# CFD simulations of combustion in Afterburner

A Project Report

Submitted in partial fulﬁlment of the

requirements for the Degree of

Master of Engineering

in

Faculty of Engineering

by

Hareesh.Bitla

Aerospace Engineering

INDIAN INSTITUTE OF SCIENCE

BANGALORE – 560 012, INDIA

July 2008

i

Acknowledgements

It is my privilege and great pleasure to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide

Prof.P.J.Paul sir, for his guidance and excellency in giving suggestions on the problems

i faced during my project work.

I acknowledge the full support and encouragement extended by Prof. B. N. Raghunandan,

Chairman of the Aerospace Engineering Department.

I thank my mom and dad, who living lonely and taking the pain of my absence only

waiting for my quick completion of my M.E, though i am not quick enough, now the

chance for me to ask sorry from them.

I thank all of my friends(shru,bindu,ashok,subbu,durga) who are there for me all the time,

during my course work.

I thank my labmates chetan bhai, abhishek, pradeep verma, for all the help they made

during my working time in the lab. I specially want to thank Ravi sir, for allowing me to

make use of high-speed computer when i am hang up with my old and slow computer.

Last but not least i sincerely believe in you, my God that you are behind my every

proceedings. Nothing much i can give you but a quote, that i am your devotee i love you

god so much.

Abstract

This thesis is an eﬀort to understand the functioning of an afterburner with both the cold

and reacting hot ﬂuids. Geometry of afterburner is modeled in 60 degrees sector. After-

burner are in use nowadays, most commonly in all the jet aircrafts, for better maneuvering

capabilities. Afterburners are devices used for thrust augmentation by dumping extra fuel

and burning the left-out oxygen in the exhaust of combustion chamber products.

Extremely complicated compressible and turbulent ﬂow phenomena happening in the

wake of ﬂameholder which are diﬃcult to analyze and understand. The present work

focuses on understanding the ﬂow phenomena in afterburner and behind the ﬂameholder.

The performance of afterburners and how the temperature ﬁelds varying in combustion

processes are studied here. The aim is Evaluation of the preliminary design of afterburner

CFD simulations.

3D steady compressible ﬂow simulations are carried out to understand afterburner ﬂows

in greater detail than that can be gathered from control volume analysis. First a conﬁdence

over the application of the tool is obtained by performing simulations on a geometry with

cold ﬂow for which ﬂow phenomenon is good.

ii

Contents

Abstract ii

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Afterburners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2 Operation of afterburner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

1.3 Afterburner and its components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2 Approach to the present report 6

2.1 Motivation for the current work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

2.2 Objective of the current work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

2.3 Organization of thesis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3 Literature review 8

3.1 Combustion Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3.2 Work by M.V.Ramana Reddy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3.3 Work by Westbrook and Dryer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3.4 Work by Ravichandran and Ganesan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

3.5 Work by Mattingley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

4 Theory of combustion 11

4.1 Chemical reactors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4.1.1 Well-stirred reactor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

4.2 Kollrack reaction mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

4.3 Blow out time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

5 Flow features 15

5.1 Shear layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

5.2 Flame stabilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

5.3 Design requirement for vee-gutter ﬂameholder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

6 Aspects of modeling 19

6.1 Conservation equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

6.1.1 Continuity equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

6.1.2 Momentum equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

6.1.3 Energy equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

iii

CONTENTS iv

6.1.4 Equation of state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

6.2 Turbulence modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

6.2.1 k − turbulence model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

6.2.2 Continuity equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

6.2.3 Momentum equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

6.3 Combustion modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

6.3.1 Eddy dissipation combustion model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

7 Mesh generation 25

7.1 Splitting Of model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

7.2 Unstructured Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

7.3 Structured Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

7.4 Hybrid mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

7.5 Mesh Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

8 Numerical methods 31

8.0.1 Discretisation of governing equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

9 Problem deﬁnition 34

9.1 Afterburner description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

9.1.1 Inlet conditions for combustor and afterburner . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

9.1.2 Blowout time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

9.1.3 Afterburner performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

10 CFD results 42

10.1 Cold ﬂow results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

10.2 Reacting ﬂow results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

11 Conclusions 59

11.1 Flameholder performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

11.2 Diﬀuser performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

11.3 Temperature plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

11.4 Mass fraction Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

List of Tables

v

List of Figures

1.1 Temperature-Entropy diagram for a jet engine with an afterburner . . . . . 2

1.2 Afterburner system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

1.3 Dry and on conditions of an Afterburner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

5.1 Flow Pattern in the vicinity of V-gutter Flameholder . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

7.1 Front Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

7.2 Middle Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

7.3 Rear Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

7.4 Middle Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

9.1 Afterburner of K9 engine at test station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

9.2 Afterburner model used with its dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

10.1 Density variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

10.2 Velocity variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

10.3 streamlines form chuteholes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

10.4 Streamlines from inlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

10.5 Streamlines from inlet and its temperature variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

10.6 Temperature distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

10.7 Temperature distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

10.8 Temperature distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

10.9 Temperature distribution at X=.35 on ZX plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

10.10Temperature distribution at X=.45 on ZX plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

10.11Temperature distribution ZX plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

10.12Temperature distribution ZX plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

10.13Temperature distribution ZX plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

10.14Temperature distribution ZX plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

10.15Temperature distribution ZX plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

10.16CO

2

mass fraction variation variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

vi

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Afterburners

Gas turbine engines for military ﬁghter aircraft are often equipped with an afterburner for

increasing the thrust output of the engine. An afterburner is a duct in the engine’s exhaust

system which acts as an auxiliary combustion chamber. The exhaust of a combustion

chamber contains a large number of unused oxygen because of the high air-fuel ratios

necessary to limit the gas stagnation temperature which the turbine blade is exposed.This

excess oxygen at the turbine exit makes it possible to burn additional fuel downstream and

thereby to increase the nozzle exit temperature and jet velocity.Much higher afterburner

temperatures are allowed than those leaving combustor,because (a)there is no highly

stressed rotating machinery downstream of the afterburner,and (b)operation is for shorter

duration periods.

Increase in eﬀective thrust can be explained using T-s diagram for a jet engine with

afterburner in ﬁg(1.1), which shows that afterburning is analogous to reheating in an

open-cycle stationary gas turbine. The energy release in afterburner at approximately

constant stagnation pressure shifts the nozzle expansion process to the right on the T-

s diagram. As a result, nozzle enthalpy and temperature between T-s diagram constant

pressure lines increase as the nozzle inlet stagnation temperature increases. This produces

higher jet velocities thus higher thrust.

