cavitating propellers for high speeds. 10 or even 20%) in moderate speeds. however. Generally it can be stated. It up to the present used. if employing can be optimized for cavitating conditions. CONFIDENTIAL I . properly cambered pressure sides. has also been reported that such propellers do not exhibit erosion . design of non- cavitating propellers no longer seems to be possible above some knots. In concluding.4.

In higher speeds.'0NFIDE NTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS There are other possibilities of water propulsion such as the so-called pump jet (where the propeller is located inside an expanded lower-speed enclosure). however. t CONFIFDNTIAL I h-413 . propulsion by means of air propellers has Efficiencies in the order of 70% appear to be For lower speeds. realistic at speeds in the vicinity of 60 knots. Such devices will not be discussed here. the efficiencies of air propellers are probably not as high as those of water propellers - unless excessively large diameters are employed. also been applied.

such as those in indicated in reference 4.OCNFI DE NTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS 2. for example. this time in Resistance is also discussed in the a more summary manner. Generally.4. Parasitic Drag The parasitic drag of a plain hydrofoil is in the order of Dp where q S Dp q S . the'hull resistance (plus foil-system drag) in the parasitic resistance of the foil system ind the induced drag of the hydrofoil. RESISTANCE FUNCTION OF HYDROFOIL CRAFT Detailed information on the drag of various components of hydrofoil systems is presented in various chapters of the second volume of this handbook. there are three components of drag in hydrofoil craft. floating condition. Chapter 1 of this volume also gives infor- mation on the total resistance of various tested hydrofoil boats (mostly in following.dynamic pressure . (03) and the profile-drag coefficient in CONFIDENTIAL I . Hull resistance can best be estimated on the basis of towing-tank results. flying condition).01.1lh .planform area of foil the order of CDp 0. The influence of unloading is the later section on take-off.

4). downwash (if and ventilation at piercing ends (if said that the drag due to lift any).1. the resistance of a hydrofoil system (in dition) can roughly be estimated through equation (h.3) indicates the parasitic drag component as illustrated in Figure 14. coefficient given by flying con- with the drag 2i CONFIDENTIAL I - L. equation (4.3). it too is doubled as against the coefficient indicated in equation (4. Induced Drag The minimum induced drag of a fully-submerged plain foil corresponds to 2 Oni -CA/T A 2D (4. however.C['Th'IDENTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIC NS Very roughly it can be said that in average clean hydrofoil systems (including struts and appendages) CDp is doubled (is.iP . strut interference can be Very roughly. Summarizing. Using this value. any). 4 ) - where CL A lift coefficient 'IC - aspect ratio of the foil The induced drag of a hydrofoil system is higher.02).-O0. because of the proximity of the water surface (biplane effect) and on account of effects such as planform shape.

. have a somewhat different composition of resistance..PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS It should be noted that the parasitic component of drag (in pounds) increases as the square of the speed.~~-~\. . . • j • . To be sure. As a conseobtained which is quence a function of resistance against speed is basically different from that in displacement vessels. to give a general feeling for the mechanism of resistance in this type of craft. One and the same craft will also have 3omewhat different resistance as a function of loading. . .. using the rough values as indicated.4. . for example). decreases considerably as the speed is while the induced component increased.16 •. . " • •. In the design of a hydrofoil boat.. . however. The outlined procedure. may serve.. . CONFIDENTIAL I . . the resistance calculatiorns must be carried out using accurate values for the drag coefficients. - foil systems which change their submerged area during operation (surface-piercing "V" foils..

003 0.2 =1.2. For an assumed aspect ratio of A then in the order of 8.5%. this coefficient varies as (l/Vh). therefore. Since the induced drag coefficient is proportional to CL2 .02 + Dp -0. CL = 0.0. the lift increases as the speed is CL.003 a 0.003 On the basis of a parasitic drag coefficient C the total coefficient is 0.023/0. in the proportion of for instance. the induced coefficient is CDi * 2 0.068/0.8 The corresponding resistance ratio is 8. 'IDENT IAL CI PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS DESIGN EXAMPLE NO.CD/CL is equal to 0. For the conditions assumed.I/V 2 coefficient reduced.04 8 and the total drag coefficient CD . 0.048 .023 in and the ratio D/L .22/8v- 0.C.02 + 0.068.17 S7-" 771 .8 in the CL is . CDi . D/L CONFIDENTIAL I.02.16 0. four times the value at Vmax which is example considered. at half maximum speed. 3 CALCULATION OF FOIL RESISTANCE a) A lift be CL * coefficient suitable for high-speed operation may 0.5% b) In a fully-submerged foil system.0. this case 0. At half the maximum speed.h.

is able to lift the craft's weight clear of roughly that of the This resistance During the take-off run. increases with speed. the hydrofoil system develops lift. starting from zero at lowest velocities and increasing with speed CONFIDENTIAL I -4. Take-Off Speed During the take-off run. resistance is hull in floating condition plus that of the foil system. the maximum submerged foil area is applicable at the take- off speed. Take-off analysis includest (a) (b) 6c) take-off speed s minimum flying speed V resistance in the take-off range take-off distance. maximum lift systems. The minimum flying speed (with the hull above the water) corresponds to the maximum available lift-over-dynamic-pressure value of the foil system. from zero to a certain value which is in many designs a hump. In fully submerged designs this usually means the In surface-piercing and for multiple-panel coefficient.18 . TAKE-OFF PERFORMANCE "General Every hydrofoil system requires a certain minimum speed (minimum dynamic pressure) before it the water."KCNPCDEN TI AL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS 3.

33 ft • 20 knots VT2 0.4h TAKE-OFF SPEED What is the take-off speed of a 10-ton boat. Generally... -W . 4. .19 777 ..7. ..8 ? 900 lb/ft 2 . and - 2 lb sec2/ft4. having a foil area of 25 ft 2 and operating at take-off speed at a lift a * coefficient of CL For W/S 22400/25 0. - 3 For L = W.g secB CONFIDENrIAL I- h. the take-off speed is accordingly W VT 2 (b.L ~CATiLCULAON3 according to some function.••CL DESIGN EXAMPLE NO. to the condition where lift weight W.. L equals the L where CL q S - CL q S lift = CL 0.5 2 VS (h.6) coefficient = dynamic pressure submerged foil area water density .7) IN S . the take-off speed is V 900 2 •.. 7 .

..0. the maximum lift In proximity of the water surface.. may be somewhat lower than the static maximum..2 1. still or' foil may reach the maximum while the other is (e) below maximum. the effective value Struts and other parts may disrupt the lift Because of dynamic lift variations in time...lows: In this respect. expected value of the 19% thick symmetrical round-nose section employed is in the order of 1.9....15.. CONFIDENTIAL I- 4.. 'the maximum coefficient in Gibbs and Cox's while the tandem-foil Research Craft5 was found to be C~max .. symmetrical sharp-nosed section symmetrical round-nosed section average circular-arc section favorable aviation-type section CLm Ad 1. sectional values are as fol. To quote one experience... certain designs to utilize fully the coefficient of foil section approximate hydrodynamically possible lift and wing arrangement involved... coefficient may be lower than in unlimited flow..5 However. i ... AL PERFORMANCE CALT.20 P••' . in actual operation these values may not be reached because of the following reasons: (a) (b) (c) Non-uniform lift distribution along the span.. distribution...7.D:. (d) In tandem and similar systems..! ATO 0NS It may be possible in maximum.2 1. r..0 1.

its parasitic resistance may be known in flying condition. This type of resistance should then be increased on account of all components (struts. attained. This depends on the angle of attack. the frictional CONFIDENTIAL I .DrEN`AL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS Take-Off Resistance In designing a foil system.4. proportional to the wetted area. plus a wave-making component which is a function of the displaced volume (weight) of water (and of Froude number. As the foil system develops lift. the angle of attack may be varied as desired). . In general.the lift coefficient at take-off). reaching The hull resistance decreases This resistance is essentially a skin frictional com- ponent. the weight supported by the hull (the hull's displacement) decreases during take-off. which for a fixed foil depends on the trim of the craft during take-off (for a controllable foil. As suggested in Reference 6.21 W71477- . of course). The induced drag during the take-off run depends upon the percentage of craft weight taken in lift lift by the foil system. it may be suitable to consider CL to be constant through the take-off range (equal to CLT . zero as the take-off speed is accordingly. The induced drag can then be calculated according to the principles presented in Volume II of this Handbook. propulsion parts) which are more deeply submerged during take-off as compared to the flying condition.

the Knowing the resistance-speed function of the fully loaded hull. Rf Rr 2 i = resistance f(V) . where R.friction component residual component in fully loaded condition Actually.8) load on the hull total weight t / 4 This function is valid for constant speed (or Froude number). depending upon shape and trim of the hull.QJTFIAL PERFORM4ANCE CALCULATIONS component decreases only little as the hull is unloaded.22 . force is utilized in This differential or unbalanced thrist accelerating the craft: CONFIDENTIAL I - L. the residual resistance varies approximately in 2/_± ( proportion to (4.-"<-L . the frictional resistance may somewhat decrease during the process of unloading. For the hulls investigated in Reference 6. - The acceleration from rest to take-off speed corresponds to the differential between the available propeller thrust T and the resist- ance of hull plus foil system. resistance in more or less unloaded condition is then approximately R~R Ro R Ro 0. Take-Off Distance After having determined the resistance-speed function. subsequently this component drops "suddenly" to zero as the hull finally separates from the water. the length of the take-off run can be calculated as explained in Reference 6.

. . . . .•. take-off distance x....n) x 0..10) M = W/g The take-off distance is W T1 d(V ) (2.. . . .13) CONFIDENTIAL - 4..• __• • .23 • %..5 V . .. ..4. ... .7CJF'FIDENTI AL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS F where T -R = M dV/d(time) mass of the craft.: . . this equation can be solved graphically by plotting (1/F) against q. Using an average (effective) value for F. . ••M. .. .. this function 2 is x -dq (4... ... and after substituting the dynamic pressure at take-off The area under the curve represents the qT (W/S)/CLT (4. then V2 (11. .5 9 fF - Rewritten in terms of the dynamic pressure q 0.12) where T * unit weight of water indicating condition at ta:ie-off speed As illustrated in Figure 4.


however. the hump. where To Vertical Rise In airplanes. In hydrofoil boats. to be expended in lifting the craft. it seems to have a magnitude similar to the basic run (equation 4.4. the vertical motion during the take-off run is negligibly small in comparison to the horizontal distance (let's say in the order of 1 to 1000).25 . in.practical cases. Reference 4 suggests a corresponding increase of the take-off distance in the order of hW/F. h where h FT - (4. denoted as FT.14). If knowing the average force is roughly 0T 3 F• + T411 7 av - o full throttle thrust at V (1415) O.16) is not just a small correctioh. thus proportional at least to the square of the The force Fav is naturally depending upon the power installed in the craft as well as upon the hydrodynamic resistance.16) vertical rise of the craft (T - R) at take-off speed The additional distance (equation 4.NT FIDENTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS V The distance is weight W. possibfy in the order of 1 to 10. this ratio is much Some power has greater.or take-off value of F. CONFIDENTIAL I" .

2. 1i0 2 228 64 O 24 - ft Equation 4.8 2100/170 35 ft The total run would thus be 59 ft.141 x 20.i51 400 lbs ? (400 + 3-170)/4 = 228 Fav= lbs quation 4.-ONFlDENTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS DESIGN EXAMPLE NO. a vertical rise h .5 What is the take-off distance (from rest to flying) of Gibbs and Cox's 20 ft Research Craft having W - 2100 Jbs.161 AX 2. tested were some 60 or 62 ft.5 -- i Il I I II I I I I r l J I I I I II CONFIDENTIAL I -4t. TAKE-OFF DISTANCE 4. an unbalanced thrust of 170 lbs at take- off speed. and a To Equation 4.130 lb/ft. W/S .26 . a take-off speed of 7 knots.8 ft.

9 0.A00 39 knots The question may. 4.01)UFIDENTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS 4.6 326 CONFIDENTIAL I . however.4.27 .17): 39 2240 - 500 HP 0.6 - P 500 BHP the maximum sopd (equation 4.6 MAXIMUM SPEED Assuming.9 tons D/L - 10% 0. SPEED AND RANGE Maximum Speed As indicated in Figure 4.17) where rq qp - mechanical efficiency propeller efficiency DESIN EXAMPLE NO. W 9 = for instance: 10 1 0. be the other way around: what is the power required to drive the assumed craft at a speed of 39 'note? P Using again equation (4. the maximum speed is eviderntly a function of resistance and available power: S Vkn3tRlb6 SHP 326 Vknots 326 PHPAWlb R/W (4.17) is Vmax 326 0"9 0 R6.1.1 22.5OO 0.

at which the minimum occurs. %p df A/2 p~p (14.1). for Employing the basic definition of the lift L - W. the resistance of the foil system may somewhat increase by fouling or damage (surface roughness). the induced drag coefficient is coefficient.19) The corresponding speed follows from S- .4). 2 W/S (h. the power output of the machinery may deteriorate with time.6). speed. CL~pt . the dynamic pressure at which the optimum occurs is found to be %pt " w/s CLopt (4.18) coefficient (equation 4. Cruising Speed Cruising speed may be defined in a more or less arbitrary manner.4. The lift that at which At this equal to the "constant" parasitic can coefficient. one distinct speed in many hydrofoil craft is the resistance has a minimum value (see Figure 4.28 =. However. Also.OýNFIDENTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS Naturally. thus reducing maximum speed.! .20) CONFIDENTIAL I . therefore be evaluated from equation (4. It should also be kept in mind that the usual resist- ance predictions do not include the additional drag caused by waves and the dynamic motions of the craft when operating in a seaway..

21) where q c - propulsive efficiency .(•'•T DENTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS where W S * water density weight of the craft planform area of foil " At this speed. defined in the-preceding example.046 0.4. log(lO/9) . the range is Range (nautical miles) - 11lOg9.average lift-drag ratio initial weight L/D Wo a Wx" final weight DESIoN EXAMPLE NO. the craft reaches a maximum range. having one ton fuel in the total weight of 10 tons.75Oc cD WX p (4. - 0. 4.7 CALCULATION OF RANGE What is the range of the craft. for an optimum R/W 0.5 466 nautical miles CONFIDENTIAL I .06• 0.5 lb/HP per hour? Wo/wx Range * 8% and a fuel consumption c - 10/9.54 0. quoted by Diehl 7 .046 750 0.r•m - fuel consumption in lb/HP per hour W/R . Range As indicated by Breguet's equation.29 .

