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Eighth Science – Botany and Zoology

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Plants – Starch is in form of reserve food.

Plants do not move from place to place except some lower kind of plants.

 

Ex: Chlamydomonas.

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Animal

Glycogen is in the form of reserve food. All animals except corals and sponges move from place to place.

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Plant Kingdom Gametophyte – Sexual reprod. Sporophyte – Asexual reprod.

 

Class 1: Gymnospermae(Naked seeded plants). Ex: Cycas, pine, cupresses. Class 2: Angiospermae(Closed seeded plants). Flowering Plants. Monotcotyledons: one seed leaf. Ex: grasses, coconut, paddy. Dichotyledons: Two seed leaves. Ex: Mango, Groundnut and bean.

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Animal Kingdom

 

Class Chondrichthyes. Ex: Dogfish, sharks, Rays

 

Class Osteichthyes

Ex: Stickleback, Cod.

Class Amphibia.

Ex: frogs, Newts, salamanders.

 

Class Reptilia

Ex: Terrapin.

Class Aves(Birds)

Ex: Sparrow, Penguin, Kiwi.

Class Mammalia(mammals)

Ex: Monkeys, Apes and man.

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Carolus Linnaeus – Father of modern

 

Stamens – Male part of the flower.

Botany.

 

Gynoecium – Female part of the flower.

“Species Plantarum- Book”

 

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Robert H. Whittaker

 

Five Kingdoms.

 

1.

Monera – Bacteria and Blue Algae

2.

Protista

3.

Plantae (Plants)

4.

Fungi

5.

Animalia (Animals).

7 8 9 Binomial Nomenclature One representing the genus(generic name) and the other speices name(specific name).
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Binomial Nomenclature
One representing the genus(generic name)
and the other speices name(specific name).
“Identifying organisms by their genus and species
names is called the binomial system or binomial
nomenclature”.

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Bacteria Reproduction Conjugation

Method of binary fission – Vegetative method. Single bacterial cell divides into two cells.

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Genetic engineering

This peculiar feature of plasmid transfer from one bacterial cell to an other bacterial cell plays a major role in gene cloning (GE).

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Fungi

Total absence of Chlorophyll.

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Nocturnal Animal – Cockroach

Hiding during the day and coming out at the night.

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Tissue Plants – Merismatic tissue, Permanent tissue.

A group of cells specialized for a particular function.

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Permanent tissue.

Simple tissue – Pollenchyma, Collenchyma and sclerenchyma. Complex tissue – Xylem and Phloem.

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Simple tissue

Pollenchyma – Storage. Collenchyma – Strength and rigidity to the plant. Sclerenchyma – Fibres and Scleroids Fibres – Strength and rigidity to the plant body.

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Complex tissue

Xylem – Conductive tissue. Conduct water and nutrients from root to the shoot. Phloem – Conduct food materials from the leaves to the storage organs and other growing organs. Conduct sugar upwards and downwards in the plant.

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Epidermis

For Protection. Evaporation of water from inner parts of the plant.

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Digestive System

10 Bacteria Reproduction Conjugation Method of binary fission – Vegetative method. Single bacterial cell divides into
10 Bacteria Reproduction Conjugation Method of binary fission – Vegetative method. Single bacterial cell divides into

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Salivary glands – Saliva

Saliva contains Ptyalin. This converts starch into maltose. Lisozyme – Acts as antibacterial.

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Pharynx

Common passage for air and food.

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Liver – Largest gland.

It is the largest gland of our body.

   

It secreates bile and it is stored in the gall bladder.

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Intestinal juices Carbhohydrates – Glucose Proteins – Amino acids Fats – Fatty Acids and Glycerol.

23 Intestinal juices Carbhohydrates – Glucose Proteins – Amino acids Fats – Fatty Acids and Glycerol.

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Respiratory System:

It secreates bile and it is stored in the gall bladder. 23 Intestinal juices Carbhohydrates –

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Breathing

Expansion and contraction of thoracic cavity.

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Nosal cavity

Mucus ( a sticky liquid) prevents dirt, dust and germs from entering the respiratory system.

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Pharynx – Throat

Posteriorly it is divided into oseophagus and trachea.

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Lungs

Principle respiratory organ. 300 million alveoli in each lung.

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William Harvery

Discovered the blood circulation in humans.

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Circulatory system

It transports Oxygen, Carbon di oxide, nutrients, hormones and excretory products to various parts of the body. Blood is the medium through which these substances are transported.

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Blood - Liquid connective tissue. Liquid component and Cellular component. RBC deficiency – Anemia.

Liquid – Plasma, organic and inorganic cons. Cellular component – Erythrocytes(RBC) RBC(100 -120 days) – produced in bone marrow of

   

More – Polycythemia. WBC deficiency – Leukopenia More - Leukemia

ribs and vertebrae. Haemoglobin – Respiratory pigment. Affinity for oxygen and help in respiration.

 

Leucocytes – White blood corpuscles.

Produced in bone marrow and lymph glands.

Thrombocytes or Blood Platelets

Necessary for coagulation of blood.

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Blood

Regulates body temperature and osmotic pressure of the tissue fluids.

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Heart

33 Heart

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Heart – Made up of cardiac muscles. Heart attack – A clot in a coronary artery causes coronary thrombosis which may lead to heart attack.

Heart is place inside the membranous sac called pericardiam. It is filled with pericardial fluid.

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Blood vessels

Arteries, veins and capillaries.

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Human nervous system

 

The control and coordination of different activities

Neurons or the nerve cell is the structural

of the body is of 2 types.

unit of the nervous system.

  • a. Nervous Coordination.

 
  • b. Chemical coordination. (Endocrine System.)

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Central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord

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Pheripheral nervous system

Caranial nerves and Spinal nerves Caranial nerves – 12 Pairs. Spinal nerves – 31 Pairs.

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Autonomous nervous system

The nerves in this system transmit impulses from the central nervous system to the smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and glands.

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Brain – 1.36 Kg.

 

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Medulla oblongata

It acts as a bridge between the brain and the spinal

     

cord. Controls respiration and circulation.

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Cerebrum

   

We are able to see, hear,smell, taste food and understand the sense of touch only with the help of the cerebrum. Seat of intelligence, memory, imagination and reasoning.

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Spinal nerves

   

All the sensory impulses from various organs reach the brain via spinal cord Order –Muscles and glands – via . spinal cord. Reflex actions.

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Skeletal System – 206 bones – Human

   

Skeletal tissues are hard tissues.

body

 

Calcium salts.

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Skull or cranium

   
8 flat bones. Movable bone – Mandible - Lower jaw.
   

