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Chapter.1. Country profile
1. COUNTRY PROFILE
1.1. GENERAL DATA
The present territory of Romania called also the Carpatho-Danubian-Pontic, overlaps the European territorial system, outlined by the shape of Romanian Carpathians circle and imposed and additional adjacent regions subordinate to Carpathian mountains, being bordered in the South by the Danube and in the East of the Black Sea. On the Globe, Romania is situated in the northern hemisphere; at the intersection of 45° parallel North latitude and the meridian 25° East. In Europe, Romania is situated in the South-eastern Central Europe, half the distance between the Atlantic Ocean coast and the Ural Mountains, in and outside the Carpathians arc, in the lower basin of the Danube, having a gateway to the Black Sea.
Physical map of Europe
Romania is bordered in the North with Ukraine, in the East with the Republic of Moldova (border consisting entirely of Prut), in the South with Bulgaria (much of the border being river, the Danube), in the Southwest with Serbia, and in West with Hungary. The Romanian borders stretch on a distance of 3 149.9 km, of which 1876km became in 2007 the EU borders (towards Serbia, Moldova and Ukraine), while the Black Sea, border with a length of 194km formed the continental platform, and 245km from shore, the Romanian Black Sea coast stretches out between the border between the Ukraine and Bulgaria). The surface of Romania is 238.391km ² area, plus 23.700km ² of the Black Sea platform. 0 0 0 The Romanian territory is between 43 37’07’’ and 48 15’06’’ northern latitude and between 20 15’44’’ 0 2 and 29 41’24’’eastern longitude, with a surface of 238.391km , being the 12th largest country in Europe.
2.149.9 631.6 32. with a territory length.3 Sea 247.Annual report – State of environmental factors in Romania.1.2 31. 530km.9 681.4 681. Country profile Romania's geographical position Extreme point North South East West Horodiştea Village Zimnicea City Sulina City Beba Veche Commune County Botoşani Teleorman Tulcea Timiş Eastern longitude 26 42’05” 25 23’32” 29 41’24” 20 15’44” v 1) Northern latitude 48 15’06” 43 37’07” 45 09’36” 46 07’27” according to Greenwich 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Romania has an ellipse shape.5 ═2═ .1 256.7 193.9 470.085.4 22.5km land and 2. out of which 1.9 273.085.8 1.149.064.9km.3km rivers and sea.4 448.5 Length of the frontiers (km) Land River 1.3 193.1 343.8 415. in a straight line.816. 2010 Chapter.0 649. The total length of Romania's frontiers is 3.0 289. from North to South.6 139.3 546. 1. of approximately 735km from East to West and of approx. Geopolitical map of Europe Length of Romanian borders Borders Bulgaria Serbia Hungary Ukraine Republic of Moldova Black Sea Total 3.
1. proportionality.Annual report – State of environmental factors in Romania. There are also internal depressions Transilvaniei depression. 25. complementary and symmetrical layout.Almaş. Moesic Platform ═3═ . of the Carpathians (the highest peak Moldoveanu 2. 2010 Chapter. Caransebeş . Romania benefits from all types of aquatic facilities: rivers and streams. almost concentric). with approximately equal distribution of the main relief units (35% mountains. with an area of approx.the most densely populated areas. with expanses of marshes. Caraorman Sărăturile) on which fishing villages are grouped. proportionately distributed in the form of an amphitheatre. The platform units are: Moldova Platform. the Romanian Plain (narrow at East) and Western Plain. due to rich underground resources (oil. depressions within the Eastern Carpathians (among which Bozovici or Almajului depression) and depressions in the area of the Western Carpathians (Brad .Săcărâmb. salt) and favourable conditions for cultivating vine and fruit trees. lakes and reed.52m). Jolotea. Bârsei). RELIEF AND GEOLOGY The relief of Romania has three major steps. Panonic and Şimleul Silvaniei depression. corresponding to the Sub-Carpathians. In eastern and southern are three large plateaus (Moldova.9% of the country surface. river meadows and Danube Delta (the youngest relief unit. on a length of 910 km. Romania's hydro graphic and hydrological peculiarities are determined mainly by its geographic position in the temperate continental climate and the presence of the Carpathian arc. Dobrogea and Getae) and Mehedinti Plateau. Higher are the fluvial and maritime top of a bank ridge (Letea.1. Danube Delta is the lowest region of the country. The main characteristic of these relief components is their proportional distribution in form of an amphitheatre.3. 