Range and endurance are necessarily limited in those hydrofoil boats which are designed for higher speeds. . because of the resistance ratio (which is This is not so much favorable in comparison to other higher-speed craft) . of maximum endurance is close to the minimum speed. . . . i [ CONFIDENTIAL Ith. As explained in Chapter 2... The maximum endurance is found somewhere between the speed of maximum range at the point where in Figure h. m • '• • . ..21). the increased machinery weight takes away a considerable portion of the weight fraction which is otherwise available for fuel (and pay load). . . Endurance The endurance is according to Breguet Endurance (hours) .22) where notation is as indicated in connection with equation (4. .650 7 Vknots b 1R-• 1 xlb Wolb 1 (4. this speed and the minimum flying speedj that is. the term (V times R) reaches a minimum.. . .'FTDENTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS Practical aspects of range in the design of hydrofoil craft are presented in Chapter 3. K .but rather because of the bigger and heavier machinery required for these higher speeds."-.30 -.1 In many designs.

Rudder and lateral hydrodynamic characteristics of the foil system have to be adequate so that turning can be performed. General Turning is naturally a matter of control and stability.diameter of turning circle W/q -mass tangential speed of craft M V It - is explained in Chapter 6 of this volume. As illustrated in Figure 4. ' LLNTIAL I - . Z - This force is - M V'/r 2 W V2 /qd - FlateraI (4.C(QNFIDENTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS 5. General aspects on which diameter and time in a complete steady-state circle depend. to support the mass of the craft against the centrifugal force Z. a centripetal force Flateral is required in a turn. that Flateral is produced in certain lateral areas (or by banking) of the foil system. TURNING CHARACTERISTICS Available information on turning performance is little - so far. .31 .23) where d - 2r .5. Such conditions and a sufficient amount of engine power (to overcome added resistance) shall be assumed to exist. are as follows.


. In a surface-piercing system with essentially constant lift Flat/q is increasing (together with submergence and wetted foil area) By comparison. therefore. the available lateral foil-system force Flat may be proportional to V2 . ...--' .33 • • .CCNFTDF1NTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS Turning Performance Solving equation (h..v/Jg[- Froude number on J. . the turning diameter increases in proportion to the square of the speed for which the boat is designed (dimensions are variable in this case rather than fixed as in the precluding paragraph).25) where .4 .• • . • r• • .2F1 2 W/Flat (hi. -.23) for the turning diameter: d 2-r_ 2 V2 2 V2 g a/g 2 V(4.:.4... . . This equation indicates that for a given type of foil system (with Flat/Wconstant).. this as the speed of operation is decreased.24) 2/a g Flat/W where a/g * Fl't/W centripetal acceleration ratio In a fully submerged design. is In this case.• .ngtht of the craft' s hull d4 . ... type of hydrofoil boat is expected to turn in smallest circles at lowest speeds."IM . CONFIDENTIAL I . Referring the turning diameter to the 2...• J III . .'. coefficient. '. • '-.• • . the diameter indicated by the derived equation to be independent of the speed.•... therefore..-'l"• "-M ..:•.

2 d -140 1. the ratio d/) is In turning.4.5.85 dft/Vknots (4.26) Other Considerations As mentioned before.692 202 32. As indicated by equation (14.5 ft for an assumed acceleration ratio of a/g Referred to the length of such a boat.cIWDENTIAL PERFORMANCE CALCULATIONS DESIGN EXAMPLE NO. in the order of 4.. the rear foil is It aspects of stability and control have been tandem systems turning should also be mentioned that in put to a much higher angle of yaw in CONFIDENTIAL I .. the time required to complete a full circle may also be.214).7 What is the turning diameter of a craft having 10 tons and V a 20 Knots ? W w The available lateral force can be estimated on the basis of the information in Chapter 6. disregarded here.. of interest: time (seconds)= dir/V - 1.34 . - 0. TURNING DIAMETER 4.2 0.

. with a submerged foil system.1. diameters in The Gibbs & Cox tandem showed a minimum ratio d/t . i. Practical experience in turning performance is qchertel 8 mentions for his surface-piercing designs. Generally it may. in This problem "scing. utilizing end plates. is less important. helpful not be possible to obtain a maximum of forces (and moments) in turning in each of the two foils of such systems.ACN (see in Figure 4. .ep"-foil configurations (where one foil carries most or all of the load). however.AL PP~.5) than the forward foil.C. the order of 3 to 7 times the hull length. therefore. Research Craft (controlled) 5 limited.h.2.

CONFJ Dr. 1943. Davidson and Juarez. 'Hydrodynamic Tests of 20-Foot Hydrofoil Craft". S.' 8.REFERENCES I° Kramer. Verlag Hansa Hamburg 1952. Ronald Press 1936. 6. Stam-Holland 3948. 7. PT A I - 4 ' . Hoerner and Ward. "Engineering Aerodynamics". "Resistance Propulsion Steering of Ships". VonSchertel. "Speed and Power of Ships". Taylor. 3. Hoerner. 6 (1952). 2. Van Lammeren. \4 TK . !"rests of Related Models of V-Bottom Motor Boats Series 50". Diehl. "Take--off Performance of Hydrofoil Craft". Gibbs and Cox Tech Rpt ONR 13531 No. Stevens FTT Rpt 170 (1948). "Induced Efficiencies of Optimum Propellers". "Hydrofoil Boats". 12 (1953). Handbuch der Werften Volume II. U. Luftfahrtforschung 1938 po 326. Government Printing Office. Gibbs & Cox Tech Rpt ONR 13531 No.

configurations and hulls. CONFIDENTIAL I - . Introduction Load Criteria 'and Loading of Foils and Struts 3. 2. STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS 1. arc advanced for foil-strut Approximate formulas are given to deteritiine preliminary dimensions of foil and strut scantlings. Structural load criteria and resulting loading conditions based on average and maximum sea conditions. methods to determine hull load values are indicated. . Typical materials for usc r in the construction of hydrofoil craft are also discussed. 5. Structural Design of Foils and Struts Hull-Structural Considerations Materials 4.CHAPTER 5.

operations.)d however.m.. are small and light in weight has minimized structural requirements..t. It has not been of particular intere.rf There are essentially no new probleras involved the analysis and the design of hydrofoil structures once the loadA.. . •r•r: *:c-. . . Also.. There has been no systematic advancement of structural deoign criteria due to the fact that hydrofoil craft have generally lem experimental In nature.ýiL in these cases to determine accurate or probable loading values. . T)IODUCTION "The principles of structural design for hydrofoil craft are -.rvi Cl'literta and the derivation of loading conditions. .raanced for particular types of craft.. t-. foil load factors and loading conditorns have a.IT STRUCTUIRAL CONSIDERATIONS "T. based on data obtlainei fron Cdrial.l models or experimental craft of the same confrimration. in the interest of demonstrating craft feasibility. In several instances...-... It is in the establishnent of In.. in little information with respect to hydrofoil craft.. overly strong foil. leer little service experience to indicate whether t. u'. and there was usually little prior experience to fall back on. = 0•:•. ..ngs of the various components are known.strut structures have been provided in many instances to ins•r• Pgainst structural failure. with only a few small craft in actual service The fact that most boats that have been built and operated.. that f.ply adapted from the fundamental design principles of aircraft wiriVg hulls in shipbuilding. CONFIDeITTIAL I •"I ITITI ' -Il ..• .6. in J.

. in the design of hydrofoil structures.. ! .UTIOr4S those factors would provide a satisfactory structure or one inherently weak or overly strong. Inc. It is not considered within the scope of this chapter to present Rather..... particularly in regard to stresses experienced in operation and the conditions under which they occur.... however. . . . 7 •i • • y !•!!:... .. ...." •:• • ?•--• . -<• l . . the lack Most craft have not been in service long enough to allow investigation of fatigue limitations. or have not been of such size or intended service to require a minimization of structural weight. ~~-R ~~i '. Little has been done or is available on structural tests of hydrofoil configurations. pending the development of more refined information as experience increases..:. •. approximate "' : and detail structural design methods and analyses.. then.. It is considered that the loads derived are conservative to a degree which varies (to some presently unknown extent) with the type of configuration and the intended service of hydrofoil craft. . TRIMCTURAL CONS!DEI... have not experienced the extreme conditions anticipated... The criteria are not so conservative. have generally been adopted by Gibbs & Cox.. . The load criteria presented herein and the loading conditions derived for use. i ... the underlying reason for the lack of representative load criteria and adequate loading conditions is of experience in hydrofoil operations..... ..3 S" .. methods and relationships suitable for roughing out an adequate f ntrut system arc presented to be used in deriving preli ririry CONFIDENTIAL I-5.). Generally.K . as to penalize performance by the burden of excessive structural weisht.

KI 77- .' h..Y. 111 COUFITDENTIAL I-5.. function of foil loading is girder stresses.: . 'AEN IAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS arrangements. The various factors that influence the choice of materials for the foil-strut configuration and for the hull have also been indicated. A method for determining virtual hull weight. also presented for use in analyzing hJ. TN. without going into detail as to the comparative qualities of the various materials.

) wave length .•..L) foil weight. Ibs foil submergence frequency of wave encounter orbital velocity of water particles flap effectiveness flap deflection.TRUCTUIUAL CO1JSTDERATION3 SCL SCLopt dCL -- foil lift coefficient foil lift lift coefficient due to camber dQ( Cs curve slope of the foil side force coefficient sido-force-curve dO 9 dI slope of the st-mat V Vk H N T L/S A •L!S 0(S-F)-2 speed of craft speed of craft in knots wave height (crest to trough .ft.ft number of cycles of loading specified service life of craft -hrs design loading of foils additional loading of foils side loading of stnits (SS) A W Sh f w kf W total load on foil (L +L.2TTL 2~S. •. radians CON FTDr1ITIAL I - .11. radians extreme angle of strut section..

if all the operating factors were known . It is limited. LOAD CRITFRIA AND LOADING OF FOILS AND STRUTS Load Criteria The history of the loading experienced by a hydrofoil during its operating life is dependent on the waves that may be encountered at various times combined with the operational requirements of the craft in such waves.if the probabilities of the sea state were fully accountable and the operations of the craft were specified as to speed. etc. at the any really useful' only within the past few years that accurate information on the state of the sea has been ahead. Thus. CONFIDENTIAL T -. very the state of knowledge of the various factors is -.- ~ i . magnitude and frequency of all the loads that may be experienced in the lifetime of a foil could be specified. Finally. representative load factors. and the hydrofoil structure could be designed on the basis of accurate. The actual loading experienced by hydro- foils in service must also be determined by various measurements on various craft under various conditions before valid conclusions can be drawn. and years of research are still is adequate for general use. the spectrum of hydrofoils.ent time. it is necessary to know the intended service of a particvilar craft to be designed or analyzed in order to establish the probable operational requirements under various sea conditions. on the basis of probability. it would be possible to estimate accurately the full loading That is. - limiting accelerations.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTH hAL CONSIDERATIONS 2. 6 -~-R. However. maneuvers. before such information developed.

3. The magnitude of the loading when turning at the highest possible speeds under normal and maximum sea conditions. load spectra cannot be defined.7 . the loAding at cruising speed will be less severe but more frequent than at top speed. at the highest negotiable speed. 5. CONFIDENTIAL 7W--. 2. specify that the loading shall be investigated under the following conditions: 1. several different cases may have to be investigated under each condition to determine the maximum severity of the loadings. The magnitude and frequency of the loading under maximum sea conditions. at the present time. The magnitude and frequency of the loading under the average or normal conditions of operation in normal sea conditions. for the loads on foils and struts. Thus. Depending on the intended service of the craft. and it is necessary to set up such criteria that prodli-t- loadings that are characteristic of those expected in service. for a craft normally operating at a cruiting speed somewhat lower than maximum speed. These conditions cover normal operations where the loadings occur frequently (and generally at higher speeds) and abnormal operations where the loadings are extreme but occurring infrequently (and generally at lower speeds). The proposed load criteria.COW'IDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS Therefore.

or average sea. the loads normally experienced would be comparatively small. dependent on the service of the craft and the waters in which it operate. of course.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTJRAL CONSIDERATIONS Average Loading Conditions The load on the foils and struts that would normally be expeA-ed to be carried is the design load needed to support the craft in flight turning). in order to get some usable design information from this The waves that can condition. impossible to generalize on such a condition. The average waves to be met by a hydrofoil craft are.8 . CONFIDENTIAL IN I~ 5. waters is It is. be negotiated by the craft at its appreciable craft accelerations. therefore. is to A summer passenger or excursion boat operating in protected less subject to large seas than an ocean-going patrol craft. Even at the resulting low stiesses in the structure would generally be well below the fatigue limit. as modified by the (and to supply the necessary forces in influence of surface waves that normally would prevail. the criterion may be somewhat restated. design (or maximum) speed without may be considered to be the prevailing Extending this concept. the following is proposed for the average or prevalent loading condition. very high frequencies. However. the most prevalent sea condition in all waters is so calm that as compared to the more severe conditions likely to be encountered. Therefore.

be generally expressed as A W dCL -- n--dC1/docH " Vma 2.. DENTAL STRICTURAL CONSIDERATIONS The craft is considered proceeding at mcaximum design.. The length of wave is assumed to be 20 times t. The maximum instantaneous loading on the foils can beconsidered to occur when the foil is below the position of maximum wave slope (maximum vertical orbital velocity). at that speed (or equal to the air gap to the hull.hc wave height.9 . The additional lift and thus at the desi ýkrsyrr. •m m4.h&..!. -L ýF Vmax d where •0L is the additional lift coefficient dCL is the lift curve slope of the foil at the de-ign for the derivation of submergence (See Volume II this function) Vmax h w is the maximum craft speed is the design average foil submergence is the orbital velocity of the water at the submergence h is is the wave height (crest to trough) the wave length H [ CONFIDENTIAL I 5.... whichevr is less). generated by the foil under these conditiorn. d a wave of height equal to the average submergence a. e 21thb .

