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"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"
Power System Analysis
Prof. P.S.R. Murthy
B.Sc. (Engg.) (Hons.) ME.,
Dr.  ING (Berlin), F.I.E. (India)
Life Member  ISTE
(Formerly Principal O.U. College of Engineering &
Dean, Faculty of Engineering, O.U. Hyderabad)
Principal,
Sree Datha Institute of Engineering and Science,
Sheriguda, Ibrahim Patnam, Hyderabad (AP).
BSP BS Publications
44309, Giriraj Lane, Sultan Bazar,
Hyderabad  500095 A.P.
Phone: 04023445688
Copyright © 2007, by Publisher
All rights reserved
No part of this book or parts thereof may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system
or transmitted in any language or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the
publishers.
Published by :
SSP BS Publications
44309, Giriraj Lane, Sultan Bazar,
Hyderabad  500 095 A. P.
Phone: 04023445688
email: contactus@bspublications.net
www.bspublications.net
Printed at:
AdithyaArt Printers
Hyderabad.
ISBN: 9788178001616
Preface
Power System analysis is a prerequisite course for electrical power engineering students.
In Chapter I. introductory concepts about a Power system, network models, faults and
analysis;the primitive network and stability are presented.
Chapter 2 deals with the graph theory that is relevant to various incidence matrices required
for network modelling are explained.
Chapter 3 explains the various incidence matrices and network matrices.
Chapter 4 discusses, stepbystep method of building of network matrices.
Chapter 5 deals with power flow studies. Both GaussSeidel method and NewtonRaphson
methods are explained. In NewtonRaphson method both the Cartesion coordinates method
and polar coordinates methods are discussed.
In chapter 6 short circuit analysis is explained Per unit quantity and percentage values are
defined. Analysis for symmetrical faults is discussed. The utility of reactors for bus bar and
generator protection is also explained.
Unbalanced fault analysis is presented in chapter 7. Use of symmetrical components and
network connections are explained.
Chapter 8 deals with the power system stability problem. Steady state stability. transient
stability and dynamic stability are discussed.
It is earnestly hoped that this book will meet the requirements of students in the subject
power system analysis.
 Author
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Acknowledgment
My sincere thanks go to Mr. Nikhil Shah, Proprietor of BS Publications for his constant
encouragement to me to write and complete this book on 'Power System Analysis'.
My thanks also go to Mr. M.Y.L. Narasimha Rao, my well wisher for taking great pains in
transferring script material and proof material between my residence and the press with a great
smiley face, day and night over the last few months.
I thank Mrs. Swarupa for MATLAB assistance.
Author
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Contents
Preface .................................................................................................................. (vii)
Acknowledgment ................................................................................................... (ix)
1 Introduction
I. I The Electrical Power System .................................................................. I
1.2 Network Models ...................................................................................... 3
1.3 Faults and Analysis .................................................................................. 3
1.4 The Primitive Network ............................................................................ 4
1.5 Power System Stability ........................................................................... 5
2 Graph Theory
2.1 Introduction ............................................................................................. 6
2.2 Definitions ................................................................................................ 6
2.3 Tree and CoTree .................................................................................... 8
2.5 CutSet .................................................................................................... 9
2.4 Basic Loops ............................................................................................. 9
2.6 Basic CutSets ....................................................................................... 10
vVorked Examples .. ' .... .. II
Prohlems ....... IS
Questions 16
(xii) C o n t e n t ~
3 Incidence Matrices
3.1 Element Node Incidence Matrix ............................................................ 18
3.2 Bus Incidence Matrix ............................................................................ 18
3.3 Branch  Path Incidence Matrix K ....................................................... 19
3.4 Basic CutSet Incidence Matrix ............................................................ 20
3.5 Basic Loop Incidence Matrix ................................................................. 21
3.6 Network Performance Equations .......................................................... 22
3.7 Network Matrices .................................................................................. 24
3.8 Bus Admittance Matrix and Bus Impedance Matrix ............................. 25
3.9 Branch Admittance and Branch Impedance Matrices ........................... 26
3.10 Loop Impedance and Loop Admittance Matrices ................................. 28
3.11 Bus Admittance Matrix by Direct Inspection ........................................ 29
Worked Examples. ...... ... ..... ........ ....... ............ . ................................ 33
Problems ........................... : ..................................................... 51
Questions .......... ........................................... '" .......................... 52
4 Building of Network Matrices
4.1 Partial Network ...................................................................................... 53
4.2 Addition ofa Branch .............................................................................. 55
4.3 Addition ofa Link .................................................................................. 60
4.4 Removal or Change in Impedance of Elements with
Mutual Impedance ................................................................................. 66
Worked Examples. ........ " .. . 70
Problems .. . .............. : ............ . .... 96
Questions. . ............. . . ............. 97
5 Power Flow Studies
5.1 Necessity for Power Flow Studies ....................................................... 98
5.2 Conditions for Successful Operation of a Power System .................... 99
5.3 The Power Flow Equations ................................................................... 99
5.4 Classification of Buses ........................................................................ 101
5.5 Bus Admittance Formation .................................................................. 102
5.6 System Model for Load Flow Studies ................................................ 104
5.7 GaussSeidel Iterative Method ............................................................ 105
5.8 Gauss  Seidel Iterative Method of Load Flow Solution .................... 106
5.9 NewtonRaphson Method ................................................................... 109
5.9.1 The Rectangular Coordinates Method .................................. 110
5.9.2 The Polar Coordinates Method ............................................ 112
Contents (xiii)
5.10 Sparsity of Network Admittance Matrices .......................................... 115
5.11 Triangular Decompostion .................................................................... 116
5.12 Optimal Ordering ................................................................................. 118
5.13 Decoupled Methods ............................................................................. 119
5.14 Fast Decoupled Methods ..................................................................... 120
5.15 Load Flow Solution Using Z Bus ..................................................... 121
5.15.1 Bus Impedance Formation ................................................... 121
5.15.2 Addition of a Line to the Reference Bus .............................. 122
5.15.3 Addition of a Radial Line and New Bus ............................... 122
5.15.4 Addition of a Loop Closing Two Existing
Buses in the System ............................................................. 123
5.15.5 Gauss  Seidel Method Using Zbus for
Load Flow Solution .............................................................. 124
5.16 Convergence Characteristics ............................................................... 124
Worked Examples ..... .... . . 126
Problems .............. 161
Questions ................................. . . ... . ........................ 175
6 Short Circuit Analysis
6.1 Per Unit Quantities ............................................................................... 176
6.2 Advantages of Per Unit System .......................................................... 178
6.3 Three Phase Short Circuits ................................................................. 178
6.4 Reactance Diagrams ............................................................................ 181
6.5 Percentage Values ................................................................................ 181
6.6 Short Circuit KVA ................................................................................ 182
6.7 Importance of Short Circuit Currents ................................................. 183
6.8 Analysis ofRL Circuit ........................................................................ 184
6.9 Three Phase Short Circuit on Unloaded Synchronous Generator ...... 185
6.10 Effect of Load Current or Prefault Current ........................................ 185
6.11 Reactors ............................................................................................... 186
6.12 Construction of Reactors .................................................................... 186
6.13 Classification of Reactors .................................................................... 187
Worked Examples. ..... ....... ....... ..... . .. . . ........... 189
Problems . ................................... . . ............ 216
Questions........ ... ... ....... ......... .. .......... .. .............. ................ .. 2 I 6
(xiv) Contents
7 Unbalanced Fault Analysis
7. I The Operator "'a'" ................................................................................. 218
7.2 Symmetrical Components of Unsymmetrical Phases ......................... 219
7.3 Power in Sequence Components ........................................................ 221
7.4 Unitary Transformation for Power Invariance ................................... 222
7.5 Sequence Impedances ......................................................................... 224
7.6 Balanced Star Connected Load ........................................................... 224
7.7 Transmission Lines .............................................................................. 226
7.8 Sequence Impedances of Transformer ............................................... 227
7.9 Sequence Reactances of Synchronous Machine ................................ 228
7.10 Sequence Networks of Synchronous Machines ................................. 228
7.10.1 Positive Sequence Network .................................................. 228
7.10.2 Negative Sequence Network ................................................ 229
7.10.3 Zero Sequence Network ....................................................... 230
7.11 Unsymmetrical Faults .......................................................................... 231
7.12 Assumptions for System Representation ............................................ 232
7.13 Unsymmetrical Faults on an Unloaded Generator ............................... 232
7.14 LlnetoLine Fault ................................................................................ 235
7.15 Double Line to Ground Fault ............................................................... 238
7.16 SingleLine to Ground Fault with Fault Impedance ............................ 241
7.17 LinetoLine Fault with Fault Impedence ............................................ 242
7.18 Double LinetoGround Fault with Fault Impedence .......................... 243
Worked Examples............................. . ................ ............ .. .............. 245
Problems ............... .. .............. ............ ............ ...... ........ .. ........ 257
Questions . ...................................................................................... 257
8 Power System Stability
8.1 Elementary Concepts ........................................................................... 259
8.2 Illustration of Steady State Stability Concept ..................................... 260
8.3 Methods for Improcessing Steady State Stability Limit ..................... 261
8.4 Synchronizing Power Coefficient ....................................................... 262
8.5 Transient Stability ................................................................................ 262
8.6 Stability ofa Single Machine Connected to lnfinite Bus .................... 262
8.7 The Swing Equation ............................................................................ 263
8.8 Equal Area Criterion and Swing Equation ........................................... 267
Contents (xv)
8.9 Transient Stability Limit ...................................................................... 269
8.10 Frequency of Oscillations .................................................................... 270
8.11 Critical Clearing Time and Critical Clearing Angle .............................. 272
8.12 Fault on a DoubleCircuit Line ............................................................ 274
8.13 Transient Stability When Power is Transmitted During the Fault ...... 275
8.14 Fault Clearance and Reclosure in DoubleCircuit System .................. 277
8.15 Solution to Swing Equation StepbyStep Method ............................. 277
8.16 Factors Affecting Transient Stability .................................................. 279
8.17 Dynamic Stability ................................................................................ 280
8.18 Node Elimination Methods ................................................................... 282
Worked Examples ............. . , ........ ....... ...... ... . ........................ 285
Problems ..... , ........................ ............................ ................ . ... 303
Questions. ........................ .......... ...... . ...... .................. ....... . ...... 304
Objective Questions ................................................................................. 305
Answers to Objective Questions ............................................................ 317
Index ........................................................................................................... 319
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1 INTRODUCTION
Power is an essential prerequisite for the progress of any country. The modern power system
has features unique to it self. It is the largest man made system in existence and is the most
complex system. The power demand is more than doubling every decade.
Planning, operation and control of interconnected power system poses a variety of
challenging problems, the solution of which requires extensive application of mathematical
methods from various branches.
Thomas Alva Edison was the first to conceive an electric power station and operate it in
Newyork in 1882. Since then, power generation originally confined to steam engines expanded
using (steam turbines) hydro electric turbines, nuclear reactors and others.
The inter connection of the various generating stations to load centers through EHV and
UHV transmission lines necessitated analytical methods for analysing various situations that
arise in operation and control of the system.
Power system analysis is the subject in the branch of electrical power engineering
which deals with the determination of voltages at various buses and the currents that flow in
the transmission lines operating at different voltage levels.
1.1 The Electrical Power System
The electrical power system is a complex network consisting of generators, loads, transmission
lines, transformers, buses, circuit breakers etc. For the analysis of a power system in operation
2 Power System Analysis
a suitable model is needed. This model basically depends upon the type of problem on hand.
Accordingly it may be algebraic equations, differential equations, transfer functions etc. The
power system is never in steady state as the loads keep changing continuously.
However, it is possible to conceive a quasistatic state during which period the loads
could be considered constant. This period could be 15 to 30 minutes. In this state power flow
equations are nonlinear due to the presence of product terms of variables and trigonometric
terms. The solution techniques involves numerical (iterative) methods for solving nonlinear
algebraic equations. NewtonRaphson method is the most commonly used mathematical
technique. The analysis of the system for small load variations, wherein speed or frequency
and voltage control may be required to maintain the standard values, transfer function and state
variable models are better suited to implement proportional, derivative and integral controllers
or optimal controllers using Kalman's feed back coefficients. For transient stability studies
involving sudden changes in load or circuit condition due to faults, differential equations
describing energy balance over a few halfcycles of time period are required. For studying the
steady state performance a number of matrix models are needed.
Consider the power System shown in Fig. 1.1. The equivalent circuit for the power
system can be represented as in Fig. 1.2. For study of fault currents the equivalent circuit in
Fig. 1.2 can be reduced to Fig. 1.3 upto the load terminals neglecting the shunt capacitances of
the transmission line and magnetizing reactances of the transformers.
Generators
Generators
Sending end step up
transformer
Sending end
Transformer
Transmission Line
.;;>++ Loads
Receiving end stepdown
transformer
Fig. 1.1
Transmission
Lines
Fig. 1.2
Receiving end
transformer
Load
Introduction
TransmIssIon
Lines
Fig. 1.3
3
Tran,former
While the reactances of transformers and lines which are static do not change under
varying conditions of operation, the machine reactances may change and assume different
values fot different situations. Also, composite loads containing 3phase motors, Iphase
motors, dc motors, rectifiers, lighting loads, heaters. welding transformers etc., may have
very different models depending upon the composition of its constituents.
The control of a turbo generator set to suit to the varying load requirement requires a
model. For small variations, a linearized model is convenient to study. Such a model can be
obtained using transfer function concept and control can be achieved through classical or
modern control theory. This requires modeling of speed governor, turbo generator and power
system itself as all these constitute the components of a feedback loop for control. The
ultimate objective of power system control is to maintain continuous supply of power with
acceptable quality. Quality is defined in terms of voltage and frequency.
1.2 Network Models
Electrical power network consists of large number of transmission lines interconnected in a
fashion that is dictated by the development of load centers. This interconnected network
configuration expands continuously. A systematic procedure is needed to build a model that