8 flat bones. Movable bone – Mandible - Lower jaw.

   

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Rib cage

   

12 Pairs of rib cages are there.

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Thigh

 

Contains longest bone called the femur.

 

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Gobar gas

   

Gobar gas contains methane. Made of Hydrogen and Carbon.

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Bleaching

   

Bleaching powder is applied to control public toilets, which helps to prevent transmission of communicable diseases.

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Composting – Earthworms – eco friendly – Disposable of bio degradable wastes.

 

Solid waste is converted into manure by biological action.

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Anaerobic biochemical reactions

   

Bacterial like Bacillus, Pseudomonas, and Lactobacillus are used.

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Biotech

   

Involves the application of the biological systems and process for human benefits.

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Freshwater

   

Rainwater is the main source of the fresh water.

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Moisture

   

Water in atmosphere. This is termed as atmospheric water or humidity.

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Living cells

   

75 – 85% of water.

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Ground water table

   

Population and climatic changes affect the ground water table. Urbanization and destruction of forests.

     

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Desalination Process

 

Converting the sea water to drinking water.

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Phytogeography

 

The science dealing with the origin, distribution,

 

and environmental inter relationships of plants is known as phytogeography. It is very much allied to ecology and geography.

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Grasslands of India

 

Xerophilus, Mesophilus and Hygrophilus

 

Xerophilus – Dry regions north west india under semi desert conditions.

Mesophilus –

Savannahs

Moist deciduous forest of

uttar Pradesh belong to this type. Hygrophilus – Wet savannahs – Himalaya and Assam.

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Sea shore

 

Mangrove vegetation

 

Pichavaram near Chidambaram and rameshwaram coastal areas in tamilnadu. Sunderbans near west Bengal.

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Natural resources

 

Natural resources like energy, air, land , water, plants, animals, microorganisms are being depleted owing to over exploitation and mismanagement.

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Demography

 

Study of population trends is termed as demography.

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Ozone depletion

 

Freon gas from aerosol sprays nitrogen oxide and chloro floro carbon from various sources deplete the ozone layer in the stratosphere.

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Universal Poison

 

Chlorinated Hydrocarbons.

 

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Mushroom

 

Fungi Edible Mushroom – Safe to eat.(Table, field Mushrooms) Agaricus bisporous and Agaricus augustus. Poisonous Mushroom -

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Sericulture

The rearing of silkmoth and production of raw silk is known as sericulture.

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Silk Worm

 

The host plant is mulberry tree, on which silkworm lives as a parasite.

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Moriculture

 

The cultivation of mulberry plants for harvesting the leaves is referred to as moriculture.

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Silk

Queen of textiles. Silk Yarn is used as Package material in pencil industry. Making talcum powder puffs. 22-24 denier silk – Tyre. – france 13 – 15 denier silk – Making Parachute. Replace cut arteries.

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Thickness of silk

 

Measured in Denier.

 

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Fishery Common Carp, Tilapia, Indian carp, Gowrami, Milkfish, eel, Goldfish etc.,

   

Production of fish which forms food for mankind.

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Prawns Culture

   

India ranks second in the world and usa ranks no. 1 in the world.

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Oyster Culture

   

Cheap protein rich food.

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Pearl Oyster culture Pearl – One among the nine germs.

   

In india peral oyster culture is being undertaken in the gulf of mannar and the gulf of kutch.

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Poultry

 

Poultry farming is defined as a term for rearing and

Silver revolution – Egg production Nandanam – big poultry farm.

 

keeping of birds such as fowl, duck, turkey, goose and hen for eggs and meat.

Namakkal and Pallidam

.

 

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Live stock Management

   

The branch of agriculture concerned with the breeding, feeding and caring of domestic animals is called Animal Husbandry.

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Cattle

 

Cows, Buffaloes and goats are called cattle. Disease: Anthrax – Caused by anthrax bacteria. Jersey, Karan fries, Karan Swiss,- Cow. Murrah – High yielding buffalo.

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Sheep

 

It provides wool, meat, milk and hide. Their droppins form good manure. Lincoln, Hang Yang, Merino corriedale are some of the breeds of sheep.

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Buffalo

 

The Asiatic water buffalo, the cape buffalo, the yak are some of the breeds of buffalo.

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Tissue Culture Clones are obtained by tissue culture methods. Clone – Asexual reproduction

   

Tissues of higher plants are grown artificiallyin lab. Conditions. Isolated plant cells have the capacity to give rise to whole plants when cultured.

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Chlorination – Calcium Hypochlorite

   

The process of purifying drinking water is called

 

chlorination.

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Cholorogen

   

Sodium Hypochlorite.

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Tobacco Products

   

Tar – Cancer producing substance.

 

Nicotine.

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Narcotics

   

Narcotic is a drug, which causes sleep. It depresses

 

the activities of the central nervous system. Ex:opium, Cocaine, Marijuana, Ganja, LSD

Lysergic acid diethylamide.

 

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Cholera

 

Diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholera.

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Leprosy

 

Social Disease in india.

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Edward Jenner

   

Small pox vaccination

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BCG Vaccine

   

Tuberclosis vaccine. Mycobacterium tuberculosis – virus causing.

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Vaccines

90 Herbs Valparai, Nilgris, Kodai, Kolli hills and at yercaud 91
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Herbs
Valparai, Nilgris, Kodai, Kolli hills and at yercaud
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Class Nineth:

 

1

Muscles

There are around 600 muscles are attached to the skeletal system. Voluntary and involuntary muscles.

2

Voice

Vibration of vocal card creates sound.

3

Brain

Weight: Adult 1500grams. Child: 380grams. Neurons: 12000 millions. Cerebral cortex: Black matter Cerebral medulla: White matter.

4

Spinal Cord

31 Pairs of spinal nerve.

5

Eye

5 Eye

6

Ear

6 Ear

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Cardio vascular system

Collectively the organs of blood circulation are referred to as cardio vascular system.

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Heart

Male: 285 – 340 gram. Female: 247 – 285 gram.

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Power of microscope

Resolving power Anton van Leeuwenhook invented microscope.

 
  • 10 Microscopes

  • 1. Ordinary mic. (1000 to 4000)times.

  • 2. Electron mic. (2lakh to 3 lakh) times.(Electrons travels within a vaccum).

 
  • 11 Cell Division

  • 1. Karyokinesis – Nuclear division.

     
  • 2. Cytokinesis. – Cytoplasmic division.

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Nuclear Division

 
  • 1. Amitosis – Direct nuclear division.

  • 2. Mitosis – Indirect nuclear division.

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Mitosis

 

Chromosome number is kept constant in the mother and daughter cells. ( Prophase, Metaphase(duplication of chromosomes), Anaphase, and Telophase). Happens during embryonic development.