Vma H 2 el.Th) proceeding in beam seas must be The The condition where the craft is considered for the lateral forces generated on the struts.COFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS The frequency of encounter is considered to be the average tbe!-.clope of the strut at the for the submergence h .2b) F CO0. for 1.2a) (5.h/A (5. horizontal orbital velocity is where the submergence is each strut a maximum at the crest of the wave.1.lateral angle of attack is the side force curve .5 times the design submergence.2a the side force coefficient 4) dOs ddy .-.07.5 (See Volume II derivation of this function) W is the orbital velocity of the water taken at the average submergence 3/4h is the maximum craft speed Vmax The frequency of encounter for this condition is frequencyi then the natural wave f tjg/71TA (5..FTDET IAL 7! . Then. head sea and following sea conditions: f ma/ (5 . SVmax where 0s is dC- doL dCs/dv.

which must be investigated. lb/fti SF/Ss Vkmax hi is the side force loading on a strut from the foil to 1.5h.5 the design surface becomes loaded. Considering the limiting case where the wave length is 20 times the height. Also.11 .ub-since the foil is more deeply submerged (1. lb/ft 2 is the maximum craft speed.NFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS For surface-piercing foils.. knots is the design foil submergence.2) above. h/A = 1/20 In Head and Following Sea Condition WLS - 2 Jh Vkma dCL/d& N 30 0 Vkmax T/h (5.. in beam seas.1) and (5. the conditions at the c mergence) and the foil structure normally above the wat. Converting speed to knots and rounding off the numerical factors for simplicity. feet CONFIDENTIAL I - 5. the wave in head or following seas must also be inveti.3) In Beam Sea Condition N where &L/S - 1800 TI'' is the additional loading on the normally submerged foil. surface-piercing foils are subject to differential loads. we get for HI.eu ed. the loading can be generalized for any craft from equations (5.

2a is that obtained by Scripps Institute of Oceanography6 for the Figure rost severe waves experienced in northern oceans. a majority of the waves encountered (although not necessarily the most extreme waves that occasionally arise). The ability of a craft to maintain flight a function of its configuration. maximum sea conditions can e ra. ' is the side force curve slope of the strut submergence 1. TRTCTPTRAL CONSTDPRATIONS dCL/d& is the lift dC s/di curve slope of the foil at . as shown in . 5. At least.! • IW .ý. at some reduced speed. It is speed. curves "B"' and "CO. The only correlated information available on actual sea characteristi. under severe wave conditions is control features.5h is is the number of cycles of loading N T the specified service life of the craft. that a craft specified to operate in certain watersshovld be able to maintain flight under the maximum sea conditions expected in those waters.12•. Maimim Load Conditions The conditions of maximum loading are those in which the craft is operating in maximum waves. as follows: CONFIDENTIAL 1 . From these data. it should be able to negotiate. and the characteristics of the waves encountered.ionalized. hours.1o. assumed for the purpose of assigning loading values on the structure..

uoo W0 6n _ UJ0 z Iow ILI 5.-r .13a ý.

par- tcularly when waves are progressing from deeper water (such as at the nhore line.1. The curve identified as "relationship for most extreme. From statistical analyses.i- average of the 1/10th highest waves that may be experienced at sea. or at shoals). in shallow water.[/H values shown in Figure 5. however. .. rImiting valmg of X/H - There. An exception must be made. Another point is and is shown that one wave in Extreme waves have twenty (1/20) will be a 1/10th highest wave. at all and may be considered to occ:I It appears reasonable to assume that the maximum waves for any body of water possess the characteristic . as curve "All of the figure. that is. no probability. the "a1rerage sea" that would prevail under these maximum conditions would be 1/2 as high as that for the 1/10th highest waves.JKD R IAL IbNT STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS The curve identified in Figure 5. that body for all waves up to the longest wave that can be generated in (which may be determined from experience or estimated by Piersonts mpthod 1 ). - . is considered conditions over a long period of time" (curve "C") to represent the most extreme wave that may arise out of the group of waves that occur.1 as "most probable for any given year" (curve 1931") is . considered to represent-. they are not expected to be encountered only "once in a lifetime". the most severe waves approach the 7. as indicated by PiersonI.

waves to some extent resulting in vertical accelerations which are too severe for high waves unless the craft speed is Secondly. The length and height of the average wave.2) given above. functions of the fetch and duration of the generating winds.6) The craft speed and wave characteristics must be determined in order to derive the loading values. The characteristics of the waves experienced are a function of the general sea conditions. the additional loadings may be generalized in terms of wave characteristics and craft speed in knots AL 12 VkH dCL-ee do1 (5. a reduction in speed due to the average increase in The reduction in speed must be drag of the craft operating in waves. height necessarily reduced in maximum First.5) S Sss 1 (5. The maximum speed of the craft is seas for several reasons. dynamic response. allowable accelerations. foil-strut configuration.1) and (5. and the characteristics of outsize waves in the prevailing sea are. there is appreciably reduced. etc.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS From equations (5. in turn. It is CONFIDENTIAL 73 77ý"77!1 . !n order to negotiate waves of a the craft must "track" the greater than the foil-hull clearance. determined individually for each craft on the basis of available power.

The 1/30th highest waves under (b) these sea conditions therefore occur (1/20)2 of 1/400th of the time. resulting in a larger dC /dCe. Thus. for oceans the wave length. Maximum sea conditions are expected to be met 5% of the operating life of the craft. * (a) 300 for average and 1/10th highest waves. as shown in Figure 5. and the decay factor is CONFIDENTIAL I . dCL/do is determined at the neglected. The following assumptions are made. The speed of the craft is assumed to be the maximum that can be This is considered (c) attained under the maximum sea conditions.5.2. the largest that may be experienced. 500 for extreme waves the length is For restricted waters. 1 Hcwever.16 . this is (d) counteracted by the decrease in orbital effect due to the decay factor e -Wh/* Therefore.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS impossible to generalize on these conditions and some simplifying assumptions must be made in order to derive probable loading values for the foil-strut configuration.. applicable to all ocean-going craft and those experiencing similar wave conditions: The prevailing waves are those in which the orbital velocities are a maximum. to be about 75-80% of the maximum speed in calm water. nominal submergence h. The foil may be more deeply submerged than the design submergence h.

. - . CURVE1 DENOTr. - .AR 05 PROBABLE '' •?: 'II' -"---0- - - - Ion . COI'9IDERATIONS Am U. UTqAT.- . IZI 10 : lo FOR.c FIDE INTAL STR"P.. . ORBITAL VEtOCITY AT SURrAC1. 100 wO0 Soo 400 FT. OVER A -V-R - L0N(4 PERIOD OF TIME...17 .OO 600 TOO WAVE LENGTH.?~l1T ' 2" "•TrE*.j 4- - - - -- -tM tXIMUM - SCODITION Ul 1 Ft MA5UMED AVERACqE" IN a1 a- - _. z ht" 14 - MOST EYTRCM. h- MAXIMUM ORBITAL VELOCITIES OF WAVES IN NORTHERN OCEANS FIGURE 5. - S. ANY G41VEN YE..2 CONFIDEIrrIAL I - 5.

Actually.7) S6 Vkma dCs/d) N - 20 T (b) In 1/10th Highest Waves SL/S - 12 Vkmax dCL/dAC N N - Vkx T/25 (5. the maximum loading conditions may be indicated as followas (a) In Average Maximum Seas A L/S -6 Vkmax dCt/d(.18 . N " 0. and the strut area On the basis of these assumptions.- 12 Vkax dCs/dy (c) In Most Extreme Waves AL/S (SF)/S.8) T (sF)/s. depending on the CONFIDENTIAL i '~. - 18 Vkmax 18 Vkmx dCL/d15 dCg/dV_ (N -1 (5.CCON PDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS (e) The struts are considered fully submerged (to a point just clear of the hull)in determining d0s/d 9 to be loaded.~STT 7 - 5.75 Vkmax T (5.9) Combined Foil Loading and Side Force The above loading conditions have been derived to give foil loading and side force independent of each other.

and the loadings will then be (SF)/Ss sin % and A L/S cos at the specified side force frequencies given above. The overall effect on the structure ray however be greater.. CONFIDENTIAL TS.. Flaps and Rudders It is conceivable that for controllable foils. . This condition should be avoided. foil flaps or rudders. maneuvering is a prime requisite. to maintain full actuation under all operating conditions and to accept the loading that results. . however... extreme loading may be experienced when. where possible.and this case must be investigated. as desired for investigation. . .CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDlERATIONS angle of encounter of the waves and the direction of orbital velocity at various positions in the waves. the beam sea condition may be considered to prevail . depending on the configuration . be determined from a dynamic analysis of the craft (for instance. some error in actuating the controllable component may result in an excessiVely large angle of attack.19 . at high speed. by installing In some instances.. • > •• '' . it may be desirable. . addition of the side force and the additional foil loading will occur simultaneously at some reduced value of each.. . For simplicity. Xxtreme Loading for Actuated Foils. 5. $ is a parameter which may have any value to give relative forces on the foil or struts. The maximum loading that results is that which the foil or other This loading may the compon-nt in question can develop at maximum speed. such as where some form of limiting device.

but due to variation in spanwise distribution. etc. (C) Ventilation.0.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS maximum lift on the foil that may be generated before the foil emerges or in the absence of such analysis may be considered from the water). to be the limiting load due to stall or ventilation as given below.20 . The limiting load due to aerodynamic stalling car be considered an upper limit.-l value is reduced.0. unflapped foil this limit may be taken to be (Maximum lift coefficient of foil * that corresponding to Cmax . particularly for surface-piercing foils and struts. a foil or strut may stall out at some lower lift coefficient than indicated above because oft (a) Stalling in the aerodynamic sense. For a symmetrical.1. sections are somewhat larger than 1. CONFIDENTIAL I - 5. Thus. strut interference. where the lift of the foil cannot exceed a certain value. (b) Cavitation. applicable to the more extreme loading conditions treated above. as determined from airfoil tests. Limiting Load Conditions The loading conditions indicated above may not be achieved in J some instances due to the limit of loading that can be generated by the foil or strut. where the maximum lift coefficient attainable in a function of the speed of the craft (and the pressure distri- bution of the foil section). the tot.

11) ventilation. shapes is Some indication of the maximum lift above. Converting speed to as followss generalized. knots.10) 5-0 increased by the is For foils that have camber and/or flaps. but at the present time the data surface-piercing able are not sufficient to permit generalization for all CONFIDENT-AL I-5. lbs/ft the additional foil loading. C~max lift due to camber and/or due to flap deflection. The expression has an upper limit may be limited to For surface-piercing foils.0). The maximum possible foil loading is then L + S L S c CLmaxO0.CONFTDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS are Chapter 4 indicates that C1Max values for some tested hydrofoils actually below 1.11) 2 the design foil loading. lbs/ft 2 Vkmax is the maximum craft speed.5P os 2V 2. knots coefficient due to camber C~opt is the lift (gee Volume I1) kf fMax is is the flap effectiveness (see Volume II) the maximum flap deflection. radians in the or1er of (6 V2ax). due to for specific foil availgiven in Volume 1I.21 . the maximum possible foil loading may be -+ 8 where L/S I/S L 3 V.i (5.Ma S is is (1 + C~opt) (1 + kf ermx) (5. the maximum loading some value below that indicated by equation (5.

particularly in the consideration of instantaneously applied loads. However.CON.• •I _AL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS foils. and the turning conditions considered. in Volume 1I. Thus the maximum side force on the strut is (F) 3 (dCs/dIP) 2 (5. Loading in Turns The loading that may be imposed on a foil-strut configuration in turns must be analyzed in terms of the configuration employed. As indicated in Volume II. also ventilation occurs when the angle of yaw excee"'s the "angle of entrance" of the strut section. These depend on the type of configuration f CONFIDENTIAL 15.22 lr 7 . lbs/ft the "lateral lift-curve slope (see Volume II) .• is the entrance angle at the strut section (onehalf the total angle at the leading edge) in radians Cavitation may also limit the generation of lift. there is as is indicated insufficient knowledge of this phenomenon at the present time to determine the effect accurately. Such a limit due to ventilation is very significant however. The limiting side force on a surface-piercing strut is associated with ventilation. and where surface-piercing foils are to be employed specified tests should be conducted on the configuration to determine the limiting lift coefficient.12) where (OW)/S is dOs/dW is the maximum side loading.

For maximum sea conditions. the method of turning (whether controlled in roll to bank. discussed above. for the particular design considered. CONFIDENTIAL I 5. I • (b) To the forces thus determined.) . Thus. ladder. (c) The loading due to waves in the average condition.23 .The resulting loading must be checked to determine that it does not exceed the limit loading. The frequency of loading in turns depends on the operational requirements of the craft. (It is considered very unlikely to encounter the most extreme sea loading superimposed on maximum turning load.5 is applied to account for transitory loads prior to steady-state condition. for estimating the forces in a turn. remaining level or allowed to heel outward) and the turning condition (transitional or steady state). a similar procedure may be used. t . equation (5. or fully submerged). with the forces due to average maximum and 1/10th highest waves superimposed at their sorresponding frequencies. a factor of 1. (a) for average conditions: From an analysis of turning (Chapter 4) and equilibrium in turns (Chapter 6). Therefore. loading in turns cannot be generalized but must be analyzed Certain procedures can be set up. however.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS (surface-piercing.4) (d) should be superimposed. the maximum side force and restoring moments on the configuration in a steady-state turn can be estimated.

3. 2.L0o)(1+kf Vppe mit 6 max) NI1 j6 V 2 a N 1 ADING IN TURNSJ Notest SEE TEXT SEE TEXT 1.15fh N 1800 T/4l N -30 Vkmax T/h IMA41M LOAD CONDITIONS Average AL/S .5.1/4 Vkmax T (SF)/Ss N'.2.6 Vkmax dCL/doc N . dC /dtj) 5 N aVkmxT/25 Most Extreme Waves N T 18 Vkmax dCs/dffI AL/S " 18 Vkmax dCL/dec MN'I (SF)/Ss N-l 2 (S) 2 dCs MXM L0ADIN3 L AL (1+E.CONFTDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS SUMMARY OF WADING CONDITIONS Additional Foil Loading AVERAGE LOAD "OONDITION AL/S w 23 Side Force (Per Strut) Vkmax dCs/df Vkmax dCL/dOL (SF)/Ss .24 . Notation is given in the text. Foil Loading and Side Force cannot exceed the extreme loading values. Side Force and Additional Foil Loading may be considered acting simultaneously at the reduced values (SF)/Sssin 0 and AL/S cos at the corresponding side force frequency. CONFIDENTIAL t 1.20 T (SF)/IS 6 Vkmax dCs/dtfi 1/10 Highest Waves AL/S 12 Vkmax dCL/dX 12 Vkm.

