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1} Milk- An almost complete food Milk is not only an excellent source of Calcium, which is vital for strong bones

and teeth; it also contains many other vital nutrients like: Protein: For growth and repair of body tissues. Carbohydrates: In the form of lactose.Fat: For energy.It also contains Vitamins needed for good health; Vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, B12, FOLIC ACID and Vitamin D are all found in significant quantities in milk. A glass of milk provides 50% of the daily intake of calcium required by teenagers.

2} Milk producing country India U.S Russia Pakistan Brazil Ukraine Poland New Zealand Australia 3]Maharashtra co-operative milk federations-

Adivasi Taluka Dudh Utpadak Va Krishipurak Udyog Sahakari Sangh, Dhule. Ahmednagar Zilha Sahakari Dudh Vyavsayik Sangh Ltd, Ahmednagar. Soc: 487. Av Milk Proc: 250,000 lpd. Akola Zilha Dudh Utpadak Sahakari Sanstha Sangh Maryadit, Akola. Amravati Zilha Sahakari Dudh Utapadak Sahakari Sangh Maryadit, Amravati. Amrutsagar Sahakari Dudh Vyavasayik Sangh Maryadit, Akole. Aurangabad Dist Coop Milk Producers Union Ltd, Aurangabad. Soc: 375, Mems: 352. Av Milk Proc: 70,000 lpd. Baramati Taluka Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Ltd, Baramati. Beed Zilla Madhyavarti Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Va Purvatha Sangh Maryadit, Beed. Bhandara Dist Coop Milk Producers Union Ltd, Bhandara. Bhoom Taluka Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Va Purvatha Sangh Maryadit, Bhoom. Buldana Jilla Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Maryadit, Buldana. Soc: 167, Mems: 21,502. Av Milk Proc: 24,313 lpd. Chalisgaon Taluka Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Ltd, Chalisgaon. Soc: 91, Mems: 15,000. Av Milk Proc: 13,000 lpd. Chandrapur Zilla Dudh Utapadak Sahakari Sangh Maryadit, Chandrapur. Dhule Taluka Dudh Utpadak Krishipurak Udyog Sahakari Sangh Ltd, Dhule. Godavari Khore Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Ltd, Shingnapur, Dist Ahmednagar. Soc:110, Mems: 18,000. Av Milk Proc:135,000 lpd. Jalgaon Jilha Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Ltd, Jalgaon.Soc: 935, Mems: 85,000. Av Milk Proc: 70,827 lpd. Jalna Zilla Dudh Utpadak Sahakari Sangh Ltd, Jalna. Jawli Taluka Sahakari Dudh Purvatha Sangh Ltd, Medha. Kej Taluka Sundar Sahakari Dudh Vyavasaik Purvatha Sangh Ltd, Kej, Dist Dhule. Kolhapur Zilla Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Ltd, GokulDairy, Kolhapur. Soc: 1,826, Mems: 316,561. Av Milk Proc: 465,361 lpd. Koyana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Prakriya Sangh Ltd, Khodashi. Soc: 270. Av Milk Proc: 60,000 lpd. Krishna Khore Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Va Purvatha Sangh Ltd, Miraj. Krishna Valley Sahakari Dudh Purvatha Sangh Ltd, Wai. Latur Zilla Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Va Purvatha Sangh Maryadit, Udgir.Soc: 339, Mems: 31,188. Av Milk Proc: 34,069 lpd. Mayur Coop Milk Producers' Ltd, Kolhapur. Nagpur Zilha Nootan Dudh Utpadak Sahakari Sangh Maryadit, Nagpur. Nanded Zilha Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Maryadit, Nanded. Nasik Dist Coop Milk Producers Union Ltd, Nasik. Osmanabad Zilla Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Va Purvatha Sangh Maryadit, Osmanabad.Soc: 764, Mems: 85,000. Av Milk Proc: 78,000 lpd. Patoda Taluka Dudh Vyavasaik Sahakari Sanstha Dudh Utpadak Va Purvatha Sangh Maryadit, Patoda.