35% hills and plateaus and 30% of plains) The Carpathians have a surface of 66.Bilbor. the last one with a side and insular low altitude position and small surface. Country profile 1. of the plains. characterized by four elements: variety. the high step.000 km2 and an altitude between 400 m-600 m. while in the south and west lay two great plains. groundwater. Outside the Carpathian Mountains (relief in down steps.544m). lakes. Zlatna . The inter-mountain depressions are represented by the depressions in the area of the Oriental Carpathians (Borsec . Petroşani. under 10m altitude. Comăneşti.303km2. depressions from the area of the Middle Carpathians (Loviştei. the country territory is 67% represented by two orogen units: the Carpathian Orogen and the Dobrogea North Orogen. On Romanian territory and according to the geotectonic evolution there are platform and orogen units. which is approx. marine waters. the medium step. Gheorghieni. occupying the northern third of Dobrogea. hills and plateaus and the low step. coal. Physical and geographic map of Romania Inside the Carpathian arch lays the Plateau of Transylvania. Geologically. Danube Delta was included in UNESCO's World Heritage List in 1991 as a nature biosphere reserve. 27. 1. Roşia Montana).1. is a ring of hills – Sub Carpathians and Western Hills .Mehadia). Ciucului. on the north-eastern side of the country. continuously developing and with an average altitude of 0.
Pietrele Doamnei. oceanic.Annual report – State of environmental factors in Romania. this type defines most of the country’s territory. The cool mountain climate (H).4. Through the complexity of the geologic structure.Dobrogea sector. South . Piatra Teiului. and the west of the country is influenced by the oceanic climate. but with summers that can be excessively hot. mineral fuel deposits. The temperate continental climate (Cfa). there is a Pontic tendency. Lacul Sfânta Ana and Valea ladului. like: Lacul Roşu . with rather moderate temperatures and richer precipitations. in Banat and Oltenia. the Oriental and Middle Carpathians show different conditions for accumulating useful mineral substances. this type is found in the massive mountain of Eastern and Southern Carpathians. with high humidity throughout the year. Pannonian) are characterized by important oil and gas reserves.1. featured by smooth winters and a richer pluviometrical regime (especially in autumn). According to Köppen classification.1. ═4═ . with moderate humidity throughout the year. Romania is characterized by the following climate types: 1. CLIMATE General climatic characterization The Romania's climate is temperate-continental of transitory type. this is specific to Dobrogea Plateau and the eastern half of the Romanian Plain. Scandinavian-Baltic. Other substances are: mineral deposits. hot and cold season is well defined.Cheile Bicazului. Warm temperate continental climate (Cfb). Central Dobrogea sector) and the Scythian Platform (Barlad sector and Danube Delta sector). sub-Mediterranean and Pontic influences. In the eastern regions of the country. without a excessively intense dry season and relatively mild summers. Thus. On this territory there are geologic reservations. 1. the continental character is more pronounced. In Dobrogea.2. the Mediterranean tendency is present. The northern part of the country (Maramures and Bucovina) experiences the effects of the Scandinavian-Baltic tendency. 3. 4. Cool temperate climate (Dfb). similar to Cfb. Country profile (Walachia Sector. having a cooler and more humid climate with nippy winters. useful rocks. 2. without a well individualized dry season and moderate thermal summers. by rare and yet torrential rains. Platform areas and intermountain depressions (Transylvania. this type is representative for the Western half of the Romanian Plain and West Plain. Geological map of Romania 1. 2010 Chapter. cool and hot seasons are well defined. salt and salts deposits. being marked by eastern.