1

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 2

Figure 1.1: Temperature-Entropy diagram for a jet engine with an afterburner

1.2 Operation of afterburner

Afterburner is an exhaust system that is ﬁtted to the exit of low pressure turbine in the

gas turbine engine. The main components of afterburner are: diﬀuser that reduces the ow

velocity, screech liner to attenuate the transverse oscillations, fuel manifolds to provide

proper fuel distribution and a ﬂame stabilizer that provides the recirculation zone for

ﬂame anchoring. Figure 1.2 shows the construction of afterburner. Afterburner receives

vitiated air from the exit of low pressure turbine (LPT) at a temperature range of 780

K to 1065 K, and a pressure range of 55 KPa to 380 KPa from high altitude operation

to sea level. The exit velocity of LPT is of the order 0.5 to 0.6 Mach. When one desires

to light up afterburner by admitting fuel into the core cavity, it is extremely diﬃcult or

impossible to achieve a stable ﬂame due to high incoming velocity. Hence, a diﬀuser is

employed to reduce the velocity to the level of 0.3 Mach. A recirculation zone is created by

a V-shaped bluﬀ body. Fuel is admitted through the manifold which is situated upstream

of central V-shaped- ﬂame-stabilizer. The catalyst (platinum-rhodium) which is located

in the ﬂame stabilizer helps in igniting the mixture of hot air from LPT and the fuel that

is sprayed in the vaporized form through the manifold at a pressure of 700 kPa. In the

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 3

Figure 1.2: Afterburner system

experimental test facility hot air is provided by a pre-heater ahead of afterburner. At

about 450

o

C combustion is initiated. Then, all the other three manifolds are activated to

achieve full afterburning at a fuel manifolds pressure of 2720 kPa. To simulate afterburner

entry conditions by the pre-heater, a fuel / air ratio in the range of 0.015 to 0.02 is needed.

For full afterburning the overall fuel air ratio is in the range of 0.05 to 0.06.

The transition from non-afterburning operation to afterburning operation is referred to

as lighting the afterburner and is accomplished by energizing the igniters while introducing

fuel into the afterburner through one of the fuel spray rings, referred to as the pilot

ring. The igniters initiate combustion of the fuel, the combustion being supported by

the unreacted air in the combustion products from the main combustion chamber. The

resulting ﬂame is stabilized and held in place by one of the ﬂameholder gutters, known as

the pilot gutter. Once this initial or pilot stage of afterburning is established, additional

fuel is supplied, usually sequentially, to each of the remaining or auxiliary spray rings

until all the spray rings are injecting fuel into the afterburner. The pilot ﬂame ignites the

additional fuel and the ﬂame expands from the pilot gutter to a series of auxiliary gutters

to achieve full afterburning operation. Meanwhile, the variable area nozzle opens wider

to provide additional ﬂow area for discharging the hot gasses. The provision of fuel to

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 4

Figure 1.3: Dry and on conditions of an Afterburner

the various spray rings, the opening of the variable area exhaust nozzle and the operation

of the igniters is overseen and coordinated by an automatic control system operating in

response to the position of a throttle lever set by the pilot of the aircraft. The time

required for the above described lighting process is on the order of a few seconds. The

lightening process in afterburners is shown schematically in below ﬁgures.

1.3 Afterburner and its components

The major requirement of the afterburner is to ensure adequate ﬂame stability and com-

pleteness of combustion within the speciﬁed length,while at the same time contributing

minimum total pressure loss. Due to very high speciﬁc fuel consumption, afterburners are

operated only for short durations when necessary. During the major part of ﬂight, when

the afterburner is not under operation, the components of the afterburner namely diﬀuser,

ﬂame stabilizer and fuel rings contribute a signiﬁcant amount of total pressure loss. This

loss is still more when afterburner is under operation. As it depends on the ﬂow mach

number and the ﬂame holder blockage to keep the total pressure loss down to permissible

levels. Further, in aircraft engines,length is of great importance. The design of afterburner

should be optimum so that for a given afterburner length,it oﬀers the best combination of

afterburner characteristics such as high combustion eﬃciency, low total pressure loss and

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 5

wide stability limits. To achieve these aims in the design and development of the after-

burner, adequate knowledge of the ﬂow and combustion characteristics in the afterburner

is of vital importance. Although most of the useful information about such complex ﬂow

is still obtained by experimental methods, numerical simulation can be of great help to

supplement, support and even reduce the extent of experimental work.Eventhough the

earlier works works mostly depend upon exorbitantly expensive experimental methods

and empirical correlations, the modern high-speed computers have changed the after-

burner design approach because of the reduction in the number of experiments and quick

and economical adaptability to diﬀerent geometric conﬁgurations and input conditions.

The majority of earlier numerical simulations have been two-dimensional axi-symmetric,

considering only simple form of bluﬀ bodies.The main aim of present investigation is to

predict the three-dimensional reacting ﬂow ﬁelds in a practical afterburner system.

Chapter 2

Approach to the present report

2.1 Motivation for the current work

Traditionally combustion ﬂow in the afterburner was calculated numerically and compu-

tationally by two dimensional models, where the three dimensional eﬀects in ﬂow ﬁelds

were missing. The results obtained like total pressure loss, combustion eﬃciency, mass

fraction contours in Ravichandran(10) may not resemble the actual ﬂow. No people have

used the three dimensional model of afterburner to carry out combustion calculations in

it.

Few studies like references[2],[3] have done three dimensional studies in afterburner nut

not done the combustion calculations, only cold ﬂow analysis and swirl eﬀects are stud-

ied. There is no research paper concerning the combustion ﬂow calculations in a full scale

three dimensional model numerically.

So, here is an attempt to study reacting ﬂow in afterburner using Eddy Dissipation model

for combustion, and K- model for turbulence. The required afterburner design speciﬁ-

cations are obtained from GTRE(Gas Turbine Research and Establishment ) company.

This particular afterburner is ﬁtted in K9(KAVERI) engine which is currently using in

LCA(Light Combat Aircraft).

6

CHAPTER 2. APPROACH TO THE PRESENT REPORT 7

2.2 Objective of the current work

The main objective of the proposed work is to improve the performance of afterburner on

studying the reacting mixing ﬂow. For this CFD simulations for cold ﬂow and reacting

ﬂow have done. Methodology:

· To conduct CFD simulation in the afterburner geometry by making hybrid mesh for the

model using commercially available CFD software.

· The turbulence model used will be k − model techniques.

· The combustion model used will be Eddy dissipation model techniques.

· The results obtained are analyzed and design iterations are suggested.

2.3 Organization of thesis

This thesis is divided into multiple sections, beginning with an introduction to the ﬂow

ﬁeld inside afterburner , the motivation behind this work and objectives of the Thesis

in Chapter1 and Chapter 2. Literature review is carried in chapter 3. Flow features

concern with the geometry of the afterburner are discussed in chapter 4. Chapter 5

discusses brieﬂy the turbulence theory and modeling and combustion theory and modeling

related to afterburner. Chapter 6 deals with the types of mesh commonly used for CFD

simulations. Numerical methods suitable for diﬀerent terms in Governing equations and

discretization method are discussed in chapter 7. Problem deﬁnition, methodology and

computational procedure adopted for performing the simulation are described in chapter

8. Chapter 9 deals with results and discussion of simulation work carried out with k-

turbulence model. Chapter 10 discusses conclusion of the present work carried out and

chapter 11 gives the overview of present work and future scope.

Chapter 3

Literature review

3.1 Combustion Simulation

Combustion reaction mechanism of jetA fuel used in this report is single-step oxidation

reaction, the corresponding input data is taken from Westbrook and Dryer(8). Numerical

simulation of combustion in afterburner is carried out by few people, due to the ﬂow

complexity in afterburner- high temperature levels, high turbulence levels, presence of

ﬂameholder and propelling nozzle. M.V.Ramana reddy, T.R.Shembhakar and J.J.Issac,

have done attempt to simulate the combustion in afterburner using computer code called

PHOENICS. But this study limited to two-dimensional ﬂow ﬁeld only. Isothermal ﬂow

ﬁeld studies in afterburner have carried out by Ganesan, Ravichandran(10). Aircraft

engine design book by mattingly(1) also explains lot about afterburner ﬂow ﬁeld system.

