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~ Introdu ction to M u ltiphysics .. Typ 'ii:!"0' f" FIO"'w"" M' 0" d e'lii:!" iQi.i:, Typica 'I M' unuu ""' ~,~ c", ':, 0" UP' '11·n' is It"lphyslcs ',<:,",> ~',,:~ ': ::\' / :::,': s 10 vn ',:," "',:g' i:!" .. Ex"a" n P' ...." 0"f M'u It"ip hys......"I·CS'"in Flow S"I·m"" la"tt 1·0' .... " iles "u n S' ... u
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. ro:. g . ~ :: 'vvu s ch'""':lin'':'>\'~ o V'e' roy s na m icro:." •• _ 1 compressible C" ~ :: ~j'.: w'··":: I" .j~:"'" :: '. :...) ...: ~··¥V·~ Rarefied gas flow' Ci-tl Lu bmeat 1·'0' :'n"f)" biearin 'g' flows '... : _.'... ..:: . s ut uuve UV'Ili:J. '0' ne" n f 'I '0' ....>:: . Incompressible I mildly compressible • Single phase I rnultiphase • p' t:'0' >:..: :.: '.:'••.\w·.Flow Simulations . g .:.' .ar n'e'l s"y~t"e'm i:Ji:J:(:'~11·p· n' '\·JL·I"':'... • ~ ... '.."'...:"::': b s u: h' t v scosnv " . :. f' 'I '0' .." Vario u~ co' n ~t"I·t" ive 1"':Ii'\·Ji·~e'yo' n' d st r"':lil·g·u '!u!'I·S· sit Y r "CO' u uus '. sm ~II .Many Underlying Models • Lam in ar I tu rbu lent ..IiII~)'. U ~j.. ..:\'. .. " Special • Cases t:~: _.

a ....::: o r n." . c .....···n·· m····a·~~ flux . ._~ ::~j .'" .·u ..~: ~ t) Flow' an d stru ctu res: Flu id-solid interaction Flow an d EM: Biolo:g·.... .cO"U st I·C~ . :..." ..IPYSICS:·. t )r: C····:···m. FI'o':"w'' :' a·.-."~. cui ~ ••• "".-.~ . ::~j"'/ :. it ~ s. d a" ura 1·0' ''It' .· s/k .:.....:"~':'" s :~ s..:: a"··t"· :. C>·· .. . :.. h ....." (F S I) t) ...: ::....<~:.·.". -e . 1-' . Fo rce ... .. " d .. I<:~'"' ::'.' "1 co' nve ct" n ::.: . d .a"'"n" he ··a. .QUP... :.... rrnn mqs Th· M U It. '... Flo"w'" a" n' d a. t) ...::. .... ~. h""e' ....A. .. h"e' :.. .' . y h' . I Typical Couplings . !jIi.·1 0' Diffusio d .:.··co"u st I·C~· A'' ' ' e'"r'o"a" '.. p·:'r'<>_.- (.... 1-· ..:. R F heatin :g leal .:." :: .... <rt '.·. s t"tne...)blerns n ·o· . '. .~~- .. Flow a"tn .a·. .

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"0 ~...1 IO' e·uc " uce \'/. Process~~ 'V"..~~""· . • .~~·"·i'··:a t" I· n'"" g.. t" ·I n'"" UO·."·"·:US··".····:n·"·· C-." • ' •• ' ". • " .' . .r • ". ~ '.' .Q·. · C ... Optimize: . . Heat of' Sol id if cat ion ..i Bmke-nng M olJ~d(w'a"ter~coo~!ed').......c··"S··"..' '.'·h a c· n'"" g.· _:' C-.""' C' "It""'..'•. ...'". Pha.. Cooling Include: . ~ ••••• • '. . e••····.~~···e:'·.. • " .. • ..' .. •••• ' •• ' • ".· c··s··".......' ' •• '. :.... Nonlinear Thermal Properties ... •••• •• • .:~' ~...

• '.••• rn •..'"•.: :: -....1 Stress J!o!!I aa " . re'" ss Flow 'BIl I" Temperature " :!iiItti[.!..rnp••..I:I <Ii Therma..d ."'. liOO .•.. : .' Te•.". IgfW'U.. 2" .• e"l·.•. ·w:~ . ril ~:1i~ NI!1'It ~IIJI. 0..act 0'" r M'"0•..••. 'fiill1ik . Flo ..•••.• ..Re•. ' ~S<_·····t· ':-:1/'·'1·"".

With Convection .Density Driven flow in Porous Media t) The Elder Problem 10 Years .No Convection 10 Years .

: . '. ':...:' ~ .' '... ." " '... esh > . .. ':. >. " :. M '.. :".. II .:' '." '. ' " .'.FSI .·..Couple Flow and Structures t) Three Physics: Flow' Structures ALE Movin'g. :'. :. :'. '.

FS I Examples .~' .~ S··:·····I:o:'j.~' ure'.t" 'e···' · ruc··t" a "":~ ". ·.'. ··vv·~ "..· '. R··."' .:S··:·····t" ..-.g:.JL~ Flow .Poroelasticity t) t) Fluid Pressure &. Structural Support Load Collapsln >..

Naval Postgradu ate Sch 001 I . Sh ivok.Thin Film Flow .Karu n asiri Lt.Structural ~ ME M S Direction 31 M icroph on e ~ Acoustic .Structure . T.Squeeze film Damping Model Cou rtesy of Prof G.Acoustic .

".. ..'. GA'TE 'VA" L'V'E :. .... "/.t) Anyvvtl". '..you can type an equation . ... \ / ~ Represent valve ~th extremely high viscosity <10) Make high viscosity position a function of time t) Here plottin9 viscosity ... . " :....." "1' .ere you can type a number . ".~. .