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Meiosis

 

Reduction division. Occurs during the formation of sex cells.

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Cancer

 

During growth the cells divide by mitosis. When the cell division become more and more frequent and uncontrollable, the condition is called as cancer. The cell thus formed are cancer cells. A study of such cells are called as Oncology.(Study of cancer).

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Metastasis

 

If the cancer cells spreads to the neighbouring tissues, the condition is called metastasis.

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Carcinogenci agents

 
  • 1. Tobacco

 
  • 2. Processed and Smoked food.

  • 3. The virus causing jaundice is said to be carcinogenic.

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Blood Cancer

 

Leukemia

–Caused due to Radiation treatment

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Skin Cancer

 

Ultra violet rays from the sun causes skin cancer.

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Cancer types

 
  • 1. Beningn tumour(Uncontrollable cell divisions)

  • 2. Malignant tumour(Dangerous – Start spreading to neighbouring tissues).

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Cancer Treatment

 

Surgery, Radiation treatment – X-ray(discovered by roentgeon), Chemotheraphy, hormonal treatment, and Laser treatment.

22

Heredity

 

The resemblance of child like the father is hereditary. Variation(different).

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Genetics – Greher johan Mendel. – Father of genetics.

 

It is the branch of biology which deals with the concepts and laws controlling heredity and variation.

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21 st Centuary

 

Centuary of genes.

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Monohybrid cross Phenotypic ratio:3:1 Genotypic ratio: 1:2:1

 

A cross between two pure breeding plants differing in a pair of contrasting charecters is known as monohybrid cross.

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Back cross

 

A cross between a hybrid and any one of the pure breeding parental type is called as back cross.

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Test cross

 

A cross between a hybrid and the pure breeding recessive

Ratio 1:1

parent is called as test scores.

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Dihybrid cross Phenotypic: 9:3:3:1

 

A cross bt. two pure breeding plants differing in two pairs of contrasting charecters is known as “Dihybrid cross”.

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Mendel

 

Law1: Proposed the “Law of segregation “ based on monohybrid experiments. Law2: Law of independent assortment.

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Regenaration

The organs or the structures lost can be regenerated. Ex:

Animals Planeria can spilit in to 2 or 3 pieces and regenerate the lost parts.

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Meiosis

Chromosome number remains constant in subsequent genarations.

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Flower

Condensed modified reproductive shoot. 4 Whorls(Calyx, Corolla, Andrecium and gynaecium). Androceium – Made up of stamens. Gynaecium – Made up of carpels. Petals are free – Polypetalous. Petals are united – Gamopetalous.

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Fruit and Seed

After pollination and fertilization the ovary of the flower develops into fruit and ovules into seeds.

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Simple fruit

Develop from single pistil.

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Aggregate fruit

Develops from a single flower with apocarpus pistil. Ex:

Polyalthia.

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Multiple fruit

Develop from the entire inflorescence from all the flowers. Ex: Morinda.

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Seedless Fruit

Produced by a phenomenon called as Parthenocarpy. Development of fruit without fertilization. Cucumber: Hybridization. Plant hormones: Auxins and gibberellins.

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Paramoecium

Reproduction: Conjugation.

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Hydra

Reproductive organs are not permanent.

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Earth worms

Coupulation.

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Sexula Dimonphism

The physical differences between the male and the female.

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Fertilization

Union of male and female cells is known as fertilization.

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Testis

2 testis. Inside scrotum. Each testis is made up of 10- 15lobes. Each lobe contains seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells. The sperms are collected and stored in epididymis found above the testis.

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Functions of sex organs

Controlled by the hormones.

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Menstrual cycle

28 days.

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Viral diseases

Bunchy top of banana, leaf roll of potato and tobacco mosaic.

47

Bacteria diseases

Citrus canker , wilt disease of carrot, and Leaf blight of paddy.

48

Fungal diseases.

White rust of crucifiers, red rot of sugarcane and late blight of potato.

49

Disease

Citrus canker in citrus plants and white rust in raddish.

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Biological transmission

Are caused by intermediary agents such as mosquitos, houseflies,dogs,cats etc.,

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Non bio logical transmission

May be due to agents such as Water, air, soil and clothing. Physical contact between humans can also transmit diseases.

52

Incubation period

After entering the body of a host the pathogen may require

   

an incubation period. During this period they release toxic substances. This substance is called antigens. The host produces certain proteins to suppress the harmful effects of the antigens. These substances are called antibodies.

53

Tuberclosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Common tb: Pulmonary TB (Affects lungs).

54

Chlorea

Virus:Vibrio Chorea orComma bacillus.

Severe diarrhoea and vomiting. Treatment: oral rehydration

55

Anthrax

Bascillus anthracis.

Sheep and cattle. Treated by antibiotics.

56

Leprosy

Mycobacterium Leprae.

Can be cured and controlled. Treated by drugs.

57

Leptospirosis

Leptospira. Can be treated by drugs.

58

AIDS

HIV – Human immune deficiency syndrome. Retrovirus containing RNA.

Testing – ELISA( Enzyme linked immune sorbent assay).

Confirmation by western blot technique.

59

Environmental Science

The study of living organism in relation to its surrounding has developed into an unique branch of science and is called environmental science.

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Detritus Termites, Beetles and worms.

The dead organisms and the debris are called as detritus.

61

Ecological Pyramid

Ecological pyramid is the logical representation of various tropic levels of a food chain in a ecosystem.

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Flow of energy

Non cyclic and Uni directional.

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Photosynthesis

2% of energy is used.

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Carbondioxide

Dissolved Co2 in sea water is converted into salts of Ca and Mg. and gets deposited as insoluble salts in the deeper seas.

65

Lightning and Radiations

Atmospheric nitrogen is converted into compounds like ammonia and nitrogen oxide.

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Nitrogenous compounds

Using ammonia through industrial processes fertilizers like ammonium nitrate and urea can be synthesized. These are nit.comp.

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Phosphorous

Essential for formation of DNA and ATP molecules in plants and animal cells. Animals need phosphorous for building muscles and bones. Plant – Soil Water Animal – food.

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Biosphere

6 above the sea level 10 below the sea level

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Nitrogen

Protein synthesis.

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Agriculture

Cultivation of crop plants.

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Agronomy

Pratise of ways and means of production of food, feed and

   

fibre cops.

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Crops

Garden crops: Ex: Onion, Brinjal. Plantation Crops: Ex: Tea, Coffee. Field Crops: Ex: Rice, Cotton. Food Crops: Ex: Rice , wheat, soyabean , Groundnut. Cash Crops: Ex: Cotton, Sugarcane, Jute and Tobacco.