can be constantly upgraded with increasing interconnections.
Network solutions can be carried out using Ohm's law and Kirchoff's laws.
Either e = Z . i
or i =Y. e
model can be used for steady state network solution. Thus, it is required to develop both
Zbus and Vbus models for the network. To build such a model, graph theory and incidence
matrices will be quite convenient.
1.3 Faults and Analysis
Study of the network performance under fault conditions requires analysis of a generally
balanced network as an unbalanced network. Under balanced operation, all the threephase
voltages are equal in magnitude and displaced from each other mutually by 120
0
(elec.). It may
be noted that unbalanced transmission line configuration is balanced in operation by transposition,
balancing the electrical characteristics.
4 Power System Analysis
Under fault conditions, the threephase voltages may not be equal in magnitude and the
phase angles too may differ widely from 120
0
(elec.) even if the transmission and distribution
networks are balanced. The situation changes into a case of unbalanced excitation.
Network solution under these conditions can be obtained by using transformed variables
through different component systems involving the concept of power invariance.
In this course all these aspects will be dealt with in modeling so that at an advanced
level, analyzing and developing of suitable control strategies could be easily understood using
these models wherever necessary.
1.4 The Primitive Network
Network components are represented either by their impedance parameters or admittance
parameters. Fig (1.4) represents the impedance form, the variables are currents and voltages.
Every power system element can be described by a primitive network. A primitive network is
a set of unconnected elements.
a
8
b
• •
Zab
•
v·1
e
ab
~
I
iab
Vb
• •
Fig. 1.4
a and b are the terminals of a network element ab. Va and Vb are voltages at a and b.
Vab is the voltage across the network element ab.
e
ab
is the source voltage in series with the network element a  b
zab is the self impedance of network element ab.
jab is the current through the network element ab.
From the Fig.( 1.4) we have the relation
Vab + e
ab
= zab iab ..... ( 1.1)
In the admittance form the network element may be represented as in Fig. (1.5) .
.lab
+
(])
a b
•
Yab
•
Va r
~
r Vb
lab
~
. +'
lab .lab
•
•
Vab=VaVb
Fig. 1.5
Introduction 5
Yab is the self admittance of the network element ab
jab is the source current in paraliel with the network element ab
From Fig.( 1.5) we have the relation
iab + jab = Yab Vab ..... ( 1.2)
The series voltage in the impedance form and the parallel source current in the admittance
form are related by the equation.
Lb=Yabeab ..... (1.3)
A set of unconnected elements that are depicted in Fig.( 1.4) or (1.5) constitute a primitive
network. The performance equations for the primitive networks may be either in the form
..... (1.4)
or in the form
i+ j =[y]y ..... (1.5)
In eqs.{lA) and (1.5) the matrices [z] or [y] contain the self impedances or self
admittances denoted by zab, ab or Yab,ab' The offdiagonal elements may in a similar way contain
the mutual impedances or mutual admittances denoted by zab, cd or Yab, cd where ab and cd are
two different elements having mutual coupling. Ifthere is no mutual coupling, then the matrices
[z] and [y] are diagonal matrices. While in general [y] matrix can be obtained by inverting the
[z] matrix, when there is no mutual coupling, elements of [y] matrix are obtained by taking
reciprocals of the elements of [z] matrix.
1.5 Power System Stability
Power system stability is a word used in connection with alternating current power systems
denoting a condition where in, the various alternators in the system remain in synchronous
with each other. Study of this aspect is very important, as otherwise, due to a variety of
changes, such as, sudden load loss or increment, faults on lines, short circuits at different
locations, circuit opening and reswitching etc., occuring in the system continuously some
where or other may create blackouts.
Study of simple power systems with single machine or a group of machines represented
by a single machine, connected to infinite bus gives an insight into the stability problem.
At a first level, study of these topics is very important for electrical power engineering
students.
2 GRAPH THEORY
2.1 Introduction
Graph theory has many applications in several fields such as engineering, physical, social and
biological sciences, linguistics etc. Any physical situation that involves discrete objects with
interrelationships can be represented by a graph. In Electrical Engineering Graph Theory is
used to predict the behaviour of the network in analysis. However, for smaller networks node
or mesh analysis is more convenient than the use of graph theory. It may be mentioned that
Kirchoff was the first to develop theory of trees for applications to electrical network. The
advent of high speed digital computers has made it possible to use graph theory advantageously
for larger network analysis. In this chapter a brief account of graphs theory is given that is
relevant to power transmission networks and their analysis.
2.2 Definitions
Elemellt of a Graph: Each network element is replaced by a line segment or an arc while
constructing a graph for a network. Each line segment or arc is cailed an element. Each
potential source is replaced by a short circuit. Each current source is replaced by an open
circuit.
Node or Vertex: The terminal of an element is called a node or a vertex.
T.dge: An element of a graph is called an edge.
Degree: The number of edges connected to a vertex or node is called its degree.
Graph Theory 7
Graph: An element is said to be incident on a node, if the node is a terminal of the element.
Nodes can be incident to one or more elements. The network can thus be represented by an
interconnection of elements. The actual interconnections of the elements gives a graph.
Rank: The rank of a graph is n  I where n is the number of nodes in the graph.
Sub Graph: Any subset of elements of the graph is called a subgraph A subgraph is said to
be proper if it consists of strictly less than all the elements and nodes of the graph.
Path: A path is defined as a subgraph of connected elements SLlch that not more than two
elements are connected to anyone node. If there is a path between every pair of nodes then
the graph is said to be connected. Alternatively, a graph is said to be connected if there exists
at least one path between every pair of nodes.
Planar Graph : A graph is said to be planar, if it can be drawn withoutout cross over of
edges. Otherwise it is called nonplanar (Fig. 2. J).
(a) (b)
Fig. 2.1 (a) Planar Graph (b) NonPlanar Graph.
Closed Path or Loop: The set of elements traversed starting from one node and returning to
the same node form a closed path or loop.
Oriented Graph: An oriented graph is a graph with direction marked for each element
Fig. 2.2(a) shows the single line diagram of a simple power network consisting of generating
stations. transmission lines and loads. Fig. 2.2(b) shows the positive sequence network
of the system in Fig. 2.2(a). The oriented connected graph is shown in Fig. 2.3 for the
same system.
r,3
(a) (b)
Fig. 2.2 (a) Power system singleline diagram (b) Positive sequence network diagram
Power System Analysis
5
~
CD.+.......    1 ~    Q )
4
Fig. 2.3 Oriented connected graph.
2.3 Tree and CoTree
Tree: A tree is an oriented connected subgraph of an oriented connected graph containing all
the nodes of the graph, but, containing no loops. A tree has (nI) branches where n is the
number of nodes of graph G. The branches of a tree are called twigs. The remaining branches
of the graph are called links or chords.
Cotree: The links form a subgraph, not necessarily connected called cotree. Cotree is the
complement of tree. There is a cotree for every tree.
For a connected graph and subgraph:
I. There exists only one path between any pair of nodes on a tree
') every connected graph has at least one tree
3. every tree has two terminal nodes and
4. the rank of a tree is nI and is equal to the rank of the graph.
The number of nodes and the number of branches in a tree are related by
b = nI ..... (2.1 )
If e is the total number of elements then the number of links I of a connected graph with
hranches b is given by
I==e·h
Hence, from eq. (2.1). it can be written that
l=en+1
..... (2.2)
..... (2.3)
A tree and the corresponding co  tree of the graph for the system shown in Fig. 2.3 are
indicated in Fig. 2.4(a) and Fig. 2.4(b).
5
._...
.... / . ~ ~ 3 "
CD ..
/
2 ..('4
/
/
@
n = number of nodes = 4
e = number of elements = 6
b=nI=41=3
I =en+I=64+1=3
Fig. 2.4 (a) Tree for the system in Fig. 2.3.
Graph Theory 9
5
CD+..... +...:
@
Fig. 2.4 (b) Cotree for the system in Fig. 2.3.
2.4 Basic Loops
1\ loop is obtained whenever a link is added to a tree, which is a closed path. As an example to
the tree in Fig. 2.4(a) if the link 6 is added, a loop containing the elements 126 is obtained.
Loops which contain only one link are called independent loops or hasic loops.
It can be observed that the number of basic loops is equal to the number of links given
by equation (2.2) or (2.3). Fig. 2.5 shows the basic loops for the tree in Fig. 2.4(a).
5
..  ..    .
CD
GL
~ =   +    ~ @
Fig. 2.5 Basic loops for the tree in Fig. 2.4(a).
2.5 CutSet
A Cut set is a minimal set of branches K of a connected graph G, such that the removal of all
K branches divides the graph into two parts. It is also true that the removal of K branches
reduces the rank of G by one, provided no proper subset of this set reduces the rank of G by
one when it is removed from G.
Consider the graph in Fig. 2.6(a).
I
._  e
._  e
3
(a) (b)
Fig. 2.6
I
._ e
_e I
{,
......
.
3
(e)
10 Power System Analysis
The rank of the graph = (no. of nodes n  1) = 4  I = 3. If branches 1 and 3 are
removed two sub graphs are obtained as in Fig. 2.6(b). Thus 1 and 3 may be a cutset. Also,
if branches 1, 4 and 3 are removed the graph is divided into two sub graphs as shown in
Fig. 2.6(c) Branches I, 4, 3 may also be a cutset. In both the above cases the rank both of
the sub graphs is 1 + 1 = 2. It can be noted that (I, 3) set is a subset of (I, 4, 3) set. The cut
set is a minimal set of branches of the graph, removal of which cuts the graph into two parts.
It separates nodes of the graphs into two graphs. Each group is in one of the two sub graphs.
2.6 BasiC CutSets
If each cutset contains only one branch, then these independent cutsets are called basic cut
sets. In order to understand basic cutsets select a tree. Consider a twig b
k
of the tree. If the
twig is removed the tree is separated into two parts. All the links which go from one part of
this disconnected tree to the other, together with the twig b
k
constitutes a cutset called basic
cutset. The orientation of the basic cutset is chosen as to coincide with that of the branch of
the tree defining the cutset. Each basic cutset contains at least one branch with respect to
which the tree is defined which is not contained in the other basic cutset. For this reason, the
n I basic cutsets of a tree are linearly independent.
Now consider the tree in Fig. 2.4(a).
Consider node (1) and branch or twig 1. Cutset A contains the branch 1 and links
5 and 6 and is oriented in the same way as branch J. In a similar way C cutset cuts the branch
3 and links 4 and 5 and is oriented in the same direction as branch 3. Finally cutset B cutting
branch 2 and also links 4, 6 and 5 is oriented as branch 2 and the cutsets are shown in Fig. 2.7.
8 5
   "If'
@ 3 :;..:
1 ~ ~ ~ 4    . @ ~
Fig. 2.7 Cutset for the tree in Fig. 2.4(a).
Graph Theory 11
Worked Examples
2.1 For the network shown in figure below, draw the graph and mark a tree.
How many trees will this graph have? Mark the basic cutsets and basic
loops.
6
Solution:
Assume that bus (1) is the reference bus
4
Number of nodes n = 5
Number of elements e = 6
The graph can be redrawn as,
5
Fig. E.2.1
Fig. E.2.2
QDe__________ ~ 5 . _             _ . ®
6 3
      ~ ~       ~       ~         @
CD ® 2
Fig. E.2.3
3
Tree : A connected subgraph containing all nodes of a graph, but no closed path is
called a tree.
12 Power System Analysis
5
...... 0
././ \
6
./"; )..3
./ \
./ \
././ \
@ 2 ®
Fig. E.2.4
Number of branches n1 = 51 = 4
Number of links = eb = 64 = 2
(Note: Number of links = Number of cotrees).
D ....
® ___
c
Fig. E.2.S
The number of basic cutsets = no. of branches = 4; the cutsets A,B,C,D, are shown
in figure.
2.2 Show the basic loops and basic cutsets for the graph shown below and verify
any relations that exist between them.
(Take 1234 as tree 1).
8
Fig. E.2.6
Graph Theory
Solution:
, . '
Fig. E.2.7 Tree and Cotree for the graph.
13
If a link is added to the tree a loop is formed, loops that contain only one link are called
basic loops.
Branches, b=n1 =51=4
I =eb =84=4
The four loops are shown in Fig.
Fig. E.2.S Basic cut sets A, B, C, D.
The number of basic cuts (4) = number of branches b(4).
2.3 For the graph given in figure below, draw the tree and the corresponding
cotree. Choose a tree of your choice and hence write the cutset schedule.
CD
Fig. E.2.9 Oriented connected graph.
14 Power System Analysis
Solution:
Fig. E.2.10 Basic cut sets A, B, C, D.
The fcut set schedule (fundamental or basic)
A: 1,2
B: 2,7,3,6
c: 6,3,5
D: 3,4
2.4 For the power systems shown in figure draw the graph, a tree and its
cotree.
Fig. E.2.11
Solution:
<D Q.....   O     .   O  +   ~ @
Fig. E.2.12
Graph Theory 15
CD ®
Fig. E.2.13 Tree and Cotree 2.4.
Problems
P 2.1 Draw the graph for the network shown. Draw a tree and cotree for
the graph.
Fig. P.2.1
P 2.2 Draw the graph for the circuit shown.
Fig. P.2.2
16 Power System Analysis
P 2.3 Draw the graph for the network shown.
Fig. P.2.3
Mark basic cutsets, basic loops and open loops.
Questions
2.1 Explain the following terms:
(i) Basic loops
(ii) Cut set
(iii) Basic cut sets
2.2 Explain the relationship between the basic loops and links; basic cutsets and the
number of branches.
2.3 Define the following terms with suitable example:
(i) Tree
(ii) Branches
(iii) Links
(iv) CoTree
(v) Basic loop
2.4 Write down the relations between the number of nodes, number of branches, number
of links and number of elements.
2.5 Define the following terms.
(i) Graph
(ii) Node
(iii) Rank of a graph
(iv) Path
3 INCIDENCE MATRICES
There are several incidence matrices that are important in developing the various networks
matrices such as bus impedance matrix, branch admittance matrix etc., using singular or non
singular transformation.
These various incidence matrices are basically derived from the connectivity or incidence
of an element to a node, path, cutset or loop.
Incidence Matrices
The following incidence matrices are of interest in power network analysis.
(a) Elementnode incidence matrix
(b) Bus incidence matrix
(c) Branch path incidence matrix
(d) Basic cutset incidence matrix
(e) Basic loop incidence matrix
Of these, the bus incidence matrices is the most important one :
18 Power System Analysis
3.1 Element Node Incidence Matrix
Element node incidence matrix A shows the incidence of elements to nodes in the connected
graph. The incidence or connectivity is indicated by the operator as follows:
a = 1 if the plh element is incident to and directed away from the g the node.
pq
a = I if the plh element is incident to and directed towards the g the node.
pq
a = 0 if the plh element is not incident to the glh node.
pq
The elementnode incidence matrix will have the dimension exn where 'e' is the number
of elements and n is the number of nodes in the graph. It is denoted by A .
The element node incidence matrix for the graph of Fig. 2.3 is shown in Fig. 3.1.
~
(0) (I) (2) (3)
1 1 I
2 1 I
4
A
3 1 I
4 1 1
5 I 1
6 1 1
Fig. 3.1 Elementnode incidencematrix for the graph of Fig. (2.3).
It is seen from the elements of the matrix that
3
g ~ O u
pg
= 0; p = I. 2, ...... 6 ..... (3.1 )
It can be inferred that the columns of A are linearly independent. The rank of A is less
than n the number of nodes in the graph.
3.2 Bus Incidence Matrix
The network in Fig. 2.2(b) contains a reference reflected in Fig. 2.3 as a reference node. [n
fact any node of the connected graph can be selected as the reference node. The matrix
obtained by deleting the column corresponding to the reference node in the element node
incidence matrix A is called bus incidence matrix A. Thus, the dimension of this matrix is
ex (n  I) and the rank will therefore be, n  1 = b, where b is the number of branches in the
graph. Deleting the column corresponding to node (0) from Fig. 3.1 the busincidence matrix
for the system in Fig. 2.2(a) is obtained. This is shown in Fig. 3.2.
Incidence Matrices 19
~
(I ) (2) (3)
1 I
2 I
.,
+1 1
'
A=
4 1
5 I +1
6 1 1
Fig. 3.2 Bus Incidence Matrix for graph in (2.3).
If the rows are arranged in the order of a specific tree, the matrix A can be partitioned
into two submatrices Ab of the dimension bx (n  1) and AI of dimension I" (n  I). The rows
of A" correspond to branches and the rows of A I correspond to links. This is shown in
(Fig. 3.3) for the matrix in (Fig. 3.2).
~
(1) (2) (3)
~
(1 ) (2) (3)
1 1 1
A=
2 1
3 1 I
A=
2
Ab
3
4 I 4
5 1 I 5
AI
6 1 1 6
Fig. 3.3 Partitioning of matrix A.
3.3 Branch  Path Incidence Matrix K
Branch path incidence matrix, as the name itself suggests, shows the incidence of branches to
paths in a tree. The elements of this matrix are indicated by the operators as follows:
Kpq = I If the pth branch is in the path from qth bus to reference and oriented in the
same direction.
K = 1 If the pth branch is in the path from qth bus to reference and oriented in the
pq
opposite direction.
Kpq = 0 If the pth branch is not in the path from the qth bus to reference.
For the system in Fig. 2.4(a), the branchpath incidence matrix K is shown in Fig. 3.4.
Node (0) is assumed as reference.
20 Power System Analysis
.... 
".. 5  .................
'" ......
/'''' ......
/' 6 3"""
CD   P:h .1 Path 3 / /
/
®
(I) (2) (3)
1 1
2 1 1
3 0 1
tree    cotree
Fig. 3.4 BranchPath Incidence Matrix for network
While the branch path incidence matrix relates branches to paths. the sub matrix Ab of
Fig. 3.3 gives the connectivity between branches and buses. Thus. the paths and buses can be
related by All Kl U where LJ is a unit matrix.
Hence Kl = Ab I ..... (3.2)
3.4 Basic CutSet Incidence Matrix
['his matriA depicts the connectivity of elements to basic cutsets of the connected graph. The
elements of the matrix are indicated by the operator as follows:
0"Ci if the pth clement is incident to and oriented in the same direction as the qth
hasic cutset.
. if the pth clement is incident to and oriented in the opposite direction as the
qth basic cutset.
r3 cc 0 if the pth element is not incident to the qth basic cutset.
rq
The basic incidence matrix has the dimensiol1 e x b. For the graph in Fig. 2.3(a)
(he basic clitset incidence matriA B is obtained in Fig.
_4 __
/ "
• C
CV 3
/
.(4
/
1
2
B=
3
4
5
6
BaSIC Cutsets
A B C
I
1
\
1 1
I \ \
I I
Fig. 3.5 BaSIC Cutset incidence matrix for the graph in 3.5(a) drawn and shown.
It is possible to partition the basic cutset incidence matrix B into two submatrices U
B
and lJ I cOl:responding to branches and I inks respectively. For the example on hand. the partitioned
matrix is shown in (Fig. 3.6).
Incidence Matrices 21
~
Basic Cutsets
A B C
Basic Cutsets
<Jl
QJ
..c:
\ \
0
U C
«l
b
2 \
"
co
B=
3 \
4 \ \
5 \ \ \
<Jl
BI ..:.::
c
6 \ \ 0
,
'
Fig. 3.5
The identity matrix U
b
shows the onetoone correspondence between branches and
basic cutsets.
It may be recalled that the incidence of links to buses is shown by submatrix AI and the
!Ilcidence of branches to buses by A
b
. There is a onetoone correspondence between branches
and basic cutsets. Since the incidence of I inks to buses is given by
BlAb = AI
Therefore BI = AI Ab I
However from equation (3.2) Kt = A
b

