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The 6th International Conference on Hydraulic Machinery and Hydrodynamics Timisoara, Romania, October 21 - 22, 2004

ANALYSIS OF THE GAMM FRANCIS TURBINE DISTRIBUTOR 3D FLOW FOR THE WHOLE OPERATING RANGE AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE GUIDE VANE AXIS LOCATION

Sebastian MUNTEAN, PhD, Senior Researcher* Center of Advanced Research in Engineering Sciences Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch Sandor BERNAD, PhD, Senior Researcher Center of Advanced Research in Engineering Sciences Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch Ioan ANTON, PhD, Professor, Member of the Romanian Academy Department of Hydraulic Machinery “Politehnica” University of Timisoara Romeo F. SUSAN-RESIGA, PhD, Professor Department of Hydraulic Machinery “Politehnica” University of Timisoara

*Corresponding author: Bv Mihai Viteazu 24, 300223, Timisoara, Romania Tel.: (+40) 256 403692, Fax: (+40) 256 403700, Email: seby@acad-tim.tm.edu.ro ABSTRACT The paper presents a numerical investigation of the 3D flow in the distributor (stay vanes and guide vanes) of the GAMM Francis turbine. The domain corresponds to the distributor (stay vane and guide vane) interblade channel. The distributor computational domain is bounded upstream and downstream by cylindrical and conical patches, respectively. The first one corresponds to the spiral casing outflow section, while the second one is conventionally considered to be a conical patch upstream the runner. On the distributor inlet section a constant radial and circumferential velocity components corresponding to an ideal spiral case, with zero axial velocity. Since we assume a perfect spiral casing, the distributor inlet velocity field has no circumferential variation. On the outlet section a measured pressure profile is considered. The distributor domain is discretized using an unstructured mesh. There are three main issues addressed in this paper: first, using the numerical methodology presented above, the distributor flow for several guide vane angle values is computed. As a result, the guide vane torque versus guide vane opening angle is computed for the actual position of the guide vane axis; second, we investigate the flow for the whole range of the guide vane positions, at four different locations of the guide vane axis. KEYWORDS Francis turbine distributor, guide vane axis optimization. NOMENCLATURE

cr = cu =

ca =

cm =

**Vr 2 Eref Vu 2 Eref
**

Vz 2 Eref

[-] radial velocity coefficient [-] tangential velocity coefficient [-] axial velocity coefficient

(cr )2 + (c z )2

M g

[-] meridian velocity coefficient [Nm] torque [m/s2] gravity

Subscripts and Superscripts r radial direction u tangential direction z axial direction ABBREVIATIONS ref gv in, out min, max reference section (draft tube inlet section) guide vane inlet section, outlet section minimum and maximum opening

1. INTRODUCTION The Francis turbine distributor, which includes two radial cascades in tandem, is an essential component of the turbine. The stay vanes are fixed and unloaded, while the guide vanes have adjustable position in correlation with the turbine discharge. The guide 131