Phalton Taluka Sahakari Dudh Purvatha Sangh Ltd, Satara. Pune Zillha Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Maryadit, Katraj Dairy, Pune.Soc: 2,075. Av Milk Proc: 400,000 lpd. Rajarambapu Patil Sahakari Dudh Sangh Maryadit, Islampur. Sangamner Taluka Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Ltd, Sangamner.Soc:137. Av Milk Proc: 75,000 lpd. Satara Zilla Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Maryadit, Satara. Soc: 330, Mems: 28,000. Av Milk Proc: 80,000 lpd. Shahada Taluka Dudh Utpadak Va Krishipurak Udyog Sahakari Sangh Ltd, Sahada. Shetkari Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Va Purvatha Sangh Ltd, Mahankal. Soc: 97. Av Milk Proc: 30,000 lpd. Shindkheda Taluka Dudh Utpadak Krishipurak Udhyog Sahakari Sangh Ltd, Dondaicha. Shirpur Taluka Dudh Utpadak Va Krishipurak Udyog Sahakari Sangh Ltd, Shirpur. Shivamrut Dudh Utpadak Sahakari Sangh Maryadit, Akluj. Soc: 263, Mems: 27,000. Av Milk Proc: 170,000 lpd. Shree Warana Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Prakriya Sangh Ltd, Warananagar, Dist Kolhapur. Soc: 129, Mems: 11,500. Av Milk Proc: 160,000 lpd. Shri Hanuman Sahakari Dudh Vyavasayik & Krishipurak Sewa Sanstha Maryadit, Yalgud. Shri Vasantada Dudh Vyavasay Vikas Zilha Sahakari Sangh Maryadit, Tasagaon. Shrirampur Dudh Zilla Madhyavarti Sahakari Dudh Vyavasaik & Prakriya Sangh Ltd, Babhaleshwar. Soc: 183. Av Milk Proc: 175,000 lpd. Sindhkheda Taluka Dudh Utpadak Va Krishipurak Udyog Sahakari Sangh Ltd, Dondaicha. Solapur Dist Coop Milk Producers Union Ltd, Solapur.Soc: 411, Mems: 40,225. Av Milk Proc: 75,000 lpd. Vani Vibhagiya Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Ltd, Dindori. Wardha Zilha Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Maryadit, Wardha. Yavatmal Dist Coop Milk Federation Ltd, Yavatmal.

Operation flood
Launched in 1970, Operation Flood has helped dairy farmers direct their own development, placing control of the resources they create in their own hands. A National Milk Grid links milk producers throughout India with consumers in over 700 towns and cities, reducing seasonal and regional price variations while ensuring that the producer gets a major share of the consumers' rupee. The bedrock of Operation Flood has been village milk producers cooperatives, which procure milk and provide inputs and services, making modern management and technology available to members. Operation Flood's objectives included: Increase milk production ("a flood of milk") Augment rural incomes Fair prices for consumers Programme implementation:
Operation Flood was implemented in three phases. Phase I Phase I (1970-1980) was financed by the sale of skimmed milk powder and butter oil gifted by the European Union then EEC through the World Food Programme. NDDB planned the programme and negotiated the details of EEC assistance. During its first phase, Operation Flood linked 18 of India's premier milk sheds with consumers in India's four major metropolitan cities: Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai. Phase II Operation Flood's Phase II (1981-85) increased the milk sheds from 18 to 136; 290 urban markets expanded the outlets for milk. By the end of 1985, a self-sustaining system of 43,000 village cooperatives covering 4.25 million milk producers had become a reality. Domestic milk powder production increased from 22,000 tons in the pre-project year to 140,000 tons by 1989, all of the

increase coming from dairies set up under Operation Flood. In this way EEC gifts and World Bank loan helped to promote self-reliance. Direct marketing of milk by producers' cooperatives increased by several million litres a day. Phase III Phase III (1985-1996) enabled dairy cooperatives to expand and strengthen the infrastructure required to procure and market increasing volumes of milk. Veterinary first-aid health care services, feed and artificial insemination services for cooperative members were extended, along with intensified member education.

Operation Flood's Phase III consolidated India's dairy cooperative movement, adding 30,000 new dairy cooperatives to the 42,000 existing societies organized during Phase II. Milk sheds peaked to 173 in 1988-89 with the numbers of women members and Womans Dairy Cooperative Societies increasing significantly. Phase III gave increased emphasis to research and development in animal health and animal nutrition. Innovations like vaccine for Theileriosis, bypass protein feed and ureamolasses mineral blocks, all contributed to the enhanced productivity of milk animals. From the outset, Operation Flood was conceived and implemented as much more than a dairy programme. Rather, dairying was seen as an instrument of development, generating employment and regular incomes for millions of rural people. "Operation Flood can be viewed as a twenty year experiment confirming the Rural Development Vision" (World Bank Report 1997c.)