I
Substituting this result in equation (3.\)
BI=AIK
t
This is illustrated in Fig. (3.6).
0 0 \
 \ 0 \
\ \ 0
\
0
0
0 0 0
\ 0 \
1 \ \
Fig. 3.6 Illustration of equation AI Kt = 8
1
,
3.5 Basic Loop Incidence Matrix
\
I
\
\
\
0
..... (3.3 )
..... (3.4)
..... (3.5)
In section 2.3 basic loops are defined and in Fig. 3.7 basic loops for the sample system under
discu<,sion are shown. Basic Loop incidence matrix C shows the incidence of the elements of
the connected graph to the basic loops. The incidence of the elemenb is indicated by the
operator as follows:
Y rq ., I if the pth element is incident to and oriented in the same direction as the qth
basic loop.
22 Power System Analysis
Ypq = 1 if the pth element is incident to and oriented in the opposite direction as the
qth basic loop.
Ypq = 0 if the pth element is not incident to the qth loop.
The basic loop incidence matrix has the dimension e x I and the matrix is shown in
Fig. 3.8.
~
D E F
1 I I
c=
2 1 1 1
3 I 1
4 1
5 1
6 0 1
Fig. 3.7 Basic loops (D, E, F) and
open loops (A, B, C).
Fig. 3.8 Basic loop incidence matrix for Fig.3. 7.
It is possible to partition the basic loop incidence matrix as in Fig. 3.9.
~
Basic loops
1 1
2 1 1
c=
3 1 1
4 I
5 I
6 I
I
I
I ~
'"
<lJ
..<::
u
c::
c::I
....
CO
'" ~
c::
:J
Basic loops
C
b
U
I
Fig. 3.9 Partitioning of basic loop incidence matrix.
The unit matrix V, shown the onetoone correspondence of links to basic loops.
3.6 Network Performance Equations
The power system network consists of components such as generators, transformers,
transmission lines, circuit breakers, capacitor banks etc., which are all connected together to
perform specific function. Some are in series and some are in shunt connection.
Incidence Matrices 23
Whatever may be their actual configuration, network analysis is performed either by
nodal or by loop method. In case of power system, generally, each node is also a bus. Thus.
in the bus frame of reference the performance of the power network is described by (n1)
independent nodal equations, where n is the total number of nodes. In the impedance form the
performance equation, following Ohm's law will be