and later used to define equivalent guide vane openings as the guide vane axis location is modified. The position of the force vector support with respect to the guide vane axis influences the torque magnitude. The paper conclusions are summarized in the last section 2.8]. a new location of the guide vane axis is identified. as far as the blade loading is concerned. For each axis position considered. Although the stay vane and guide vane radial cascades can be analysed using a simplified 2D inviscid flow model. As a result. Then. The corresponding guide vane loading is transmitted to the vane axis as a force and torque. We define the optimum axis position by imposing the equality of the magnitudes of torque extremum values. Moreover. viscous effects can be neglected for the present analysis and optimization procedure. in this paper we consider a 3D steady Euler flow in the Francis turbine distributor. an optimization criterion is proposed and used in order to minimize the loading of the turbine regulating system. In conclusion. 132 . One can easily observe the typical configuration of a Francis turbine distributor. by modifying the guide vane axis location. in the present study we are employing a full 3D flow computation to obtain an accurate evaluation of the guide vane loading and torque. The parametric study performed in this paper requires the modification of the domain geometry according to variable guide vane opening angle. with a minimum torque value and a minimum loading of the regulating mechanism. The computational domain is bounded by two angular periodic lateral surfaces that Figure 1. there are practically no flow detachments on the guide vanes for the whole operating range. Section 4 presents a parametric study of the turbine distributor. considering the original guide vane axis location. by examining the variation of the torque in the guide vane axis at variable guide vane opening. as one can infer from the meridional cut shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. As a result. and the regulating mechanism. The guide vane is shown for several positions. Meridional cross section through the GAMM Francis turbine model [7.8] Section 2 presents the 3D computational domain and the boundary conditions. Since the flow in the turbine distributor is accelerated. at constant head. ranging from completely closed ( α gv = 0 ) to maximum opening ( α gv = 35o ). [7. the flow can be considered steady. As a result.vanes open synchronously modified by an appropriate rotation around axes parallel to the machine axis. since no sources of unsteadiness are present in the spiral case or further upstream. and the extremum torque values are obtained. the distributor dischargepressure drop characteristic curve is computed. and it is preferable to minimize this value. COMPUTATIONAL DOMAIN AND BOUNDARY CONDITIONS Figure 3 presents a top view of the GAMM Francis turbine distributor. Moreover. Figure 1 shows a three-dimensional view of the GAMM Francis turbine considered in the present study. In Section 3 we first compute a least squares approximation of the discharge versus guide vane opening correlation. The present paper addresses this issue. The three-dimensional cut through the GAMM Francis turbine. This choice is motivated by observing that 3D flow affects are significant in the neighbourhood of the guide vane trailing edge. where the torque magnitude reaches very large values. with the actual stay vane and guide vane geometry [7]. The maximum torque magnitude influences the mechanical design of the turbine regulating system. a momentum versus opening angle curve is computed. This is generally the case for medium/large specific speed Francis turbines. This result is particularly important for large hydraulic turbines. from the turbine hillchart. the variation of the torque in the guide vane axis is computed versus the guide vane opening angle.

DISTRIBUTOR FLOW ANALYSIS Using the above computational domain and boundary conditions. as shown in Figure 5. we compute the steady 3D Euler flow in the Francis turbine distributor. measured on the survey axis BB’ form Fig. 3 bottom. The velocity field here has a negligible component parallel to the machine axis ( ca = 0 ). see Fig. In doing so. we compute the correlation between the discharge and the guide vane opening angle. First. when designing the turbine regulating system. as well as a rapid re-meshing for each guide vane position under consideration. Adjusting guide vane (24 blades) discharge. while keeping the inlet angle constant (corresponding to the spiral case geometry). Of course. including the completely closed position. 5. while the maximum (positive) torque corresponds to an opening smaller than the value at best efficiency point ( α = 25o ). However. as shown in Fig. as one can see from Fig. 5. A polynomial least squares fit (solid line) is used to interpolate the numerical values. It can be seen that there are two extrema: the minimum (negative) value corresponds to the completely closed position. An analytical representation for the experimental data is obtained using a polynomial least squares fit. This is not a rigorous boundary condition. and to determine the extremum values. The radial and tangential inlet velocity components are computed for each discharge value. the 3D flow simulation is performed. This choice allows the minimum change in the computational domain geometry. Two hillcharts were available for the GAMM turbine. an experimental pressure profile. Figure 6 shows the variation of the torque for twelve guide vane openings. Figure 4 shows the full 3D computational domain for the distributor flow computation. The inlet section corresponds to the spiral case outlet. The differences are quite small. On this section pressure conditions must be imposed. since the pressure profile is changing with variable . Distributor inlet section Distributor outlet section Stay vane (24 blades) Displacement of the guide vane blade at: Maximum opening αgv =35 Nominal opening αgv =25 Minimum opening αgv =0 Figure 4. Top view of the GAMM Francis distributor and computational domain. and the torque in the guide vane axis is computed using the pressure distribution on the guide vane. one of them being the conventional one. the maximum absolute value of the torque is to 133 Figure 3. 2. 3. and can be further used for the parametric study.are able to include the guide vane for all opening angle values. Three-dimensional computational domain for the GAMM Francis turbine distributor. the influence on the guide vane torque is unlikely to be significantly affected by the details of the outlet condition. It corresponds to a 3D channel which includes one stay vane and one guide vane. and the second one being computed without taking into consideration the draft tube. It has been concluded. for constant nominal head. The outlet section for the distributor domain in Figure 4 corresponds to a conical patch upstream the runner (see BB’ in Figure 2). is considered in the present investigation. the channel is bounded by the upper and lower distributor rings. that a parabolic representation of the Q = f ( α ) dependence is accurate enough. Besides the periodic lateral surfaces. Q = f ( α ) . Once the discharge known at each guide vane opening. Since the present study does not deal with a coupled flow distributor-runner. we are considering the experimental data from the turbine hillchart.

