130 A merican-Euras ian Journal of Sus tainable A griculture, 3(2): 130-134, 2009 ISSN 1995-0748 © 2009
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Ne w Technology for Preparation of Herbal Extracts and Soft Halal Capsules on its Base
Alexander N. Shik ov, Olga N. Pozharitsk aya, Valery G. Mak arov, Marina N. Mak arova
St-Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy, 47/5, Pisk arevsk y prosp., 195067, St-Petersburg, Russia A lexander N. Shikov, Olga N. Pozha rit s ka y a , Valery G. M akarov, M arina N. M akarova, New technology for preparation of herbal extracts and s oft halal caps ules on its bas e, Am.-E u r a s i a n J. Sustain. Agric., 3(2): 130-134, 2009 ABS TRACT The extraction of bioa c t iv e c o mp onents from medicinal plants is a part of phytopharmaceutical and food te c hnology. A broad range of extraction techniques are currently us ed for preparations of oil herbal extract, mos t frequently extraction b y ma c e ra tion. A lthough this is a relatively s imple method, it s uffers from s ome drawbacks s uch as long extraction time, heating of s ys tem and p o s s ib le degradation of biological active compounds , bad hydrodynamic conditions for extraction, low mas s exchange and low yield, s elective extraction of unpola r compounds , low coefficient of raw plant material utilization etc. Complex methods for the intens ification of raw plant material extraction include proces s ing in t h e s o -called rotary-puls ation extractor (RPE) was developed. This t e c h n o logy combines the active hydrodynamic regime, the action of mechanical os cillations in a b ro a d frequency range, and other s imultaneous ly acting factors (dis pers ion, deformation, cutting, etc.) The technology ens ure a much better product quality, extraction of non-polar and middle polarity compounds , provide for increas ed coefficients of raw ma t e ria l us age, and make pos s ible the us e of various extragents including plant oils . W e s ucces s fully us ed RPE to obtain th e o il e xt ra c ts of different part of me d ic in a l plants s uch as chamomile, motherwort, curcuma, cedar of nuts , and various mixtures of herbs . Benefits of new technology are: abs ence of toxic organic s olvents , decreas e of time o f extraction, obtaining of concentrated extracts , extraction of lipophilic and middle polarity compounds , lo w temperature of extraction (under 45°C), and low dus ting. Original t e c hnology for halal s oft caps ules with herbal oil extracts was developed. A gar polys a c c h a rid es from Gracilaria s pecies (Rhodophyta, Gracilariaceae) is us ed for formulation of s oft caps ules ins tead gelatin. Key words: medicinal plants , oil extract, rotary puls ation extraction, halal s oft caps ules . Introduction A pplic a t io n of oils (fixed or volatile) and herbal oil extracts in medicine originates in a his tory of A ncient Egypt, India, and China. Pharmacolo g ic a l e ffe c t s of herbal oils and oily extracts on the human is unique due to their ability to help organis m to us e unopened own res ources . The extractio n o f b io a ctive components from medicinal plants is a part of phytopharmaceutical and food technology. A broad range of extraction techniques (maceration at 50-70°C, p e rc olation, extraction by organic s olvents in Soxhlet, extraction by carbon dioxide etc.) a re currently us ed for oily preparations , mos t frequently extraction by maceration (Shikov et al., 2004). A lthough this is a relatively s imple method, it s uffers from s ome drawbacks s uch a s long extraction time, heating of s ys tem and pos s ible degradation of biological active compounds , bad hydrodynamic conditions for extraction, low mas s exchange and low yield, s elective extraction of unpolar compounds , low coefficient of raw plant material utilization etc. It s timulated us to develop a c o mp le x method for the intens ification of raw plant material extraction includes proces s ing in the s o-called rotary-puls ation extractor.