. .: ..•..e"rn tic a"I Re ac t" 1·0'" ns Flo W· '>:. ..".. " . ':. ~ '" i.' 'V' . .' t ~ ~' ~ t~ ~:..... ". ...<" ". "'::..: -. . LI·n·k C. ' :~~ l '../:' h' . .••.. ••." I" ......~'.'...-.Diffusio n' .". • • • Darcy Porous Flow' Fickian Diffu sian Chemical Reaction A+ 28 -----c M icroflu idic 'V'alve • N·:":'Ji 'e'"r St okes Flow • Fickian Diffu sion • Electrokin etic Diffusion " U "u...' '&". .. ". .' "": -.

'. ixer . .' ~ j' : _j '.. .- < .' ~.. . " :-'J "''' <: > "_ '__'_" -. :._•• _ ". -e . ." e~ : -.·s···~~···m········o. .': .'~·..:' '.··· I·C. t.Elect '~' ••••• .' ".:._.... .. ..' ..' t..' ~j .' ._ ... i.' : . Goal: Improve Microfluidic Mixing ElecfroOsrnofic Mixing' Vel =Uo c- Vo sin( rot ~_~=o Vel =Uo c= 0 .' ' . .'"_ • .... . ._ ..5'"5' "U re' Drive n' g'' : Ele ct' ro 0···· o t" I·e Flow .":: Diffus .· in . ".".d .._ i. ~ j t. _' • _' _'/ M'H~' I. iii!.. '. " .·:·: • :...'. \" " • _.. '. iii!..o. '·"5' nn ~ oupled C· Flo··:·w·...: .. '.A..·····t" .' ro·······O·. i.r.' ~: iii!.. ..' . .: .: ." __ . Pre . . a·n.".····· ·····. ' .

Multiphysics by Nature t) t) Fuel Cells in General Electro Ch em istry Heat + Flow' Stress from Thermal & External Loading Slice Plots of Velocity through Transparent Boundary Plot of Concentration in Fuel Cell Stack .Fuel Cells .

.:' .·······1 ..) --0..·····t"ochernist ... .J 0.!OW flll.iI..a Electro Chemistry ' .1.. 11 n Q.. . r ~.. :5: Q..'... 0 t--..'tIER.." '~"'': C"e.' '. I t--... .J \1·.•. . --0..--... ..tQ fl.0li0.. "': ....--. Excerpted from iiModelling and Design of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell A noce".'..) --0... 11 ~ Q.. Tseronis.•. ...·······1IEle········c. ' ' ' .OW w~. ~.".' .) --0.!L"lih .. ..: ...1.' rv '.....~F!iirI 1r"RI . ~.' 11lJi. ""'. 0. [~~. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell ...&1 •"'IIi ~I~'" I'IHil. .."" I'lo iiIk . Kookos..: . . l? t - 0 :5: 0 Q.'. and Theodoropouls COM SOL Conference 2006 .Fue.) cr 0 ::J n 0 ::J 1""'1" ~lU!EL ImI:lffUSlQN CIHtA!N NIEL ~I!~ UiI...' ".. ..

' ..til II. . '... . : '.• ' .. .". _.." ~"==""...~ _.: .' • '._ asn --&- asx [_a'9Mc(_~'+(:_a15in aldicarb after 10 days aldicarb su Ifoxide after 10 days j •••• o :c .' .~... '..H t 1 : ::.5 .•' .' ".' ". . .. ~ 0. '~.....".':. Water Satu rati on + Pressu re Con tou rs of Vari ably Satu rated Soi I after 0. 11"1. ." .' . '~....t" ':'ro'" . <. .11. . . ' .&.' '..' '.' "/ . ' .' '.~ ..... ".r ro W 0.. . :1"". icid e'" De To xific a't"1·0" n' in G'" und wat e'"r . •i • . ' •. ".. ..til '9l" u. .' '. '. _.''.10 21J ]10.. " . .Pe s._."..' .' '..• ~I ._. .' '.' '" • ~ .. '." . ' . I • . . -:- . ~.•• "/ ---Ii'---E:- i -. ... .. II::: . 401 SIO 610 70 :80 9 (I .. .. • .... . . . 1"-------· . ...". ".' '. 0. •••• ' ".100 Time ~~a~s) I Effective..3 @ U 0''''' ..'.' _. ."/ .. . ... '.---"~~~~~b-----b--~_ 1------- @I ... ".. '~...' .' "/ ::. '." . ."..3 days + 1 day .. ".

ed Flo Couple . ... ' '. . .' '_ .' '.• •.w···... . '.·:·.rical t· . . .. Elec•.' .·... charq ed rainwater . '.._ ~ '* Electromagnetic Field from percolatinq. .' .····. .' '.' .' ····...' '. - t' 0·..'.... ..