V ==[ZBUS] IBus
..... (3.6)
where, V BUS = Vector of bus voltages measured with respect to a reference bus.
T BUS = Vector of impressed bus currents.
[ZBUS] = Bus impedance matrix
The elements of bus impedance matrix are open circuit driving point and transfer
impedances.
Consider a 3bus or 3node system. Then
(1) (2)
(1) rZ11 z12
[ZBUS] = (2) Z21 Z22
(3) Z31 Z32
The impedance elements on the principal diagonal are called driving point impedances of
the buses and the offdiagonal elements are called transfer impedances of the buses. In the
admittance frame of reference
..... (3.7)
where [Y
BUS
] == bus admittance matrix whose elements are short circuit driving point
and transfer admittances.
By definition ..... (3.8)
In a similar way, we can obtain the performance equations in the branch frame of
reference. If b is the number of branches, then b independent branch equation of the form

V BR == [ZBR ].IBR
..... (3.9)
describe network performance. In the admittance form
..... (3.10)
where
f BR Vector of currents through branches.
24 Power System Analysis
V BR
Vector of voltages across the branches.
[Y BR] = Branch admittance matrix whose elements are short circuit driving
point and transfer admittances of the branches of the network.
[ZBR] = Branch impedance matrix whose elements are open circuit driving
point and transfer impedances of the branches of the network.
Like wise, in the loop frame of reference, the performance equation can be described
by I independent loop equations where I is the number of links or basic loops. In the
impedance from

V lOOP = r Z LOClP 1. I LOOP
..... (3.11 )
and in the admittance form

I LOOP = [YLOOP].VLOOP
..... (3.12)
where, V LOOP = Vector of basic loop voltages