Corresponding Author: Dr. Alexander Shikov, St-Petersburg Institute of Pharmacy 47/5 Piskarevskiy pr.St.-Petersburg, 195067 Russia Tel/fax +7(812)322-5605 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
recutita oil extract is rich in fatty acids (from the extractant). and moreover this formulation is eas y for application by patient s a n d h a s h ig h bioa v a ila b ility (Felton et al. are generally elas tic and s oft. intens e turbulization. it is protected from going s tale due to contact with air. coumarins . The mos t intens e proces s ing of a material takes place in the rotor – s tator gap and adjacent regions o f t h e h o le s . and make pos s ib le the us e of various extractant including plant (s oybean. 1). p u mp s . 2008). 11 and 2 folds res pectively comparing to maceration (Fig. 1: Concentration of active compounds in oil extracts of C.. corn. Soft caps ules were prepared by extrus ion method on caps ulator machine M GP-58 (Farmagen. C. Nikitjuk and Shemet. Bas ically they are made us ing a mixture of gelatin. (Balabudkin. recutita flowers by olive oil in RPE the yield of herniarine. there aros e a requirement for s oft caps ules which can be produced without us ing animal proteins .. 1999. RPE is characterized by s ignificantly h ig h e r efficiency at lower working room requirements and reduced power cons umption. (S h ikov et al.Am.. cons is ting of a s in g le part. 2006). Res ults and dis cus s ion For intens ification of extraction rotary-puls ation extraction (RPE) technology was developed. 2006. c o mp lic ated velocity fields . Sustain. s crapie) and on a c c o u n t o f the dis cus s ion regarding vegetarian alternatives to gelatin-containing s oft caps ules and dos age forms which comply w it h “ kos her” or “halal” requirements . a nd blenders . olive. oval. St Peters burg. Thes e apparatus es ens ure a much better product quality.. 3(2): 130-134. etc.
Fig.. s ire n s . pump effects . RPE was s ucces s fully us ed for preparation of the oil extracts from different herbs . vortex formation. bovine s pongiform encephalopathy. dis pers ive membrane vibrators .. 2001). The proces s ing in rotary puls ation extractor combines the features of colloidal mills . a n d e n -y n dicycloethers was increas ed in 0. 1983.-Eurasian J. Rus s ia) as des cribed previous ly (Shikov. Promtov.45. 2009
The formulation of drugs in t o s o ft gelatin caps ules has gained popularity over the las t s everal years due to the many advantages of this dos age form. In res ult of extraction of C.. herbs of Leonurus cardiaca L. etc. Materials and methods The dry flowers of Chamomilla recutita L. or which cons is t of raw materials which are not bas ed on animal s ources . Soft caps ules are containers generally having a s pherical. In the cours e of problems s urrounding the trans mis s ible s pongiform encephalopathies (Creutzfeld-Jacob dis eas e. A gar-agar was from Proagar (Chili). water and a plas ticizer. Rus s ia). oblong or elongate s hape. recutita flowers after maceration and RPE. s trictly controlled as to quality. flavonoids . 2008b). 2004). Raw plant material was extracted by vegetable oils us ing a rotary-puls ation apparatus (JSC Progres s . Proces s es in the working zone of this apparatus involve a combination of various hydrodynamic phenomena. 1996. including high-gradient flow in the gap b etween rotating and immobile elements . Cole et al. They are formed. et c . coumarins . In comparis on with extractors of mos t other types .) oils (Shikov et al. s eeds of Pinus sibirica Du Tour us ed in this s tudy were obtained commercially from local pharmacy. provide for increas ed coefficients of raw material us age. preventing the pres ence of contaminating impurities . cavitation and puls ation due to variations of the by-pas s flow cros s s ection. Agric. The s hell of caps ule allo w s t h e o il extract to be optimally dos ed. s piroketal polyacetylenes (en-yn dicycloethers ).
. terpenes . filled and clos ed off in the one proces s . s pheroid.
2. 2007. Soft caps ule are one of the vers atile oral dos age formu lation for oil herbal extracts and oil s us pens ions (M akarova et al. Shikov et al. Iridoids are middle polarity compounds . cardiaca after extraction in RPE were s imilar to that in officinal ethanol tincture of L.Am. Specter and number of iridoids in oil extract of L.
. 2008a). Gracilariaceae) were u s e d for formulation of s oft caps ules ins tead gelatin. and temperature of extract s us pens ion was moderated under 45 °C. e t h y lacetate. recutita M ain active ingredients of herb of Leonurus cardiaca L.
Fig. hyp e ro s ide. chemical or th e like reaction in res pect of s ol-gel. quercetin) (Fugh-Berman. 3) b u t e xt ract was free of alcohol.-Eurasian J.. 2009
Kinetics of extraction of co umarins and flavonoids are pres ented on Fig.
Fig. are irid o id g lycos ides (harpagide. 8-O-acetylharpagide. cardiaca herb was extracted by wat e r. 2003). Phys ical properties required for a bas e material of s oft caps ule s hould be being edible and s afe. 2008. forming ins taneous ly a film u p o n t h ermally revers ible. Pozharits ka y a e t a l . cardiaca (F ig . 3: Extraction of iridoid glycos ides from L. oil (by maceration) and by oil in RPE. 3(2): 130-134.. 2002). Sustain. It was es tablis hed that concentration of iridoid after extractio n in RP E in c reas ed in 4. Suitable bas e materials for producing protein-free s oft c a p s ules are gels bas ed on carbohydrates .6 times comparing to maceration (Kos man e t a l . 2: Kinetic of extraction of coumarins and flavonoids from flowers of C. A fter 2 minutes of extraction in RPE concentration of active ingredients has reached maximum. having a pres cribed film s trength and s tretchability.4). exhibiting little reactivity with res pect to the contents in a caps ule and being s table with age. L. cardiaca by different s olvents The effective time of extraction of Pinus s i b irica s eeds in RPE was 10 minutes (Fig. ajugos ide) and flavonoids (rutin.. A gar polys accharides from Gracilaria s pecies (Rhodophyta.. Agric.