especially on the rivers Siret. Climatic map of Romania. September. Mures.6˚C (October). Increase of Romanian Danube section in early December was due mainly to heavy rainfall gathered from its entire hydrographical basin (including rivers in western Romania). heavy rainfall caused rapid floods in the parts of Harghita. 753 of which were destroyed. Cluj. In 2010 there were floods on both internal rivers of Romania and the Romanian section of Danube (from regions of Dolj. Croatia. climatic areas In 2010. In the same period in Romania. Suceava and Prahova counties. February. 2010 Chapter. have been reported increases in the level of the Danube and the flooding of low areas bordering the river counties (Dolj. Dambovita. due to rainfall and melting snow. October.5. Quantitatively significant amounts of precipitation were reported throughout the Danube Basin in May and early June. exceeded the climate normal by 33% (208. Snow and rainfall in the central basin of the Danube exceeded the annual average of the reference range. in the counties of Satu Mare and Maramures. Satu Mare. normal hydrological regime of the Danube has a debit increase in the spring season during AprilMay. November and December (graphic 1 and 2). Brasov and Alba. Teleorman).000 hectares of arable land were flooded. the values recorded being almost 2 times higher than the climate normal. Olt. In early August. Prut and Jijia. Slovakia.2˚C (March) and 4. The average amount of precipitation fallen across the country level in 2010 (846. 9 769 homes were affected. Almost 100. From June 20 to July 14. In the last decade of December. Olt and Teleorman to those in the Delta). Covasna. Timis. There were rapid floods on Mures and Târnavei affluents and on Somes-Tisa Basin.November 2010 meant in terms of climate. Bihor. northern and central Romania were followed in May. March. Neamt. causing flooding in Austria. the average temperature was 0.4˚C (January and September) up to 2. the period of April-May 2010 was characterized by heavy rain and the layer of snow in the winter of 2009-2010 was also more consistent than usual in most Central and Eastern Europe. Salaj. June. Mures and Somes-Tisa. 2010. During February-March 2010. Caras Severin Mures.3 l/m2). there have been landslides in villages in the counties of Olt. it must be highlighted that the hydrological year November 2009 . Olt.7˚C above the climate normal. lower than the climate normal (graphic 1). Significant amounts of precipitation recorded in the western. In the last decade of June and the first decade of July. October and December were 0. correlated with pluviometric and melting snow regime in the entire hydrographical basin located on the territory of the nine countries covered by the river. at country level. Within the basin. 24 people died.3˚C (November) and the negatives in January. by hydrological warnings for rivers in Maramures.1. July. Country profile 1.Annual report – State of environmental factors in Romania. Suceava and Timis. 565 villages were affected in 38 counties. very heavy rainfall that accompanied the storms has caused severe flooding in Romania.4 l/m2) due to excess rainfall in January. being affected especially the ones in Giurgiu and Teleorman. September. Positive deviations from normal values ranged between 0. significant excesses of precipitation climate norms. landslides occurred in Prahova county. In this context. In the same period. Hungary and Ukraine. Due to significant rainfalls. landslides affected regions near Siret. Mehedinti. the effect of rainfalls combined with the melting snow (due to a very hot weather episode) resulted in the occurrence of floods on the rivers of the northwest. Arad. ═5═ . the melting of snow and rainfall caused flooding in several areas of the country. not only in Romania but also in many other parts of the Danube basin. There were floods in the towns of Alba. In total. Bihor. which is an absolute record for the period of instrumental meteorological observations. Prut. Prahova and Buzau In general. May.
2010 Chapter.0 0. Pluviometric regime was in excess in most of the country.Annual report – State of environmental factors in Romania.0 30. There were daily records of the highest minimum temperature (days 09. and in the rest close to normal values. in the eastern. precipitations exceeded the normal values in most of the territory. forming a snow layer with thickness up to 147 cm in the mountain area and 20-50 cm in the rest of the country. which were within normal limits. southern and central regions. in the northeast being lower by 3˚C to it. the intra Carpathians regions.0 II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII 2010 61-90 Graphic 2 Monthly amounts of precipitation (l/m2) registered in Romania between 01. mm 140.0 10. except the northwest and central regions which was within normal limits.12/2010.0 C I -5.0 120. average temperatures were below the monthly climate average. southeast and southwest of the country.0 10. in the centre and northwest.0 0. Country profile Graphic 1. east. It snowed in the intervals 03-05 and 13-18 of January. compared with multi annual average (reference period 1961-1990).1. 10. Average monthly temperatures (şC) registered in Romania between 01.0 30. the average air temperatures were within normal limits and only one time.0 20. in the northeast. were above normal values. Between 21-28th of January.0 110. O 40.0 -10. the weather became very cold.0 I II III IV V VI 2010 V II V III IX 61-90 X XI XII Extreme weather in 2010 In January. average temperatures were higher with 1.0 130.01-31.3˚C than normal. so that daily temperatures were higher than normal.0 70. realizing daily records of the lower minimum temperatures (24-26 January) and maximum (24-26.01-31.0 40.0 20.0 90. there was a strong heating period. Rainfalls were in the form of snow and rain. where snow reached 183 cm. 10 of January) at many weather stations.0 35. 28 January).0 80. except the north.0 100.0 15.0 25. On the rest of the territory.6 to 3.12/2010. In February. south-east and south. During the month there was a blizzard (7 to 15 of February) in the south of the country and the mountains. In January. 09. Between 6-12th of January.0 5.0 60.0 50. 11 of January) and maximum (days 07. compared to the climate multi annual average (reference period 1961-1990). ═6═ .