1PD'i~~ f!~w.1!il>~1jI!11(!e ~!\cw ~ ~..~lt~tj~J'i (f~i) .."" 1IoI1!!!~~' T[rlln~~_ ..IPD'i~~ ~!to'iW. FIOMi' F:irtide ll"ra. Eyr~'..... lihi:ni" ~<' -~~mflll"W Track the Interface ~th Physics ~ Level Set t> [> ~ [> [> ~fi M~It~ph~i5l1! Ftgw eybb1ylF\iow ~ MM\!l1e Med~il ~ .iPhau! ~!t. Lev~1 '$e~.t"!\&!~e Fie!~ l1'W(i.e.(~ng rIOt Fll!iii~ lFlIow (J\p~ FliJld-Slitue!tuill ..M U lti h np rase FIO'W' - Th tree 0''"" II A:"' Overan Approac h res Distributed con centration of' ph ase ~ Bubbly Flows "Slu dgy" Mixtu re Flows ~ Euler-Euler .Mwif'!g Me:..[~emj5I!1y Fluid IFllow ~~ ~fI.Eyi\e:..r' odilill M fwti.0III! ~ EI!!dJ1IJ.Fluidized Beds t) t. ~ ~" 11~.n POIl"O'U..1 Ie NOni'"iI1lD~I'iHrn~IIIHow Hi.gli!~Phi!!l5!!: IRIOlN e .~.h Ma. JJu.Me~ill n<dl '51i. I . 1fJ... . .11 Numba R~rdiH Rlcw ~1' ..

u. bbly .: ' t) " .t) Mixture ~ Euler-Euler B··. Spinning Suspension Solid Spherical Particles Fluidized by Air .

ra' 't'l"n' ':. :...'a'." u st q U I"t' e" sm a" o in su :.'.' '.a''. ~ " . ~ '.. m .~~:: ... ~ M':::~. <" II t.::...' 'V"...' .' " '..::JI. '.Capillary FiliI Rising Bubble ····a-~e···· F.' ~..~ .'.::....'.~ t. . . ~ : 'V'< r . Tra' "cks.:" p" h"a'"~e'•• :'~~ .'.::: rf''.. '.... e' ce" ~e" p' .'" ':..h'':::e" ln' t.:.:' ~ ..~~ co' n'' ~e'••'rva tt 1"0'nn e' sh size .' I" ..··:···e:··' Ph .: ~ •• :'..urreo m a"..." 2::'lm"" m····'scib 'Ie":'. ~'.·Id o···:r' LIS'Ii·'' 'e:··' t Ie·' ' t: e···' . -~..'.g' ~ '. '..> •• :....~::: b e' :.'. .

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..': ..• '•. .' :' .·. . .. . _ j i..' '..' c'. . i._".' '..._. iii!.' .•._ ~.' : I... .._' .' " .' ..'_ .LIS'" Set c Jet evel .. . ~.' ...• ._ ~. .._'. i. .' : I.... .... t"\N1.._ •.••. " : . .' ' '.•.l.. ' .':. iii!.I n k J" . 'C. .. US' "e'Time dependent A··d·a . . _•. '..) i. '.~..' : • . :" ••..iptive Me's' ··h···I·n·g· · .•.._ • _ •.··e IOCI·t" y P U Ise J e ·t" h v .._". . F orce .' :' . '.

Striking Paper .Ink: Jet ~ Note Satellite Drop Formation &.

Drop Formation .ALE ~ 2 Ph ase Flow' (" in Air). . ." .' Ink ". .

.. ~t" a"b'I"II"t"I"e'~ "'11':. . " -. . _' '" ...:.. .' '-. ~..:.. " ".". .' much t..'.'. .'· e'-ts int w. :' ~ '_ ..' ~ j. ~ . • 1a micron Particles Air Velocity . ... . "_.. ...jIi.' -t " .> o'-ff-'-':I"c'--e? t.•. "_. .'. ... ::. ..'. '. a"t :'e' d.... :' ' '.' ~' 0". t" ::0' n..j .' <~ .-.. ". ' '.. ' "_..- r.".: .." .ontamninat 1·0'" n' ..... .. -. ."d u . .' ~ j '.C·." c·'. :: . . .:' : ~ <:" .. '. ~'''''.' -. u d . . m e' rica<"I in. :: o n've ct" 1"0' n Do' mtin.' -. . ~.... . _- '._ '...6.'.. .. d iff '..": .". ••••. '._ "...' . :.' .:· . . ._ <~ ~ <~ i!Ili Particle Release in Hallway Ho'':W:'-"..' . U se Pa rt icle Tra 'C"I" n n ~ fiji '0' l'U'lt:~:::.!O g" t." . .6. '.Part icle Tracinq :' ~. ... t.". ~ '. n' Ie' a"•. '.'': "~. "t u ~I"O' ::.": . ._ "'d'· Ie'" in st eaat:.' ".~' i!Ili <:~~~t:.. ". .' "._- .' Ro 0'" rn....

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' "' e.a:'i ke:.'e' n' t"'e"m"pe"F'' ='ta . ~ '_ .'.I" •••• ."o··.~'a·. t. ."" t""0··. ..."!!'e. :··' .. ..'~.. 'K·''.~ "I'" " "'"'a R... ..rt c'....·. "t". t:' .. 1 e~ ~ l -: .. '.. ••• 'C"..~. . e.~ p: "':'ic""e·.•n'" t"...:J t~ ..~ ~. t" h'.'5 0.. "' /e.UF"e' ~. ~-._.'.. A'. t~ .further increasing temperature . " .:. '_ .. ':. A .~ a .~' ••••• t) ....'' 'J._.lo. Concentration of 'A' t) iii Air flow' carries a dilute chem leal..'.'" :'iC""t·· . ". ) •~ ~ t ~ ~l t) Reaction is Exothermic .. ' ) <~ '.._ :~ above ~ 3:".. ~ '_ "1"111 ..F' t" ~.a _.' c'" ". C·'.'..n'"!. hemical a F"e"="c"t" ion t"F'I·'g'"g'"ers ..Process Engineering: Chemical Decomposition Heater .~··.·'B a·.) 'y':~ .. '.~.:~.· :'i co' ·V··.