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Rice (Oryza sativa)

Rice is the staple food of Asia.

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Nutrients

74 Nutrients

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Farmyard manure

The decomposed Mixture of cattle excreta and urine along with fodder is called the farmyard manure.

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Green manure

The main aim is to add nitrogen to the soil cheaply. Ex: Pungam, Neem and Kolingi.

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Urea

It is very unique among the nitrogenous fertilizers.It is also applied to sugarcane, wheat, cotton, vegetables and fruit crops.

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Phosphorous

Superphosphate, Dicalcium Phosphate, Tricalcium Phosphate.

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Potassium

Potassium chloride and Potassium Sulphide

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Chemical fertilizers

Play a key role in sustaining production and productivity in agriculture.

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Bio fertilizers

They are ecofreindly, economic and more effective than chemical fertilizers. The microbial preparation containing the living cells of these nitrogen fixing bacteria or phosphor bacteria or fungi or the blue green algae are called as bio fertilizers.

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Bio fert.

82 Bio fert.

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Use

Promote germination of seed and the growth of seedlings.

 

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Weeds

Unwanted plants

 

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M.S.Swaminathan

Has been working for the past 50 years and more for the agricultural development.

 

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Pesticides

86 Pesticides
 

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Class Tenth

 
 

Viruses

 

1

Cell

3 basic features.

 
  • 1. An outer limiting membrane that separates the cell from the surrounding.

  • 2. Genetic material that has information for control and coordination of all the activities in a cell and also transmits this information to its progenies.

  • 3. A metabolic machinery, that consists of enzymes, its reactants and products, that are essential for cellular activities.

 

2

Virus [Affects Plants,

They are only active in living cells. Virus have only one type of nucleic acid either

 

Animals,

  • 1. DNA or

Bacteria – Bacteriophages]

  • 2. RNA

 

3

Tobacco Mosaic Virus TMV RNA

First discovered by Dmitri Iwanowsky. TMV causes leaf mottling and discolouration in tobacco and many other pl.

 

4

Viral Diseases

Dog – Rabies. Cattle – Foot and mouth disease.

 

Humans:

Common cold – Rhinovirus. (RNA Virus) AIDS – HIV virus. (RNA Virus)

 

5

Bacteria

Bacteria are unicellular and prokaryotic.

 

DNA

Group of bacteria called Cyanobacteria (=Bluegreenalgae) includes multicellualar filamentous forms. Ex: Nostoc and Oscillatoria. Cell wall of bacteria is made up of perptidoglycan called murein. Autotrophic bacteria – Chlorobium. Photosynthetic: Green sulphur bact, Purple sulphur bact.

Chemosynthetic bacteria: Hydrogen bact, Nitrifying bact. (Hydrogenomonas, Nitromonas). Heterotrophic bacteria - E.Coli(Eichericia coli) 6 Bacteria and
Chemosynthetic bacteria: Hydrogen bact, Nitrifying bact.
(Hydrogenomonas, Nitromonas).
Heterotrophic bacteria - E.Coli(Eichericia coli)
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Bacteria and Virus
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Nature Scavengers
Bacteria’s are called natures scavengers.
8
Bacteria uses
Souring of milk – Lacto basicillus lactis.
Nitrogen Fixation: The conversion of molecular nitrogen
into nitrogen compounds is known as nitrogen fixation.
9
Harmful Bacteria
Typhoid – Solmonella typhi.
Cattle and Sheep – Bascillus Anthracis.
10
Penicillium
Fungi – Eukaryotes
Fungi are non green heterotrophic organism.
Common Skin disease – ‘Dobies Itch’ – Ring worm
Fungi.
Body of fungus – Mycelium.
11
Penicillium
Discovered by Alexander Fleming from penicillium
notatum.
12
Malaria
Malaria is caused by a virus called Plasmodium.
(Haemozoin is responsible for fever associated with
malaria)
13
Filariasis
Caused
by Parasitic worm Wucheraria bancrofti.
14
Dengue fever
Caused by flavi virus.
15
Brain fever
Caused
by a virus.
16
Cholera
Caused by bacterium vibrio Chlerae.

17

Vector control Research Centre.

Pondicherry.

18

Frog

Amphibia

19

Osmosis Thistle funnel experiment

Water molecules move from a region where is more to a region where it is less when separated by a semi permeable membrane.

Soil water enters root hair by osmosis.

20

Mineral Nutrition

Macro elements: Utilised by plants more. Ex:

carbon,hydrogen and oxygen. Micro elements: Manganese, Zinc, Boron.

21

21

22

NPK Fertilizers

Nitrogen, Potassium, Phosphorous.(NPK).

23

Dark reaction

Calvin cycle.

24

ATP

Adenosine Tri Phosphate

25

Respiration

Aerobic – uses oxygen for respiration. Anaerobic – oxygen not used for respiration. (Glucose is converted into 2 molecules of Pyruvic acid). Glucose – Pyruvic acid – Ethyl alcohol. Lactose – Pyruvic acid – Lactic acid.

26

Growth hormones

Auxins – Indole 3, Gibberellins, Cytokinis, Ethylene.

27

Gibberellins

Parenthocrapy.- Sleepless fleshy tomatoes and large grapes are formed by Gibberellins.

28

Cytokinis

Rapid cell division.

29

Stomach

HCL – Counter(Mucous) – Ulcer.

30

Eye – Cones(retina)

Responsible for colour vision. Vitamin A – Night Blindness.

31

Glycolysis

Takes place in cytoplasm.

32

Chromosomes

Structures in nucleus. Waldeyer. They can reproduce independently and they play an important role in heredity, variation, and mutation. Eukaryotic chromosomes are associated with de-oxyribo nucleic acid(DNA).

33

Genes

They are located on the chromosome. The genetic information in most organisms is stored in DNA.

34

Chromosome Types

  • 1. Autosomes – Contolling Body Charecters.

  • 2. Allosomes – Sex Chromosomes.(Always 2 in number).

35

Male and Female

Female – XX Chromosome. Male – XY Chromosome.

36

Genome

A complete set of chromosomes containing all the genes is called as a genome.

37

Double helix

Watson and Crick model.

38

Genetic Code

Has 64 codons.

39

Mutation

Mutation may be defined as a heritable change in a gene or chromosome or change in the number of the chromosome. 1. Artificial 2. Natural Gene Mutation: The Changes that alter the structure of the gene at a molecular level is called Gene mutation. It is also called point mutation. Ie. Permanent heritable changes with in a gene.

40

Gene Reaction

Hugo de Vries. He gave “mutation theory”.