Private & govt. milk federations in IndiaAndhra Pradesh Dairy Development Cooperative Federation Ltd (APDDCF) Bihar State Cooperative Milk Producers Federation Ltd (COMPFED) Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd (GCMMF) Haryana Dairy Development Cooperative Federation Ltd. (HDDCF) Himachal Pradesh State Cooperative Milk Producers Federation Ltd (HPSCMPF) Karnataka Cooperative Milk Producers Federation Ltd (KMF) Kerala State Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Ltd (KCMMF) Madhya Pradesh State Cooperative Dairy Federation Ltd (MPCDF) Maharashtra Rajya Sahakari Maryadit Dugdh Mahasangh (Mahasangh) Orissa State Cooperative Milk Producers Federation Ltd (OMFED) Pradeshik Cooperative Dairy Federation Ltd (UP) (PCDF) Punjab State Cooperative Milk Producers Federation Ltd (MILKFED) Rajasthan Cooperative Dairy Federation Ltd (RCDF) Tamilnadu Cooperative Milk Producers Federation Ltd (TCMPF) West Bengal Cooperative Milk Producers Federation Ltd. (WBCMPF) The Dairy Cooperative Network: includes 170 milk unions operates in over 338 districts covers nearly 1,08574 village level societies is owned by nearly 12 million farmer members. Apart from making India self sufficient in milk, these dairy co-operatives have established our country as the largest milk-producing nation in the world!

NDDB- The National Dairy Development Board was created to promote, finance and
support producer-owned and controlled organizations. NDDB's programmes and activities seek to strengthen farmer cooperatives and support national policies that are favourable to the growth of such institutions. Fundamental to NDDB's efforts are cooperative principles and the Anand Pattern of Cooperation. A commitment to help rural producers help themselves has guided the Dairy Board's work for more than 30 years. This commitment has been rewarded with achievements made by cooperative dairies in milk production, employment generation, per capita availability of milk, foreign exchange savings and increased farmer incomes. The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) has replaced exploitation with empowerment, convention with modernity, stagnation with growth and transformed dairying into an instrument for the development of Indian farmers. The National Dairy Development Board was created in 1964 in response to the Prime

Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri's call to "transplant the spirit of Anand in many other places". He wanted the Anand model of dairy development - with institutions owned by rural producers, which were sensitive to their needs and responsive to their demands replicated in other parts of the country. The Board's creation was routed in the conviction that our nation's socio-economic progress lies largely on the development of rural India. Thus NDDB's mandate is to promote, finance and support producer-owned and controlled organizations. NDDB's programmes and activities seek to strengthen farmer cooperatives and support national policies that are favourable to the growth of such institutions. NDDB believes that the Rs 7,000-crore (Rs 70-billion) milk cooperative market is getting much more competitive and wants to strengthen the position of cooperatives through a multi-pronged action plan with an outlay of Rs 800 crore (Rs 8-billion). This includes using MDFL to enter into 51:49 joint venture companies with state cooperative federations to assist them with marketing value added products and to help them in other ways to become self-reliant enterprises. Process of Procurement & Distribution of Milk: Farmers and the Milk Co-operative Society The Operation Flood programme helps both farmers as well as the city consumers. The programme ensures that the farmers get a fair price for their cow & buffalo milk and the consumers get best quality milk at reasonable prices. In order to maintain freshness, this milk is chilled and then transported to Diary in insulated milk tankers by road and by rail. Checking the quality of milk At the Dairy stringent hygienic standards are maintained. The milk in the tankers is first checked for quality and freshness and then unloaded into huge insulated stainless steel storage tanks. These tanks have a capacity of 1 lakh liters each. The presence of adulterants (impurities) like urea, neutralisers, preservatives and germs like bacteria are checked. All these tests ensure that only good quality milk is accepted. Once empty, the tankers are thoroughly cleaned and sanitized using acid and alkali. The tankers are then finally rinsed with water. Processing of milk Unprocessed milk may contain small dirt particles invisible to the naked eye. In order to remove these particles the milk has to be processed. To process milk at Dairy, the milk is first clarified. This is done in a clarifier which spins the milk at a very high speed, as a result of which the dirt particles are thrown out and drained. The milk is then pasteurized to make it safe for human consumption. This process destroys any disease causing bacteria and also increases the shelf life of the milk. During pasteurization the milk is heated to 72 degree Celsius for 15 seconds and then rapidly cooled down to 7 degree celsius. This process, unlike boiling, does not affect the nutritional value of the milk. Pasteurized milk is safe to drink without boiling as long as it is kept cool at all times. Fortification with Vitamin A Toned milk during processing is fortified with Vitamin A. The deficiency of Vitamin A can lead to night blindness and skin horning. Homogenisation At Dairy the milk is also homogenised. This ensures that the customers get uniform amount of cream in their milk. In this process the milk is pumped at a very high pressure turning the cream into tiny droplets thus distributing the fat through out the milk. These droplets do not float to the surface to form a creamy layer. That is why no creamy layer appears when Dairy milk is boiled at home. Dairy shops sell homogenised toned milk which contains minimum 3% fat even though