Such a curve is shown in Fig. An optimum design will first minimize the loading. c l l1 l2 a0 e a gv gv l 01 R l0 l 02 b O gv Figure 7. the original guide vane axis location.be considered for the structural analysis.07208 (e = 0. Guide vane geometrical parameters. Traditionally.e. without any reference to the actual flow field. and l02 are defined in Figure 7. 6 correspond to the actual GAMM Francis turbine design. one question to be answered is how can one define equivalent guide vane openings. Guide vane torque versus guide vane angle for the GAMM distributor at n0 = 0. and this can be accomplished by an appropriate choice of the axis location. Figure 5. l01 . one obtains the distributor pressure drop ∆p = f1 (α ) . . this equivalence can be established using various geometrical considerations. practically the whole radial cascade geometry is modified. As a result. since the Q = f ( α ) dependence shown in Fig. 134 Figure 8. Figure 7 presents the geometrical parameters used to define the axis position with respect to the symmetrical guide vane chordline. we are proposing here a new approach. However. where the numerical data were approximated quite well by a third degree polynomial least squares fit.e. This curve is computed for the original guide vane axis position. i. i. 8. l −l n0 = 01 02 . The eccentricity e is the distance from the axis position to the guide vane mid-chord point. 2 ⋅ l0 One can easily see that by changing the guide vane axis position. 5 is no longer valid for other eccentricity values. The correlation between the turbine discharge and the guide vane opening angle. based on the results of the numerical simulation. When computing the flow field at variable guide vane opening. where the segments l0 . The results shown in Fig. Figure 6. actual GAMM Francis turbine design). The original design considers e = 0 . The dimensionless eccentricity n0 is defined as. Pressure drop versus guide vane angle for the GAMM distributor.

■ for n0 = 0. 5) and ∆p = f1 (α ) (from Fig. as follows: the optimum guide vane axis location is the one that gives equal magnitudes of the torque extrema. ▲ for n0 = 0. We are now in position to state an optimization criterion. Figure 11. • for n0 = 0. OPTIMIZATION OF THE GUIDE VANE AXIS LOCATION Using the methodology described in Section 3. no matter the guide vane eccentricity. It is easy to see that in this case. 9. i. and the constant opening lines on the turbine hillchart will be slightly shifted. 8).8165 Nm min is obtained by moving the guide vane shaft by 135 . Figure 9. 9. two hydraulically equivalent cascade regimes should coincide on the characteristic curve from Fig.07208 (e=0). 4. 10 that the torque extremum values are largely influenced by the axis position.After eliminating the guide vane opening angle between Q = f (α ) (from Fig. at different eccentricity values. the minimum guide vane torque (M)gv = 0.e.00247 (e = -5 mm). Guide vane torque variation versus the guide vane opening. However. the torque extrema has also a minimum value in comparison to other configurations. Using the distributor characteristic curve above. In other words. we can introduce a hydraulic equivalence criterion as follows: two guide vane radial cascade configurations are said to be equivalent if for the same discharge values the corresponding pressure drop values are equal. the maximum value (M )gv and the value at the closing max position of the guide vane . the corresponding opening angles will be different. According to the o criterion defined above the optimum eccentricity for GAMM distributor is eopt = −2. thus answering to the original requirement of minimizing the turbine regulating system loading. The optimum shaft position corresponds to the intersection of the torque extreme value lines. we are performing a parametric study of the guide vane torque for several axis eccentricity values. It is easy to see from Fig. The dashed curves correspond to the third order polynomial least squares fits. Guide vane torque extrema versus the guide vane shaft axis eccentricity. for several values of the axis eccentricity. for three additional guide vane axis position (besides the original one.697mm. which corresponds to the solid curve): ♦ for n0 = -0.07208 (e = 0). Obviously.21656 (e = +10 mm).14508 (e = +5 mm). the above criterion will insure the same runner inlet flow conditions at a give discharge. one obtains the hydraulic characteristic curve for the distributor. Figure 10. Pressure drop versus discharge for the GAMM distributor at n0=0. These extrema are plotted versus the eccentricity in Figure 11. ∆p = f 2 (Q ) shown in Fig. In other words. The torque variation is shown in Figure 10.(M )gv .