south and west end of the country. hail and wind intensification.5 to 2.1.5 l/m2. except restricted south and east areas. Exceptions were the Black Sea coast. the average temperatures were above the monthly normal values throughout the country. The largest total amount of precipitations during the month. in Stâna de Vale locality. The pluviometric regime was in excess in most of the territory. in Apa Neagra locality. during 10-11 of March there was a blizzard in the southern regions of the country. between 15 – 31st of July. in some mountain areas the snow reached 35 cm. In April. the average monthly temperatures exceeded normal levels in western. Bihor county. In the rest of the country. In September. the values were exceeded by 1. monthly average temperatures were within normal limits in most of the country. most important quantities were is the southern and central regions. and on the restricted areas of the central regions. Rainfalls were in excess in the mountains and in the west. Precipitations have exceeded the climate normals in the northern half of the country. was 322. Between 1-15th of October frost occurred on large areas in Northern and central regions and locally in the rest of the territory. Transylvania. Precipitation had the form of sleet and snow only in the mountain area with altitudes above 1700 m. Precipitations exceeded the climate normals in central and northwest part of the country and were below those in the east and locally in the west and south. June was warmer than normal across the country. The largest total amount of precipitations during the month. average monthly temperatures exceeded the climate normals in the southeast and the extreme northwest were below climate normal. where the monthly average temperature was higher than the climate normal values and the Bucegi Mountains. Moldova and East of Transylvania. Oltenia. the weather was unstable. in the north-east of the country exceeding 300 l/m2. except the mountains. where the thermal regime was below the monthly normal. In the south. often having the form of wind. east and the mountains. while in high mountain areas have been in the form of sleet and snow. Wind had intensifications in all regions.Annual report – State of environmental factors in Romania. Between 28-30th of September has been a sharp cooling of the weather. In December. Moldova and isolated in northern Dobrogea. the thermal regime at national level was situated well above average showing deviations of 3-6°C over the climate normals. average temperatures were below normal in large areas of south and east of the country. it rained in most regions. There have been frequent rains. Between 6 to 9th of December rainfalls also manifested in the form of showers and in Constanta county lightning was reported. accompanied by windy storm and hail. In the mountains. In November. often accompanied by lightning. However. In October. The total quantities of precipitation were deficient in eastern Wallachia.0˚C (climate normal in the Western Plain) to values exceeded by more than 4˚C of the average climate in the southeast. temperature humidity index (ITU) reaching and surpassing the threshold of 80 units. in some southern weather stations the absolute maximum temperature of the month was exceeded. precipitations were in excess in the east. northern and central regions.6 l/m2. the rains had the form of shower accompanied by lightning and isolated hail (on 23rd November at Calarasi. deviations in excess of 150% were recorded in restricted areas in the north and southeast regions of the country. south of Transylvania and in surplus in Crisana. except the mountains. In the south and east of the country. In the Carpathian region. and in the mountains with altitudes of over 1700m rainfalls were under the form of sleet and snow. Country profile In March. where they were deficient. Precipitation from March have exceeded normal levels in most of the country. and in the rest of territory were rains and showers accompanied by lightning and hail. ═7═ . In May. Wallachia and Oltenia. where they were close to normal values and locally poor. Medgidia and Videle). Precipitations during the month were aggregated in excess in most of the country. except the southeast. The total amounts of precipitations during the month were mostly normal and in surplus. but warm. In August. 2010 Chapter. humidity comfort index (ITU) has reached and exceeded the critical threshold of 80 units. but poor in the south and southeast. Monthly amounts of precipitation were significant (over 100 l/m2) in most of the territory. southeast. Gorj county. positive deviations were increasingly larger starting from west to east of the country. average monthly temperatures exceeded normal levels in the eastern. precipitations had the form of snow throughout the month. south-eastern and central regions. were below climate normals. which amounted to a maximum thickness of 254cm in the Fagaras Mountains. especially rain accompanied by windy storm and hail. hot days and tropical nights had a high frequency. Precipitations were often in the form of rain. especially rains. In July. Total quantity of precipitations during the month was in excess throughout the country. Rains have been in the form of drift. accompanied by lightning and hail. was 224. In the last decade there has been a thin layer of snow in Maramures. especially during rains. In the first half of the month there were frequent rains. In the intervals 6-9th of December and 21-25th of December the weather warmed significantly. maintaining the layer of snow. rainfalls had the form of rain and snow.