you cannot notice it. Dispatching of milk After processing, the milk is chilled and stored in silos and further chilled to about 2 C. by the glycol chilling system, and then dispatched to the Milk Shops in insulated road milk tankers. Prior to the milk being dispatched in tankers, it is tested for quality to make sure that it meets the quality standards. When the tanker arrives at the shop the milk is transferred into a large refrigerated tank. making the milk available The control room is very vital to the efficient distribution of milk to the 900 shops across the city. It organizes the tanker routes and its staff is responsible for ensuring that shops do not run out of milk. Each milk tanker is fitted with a wireless set. As soon as the incharge at the control room learns that a particular shop is running out of milk, he contacts the tanker nearest to the shop on the wireless which then delivers the extra milk to it. Quality control all the way A final quality check of the mill is also made at the shop itself. This ensures that milk reaching the customers is of same quality as dispatched from the Dairy. Consumer Information To raise the consumers awareness regarding Adulteration of milk,Dairy has thrown open its testing facilities. In its laboratories consumers can see for themselves how impurities and adulterants are easily detected. Dairy also has two "mobile labs" that can test milk in the residential colonies. All this is part of a commitment to provide the consumers with the purest milk nature has to offer. Keeping milk cool Dairy takes care to keep milk cool at every stage-it is chilled before transporting in insulated tankers, it is stored in insulated silos and kept in refrigerated tanks at the shops. Keeping milk cool slows down the rate at which bacteria multiply. This also increases its shelf life. Caring for the environment Solar Panels: In an effort to conserve fuel, Mother Dairy utilises the abundant solar energy to preheat the water going into the boilers. This also minimizes the pollution caused by burning of fuels like coal, oil etc. Effluent treatment plant: The water used for cleaning equipment and tankers is treated at the effluent treatment plant in the Dairy before being discharged into the sewege system.

Buffalo Milk Vs. Cow Milk

No difference in nutritive value: There is practically no difference in the nutritive value and digestibility of milk and milk products obtained from cow and buffalo milks. Lower cholesterol content: Significantly, cholesterol content of buffalo milk is 0.65 mg/g as compared to the corresponding value of 3.14 mg/g for cow milk. More proteins: Animal bioassays have shown the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) value of buffalo milk proteins to be 2.74 and that of cow milk as 2.49. It will be seen that buffalo milk has about 11.42 per cent higher protein than cow milk. More important minerals: Buffalo milk is also superior to cow milk in terms of important minerals, namely calcium, iron and phosphorus which are higher by 92 per cent, 37.7 per cent and 118 per cent respectively than those present in cow milk. More vitamin A: Buffalo metabolizes all the carotein into vitamin A, which is passed on to milk as such. More viable commercially: Buffalo milk is commercially more viable than cow milk for the manufacture of fat-based and SNF-based milk products, such as butter, ghee and milk powders because of its lower water content and higher fat content. Most significantly, the lower cholesterol value should make it more popular in the health conscious market. By the virtue of greater opacity of casein miscelles, coupled with higher levels of colloidal proteins, calcium and phosphorus, buffalo milk is more densely white and has superior

whitening properties as compared to cow milk. Therefore, unlike the cow milk (which is pale-creamish yellow in color) and cow milk fat (which is golden yellow in color), buffalo milk is distinctively whiter. UHT-processed buffalo milk and cream are intrinsically whiter and more viscous than their cow milk counterparts, because of conversion of greater levels of calcium and phosphorus into the colloidal form. Buffalo milk is, therefore, more aptly suitable for the production of tea and coffee whiteners than cow milk.Higher innate levels of proteins and fat render buffalo milk a more economical alternative to cow milk for the production of casein, caseinates, whey protein concentrates and a wide range of the fat-rich dairy products.