In these no combustion process is considered. Only the ﬂameholder eﬀects and swirl

eﬀects in afterburner are studied. But the present report deals with both combustion

process and ﬂameholder eﬀects.

3.2 Work by M.V.Ramana Reddy

The ﬂow in the afterburner was assumed as steady, to-dimensional axi-symmetric and

turbulent. Due to symmetry of the model computations were carried out in one half

8

CHAPTER 3. LITERATURE REVIEW 9

of the afterburner. The grid employed was 18 cells in Y-direction and 64- cells in Z-

direction. The V-gutter and nozzle were simulated by blocking the corresponding cells

in the computational domain by prescribing zero porosity for them. Computations were

carried out for both cold ﬂow and ﬂow with combust ion. The boundary conditions

are 830K static temperature, 3.2E5 Pa total pressure at the inlet. The wall is assumed

adiabatic. And the simulations were carried out by solving conservation equations using

k − turbulence model and spaldding’s eddy-breakup model.

3.3 Work by Westbrook and Dryer

The kinetic modeling of reaction mechanisms are studied thoroughly by these people.

The 30 step kollarack reaction mechanism of jetA fuel also modeled kinetically by these

two people. But we used single-step oxidation reaction of jetA fuel described kinetically

by these people. All reaction mechanisms were deﬁned by using Arrhenius kinetic rate

equation. The values of pre-exponential factor and temperature index and activation

energy foe each independent reactions westbrook and dryer have predicted unique values

after conducting several experiments. These values are very useful in deﬁning a chemical

reaction in a numerical simulation of combustion processes.

3.4 Work by Ravichandran and Ganesan

The cold ﬂow ﬁeld in an afterburner system studied experimentally and numerically by

Ravichandran and Ganesan. Experimental setup is prepared by perspex material, and

the ﬂow is studied in it. The v-gutter ﬂameholder stabilization eﬀects in an afterburner

studied eﬀectively. Numerically also the three dimensional steady state equations are

solved for diﬀerent inlet swirl conditions and velocity vectors are presented in results. For

this computational domain is discritized into 32 × 28 × 15 nodes in x, r, θ directions re-

spectively and the intercode spacing is not uniform; especially very ﬁne grid in θ direction

for radial V-gutter. The temperature of the ﬂow ﬁeld is assumed to be 900K within oper-

ating pressure 2.83atm. For various inlet swirl conditions the conservation equations are

CHAPTER 3. LITERATURE REVIEW 10

solved by SIMPLE procedure using tri-diagonal matrix algorithm. The ﬁnite diﬀerence

algebraic equations are obtained by integration over control volumes for each variables

and diﬀusive terms and the control volume boundaries. Under-relaxation factors are used

to promote the convergence.

3.5 Work by Mattingley

Engine design calculations were presented by mattingley in Aircraft Engine Design book.

It also describes the afterburner performance and ﬂameholder performance on knowing the

desired input data. AEDSys Software is developed by him which has totally 8 sections, IN-

LET, COMPRESSOR, TURBINE, NOZZLE, EQL, COMBUSTION, MAIN BURNER,

AFTERBURNER. each of this section calculates the ﬂow ﬁeld properties in that particu-

lar zone of engine. We used COMBUSTION, AFTERBURNER sections. COMBUSTION

section solves kollarack reaction mechanism of jetA fuel and gives blowout time time and

mole fractions of product species on solving WSR equations. AFTRBURNER section

calculates the afterburner performance points at diﬀerent stations of afterburner. Mat-

tingley’s work on AEDSys supports many of the calculations required while evaluating

the afterburner component’s performance.

Chapter 4

Theory of combustion

The system of partial diﬀerential equations describing the adiabatic, one dimensional,

ideal-gas phase chemical reaction without axial molecular or turbulent diﬀusion is given

by

∂n

i

∂t

+ U

∂n

i

∂x

= f

i

(n

k

, T) i, k = 1...NS (4.1)

where

f

i

= −ρ

−1

Σ(α

ij

− ´ α

ij

)(R

j

−R

−j

) j = 1...JJ (4.2)

In equation 4.2 R

j

and R

−j

are modiﬁed arrhenius expressions for forward and backward

rates for j

th

reaction.

R

j

= k

j

(ρn

k

)

˙ α

kj

(4.3)

R

−j

= k

−j

(ρn

k

)

¨ α

kj

(4.4)

In above equations n

i

is the mass-speciﬁc mole number of the i

th

species(i=1..NS), T is

the temperature; ρ is the mixture mass density; ˙ α

kj

, ¨ α

kj

are the stoichiometric coeﬃcients

of species reactants and products respectively. k

j

and k

−j

are the forward and reverse

rate constants. JJ is the total number of independent chemical reactions.

11

CHAPTER 4. THEORY OF COMBUSTION 12

4.1 Chemical reactors

The interplay of mixing and chemical and chemical processes that enable ﬂameholding, in

a wake region can be better understood by using chemical engineering or chemical reactor

theory.

4.1.1 Well-stirred reactor

The Well-stirred reactor is an idealization of ﬂow systems in which ﬂow stream is recir-

culated in some way to promote gross-mixing of products, reactants, and reaction inter-

mediates. The physical reactor is being modeled is usually referred to as a back-mixed

or jet-stirred reactor. in terms of turbulent mixing theory, the WSR assumption implies

that the gross recirculating ﬂow velocity is so great, and the turbulent diﬀusion across

streamlines so rapid, that every entering ﬂuid particle has instantaneous access to every

other ﬂuid particle. This assumption does not require that mass or energy transfer caused

by molecular diﬀusion will necessarily will occur between the ﬂuid particles.

For ﬂows that are time-steady, and for which the axial gradient term in equation4.1 can

be approximated by the ﬁnite diﬀerence formula

U

dn

i

dx

≈ u

n

i

x

so that equation(4.1) becomes

ρUA

n

i

− ` n

i

Ax

= ρf

i

(n

i

, T)i, k = 1...NS (4.5)

where ` n

i

refers the upstream or entry value of n

i

into the control volume of volume V =

Ax and ρ A u = ˙ m. with this notation WSR equations become

˙ m

V

(n

i

− ` n

i

) = ρf

i

(n

i

, T)i, k = 1...NS (4.6)

This WSR chemical reactor will be applied to ﬂameholder wake to calculate blowout time.

The chemical reactions involved in this wake region are described by 30 step kollrack

reaction mechanism and these are solved by AEDSys software.

CHAPTER 4. THEORY OF COMBUSTION 13

4.2 Kollrack reaction mechanism

In 1976 Reiner kollrack devised a 30-step reaction mechanism for modeling combustion of

”jet fuel”, including production of NO

x

. The ﬁrst two reactions are physico-elementary

reactions,but are ”global” reactions,devised to represent very great number of complex

and largely unknown steps in the pyrolysis of the jet fuel molecules to smaller fragments.