CLoVt 1.. From Volume 1 dCL dea dCs 1 1.DESIGN EXAMPLE NO. CONFIDENTIAL I -5.26. I ... Particulars: Design Lift Design Submergence Maximum Speed L wlOpOOO lb .Of4 Tit4 SF fN T #SY.03 + 1..ou2.2 knots ft Strut Length (to Hull) . as indicated in the sketch. 4.25 . 8TI 2T 2.4094.tvroT IWafq8 0 q8 Maximum Load Conditions .6 Foil Aspect Ratio Struts taper from 1.2 ft Foil . for h -2 ft fully wetted strut Loadings __ Average Load &iti a~J #~ou'L4%. x2 *3120 A tY50 / Extreme Waves Extreme Loading* N" L &L.LIS-a 0@0 S-r .. Strut submerged to 2 ft at 40 knots.1 .zs.F ~ eoooT 113 So 3. dihedral or flaps) supported by two struts.5 . NoOO4e 1 5ff n4.! 1 1 DETERMINE THE LOADINGS ON THE FOLLOWIW3 FOIL-STRUT CONFIGURATION A fully submerged foil of simple form (no sweep. "4 Condition S4. .4 ft Aa-8 .-6 M toe'6 /a- . (a) Average L t4& .5 chord at hull.a~ 4 *Foil assumed to have camber.0 T SF &x o Highest Waves (c) most T 40TA 5 s 1. 4- 4%7 4. Entrance angle of strut assumed to be # = .6 w.44.25 (radians). is ý.40 ft ft2 _ _ h .12.. F•Area6 chord at foil to 2.3. to 6 ft at 30 knots.

and it is not considered within the scope of this work to go into the details of structural design practices.15 on the yield strength "M 1. For the maximum load conditions.2-6 . depending on the material used. STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF FOILS AND STRUTS The analysis and design of foil-strut structures combine the principles of airplane wing design and industrial bent frame design.13) whichever gives the minimum allowable stress. it is necessary to apply appropriate factors of safety in th'e design of the foil-strut structure. I•T CONFIDENTIAL 5. *1 for use in deriving preliminary sizes and arrangements of the structure. 293 94 There are many good reference books on these subjects2'3. Rather. design is proposed: the factor common to air foil F - 1. Factors of Safety In connection with the loading conditions outlined above.COINTIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS 3.5 on the ultimate strength (5. approximate methods and relation- ships suitable for roughing out an adequate foil-strut system are presented.

the factor of safety may be applied Thus. flaps or rudders where the extreme loading is considerably greater than any maximum anticipated. When comparing the material to existing tensile and "S-N" data. L/S Cyclic Loading Cycles - F (A L/S) 4 N M . 27 . depending on whether the fatigue test is to yield or fracture. the following should be applied 25 S•i__ + kL2_ _i (5. r U CONFIDFNTIAL I -. the structure should be designed to the yield stress without any factor of safety. material should withstand the following test: Superimposed Steady Loading * F. L/S the yield stress of the material the calculated stress under load. L/S C k 2 is is a theoretical stress ocncentration factor. the factor to be used. . the directly to the loading when conducting fatigue tests. depending on discontinuities in the structure v is the allowable stress due to cyclic load for 4 N cycles For extreme or limiting load conditions on controllable foils.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS For fatigue investigations.15 where the calculated stress under steady load.15) T rv is is 1.

3 CONF'IDENITTAL I - 5.3. the total lift force may be taken as acting normal to the foil chord line.CONF'IDENTIAL STRUCTU hAtI %1NSIDERATIONS Foil and Strut'Section Characteristics The loading on a foil section is composed of a lift force acting vertically and a drag force acting horizontally# the total-force acting through the center of pressure which is-usuially somewhat removed. Without serious error.28 . as indicated in Figure 5. from the aentroid of the section. and the drag may be neglected in calculating the structural requirements of the foil section (the drag being small &I LgRoGEs A-ONS ON 6 ~l %P £SSUMEO FOR PRELIMINARY STRUCTURAL INVESTICATIONS to 491SIG14I1FCANT DIMCNSIONS Of SICONVEX PtMAf OtA. FIGURE 5.

c." section may be approximated The structural properties of the foil parabola.k) (. the torsional the centroid may also be due to the lift moment around and deflection of (except where large angles preliminary investigations neglected in sweep are employed on relatively slender foil pans). stress and having relatively thick-skinned foil sections. .ies of the section 2 3 2 (WO) C (1k 2) 4 (t/c) -(/c)2 ch (1 . Figure 5.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS -! compared to the lift strength).3. by considering the foil to be a biconvex The are then propert.16) 3 (1 a(-k k4) (avmkage) lg(tic) t 2 where I 5M c ts is the cross-8ectional area the foil chord axis is the moment of inertia about the foil chord axis is the section modulus about is the foil chord is the skin thickness k t/c to outer chord is the ratio of inner chord is the foil chord thickness ratio CqNFID7NTIAL I . and acting in the direction of large foil employing strats along the span For typical hydrofoil configurations.

'I I IbI I TYPICAL FOIL PLANFORM FOR STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATION FIGURE 5. configuration arrangement has been tentatively chosen. using the various loading combinations given above... the strut acts as a cantilever beam under side force loading. once the For fully sub- preliminary sizes of foils and struts can be determined by considering the foil-strut joints to be pinned instead of fixed.4. the foil acts as a supported beam under lift- ing load. The submerged foil is then chosen to have the planform as inOn this basis. On this basis. dicated in Figure 5.4 CONFD•MT1 ALL I 5_~30 . with uniform loading throughout. merged foil configurations.CONIVTDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS Preliminary Foil Characteristics The structural analysis of the foil-strut bent can readily be made.

.:. Ib/ft2 the factor of safety 21 CONFIDENTIAL I . ''.18) t--• where W/S F x 1/2 (inches) loading.0145 • (pounds) (5..05 t/c " LA n--1- 0. .. •-:.022 Wt d" JW/SFi F b nA 1-k l+k -A x 0.•--• 7.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS to exists the following relationships are seen %at struts) "W/S (b/n) 2 c/12 (5.17).17) c - (-n-l)b 4 (4n-l)A Inb 4 where M W/s n S b c A is the bending moment is the loading (L/S + kL/S) derived above is the number of struts is the foil area is the foil span is the foil chord (maximum) is the foil aspect ratio (b 2 /S) L (5. the following relationships Combining equations (5.5.. w o•.31 ..16) and can be derived: for the approximate foil characterist'...: ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~r .• •••.....

lb/in Note: " .5 whichever is less YIELD STRESS 1.ULT. and for internal mechanisms.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS C' 2 the maximum allowable stress. each case may be simply and individually analyzed. ft n k number of struts ratio of inside chord to outside chord of foil Preliminary Strut Characteristics The strut is considered to be a cmntilever beam under side loading.16. section at the design waterline in The section characteristics of the flight should be considered to extend uniformly down to the foil attachment to allow for carry-over moments at the foil-strut joint. Using the section relationships given in equation 5.1 ' i W/t t/c to A b is the unit weight of the material. STRESS F1. the complete foil-strut assembly should then be analyzed on the basis of the various loadings derived in the previous section. lbs foil chord thickness ratio foil skin thickness. Foil-Strut Configuration Analysis Based on the preliminary sizes for the various foils and struts indicated hbove. inches foil aspect ratio foil span. CONFIDFNTTAL . ib/ft3 foil weight. etc.

A STRUCTURAL CO•NSIDERATIONS NI I I U I I DESIGN EXAMPLE NO.o2 DETERMINE THE APPROXIMATE WEIGHT AND CHORD-THICKNESS OF A FOIL-STIUJT CONFIGURATION The overall dimensions and loading of the configuration are shown in Design Example 5. .. L -- .•Use at 6 ft etona iteb/ft 2 ) for the section nld~f.72 . 2 as a controllable foil.1) and a safety factor of l.2 i. ft.2SH. loading (3120 lb/ft 2 ) for extreme safety factor of 1..•. •C 0 4 1 .. 2 th secio at t nld -I •_ .•---.. FOIL (b) A.I3 3• IIIIi .15 on the yield. i.1) based on the yield without safety factor. so that the foil is a simply supported beam and the struts are cantilever beams. ./ maximum load condition (2950 • .022 0.1. Approximate chord thickness and weight are determined by considering the foil-strut intersection pin-jointed.17 on the --t yield for both. 33000 Ultimate lb/ft...0l145 . i I 5I.--. maximum loading of 3380 + 00 (example 5. r .022014-17 " 70l sTRUTs .. Two conditions for the foil are considered: 2 iB/ft 4180 (a) as a fixed foil. . K 4 (a) Fixed Foil (780-1-15 0 -17% t/o= Wt 0.CON• IDENTIAL i. using 356-T6 with 24000 Yield. 5. extreme loading of 6000 lb/ft (example 5. 'TE oo S2i000 * B. . Determine t/c and the weight using solid cast aluminum.13- 25 2%lb (b) Controllable Foil ..•.

. .. corresponding to 2/3 (t/c) 02. The integrated weight is t•.2.84960 ft lb t8c -. o Notes Strut weight appears excessive compared to foil weight..4 gý of Strut Assume t/c varies with chord. . particularly above the 2 ft section.l 8-1.•o•v: • .300 lb each . 6 io2 91/2% 10% - 10 (b) 'Section at 6 ft Bending Moment .. . then the weight may be calculated from the respective sectional areas.8330 ft lb 2 (81105) 1. .1.15 24000.. 15 105 * 6 24~0001448-2. .--..144 t/c -9 424oo14.01.34 • . . -V _..63 (t/c) No.. . 5. • . ... i72 _(areas) . may be greatly reduced by employing hollow sections. FT CO NIDEVTIAL 5.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTLuiiAL CONSIDERATIONS DESIGN EXAMPLE (a) Section at 2 ft Bending Moment . SH-O SM - 8330..I -] .

as follows: (a) The loading conditions normally expected in hull-borne operations.35 -'7-Or . Foil-borne Loading When the craft is fully foil-borne. the hull is subjected to bending and shear stresses as a beam supported at several points (i. ii general.bC)RIDETi~fAL STRUCTURAL CON'TDFRATIONS 4. Hufl-borne Loading The normal hull-borne conditions (prior to take-off) are not severe as compared to foil-borne conditions. also the hull accelerations are a direct consequence of the foil accplerations.e. strut locations). CONFIDENTIAL I .5. HULL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS Structural Criteria The loading conditions to be met by the hull structure may be categorized. The impact loading due to landing or crashing into the sea. (b) (c) The loading imposed on the hull when foil-borne. Standard hull design A procedures can be used to determine the structure where foil-borne loadings are not expected to govern. such as the aft end of the craft. lift The reactions at the struts are those associated with the produced by the foils.

-'-• . . as to the foil loadings. then be determined on this basis.o'... The hull loading must (b) Maximum load Conditions For all conditions other than the average condition (a). .36 . at the given frequency (as given in the preceding section). . . thus both producing their "average" load at the same time. . .. Certain assumptions must be made. . As indicated in Figure 5.5. . The hull loading conditions are then the same as'%hop!eVfor the foils given in the preceding section.?.• .. - 5. Thus... the assumed wave lengths are so long that only one foil at a time will have maximum orbital effects. . ...-:... . . each foil in turn. • • • • • . the assumed wave length is small (20 h) so that the foils forward and aft may be considered having the same orbital effects at the same time. . the additional hull loading can be determined from the additional foil loading and the basic hull loading curve... where more than one foil is used in a configuration. The hull icadings and resulting stresses must be investigated for maximum loading or..:: . • . how- ever. and the hull loading is determined from the corresponding foil loadings..CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS The stresses in the hull "girder" can then be determined from the weight distribution curve. CONFIDENTIAL I -• • • : :i" • • ' . (a) Average Load Condition In this condition. wherein the "accelerated" values of weight are used. the loading is assumed maximum on one foil but normal on the other.


sec2/ft4 CONFIDENTIAL I A 5. The impact derived for a two-dimensional wedge as indicated The formula is in Figure 5. Impact Loading The hull must be investigated for impact in landing and particularly for the contingency when the bow "plows in" formula of von Karman6. P 2x LV2 2 I coteG lbs X12 3 2W -ft2 (5.6. typical procedures and factors of safety ordinarily used in standard marine practice are adopted.38 ___ _____ .19) where P Vo aL x W * average pressure over the immersed wedge lb/ft (normal to the water surface) entrance velocity of the wedge deadrise angle half-breadth of body at a given distance weight per foot of body specific weight of fluid density of the fluid lb/ft lb/ft 3 ft/sec w a M - ) lb l. at maximum speed. Where hull-borne loadings govern in somc aspects of the design.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTRPAL CONSIDERATIONS Factors of Safety The factors of safety to be used for the foil-borne loadings are taken to be the same as those for the foils and struts given in the preceding section. can be used to estimate the resulting load.

and the high values chosen for speed and weight. result in an somewhat severe.Vmax..39 . the speed is arbitrarily taken to be Vo . and the full weight of the craft is For the hull bottom. . speed of descent and the area under impact must be estimated for the particular craft under consideration...6 CO TNID'ETIAL I L7' - 5.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIUNS For investigating the impact pressures at the bow. The use of this two-dimensional formula for three-dimensional cases...• I I IVID| • I I IMPACT CONDITIONS FOR WEDGE FIGURE 5. i •. It is considered reasonable impact loading that is to use the full ultimate strength of the hull material without any factor of safety. ... the assumed acting over the length of stem. i"• . III I . • i i • .. when designing the structure on the basis of impact loads derived from this formula.