Better whey proteins: Proteins of buffalo milk, particularly the whey proteins, are more resistant proteins. Dried milk products prepared from buffalo milk exhibit higher levels of undenatured proteins general, the reconstitution behavior of dried milk products made from buffalo milk is indistinguishable dried buffalo milk may be preferred over dried cow milk for those technological applications where would be more desirable. Better cheese: Cheese made from buffalo milk displays typical body and textural characteristics. properties are specially desired as in the case of Mozzarella cheese, buffalo milk is technologically legislation has been introduced to restrict use of term "Mozzarella" only to those products exclusively with cow milk). Certain traditional cheese varieties, such as paneer in India or pickled cheeses from buffalo milk. Better health foods: The presence of higher levels of various bioprotective factors, such as immunoglobulins, as well as bifidogenic factors, render buffalo milk more suitable than cow milk for the preparation

Verghese Kurien

Verghese Kurien
Born November 26, 1921 (age 89) Kozhikode, Kerala, India Nationality Indian Alma mater Loyola College College of Engineering, Guindy Michigan State University Occupation Founding Chairman of Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation Verghese Kurien (born November 26, 1921 at Kozhikode, Kerala) is the founder of the Gujarat Co-operative Milk Marketing Federation (GCMMF), an apex cooperative organization that manages the Amul food brand. He is recognised as the man behind the success of the Amul brand. Amul had a revenue of $1b USD in 2006-07. He is credited with being the architect of Operation Flood -- the largest dairy development program in the world. Kurien helped modernise Anand model of cooperative dairy development and thus engineered the White Revolution in India, and made India the largest milk producer in the world.

Eary life and education

Verghese Kurien was born on November 26, 1921. His father was a civil surgeon in Cochin. He graduated in Physics from Loyola College, Madras in 1940 and then did B.E. (Mech) from

the College of Engineering, Guindy. After completing his degree, he joined the Tata Steel Technical Institute, Jamshedpur from where he graduated in 1946. He then went to USA on a government scholarship to earn his Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering (with distinction) from Michigan State University.

When he came back to India, he was posted as a dairy engineer at the government creamery, Anand, in May 1949. Around the same time, the infant cooperative dairy, Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers' Union (KDCMPUL), now famous as Amul -- was fighting a battle with the Polson Dairy, which was privately owned. Young Kurien, fed up with being at the government creamery, which held no challenge, volunteered to help Shri Tribhuvandas Patel, the Chairman of KDCMPUL, to set up a processing plant. This marked the birth of AMUL. Personal life Kurien belongs to the Syrian Christian community of India. He married his neighbor's daughter Molly. Molly was a gracious host and Dr Kurien's house used to serve as a guest house in Anand for the visiting dignitaries[citation needed]. He has one daughter Nirmala Kurien and a grandson, Siddharth.

The White Revolution

Kurien has since then built this organization into one of the largest and most successful institutions in India. The Amul pattern of cooperatives had been so successful, in 1965, then Prime Minister of India, Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri, created the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) to replicate the program on a nationwide basis citing Kurien's "extraordinary and dynamic leadership" upon naming him chairman. Kurien also set up GCMMF in 1973 to sell the products produced by the dairies. Today GCMMF sells AMUL brand products not only in India but also overseas. He quit the post of GCMMF Chairman in 2006 following disagreements with GCMMF management. [1] Kurien, plays a key role in many other organizations, ranging from chairing the Viksit Bharat Foundation, a body set up by the President of India to chairman of the Institute of Rural Management, Anand's (IRMA) Board of Governors in India. Kurien was mentioned by the Ashoka foundation ( as one of the eminent present Day Social Entrepreneurs.

Kurien's life story is chronicled in his memoirs 'I too had a dream'.[2] Kurien and his team were pioneers in inventing the process of making milk powder and condensed milk from buffalo's milk instead of cow's milk. This was the reason Amul became so successful and competed well against Nestle who only used cow milk to make powder and condensed milk. In India buffalo milk was the main raw material unlike Europe where cow milk is abundant. India's first Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru visited Anand to inaugrate AMUL "factory" and he embraced Kurien for his groundbreaking work.