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STATISTICS Part - A Paper III Applied Statistics : Unit I : Design of Sample Surveys :Concepts of population, sample, samplingunit, parameter, statistic, sampling errors, sampling distribution, sample frame and standard error. Principalsteps in sample surveys - need for sampling, census versus sample surveys, sampling and non- samplingerrors, sources and treatment of non-sampling errors, advantages and limitations of sampling.Types ofsampling: Subjective, probability and mixed sampling methods. Methods of drawing random samples withand without replacement. Estimates of population mean, total, and proportion, their variances and theestimates of variances in the following methods. (i) SRSWR and SRSWOR , (ii) Stratified random samplingwith proportional and Neyman allocation, and (iii) Systematic sampling when N= nk. Comparison of relativeefficiencies. Advantages and disadvantages of above methods of sampling. Unit II : Analysis of Varianceand Design of Experiments ANOVA one-way, two-way classifications with one observation per cell concept of Gauss-Markoff linear model, statement of Cochrans theorem, concept of fixed effect model andrandom effect model. Expectation of various sums of squares, Mathematical analysis, importance andapplications of design of experiments. Principles of experimentation, Analysis of Completely randomizedDesign (C.R.D), Randomized Block Design (R.B.D) and Latin Square Design (L.S.D) including one missingobservation, expectation of various sum of squares. Comparison of the efficiencies of above designs. Unit III : Time series: -T ime series and its components with illustrations, additive, multiplicative and mixed models. Determination of trend by least squares, moving average methods. Growth curves and their fittingModified exponential, Gompertz and Logistic curves. Determination of seasonal indices by Ratio to moving average, ratio to trend and link relative methods. Index Numbers: -Concept, construction, uses and limitationsof simple and weighted index numbers. Laspeyers, Paasches and Fishers index numbers, criterion of agood index numbers, problems involved in the construction of index numbers. Fishers index as ideal indexnumber. Fixed and chain base index numbers. Cost of living index numbers and wholesale price indexn u m b e r s . B a s e shifting, splicing and deflation of index numbers. Official Statistics : - F u n c t i o n s a n d organization of CSO and NSSO. Agricultural Statistics, area and yield statistics. National Income and itscomputation, utility and difficulties in estimation of national income.

Unit IV : Vital statistics: Introduction,definition and uses of vital statistics. Sources of vital statistics, registration method and census method.Rates and ratios, Crude death rates, age specific death rate, standardized death rates, crude birth rate, agespecific fertility rate, general fertility rate, total fertility rate. Measurement of population growth, crude rate ifn a t u r a l i n c r e a s e Pearls vital index. Gross reproductive rate sand Net reproductive rate, L i f e t a b l e s , construction and uses of life tables and Abridged life tables. Demand Analysis : Introduction. Demand andsupply, price elastics of supply and demand. Methods of determining demand and supply curves, Leontiefs,Pigouss methods of determining demand curve from time series data, limitations of these methods Pigousmethod from time series data. Pareto law of income distribution curves of concentration

Part - B Paper II Statistical Methods and Inference : Unit I : Population correlation coefficient and its properties.Bivariate data, scattered diagram, sample correlation coefficient, computation of correlation coefficient forgrouped data. Correlation ratio, Spearmans rank correlation coefficient and its properties. Principle of leasts q u a r e s , s i m p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n , c o r r e l a t i o n v e r s e s r e g r e s s i o n , p r o p e r t i e s o f r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . Fitting of quadratic and power curves. Concepts of partial and multiple correlation coefficients (only for threevariables). Analysis of categorical data, independence and association and partial association of attributes,various measures of association (Yules) for two way data and coefficient of contingency (Pearson andTcherprow), coefficient of colligation . Unit II : Concepts of population, parameter, random sample, statistic,sampling distribution and standard error. Standard error of sample mean(s) and sample proportion(s).Exact sampling distributions- Statement and properties of 2, t and F distributions and their interrelationships.Independence of sample mean and variance in random sampling from normal distributions. Point estimationof a parameter, concept of bias and mean square error of an estimate. Criteria of good estimatorconsistency,unbiasedness, efficiency and sufficiency with examples. Statement of Neymans Factorization theorem,derivations of sufficient statistics in case of Binomial, Poisson, Normal and Exponential (one parameteronly) distributions. Estimation by method of moments, Maximum likelihood (ML), statements of asymptoticproperties of MLE. Concept of interval estimation. Confidence intervals of the parameters of normal populationby Pivot method. Unit III : Concepts of statistical hypotheses, null and alternative hypothesis, critical region,two types of errors, level of significance and power of a test. One and two tailed tests, test function (non-randomized and randomized). Neyman-Pearsons fundamental lemma for Randomized tests. Examples incase of Binomial, Poisson, Exponential and Normal distributions and their powers. Use of central limitt h e o r e m i n testing. Large sample tests and confidence intervals for mean(s), p r o p o r t i o n ( s ) , s t a n d a r d deviation(s) and correlation coefficient(s).