41

Dobzhansky

Gene Polymorphism.

42

T.H.Morgan

First to report mutation in Drosophilia.

43

Genetic engineering

Genetic engineering is the manipulation of genetic material by either molecular biological techniques or by selective breeding.

44

Uses

Ge bacteria are employed to clean up oil spills. Ge is also useful in developing pest-resistant crop-plants. Production of human insulin, monoclonal antibodies of high specificity, human growth hormones used to treat children with hormonal deficiency, several interferons proteins used to treat viral infections and cancer, are also produced by the application of genetic engineering techniques.

45

Biotechnology

Biotechnology is defined as the applications of scientific and engineering principles for the processing and production of materials by living organisms. microbes

  • 1. E.coli

  • 2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae

46

Transgenci plants

Transgenci plants are the plants in which foreign genes have been introduced.

47

Myeloma

Myeloma is a cancer of the antibody forming cells. Used in cancer therapy. Monoclonal antibodies.

48

Nucleolar Organizer

Repeats of the rRNA gene.

49

Y Chromosome

It is the sex determination chromosome in most mammals.

50

Reproduction

Reproduction is a special biological process.

51

Flower

Reproductive part in the higher plants. Generally each plant is made up of calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium. (Androecium(Made of stamens) – Male, Gyniecium(Carpels,Ovary) – Female).

52

Pollen grains

Pollen grains are transferred mainly by wind, water, and insects. These are called pollinating agents.

53

Pollination

Self pollination(Autogamy). Cross pollination leads to new varieties.

54

Zoophily

Pollination by winds – Anemophily. Pollination by animals is called as zoophily. Entomophily – Insects ( Bees,Moths,Wasps, Butterflies). Ornithophily – Birds, Chiropteriphily – Bat, Malacophily(Snails).

55

Pollination by water

Hydrophily

56

56

57

Fertilization

The fusion of male gamete with egg is known as fertilization. The fertilized egg is called zygote and it develops into embryo.

58

Germination

Germination is resumption of growth of embryo into a young plant.

59

Gaematogenesis

The first stage in sexual reproduction of animals is gametogenesis. During this certain cells of the gonads are transformed into specialized cells namely the eggs or ova in female and the spermatozoa or sperm in male.

60

Testes (Mitotic division)

Testes contains many seminiferous tubules, which are separated by interstitial cells or Leydig cells. Leydig cells- Secreates – Androgens.

61

OOgenesis

Multiplication, Growth and Maturation Phase.

Mitotic division

Maturation Phase: Meiotic division.

62

Mensturation

Occurs about every 28 days and lasts about four day.

63

Egg cells

The fully developed femal gamete is termed ovum or egg.

64

Fertilization

Fertilization is a complex process which involves the fusion of a male gamete and a female gamete. 1) to activate the egg 2) to inject a male haploid nucleus into the egg cytoplasm.

65

Clevage

The spilitting of an activated egg by a series of mitotic cell divisions into a multitude of cells which become the building units of future organism is called cleavage.

66

Tissue Culture

Growing plant or animal tissue outside the body of the organism (Invitro) is called tissue culture. To grow a callus, appropriate plnat tissue should be selected.

67

Micropropagation

Tissue cultured cells can be induced to form the whole plant by altering the growth medium.

68

Monoclonal antibodies

Detection of early pregnancy is done with the help of monoclonal antibodies.

69

Cloning technique

An exact copy of the animal to be cloned can be produced by the cloning technique.

70

Dolly

A sheep by name “Dolly” was the first to be cloned by Dr. Ian Wilmut.

71

Stem Cells

  • 1. Embryonic stem cells

  • 2. Adult stem cells.

72

Embryonic Stem Cells

Derived from the human embryo. They could develop into any of the more than 200 different known cell types in the body. Such cells are termed pluripotent.

73

Adult stem cells

Ex: Haemopoietic stem cells normally make only blood cells. Brain stem cells make only brain cells.

74

Stem cells

Stem cells are used in transplantation. Stem cells can be used to replace the dead nerve cells to cure the disease like parkinson’s disease, Alzhamier’s disease. Pluripotent stemcells the immune system can be replaced. Leukemia can be treated with bone marrow stem cells.

75

Medicines

Drugs from roots:

Rauwolfia Serpentina: [Tamil:Sarpagandha] Useful antidote against snake – bite and insect stings. Dried roots of rauwolfia serpentine reduces blood pressure and is used to cure mental illness. Also used in skin disorders, such as psoriasis, excessive sweating and itching. Roots of Vinca Rosea is also effective remedy for blood cancer and asthma.

76

Ferula Asafotedia

Asafoetida contains resins, gum and volatile oil. It is used as a flavouring agent and it is also of medicinal value.

77

Drugs from stem

Herb. (Tamilnadu, Bengal, Andhrapradesh)

Turmeric[Manjal]

It is aromatic. Given for jaundice, Purification of blood, liver disorders and urinary infections. Protect your liver.

78

Allium cepa – Onion [Vengayam]

Reducing cough; with vinegar, the bulb is given for curing jaundice.

79

Allium Satvium – Garlic [Vellaopoondu]

Given in fevers, cough, disorders of nervous system, bronchitis and it is a well known blood purifier.

80

Drugs from Barks:

Tamil: Koyna maram.

Quinine

Chinchona Bark is quinine, and it is used in the treatment of malarial fever and amoebic dysentery.

81

Drug obtained from wood:

Tamilnadu and Karnataka are the important centres of

Santalum album [SanthanaMaram]

sandalwood. It is a tree. The paste of wood has cooling effect and reduces inflammatory skin diseases.

82

Drugs from leaves:

Inner contents are given to reduce the enlargement of the

Indian Aloe: Aloe

liver, spleen. It is also a cure for piles,jaundice. The leaf

barbedensis [Katrazhai]

juice is given as a remedy for intestinal worms in children.

83

Flowers:

Clove oil is prepared from the dried flower buds of

Eugenia Caryophyllata [IIavangam]

Eugenia which is used as a pain reliever in toothache.

84

Fruits and seeds:

The common goose berry is used in treating scurvey.

Emblica officinalis [Nelli Maram]

85

Medical Practices

Siddha: - Agasthyar system.

The terms siddha means achievement and ‘Siddhars’ were saintly figures who contributed a lot in medicine through the practice and yoga. Human Body – Replica of the universe. Like ayurveda this system believes that all objects in the universe including human body are composed of five elements namely earth, water, fire, air and space. They combine to form the three principles of vatah, pitha and kapha. Kayakalpa or longevity therapy is a speciality of this system. Siddha system is mainly based on medicinal plants and it is also called siddha maruthuvam.