.. 2003. 72(11): 1026... Pharmaceutical Chemis try Journal.G.V. Nikitjuk. Pozharits kaya.. Karlina. Tikhonov and R. 1999. 2008. O. Planta M edica. Biomedical Ch ro matgraphy.N.T. S h iko v A . A .. V. O.W . 2007. Kos man. V. Zhang.N. raw plant material may be extracted w it h o u t p re liminary grinding. Cole..G. 2001. 2008a. A . Shikov. Fugh-Berman. The 5-M inute Herb and Dietary Supplement Cons ult. M . 62: 436-440.N. 4: Kinetic of extraction of terpenoids from P. Extraction of iridoid glycos ides from motherwort gras s us ing various s olvents . M akarova. M akarova. Felton. D. M edits ina. A .M . advantages and mo d e rn c las s ification of gelatin caps ules . I.G. Halal caps ules with agar polys accharides from Gracilaria sp. Infe ld . 2006. K o s ma n . M akarov and V. 127: 203-211. 2: 55-61. sibirica s eeds in RPE Conclusion Benefits of new methods of oil extractions a re : s ig nificant decreas ing of time of extraction. 40: 385-388. Shikov. Cadé and H.N. M akarov. Developing a model for mathematical des cription of the fractional compos ition and interphas e contact s urface for raw plant material extraction in a ro tary-puls ation apparatus .N.G.N. A . D. M alick and J. Shikov and V. O. were produced with herbal extracts . Pozharits kaya. Shah.G. Promtov. Identification of s piroketal polyacetylenes as the main components of an oil ext ra c t of chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.A . temperature of extraction is moderated under 45°C. Determination of ic a riin in rat plas ma by revers e-phas e high-performance liquid chromatography after oral adminis tration of a lipid-bas ed s us pens ion of Epimedium k oreanum extract. 22(6): 625-629. Dorman. E. M . V. M a ka rov and M . V. 2006. V. Tikhonov.) flowers . S.N. and Shemet N.A . M akarov. Benameur. M .N. G.H.. Challenges and opp o rtunities in the encaps ulation of liquid and s emi-s olid formulations into caps ules for oral a d min is tration. Journal of Natural M edicines . A nti-inflammatory effect of Pinus sibirica oil extract in animal models . N.Am.N. Hiltunen.N . Pharmaceutical Chemis try Journal. 60: 747-756.M . Agric. Shikov. Shikov. Pozharits kaya.W . M as hinos troenoe. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.G. Effect of lipid-bas ed s us pens ion of Epimedium k oreanum Nakai extract on s exual behavior in rats . M cGinity. His tory. 36: 96-99. Pozharits kaya.H..P. Pozharits kaya. A dvanced Drug Delivery Reviews . M akarova and V.N.. 1996. Laaks o.A .. A . (In Rus s ian).-Eurasian J. Raus ch. L. Phys ical-mechanical properties of film-coated s oft gelatin caps ules . A . Lippincott W illiams & W ilkins . Rotary-Puls ation A pparatus es in Chemico-Pharmaceutical Indus try. pos s ibility for obtaining of concentrate extracts .. M . A . Puls ation apparatus of rotor type. M os cow. 2008. 2002. 2009
Fig.N... M . M akarov.. M . V. 1983.V. 3(2): 130-134.N. N.P. 114(3): 412-416. pos s ibility fo r e xt ra c tion of both lipophilic and middle polarity compounds . (In Rus s ian). O. International Journal of Pharmaceutics . V. Provizor. References Ba la budkin. M os cow. O. Tes akova.
G. M a karov and A . Standardization. 22(2): 252-253.N. A . M os cow.S.E. V. Shikov. A ntibacterial activity of Chamomilla recutita oil extract agains t Helicobacter pylori.-Eurasian J. Pozharits kaya. Publis hing hous e Rus s ian doctor. M akarov and V. 2008b.. Properties . O. Ryzhenkov.Am. Plant Fixed Oils a n d O il Extracts : Technology. V. Agric. (In Rus s ian).N.. Phytotherapy Res earch.G. 2004. Sustain. 2009
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