1. some of the largest cities are included in a metropolitan area: Constanta (450. According to the 2002 census. In the period 1990-2009. Cluj-Napoca (400. Romania has a population of 21 680 974 inhabitants. The highest population density of 1067. Brăila and Oradea. during the period 1990 – 2009 Source: TEMPO database of the National Institute of Statistics) 1.000 inhabitants are: Braşov. while others are planned: Braila-Galati (600.78 inhabitants/km ˛Urban population: approximately 55. Bucharest is also the largest city and is also the capital of Romania. is recorded in the Western Region. Bacau and Ploiesti.94 %. recording a decline of 7. DEMOGRAPHY Demographic characteristics.88 inhabitants/km2. These are: Galati.000 people) and Oradea (260.000 inhabitants). while the metropolitan area of Bucharest has a population of approximately 2. From historical point of view. Timisoara (400.000 inhabitants) and fall in the ranking of the most populated cities in the European Union.Annual report – State of environmental factors in Romania.Ilfov and the lowest density. the city's population exceeded 1.000 inhabitants). 59.3. Currently. Walachia and Dobrogea regions).000 inhabitants. density. Also. Brasov. towns and counties (41 plus Bucharest).1.1. Country profile 1. Iasi (both with a population of about 400.000 inhabitants). which directly affects the pressure exerted on the environment. Other cities with a population exceeding 200. 2010 Chapter. Population density: 93.2 inhabitants In Romania there are 6 cities that have a large number of inhabitants (about 300. age structure.53 inhabitants/km2 region is recorded in Bucharest . Iasi. Moldova and Transylvania (including Transylvania and Banat regions). Cluj-Napoca. At the 2002 census. ═8═ .000 inhabitants). there are 3 traditional provinces: Wallachia (including Oltenia. Craiova (370. the Romanian territory is organized into communes. Romania's population declined from 23 211 395 to 21 498 616 inhabitants. TERRITORIAL ADMINISTRATION From administrative point of view. there are still 13 other cities that concentrate a greater number of 100.05 % Rural population: approximately 44. Constanta and Craiova.37% (graphic 3). Demographic evolution.000 inhabitants).000 inhabitants). total number of population.9 million inhabitants. Ploieşti.4. Graphic 3. Timisoara.
1. Development region map ═9═ . balanced and sustainable development by strengthening cohesion among member countries. being the result of an agreement between the county and local counsels. Development regions refer to the regional subdivisions of Romania created in 1998 and works in particular for the coordination of regional development projects.Annual report – State of environmental factors in Romania. Country profile 1. In order to apply the regional development policy. Region (administrative territorial unit) is seen by the Council of Europe. 2010 Chapter. as the unit just below the state level. Romania's development regions are named after geographical position occupied in the country: 1. Romania is divided into administrative units called counties.6. Administrative map of Romania One of European Union' objectives is to promote economic and social progress.7. with authority of Public Administration and having chosen their own financial means. Developing regions are not administrative units. in Romania were established 8 development regions as a result of an agreement between the county and local level counsels corresponding to NUTS 2 level (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) of EU divisions. but without regional administrative responsibilities. do not have legal personality.