.:..~.."••'." " •• ""'... ...- .Pro" ••.'.. _ react ion? <: ~ "iii ..iii ...:.:' :..::. ."•• ••.. YI·e" ld fro m.:..:: :"'ue" s"'t"1·0". ~/ . :.~: :..:.:: t" h"'...: 'e ":> t) 1·0".... er Does any of t" his matt ~:: . ber?: " "':Iict" 1·0' n exit . ...':~:...:'". "':" We are charged '~th design in9 th e produ ction version: How' much does an upstream 90 degree bend affect the flow? What wattage for the heater? ~ How even is the heat? t) t) a . >..: :~~:.t he 0'>..:: .-.:" 1 1 .. ••.. Q" '. e:."••ns ••.... ...:..~:: :.' uC'" "t"1·0". . ~:~j<:"..<: . n' ".."••n' V"'" rs d '.". g' ' cham >.. a.~.1( in :. :. t" h"'. " W"hat's~ t" he p ro duct 1·0' n'." ':.'. i. ..': a. 1 t '.':~g:~~::...:' re':.:: :~~:..<::.. e:.

Heat Transfer in Fluids (and Solids) ~ Tran sport of Dilute Species """(Fickian Diffusian) Modeling Approch: So. .r_T_e_m--l-p_:e_ra_~··tu_r_e (Based on Flow .: iii!.~~ <~.Three Physics: iii!. .Ii " U 'V' .Mass Diffusion (Based on Flow) Finally Solve Fully Coupled Flow-Heat-Mass t) .kes flow "u!' :".' t~ '. t~~:· .typical to' save memory) . ~ P arame t·" IIy vary h t.·v·.er power rica tea t) Solve Coupled Thermal ...·I"'e' -r-St o. .. _S_ol_ve_: _f'o_. iii!.: l r <~.' :~~ l .. N···. Flo···'w:·.":..: iii!.ve fo.' ~ t~ ~:.' '"..~'.

'c"'e" m·.d 'e"1 to.3) Ie .' .>.5" = 13[mm] Re based on Dheateris 138 R: e."'." :> 4."'.'.ave = '::.' ~O'.NO stationary solution .~ .3[m] Re == pU~yd !-1 == (1./ i .5 == 3300 Will th e Heater sh ed tran sient vO'rticies? If so ..t: '.IXO.'. ·. .'..: _.: .· .·. turbulent mixing for heat and diffusion i!Ili "'" t) Airflow' in 12~~ Duct O· 1 I V.-.'.O' · r' ~< > ••• :: ~:: ~'<. 'V.i!Ili Is the flow Turbulent? If' ~·o·'" n"eed t' urb.." ms ALMOST Turbulent Dhyd ~O./'O·· ut ex ~t' re'""e-. ~.IXO.::: '."A~ '.only transient Dheater= 0.· •• • ·.~'.t' po issib ··Ie 0": t) t) t) t) \'.·. : t) Also.0 ~' •• ' ••• t.' :: ~:<..: :: ~ ::~: < > ..' i ~~-...flow ulen ..:.

_ !e = (lleepimlgl ~I@w It)(~f) D..~ f:t OllC f.I~u~m'i~ty IFI'u it! flew .Setup CO.·····..······L • "'.IClW I . MI!ci&tiphilri~F. .····.:".··M·. ...~. ~ ~11Ii§11f!j·l+l'ni!i~!!: FI~ % ILnmiiiulr lF110wtspf) t> ~ 'liurm..::6nitJy UJed GO ~ .' . ~ .S1i:1!!Idies...m ~QUi!5itic...)$ Medl~ MialCIiI and SilJD~'iJi1fi!l[te Rio. o .···....."/ ..% Nhon ·~!W~I1!!j. • ~..~o.. -------------- P(Jrtn..i'rhl!i:1 10"w F ~if.' S':-·'···O.":~ I bt~tingl MaClnin el!Y.. 3D Add Physics > Flow Study: Stationary U!~J"-mmetri~ . n IBledl!r'@'!.' . •'.. Hieiil D- Numjj~rfUow I1l re'fl:ed ~~!31N . '..s.ulent !Flow .' '.~fl5~Cin. '. ~ .~i~mme1:Jic elO' ]ll] Ne'w'>. " .~. • . ~ A(/OC (hemh:~11Spedes l'If. . flUllid IFIIDw '"Utdn~ ilrn F~~ ~ . I.' .

m~h~ .ng)h unit. S.o MlBt:ol!!mlllr". ~ .::.<:~::~: .. ". H!llstiw1!. u ~.. 1 D :k...": .!I.~ ~.. ~ s... I iii. Ii! . H!pi!lil ]1!!4lI t(lj~nOl!f. ID!9 fe'!!5.:tlt ¥~~U~ '!Whm ~h.1. Dl!luR.tudyl. 1 ~ t! Wi!l11l ~i!mi>!lll'!ii!! IU!!. .:: S~'b~fuI'lJi!l)l ~!lfj~j .. o Cho o se "Imp>. _ lin ~ i. Cmod. s ' t" 0'· I"n'" ches .".::.:'. U'/Jtf!~e:d.amimr FkiW ('SJpl) rl 1i!1:':' I"fQpmllK r b1LIiI .<: rt" Bring in Geometry from CAD ~ Mo~cU.:!!i'!'&ling~!i'!it:.t!p .Glo~1 Ocf1fiU~~: Right Click on Geometry .Default Model Tree Built .. :::. Mi!!i~ 1.Import Geometry Ch an g e··unit ..

A'· v" S et"M ateria· IS -.tlUd.a n red Q~k Et!i:ryililll!m .U a Dlefifll'itiofJ'u:...E' " O\N11 ~ materials EI :..a.ce1p's' UNS '0 .~OIe1Tini~ioHill ~ Mod[E~l (mM. :a: Mesh 1. RJe5u~ts! I .AjurnimJIT! . G IIOb.. ' .'<'Jr Can Also define your Ocdel BlJii!de.lIl. '$.~eri~.