C

12

H

23

+ O

2

→5C

2

H

4

+ C

2

H

3

+ O

2

(4.7)

C

12

H

23

+ OH →6C

2

H

4

+ O (4.8)

C

2

H4 + H →C

2

H

3

+ H

2

(4.9)

H + H →H

2

(4.10)

O + O →O

2

(4.11)

H + OH →H

2

O (4.12)

H + O

2

→OH + O (4.13)

O + H

2

→OH + H (4.14)

CO + OH →CO

2

+ H (4.15)

H + H

2

O →OH + OH (4.16)

CH

3

+ O

2

→CH

2

O + OH (4.17)

HO

2

→M + H + O

2

+ M (4.18)

HO

2

+ H →OH + OH (4.19)

CH

2

O + OH →H

2

O + HCO (4.20)

O + H

2

O →OH + OH (4.21)

N

2

+ O →NO + N (4.22)

CHAPTER 4. THEORY OF COMBUSTION 14

N + O

2

→NO + O (4.23)

N + OH →NO + H (4.24)

HCO + O

2

→HO

2

+ CO (4.25)

HCO + OH →H

2

O + CO (4.26)

C

2

H

4

+ OH →C

2

H

3

+ H

2

O (4.27)

CH

2

O + HO

2

→HCO + OH + OH (4.28)

C

2

H

2

+ HO

2

→HCO + CH

2

O (4.29)

C

2

H

3

+ O

2

→C

2

H

2

+ HO

2

(4.30)

NO + HO

2

→NO

2

+ OH (4.31)

C

2

H

4

+ HO

2

→CH

3

+ HCO + OH (4.32)

H

2

+ CH

3

→CH

4

+ H (4.33)

C

2

H

2

+ OH →CH

3

+ CO (4.34)

CH

3

+ O →CH

2

O + H (4.35)

4.3 Blow out time

Which is required parameter in case of designing the ﬂame holders. It deﬁnes the time at

which the maximum rate of reaction occurs and the corresponding combustion eﬃciency

if at all perturbed from its value the ﬂame will blow-oﬀ.

To calculate the blow out time the region behind the ﬂame holder is modeled as the Well-

stirred reactor(WSR). The combustion process is assumed as 30 step reaction mechanism

and the corresponding WSR equations are solved using AEDSys software.

Chapter 5

Flow features

The mechanism of ﬂame holding in the afterburner appears to be same as in the main

burner, but there is a subtle diﬀerence between two. In the main burner primary zone

thee recirculation bubble is fueled from the inside and is conﬁned by the combustor dome

and liner walls so that the primary zone combustion is forced to take place within the

conﬁnes of recirculation bubble. Consequently, there is no discernable ﬂame front, and

spatially homogeneous combustion occurs within the micro-mixed reaction zone. In the

afterburner, however, the recirculation zone is fueled from the outside, so that discrete,

standing turbulent ﬂame front is established in the shear driven mixing layer at the outer

edge of recirculation bubble. The chemical reactions responsible for ﬂame holding occur

in a very small micro mixed reaction zone immediately behind the upstream-propagating

ﬂame front. by the time the burning gases, which are disentrained in to the recirculation

bubble, ﬂow back up stream to be re-entrained in the mixing layer, combustion is nearly

complete. There is negligible chemical reaction within hot recirculation zone, as it is

composed of almost burnt products. The hot recirculated gases that are mixed in within

external ﬂow merely help to stabilize the axial location of the standing turbulent ﬂame

front.

15

CHAPTER 5. FLOW FEATURES 16

Figure 5.1: Flow Pattern in the vicinity of V-gutter Flameholder

5.1 Shear layers

The afterburner utilizes turbulent shear layers for both ﬂameholding and ﬂame spread. To

understand this method of mixing, consider two uniform, parallel ﬂowing streams of gas

ﬂowing continuously over a splitter plate. Immediately downstream of the splitter plate,

the axial velocities are U

1

and U

2

. For clarity, it is initially assumed that the pressures

and densities of both streams are equal and constant, and that boundary layers on the

splitter plate and duct walls can be ignored.

If the to velocities diﬀer, for example U

1

> U

2

, a shear layer is generated at the interface

between two streams, in which momentum is transported laterally from faster to the slower

stream. Not only are vorticity and momentum transported laterally but also thermal and

mechanical energy, and mass(molecules) may be transported laterally as well. If the two

streams have diﬀerent molecular identities, the shear layer is also a ”mixing layer”. By

analogy with the deﬁnition of boundary layer thickness δ

m

in the ﬁgure(5.1) is deﬁned as

CHAPTER 5. FLOW FEATURES 17

the region within which the mole fractions of mixant gases diﬀer by 1 percent or more

from their respective values in the unmixed streams.

The corresponding growth rate of the shear layer for streams of diﬀerent densities given

by equation

δ

x

= C

δ

_

1 −r

1 + s

.5

r

__

1 + s

.5

2

_

_

1 −

(1 −s

.5

)(1 + s

.5

)

1 + 1.29

(1+r)

(1−r)

_

(5.1)

where

C

δ

= .25 to .45

s=

ρ

2

rho

1

r =

U

2

U

1

Another parameter used generally is mean convective velocity deﬁned by

U

c

=

U

1

+ s

.5

U

2

1 + s

.5

(5.2)

5.2 Flame stabilization

Two general types of ﬂame stabilizing devices are used generally bluﬀ body ﬂameholder

vee-gutters and piloted burners, where a small piloting heat source is used to ignite the

main fuel ﬂow.

In our present model vee-gutter ﬂameholder is employed. The vee-gutter ﬂameholders

have the advantage of low ﬂow blockage and low total pressure loss. They are simple and

lightweight and have a good development history. The wake of a vee-gutter ﬂameholder

is divided into two regions: a recirculation zone or bubble and a shear-driven mixing

layer, as shown in ﬁgure(5.1). The recirculation zone is characterized by a strong reverse

ﬂow and very low chemical reaction rates. As combustion is essentially complete in the

recirculation zone, the temperature is nearly equal to adiabatic ﬂame temperature corre-

sponding to the fuel-air ratio of the approaching stream. The mixing layer is characterized

by very strong shear, steep temperature gradients, and vigorous chemical reaction in the

micro mixed region behind the ﬂame front, which is propagating upstream against the

mean velocity within the mixing layer. Following the termination of the mixing layer by

CHAPTER 5. FLOW FEATURES 18

disentrainment of the recirculating gases, the ﬂame front continues to propagate outward

towards the walls.

The design goal is to select parameters that will cause the ﬂame region to stand at a

location between x

m

, the mixing transition point deﬁned by equations(5.1) and (5.2), and

x =

L

2

, where L is length of recirculation bubble. At about x =

L

2

the mixing layer begins

to break down as a result of disentrainment of gases from mixing layer into the recir-

culation bubble. This is an interesting balancing act because the ﬂame front must not

permitted to propagate so freely upstream that it ”ﬂashes back” to the spray bars, nor

must it be allowed to ”blow-oﬀ” downstream because the mixing layer and recirculation

zone are not long enough.

To ﬁnd the values of parameters that will provide the needed range for ﬂame stabiliza-

tion, the mixing zone will be modeled as a single micromixed well -stirred reactor(WSR)

of lateral thickness equal to the average shear layer thickness δ

m

and of axial length equal

to one-half of the recirculation bubble. The mean residence time or stay time in the WSR

can be estimated by

t

s

=

m

˙ m

=

ρδ

m

(

L

2

)

ρδ

m

U

c

=

L

2U

c

(5.3)

where U

c

is the convective velocity within the mixing layer, deﬁned by equation 4.2.