It O()p
Vector of hasic loop currents
[ZLOOp J = Loop impedance matrix
[ Y LOOP] = Loop admittance matrix
3.7 Network Matrices
It is indicated in Chapter  1 that network solution can be carried out using Ohm's Law and
KirchoWs Law. The impedance model given by
e =Z. i
or the admittance model
i =Y. e
can be used depending upon the situation or the type of problem encountered.
In network analysis students of electrical engineering are familiar with nodal analysis and mesh
analysis using Kirchoff's laws. In most of the power network solutions, the bus impedance
or bus admittance are used. Thus it is necessary to derive equations that relate these
various models.
Network matrices can be formed hy two methods:
Viz. (a) Singular transformation and
(b) Direct method
Network Matrices 25
Singular Transformations
The network matrices that are used commonly in power system analysis that can be obtained
by singular transformation are :
(i) Bus admittance matrix
(ii) Bus impedance matrix
(iii) Branch admittance matrix
(iv) Branch impedance matrix
(v) Loop impedance matrix
(vi) Loop admittance matrix
3.8 Bus Admittance Matrix and Bus Impedance Matrix
The bus admittance matrix Y BUS can be obtained by determining the relation between the
variables and parameters of the primitive network described in section (2.1) to bus quantities
of the network using bus incidence matrix. Consider eqn. (1.5).

i+ j =[y]u
Pre multiplying by [N], the transpose of the bus incidence matrix
[A I] i + [A I] ] = A I [y] u ..... (3.13)
Matrix A shows the connections of elements to buses. [AI] i thus is a vector, wherein,
each element is the algebraic sum of the currents that terminate at any of the buses. Following
Kirchoff's current law, the algebraic sum of currents at any node or bus must be zero. Hence
[AI] i = 0 ..... (3.14)
Again [AI] J term indicates the algebraic sum of source currents at each of the buses
and must equal the vector of impressed bus currents. Hence,
IBus = [AI]]
..... (3.15)
Substituting eqs. (3.14) and (3.15) into (3.13)
I BUS = [A I ] [y] U
..... (3.16)
In the bus frame, power in the network is given by
[IBus']IYBus = P
BUS
..... (3.17)
Power in the primitive network is given by
..... (3.18)
26 Power System Analysis
Power must be invariant, for transformation of variables to be invariant. That is to say,
that the bus frame of referee corresponds to the given primitive network in performance.
Power consumed in both the circuits is the same.
Therefore
 •  * 
[I BUS ]V BUS = [j ]u
Conjugate transpose of eqn. (3.15) gives
[I BUS • r = [j' r A'
However, as A is real matrix A = A *
[IBus']1 = (j")t[A]
Substituting (3.21) into (3.19)
G*) t [A]. VBUS = (j')tu
i.e.,
Substituting eqn. (3.22) into (3.16)
IBUS == [N] [y] [A] V BUS
From eqn. 3.7
I BUS == [y BUS] V BUS
Hence
[Y BUS] = [N] [y] [A]
..... (3.19)
..... (3.20)
..... (3.21)
..... (3 :22)
..... (3.23)
..... (3.24)
..... (3.25)
..... (3.26)
Once [Y BUS] is evaluated from the above transformation, (ZBUS) can be determined
from the relation.
ZBUS =Y
s
0s = {[At][y][A] }l
..... (3.27)
3.9 Branch Admittance and Branch Impedance Matrices
In order to obtain the branch admittance matrix Y BR' the basic cutset incidence matrix [8], is
used. The variables and parameters of primitive network are related to the variables and
parameters of the branch admittance network.
For the primitive network

i + j = [y]u
..... (3.28)
Prerpultiplying by Bt
[B]l i + [8]t j == [8]1 [y] ~ ..... (3.29)
Network Matrices 27
It is clear that the matrix [B] shows the incidence of elements to basic cutsets.
Each element of the vector [Bt] i is the algebraic sum of the currents through the
elements that are connected to a basic cutset. Every cutset divides the network into two
connected sub networks. Thus each element of the vector [Bt] i represents the algebraic sum
of the currents entering a sub network which must be zero by Kirchoff's law.
Hence, .. ... (3.30)
[Bt] j is a vector in which each element is the algebraic sum of the source currents of
the elements incident to the basic cutset and represents the total source current in parallel with
a branch.
therefore,
[Bt] j = IBR
IBR = [Bt][y]u
For power invariance.
_. t _ _.t_
IBR .VBR = j \)
..... (3.31 )
..... (3.32)
..... (3.33)
conjugate transpose of eqn. (3.3\) gives r t [B] • = I BR"t. Substituting this in the
previous eqn. (3.32)
(j)'t [B]*VBR = (f)t u
As [B] is a real matrix [B]* = [B]
Hence,

(i.e. )
\) = [B]V BR
Substituting eqs. (3.35) into (3.32)
IBR = [B]t[y][B]V BR
However, the branch voltages and currents are related by

lBR =[YBR].VBR
comparing (3.37) and (3.38)
[Y BR] = [B]l [y] [B]
..... (3.34)
..... (3.35)
..... (3.36)
..... (3.37)
..... (3.38)
..... (3.39)
Since, the basic cutset matrix [B] is a singular matrix the transformation [Y BR] is a
singular transformation of [y]. The branch impedance matrix, then, is given by
[Z]BR = [Y BR]I
[Z]BR =  [V] B ~ = {[B
t
][y][B]} 1 ..... (3.40)
28 Power System Analysis
3.10 Loop Impedance and Loop Admittance Matrices
The loop impedance matrix is designated by [ZLooP]' The basic loop incidence matrix [C] is
used to obtain [ZLoOp] in terms of the elements of the primitive network.
The performance equation of the primitive network is
\) + e = [Z] i
Premultiplying by [CI]
..... (3.41)
..... (3.42)
As the matrix [C] shows the incidence of elements to basic loops, [CI] \) yields the
algebraic sum of the voltages around each basic loop.
By Kirchoff's voltage law, the algebraic sum of the voltages around a loop is zero.
Hence, [CI] ~ = O. Also [CI] e gives the algebraic sum of source voltages around each basic
loop; so that,
From power invariance condition for both the loop and primitive networks .
for all values of e .
Substituting V LOOP from eqn. (3.43)
(ILOOP*)I [CI]e=[i*]'e
Therefore,
i = [Co] I lLOoP
However, as [C] is a real matrix [C] = [CO]
Hence,
i = [C]ILOOP
From eqns. (3.43), (3.45) & (3.47)
V LOOP = [C
t
] [z][C]lLOoP
..... (3.43)
..... (3.44)
..... (3.45)
..... (3.46)
..... (3.47)
..... (3.48)
However, for the loop frame of reference the performance equation from eqn. (3.11) is