...·.Set Flow Regime Correct Inlet and Outlet "'.. r~y'' ' iou .. " '.. " '" ~ ". I ----..iIl)' '......~' '. '.fl:o·:".....J :~ '[i L!fi'i I iMir IACIW f~f) ~flIla P-.. .rn'J. -.'d a.' "'.: 61~061~M MNfj].' " .jI~i!!i!l ~. ' '.. ~' .."...I --- ---.""" ~ Set 'V' = 0...".." .' ~ j '.. MI~ ~ 't.'·h·..!1I (~ ....'· '."... .1 [m/s] ...rc~~.' .'.C'~.' ..(~."". _ :. t) ..t .' t) High light ~~am in ar Flow' L "J! 1I~1'c:."_ t: '...u:s1 <. ..' _.' " .. '~'.. .".".' ".:!. Qvtlet I .: '. .. ':". M~~:! - ....'.__ ~ SlIlI~j (3~J: o ' an <" ::~Ijj Rt' :click '...'.":: n' "La m in a'r' Flo'''' » ..l w'>1I1 l'liitii!!I'if-l!I!."iose "Out".') t.' .' " ..® ~~milj:a1iES )!\ ~~iftl)'· t) t) t) Rt click on ~~ in ar FIO'w~ l.' '..' '...."..' .am Choose "Inlet" Pick in let b n...'.._-vv Pick outlet boundary ~ Set P = O[P] ~ t) ill '0.

t) Highlight Mesh:> Leave at default ~ Size: Coarse (faster solution) .il'fl ~ ~ .r:::. Ml'twlli . i$IQ~~ 1i)1! llooiQM §I Mesh " Mod!!l! (mcdl) = Dmnirig ns )1\ (ji!l.

. $twdta'· Sb!!lpi' solve • ~"'.. :show D'e:f'I!Iu'lt :soilti!l IF~ . :.p 191..' '.ci"O. . '"" ..'e··. '. ' ..·:' " :' . . IV'" .······w'··. Takes 9 minutes to ~ '..t Click on "Stu dy 1~~ is ..·')··· b·:. J"h.yt··..······f o·······r·FIo.·..! r IF1lulft! (spl) Plir. Pick "Com pute" · So Ivlng f or u.' '.i1'· . G!lilgm~hy:n ~ ~ Di!JiiIil~iDM - bmill1.S 0·.:e. ·~·'·. 6> G:·::·'-. ~' (.v . .' .~p . ~. ' ·V··.' t) R...:. .!l_m~ s"".w...' '.000 OOF GI{Jb~~[Deftfl:rli~llls· Mcill!~l (~l) "'1\.

cesu I'"ts::~···.': i. 'w.. . R· e·:'ne•• v R:' V"'" ... i _ "1" i ...' ~ .:' ..." • ...' ~ .'.." _0 ." .': '" . .' : . " i.. FI o"w' m U c h'" fa s·.t" e'r o n f 'a"r s d e' " .." ~. ."'" .... '.' j i •i .jI!. . _ _ ....' __ i. .. . .. .. .··..".

' . .:::".~. ..!!t lr....Ni~.. bo ~~ C!DIliJu g-!!t~~He.. R. ~ 0·: : " 0: :'. 'irillnSjpiCtt: ....us" ~ 0:·: .it) ~. Bioli'l~lJtirii'ln1!f'~~(tit) t) Add ~~H tran sfer in flu ids" eat 00 10 HlI!l!t i1r~ni5if« in i1ll1in ~elis ~ht51l1:l flo ~ IJ' .Ad d .- ' ..'... "A·':·:··d p. HeaterPower ' H mefP'CWl!f 15fW'] 300~1K1 T . 'h ~1!!dJr. H~~in91 P las mill t) iii!..i!illld'er RI'I:!I~UQfll B~~IlF'GmI9n.!\o::@ultic:=.t Click on "M odel 1" C h .t.~' ~ " . ' '..' t) Set up"two: T -in. " "/ '.- ....- I" '.' I ~ !e ' Chfimiil:lIl Sp~ii6 i) > J~J~...h y'~ c· ~" d .. e:··. - 2·"nd ... t) Set up Wattage as a Parameter R..Heat '" .. '..~ t) iii!.n .." ..'. '.t Click on "Defin ition s" Ch iose~ ~~ ra m e:··e:·· ~ Pa ·.... Physics .'.rln~·~J l ~ HiI1!!!It'lfr~n~« in S<llic$ ~ht} ..' "/ \.oc~!!mi!il:iry fluid H~w H~~tfli.:::' ~ . Heat lIfol! F!J~~f iftl Per~iU~Me~i~ (t. .

sse "H eat S':' .'~ ii!!" t.e" ' -0' 0'" ~:·..~~.: :...:. :~ lhB!lmil :IDm! s.'.'~l · .Set up Heat Transfer in Heater itself R.:.. ~ flui..rlm ~:L~ Rt Click on "H eat Tran sfer" Ch :'0'.': ~'~l). :.g .~: .f.~: Se'Ie' ctt) ..:':..nalr rlow (spf) Heai'l!: T'raliufe.': :. ::~':. i. :'ur'c' .ef Enter Power as "Heaterf'ower" ..1i 'i'lfIIF1illl'i'ds... ~..'.: Heater:: ." :<::~: ." d o .... '" ili:ill ~I ~ . (h·t)! <:.U .. .tClick on "Heat Transfer" Choose "Heat Transfer in Solids" :: ::~._ '... :..'~j..lflI:s.~ La lIm..1..Ie'ct the:: '..:::." Se''.::'i. ~ iI\ F''ir..ins dorna.'.. :...'~ :.: :.ulilbien 1 :II!- Hea~ Tr...as: 1.h"'e'He' a"rt e'r :<::~: rna tin.t .