5.3 Design requirement for vee-gutter ﬂameholder

The requirement for the ﬂame front to stabilize is therefore that residence time or stay

time t

s

of the gases ﬂowing through the mixing layer must be greater than, or equal to,

the WSR residence time at blowout t

BO

which is explained in section4.3 .

because the t

s

> t

BO

in the mixing layer is required, the design requirement for ﬂame

stabilization can be stated as

t

s

=

L

2U

c

=

L

U

1

+s

.5

U

2

1+s

.5

> t

BO

(5.4)

Chapter 6

Aspects of modeling

The mathematical models used for simulating the combustion of JetA fuel in afterburner

is fully compressible, transient Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations and spatially

ﬁltered fully compressible, transient Navier Stokes equations. commercial ﬂuid dynamics

(CFD) code, CFX-11 supplied by ANSYS inc., was used to perform simulations.

6.1 Conservation equations

6.1.1 Continuity equation

∂ρu

j

∂x

j

= 0 (6.1)

6.1.2 Momentum equation

∂(ρu

i

u

j

)

∂x

j

= −

∂p

eff

∂x

i

+

∂(2(µ)S

ij

x

j

+ S

Mi

(6.2)

where µ

t

=

Cµρk

2

;C

mu

= 0.0845; S

ij

=

1

2

(

∂u

i

∂x

j

+

∂u

j

∂x

i

) ; The source term in the momentum

equation S

Mx

=0 S

My

= 0; S

Mz

= -ρ g;

19

CHAPTER 6. ASPECTS OF MODELING 20

6.1.3 Energy equation

∂ρH

eff

u

j

∂x

j

=

∂((λ + λ

t

)

∂T

∂x

j

)

∂x

j

−

∂(Σρ(D + D

t

)h

m

∂y

m

∂x

j

)

∂x

j

+ S

E

(6.3)

where ρ H

e

ff = ρ E + p

eff

; λ

t

=

µtcp

Pr

t

; Pr

t

=0.9; S

E

is the net volumetric heat release

due to radiation and combustion.

6.1.4 Equation of state

To close this system of equations, two relations must be introduced. Firstly there is the

equation of state, which for a perfect gas is

m =

pW

RT

(6.4)

where R is the universal gas constant, R= 8314 J · kg

−1

· K

−1

.

Secondly there is constitutive equation ,

h = C

p

T (6.5)

in which C

p

is the constant pressure speciﬁc heat of air. C

p

is the weak function of

temperature.

6.2 Turbulence modeling

6.2.1 k − turbulence model

The k − is a two equation turbulence model. This model is widely used because it of-

fers good compromise between numerical eﬀort and computational accuracy. This model

uses the gradient diﬀusion hypothesis to relate the Reynolds stresses to mean velocity

gradients and the turbulent viscosity. The turbulent viscosity is modeled as product of

turbulent velocity and turbulent length scale. In k− model, the turbulence velocity scale

CHAPTER 6. ASPECTS OF MODELING 21

is computed from the turbulent kinetic energy, which is provided from the solution of its

transport equation. The turbulent length scale is estimated from two properties of the

turbulence ﬁeld, usually the turbulent kinetic energy and its dissipation rate. The dissi-

pation rate of the turbulent kinetic energy is provided from the solution of its transport

equation. In k − model, k is the turbulence kinetic energy and is deﬁned as the variance

of the ﬂuctuations in velocity. It has dimensions of (L

2

T

−2

). is the turbulence eddy

dissipation (the rate at which the velocity ﬂuctuations dissipate ), and has dimensions of

per unit time (L

2

T

−3

). The k − model introduces two new variables k and into the

system of equations. The continuity and momentum equations will be then equation is

then

6.2.2 Continuity equation

∂ρu

j

∂x

j

= 0 (6.6)

6.2.3 Momentum equation

∂(ρu

i

u

j

)

∂x

j

= −

∂p

eff

∂x

i

+

∂(2(µ + µ

t

)S

ij

x

j

+ S

Mi

(6.7)

where µ

t

=

C

µ

ρk

2

;C

mu

= 0.0845; µ

t

is the viscosity accounting for turbulence.

The value of k and come directly from the diﬀerential transport equations of turbulent

kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate :

∂ρku

j

∂x

j

=

∂(α

k

(µ + µ

t

)

∂k

∂x

j

)

∂x

j

+ P

k

−ρ (6.8)

∂ρu

j

∂x

j

=

∂(α

(µ + µ

t

)

∂

∂x

j

)

∂x

j

+ C

1

k

P

k

−C

2

ρ

2

k

(6.9)

where α

k

= α

= 1.39; C

1

= 1.42 -

η(1−

η

η

0

1+βη

3

; η =

Sk

; S=

_

2S

ij

S

ij

; η

0

= 4.38; β = 0.012;

since the ﬂow is considered compressible, the equation of state is also solved which is

CHAPTER 6. ASPECTS OF MODELING 22

given by

P = ρRT (6.10)

6.3 Combustion modeling

6.3.1 Eddy dissipation combustion model

In this model, the detailed combustion mechanism of JetA fuel developed by Kollrack

(1976) is used. This mechanism involves 30 elementary reactions among 21 species:

C

12

H

23

,C

2

H

4

,C

2

H

3

,CH

4

, H

2

O, CO

2

, H

2

, CO, O

2

, N

2

, O, H, OH, HO

2

, H

2

O

2

, CH

3

,

CH

2

O, CH

2

O, HCO, N, NO. The EDC model is used to introduce turbulencechemistry

interactions. The model is based on a general reactor concept for the calculation of the

average net species production rates in turbulent reactive ﬂows. Combustion takes place

in the regions of the turbulent ﬁeld where the highest molecular ﬂuxes occur. Those re-

gions are associated with the smallest turbulence structures, the so-called ﬁne-structures.

Through a step-wise description of the turbulence energy cascade process from large to

progressively smaller eddies, an expression for the mass fraction γ

∗

of the ﬁne-structures

and for the characteristic time scale τ

∗

for mass exchange between the ﬁne-structures and

the bulk ﬂuid is derived, dependent upon the turbulence quantities and the viscosity:

γ

∗

= 9.67

3

4

_

ν

k

τ

∗

= 0.41

_

ν

(6.11)

These quantities are subsequently used in the reactor modeling of the ﬁne structures. It

is concluded that the model provides a link between the small-scale turbulence structures

(or ﬁne structures), where reactions take place, and the grid-scale turbulence structures

that can be described by turbulence models like the RNG k, which is used in this work.

A detailed analysis of the turbulence energy cascade model that was used to derive the

expressions Equations and can be found in Ertesvag and Magnussen (2000).

When the EDC model is to be integrated in a CFD code like FLOWSIM every single

CHAPTER 6. ASPECTS OF MODELING 23

computational cell is considered to be composed of a reactive space, namely the ﬁne-

structures and the surrounding ﬂuid that is inert. The reactive space is modeled as a

Perfectly Stirred Reactor (PSR) exchanging mass and energy with the surrounding inert

ﬂuid. Thus, the solution of a PSR problem in every single cell involving the system of

non-linear algebraic equations consisting of the mass and energy balances is required. To

make the simulations more robust, temporal derivatives are added in the balances and the

set of non-linear algebraic equations is transformed into an initial value problem where

the ODE set of mass and energy balances (equations(6.6) and (6.7)) is integrated form a

known initial state to steady-state.

dy

∗

m

dt

=

(y

m

−y

∗

m

)

(1 −γ

∗

)τ

∗

+

ω

∗

m

M

m

ρ

∗

m = 1, 2....NS (6.12)

dh

∗

dt

=

y

m

h

m

−y

∗

m

h

∗

m

(1 −γ

∗

)τ

∗

+ ˙ q

r

ad

∗

(6.13)

The superscript asterisk refers to quantities in the ﬁne structures. If there is no superscript

averaged quantities over the cell are meant. In Eq(6.13) the net radiative heat transfer

rate ˙ q

r

ad

∗

from the ﬁne-structures to the surrounding ﬂuid is neglected.