450 lakes in Romania. Botoşani. Neamţ. Vâlcea. Generally. whose typical representatives are mainly: hydrocarbons (petrol.850 km ². Of the 27 major water inland courses. made of surface waters . 2010 Chapter.146 inhabitants and an area of 32. Between the components of the natural resources.890 km . South Wallachia Region 3.minerals and fossil fuels. Maramureş. Bistriţa-Năsăud. consisting of the following counties: Arad.178 km .360 inhabitants and an area of 29.5% of them have 2 below one km . Suceava. Călăraşi . Satu-Mare and Sălaj. formed from Bucharest municipality and Ilfov county Totals 1. There are over 3. Source: Romania's Statistic Yearbook.545.5. Buzău. natural gas).565 inhabitants and an area of 35. sulphur. Constanţa. with 162 km in length.821km². Center Region 7. The Danube forms. • renewable resources . soil.650 inhabitants and an area of 34. Along with the Carpathians and Black Sea.762km ². Vaslui. Caraş-Severin. Renewable natural resources The most important renewable natural resources of Romania are: water resources. Covasna. ferruginous waters etc. A special resource category is the mineral waters (sparkling. Their exploitation above their natural renewal rate leads to their diminishing and finally to their exhaustion. Mureş. especially made of fossil fuels. Being the second largest river in Europe. Some of these resources have been exploited and processed with technologies that led to massive pollution of some country's areas.271. as approximately 91. flora. Bacău.892.819. Totals 2. fauna. consisting of the following counties: Prahova. lakes. As for their origin. with a total surface of approximately 1. Danube is a water source for different uses. Danube River and underground waters. when meeting the Black Sea.207 inhabitants. Călăraşi. after Volga.Porţile de Fier (Iron Gates) sector. and Black Sea seaside and coast area offers a variety of conditions for harnessing the underground riches (petroleum. the lakes have small surfaces.100km ².285. forests. Olt. Galaţi. Argeş. Danube's course may be subdivided in four sectors: Baziaş . The use of these resources is complex. Gorj. coordinated. building materials' industry etc. the longest interior river is the river Mures. having a surface of 42. food (fish fauna) and cheap energy. Danube represents one of the major components of the natural environment of our country. Sibiu. for simultaneously fulfilment of more objectives.1. Totals 3. The main athropical lakes occupy the total surface (on normal ═ 10 ═ .3 ha. with a total surface of 4. West Region 5.715.450 km ² South-West Oltenia Region 4. Harghita. wind.159 km². Braşov. These are: • non-renewable resources .Annual report – State of environmental factors in Romania. wild fauna. the lakes are divided in natural and anthropical lakes.936 inhabitants and an area of 34. so that any anthropic intervention on one of them inevitably affects the others too. Dolj. Southeast Region 2. sun and wind energy. Totals 2.water. These resources can be used unlimited if used rationally.999 inhabitants and an area of 36.) substantially contribute to environmental pollution.1. consisting of the following counties: Bihor. The most extended hydrographical basin is the one 2 of the Siret river. there are strong links and interactions.981 inhabitants and an area of 1. Totals 2. one of the most beautiful wet areas in Europe. Hunedoara şi Timiş. Dâmboviţa. The emissions of atmospheric pollutants from the industrial activities (energy. Brăila .Black Sea sector. NATURAL RESOURCES The total of Romania's capitalizing resources. The main natural lakes occupy a total surface of 92.) and geothermal waters. consisting of the following counties: Vrancea. Portile de Fier . Ialomiţa. Non-renewable natural resources The natural raw material non-renewable resources are energy generation sources. through its geographic and geologic environment form the natural resources.212km ². Totals 2. by means of the hydroelectric power plants from the Iron Gate I and II. soil. consisting of the following counties: Iaşi.719. 2 namely the Danube Delta. consisting of the following counties: Mehedinţi. Country profile Northeast Region 1. The Black Sea is Romania's gate towards seas and oceans. Tulcea. an area of 34.sun. air.Călăraşi sector. Totals 3.943.Brăila sector. Bucharest-Ilfov Region 8. Totals . distributed on the territory of two neighbouring countries: Romania and Ukraine. Other non-renewable resources are: ferrous and non-ferrous metal deposits. flora.034km² Northwest Region 6. siderurgical and metallurgical industry. including the non-exhausting ones .1% of the entire surface of the country. natural gases) and coal deposits. aquatic (the fish fauna) and land ones (tourism and leisure). chemical petrochemical industry.rivers. geothermal and wave energy. Giurgiu.918. useful rocks. Teleorman. Cluj. Brăila. 2009 edition 1. 761 km long and the shortest river is the river Trotuş. consisting of the following counties: Alba.