V LOOP = [Z LOOP ]1 LOOP
..... (3.49)
Network Matrices
comparing (3.48) & (3.49) equation
[ZLOOP] == [ct] [z] [C]
29
..... (3.50)
[C] being a singular matrix the transformation eqn. (3.50) is a singular transformation
of [z].
The loop admittance matrix is obtained from
[Y LOOP] == [ZI
LOOP
] == {[C]I [z] [C]}I
Summar.y of Singular Transformations
[ztl == [y]
[AI] [y] [A] == [Y BUS];
[Y BUS]I == [ZBUS]
[BI] [y] [B] == [Y BR];
[Y BR]I == [ZBR]
[CI] [Z] [C] == [ZLOOP];
[ZLOOPt
l
== [Y LOOP]
3.11 Bus Admittance Matrix by Direct Inspection
..... (3.51)
Bus admittance matrix can be obtained for any network, if there are no mutual impedances
between elements, by direct inspection of the network. This is explained by taking an example.
G
I
Consider the three bus power system as shown in Fig.
Load
<II ..
Fig. 3.10
The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. below. The generator is represented by a voltage
source in series with the impedance. The three transmission lines are replaced by their
"1t equivalents".
30 Power System Analysis
Fig. 3.11
The equivalent circuit is further simplified as in the following figure combining the
shunt admittance wherever feasible.
VI VI
II
CD
'7 Z7 17
@
12
Is
®
19
'4
Zs
V3
Z9
Z4
13
15
16
Z6
Z5
Z3
Fig. 3.12
The three nodes are at voltage V I' V 2 and V 3 respectively above the ground. The Kirchofrs
nodal current equations are written as follows:
At Node I :
I] = 17 + Is + 14
I] = (V]  V 2) Y 7 + (V]  V 3) Y 8 + V] Y 4
.... (3.52)
At Node 2 :
12 = 15 + 19  17
= V 2 Y 5 + (V 2  V 3 ) y 9  (V I  V 2) Y 7
..... (3.53)
Network Matrices
At Node 3 :
13 = Ig + 19  16
= (V 1  V 3) Y g + (V 2  V 3) Y 9  V 3 Y 6
Re arranging the terms the equations will become
I I = VI (Y 4 + Y 7 + Y g)  V 2 Y 7  V 3 Y g
I2=VI Y7+V2(YS+Y7+Y9)V3 Y
9
I3 = VI Y g + V 2 Y 9  V 3 (Y g + Y 9 + Y 6)
The last of the above equations may be rewritten as
13 = VI Y g  V 2 Y 9 + V 3 (Y 6 + Y g + Y 9)
Thus we get the matrix relationship from the above
31
..... (3.54)
..... (3.55(a))
..... (3.55(b))
..... (3.55(c))
..... (3.56)
..... (3.57)
It may be recognized that the diagonal terms in the admittance matrix at each of the
nodes are the sum of the admittances of the branches incident to the node. The off  diagonal
terms are the negative of these admittances branch  wise incident on the node. Thus, the
diagonal element is the negative sum of the off  diagonal elements. The matrix can be written
easily by direct inspection of the network.
The diagonal elements are denoted by
YII = Y4 + Y7 + Yg }
Y
22
= Y
5
+ Y
7
+ Y
9
and
Y
33
= Y
6
+ Yg + Y
9
..... (3.58)
They are called self admittances of the nodes or driving point admittances. The off
diagonal elements are denoted by
Y
I2
=Y
7
Y
13
=Yg
Y 21= Y
7
Y
23
=Y
S
Y
31
=Yg
Y
32
= Y
9
..... (3.59)
using double suffix denoting the nodes across which the admittances exist. They are
called mutual admittances or transfer admittances. Thus the relation in eqn. 3.91 can be
rewritten as
32 Power System Analysis
..... (3.60)
..... (3.61)
In power systems each node is called a bus. Thus, if there are n independent buses, the
general expression for the source current towards the node i is given by
n
Ii = I YI) v
J
; i '* j
j=l
..... (3.62)
Network Matrices 33
6
Worked Examples
E 3.1 For the network shown in figure form the bus incidence matrix, A. branch
path incidence matrix K and loop incidence matrix C.
® @
5
3
2
Fig. E.l.1
Solution:
For the tree and cotree chosen for the graph shown below, the basic cutsets are marked. Bus
(l) is taken as reference.
5
@O_._4o@
/
/
/
4 /
J(
/
/
/
2
Fig. E.l.2
The basic loops are shown in the following figure.
__
/
I
I
t
Fig. E.l.l
34 Power System Analysis
(i) Bus incidence matrix
Number of buses == number of nodes
~
(2) (3) (4) (5)
1 1 0 0 0
2 1 1 0 0
A==
3 0 1 1 0
4 1 0 1 0
5 0 0 1 1
6 0 0 0 1
Fig. E.3.4
Wl
~
(2) (3) (4) (5)
GO
=
Y
1 1 0 0 0
= ..
~ s
..
=
2 1 1 0 0
B
A==
5 0 1 1 1
branches
6 0 0 0 1
.:.:
3 0 1 1 1
=
~
L links
4 1 0 1 0
Fig. E.3.S
(ii) Branch path incidence matrix (K) :
@o0111:1J@
5
I
I
I
61
I
I
~
,
I
I
I
I
I
~
+®
2
+
Fig. E 3.6 Branches and the paths.
Buses
Ab
Al
Network Matrices 35
~
(2) (3) (4) (5)
1 1 1
K=
2 1 0
5 1
6 1 1
Fig. E.3.7 Branches and the paths.
(iii) Basic loop incidence matrix C :
~
A B
r ~
A B
1 1 1
1 1 1
2 0 1
2 0 1
C=
3 0 1
C=
5 1 1
4 1 0
6 1 1
5 1 1
3 0 1
6 1 1
4 1 0
Fig. E 3.8 Branches and the paths.
E 3.2 Form the Y BUS by using singular transformation for the network shown
in Fig. including the generator buses.
jO.4
j 0.4
j 0.25
jO.25
Fig. E.3.9
36 Power System Analysis
Solution:
The given network is represented in admittance form
Fig. E.3.10
The oriented graph is shown in Fig. below
@:
a,
b
CDC>ilo@
f
c
o4fo@
e
d
Fig. E.3.11
@
The above graph can be converted into the following form for convenience
b c
f
e
Fig. E.3.12
Network Matrices 37
the element node incidence matrix is given by
e \ n I
0 2 3 4
a +1 1 0 0 0
b 0 +1 0 I 0
1\
0 0 1 +1 0
A = c
d +1 0 1 0 0
e 0 0 +1 0 1
f 0 1 0 0 +1
Bus incidence matrix is obtained by deleting the column corresponding to the
reference bus.
e\bl
2 3 4
a 1 0 0 0
b +1 0 1 0
A=C
0 1 +1 0
d 0 1 0 0
e 0 +1 0 1
f 1 0 0 +1
b\el
a b c d e f
[ _ ~ 1
1 0 0 0
 ~ 1 1
N=2 0 1 1 1
3 1 1 0 0
4 0 0 0 1
The bus admittance matrix
Y BUS = [A]I [y] [A]
a b c d e f
(1) (2) (3) (4)
a Y
a
0 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0
b 0
Yb
0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0
[y] [A] = c
0 0
Yc
0 0 0 0 1 1 0
d 0 0 0
Yd
0 0 0 1 0 0
e 0 0 0 0
Ye
0 0 1 0 I
f 0 0 0 0 0
Yf
1 0 0
38
5 0
2.5 0
[y][A] =
0
0
0
2.5
a b
Y BUS = [A]l [y] [A] = (2) 0
(lr
0
whence,
(3) 0 1
(4) 0
[
10
YBUS = 2 ~ 5
2.5
0
4
5
4
0
c
0
1
0
0
13
4
4
Power System Analysis
0 0
2.5 0
4 0
0 0
0 4
0 2.5
d f
2 0 0
e
0 0
~ I l
2.5 0 2.5 0
1 1
0 4 4 0
0 0
0 5 0 0
0 1
0 4 0 4
2.5 0 0 2.5
2.5
4
6.5
0
E 3.3 Find the Y BUS using singular transformation for the system shown in
Fig. E.3.S.
Fig. E.3.13
Network Matrices
Solution: The graph may be redrawn for convenient as follows
7
Graph
Fig. E.3.14
A tree and a cotree are identified as shown below.
____ Tree
         COtree
Fig. E.3.1S
1\
The element mode incidence matrix A is given by
1\
A=
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
(0)
I
I
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
(1)
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
(2) (3) (4)
0 0 0
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 1 0
1 0 0
1 0 1
0 1 0
39
40 Power System Analysis
The bus incidence matrix is obtained by deleting the first column taking (0) node as
reference.
(1) (2) (3) (4)
1 1 0 0 0
2 0 1 0 0
3 0 0 0
4 0 0 0
[ 1 [ l
A=
Ab U I
5 0 0 1
= Al = ~ J
6 0 1 1 0
7 1 1 0 0
8 0 1 0 1
9 1 0 0
YIO
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0
Y20
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0
Y30
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0
Y 40
0 0 0 0 0
Given [y] ==
0 0 0 0
Y34
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0
Y23
0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
YI2
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Y24
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 y3
[Y Bus] == AI [y] A
YIO
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0
Y20
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0
Y30
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
0 0 0
Y40
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
[y][A] == 0 0 0 0
Y34
0 0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 0
Y23
0 0 0 0 1 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
Y12
0 0 1 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Y24
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 y3 1 0 0
Network Matrices 41
YIO
0 0 0
0
Y20
0 0
0 0
Y30
0
0 0 0
Y40
0 0
Y34
Y34
0
Y23
Y23
0
YI2
Y12
0 0
0
Y24
0
Y24
Y\3
0
Y\3
0
YIO
0 0 0
0
Y20
0 0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
0 0
Y30
0
(1)
[ ~
0 0 0 0 0 1 0
r']
0 0 0
Y 40
[At] [y] [A] = (2)
1 0 0 0 1 1 1
0 0
Y34
Y34
(3) 0 0 1 0 0
0
 Y23 Y23
0
(4) 0 0 1 0 0
Y12
Y12
0 0
0
 Y24
0
Y24
Y13
0
Y\3
0
f l Y " ~ +y" +y,,)
Y12
y13 0
Y = Y12
(Y20 + Y12 + Y23 + Y24)  Y23
~ y ~ 1
BUS  Y13
 Y23 (y 30 + Y 13 + Y 23 + Y 34 )  Y34
0
Y24 Y34 (y 40 + Y 34 + Y 24 )
E 3.4 Derive an expression for ZIOOP for the oriented grapb shown below
5
Fig. E.3.16
42 Power System Analysis
Solution:
Consider the tree and cotree identified in the Fig. shown
•• Basic loops
     + Open loops
Fig. E.3.17
1\
The augmented loop incidence matrix C is obtained as shown from the Fig.
e I A B C D E F G
1 1 0 1 1
2 1 1 1 1
1\
C
3 I 1 0 0
4 1 0 0 1 [*.l
5 1
6 1
7 1
The basic loop incidence matrix
e I E F G
1 0 1 1
2 1 1 1
C =
3 1 0 0
6 0 0 1
4 1
5 1
7 1
ZIOOp = [Ct] [Z] [C]
=
[Zloop]= + [Zbb]cb +CaZbl]+[Zn]
Network Matrices 43
Note: It is not necessary to form the augmented loop incidence matrix for this problem
only loop incidence matrix suffices].
E 3.5 For the system shown in figure obtain Y BUS by inspection method. Take
bus (l)as reference. The impedance marked are in p.u.
Solution:
(2)
j 0.4
(1) (3)
Fig. E.3.18
[
1 1
(2) +
Y
_ jO.5 jO.l
BUS  1
(3)  jO.l
1 1
jO.l
1 1
+
jO.l jOA
(2)
= (2)[_ j12
(3) jl0
(3)
+ jl0 ]
 j12.5
E 3.6 Consider the linear graph shown below which represents a 4 bus
transmission system with all the shunt admittance lumped together. Each
line has a series impedance of (0.02 + j 0.08) and half line charging
admittance of jO.02. Compute the Y BUS by singular transformation.
Compute the Y BUS also by inspection.
3
Fig. E.3.19
44 Power System Analysis
Solution:
The half line charging admittances are all connected to ground. Taking this ground as reference
and eliminating it. The bus incidence matrix is given by
(0) (1) (2) (3)
1 0 1 1 0
2 0 0 1 1
A=
3 0 1 0 1
a
4 1 1 0 0
5 1 0 0 I
incidence matrix is given by; the transport of the bus
1 2 3 4 5
0 0 0 0 1 1
1 1 0 1 I 0
2 I 1 0 0 0
3 0 I I 0 I
The primitive admittance matrix [ y ] is shown below.
YI
0 0 0 0
0
Y2
0 0 0
[y]= 0 0
Y3
0 0
0 0 0
Y4
0
0 0 0 0
Ys
The admittance of all the branches are the same
i.e
==
Z 0.02 + jO.08
2.94  jl1.75 0 0 0 0
0 2.94  jl1.75 0 0 0
[y]= 0 0 2.94  jl1.75 0 0
0 0 0 2.94 jll.7,5 0
0 0 0 0 2.94  jl1.75
Network Matrices 45
[y] [A] =
2.94  jI1.75 0 0 0 0 0 1 I 0
0 2.94 jl1.75 0 0 0 0 0 1 I
0 0 2.94  jI 1.75 0 0 • 0 1 0 I
0 0 0 2.94 jI 1.75 0 1 I 0 0
0 0 0 0 2.94  jll. 75 1 0 0 I
0+ jO 2.94  j11.75  2.94 + j11.75 0+ jO
0+ jO 0+ jO 2.94  j11.75  2.94 + j11.75
0+ jO 2.94  j11.75 0+ jO 294+ j11.75
2.94  j11.75  2.94 + j11.75 0+ jO 0+ jO
2.94  j11.75 0+ jO 0+ jO  2.94 + j11.75
Y BUS = [N] [y] [A]
[ ~ I
0 0
j}
0+ jO 2.94 j11.75  2.94 + jl1.75 0+ jO
0 1 1
0+ jO 0+ jO 2.94  jl1.75  2.94 + jl1.75
1 0 0
0+ jO 2.94 j11.75 0+ jO  294 + jl1.75
1 1 0
2.94  j11.75  2.94 + jl1.75 0+ jO 0+ jO
2.94  jl1.75 0+ jO 0+ jO  2.94 + jl1.75
5.88 j23.5  2.94 + jl1.75 0+ jO  2.94 + j11.75
I
 2.94 + j11.75 8.82  j35.25 2.94+ j11.75  2.94 + j11.75
0+ jO  2.94 + j11.75 5.88 j23.5  2.94 + j11.75
 2.94 + j11.75  2.94 + j11.75 2.94+jll.75 8.82  j35.7
Solution by inspection including line charging admittances:
Yoo = Y01 + Y03 + Yo ~ + Yo 3/2
Yoo = [2.94  j 11.75 + jO.02 + jO.02 + 2.94  j 11.75]
Yoo = [5.88  j 23.46]
Yoo = Y22 = 5.88  j23.46
Yl1 = YIO + Y12 + Y13 + Y
IO
/2 + Y12/2 + Y13/2
Y33 = [Y30 + Y31 + Y32 + Y30/2 + Y31/2 + Y32/2]
46 Power System Analysis
Yll = Y33 = 3 (2.94  j 11.75) + 3 00.02)
= 8.82  j 35.25 + j 0.006
YII = Y33 = [8.82  j 35.19]
the off diagonal elements are
YOI = YIO = YOI = 2.94 + j 11.75
YI2 = Y21 = (Yo2) = 0
Y03 = Y30 = (Y03) = 2.94 + j 11.75
Y2b = Y32 = (Y23) = (2.94 + j 11.75)
Y31 = Y\3 = (Y\3) = (2.94 + j 11.75)
5.88  j23.46  2.94 + jl1.75 0
 2.94 + jl1.75 8.82  j35.l9  2.94 + jl1.75
0 2.94+ jl1.75 5.88  j23.46
2.94+jll.75 2.94+ jl1.75 2.94+ jll.75
2.94+ jl1.75
 2.94 + jl1.75
 2.94 + jll.75
8.82  j35.19
I
The slight changes in the imaginary part of the diagnal elements are due to the line
charging capacitances which are not neglected here.
E 3.7 A power system consists of 4 buses. Generators are connected at buses 1
and 3 reactances of which are jO.2 and jO.l respectively. The transmission
lines are connected between buses 12, 14, 23 and 34 and have reactances
jO.25, jO.5, jO.4 and j 0.1 respectively. Find the bus admittance matrix (i) by
direct inspection (ii) using bus incidence matrix and admittance matrix.
Solution:
jO.25 @
jO.4
®
"""'"
jO.5
j 0.1
j 0.1
j 0.2
Fig. E.l.20
Taking bus (1) as reference the graph is drawn as shown in Fig.
Network Matrices
47
@ .     ~  ~ ....... ::: CD
j 0.4 3 ® 4
Fig. E.3.21
Only the network reactances are considered. Generator reactances are not considered.
By direct inspection:
(1) (2) (3) (4)
I
I I I
0
I
+  
jO.2S jO.S jO.2S jO.S
2
I I 1 1
0  + 
jO.2S jO.4 jO.2S jO.4
3 0
1 1 I 1
 + 
jO.4 jO.4 jO.1 jO.1
4
I
0
I I I
  +
jO.S jO.I jO.1 jO.5
This reduces to
(1) (2) (3) (4)
I  j6.0 j4.0 0 j2.0
2 j4.0  j6.5 j2.S 0
3 0 j2.S  j12.S
JIO
4 + j2 0 JIO
 jI2
Deleting the reference bus (1)
(2) (3) (4)
Y
BUS
=
(2)  j6.S j2.S 0
(3) j2.5  jI2.5 jlO
(4) 0 JIO  jI2.0
48 Power System Analysis
By singular transformation
The primitive impedance matrix
1 2 3 4
1
IT
0 0
II
[z]= 2
jO.5 0
3 0 jO.4
4 0 0
The primitive admittance matrix is obtained by taking the reciprocals of z elements since
there are no matrices.
1 2
j2
3
1
j4
4
3
 j2.5
The bus incidence matrix is from the graph
and
[I
NyA= ~
A=2
3
4
A=
(2) (3) (4)
1 0 0
0 0 1
+1 1 0
0 1 +1
0 0
0 0
I i4
i21
y.  j;.5 j2.5
 ~ 1 O jl0
~ }
j4 0
0 1
0 0
0 1
 j2.5 j2.5
1 0
0 jl0
0
[ j6.5
j2.5
o 1
j2
= j2.5  j125 jl0
0
0 jIO  j120
 jl0
Network Matrices 49
E 3.8 For the system shown in figure for m Y BUS'
j 0,2 4
j 0,2
5
j 0,5
 ~
~ j O ' 1
CD 1__,
Q)
Fig. E.3.22
Solution:
Solution is obtained using singular transformation
The primitive admittance matrix is obtained by inverting the primitive impedance as
2 3 4 5
10 0 0 0 0
1
0 6,66 0 0 0
[y]= 1
0 0 6,66 0 0
2
0 0 0 0.952 2.381 I
0 0 0 2.831 0.952 J
®
@
CD
®
Fig. E.3.23
50 Power System Analysis
From the graph shown in figure the elementnode incidence matrix is given by
A=
e \ node 0 2 3
1
2
3
4
5
1
0
0
0
0
0
+1
+1
1
0
+1 0
1 0
1 0
0 +1
I +1
Taking bus zero as reference and eliminating its column the bus incidence matrix A is
given by
(I) (2) (3)
0 +1 0
2 +1 1 0
A=
3 +1 1 0
4 1 0 +1
5 0 1 +1
IO 0 0 0 0
0 1 0
0 6.66 0 0 0
1 1 0
[YJ= 1
0 0 6.66 0 0
•
1 1 0
2
0 0 0 0.952 2.381
1 0 1
0 0 0 2.831 . 0.952
0 1 1
The bus admittance matrix Y BUS is obtained from
Y
BUS
=Ny A
0 10 0
~ r : 1
+1 +1 I
~ }
6.66 0 6.66
I I 0 0 6.66 6.66
0 0 +1 +1
1.42 1.42 0
1.42 1.42 0
r 9.518
2.858
6.66J
= 2.8580 19.51 6.66
6.66 6.66 13.32
Network Matrices 51
Problems
P 3.1 Determine ZLOOP for the following network using basic loop incidence matrix.
CD
@
""
jO.5
/
j 0.5 i 0.5
/
j 0.5
""
@
®
Fig. P.3.1
P 3.2 Compute the bus admittance matrix for the power shown in figure by (i) direct
inspection method and (ii) by using singular transformation.
j 0.4
j 0.25 j 0.2
•
j 0.3
Fig. P.l.2
52 Power System Analysis
Questions
3.1 Derive the bus admittance matrix by singular transformation
3.2 Prove that ZBUS = Kt ZBR K
3.3 Explain how do you form Y BUS by direct inspection with a suitable example.
3.4 Derive the expression for bus admittance matrix Y BUS in terms of primitive admittance
matrix and bus incidence matrix.
3.5 Derive the expression for the loop impedance matrix ZLOOP using singular
trar.sformation in terms of primitive impedance matrix Z and the basic loop incidence
matrix C.
3.6 Show that ZLOOP = C
t
[z] C
3.7 Show that Y BR = Bt [y] B where [y] is the primitive admittance matrix and B is the
basic cut set matrix
3.8 Prove that ZBR = AB ZBUS ABT with usual notation
3.9 Prove that Y BR = K Y BUS Kt with usual notation
4 BUILDING OF
NETWORK MATRICES
Introduction
In Chapter 4 methods for obtaining the various network matrices are presented. These methods
basically depend upon incidence matrices. A, B. C, K and B, C for singular and nonsingular
transformation respectively. Thus, the procedure for obtaining Y or Z matrices in any frame of
reference requires matrix transformations involving inversions and multiplications. This could
be a very laborious and time consuming process for large systems involving hundreds of
nodes. It is possible to build the Z bus by using an algorithm where in systematically element by
element is considered for addition and build the complete network directly from the element
parameters. Such an algorithm would be very convenient for various manipulations that may
be needed while the system is in operation such as addition of lines, removal of lines and
change in parameters.
The basic equation that governs the performance of a network is