In this work, the implicit Euler method is used for time marching when solving the set

of ODE’s. As only the steady-state solution is needed, relatively large time steps can

be taken, thus reducing the required number of iterations and the required CPU time.

Solution of the system of Eqs(6.12) and (6.13) provides values for the variables in the

ﬁne structures (T

∗

, y

m

,.... m=1, . . ., NS) and for the net species production rates .m

in the ﬁne-structures. Eventually, the average net species production rates, R

m

, that are

substituted in the species transport equations (Eq(6.12)), which are integrated over each

control volume, are calculated from:

R

m

=

γ

∗

(1 −γ

∗

)τ

∗

(y

∗

m

−y

m

) (6.14)

Thus, the eﬀect of turbulence on the source terms, R

m

M

m

, of the species transport

equations (Eq(6.14)) is taken into account through the determination of the mass fraction

CHAPTER 6. ASPECTS OF MODELING 24

and of the characteristic time scale of the ﬁne structures.

Chapter 7

Mesh generation

The partial diﬀerential equations that govern ﬂuid ﬂow and heat transfer are not usually

amenable to analytical solutions, except for very simple cases. Therefore, in order to

analyze ﬂuid ﬂows, ﬂow domains are split into smaller subdomains (made up of geometric

primitives like hexahedrons and tetrahedrons in 3D and quadrilaterals and triangles in

2D). The governing equations are then discritized and solved inside each of these sub-

domains. Typically, one of three methods is used to solve the approximate version of

the system of equations: ﬁnite volumes, ﬁnite elements, or ﬁnite diﬀerences. In a CFD

analysis, the number of cells in the mesh should be taken suﬃciently large, such that an

adequate resolution is obtained for the representation of the geometry of the ﬂow domain

and the expected ﬂow phenomena in this domain. The accuracy of numerical solution

is partly determined by the nature of the mesh used to represent the physical domain.

In CFD, numerical error are dependent on quality of mesh and becomes visible in ﬂow

solution. Diﬀerent types of mesh generation techniques are discussed below.

7.1 Splitting Of model

Mesh generation is carried out in Ansys IcemCfd software. Two types of meshes can be

created for a model one is structured mesh, other is unstructured mesh. Present model

25

CHAPTER 7. MESH GENERATION 26

Figure 7.1: Front Part

is divided into three parts to proceed with mesh generation(Front part, middle part,

rear part). Middle part is done with unstructured mesh. This part consists of V-gutter

assembly and chute holes. Making a structured mesh to this geometries is a complex

procedure so for that reason unstructured mesh has been created to this part. Front and

rear parts are done with structured mesh.

The details of unstructured and structured meshes are explained brieﬂy in the following

sections.

7.2 Unstructured Mesh

An unstructured mesh is characterized by irregular connectivity is not readily expressed

as a two or three dimensional array in computer memory. This allows for any possible

element that a solver might be able to use. Compared to structured meshes, the storage

requirements for an unstructured mesh can be substantially larger since the neighbor-

hood connectivity must be explicitly stored. The most popular family of algorithms for

unstructured grid generation are those based upon Delaunay triangulation, but other

methods, such as quadtree or octree approaches are also used. Given a set of points in a

CHAPTER 7. MESH GENERATION 27

Figure 7.2: Middle Part

Figure 7.3: Rear Part

CHAPTER 7. MESH GENERATION 28

Figure 7.4: Middle Part

plane, a Delaunay triangulation of these points is the set of triangles such that no point

is inside the circumcircle of a triangle. The triangulation is unique if no three points are

on the same line and no four points are on the same circle. The octree approach is based

on spatial subdivision algorithm in which cells are recursively subdivided until required

resolution is obtained. In RANS calculation, unstructured mesh is preferred in the region

where convective ﬂuxes are dominant. Part of the model with unstructured mesh is shown

in ﬁg2.1.

7.3 Structured Mesh

Structured mesh generation is popular and successful method of discretising domain.

The method is based on direct mapping from physical domain to computational domain.

Boundary points prescribed within physical domain are used to interpolate points within

computational domain. The major advantage of structured mesh generation is that the

implicit mapping inherently stores the mesh connectivity and hence maintaining low mem-

ory overheads. In RANS calculation, structured mesh is preferred in the regions where

viscous stresses are dominant. A structured mesh is characterized by regular connectivity

CHAPTER 7. MESH GENERATION 29

that can be expressed as a two or three dimensional array. This restricts the element

choices to quadrilaterals in 2D or hexahedra in 3D. Structured mesh is obtained using

two types of algorithms namely Algebraic grid generation algorithms and Numerical grid

generation algorithm. In Algebraic grid generation algorithms, coordinates of nodes is

calculated using some functions. In Numerical grid generation algorithms, coordinates of

nodes is calculated by solving partial diﬀerential equations. Blocking had done for the

following shown parts of the model to create structure mesh. The mesh statistics follows

as

Rare part mesh - 2lakh elements, 3lakh nodes

Front part mesh - 3 lakh elements, 4 lakh nodes

CHAPTER 7. MESH GENERATION 30

7.4 Hybrid mesh

A hybrid mesh is a mesh that contains structured portions and unstructured portions.

Hybrid mesh is similar to unstructured mesh in that they use identical method of data

storage. The only diﬀerence is that, the hybrid meshes are constructed using more then

one cell topology. The advantage is that cells of diﬀerent topology can placed in ﬂow

region where they are most suited. Hybrid mesh consists of pyramidal elements. These

elements are created when we merge unstructured and structured meshes. Structured and

unstructured meshes which are created for the model parts are merged ﬁnally across the

interfaces to create hybrid mesh for the entire model as shown in ﬁgure.

7.5 Mesh Statistics

Structured mesh

For Front part

Number of elements - 44271

Number of nodes - 38857

For Rear Part

Number of elements - 53811

Number of nodes - 47479

Unstructured mesh(middle part)

Number of elements - 547518

Number of nodes - 92616

Hybrid mesh

Number of elements - 653876

Number of nodes - 179276

This particular Hybrid mesh is imported to Ansys Cfx Softare to solve the ﬂow ﬁeld

in the model.

Chapter 8

Numerical methods

The mathematical models discussed in chapter 6 deﬁne the general equations for which

we wish to ﬁnd the solution. In general it is not possible to derive analytical solutions to

these equations, so other methods must be found. Numerical methods are generally used

in these circumstances. the fundamental numerical method used in this work is:

The geometry is discritized into many small volumes (mesh or grid); The conservation

equations are integrated over the discritized volumes;

The modiﬁed conservation equations are approximated by ﬁnite diﬀerence equations ; and

The ﬁnite diﬀerence equation are solved using an iterative solver.