86

Yoga

Pathanjali.

87

Homeopathy

Dr. Samuel Hainnemann is the father of Homeopathy. “Organon of the art of healing”. “Law of similar” National Institute of Homeopathy – Calcutta.

88

Unani

By Arabs and Persians. Hippocrates – Father of unani. National Institute of unani medicine – Bangalore.

89

Ayurveda

Science of life.

Sushruta(Father of surgery) Charaka(Founder of Ayurveda) National Institure of Ayurveda – Jaipur.

90

Azadirachta Indica – Neem

Throughout india. The leaves are bitter, antiseptic, appetizer, and insecticidal. Used to treat tumours, leprosy, skin diseases, wounds, ulcers and diabetes.

91

Catharanthus roseus – [Nithyakalyani, sudugattumalli.]

Found throughout india. It is used as remedies for diabetes.

92

Zingiber officinale [Ginger]

Found in western ghats. The raw ginger is acrid, vitiated and digestive. Dry ginger sukku, it is a good appetizer, laxative, stomachic stimulant, anthelmintic and for patients suffering from diarrhea, cholera, nausea, vomiting and inflammations.

93

Ocimum tenuiflorum [Thulasi]

Used to treat skin diseases such as itches and leprosy, and in impurities of blood.

94

Non Communicable diseases

Diabetes, Coronary heart disease, Rheumatic heart disease, Anorexia, Nervosa, Renal failure, Obesity, and Protein deficiency.

95

Diabetes Polyurea – Inc. urea Polydipsia – excessive thirst Polyphagia- excessive appetite.

Blood glucose is too high. Glucose comes from the food we eat and also by glycogen conversion in our liver and muscles. Insulin is a hormone synthesized by beta cells of pancreas, and released into the blood. If our body doesn’t produce enough insulin or if the insulin does not work the way it should, glucose cannot get into our cells and stays in our blood. Then our blood glucose level increases, causing diabetes.

96

Coronary heart disease

It is the most common form of heart disease which often results in heart attack. In CHD atherosclerosis affects the coronary artery which supplies blood to the heart muscles by reducing the lumen of the artery. Cigarette smoking, High blood Pressure, over weight/obesity, physical inactivity and diabetes.

97

Rheumatic heart disease

Permanent damage to eart valves is caused by rheumatic fever. [Streptococcous bacterial infection – stop acute rheumatic fever]. Angiogram – It is an examination of our blood vessels using X-rays. Angioplasty – A procedure for treating blockages and blood clots in the blood vessels.

98

Anorexia Nervosa

The determination to diet is a desired disorder. Hostile relationship with their mothers occur and also they will be affected by depression. Treatment: Psychotherapy to achieve emotional maturation is usually necessary in hospital in addition to correction of the eating disorders.

99

Renal Failure

Occurs when the kidneys lose their ability to filter out wastes as a result toxins build up in the body.

  • 1. Acute renal failure.(Kidney stops suddenly- Blockages in blood vessels.)

  • 2. Chronic renal failure. – Gradual decrease in organ function. Caused by other medical conditions, including hypertension and diabetes.

100

Dialysis

Provides an artificial filtering system to replace lost organ function. Artificial kidney to filter impurities from the blood stream.

101

Obesity

Obesity is defines as an excessive high amount of body fat or adipose tissue in relation to lean body mass.

102

Protein deficiency diseases

Result of inadequate intake of protein.

103

Marasmus and Kwashiorkaor

Marasmus – Premature baby. Kwashiorkar – Infants and children.

104

Addiction

Addiction to alcohol or drugs represents a form of psychological dependence and indicates that the patient has been unable to attain adequate satisfaction or self esteem in his/her personal life.

105

Tobacco

Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. Due to absorbtion of nicotine through the skin or respiratory tract.

106

Drug

Marijuna, Heroin, Cocaine, Morphine, etc.,

107

WHO

World health day 1977. Immunise and protect your child.

108

Pasteur

Established that many diseases including the small pox, were caused by viruses.

109

Antigen

A substance that can produce specific immune response when it is introduced into the tissues of an animal and that can react specifically with the products(Antibodies or sensitized cells) is known as antigen

110

Antibody

They can specifically react with the antigen, destroying it or neutralizing it, and thus protects the body from the effect of the antigen.

111

Pregnant woman

3 rd month , TT I dose 4 th month, TT II dose

112

India – Forest

Forest cover only about 22.7%

113

Deforestation

Deforestation increases co2 in the atmosphere that may cause global warming or green house effect, increase in temperature, increase in the level of sea leading to submergence of many important coastal areas and cities.

114

Fast growing trees

Eucalyptus, Acacia or conifers like Pinus to provide commercial timber and fuel wood.

115

Afforestation – People

Social forestry.

116

Global Warming

Abnormal increase of the temperature in the environment due to the continuous accumulation of gaseous pollutants is known as global warming.

117

Green House effect

Green Houses gases(GHG)

  • 1. Carbondioxide CO2

  • 2. Methane CH4

  • 3. Nitrous Oxide N2O

  • 4. Water Vapour H2O

  • 5. Ozone O3

  • 6. Hydroflurocarbon HFC

118

118

119

Effects of Global Warming

1.

Sea level Change.(18-28 cms / 2030)

  • a) Thermal Expansion of atmosphere.

  • b) Mountain glaciers melting.

  • c) Greenland ice sheet melting

  • d) Antartic ice sheet melting

120

Ozone – Stratosphere

Located 15-55km above the earth. Filter UV rays from the sun.

121

Ozone depletion

Skin Cancer. Immune system suppression. Crops would be adversely affected. Ozone Hole– Antartic formed a hole.

122

O depletion : UV- B

Penetrates all the way to the ground.

123

Control Measures

CFC, Carbon tetrachloride, Methanol and Chloroform should be phased out.

124

Movements – India

  • 1. Chipko Movement(Uttharakand),

  • 2. Appiko Movement(Karnataka)

  • 3. Silent valley movement.

  • 4. Narmada Bachan Andolan.

125

India

Avergae rainfall – 1140mm annually. South west Monsoon – May – Oct – 500mm. Nov – April – Northease monsoon.

  • 1. Cold season(Dec,Jan,Feb)

  • 2. Hot season(Mar, Apr, May)

  • 3. Advancing Monsoon season(Jun, Jul, Aug)

  • 4. Retreating monsoon season(Sept, Oct, Nov)

126

Heavy Metals

Lead, Mercury, Arsenic, Cadmium.

127

Biological Accumulation

The metals get concentrated on the various organs like bone, fat, cells, liver etc.,

128

Primary treatment

In the primary treatment of effuluents, suspended impurities are removed by sedimentation.

