Cone penetration test - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Cone penetration test
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The cone penetration test (CPT) is an gouda cpt testing method used to determine the geotechnical engineering properties of soils and delineating soil stratigraphy. It was initially developed in the 1950s at the Dutch Laboratory for Soil Mechanics in Delft to investigate soft soils. Based on this history it has also been called the "Dutch cone test". Today, the CPT is one of the most used and accepted in soil methods for soil investigation worldwide. The test method consists of pushing an instrumented cone, A CPT truck operated by the USGS. with the tip facing down, into the ground at a controlled rate (controlled between 1.5 -2.5cm/s Accepted). The resolution of the CPT in delineating stratigraphic layers is related to the size of the cone tip, with typical cone tips having a cross-sectional area of either 10 or 15 cm², corresponding to diameters of 3.6 and 4.4 cm.
■ ■ ■ ■ 1 History and development 2 Additional in situ testing parameters 3 Standards and use 4 References
History and development
The early applications of CPT mainly determined the soil geotechnical property of bearing capacity. The original cone penetrometers involved simple mechanical measurements of the total penetration resistance to pushing a tool with a conical tip into the soil. Different methods were employed to separate the total measured resistance into components generated by the conical tip (the "tip friction") and friction generated by the rod string. A friction sleeve was added to quantify this component of the friction and aid in determining soil cohesive strength in the 1960s (Begemann, 1965). Electronic measurements began in 1948 and improved further in the early 1970s (de Reister, 1971). Most modern electronic CPT cones now also employ a pressure transducer with a filter to gather pore water pressure data. The filter is usually located either on the cone tip (the socalled U1 position), immediately behind the cone tip (the most common U2 position) or behind the friction sleeve (U3
and piles. Pore water pressure data aids determining stratigraphy and is primarily used to correct tip friction values for those effects. Later ASTM Standards have addressed the use of CPT for various environmental site characterization and groundwater monitoring activities.Wikipedia. soil conductivity/resistivity. orientation and soil conditions. friction determine the soil's behavior under low-strain and vibratory ratio (%) on the right. Additional tools such as laser-induced fluorescence.Cone penetration test . with CPTU data recorded typically at 2cm intervals.org/wiki/Cone_penetration_test
.wikipedia. Particularly for geotechnical soil investigations. This is used to attempt to ensure that tests. CPT and CPTU testing equipment generally advances the cone using hydraulic rams mounted on either a heavily ballasted vehicle or using screwed-in anchors as a counter-force. CPT testing which also gathers this piezometer data is called CPTU testing. the free encyclopedia
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position). do not encounter unexploded ordnance (UXB) or duds.
Additional in situ testing parameters
In addition to the mechanical and electronic cones. membrane interface probe and cameras for capturing video imagery are also increasingly advanced in conjunction with the CPT probe. One common tool advanced during CPT testing is a geophone set to gather seismic shear wave and compression wave velocities. a variety of other CPT-deployed tools have been developed over the years to provide additional subsurface information. loads. Netherlands. One advantage of CPT over the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) is a more continuous profile of soil parameters. more continuous soil profile and reduced cost over other soil testing methods. speed of deployment. 2004). boreholes.
Standards and use
CPT for geotechnical applications was standardized in 1986 by ASTM Standard D 3441 (ASTM. Germany. ISSMGE provides international standards on CPT and CPTU. The magnetometer in the cone detects ferrous materials of 50 kg or larger within a radius of up to about 2 m distance from the probe depending on the material. Belgium and France is a piezocone combined with a tri-axial magnetometer. X-ray fluorescence. The ability to advance additional in situ testing tools using the CPT direct push drilling rig.
http://en. An additional CPT deployed tool used in Britain. The result of a cone penetration test: Engineers use the shear wave velocity and shear modulus to resistance and friction on the left. CPT is gaining popularity compared to standard penetration testing as a method of geotechnical soil investigation by its increased accuracy. including the seismic tools described above. This data helps determine the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio at intervals through the soil column for soil liquefaction analysis and low-strain soil strength analysis. are accelerating this process.
Methods and Interpretation". 2004. "The Friction Jacket Cone as an Aid in Determining the Soil Profile". ■ Meigh. ■ International Reference Test Procedure for CPT and CPTU .gatech. pp.. Vol.Cone penetration test . PA. ASCE. Sweden: Swedish Geotechnical Society. SM-2. Paul. Butterworths. 1987 "Cone Penetration Testing .pdf. Montreal. Vol.International Society of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering (ISSMGE) (http://www.Wikipedia. 457-472.navy.. West Conshohocken. K. 1971.edu/Faculty/Mayne/papers/CPT%2095%20US%20Report..ce. Canada. ^ X-ray fluorescence (http://chemistry. ■ De Reister. ASTM International.M. T.wikipedia. London.org/wiki/Cone_penetration_test
. Retrieved 2011-09-26. "U.nrl. Proceedings. 1995). Recep (October 4-5.pdf) .J.
http://en.mil/6170/6175/researchareas.edu/Faculty/Mayne/papers/CPT% 2095%20US%20Report.org) ■ Mayne. Lunne. H. J.C.ce. Yilmaz.17-20. ■ ASTM D-5778 "Standard Test Method for Performing Electronic Friction Cone and Piezocone Penetration Testing of Soils". Proceedings. pp. A. ■ ASTM. James K. 1965. S. Jay A. 263-276. http://geosystems. Auxt. Mitchell. pp. CIRIA. 97.gatech.issmge.php)
■ "Cone Penetration Testing in Geotechnical Practice". "Standard Method of Deep Quasi-Static Cone and Friction-Cone Penetration Tests of Soil". "Electric Penetrometer for Site Investigations". International Symposium on Cone Penetration Testing.K. Quebec. the free encyclopedia
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1. P. Journal of SMFE Division. 1 (CPT '95)..S. National Report on CPT" (http://geosystems. Blackie Academic & Professional. Powell. 6th ICSMFE. ASTM Standard D 3441. Vol I. ■ Begemann. Linköping. Robertson and J. 7 pp.