4 189. The following three areas of vegetations may be distinguished: alpine.6 2009 491. In order to preserve this valuable natural capital and to ensure a favourable conservation status for natural habitats of great natural and community importance.9 2002 151.1 238. mobile and landline phone).4 48. communications (internet.000 ha.2 404. energy.9 491. West Plain.7 44. the state is obliged to ensure free trade and fair competition protection. 13 national parks. Country profile retention level) of 102.454 ha. Băile Tuşnad.7 342. Moldova's Plateau and West Plain.3 56.9 161.4 45. Since antiquity. Moldova's Plateau. 28. with the largest one named Domogled .2 98. The vegetation varies. The significant variety of the flora and fauna in Romania derives from the complexity of the relief. Slănic Moldova. The following spas are very wellknown: Băile Herculane. Romania has taken important steps.8 200. With an estimated GDP of 513. tourism.7 58.28% being forests and forest vegetation and 10.6 122. lynx.6. Romania's flora and fauna are harmoniously divided and form a highly valuable wealth.4 million ha and the forests around 6.1 2000 80. In turn.3 513.7 million ha. was mostly replaced by agricultural cultures.3 115. based on the controlled and rational exploitation. these lakes form another source of treatment.4 97. as they regenerate in an extremely difficult manner.1 2003 189.71% is represented by the agricultural surface. the Romanian Plain. Romania is a country with a great biological variety and a high percentage of natural ecosystems. Covasna. Băile Felix.1 2008 503.1.1 121.02% waters and other surfaces. some of the lakes that were built up inside the craters of the old salt mines or arisen from the erosion or collapse of parts of the mountains were known as having therapeutic effects. by implementing the legislative elements specific to the European Union.Valea Cernei. with a highly originality tendency. as: chernozems from the Romanian Plain. Sovata. The fauna is rich in species.0 2007 404.9 73. blackcock. construction.0 161.7 million ha. The agricultural soils occupy 14. Dobrogea and other areas. Călimăneşti. GDP evolution in Romania 2000-2010 The main sectors of the Romanian economy are: industry. Romania's economy is a market economy.7 151. A special category of the natural regenerative resources is represented by the water springs. Căciulata etc. The pedo-climatic resources of Romania are a renewable potential represented by fertile soils.higher income countries. The alpine vegetation from mountain areas is very vulnerable to the environmental factors and anthropogenesis ones. bear.1. ECONOMY According to the Constitution of 1991.6 billion lei in 2010 (graphic 4).9 136. Retezat and Rodna) and 273 sites of communitary importance. According to it.Annual report – State of environmental factors in Romania.2 166 2006 342. rock aquila.7 503.8 40.6 2004 238. Romania's economy does so by the law of demand and supply. 190 natural monuments. Romania is part of the middle. Romanian forests preserve a genofund of great diversity. at the confluence of river Nera-Danube and the barrage. as such: the black goat. GDP value in 2000-2010 Year GDP – billion RON GDP – billion EUR GDP – billion USD 2010 513.2 79. commerce. 671 natural reservations.9 2005 287. birch cock and other species of hunting interest. Govora. Mangalia. some protected.4 287.7 121.3 116.3 40. ═ 11 ═ . 2010 Chapter. in this surface being also included the Portile de Fier lake surface. Băile Olăneşti. the tillable ones being of 9. Out of the total surface of the country of 61. This is why some species are represented by little exemplars and easily disappear as result of the activity of the interfering factors. In Romania are known over 56 types of natural mineral waters. of 70. forest and steppe.8 2001 116. trade and public sector. Eforie Nord.6 Graphic 4. In Romania there are protected areas comprising of 79 scientific reservations. More than a third of the mineral waters in Europe are encountered in Romania. 1. agriculture. 15 natural parks (including Danube Delta) 3 biosphere reservations (Danube Delta. The main dangers are the uncontrolled pasturage and tourism. Transylvania's Plain. as well as of some programs and projects dedicated to preserving the biodiversity.1 50. Vatra Dornei.2 37 Source: INS Ro 600 Pib (mld lei) 500 400 300 200 100 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 80. The steppe and silvosteppe vegetation spreading in areas short on humidity on Dobrogea's Plateau.