129

Secondary treatment

Biological treatment to remove organic material.

130

Tertiary treatment

Reverse osmosis and use of specific membranes to remove inorganic substances.

131

Common Effuluent Treatment Plants(CETP)

Makes pollution control economical by reducing the cost of effuluent treatment.

132

Air pollution

Carbon Mono oxide - Affects haemoglobin)

Colourless, Odourless poisonous gas produced by imcomplete combustion of fossil fuels. Motor vehicles are

the major source of carbon mono oxide.

133

Sulphurdi oxide

It is respiratory irritant. It aggravates asthma.

134

Government of India

Project of Tiger -1973 Project of Elephant – 1992

135

Western Himalayan Region

Chirpine, deodar, blue pine, spruce, silver fir, and Junipers.

136

Eastern Himalayan Region

Oaks, Laurels, Maples, Rhinodenderons, Alder, Birch and Dwarf.

137 Assam Region Evergreen forests with lots of bamboo and tall grasses. 138 Indus Plains Scanty
137
Assam Region
Evergreen forests with lots of bamboo and tall grasses.
138
Indus Plains
Scanty vegetation
139
Ganges Plain
Under cultivation
140
Deccan Region
Full of shrubs, and mixed deciduous forests.
141
Malabar region
Coconut, Betal, Pepper, Coffee and tea.
142
Andaman region
Evergreen and Mangrove forests.
143
Wild Asses
Rann of Kutch
144
Elephant
Assam and Kerala.
145
One horned rhinocerous
Unique to india and Nepal is found in swampy and
marshy lands of assam and north of west Bengal.
146
Asiatic Lion
Gir forests, Gujarat.
147
Bengal tiger
Tidal forests of sunderbans.
148
Snow Leopards
Upper Himalayas.
149
Golden Langur
Assam
150
Sanctuaries in India
151
Marine Reserves
These are areas protected to preserve the marine diversity.
1.
Wet lands.
2.
Mangrove areas
3.
Coral reefs
152
Mangrove areas in India
Important mangrove areas in India are Andamans and
   

Nicobar Islands, Sunderbans(West Bengal), Krishna Estuary (Andhra), Pichavaram and point Calimere(Tamil nadu), Gulf of Kutch(Gujarat), Vembanad(Kerala) , Godavari delta and Mahanadi Delta.

153

Coral reefs

Gulf of Mannar, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep Islands and Gulf of Kutch.

154

Wet lands

Keoladeo National Park, Sambhar, (Rajasthan). Chilka(Orissa), Liktak(Manipur), Wullar(Jammu and Kashmir), and Harike(Punjab).

155

National Parks

Nicobar Islands, Sunderbans(West Bengal), Krishna Estuary (Andhra), Pichavaram and point Calimere(Tamil nadu), Gulf of Kutch(Gujarat), Vembanad(Kerala)

156

Bio Sphere Reserves

  • 1. Nilgiri(TN, KER, and KAR)

  • 2. Nanda Devi(UP)

  • 3. Nokrek(Meghalaya)

  • 4. Great Nicobar(Nicobar Islands)

  • 5. Gulf of Mannar(TN)

  • 6. Sunderbans(WB)

  • 7. Manas(Assam)

  • 8. Similipal(Orissa)

  • 9. Dibru saikhowa(Assam)

  • 10. Dehang Dehang(Arunachal Pradesh)

  • 11. Pachmarhi(Madhya Pradesh)

   
  • 12. Kanchanjanga(Sikkim)

  • 13. Agasthiyamalai Hills(Kerala)

157

Extinction

It is a natural process by which whole species die out without leaving any offsprings. Habitat loss, Introduction to new species, Over exploitation and pollution.

158

Recently extinct species.

Mountain Quail, Pink Headed duck, and streamlined spotted feline cheetah. Hispid hare, lion tailed macaque and pygmy hog are considered rare and near extinction.

159

International union for

1.

Endangered 2. Vulnerable 3. Rare and 4.

conservation of Nature and Natural resources.

Threatened. End. Species: Mongoose, Vultures and hill myna.

160

Bombay Natural History society

Started in 1883. Books: “The book on Indian natural history” “Some beautiful Indian climbers and Shrubs.”

161

Zoological survey of India

1916.

162

Wildlife Institute of India

1982

163

Wildlife preservation society of India

1958

– Dehradun.

164

World wildlife foundation

1961

– Swizerland.

It supports “Project tiger” Which is the single largest

conservation project of its kind in the world.

165

Sustainable Agriculture

It is one of the methods of ecofriendly farming practices. Organic farming, water management are more emphasized. Adopting practices such as crop rotation, cultivating nitrogen fixing plants, drip irrigation, avoiding water hungry crops, using environment friendly nutrients and adopting vermicultural practices. Limiting the use of synthetic fertilizers and insecticides.

166

Mixed cropping

Mixed cropping involves the growing of two or more crops together in the same area at the same time. Radishes and greens. Radishes and sweet corn.

167

Crop Rotation and benefits

Crop rotation is the growing of multiple crops on the same piece of land, one after the other. Ex. One season paddy is cultivated, in the following reason groundnut is cultivated. Ex: after the cultivation of legume crop, next crop grows very well because of more amount of nitrogen present in the soil.

168

Green Revolution

Term - William S. Gaud. Wheat, Potato, and Rice IR8. It combines both modern agricultural practices and technologies. Norman Borlang – Father of Green Revolution was awarded Nobel Prize in the year 1970. Dr.M.S. Swaminathan – Father of Green Revolution in India. Contributions made by Bharatha Ratna Thiru

   

C.Subramaniam and many laid the foundation for green revolution in India.

169

India

Because of green revolution our country has become self sufficient in food production. New rice varieties like IR8, IR24, IR50, ADT37. Wheat – sonara 64.

170

Plant Breeding

Plant breeding means developing new varieties of crop with desirable traits by crossing different crops.

171

Golden rice.

By this method Vitamin A is incorporated into rice which is called “Golden Rice”.

172

Bacterial Biofertilizers

Bacteria like Azotobacter, Rhizobium, and Azospirillum which enrich the soil with nitrogen compounds.

173

Algal Biofertilizers

Blue green algae such as Anabaena, Nostoc, Cylinderospermum, Plectonema and Tolypothrix.

174

Green manure crops as biofertilizers

Adopted by farmers from time immemorial. This involves growing leguminous plants like Glyricidia, Indigofera, and Sesbania soon after harvesting a crop particularly paddy.

175

Bacterial biopesticides

Bacteria such as Bacillus, Enterobacter, Proteus and Pseudomonas control diseases.