0o . .... . etc. speed and general operational requirements of the craft under consideration.. 5.-• % . . require investigation ares strength weight modulus of elasticity machineability weldability corrosive properties Fi Some material characteristics that - yield and ultimate strength cost availability With respect to strength.) loading conditions cavitation (as a function of foil thickness ratio) I: CONFIDeFTIAL i •. some of which are inherent to all hydrofoil craft while others are functions of size.. • .. • %• • . the choice in many cases will be dictated by such general considerations as foil area required number of struts required (as a function of general arrangement. .... STRUCTURAL MATERIALS Foil-Strut Structures The material to be used for foil and strut structures is dependent on many factors.. lateral area required.CONFIDENTIAL STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS f 5... • • • • .

CONFIDENTIAL STRU1CTURAL CO2SIDERATIONS Lightweight materials may be employed. with aluminum being next in con- 1 sideration (up to a hundred tons) and finally high-tensile steel for hulls of larger displacement. craft. PT boats. 41 . Thus.) would form the best references for selection of hull materials and material scantlings for hydrofoil craft of similar size and speed. good workability. Hull Structure Generally. hull structures follow the same trend as do the foils. General experience with hull requirements air-sea rescue of existing high speed craft (high-speed runabouts. high-tensile steel becomes more attractive for use and in the larger sizes considered (above 50 tons) is almost mandatory. etc. wood and fibreglass-reinforced plastic hulls are suitable in the smaller sizes (up to about 10 tons). As the craft size increases. available at reasonable cost). Thus. corrosive-resistant. CONFIDENTIAL i -. aluminum is one of the materials most widely used (lightweight and relatively strong. with increasingly strong materials required as size (and speed) increase. Fiberglas reinforced plastics can also be considereA for such applications.

New York University Tech Rpt No. undated. 1 (BuAer John Wiley & Sons. von Karman. "Airplane Structures". 1949. Pierson. 3.I CONFID~I* IAL STRVITTURPMT CON93TDERATIONS REFERENCES 1. "Practical Methods for Observing and Forecasting Ocean Waves by Means of Wave Spectra and Statistics". Timoshenko. 4. 1950. NACA Tech Note No. Project AROWA).2 ~ -lop . John Wiley & Sons. CONFIDENTIAL I r -5. 2. "Theory of Elastic Stability7 McGraw-Hill. Neumann and James. 1936. "The Impact of Seaplane Floats During Landing". Hetenyi. Frederick Unger. 1929. 5. Niles and Newell. 321. 1952. "Handbook of Experimental Stress Analysis". Kleinlogel. 6. "Rigid Frame Formulas".




INTRODUCTION A. LONGITUDINAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. 2. 3. B. Longitudinal Balance Longitudinal Stability Longitudinal Design

LATERAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. 2. Rolling Stability Equilibrium in Turning Directional Stability


Balance and stability of hydrofoil systt,'s about the various axes are considered in approximative fashion. The static prerequisites With respect to

for obtaining longitudinal stability are presented. lateral stability and behavior in turns,

simplified conditions

are investigated, giving some practical indication on how to design a stable foil system. Chapter.

Dynamic behavior is

not included in




J "1 L




In the design of a hydrofoil boat, the size of the foils forming the system and their location with respect to the center of gravity of the total configuration - are of primary interest. The essential

characteristics in this connection are the stability of the craft (about the various axes) and the limitations of the hydrodynamic forces due to stalling (separation), ventilation and possibly cavitation. The

present report deals in an approximate way with such requirements and some limitations of balance and stability in hydrofoil systems.

As quoted from DiehlI,

"an airplane is

statically stable if


displacement from a given attitude sets up forces and moments tending to restore the original attitude". if the resulting motion is An airplane "is if dynamically stable

stable, that is,

any oscillations due to

static stability are quickly damped". sidered to be a limiting case, stability. and it

Stati• stability can be conis a prerequisite of dynamic

"A fair degree of static stability is usually accompanied Only static conditions (in calm water) shall be

by dynamic stability".

considered in the present report.

Knowledge of the dynamic behavior

of hydrofoil boats (particularly in waves) has not yet been developed to such an extent that a treatment sufficient for design analyses could be presented in this Handbook, at this time.

-6.2 •
SM TM 77




is felt for most practical purposes,

that in hydrofoil craft

resistance and propeller thrust approximately cancel each other for small deviations from trim condition, without producing forces and moments worthy of consideration. therefore, These longitudinal forces are, lateral forces and the

omitted in this Chapter; only lift,

moments resulting from them, are taken into account.

Most of the considerations are also primarily qualitative. as such, the treatment is


in some instances only tentative, essentially

because of limited experimental evidence.

The definition of axes, dimensional. motions, is

angle and moments in analyzing threeEssentially, a reference No specific

somewhat complex.

system fixed to the flow will be used in this report.

distinction is made in the text between this system and that of the water surface - fixed in the vertical diection and in plane. the horizontal Among these,

Angles and moments are as listed in the notation.

the pitching angle 0 is

meant to be that of the craft, while the angle

of attack (measured from zero-lift attitude) primarily applies to the individual foils. Also, in this report, "yawing" is

defined as an pure form)

angular displacement (rotation) refers to a straight motion.

while sideslipping (in








angle about longitudinal axis (roll)
Ok a M Cm N Cn "M" L W angle of attack measured from zero lift

downwash angle (behind foil)
craft angle about lateral axis (pitching) Sangle vertical axis (sideslipping or yawing) about moment about lateral axis M/qS - coefficient of longitudinal moment moment about vertical axis N/qS - coefficient of lateral moment metacenter point lift of hydrofoil weight of hydrofoil craft longitudinal distance between foil and CO longitudin"l distance between foils speed (ir ft/sec) u 0.5 T V2-= dynamic pressure "wing" area of foil coefficient - .L/qS - lift centrifugal force (in turn)

V q S


Clat Cnormal b c

lateral force (in turn)
Flat/q Slat - lateral force coefficient normal-force coefficient foil span foil chord - b 2 /S - aspect ratio of individual foil biplane factor height or submergence indicating particular foil indicating 'submerged area indicating reference area lateral area for forward foil for rear foil - normal (to the foil panels)

K h Subscriptas x sub

fat 1 2 normal



I - 6.4





Longitudinal Balance 'it To provide longitudinal equilibrium, is evidently "

required that in Figure 6.1 b

÷lL2 -w




to the rear foil. where wlw refers to the forward, and "2t lift of each foil is


where Sx

foil area

5x S



O CL -

dynamic pressure %5 angle of attack lift coefficient


Chapters 1 and 2 of Volume As dervived from the basic information in be represented by I1, the lift-curve slope can approximately


wbqre A K


+ K (2W



aspect ratio

* biplane factor




.3) to obtain the "lift angle" d%/dCL of the second (rear) foil. For the purpose of this investigation. In a tandem system...-. -. . ... next section.. downwash angle is. 1 . CONFIDENTIAL Many combinations of these would Among these. there is no influence of the second foil upon the foivard foil. . the lift-curve slope (depending upon aspect ratio and submergence ratio).. In proximity of the water surface this under certain conditions. are of practical interest. . - 6.. estimated for "conventional" hydrofoil configurpions to be in the order of dt •___. 5. provide the required equality.. .. .• .7 . the area S.1) and (6. for example in the order of K -1. This angle should be added to the two components of Equation (6. . the craft is found to be balanced longitudinally provided that the following equality is achieved: 0 1 (dC 1 (/d3l Slq j - (dCL/dO 2 S2 q (6. however. K is not a constant In a heaving and pitching foil system.. ..5) Four design parameters are effective in each foil. we may.Practically.(6. assume K to be approximately constant. Combining equations (6.. usually only the stablo ones Stability requirements are considered in the I •-• • • • .CONFIDENTIAL BAlANCE AND STABILITY To be accurate.2). the rear foil is exposed to a certain domwash coming from the forward foil.4) where the sscript "l" refe to the forw'd foil. the moment arm x and the angle of attack.

moment . Considering first one individual foil. The slope of the S- moment coefficient against the pitching angle of the craft (for fixed foil setting) is d~ra/dO (dCL/dcK) (Sx/S) (xl/I6•)•. the lift forces originating in the foils provide certain moments about a suitable lateral axis.r q . 7 7) lift angle of attack or pitch and dCL/dX possibly as explained by equation 6.CONFIENTIAL BALANCE AND STABILITY 2. its moment. .M/qSJ.8 .L. CON FIDEMTATt I - 6.(L/qSx) (Sx/S) (x/A (6.dynamic pressure S = total foil area in the system x area of the particular foil x .1.moment arm I suitable The lift is length of reference L where C q Sx CL - (dcL/dOQO~q S coefficient t ( 6 .3.6) M . Longitudinal Stability Considering the systems in Figure 6. contribution in terms of a non-dimensional coefficient is CM where .

that is.3). area. their lift This coefficient is approximately coefficient is CL+L/qS+. a negative sign of (dCmd@) In other words. the corresponding positive value of (dCm/dg) evidently indicates negative stability.pitching angle.6. 4.9 . Theo quantity (dCm/d@) is a measure for the Defining contribution to static stability by the considered foil. is meant to indicate positive stability. by convention. may be considered only In fully submerged foil systems.9) where CLsub Ssub S+ 9 - lift coefficient on submerged area submerged area reference area* angle of attack of foil section pitching angle of craft CONFIDMIAL I . the total or maximum of the foil system). Based upon a suitable reference area S* (which has to be independent' of submergence H and which could be. for example. 0 L+ -dCLaub/d*() Cd(S /)/d8 (6. the with submerged lift also varies considerably with submergence. the moment arm to be positive for foil locations forward of the center of pitching motion.CONTIDENTIAL BALANCE AND STABILITY where 9 . the lift to depend upon the angle of attack (seeequation 6. accordingly (dCL/d)•CX constant In surface-piercing or ladder-type systems.



In a system, pitching about the point indicated by the length x, the height variation is consequently Ahmx *; the variation of submerged area is

ds 5 ub/de








in radians.

The quantity (dSx/dh) is given by the design of the Equation 6.9 indicates that in the area-changing is no longer a linear function of the

foil unit considered.

types of hydrofoils, the lift

pitching angle ej the angle of attack varies together with the submerged area. As a consequence, the slope of lift and moment increases with the

pitching angle in foils behind the center of longitudinal rotation and it decreases for locations ahead of the axis.

Figure 6.2 illustrates

the resulting type of Cm(e) function.

The static contribution (dCm/d@)

is not constant; instantaneous values (for example., for the trim condition)
can be taken, however, from such a plot as the tangent at the particular angle of attack.


•('•O!,VXD}•;!NT TAL

PAL •}•,T'J1 },I1) S• A.•I £PL
















Longitudinal stability requires arrangements with at least

two foils in tandem, one behind the other.
it is convenient to refer the lift

In dealing with such a system,

coefficients to one and the same

area, which may be selected to be the sum of the individual areas (S). As requirement for positive stability it follows then from equations

(6S5) and (6.8) that (dCL/do ) 2 (S 2 /S)(x
2 /J))

t(dCL/do )l(Sl/S)(x)/X)


where "l" refers to the forward, and "2" to the rear foil.

distance x measures to the center of pitching rotation - to be discussed later. All of the parameters in this function are

geometrically determined in the design of craft and foil system. To provide stability, the lift-curve slope and/or the area and/or the distance of the rear foil have to be larger than those of the

forward foil.

For equal dCL/dC,

therefore, the loading L2/S 2 of

the rear foil (a function of S2 and x 2 ) has to be lower than that of the forward foil. PositiVe longitudinal stability as defined in equation 6.11,, would not mean any height stabilization. A fixation in this respect is

usually not required in aviation, is fundamental, however, in the operation of a hydrofoil boat. Height stabilization can be obtained

by using multiple-foil (ladder-type) or V-shaped surface-piercing systems or some planing device or by suitable artificial means

I - 6.12



(angle-of-attack .control).

In the planing skids of the "Grunberg"

system, (see Chapter 1), for example, a strong height stabilization is obtained by making the variation of wetted surface (dSx/dh) large. The "Hook" system (also described in Chapter 1) basically uses the same principle, transforming, however, the (dSx/dh) of the "Jockeys" into a (do(/dh) quantity of the forward foils. The forward foil

may also be height-stabilized by means of an electro-mechanical "autopilot" system, as developed by Gibbs & Cox, Inc. purpose. In aircraft, the center of longitudinal rotation (pitching).is usually considered to be the center of gravity. this axis does not generally seem to be correct. For hydrofoil craft, The required height If for

for this very

stabilization necessarily restricts the pitching motion. instance, one foil is rigidly fixed (if

pcssible) with respect to the

surface of the water, then this foil is evidently the hinge axis about which any pitching motion may take place. of this problem has not yet been established. A complete analysis Two limiting cases

will be considered, however, in the section which follows.