" .... "Te···....- '.. ..·'·p:·e:·· ..l!Inlt'fii" Highlight "Heat Transfer in Fluids 1~~ SetVelocity Field to Navier Stokes Solution Rt Click on ~~H Tran sfer in Flu ids" eat Ch·'·:o:ee:··'~. '/:. IFlea1± TI1'i!IIlIs11\e~in ~I\ui'ds. '...."' i: .ure" "m·· ' "r'3.'"" Flow C ..l. ':" - ..1i'r.lei 1 IHeaJtTrarIlsflef in Soli'd~:1 0': . '.."_ ..-~Ii'i Flu~dl!. . .." B·:··Ci:'·'·"s"· t '\.t Click on ~~Hat Tran sfer in Flu ids" e e eet Out et bourn ary ..~ '_ '_ .. '. . Set T to "T in" t) t) '. ".. : ' ..' '_~' - '.·. ..... " '.. ~"/ Se. . b~} f ~ t~ L~rEi'iifla~ fl!lW . ~ !to [Ii . '.(~f) H~l!It. 1 itil~rm m~tfii\w~ioli'll ill j[ llndia! V\i!11 !. 1.. .. nve c·t"·0'" n' t"o'"Fluid .!.' t) R. . ~. Select Inlet boundary .ink He a··t":·O· .at ..: . _...

. . ': -::Run' Heat Based o"n'Flow .ettill1gs: IHow (iPf) ~F1 Fllaim5i (J'T[~ 1HlYi: if'rlfiFnif'a t) Choose "Station ary" Pick Station ary Solver Only Solve for Heat .' ~ . SUti'~m!:!ry... Set up for Fast design study t) "r( III ~hysi~ ~!'!td..t '" [!~~r~tion !....'i3 !5. """.:·"v· .' ~~m~~ ~~h GmmdlJY]' Mcm:~ Could Run Simultaneously ... [ Stumy l "'I@) Use flo w·::·.(!~e..ll~.Y: .ij1 I III r t) J ''ilihllti €[~ 'iIi!ImE:Jls.1hyJ.ettill1g5' !.. - . : .l Ai. .i!d ml:i~ • Mirih..llkl'l -] ~:ati€l1Wi1iY 5<'tl1...J .1~i3 !5. ".• ..1. fIOt :fGi I. : : ... ~llll'-mi!lr 'k.td. f~1!......studv orevious ..I.!t~lic . results from ~ -...

: • if.·. • Rt Click on Study 2 p. ": ..·c···k··"C'::o'·m ute" .000 DOF (~1 Gbyte) Takes 52 sec ..Solve for Heat if. .! • '. 48. I. Solving for T .:.··p· .

I"~choose :. I '...: .!' f:f ~~ P'~litide 'ifr.:' ~.:~: '. :.. :...1..' . -.:' .. e!!imp~i!!nil!:i ! lkrn..' :' :.>. ~ fluidl Fr!ew ~ Sin~l!!!~I?'Jul!1ie [FlOW' Heat Transfer Boundary Conditions: :.. .':' rmal g' . low' Re k-epsllon.~.':' .. fl1!pf-t· _ MHei CemJ.~din~ 'ff'@ll' IRl!iid fkiw (fjpt) F.' Ne:. ~~~ .~tt wa"11 a" '.:.': ~nt :. t'h"'e'. "Non-Isothermal Flow' predefined m u ltiphysics y.t!iulil!: l'lll'tif:rllctt{ln (if5i1ji . ~ '.i (Mi!I'!l. '. ' ttl ThRn-Film FIOM.. .. ..luid·'$tru..Qtj:~ "Iiumu'lml. < .'e'd Pro p e'r..~r ..rmibim~ What if Flow is Turbulent? High light ~~am inar Flow' Physics L Choose your Turbulence Model k-epsilon. .(: Ii1ilmild w~: Heat (and Mass) Transf'er must account f'or: .~ from laminar sublayer All of t' his don e:··' for ou.. k-omeqa.::. :.:.nel!"~Tr~iil':~fell' .. .:~ :::': ra":die :.

'.~~ '_ " ti Do same for "Minimul11. ... ~ MlEl!Ilum :~.axi m u rn .i _. "'-' .~ 1{AlI"oi!'_ti!!Gl..: '-1 C····: n.~~: "liul'l o~l:.' " " " e'· " ...tl!'t!j it.• -. p'..._ .t Click on "Defin ition s" Ch o·"0' ~l~.- " rl"e·· '.~. '] HI:' i - ..'.~ A'M\!:If"e4:: i\r 2 (.n m'." '* Do same for "Maximum" Do again for ~~Average" !jIi. Se ··Ie:··· t' h···· He ~. . t) This time for Outflow' boundary . g" ~" ise Itlll.•"-.-'.~··d··e' o "U "II"n" .'.~".J ( Minimum IlM-~fll!tI. - '. ._ ~ : '.4""<' Qj~) !jIi..MfJ!~H~~J.' .~~...~' " '. •.'. • ~. M I· ····I·u rn & M'··.~~: t. I t -... t "r B:' ou n d a ret e:···' ··a· a '.: '.::~ .. " .ill! MHell{~U ~ I)~iiiti~iiii< ~ A'!n!1l"19 t!: R. .'..".' '. '.•..~. •.~ .'..