176

Fungal biopesticides

Fungi such as Verticillium and Beauveria are used to control insects like plant hopper and aphids. The fungus Trichoderma is used to control certain plant pathogenic fungi including Fusarium.

177

Viral biopesticide

Viruses such as cytoplasmic polyhefrosis virus, baculoviruses and entomopox virus control many insects and worms.

178

Higher plants as biopesticides

Azadirachtin of neem and pyrethrin of Chrysanthemum are powerful insecticides acting against insects like grass hopper, white flies, aphids, and stem borers.

179

Inexhaustible Natural Resources

Found in plenty. Ex: Air, water and radiation which are not exhaustible by human activities.

180

Exhaustible Natural Resources

Soil, forests, wildlife, minerals, coal, petroleum which are found in limited quantities and exhausted easily by human activities.

181

Water

Industries can do nothing without water. So it is a raw material, solvent, electrical reactant, coolant and cleansing agent.

182

Sources of water

Surface water( River, Lakes, Man made reservoirs) / Ground water(Springs, Infiltration,wells).

183

Mineral

183 Mineral
184 Kolar gold field Karnatka. Occupy an area of 12 Km. 185 Coal Coal occupies 4%
184
Kolar gold field
Karnatka. Occupy an area of 12 Km.
185
Coal
Coal occupies 4% of the Country’s total area.
186
Madras and Kerala
Zircon, Monazite, and sillimanite are obtained from the
beach sands.
187
Energy
188
Petroleum
It is obtained from sedimentary rocks. Large source of it
occur in Andaman, Andhra, Gujarath, Maharashtra and
Assam. Krishna – Godavari basin also has huge reserves
of natural gases.
189
Hydro electricity
Hydro electricity which uses water for its production is
cheaper & convenient to generate electricity.
190
Solar energy
India is located near equator receives maximum sunlight
throughout then year except few months; by using
photovoltaic tech. we can cook, heat water, pumpout
water and give power to refrigerator and street lights.
191
Wind energy
Tamilnadu is the largest
wind energy producer.
192
Forests
3 Functions.
1.
Protective.
2.
Productive.
3.
Accessory.
193
Food Crop
Rice and Ragi
194

195

Rice Varieties

195 Rice Varieties 196 Parched Rice Arisi Pori 197 Parched Paddy Nelpori 198 Cashcrop Sugarcane 199

196

Parched Rice

Arisi Pori

197

Parched Paddy

Nelpori

198

Cashcrop

Sugarcane

199

Ragi – Fingermillet Kharif crop

Kelvaragu. Principle staple food of many tribes and cultivated in Coimbatore,chingelpattu, vellore, villupuram, Thiruvannamalai, Salem districts.

200

Crop

Rainfed crop – May to june Rabi crop - September to October.

201

Phosphorous

Phosphorous inside a plant gets incorporated into Nucleic acids(RNA&DNA), phosphor proteins, phospholipids, sugar phosphates, enzymes and energy rich ATP and ADP. ATP- Adenosine triphosphate. ADP – Adenosine diphosphate.

202

Potassium

It is absorbed as K+ ions by roots. It plays a regulating role in plant metabolism and development.

203

Calcium

It is absorbed by Ca++ ions.

204

Magnesium

It is absorbed as Magnesium ions(Mg2+).

205

Sulphur

It is absorbed by plants as sulphate ions.

206

Micronutrients

Iron ,Manganese, Zinc, copper, Molybdenum, Boron.

207

Water requirement

It is usually expressed as the surface depth of water in millimeters or centimeters. Paddy – water is supplied through irrigation channels. Sugarcane – the crop is irrigated through the furrows.

208

Aquaculture

It is the farming of economically important aquatic animals and plants under controlled conditions. Originated in china.

209

Fish Culture

The culture of fish is called pisciculture. Nursing pond, Rearing pond, Production Pond, and Breeding pond. Prawns – Export value. Juvenile holding method, Seed collection method, and Hatchery method.

210

Crab

Delicious meat and Export value.

211

Algal culture

Spirulina – A blue green algae has been cultured since 1983 in Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore. Food for humans.

212

Pearl Oyster Culture/ Mussel Culture

Mussel – Rope culture method is used.

213

Vermiculture

Culture of earth worms.

214

Vermicompost

The compost prepared by using earthworms is called vermicompost. Earthworm:3 types. Epigeics, Anecics and Endogeics.

215

Vermitech

Dr. Sultan Ismail. The technology of using both epigeic and anecic earthworms together for the process of vermicomposing is called as vermitech.

216

Vermiwash

This is a liquid fertilizer collected after passing water through a vermicomposting pit. This is used as a leaf spray. It is used on grass lawns and on orchids.

217

Electro cardiograph machine.

Used to detect abnormalities in heart function.

218

Sphygmomanometer

Measure blood pressure.(Manometer – Mercury column).

219

CT –Scanner

Computerised tomography(CT) – Special type of x-ray machine. Used to produce pictures of the inside of the body. The images can be viewed in three dimensions. Useful in analyzing damages to the nervous system during accidents. Help studying tumours in the nervous system.

220

Angiogram

It is the technique that is used to examine the blood vessels of the circulatory system as they are functioning. This technique used x-rays. Use to detect blockages in the artery.

221

Dialysis

Kidneys are responsible for filtering waste products from

the body. Kidneys – fluid balance. Both kidneys fail – Dialysis – It is the procedure substituting the normal functions of the kidneys.

  • 1. Haemodialysis

  • 2. Peritonealdialysis.(Own tissue, dialysis catheter)

222

Laproscopy and Endoscopy

Both use fibre optic technique.

223

Laproscopy

Internal organs of the women can be studied by lap.

224

Eye lens transplantation

Involves the transplantation of the cornea. Cornea can be obtained from 6-12 of death of the donors.

225

Isograft transplantation

A transplant of a tissue or whole organ from one identical twin to another is called an isograft transplantation.

226

Allograft transplantation

A transplant between individuals of same species is called allograft transplantation.

227

Xenograft transplantation

A transplant between individuals of different species is called a xenograft.

228

Blood transfusion

Replacement of lost or diseased blood using donor blood is called blood transfusion.

229 230 Rh D blood group system Rh D is a red cell antigen that is
229
230
Rh D blood group system
Rh D is a red cell antigen that is expressed on the red
blood cells. If Rh D antigen is present, the individual is
called Rh D is positive. If the antigen is absent, the person
is called Rh D negative.
231
Sterile blood bags
In blood banks, blood is stored in ready made sterile blood
bags. These bags are stored with blood that is tested for
HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Syphilis and different blood
groups.
232
Veins
Transfusion is generally given through veins of the hands,
wrists and feet.
233