V BUS = rZBlJ<i 1.1 BIIS
4.1 Partial Network
In order to huild the network element hy element, a partial network is considered. At the
beginning to stal1 with, the building up of the network and its ZS\ IS or Y sus model a single
element I is considered. Further, this element having two terminals connected to tWll nodes
54 Power System Analysis
say (1) and (2) will have one of the terminals as reference or ground. Thus if node (1) is the
reference then the element will have its own self impedance as ZBUS. When we connect any
other element 2 to this element 1, then it may be either a branch or a link. The branch is
connected in series with the existing node either (1) or (2) giving rise to a third node (3).
On the contrary, a link is connected across the terminals (1) and (2) parallel to element I. This
is shown in (Fig. 4.1).
CD e.... @
2
2
CD @
(a) Branch
(b) Branch and Link
Fig. 4.1
In this case no new bus is formed. The element I with nodes (1) and (2) is called the partial
network that is already existing before the branch or link 2 is connected to the element. We
shall use the notation (a) and (b) for the nodes of the element added either as a branch or as a
link. The terminals of the already existing network will be called (x) and (y). Thus, as element
by element is added to an existing network, the network already in existence is called the partial
network, to which, in step that follows a branch or a link is added. Thus generalizing the
process consider m buses or nodes already contained in the partial network in which (x) and
(y) are any buses (Fig. 4.2).
PARTIAL NETWORK
®
@6 Ref. BUS
Branch
ADDITION OF A BRANCH
®
CD @ @
@ @
PARTIAL NETWORK
Fig. 4.2
Building of Network Matrices 55
Recalling Eqn. (4.1)
V BUS = [ZBUS ]1 BUS
in the partial network [ZBUS] will be of[m x m] dimension while VBUS and IBUS will be of
(m x 1) dimension.
The voltage and currents are indicated in (Fig. 4.3)
PARTIAL NETWORK
I I
I I
II 12
t t
~
(
6 6 mlO ) Ref. BUS
V 2 ~ · ~                       ~
V I ~ · ~                            J
Fig. 4.3 Partial Network.
The performance equation (4.1) for the partial network is represented in the matrix
form as under.
VI ZII ZI2 ... Zlm II
V
2 Z21 Z22···
Z
2m 12
..... (4.1 )
Vm Zml Zm2 ... Zmm 1m
4.2 Addition of a Branch
Consider an element ab added to the node (a) existing in the partial network. An additional
node (b) is created as in (Fig. 4.4)
l
PARTIAL NETWORK
I
I
( 6 ® ()
) Ref. BUS
CD @ @ @
Branch added ®
Fig. 4.4 Addition of a Branch.
56 Power System Analysis
The performance equation will be
..... (4.2)
Zml Zm2 ... Zma ... Zmm 2mb
_______  ___  ____ L __ _
Zbl Zb2 ... Zba ... Zbm : Zbb
The iast row and the last column in the Zmatrix are due to the added node b
Zbi = Zib········ ...... where i = 1,2, ............... m for all passive bilateral elements.
The added branch element ab may have mutual coupling with any of the elements of
the partial network.
Calculation of Mutual Impedances
It is required to find the self and mutual impedance elements of the last row and last column of
eq. (4.2). For this purpose a known current, say I = 1 p.u. is injected into bus K and the
voltage is measured as shown in (Fig. 4.5) at all other buses. We obtain the relations.
PARTIAL NETWORK
®
iab ~
~
Branch added
®
!
: ~ :
b ~
Ref. BUS
Fig. 4.5 Partial Network with Branch Added (Calculations of Mutual Impedances).
VI = ZIk1k
V
2
= Z2k
1
k
..... (4.3)
Building of Network Matrices
Since Ik is selected as 1 p.u. and all other bus currents are zero.
Zbk can be known setting Ik=l.O, from the measured value of Vb'
We have that
Also,
[
~ ab 1 = [Yabab
I xy Y"yab
Y abxy 1 [e
ab
1
Y xyxy exy
Yabab = self admittance of added branch ab
57
..... (4.3a)
..... (4.4)
..... (4.5)
. Y b = mutual admittance between added branch ab and the elements xy of
a xy
partial network
Y xyab = transpose of Yabxy
Y"yxy = primitive admittance of the partial network
iab = current in element ab
e
ab
= voltage across the element ab
It is clear from the (Fig. 4.5) that
iab = 0 ..... ( 4.6)
But, e
ab
is not zero, since it may be mutually coupled to some elements in the partial
network.
Also,
exy=VxV
y
..... (4.7)
where V x and Vy are the voltages at the buses x and Y in the partial network.
The current in ab
iab = Yabab e
ab
+ Y abxy ~ xy = 0
..... (4.8)
58
From equation (4.6)
Yabab e
ab
+ Yabxy e xy = 0
substituting equation (4.7)
 Yabxy e
xy
Yabab