Unit IV : Tests of significance based on 2, t and F. 2-test forgoodness of fit and test for independence of attributes. Definition of order statistics and statement of theirdistributions. Non-parametric tests- their advantages and disadvantages, comparison with parametric tests.Measurement scale- nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio. One sample runs test, sign test and Wilcoxonsigned rank tests (single and paired samples). Two independent sample tests: Median test, Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney U test, Wald Wolfowitzs runs test.

Part - C Paper IDescriptive Statistics and Probability Distributions : Unit I : Descriptive Statistics : Concept ofprimary and secondary data. Methods of collection and editing of primary data. Designing a questionnaireand a schedule. Sources and editing of secondary data. Classification and tabulation of data. Measures ofcentral tendency (mean, median, mode, geometric mean and harmonic mean) with simple applications.A b s o l u t e a n d r e l a t i v e m e a s u r e s o f d i s p e r s i o n ( r a n g e , q u a r t i l e d e v i a t i o n , m e a n d e v i a t i o n a n d s t a n d a r d deviation) with simple applications. Importance of moments, central and non-central moments, and theirinterrelationships, Sheppards corrections for moments for grouped data. Measures of skewness based on quartilesandmoments andkurtosis basedon momentswithreal lifeexamples. Probability:Basic concepts inprobabilitydeterministic and random experiments, trail, outcome, sample space, event, and operations of events, mutuallyexclusive and exhaustive events, and equally likely and favourable outcomes with examples. Mathematical,statistical and axiomatic definitions of probability with merits and demerits. Properties of probability basedon axiomatic definition. Conditional probability and independence of events. Addition and multiplicationtheorems for n events. Booles inequality and Bayes theorem. Problems on probability using countingmethods and theorems . UNIT-II : Random Variables: Definition of random variable, discrete and continuousrandom variables, functions of random variables, probability mass function and probability density functionwith illustrations. Distribution function and its properties. Transformation of one-dimensional random variable(simple 1-1 functions only). Notion of bivariate random variable, bivariate distribution and statement of itsproperties. Joint, marginal and conditional distributions. Independence of random variables . MathematicalExpectation : Mathematical expectation of a function of a random variable. Raw and central moments andc o v a r i a n c e u s i n g m a t h e m a t i c a l e x p e c t a t i o n w i t h e x a m p l e s . A d d i t i o n a n d m u l t i p l i c a t i o n t h e o r e m s o f expectation. Definition of moment generating function (m.g.f), cumulant generating function (c.g.f),

probabilitygenerating function (p.g.f) and characteristic function (c.f) and statements of their properties with applications.Chebyshevs , and CauchySchwartzs inequalities and their applications. Statement and applications ofweak law of large numbers and central limit theorem for identically and independently distributed (i.i.d)random variables with finite variance. UNIT-III : Discrete distributions : Uniform, Bernoulli, Binomial, Poisson,Negative binomial, Geometric and Hypergeometric(mean and variance only) distributions. Properties of these distributions such as m.g.f ,c.g.f., p.g.f., c.f., and moments up to fourth order and their real lifeapplications. Reproductive property wherever exists. Binomial approximation to Hyper-geometric, Poisso na p p r o x i m a t i o n t o B i n o m i a l a n d N e g a t i v e b i n o m i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n s . UNIT IV : Continuous distributions:Rectangular and Normal distributions. Normal distribution as a limiting case of Binomial and P o i s s o n distributions. Exponential, Gamma, Beta of two kinds (mean and variance only) and Cauchy (definition andc.f. only) distributions. Properties of these distributions such as m.g.f., c.g.f., c.f., and moments up to fourthorder, their real life applications and reproductive productive property wherever xists

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