L -"• •:• • • • • . . • •,•~u•• • •

', • P......• • • 49, ...... .•,• . ..... ...... •7-




Longitudinal Design

In the design of a hydrofoil system, the requirements of balance and stability have to be combined. Regarding longitudinal character-

istics, therefore, equations 6.5 and 6.11 have to be satisfied. Some typical configurations are considered as follows:


Configuration with Height-Stabilized Forward Foil.


fixing the submergence of the forward foil (as for example, in the Hook configuration, described in Chapter 1), the axis about which the craft is free to pitch (in calm water)

is essentially at the forward foil; the center of gravity is expected to move up and down correspondingly. of the rear foil is The balance

then simply determined by one side of The stability of the for x .

equation 6.5 or by equation 6.7. system follows from equation 6.., useful, however, in area


seems to be

this case to define a fictitious total

where W Lx Sx



total weight fraction carried by rear foil

- submerged area of rear foil





This phenomenon can be understood As the c raft upon studying the upper part of Figure 6. stabilized by planing skids in place of a forward foil (Grunberg type). 15 . as center of pitching). the lift on the main (rear) foil corresponds to where x - distance between forward foil and C. they are liablp to ri`e dynamically (in waves) above the water surface. the distance j .CONFIDENTIAL BEANCE AND STABILITY Equation 6. the limitation of such system as to stability is found in the skids.x) and consequently the stabilizingmoment of It also appears W with respect to SX . The stability of the system.13) M/qS÷l and thl angles in radians.(dCL/d (y4) ) (6. CONFIDENTIAL I -61 1 6. As experience with a craft.G. however. increases as the square of the CG location (x/t). pitches up (possibly about the center of gravity).8 then changes to dCm/d where C . therefore. in some configurations. Evidently. With too little weight on them. A load fraction in the order of 20% on the skids was therefore.1. has shown. that the skids upon leaving the water.reduce appreciably. cease decreasing their moment (no slope with respect to S. found to be a minimum requirement for successful operation of the Gibbs & Cox craft.

decreases at the The - shifting. Balance of such system is given by Conditions for positive static stability In the con- are discussed in connection with equation 6.2) CONFIDENTIAL I - 6. A tandem con- aft. figuration which is essentially symmetrical fore and may with approximately 50% of the total weight on each foil. the aspect ratio of should foil (and/or area and distance x as explained before) be somewhat larger than that of the forward foil. X2 increases while x.9.CONFIDENTIAL BALANCE AND STABILITY b) Symmtrical Fully-Submerged Tandem System.5. d(Sy/S) d(h/b) d(Ab/ d(h/b) (6. possibly Also taking into account the effective downwash the rear coming from the forward foil. same time. Referred to the "original" or any other suitable basic span "b" of a rectangular V-shaped foil. the be expected to oscillate about the lateral axis through center of gravity. Surface-Piercing System. stability increases in proportion to the amount of The lift-curve slope is a function of the aspect ratio. equation 6. Values for (dSx/dh) can be derived c) as a function of the dihedral angle of a surface-piercing hydrofoil.16 . sidered tandem system with S2 goSl forward shifting of the CG appears to be very effective with respect to stability.

also applies to slanted multiple-ladder-type foil systems. equation 6. surface- piercing foil systerreare basically expected to provide higher static pitching stability than fully-submerged (constantarea) hydrofoils. . with r indicating the lateral angle of the foils against the horizontal.6. Because of their area-changing characteristics.17 .CONFIDENTIAL BALANCE AND STABILITY Thus. illustration). under (1). COTFIDENTIAL I . Stability conditions are similar to those the Schertel-Sachsenberg As a practical example.14 by combining it moment arm x.6. with the "S" (as defined there) and the Under certain conditions. the axis of pitching motion may again be that through the center of gravity.Considering a fore-and-aft symmetrical surface-piercing tandem crnfiguration. tandem boats4 (see Chapter 1 fo:. had some 45% of the total weight on the rear foil and some 55% on the forward foil. longitudinal stability is favored by small dihedral angles. The'expression can easily be used in equation 6.

the other one emerges accordingly by a certain amount Ab.6. constant. "V" restricted to comparatively small angles. Restoring forces are produced by way of The only other 4 submergence differentials in the foil units. shape would be Also the submerged Surface-piercing hydrofoils are. one end of the foil becomes more deeply immersed. area is.. that the lift differentials are produced only in the piercing The craft is then points. Upon rolling.•YTIAL EALANCE AND STABILITY B. the lontitudinal axis is In a fully submerged foil system. The corresponding lift differentials AL (as marked in Assuming now Figure 6. balance and stability about the longitudinal axis may not be much of a problem..3) form moments about the CO of the boat. therefore... a metacentric point "M"max is found. lWTERAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. hydrofoil system likely to provide balance and stability about the V-shape. expected to be stable in rolling as long as the CG is below the CONFIDENTIAL .. discussed as follows. of course.18 . Rolling Stability In one or more pairs of surfacerpiercing foils. each arranged side by side (as for example in the Canadian designs or the Baker boat) or in any Grunberg-type configuration (with a pair of skids).(.


and it is In this increased in one half of a V-shaped For the center of decreased in the other half. the lift over the entire span of the foil.3. we may assume points at half panel span at each side. effective metacenter is An way whose location between "N" and "M"min depends upon the respective moment contributions of the yawing and rolling components. is believed to be somewhat Rolling may also be caused or accompanied by yawing. it is believed that with a is slightly changed the metacentric change at each side in submerged span. respect. pressure of the differentials.~max).LTTITY metacenter. CONFIDENTIAL 1 6. Actually. the angle of attack is foil. As a consequence.3 shows the corresponding second "metacenter "M"min. may.20 a . height due to pure rolling (without yawing) below the "Mfmax as indicated in FIgure 6. assuming that rolling combines with yawing (in there are two components of rolling moment. however. Positive rolling stability exist for certain positions of the CG above 11411 expected in this (but below . phase). Figure 6.CONFIDENTIAL BALANCE ANT) STAP. which is lower than that as determined by the piercing foil tips. Actually. therefore.

21 . keeping the craft essentially on even beam - conditions about the vertical axis are as follows. that the craft is kept at constant longitudinai trim. treatment is simpler than in aviation (where such a separation is not very realistic). CONDENTIAL I-6. angles and motions about all three axes are involved and coupled with each other. however.15) The force Flat has to where d - 2r - diameter of turning circle.4. a centripetal force Flat is required to support the mass of the craft in a turn against the centrifugal force Z.BALAwCE AND STABITLITY 2. As illustrated in Figure 6. Assuming. be provided hydrodynamically in the foil system in some lateral areas. This force is - z 2 MV/r 2W 2 /gd - . Equilibrium in Turning Conditions in a turn are complex. These areas are found in struts and/or in the foils themselves by banking them or through dehedral shape. it seems to be possible to split up the remaining In fact. by some suitable means. A) Balance About the Vertical Axis Assuming that equilibrium and stability is also provided about the longitudinal axis. this seems to be a case where problem into two components.Flat (6.


for symmetrical sections and "conventional" submergence ratio. end plates are Their an effective means of providing lateral forces. at much higher sideslipping angles. In fully submerged hydrofoils. however. corresponds to the available maximum lateral lift coefficient.6. It before ventilation is possible. coefficients can be determined as a function of aspect ratio and angle of attack. (b) End Plates.16) where 4 - angle of sideslip at the strut (or struts).CONFIDENTIAL BALANCE AND S'IABILITY (a) Struts. lateral lift coefficient may be in Their maximum the order of 0.e.9. The maximum lateral force which a surface-piercing strut may provide.35 for round-nosed sections. the struts (if any) corresponding to Flat - q Slat (dClat/dt) (6. sets on. Upon putting the boat at an angle of sideslip lateral forces are produced in (by means of the rudder). this coefficient is in the order of CLx = 0.15 for sharp- nosed and 0. lI C-NFT6.23 . i. to obtain similar and higher coefficients in fully-ventilated condition. employing the low-aspect-ratio methods as presented in Chapter 1 of Volume II. As presented in Chapter 7 of Volume II.NTIAL I .

Po" W" . In non-sideslipping straight motion. caused by angle-of-attack and lift differentials in the two foil panels.CONFIDENTIAL BALANCE AND STABILITY (c) A Surface-Piercing V-Foil gives a lateral component. Therefore. increased lift lateral force. its is hydrodynamic limitation given by the "maximum" coefficient Cnormalx .and this given by the onset of ventilation.2 IT . the maximum is available lateral-force coefficient of the complete foil (equal to a pair of panels) Clat (on the sum of the laterally projected panel areas) is equal to the available quantity 6Cnormal (the difference between design-lift coefficient CL and the coefficient when ventilation takes place).both of which are equal to the coefficient Cnomal (on panel area). depending on the average lift of operation and the type of foil section used. lateral force component is In each panel. in sideslipping condition. however.e tanr This also means that the equal to the lift (6. the Flat where r- LPan. Considering now the outer panel. the lateral forces in the two panels naturally cancel each other. In a sideslipping turn. lateral force coefficient Clat is coefficient CL (each based on their respective projected area) . the outer panel has and increaued increased angle of attack. CONFIDENTIAL j I -6.17) dihedral angle. the inner panel has decreased quantities. This differential coefficient The may only be small.

total weight of craft a lateral acceleration. suspected that surface-piercing "V" foils are the least of ventilation in the outboard reliable means in turning (because foil panel). a/g .25 ./ where W a It .18) 0 u banking angle. Considering realistic dimensions (for submergence and angles).Flat. method of producing lateral forces seem to be fully submerged end plates. conditions may be considered of one wing tip emerging from the water and the hull touching the water surface at the other side.1 to 0. Upon banking a straight hydrofoil.CONFIDENTIAL BALANCE AND' STABILITY available value may further be reduced because of the craft's rolling moment due to centripetal acceleration which makes additional forces necessary on the outboard half of the foil.1 to 0. (d) Banking.7) (6.(0. lateral forces seem to be obtainable in average operating conditions in the order of Flateral ..L tan 0 As extreme limits of banking (6. force is the lateral F'laterai where . The most effective and to increase the lateral force in this way. It i.7) W. - (0. CONFIDENTIAL I -6.19) may also be possible to combine two or more of the mentioned devices.

It is desirable.nimum" alike) is lowered on Struts Qd other lateral areas may be desirable. of course. dif- A way of improving the behavior CONFIDENTIAL I . For a location below that metacenter. or "m5. however. As long as the CO is above the "second" metacenter "M"in in Figure 6.5. Lateral design is further complicated by the forces in lateral areas such as struts (if any) and the rudder. Figure 6. the boat is expected to heel outward. with respect to directional stability and turning performancel or they may possibly be required for structural reasons. positive The heeling angle may be more or banking will be obtained in turns. Locating the CO below "M"min is difficult.__. however. adequate equilibrium is also required with regard to the longitudinal axis. the actually built designs of the surface-piercing type. leos proportional to the distance between "W"min and CO (both in sign and magnitude). As indicated in Figure 6.6 shows several In case (a).6. the metacenter ("maximum" account of such lateral forces.26 .___E__IAL BALANCE AND STABILITY B) Balance About Longitudinal Axis Besides balance in the lateral forces. boat will roll to a position which is stabilized by wetted area differentials at the piercing points (and by corresponding lift ferentials over each half span). in mara configurations because of a certain clearance between keel and water surface a rqutred for operation in waves.3. to have the boat bank in turns.

•""°....COTiFIDENTIAL BAILnST .. CC~jy~T•:j. •z77'• . A 1... . .-.. other not counteract too much... (b) and (c)..• . .27. .IATY OMGMN ' INFLUENCE OF A LATERAL AREA UPON METACENTER AND EQUILIBRIUM IN A TURN FIGURE 6. . positive do rudders and propellers components such as struts........ •d• . z:• ..5 (banking) of this configuration is indicated in the forward cases banking moment.. ..In foil provides some positive provided that banking -an be expected... • •...• .. .. . i .

by cutting out a portion in the center of the foil (done by Vertens.6.3 and 6.5 are comparatively low for practical applications.6. dihedral angles in the order of and below 20* and/or larger span ratios b/H are required. however.28 . 4 CONFIDFNTIAL I . References 2 and 3 describe the successful operation of fully-submerged hydrofoils. as illustrated at the bottom of Figure 6. see Chapter 1).•BALANCE :rNTIL AND STAB•fLITY The metacentric heights indicated in Figures 6. Finally it shall be said that rolling stability may also be provided by means of the electro-mechanical control system mentioned before. The metacenter can be raised. To keep the boat on even beam. such a system in connection with straight.


.9 are converted into t ~ (6.8 and 6. static stability characteristics are essentially the same whether traveling straight or going in a turn. On this assumption.20) where n n x - indicating moment about vertical axis N/q SI.CONFIDE. Substituting S lateral areas. equations 6. V-shape characteristics. Directional Stability The rolling motions of a hydrofoil boat may be balanced and stabilized by suitable means such as multiple units... angles and forces for the longitudinal ones. static stability about the vertical axis can be analyzed in a manner which is similar to procedures in longitudinal stability. Also. ~ 4 4~ :17'.30 -4<~~~~~7 2g. if disregarding discontinuities in the lateral forces due to ventilation.6. or artificial control.NTI AL. BALANCE AND STABTLITTY 3.corresponding coefficient moment arm suitable length of reference suitable area of reference lateral force coefficient a = S CIat - - P angle of yaw I: CONFIDENTIAL I .

4 for illustration. thus doubling their effective aspect ratio. may be considered to be limited at their lower end by an end plate or "wall".31. CONFIDENTIAL 1i. . struts.2. Disregarding the second-order non-linear component.) (that is. see obtained. "i" refers to the lateral area of the forward set of any). In design. upper end of the struts . "2" to the rear set (if Figure 6. "restoring"). the water surface determines the At higher Froude numbers.21) strut chord. and t"3t" to the rudder.BAI4• E UILh 11` In this equation. 6.5 as can be found 6n the basis of Chapter 7 of Volume II. this aspect ratio may be in the order of 2 or 3. negative this is achieved by making the rear areas and/or moment arms and/or lift-curve slopes larger than the corresponding values in the forward set of struts.in hydrodynamic respect .as derived from refermnce 5. ratio of such struts is Thtqfore. the effective aspect approximately A -2 where h - h/c - (6. The lateral "lift"-curve slope (dCLat/d the type of lateral surface. t) depends very much upon Some estimated values are as follows: a) Surface-piercing struts connecting foil and hull. lift-curve slope is the then in the order of dCLat/dy . Directional stability is components is provided that the sum of the (dCn/d(Y.5 to 3. In practical submergence and c cases.

32 . rudders (kept fixed by the steering mechanism. Equally. depending upon their submerged aspect ratio. The lateral coefficient in each panel (on lateral projected area) ia then t ndonoinal u - sin' CLat =Cnormal (6. Cnormal can be found for each foil panel. c) The lateral forces in a sideslipping (surface-piercing or The differential fully submerged) V-loll are known by theory force in each panel corresponds to the variation of the normalforce coefficient indicated by dc(normal d~normal 1 12 I½ qr kormal (6.23) Combining these two equations. variation of the angle of attack (normal to the panel).CONF1iDENTIAL BAT!AN(f AMD STIILA3ITY b) Much the same values of lift-curve slope may apply to end plates which can be used in hydrofoil systems.. with or without a fixed fin) are expected to show values in the same order of magnitude.22) where "normal* indicates conditions normal to the panel. ormal is The t sinr (6.24) CONFIDENTIAL I - 6. given by AOf.



For a pair of panels (with differentials ±AO•normal), lateral force corresponds to




Clat S sinr


This force thus increases as the square of the dihedral angle


Using'the derived parameters (dClat/dP),

equation 6.11 may be

readily employed in an approximate analysis of static directional stability of hydrofoil craft.



• ,









' ''


. "7. .1-,

i • 777 "010..

-• • ,,,,' - ,,--• ...






1. 2.