As the CFX-10 commercial CFD code was used to simulate the ﬂuid ﬂows, only a brief

outline of the numerical models used will be presented here, adapted from user manual

of the code. For a more complete derivation of these equations the reader is referred to

Versteeg and Malalasekara (4), Ferziger and Peric (2), Patankar(3) or Fletcher (11).

8.0.1 Discretisation of governing equations

This approach involves discretizing the spatial domain into ﬁnite control volumes using

a mesh. The governing equations are integrated over each control volume, such that the

relevant quantity (mass, momentum, energy, etc.) is conserved in a discrete sense for each

control volume.

The ﬁgure below shows a typical mesh with unit depth (so that it is two-dimensional),

31

CHAPTER 8. NUMERICAL METHODS 32

on which one surface of the ﬁnite volume is represented by the shaded area.

It is clear that each node is surrounded by a set of surfaces which comprise the ﬁnite

volume. All the solution variables and ﬂuid properties are stored at the element nodes.

Consider the mean form of the conservation equations for mass, momentum and a passive

scalar, expressed in Cartesian coordinates

∂ρu

j

∂x

j

= 0 (8.1)

∂(ρu

i

u

j

)

∂x

j

= −

∂p

eff

∂x

i

+

∂ (2(µ + µ

t

)S

ij

)

x

j

+ S

Mi

(8.2)

∂ρH

eff

u

j

∂x

j

=

∂

_

(λ + λ

t

)

∂T

∂x

j

_

∂x

j

−

∂

_

Σρ(D + D

t

)h

m

∂ym

∂x

j

_

∂x

j

+ S

E

(8.3)

These equations are integrated over a control volume, and Gauss divergence theorem is

applied to convert some volume integrals to surface integrals. For control volumes that

do not deform in time, the time derivatives can be moved outside of the volume integrals

and the equations become:

_

S

ρU

j

dn

j

= 0 (8.4)

_

S

ρU

j

U

i

dn

j

= −

_

S

Pdn

j

+

_

S

mu

eff

_

∂U

i

∂x

j

+

∂U

j

∂x

i

_

dn

j

+

_

V

SU

j

dV (8.5)

_

S

ρU

j

H

eff

dn

j

=

_

S

Γ

eff

dn

j

(8.6)

where V and S respectively denote volume and surface regions of integration, and dn

j

is

the diﬀerential Cartesian component of the outward normal surface vector. The surface

integrals are the integrations of the ﬂuxes and the volume integrals represent source or

accumulation terms. Changes to these equations due to control volume deformation are

presented below

The ﬁrst step in solving these continuous equations numerically is to approximate

them using discrete functions. Now consider an isolated mesh element such as the one

shown below. The surface ﬂuxes must be discretely represented at the integration points

to complete the conversion of the continuous equation into their discrete form. The

CHAPTER 8. NUMERICAL METHODS 33

integration points, ipn, are located at the center of each surface segment in a 3D element

surrounding the ﬁnite volume. The discrete form of the integral equations are written as

Σ

ip

(ρU

j

∆n

j

)

ip

= 0 (8.7)

Σ

ip

(P∆n

i

)

ip

+ Σ

ip

(µ

eff

(

∂U

i

∂x

j

+

∂U

j

∂x

i

)δn

j

)

ip

+ S

Ui

V = σ

ip

˙ m

ip

(U

i

)

1p

(8.8)

σ

ip

˙ m

ip

φ

1p

= σ

ip

(Γ

eff

∂φ

∂x

j

δn

j

+ S

φ

V (8.9)

where V is the control volume, the subscript ip denotes an integration point, the sum-

mation is over all the integration points of the ﬁnite volume, δn

j

is the discrete outward

surface vector,δt is the time step. Note that the First Order Backward Euler scheme

has been assumed in this equation, although a second order scheme is also available as

discussed below. The discrete mass ﬂow through a surface of the ﬁnite volume is denoted

by ˙ m ip and is given by:

˙ m = (ρU

j

δn

j

)

ip

(8.10)

High resolution scheme

The High Resolution Scheme computes locally to be as close to 1 as possible without

violating boundedness principles. The recipe for is based on that of Barth and Jesperson.

The high resolution scheme is therefore both accurate (reducing to ﬁrst order near dis-

continuities and in the free stream where the solution has little variation) and bounded.

Note that for vector quantities, such as velocity, beta is independently calculated for each

vector component

Chapter 9

Problem deﬁnition

9.1 Afterburner description

The geometry considered for modeling is Afterburner system of K9 engine. It is consisting

of liner, vee-gutter ﬂameholder, spay bars for fuel injection, and nozzle. The geometry

and its details are shown in below ﬁgures.

9.1.1 Inlet conditions for combustor and afterburner

Since the inlet of the afterburner receives exhaust gases from main combustion chamber,

the mass fractions of species gases left out in the exhaust mixture has to be calculated.

For this NASA glenn’s computer program has used. The performance points for main

burner are shown in below tables.

FuelFlow(

Kg

s

) AirFlow(

Kg

s

) Pressure(KPa) Temp(K) Fuel −AirRatio

0.984 46.35 212.0 1046 0.0212

Bypass ﬂow conditions for main burner listed as:

BypassFlow(Kg/s) Pressure(KPa) Temp(K)

9.1 220.3 458.2

34

CHAPTER 9. PROBLEM DEFINITION 35

Figure 9.1: Afterburner of K9 engine at test station

Figure 9.2: Afterburner model used with its dimensions

CHAPTER 9. PROBLEM DEFINITION 36

The above ﬂow conditions were setup in the NASA glenn’s computer program and the

exhaust of main burner gas’s species concentration is calculated. These values will be

the core ﬂow inlet conditions for afterburner. Main burner exhaust gas mixture’s species

concentration listed in below table:

Mass fractions

C

2

0.15886

CO

2

0.06363

H

2

O 0.02478

N

2

0.75273

To allow the diﬀerent mass ﬂow through the nozzle during combustion process, the area

of the nozzle exit diameter can be altered. And the values suitable for cold ﬂow and

reacting ﬂow of nozzle diameter listed as:

Coldflow(meters) Hotflow(meters)

0.548 0.024

9.1.2 Blowout time

Once the meshed model has imported to CFX ﬂow solver, the corresponding core inlet,

bypass ﬂow, fuel mass ﬂow conditions will be given and the ﬂow is solved. Now considering

the ﬂow ﬁeld behind the vee-gutter ﬂameholder, the wake behind it forms a recirculation

region. This region is now modeled as well-stirred chemical reactor in AEDSys KINETX

software. The length and area of this bubble are measured from ﬂow simulations, these

will be the input values for KINETX software. The data entry values are listed in below

table.

A(cm

2

) L(cm) Type ˙ mA ˙ m

f

52 3.5 WSR 1 0.02

KINETX software solves the 30 step Kollarack combustion reaction mechanism of jet fuel

in this recirculation region and gives blowout time, residence time, mole fractions,mass

fractions etc.,. And the values of these are listed below in table.