~ (31 ComplJJt:e IUIpilliate Sl!. ~. '.::." .p ~ 'St\li~.. 1"'0: to .' ~ Ili~~~~@" UIrlIit: 9:: ~l ~'Q Mu..:i~Par.'" 5 3":0'"b:y '::' ..V's't~Prs I~ --'_ill!'~T.:.amelri'c Swee...'.{s~ Rt Click on Study 2 . '.:' "r' 0'.."."...----r-- Temperature vs Power -~_~1J .... .".'itiI~_'HeiM:et{1] ~iI! ~ ~Ci il M~~_HEi"tt!1{ij AV!~O!Wtflcwm M ax Temperature on H eater Exceeds 350 ~-."from ... . -.'l~_ Ave Temperature on H eater Exceeds 350 ..: '.' MI"n'.la'U1fIon Parametrically Sweep Heat t) -:.a.! -~J"n'lillrf!il ~ _Ioklrl • .'.. ' ': ~·-e' .'...JHlel'terfij .: ~ "< . 'W' ~ :: •.' l '!u!' . < Plot Heater•..-..:••: A'":'ve"M'ax P' :'w.. R"7ln'"g:e'...

'j~ . "".: :. '~.'.. un '::' .': '_: -_ .' '_.' .' '..! ~ r...."_ '"....No' n'.- '.. :. .. iform t"e'rnp :::.. ct' :::: _' :: ::'..." 1"0' n flow Ie'a'rd s t' :::: n' 0' n' .:' 20 Watt Case Trailing Midline Edge ~ ~ View of Trailing Surface ~ ~ !I.- n5J 1]!iI J25l Leading Midline Edge View of Leading Surface .un .'..- -.::::. .- -.:..' '".<. :'. ...:::: nve-... : e' . ::::.' -_:" :' -. -..Simulation Provides Insight ~ :::: . 34!i _____ 1_11_1 _ U(I.:.._. ::.' -...." profile on heater '_.. . :ratt ure 0' ..' - '_.'. ifo rm . _" co' .

IDiiti1tt:HI 'Sp~IH (fJt\Ii~) j) -Et~dfo!l:h!!IDl~i!if!f ~ ~ r~uid Filow tJ ~\.iJ5 ~d~ {i.:Il ~mb~' o:~i1P«~ Con C i!"ntrMiD n!i~ .h~!5 Tlrll!n~..(@.' St~u..g"1'Yel!I~·~~~d ~~d~j(rf!l. S.~) S ~.p:~i.Jt: T1r.!!iIil!iit.~ Rt Click on Model 1 > Add Physics f!ti!. ~ RuC'~i~~FI\olv.~lI!lriIii9 [rtr::) 'Ft~ ('..pl.jjng I:. IOdin rti@1fIt5.hpm} M ~~ ~'tjon ~ [> :~ngtn.nt~· U1~i!rI ACIDIC '=Ii.l.e!1I' M~h'l. of'!- ~i!. p~ [> 'G~gm~iY n. t:. ...ll!it in IPlI.l!~~1.

Modeillilp~ Is • • e~d (lpi/f'p!)1 '·'. ~(.. I .[ni( lal Values 'Mesh ~ Stludyl .1 . lds) ~. Set Diffusion Constant ~ High light "Oonvectlon &. Set Diff'usian coefficient to 2e-9 fili eie n t: Lamiliiar'~~lfiW ts.pf) Hea JIIi.] .Link to Flow.r'(n:f) I Im:2/s. Diffu sian 1~~ .iU'lril~.of Diluted Spre£'ies.anrspcut ..

".~ . 1F1\wld~(hij l'f'~I!i5\P'O!!t of! Oij~tedl '$pedte5 rf_hd~J Tll"illU~ell'n i C(i!IlII~~~n . Set Be's ~ High light 'Tran sport of' Dilute Species" Select only the Air Domain (not Heater) ~~ to ~~ ..1!IndDiffl!Jsn~n 11 t) ~ nnl~illl ~I!iles1 V mf~O'W 1 ..Limit Diffusion to Flow Domain...·v¥ t) ~ Select Inlet boundary Set c A to ~~600" t) cA=600 t) t) t) Rt Click: on "Transport of' Dilute Speeles" Choose "Outflow" Select Outlet boundary .[iij ~ Llimillil~r'flow (~f) H~t C) .~ ee I nflow" rose' ·... Rt Click on 'Transport of' Dilute Species" Ch··0:..

"."Yetfaster reaction .B+C+··· Heat t) Rate proportion al to produ ct of con centration of reactants ~ Proportion ality con stant is expon ential fu nction of tem peratu re ~ ..~M...Yet higher temperature .' .' "/. Kaboom ! '1.. moll m3 Reaction Rate = sec cA A e (EjRT) Numerical = A CA e (EjRT) X (c A > 0) ~ Heat produced by reaction is proportional to reaction rate Q.eachon [ ~ ] = H x (Reaction Rate) t) t) Exoth errn ic : Possibility of a run-away reaction: More Heat .."...Yet more heat . . b..'. " A___.5[~Ib" i .. actions R e·· '.Higher temperature . '..