Diehl, ,,Engineering Aerodynamics",

New York City, 1936.

Becker, "Operation of Servo Stabilized Hydrofoil Craft", Gibbs & Cox Tech. Rpt 13531, No. 11 (1953). Landing Craft"i "Operation of a 21-Foot Model of Hydrofoil Gibbs & Cox, Inc. Tech Rpt 13531, 1953.



and German Documents showing Schertel-Sachsenberg's
TietJen's Foil Configurations. an Evaulation Schmidt, A Series of Articles Presenting Luftfahrtforschung 1938, p. 219. of Prandt's Wing Theory, Purser and Campbell, Simplified V-Tail Theory, NACA



Tech. Rpt. 823 (1945).




"", #• .M-•






Introduction 1. 2. Survey of Available Material Basic Parameters and Relationships Analysis of Data Observations and Conclusions


Several design studies have been cprried out at Gibbs & Cox, in 1953 under ONR's Hydrofoil Research Contract. analyzed to determine the primary characteristics


These studies are of this type craft.

Investigation of the results of a selected "family" of designs indicates the existence of an "optimum" size between 50 and 100 tons. The maximum "reasonable" craft size within the family considered is investigated and tentatively set at about 2-000 tons. It is shown that

hydrofoil boats are feasible in a size-speed category not presently occupied by other conventional marine craft.

I - A.I



The following is

an overall analysis of a series of design studies The results of two of these Table A.! gives a survey on

completed to date at Gibbs & Cox, Inc. studies have been reported formally1 '

the various configurations investigated.

The procedure followed in

the analysis is

similar to the "family This

of ships" technique used in the preliminary design of ships. implies that the data used represent actual ships. studies considered are general in scope, istics confton to most of them.

Although the design

there are certain character-

These characteristics are not necessarily however. The results of the

requirements of all hydrofoil vessels, present analysis, therefore,

depend upon the practicality of the particular

designs and upon the validity of the assumptions made at the time of their conception. The material is investigated with this in mind, selecting a

useable "family" of boats, the pertinent data of which are listed in Table LUA . The analysis consists of determining the important parameters

to be used, cross-plotting various data from the design studies, and then combining these plots to give a representation of the ?ffects of variations in the basic parameters, on the major characteristics of the designs.

Study of the latter enables certain conclusions to be drawn concerning hydrofoil craft of the type considered.










Basic Criteria In general, the following basic criteria apply to the design studies.



The hull in a "sea-going" structure with the necessary Contemporary materials and methods of con-


struction are employed. Foil System - The foil systers employed are fully submerged, matically controlled configurations. The foil loading is auto-

kept No

below that at which cavitation might be expected to occur.

provisions are made for retraction of the foils (and struts). Propulsion - Light-weight machinery suitable for marine use is


Since some of the most suitable engines are only in the

development stage, certain assumptions have been made concerning
their characteristics. Equipment & Outfit Underwater propellers are used exclusively.


The usual navigational equipment and mooring

fittings are provided consistent with an ocean-going craft. Permanent berthing, messing, and sanitary facilities are provided for the crew.

I - A-3

e. since it is The 'D" series is an exception to designed for air-sea rescue purposes. Selection of "Family" A general survey of the existing design studies (see Table A. CONFIDENTIAL I . requiring very little payload.4 . "C" through "F". The following conclusions are reached: (a) The main effort in the "B" series was expended in trying out different combinations of hull form. foil configurations and types of drive. it is of the same dis- will not be necessary to use the "By series in the analysis. Since the experience gained in this study is through "F").I) was made in order to select a "family of ships" for use in the analysis. This should be kept. an air-sea rescue craft.CONFTDENTIAL DESIGN STUDIES "Payload" - No specific use is assigned to the designs: instead a certain amount of deadweight and corresponding internal space is reserved and labelled "payload". in mind when applying the results of this design. this.A. These The "D" series was designed with a specific purpose in mind. (b) The remainder of the series. will be used as the family in the analysis. were designed in sufficient detail to permit a weight analysis of various components spanning a range of sizes from 20 to 400 tons. i. refl•66ed in the subsequent design studies ("C" and since one of the latter series ("E") placement (100 tons) as "B".

Engine Drive . Hull Forms & - BB-SSingle B-5 B-6 B-7 "PT" Tandem Tandem Single Tandem Wright Nacelle Nacell "Aero" B-8 - Inclined 4 Units Nacelle Transmissions B-9 Single Sige B-10 Round Tandem Single Inclined -1 Bottom BTandem 0TNapier Basic Study o-n-in more detail Stepped Airplane -apier E-14 Packari5W-lOG E-1 Packard W-lO0 Inclined N e than previousl~y done "PT" C-A D-I - Canard Airplane Canard Canard rd Nacelle Packard W-100 Solar Solar 20 Ton Fro "C" Series with xperience D2 Stepped "PT" "Destroyer "etoe"Cn Inclined Nacelle Nacele 10T-on om euperience with "C" Series ___00___ PakadW-1 Napier E-145 E-2 OT.| B-1 B-I B-2 - ~Single Nacelle Tandem Single Inclined B-3 Stepped 00 Ton Study of various Configurations...-I Packard W-lO .I -1 SURVEY OF EXISTIN MATERIAL Foil Series Code Hull Form Config. Fairchild Nacelle Nacelle un apier E-145_____ i 2i CONFIDENTIAL I - 5 .CONFIDENTIAL DESIGN STUDIES TABLE A.

sidered a result of power and displacemenk. For displacement. foil-and propeller efficiency. ships Itween the quantities selected. be necessary to establish which ones are independent (assumed) and which ones are dependent quantities (resulting from assigning values to the independent variables). and the Should the speed now be con- power are related by a single equation.CONFID 'TT 6 DESIGN STUDIES 2.6 . BASIC PARAMETERS AND RELATIONSHIPS There are a great many quantities. example - the definitions depend upon the point of view. It There are certain relationwill. or weight). ratios and adjectives which may be used to describe or evaluate various aspects of a craft or its performance. From these. in an absolute sense (for example. speed. therefore. for example. a limited number (the most important ones) Some of the numbers are important are selected for use in the analysis. the draft which may have physical Others are best expressed in terms of ratios to other quantities (such as drag expressed as lift-drag ratio in terms of the displacement weight of the craft). limits due to harbors). CONFIDENTIAL I - A. In many cases. for a given configuration. or should the speed be selected thus requiring a certain power? The answer to this question depends on the particular requirements of the craft and possible limitations on the quantities due to other factors (such as cavitation.

defined for The definition for maximum speed should.be pointed out that this range is cruising speed. the analysis. the nature of the parameter as used is If "dependent".The range in nautical miles is conditions of A. utilizing all the fuel carried. defined for the above SHP and A defined above is Range . The so-defined range will in general be proportional to that In conventional definition. as usual. CONFIDENTIAL I . Speed - "Vk. it will be treated as an independent variable until the conclusion.The maximum continuous speed in knots corresponding to usually important as an absolute value. not.The maximum continuous shaft horsepower."R" . there is what other parameters or considerations are primarily responsible for its determination.7 .). Vk and SHP. It should.A. quantity is This more sometimes important in an absolute sense but is often expressed in a specific manner (SHP/. Thus: Displacement (or "Sizej - "A" - The normal displacement in long tons. indicated (as also mentioned "independent" or "dependent"). when the question of maximum size is discussed. This is the most basic quantity used. give a measure of the distance potentialities of the craft.CONFIDENTIAL DESIGN STUDIES Basic Parameters The following parameters have been selected for use in Where possible. neverthe- less. Power ."SHP" . .

the greatest transverse dimension of the craft.e.e.CONFIDENTIAL DESIGN STUDIES Efficiency - "E" - is an overall efficiency of configuration and propulsion. i. given as the product of the lift-drag ratio "L/D" and the overall propulsive coefficient r . etc. Maximum Draft . the greatest draft "b" - is the greatest span of the foil system or the hull.employed to classify the hulls by the speedlength ratio (Vk/r/) making resistance.1) defined as that corresponding to speed Vk and given above. which is important in consideration of wave inception of planing. a not an economical as a heavier propellers when static and fully loaded under any conditions. The tje of engine and transmission is given (gas turbine. whichever is the greater. Maximum Beam - i. Length . inclined shaft. etc. The quantities "m" and "c" are usually contradictory. including auxiliaries and transmission) correspond to engine type and horsepower involved.8 . thus: E This efficiency is load A Engine - - qL/D (A."H" . "light-weight" engine generally is more complex plant and vice versa. CONFIDENTIAL I -A.e.).EHP/SHP. (lb/SHP per hour) diesel.is the "length between perpendiculars" of the buoyant part of the hull .is the draft of the foil system including 1 - i."L" . The fuel rate "c" and the specific weight "im" (lb/SHP.

Feed water if stored and trip is included in (4) consumed is also included in this group.7) CONFIDENT IAL I .3) (2) Machiner• (3) m 2240 224-0 '-P/A) A 7 Vk (A. armament.6) (4) Payload Ap - (A(A)A .CONFIDENTIA-T DESIGN STUDIES (3) "Fuel" - the fuel oil and lubricating oil consumed by corresponding to propelling machinery and auxiliaries.A. as well as the extra crew required for a military vessel is included in this group. such as cargo.useful weight carried. giving: The sum of these weights must be equal to (1 -4/ (SHP/A)available " 2240 (1 - (m c R/Vk) + c -/V) (A. etc.4) A - c .5) (A. radio and radar. range "R". passengers. Extra fuel carried as cargo or for the return below. ammunition. extra fuel.(SHPIA)A (A. (4) "Payload" .1O . The primary relationships of these weights to the basic parameters are assumed to be as follows: (1) Hull 4h " (Ah/A)A (A.

displacement-type ship the quantity E increases with size for a fixed speed due to the reduction of the Froude number (wave resistance). R/Vk can be called the maximum-speed endurance.11 *' 4r.. Equating "required" and "available" power. range. m and c generally depend on other power.. The ratios parameters such as displacement. The quantity is seen... it therefore.. gives an additional relationship between speed. . The above framework will form the basis for a weight analysis to follow (Section 3). Sare given. "T" in hours.9) . A hydrofoil craft on the other hand regardless of is characterized by an essentially fixed value of E.8) . CONFIDENTIAL I .) cT) important to note that the range (or endurance) is not dependent In a high-speed on size except as size influences the other parameters. useful load. 7*• ..m or in terms of the maximum-speed enduranc.. and engine characteristics: Vk 326 ( -Ah/4 M A ) cR (A./ (m + (A.A. that machinery and fuel have a total specific weight (m + cT) for a given maximum-speed endurance. "T" 'Vk It is 3 91 26 A. if the quantities on the right-hand side of the equation . *. • -• --u . and type of engine.* CONFIDENTIAL DESIGN STUDIES This is the power which can be installed or which is "available" in a craft. the range may therefore be increased. efficiency.

a hull.1O) For a fixed speed V.12 .and a on foil dimension and will. we have a relationship between a foil dimension and a hull dimensions b2/L2 2 L/V or b/L &/6 (A. the foil dimensions will. therefore. One should therefore not expect larger hydrofoil Craft to . The result- ing structural configuration accordingly tends to become unwieldy beyond a certain size. have an intermediate growth characteristic.CONFIDENTIAL DESIGN STUDIES size. I CONFIDENTIAL I - A. an important ratio for example being the ratio of the foil span to hull beam.size and the physical dimensions may be derived.travel further than smaller ones. Another important relationship between the . The maximum draft "H" &dpends both. Since the two must be equal. tend to "outgrow" the hull dimensions as the size increases. therefore. the displaced -olume The buoyant lift of the hull depends on depends on the square (say L3 ) and the foil lift of the speed and the foil area (say b 2 V2 ).

.• . .. • .. Outfit. This is logical since the hull bending moment is not an important structural criterion in the establishment of the plating thickness in ships of the same size range. ANALYSIS OF DATA Breakdown of Weights For purposes of analysis.CONFIDENTIAL DESTrG STJDIES 3.• ••• • -•• • • 'r. . This effect becomes extremely important Group 1-c. 1-b and 1-c are plotted in Figure A. . . shows a steady percentage growth with size (proportional to A3/ 2 ) as indicated by the increasing relative dimensions of the foil system with increasing size at a more or less oorstarnt speed (see Section 2). the basic weight breakdown as given in Section 2 is used.. . .• . with the "Hull" group (1) further divided as follows: 1-a Hull Structure 1-b 1-c Foil System Equipment.• __L .. . - A.. Effects.1 against the absolute size A as percentages of the full-load displacement A. Stores. the foil system. is more or less constant over the size range investigated with a small amount of redundancy in the smaller sizes.• . Group 1-b. . in the largest sizes considered.• . representing the effects CONFIDENTIAL I • . the hull structure. . Crew..13 J~ ' ... Group 1-a. Groups 1-a.. the local conditions usually goverh. Fresh Water Pertinent data for the designs to be included in the analysis (see Section 1) are given in Table A.II. .

' o C) eq ~0 C% I F-4 NC%1 ** 9 lo.4 Z- ____________ c PIl TIM Tom________ CONFIDENTIAL T AI ..tcf m ____ fn x r4 0 . y1 . ~f~0OV 4..'3 C*I. Cco __ 01A xnorr-4 c~Ue 4 O~~Ir! 0 C.N H~~H *0 4.~ S r F-4 0 0 C vH- :9 0 w 01. ~~HC~rn~~c~HN -zH'uC) r4:9 -C~jO CN.CONFIDENTIAL DF~SIGN STUDIES 0N -:0 W c - ~1A N V-4 00 c!~u r-4~4-r H V4 *f .. Coe% Go__NCO _ 03 N 0 N(mO0 g1-.0uoj )0.3IV o 043 0 tQ34 ) 2 030 .- P44 .