CHAPTER 9. PROBLEM DEFINITION 37

FlowElementType WSR @Blowout(WSR)

EquivalenceRatio 0.3109 0.3109

ResidenceTime(sec) 4.474E −3 6.244E −4

Area(cm

2

) 52.00 52.00

Length(cm) 3.50 0.00

V olume(cm

3

) 182.00 0.00

SpaceV elocity(m/s) 7823.00 294.50

Flowrate(Kg/sec) 1.02 1.02

Enthalpy(kJ/Kg) −2412.00 −2412.00

Combustionefficiency −0.0347 −43.28

Temperature(K) 1045.00 0.00

CHAPTER 9. PROBLEM DEFINITION 38

Species MoleNumbers MoleFractions MassFractions

C

12

H

23

1.162E −04 1.196E −04 1.945E −02

C

2

H

2

1.795E −07 1.847E −07 4.673E −06

C

2

H

3

7.992E −07 8.226E −07 2.162E −05

C

2

H

4

4.894E −06 5.037E −06 1.373E −04

CH

2

O 1.714E −12 1.765E −12 5.147E −11

CH

3

4.872E −12 5.015E −12 7.326E −11

CH

4

1.000E −20 1.029E −20 1.604E −19

CO 2.522E −12 2.596E −12 7.063E −11

CO

2

4.106E −02 4.226E −02 1.81

HCO 4.146E −12 4.268E −12 1.203E −10

H 3.576E −12 3.681E −12 3.605E −12

H

2

8.633E −14 8.917E −14 1.746E −13

H

2

O 3.906E −02 4.020E −02 0.704

HO

2

1.795E −07 1.847E −07 5.923E −06

N 1.156E −20 1.190E −20 1.620E −19

NO 1.721E −20 1.771E −20 5.163E −19

NO

2

1.000E −20 1.029E −20 4.601E −19

N

2

0.750 0.772 21.0

O 4.277E −12 4.402E −12 6.843E −11

OH 1.073E −10 1.104E −10 1.824E −09

O

2

0.141 .0145 4.51

9.1.3 Afterburner performance

From experiments done, the inlet pressure and temperature conditions are known. In

data entry the required input is given as listed below in table:

Angle R Ga1 Ga2 PTa1 PTa2 TTa1 TTa2 GFs

35 0.96 46.611 9.76 211.7 222.2 1046 463 2.224

CHAPTER 9. PROBLEM DEFINITION 39

where

Ga1 - core mass ﬂow(kg/s)

Ga2 - Bypass mass ﬂow (kg/s)

Gfs - Fuel mass ﬂow (kg/s)

PTa1 - Total pressure of core ﬂow(KPa)

PTa2 - Total pressure of bypass ﬂow (KPa)

TTa1 - Total temperature of core ﬂow (K)

TTa2 - Total temperature of bypass ﬂow (K)

Input to AFTRBRN to compute diﬀuser performance Diﬀuser performance can

be obtained by giving following input data.

Totalpressure(kPa) 211.70

TotalTemperature(K) 1046.0

Machnumber 0.5

Mixturegasflow(Kg/sec) 23.00

Outerradius(cm) 40.000

Innerradius(cm) 37.477

Height(cm) 5.0467

Pressure(kPa) 179.75

V elocity(m/sec) 310.2

Area(m

2

) 8.2525

The above values have given in AEDSys AFTRBRN software and the diﬀuser performance

is obtained. The results are listed below in table:

Diﬀuser

CHAPTER 9. PROBLEM DEFINITION 40

˙ m(Kg/sec) 23.00

γ 1.336

Pt(kPa) 208.7

Tt(K) 1046

Pressure(kPa) 206.90

Mach 0.1137

V elocity(m/sec) 58.42

Area(m

2

) 34.91

Area

∗

(m

2

) 6.756

I(N) 1.0656

Diﬀuser Performance

DiffuserEfficiency 0.9006

Pressurerecoverycoefficient 0.8503

Totalpressureratio 0.9858

Totalpressurelosscoefficient 9.3797E −02

Totalpressureloss 6.3031E −02

Flame Holders

Blowout time which is obtained from KINETX is given as input to get the ﬂameholder

performance. The listed below tables are having ﬂameholder performance values:

˙ m(Kg/sec) 24.10

γ 1.300

Pt(kPa) 208.6

Tt(K) 2000

Pressure(kPa) 206.70

Mach 0.1196

V elocity(m/sec) 80.14

Area(m

2

) 34.91

Area

∗

(m

2

) 7.075

I(N) 1.3716

CHAPTER 9. PROBLEM DEFINITION 41

Flameholder performance

DragCoefficient(C

D

) 0.5751

Totalpressurelosscoefficient 0.9696

Totalpressureratio 0.9917

Flame holders Dimensions required

15

∗

vee −gutterwidth(cm) 0.6667

Channelheight(cm) 6.667

Afterburnerlength(cm) 23.55

Chapter 10

CFD results

Single step reaction of jetA fuel combustion has simulated using Eddy dissipation com-

bustion model and k − turbulence model in afterburner using ANSYS CFX ﬂow solver.

10.1 Cold ﬂow results

42

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 43

Figure 10.1: Density variation

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 44

Figure 10.2: Velocity variation

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 45

Figure 10.3: streamlines form chuteholes

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 46

Figure 10.4: Streamlines from inlet

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 47

Figure 10.5: Streamlines from inlet and its temperature variation

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 48

Figure 10.6: Temperature distribution

10.2 Reacting ﬂow results

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 49

Figure 10.7: Temperature distribution

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 50

Figure 10.8: Temperature distribution

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 51

Figure 10.9: Temperature distribution at X=.35 on ZX plane

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 52

Figure 10.10: Temperature distribution at X=.45 on ZX plane

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 53

Figure 10.11: Temperature distribution ZX plane

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 54

Figure 10.12: Temperature distribution ZX plane

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 55

Figure 10.13: Temperature distribution ZX plane

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 56

Figure 10.14: Temperature distribution ZX plane

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 57

Figure 10.15: Temperature distribution ZX plane

CHAPTER 10. CFD RESULTS 58

Figure 10.16: CO

2

mass fraction variation variation

Chapter 11

Conclusions

11.1 Flameholder performance

Wake behind the V-gutter ﬂameholder-that is the recirculation region, is modeled as well-

stirred reactor, and the ﬂow inside this reactor is solved in AEDSys KINETX software.

The result from which showing that residence time is greater than the blowout time, which

is the condition ﬂame stabilization. So the performance of V-gutter ﬂameholder is good

enough.

11.2 Diﬀuser performance

After giving input conditions for afterburner in AEDSys AFTRBRN software, the diﬀuser

performance values are obtained. The mach number at the exit of diﬀuser is 0.17, which

is the signiﬁcant thing required for GTRE company. SO following the diﬀuser dimensions

might help them to improve the performance of afterburner.

59

CHAPTER 11. CONCLUSIONS 60

11.3 Temperature plots

The temperature distributions behind the ﬂameholder showing the temperature regions

along the edge of the recirculation bubble. Telling that the combustion process is occuring

in the micro-mixing shear layer by entraining unburnt products into it and disentraining

burnt products into recirculation region.

From temperature distribution along planed we can note that tha maximum attained

temperature was 1230K, which is approximately nearer to the adiabatic ﬂame temperature

of the mixture combustion.

Near liner region in the plots always showing the lesser teperatures this is due to the

attached ﬂow observed which is comming out of chute holes. The liner can bare higher

temperatures by its material, so changing the chute hole design will probably help to mix

the bypass ﬂow with core ﬂow and higher temperature near the liner.

11.4 Mass fraction Plots

The mass fraction variation of jetA fuel curve along the length of afterburner showing the

complete combustion of fuel by not leaving any of the fuel left in mixture.

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