Politehnica University of Timisoara 8. Moskwa. pp 77-84 3.. In: Sottas G. Gros L. vol 2. Figure 12 presents the original (solid line) and optimum (dashed line) torque distribution for the whole range of the GAMM guide vane opening.. and Ryhming I. Parkinson E. Numerical computations have been performed at the Numerical Simulation and Parallel Computing Laboratory from the “Politehnica” University of Timisoara. Figure 12. Yugoslavia.L. as well as the optimization criterion.L.. Ph. (2001) FLUENT 6.H. p324]. Fluent Incorporated. (1995) Test Case 8: Francis Turbine.. In: Pejovic S.K.. REFERENCES 1.. (eds) Proceedings of 18th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Cavitation.. (1961) Ghidroturbiny. Republic of Singapore.697 mm toward the trailing edge of the guide vane blade from its actual position. Our methodology employs rigorous hydrodynamic considerations. Proceedings of the GAMM Workshop. the result clearly shows an improvement over the original design. the optimum position of the guide vane shaft is obtained at n0 = 0. 7. The original (solid line) and optimum (dashed line) torque variation versus guide vane angle for the GAMM turbine. Santal O. Braunschweig.K. Schilling R. Farhat M. The designed parameter to be optimized is the location of the guide vane shaft axis along the guide vane chordline. Duan C. 9. Braunschweig. Dupont P.. (1990) Flow survey and blade pressure measurements in a Francis turbine model. N. but has a robust justification. Parkinson E. Fluent Inc. (2002) Numerical methods for the analysis of the 3D flow in Francis turbine runners (in Romanian). Bottaro A. 5. thesis. Hussain M. Drotz A. (1993) Euler Simulation of Flow in a Francis Distributor and Runner. Vieweg Verlag.G. Bellet L. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The present work has been supported from the National University Research Council Grant (CNCSIS) 109/2002-2004 and 220/2003-2004. it is quite obvious that both the methodology. The optimization criterion considered in this paper is the minimization of the mechanical loading of the turbine regulating system. Sottas G. Avellan F. This means that the extremum value of the torque appplied to the guide vane shaft has to be minimized..-L.. CONCLUSIONS The paper addresses a design optimization problem for the location of the guide vane rotation axis position. In: Brekke H. It can be seen that the optimized location leads to a more rational loading of the regulating mechanism.032. pp 1-14 2.. pp 121-128 6. User’s Guide. Although the methodology seems to be quite laborious.. Muntean S. User’s Guide. Tan S. Sottas G.. Fisher R. Gamba P.. Neury C. Singapore. Winoto S. are valid for any Francis or Kaplan turbines. Lebanon 5. (eds) (1993) 3D computation of incompressible internal flows. rather than geometric arguments. Vieweg Verlag. Henry P.040. Lebanon 4. Turbomachinery Workshop ERCOFTAC II.D. since it involves a series of 3D flow simulation.. Although the particular example presented in detail corresponds to the GAMM Francis turbine model. Kueny J. The literature recommends for the guide vane that contains 24 blades and symmetric profile n0 = 0..2. [6.. vol 1. Notes Numerical Fluid Mechanics (NNFM) 39. 136 . Fluent Inc. (ed) Proceedings of the 15th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Cavitation. Fluent Incorporated. (eds) 3D-computation of incompressible internal flows. Gindroz B.. Kovalev N. Avellan F. Ryhming I... National Center for Engineering of Systems with Complex Fluids. NNFM 39. Belgrade. (2001) Gambit 2. One can see that the value found through the present analysis is 20% smaller. (1998) Numerical flow analysis of the GAMM turbine at nominal and off-design operating conditions. According to the dimensionless eccentricity definition n0. I5.

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