I • -• ... i.. NI iAL DESInIN STlJ'DIFS of "services" (berthing. .e.. for a given size. Speed and Power Having determined the margin of weight available for machinery. CONFIDENTML.. selection may be made between the relative weights of these items depending on speed.. be emphasized that the latter is not necessarily an indication that is a result of smaller hydrofoil craft are not feasible... there is an optimum margin remaining at about 100 ton. One should not expect small boats to have the accommodations and complete independence of shore facilities for long periods of time as do larger craft. is then available for the remaining weight groups (2 to 4). Figure A. it maintaining unfair criteria into this range. shown.F. . . fuel and payload. • • 1• •• 174-0• •:~~7MR - A. range.7... emphasis may be placed on one of them at the expense of the others. corresponding to the basic criteria assumed (see Section 1). messing.•. fuel and payload. *-• ... rather... certain redundancies in This means that larger and smaller craft from hull. etc... .. services.16 . this being a logical result of proportiorally smaller crews required on larger crafts added together.. It should respect to crew.... and deadweight re- The latter are "useful" qualities.. quirements of the design.. craft suffer from high-foil-system weights.Cu VJD.. It is seen that for hydrofoil craft for machinery.2 shows the "hull"-group components depending on size.) decreases with size. as The remaining weight percentage. etc. manning the craft.


This Table. There are many ways of proceeding in the distribution of "useful" weight.18 S - •W •. an inspection of Table A.u i T• DE2IGN S DT. therefore. in this analysis to consider four variations. which vary with power. the emphasis is placed on high speed (avoiding The engines In one cavitation.3 gives a function of machinery weight against displacement *An exception to this is the 20-ton boat.A. fixed speed and range may be assumed. two types of engines and two types of overall design concepts as shown in Table A. there appear to be two definite types of engines employed. the gas turbine with a high fuel rate.III. obtained as the result. Rather.II shows that the speeds involved do not differ radically between the designs. considered are the two variations defined above. for instance. • . It should be sufficient. In this respect. however.III.. • . . it is to consider all of the ramifications involved. and the heavier. which was designed as an air-sea rescue craft with small payload requirements. but more efficient compound engine. the specific weights.* Furthermore. required SHP/.3. but low specific weight. so that a obtained (based on engine characteristics which are also Also. • . CONFLDENTTAL I . . are tentatively established by Figure A.• ': . illustrating the intended to proceed in a logical manner. The in conjunction with Figure A. Payload has been selected at about 20% of the full load. is given in Table A... . however) and in the other pair on efficiency. pair of designs. speed is The deadweight and range may be fixed. It is so that the variables).. payload is not within the scope of this analysis. possibilities of representative hydrofoil craft based on the design studies considered.

72 b) Craft Characteristics Selected High Speed Design Moderate Speed Design Maxim=u Speed .3 CO NFTDEK'TIAL I - A.a - pIi COMOUND I s-TURSMINE a %5.% M7 ' 7 .5 6.50 35 0.60 Propulsive Coefficient (L/A) Ratio 8.4 11.5 .CO•'FIDENTIAL DESIGN STUDIES TAB•E A.Vk 48 0.9 (SiP/A) required 75 35 I ! C -3 .III TYPES OF ENGINES AND CRAFT CHARACTERISTICS SELECTED FOR ANALYSIS a) Engines Selected for Analysis Gas Turbine Specific weight "M" Fuel rate "c" - Compound See Figure A.8 4.36 0.0.0 TOTAL INSTALLED POWER-SHP SURVEY ON THE SPECIFIC WEIGHT OF MACHINERY FIGURE A.19 7.0000 10..9 Efficiency .

TONS FIGURE A. showin. SPEED-GAS TURBINE I I__ RESULTING RANGE FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF MACHINERY. t000 MODERATSPEED-COMPOUND ENGINE MODERATE SPEED-GAS TURBIE HIGH SPEED-COMPOUND ENGINE - 5 3 .A.the superiority of the compound engine on this bajis for all but the larger (over 200 ton) high-speed craft...20 .b. Finally. iI[A . corresponding range curve is shown in Figure A.. The latter case represents a condition where the better fuel rate of the compound engine is negated by the smaller amount of fuel available due to the large machinery weight. the remaining weight may be translated into range.IGN STfUDIFS for each combination of each engine and design. ON THE BASIS OF 20% IMYLOAD -PULL LOAD DISPLACEMENT.. by asbuming A 20% payload. ~HIM .4 CONFIDENTIAL I .

. " '"'L . ... and that the range of such boats is limited by comparison if-h reasonable amount of payload is to be carried. . ..5 further illustrates the relationship between range and payload for craft near the mentioned optimum (1000 tons).. . In respect to displacement operation.CONFIDENTIAL DESSIGN STUDIiFS The foregoing analysis shows that the "optimum" hydrofoil craft in this series lies between 50 and 100 tons. It should be emphasized again that the range referred to above is at maximum speed. .. to 9D Jo RANGE IN NAUTICAL MILES o IOO TONS 1 RESULTING PAYLOAD VERSUS RANGE FOR A FIGURE A. . ..5 CON MIDENTIAL I I_ • S•T"•"'•.I N"MI POINTS SHOWN INDICATE FUELT WEIGHT EOJALS PAYLOAD. - I @ "... ...• . - A. Figure A.21 .. "7-. and that suitable cruising conditions may be utilized either at a lower flying speed or in displacement operatiOA (see reference 2) to give a greater radius of action. 1410H SPEED-COMPOUND "ODERATE *k to I.' \ ''- • I . the larger sizes will be more efficient because of the lower speed-length ratio involved at some acceptable "floating" speed (say 15 knots). ... ____ _1 D - 40 SPEED-COMPOUND MODERATESPEED-GAS TURS.ION SPEED-GAS TU.

dry-docks. foil span and maximum draft with size. etc. CONFIDEITIAL I . This point will also be discussed from Finally.22 . that there is a size limitation for hydrofoil craft. a span-beam ratio of 2 and a foil These cut-off points are difficult to define and they are sensitive to changes in the values assumed (especially the span-beam ratio). Figure A. there is another effect of increase in size noticeable in Table A. Thus a destroyer-type hull is "PT" type is called for in the 400 ton design while a utilized in the smaller sizes and possibly a stepped hull in very small hydrofoil boats. namely the change in hull form.6 shows the variation Cut-off points of hull beam. span of 100 ft. are indicated at a draft of 40 ft. however. This may be simply expressed as a decrease in the speed-length ratio at some speed near take-off (proportional to the maximum speed) due to the increase of hull length. All of them tend to show. other arguments in Section 4. one of them being the physical limitations of harbors.II.A. channels.CONFIDENTIAL DESIGN STUDIES Other Considerations *There are other considerations which are important in determining the usefulness of a design.


. mentioned above have been eliminated. in the useful load capacity (or range) is In 1. 'TAT DESTGN S7!DTFS )h. OBSERVATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS Regarding Size The analysis shows the importance of size on performance and feasibility of hydrofoil craft. Certainly small hydrofoil craft must be feasible. Smaller craft appear to suffer from a certain structural redundancy.A. In the family of boats considered (at speeds in the order of 45 knots) this occurs again in the neighborhood Qf 1000 tons (or higher. respectively). For the type considered. an optimum found between 50 and 100 tons.'Ill. it is shown that the physical dimensions of hydrofoil craft may become unacceptably large.24 4 A A77 AL . in designing them. most of the facilities have been built. Aside from the effect of size on performance. the decrease indicated in the performance of such smaller craft is ividently due to the f~xid criteria in this series regarding the accommodations and services to be provided. as they However. This increase would eventually decrease range and payload to an unacceptable figure. resulting in an indication of maximum size for hydrofoil craft which appears to be in the neighborhood of 1000 tons for the type considered (at a maximum speed in the order of 45 knots).n. as at this size draft and foil span become as large as It should be mentioned draft and beam of a large trans-Atlantic liner.T I . Also. CONFID.rger craft the influence is felt of rapidly increasing foil weight. and the range is reduced.

Also shown is - the phenomenon of the foil span outgrowing the hull beam.CONFIDENTIAL DESIGN STUDIES here that foil retraction has not been considered in the evaluation..•••. .• . foil craft is In this respect. above the limiting lines for displacement vessels (defined by the Froude number Vk/AI craft would occupy the sole position.. It shall be emphasized once more that the results and limitations equated directly apply only for the operational conditions of the series considered. the maximum practical size of hydro- then expected to be higher than found in this analysis.... .. • . the hydrofoil-system dimensions (Figurwill be reduced. a displacement type of this size would not be able to make this speed (powervise) and a large "PT" type probably would meet serious structural difficulties.25 ' . Figure A. It is interesting to compare the position of the type of hydrofoil craft considered in this series with that of other (existing) craft. For speeds •) higher than 45 or 50 knots. . Comparison with Other Craft A discussion of the area of existing surface craft on a size-speed plot is presented in Appendix "B".. the ratio b/B being 2 at 500 tons (for speeds in the order of 45 knots).. . •. . . A very important parameter is the design speed. . in which the hydrofoil This fact may be emphasized by trying to conceive of a seaworthy craft of 45 knots and 300 tons displacement. .. . 12).. • - A.• • . . .. illustrate this relationship. ... • • .. •.... .7 has been prepared to An area is shown approximately between 100 and 1000 tons.. if designing for operation in even CONFIDENTTIAL I • • ..

CON•FDENTIAL DESIGN STUDIES moderate seas.26 IIVTV . it would Utilizing the favorable characteristics of such a craft down (as pointed be possible to keep the displacement would be governed by the purpose out in reference 2) at a size which by hydrodynamic considerations. (armament and equipment) rather than CONFIDENTIAL I - A. submarine craft forces the size of this of hydrofoil boats. for antiFor illustration. the high speeds required type upward in displacement.

2.27 . Gibbs & Cox Report "Design Studies of a 50 Ton Hydrofoil Craft". File 13531/SI/3(I-1269) dated April 1. File 13531/Sl/I(i-1544) dated February 1954. CONFIDENTIAL I . 1953.CONFiDEN IIAL PESICh STIIDS i REFERENCES 1. Gibbs & Cox Report "Design Study for a 400 Ton Hydrofoil Craft".A.

This study is a size and speed analysis in which various types of A plot of speed versus size is presented are made and a tentative outline vessels are mapped. 1*ý711'q107 . Some conclusions is given for further analysis.APPENDIX B STATISTICAL STUfY OF THE SIZE AND SPEED OF SHIPS of existing vessels.1 . CONFTDMTIAL I - B.

The material has been taken from published sources such as "Jane's Fighting Ships". A ..T.. In addition to the points on the plot representing individual vessels. over most of the size range.g SIZE-SPEED PLOT Various types of vessels have been mapped on a logarithm chart of speed versus size (Figure B.". - r~F .. however.1). ( CONTqr'DENTIAL I P. The first (U1) is the "Froude number" line VN/±l/ 6 . several yachting books by Uffa Fox. where the forms the limit. The two lines will be further Froude number (line Q) discussed below.C. there is a gap. "naval".2 -7. and the magazine "Marine Engineering and Shipping Review". A second line (•) represents statistically the maximum speed for all vessels.iT1AL SL: T. . Ilowever. they do not have special signif nce. F'IDEi. and "high-speed" (planing) vessels. Between 100 and 1000 tons.12 determined in such a manner that all dis- placement-type vessels fall below it. broken down by use of different symbols into three categories: "merchant". Lines of constant ( A/V) are drawn in for convenience. occupied by various types of vessels are identified by name. there are aeveral lines drawn. The displacement used in the normal The areas and are load displacement ("standard" in the case of naval vessels). The speeds used are those tabulated which probably represent the speed for continuous operation rather than the maximum (trial) speed (except for racing boats).

substantiated by an inspection of the small-displacement All the vessels in this range. premise is Important in establishing the This The line represents a limit for displacement vessels. it cannot carry any more Many factors go power in addition to performing its normal function. )lne ®.Lnes is interesting. for one reason or another. they are. rather the limit is indicated by line k.alled to drive a vessel well over tY. placements (1. vk/ / - Vo ( A/(L/l00)3)l/6 it is seen that the line means a maximum sreed-length ratio combined with ?ast destroyers have both these a minimum displacement-length ratio.At present we can only note that the increase in this line at small displacements is probably due to lower machinery specific weights. into establishing this limit. function.000 to 100. I RB3 . the fastest vessels do not '¾llow this line. are of the planing or semi--planing type.. characteristic of smaller power plants. therefore. characteristics.DISCUSSION OF PLOT The "Froude" line (Q) represents a maximum value of From the relationship Vk/Al/6 for existing displacement vessels.000 tons). above the Froude'! range (1 to 100 tons). The inter"-relationship of the two A. enough power rtay be inst. At the higher dis. Below 100 tons. CONFTDEN TlAt.J We will tentatively say that no vesbel can exceed the limit of line J because.

Finally. FUTURE WOMC This study should be extended by investigatlng existing vessels in more detail on the basis of w. large vesselk (over 4000 tons) cannot be driven •. It may be that hydrofoil-3upported boats are most suited for operation in this region. This i.ance or machinery specific The investigation should enable one to discuss the speed limits and to polrt out prconising areas jon weight. Conversely. we must notice that there is above line @ a region under line and from 100 to 1000 tons which is not occupied by any exist- ing type of craft.ilability and requirements of weight and power. possibly due to their poor seaworthiness at high speeds. [ -- 7. These vessels are the fastest displacement vessels of any size existing today. for future development. Such analysis would essentially deal w.i at high speeds commensurate with their size due to a lack of power.speeds practical for a displacemenr'c-type hull.s evidently due to the fact that PT-type vessels have not. .t b the deperdence of line a greet many factors such as retis. in the region of destroyers. The cross-over point is at about 1500 tons. planing hulls are therefore used. been built over 100 tons. from the standpoint of these factors.

. / . In dealing with the subject. ETT Tech Memo No. 1. the following are of Inter'est. 97. Davidson. "Notes or *he Pc:. "Size in Transport". Journal Aeronautical Society. Octk. C1S No referenceSare q ioted In this memorandum specifically. March 1951.. July 1948.r~TIAL REFREN. p. Engineer-ing. 3. 95O. Gabrlelli and Von Karmanu !What Price Speed?". )f the Royal Gouge. however. .o 77" - Mechanical 2. :? =:'" 7 . - rw -T .er-Speed-Weight Relationship for Vehicles". .

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.00 .~.... ....!ý3! too i ff 1I I Ii VESSELS SMRCHANT 1000 tv. i L LS[ VESSE TV.v I tI* N8 EO +1 1GS FE (PL ANI NG) BOA TS 1t'17 77 : 7 STATISTIALO SURVE ON SIZ t FtIG R AN OFSIP192 4PE 71ti- - ~ I' tF . .

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