: lEn!6ly :SelKtiG~ S.a:~··c··.·.r :A IE I l.GHme1~..n ~J'"Jtl:!t WI..¥i!l: 1...ldlm~l] A'"'~:p'-Efm... .iCCfi\~iliil11 Us _lImol l/~ FIlIIJIf(m ~I.I.< .t~jCi.~ Jfm!!)li Adw"tiO:FI eFlIf.Ind D~ff'us~.fl)0) 100 l)kJlll1lo~J H'"&b:jltl:!ttllOOiJO H~·d ~'~~diElIli R_e~C!tio" Heat Prod\!.·.o 1. ''''~ T r~[I'iI~p@rt:(Ii..n··· .~e~o. f._[lm_ll_Ill!!_: m_. R:"" ctior <'e.:Tgy R:rtt.~ 1l)~ly~d ')p~:(i[~ (d1d~ :D._A~«(:. InJ if'i/J!Jj Flmdl I ~mJi~n!1 I UJII!S1 'Va ''II!!'' eactlons . ·Io··••·.. G !Omi!"~ri(mtibj'II!. 'fa ~ Lam~~ air Flow (spf:) C on\fl!!dJ Orii ..··t· e· ... .i!1IQI Ih] 121.p.j' lIl~tl!:of Ftudliillln Enter Reaction Variables Rx_Rate = c A A (FIRT) X iRxjt'!t:@ IH k~.[!_di!_i . u···.J!J INIiFnii ~pt\iIn'iol!li iJinrii: DiKlorifl!iD:l'l f~!I.rn.I!!f1CY hidf:. e (cA > 0) Heat l~:a!n~:f\err nFhJlIdl5 :(h(') ~ .a.

!!Dimg!!l .'W.o~~ fcoil' Open Global Definitions > Parameters Set H ea er_ower .Jdili:l6~n IPh~!!l :!..I.:' "..!lNItiI: Iy....I.··:n: node :> Add Studv top Ch oose "Station ary" '. Poii!r"m~~ Motllell (moa.. 'GI~I [il!'fiilll1i. I Si!i!!liiOili.ater. l .. .••• ~.!jii@JiI: of. p ...P~r iElqm!51!rdDn ~I. IPhy~in :!. ~ Solve only for Heat and Diffusion .i( ~I(ill . ~k5i LI!IMiniU il!ltctfi:!~~ Flow "!lloP'f) ifi'lllJilUid!!l(ltitll DlIu~ed:9j!!!if". ] e c f 'I MI!'~ll1oo: l'5e'lIJ~fOOi S"tud¥: r'~ 1.J Aut.I!lfmg!!l IPhYi§in :!.M!'t :!..Ii . Use Flow' result from Study 1 dJ 'illilui!:!l !!if v'!J~I!Ih'li!!!l. TiI'liil'l!'r.." •••• •••• •••• • •••• .i!I1img!!l X V V l-iIu~..~ ~ ~ ~ 'S~u.~ . 't"··o·2 :·.Set up 3rd Stationary Study (not parametric) .i'I<!l: l:... .:::. t) Rt"click o.: .O·'[W" eate . $'ti:!6~n.J "" •• _ -e •• _ .' '". •• _ '. .:' .~'l I\ia me He...'...~ TiI'liffl. .'iia._ .!ii".. 1JJ!i~ [)ii.

Based on Flow t) Rt Click on Study 3 t) Hit "Compute" Solving for T. ... c_A NO'TE: Not 'Yet Exothermic! About 5 min t) t} 96. Heat.. .)_: J) • f j .000 DOF (~1.Run Diffusion &.6 Gbytes) ~ t .. ~. " .

~:.•• [> ~ .· Ad:'· 2'nd He'rat S'·····O.l Therlmi I '[flSIlJ~aIt1JQfU 1 :1ii1i~i:a111 V.' :.:::~: .'_" :.: ~:\' . ~.' ~' :.' t.:-' Ch"o o se Flo"w""D.__ .: :: ~::. ~ ~ •) t.' t.:.' ~: :: Q lllUs@F' d efii m~d I~Heat Heat TlII'.~ nlll1s:'IT'e1r i~ F~.. un Enter Q as "Rx -Heat" ~:. a" .~r FI... • ') :..f) Hei.:.: Ma"""~~ prod uction expon entially d" '...·"e:·· ~». -.i~ds 'T (hlij it'l' IDIL"!' i:~j ..alllie: :m .''._: i:~ . . - .UF'c._ '.~:~' Heat Tiii.' .' ~ t' em :.' ~ :...'-' :. i· ..:.:~:..' .: . .> .!!11 :50 !lim!! o· :::.andier ~n :$ ali ells.' ~ .". e~..: ::~.' ~./ :." .::.f\. t. _.::o'm. . ./ ~ Ma""~~and Heat depend :." " • . HIeat: :inull1:e' ~ 'Ciener.: ~: ~:.ow (..:.1. _ .: o'n' f'lo"w'" t..mlpHeirrBhllf:e.~p.' '. t. ~."p'.: .'.aftlJifler ~n f~ uid§. :. :.ea IIy non Imear now"I One-'way Coupling in FIO'w'~ Heat g.::"e'~"n"" ant 'o''''n'' perat UF"e'" d :.!ill . " R.' j :. ..:. Mass Bi-Directionally Coupled :. ss :. Heat 5QUI~'(~ 1 :nL 'Je.. ".._~:.' ~ .Rt Click on Heat Transfer d .~ L! m'~n.

• : -.. . _ ".•• . • -..' ." w"".." • • ". .' '.. -'"".ll) '1.. . b."' &"". .n CO'" c e" nt ra"t" n' ' ' "._..•. • "_' '." '~.' • '.. .~M.' • ':..' .: ' ' . 't'l r 'it h" .•..l!. 1·0" • ' '. I.•.' . '. ::. •. ".. '."..' ".' .. f.-. . . • '~ . W"".With He~t of Re~ction Average c_A at Ou tflow = 400 m ol/m3 J! . 't\r 'it h' '0" ut" He" a't" 0" f Rx '". '.'. r'._ '.: • "_' '.<. . . ." •. " ..' '. .. ".5[~Ib.

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Heat convection .(--) Mass diffusion Heater Velocity Tern p eratu re .Flow -4.

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