there were in execution sections of about 185 km. the public roads in Romania totalled 82. chemical. motor vehicles. Romania has an agricultural area of 14. 310 km of highway. building materials. 35. E574. in Romania there were 382 km of expressways. Bucharest-Constanta total 233 km projected / 166km in use).386 km. Bucureşti-Piteşti Nord and Sibiu ring road. of which 16. railway network is the fourth largest in Europe. Pharmaceutical industry. On 1 January 2010. A2 motorway (Sun Motorway.552 km (20. E85.8%) county roads and 30. However.. Romania Road map In August 2009. wood processing.2010.585km electrified lines and 2. On 31. After an assessment made in November 2008. .221 km (42. IT has a steady annual growth. light machinery and assembly of machinery. E583. the transports network in Romania ensures the link between the Community transports network and the transport network of non-neighboring states in Eastern Europe and Asia (road. E60.435mm. E576. E584. Currently. E771 (class B).7 million hectares.Annual report – State of environmental factors in Romania. total 582 km projected / 54km in use. E79. approximately 6. etc. 2010 Chapter.5 billion euros in 20072013. chemicals. 128 km in use. Due to the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). household appliances and clothing. air and water).12. The main highways in Romania are: A1 motorway (Bucureşti-Piteşti-Sibiu-Deva-Timişoara-AradNădlac. of which ten million are occupied by arable land. linking Northern and Southern Europe and East and West of it. total of 558 km projected. E673. E581.247 km of railway. E70.617km double lines. Romania had. Bucharest-Urziceni The railway infrastructure includes 22. some of the national roads are part of European roads. metallurgy. Romania's economic power is focused primarily on the production of goods by small and medium enterprises. Romania benefits from agricultural funds worth 14. as mentioned by the World Bank Partnership Strategy with Romania. By its geographical location.1.1%) of national roads.8. most of the standard gauge is of 1. the car industry is very wide and is oriented towards the market. E577. heavy machinery and household appliances. Romania is the intersection of several lines of transport. of which approximately 8. 1. mining. E675. E68.8 million agricultural acres are worked. ═ 12 ═ . Câmpia Turzii-Cluj Napoca Vest.1%) commune roads. pharmaceuticals. in early 2010. E671. E578. E87 (Class A).613 km of (37. E81. A3 motorway Bucharest-Brasov-Bors. in industries such as precision machinery. rail. On the other hand. food and oil extraction and refining. Country profile Romania's main industries are: textiles and footwear. Among the existing express road routes are Bucharest-Giurgiu Constanta-Mangalia. European roads that pass through Romania are: E58.
Drobeta . Country profile 1. Măcin.Turnu Severin. • Danube ports: Moldova Nouă. In addition.9. Medgidia. Baia Mare.Napoca.Black Sea: Cernavodă. Bacau. Olteniţa. Hârşova. operate also other airports located in the cities of Constanta. Tulcea. Satu Mare. Orşova. Calafat. Sibiu. River network has 1 731 km of navigable waters of which: 1 075 km on the Danube. The main Romanian ports: • Black sea ports: Constanta . Zimnicea. Cluj . Brăila. Cernavodă. ═ 13 ═ . Mangalia and Midia . 2010 Chapter.1. Arad.Navodari and Sulina. Tulcea. 524 km and 132 km river side channels. • ports on the Danube Channel . Călăraşi. Romanian river transport has great growth potential due to navigale rivers and waterways of the Danube River. Turnu Măgurele. Iasi. Railway network map Romania's main airports are: Henri Coanda (Otopeni) international airport. Corabia. Suceava. located 10 km from Bucharest and Aurel Vlaicu (Baneasa). Timisoara. Giurgiu. Agigea – South Constanţa. Targu Mures.Annual report – State of environmental factors in Romania. Basarabi. Galaţi. Oradea.the largest Romanian port and also the largest port at the Black Sea. Caransebes. Craiova. Bucharest airport.
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