 Y abxyCV x  V y )
Yabab
From equation (4.4)

Y abx/
V
x  V y )
Vb = Va + "
Y abab
Power System Analysis
..... (4.9)
..... (4.10)
..... (4.11)
Using equation (4.3) a general expression for the mutual impedance Zbl between the
added branch and other elements becomes
Yabxy (Zxi  ZYI )
Zbi = Zai + '
Yabab
i = I,2, ....... ,m; i i: b
Calculation of self impedance of added branch Zab'
..... (4.12)
In order to calculate the self impedance Zbb once again unit current Ib = 1 p.u. will be
injected into bus b and the voltages at all the buses will be measured. Since all other currents
are zero.
VI = ZIb1b
V
2
= Z2b
1
b
Vm = 2mb1b
Vq = Zbb1b
..... (4.13)
Building of Network Matrices
PARTIAL NETWORK
6 ®
@ CD
59
I
©
Fig.4.6 Partial Network with Branch Added (Calculations of Self Impedance).
The voltage across the elements of the partial network are given by equation (4.7). The
currents are given by equation (4.5)
Also, iab=Ib =1 ..... (4.14)
From equation (4.8)
 
iab = Yababeab + Y abxy exy = 1

But exy = Vx  Vy
Therefore
1 = Yabab e
ab
+ Yebxy (Vx  V
y
)
Hence
Note:
= (Zxb  Zyb) Ib
= (Zxb  Zyb)
substituting from equation (4.16) into (4.15)
[I+Yabxy(Zxb ZYb)]
Yabab
From equation (4.4) Vb = Va  e
ab
Therefore
ll+Yabxy(Zxb ZYb)J
Vb=Va+
Yabab
Yab _ ab is the self admittance of branch added ab also

Yabxv is the mutual admitt",nce vector between ab and xyo
..... (4.15)
..... (4.16)
..... (4.16a)
60 Power System Analysis
and
Hence,
Special Cases,'
Vb=Zbblb'
Va = Zab Ib'
Ib = 1 p.u.

Zbb = Zab +
1 + Y abxy (Zxb  Zyb)
Yabab
If there is no mutual coupling from equation (4.12)
1
with
Z =
ab  ab Y
abab
 
And since
Yabxy = 0
IZb, = Zall; i = 1,2, ................ , m; i =1= b
From equation (4.17)
IZbb = Zab + Zababl
..... ( 4.17)
If there is no mutual coupling and a is the reference bus equation (4.12) further
reduces to
with
Zal = 0
Z = 0
bl
i=I,2, ................. ,m;i=l=b
From eqn. (4.17)
Zab = 0
and
Zbb = Zab  abo
4.3 Addition of a Link
PARTIAL NETWORK
CD
® Ref. BUS
@
V, .. ____________________ I
Fig. 4.7 Addition of a Link (Calculation of Mutual Impedance).
Building of Network Matrices 61
Consider the partial network shown in (Fig. 4.7)
Consider a link connected between a and b as shown.
The procedure for building up ZBUS for the addition of a branch is already developed.
Now, the same method will be used to develop an algorithm for the addition of a link. Consider
a fictitious node I between a and b. Imagine an voltage source VI in series with it between I
and b as shown in figure (4.6).
Voltage VI is such that the current through the link ab (ie) i
ah
= 0
e
ab
= voltage across the link ab
VI = source voltage across Ib = e
lb
Thus we may consider that a branch aI is added at the node (a) since the current
through the link is made zero by introducing a source voltage VI.
Now consider the performance equation

E
BUS
= [ZBUS] . !sus
..... (4.18)
once again the partial network with the link added
2 a ... m
VI ZlI Z12 Zli Zla Zlm
I
ZII
II
I
I
V
2
2
Z21 Z22 Z2i Z2a Z2m : Z21
12
I
I
I
VI Zil ZI2 Zii Zia Zun
I
Zil
I
I I
I
..... (4.19) ==
I
•
I
I
Va Za1 Za2 ZI2 Zaa Zam
I
Zal
la
a I
I
I
I
I
Vm
m
Zml Zm2 Zml Zma Zmm : Zml
1m

T
VI I Z/1 Z/2 ... Z/i ... Z/a ... Z/m : Z"
I I
Also, the last row and the last column in Zmatrix are due to the added fictitious node I.
VI=VIV
b
Calculation of Mutual Impedances
..... (4.20)
The element Zh' in general, can be determined by injecting a current at the ith bus and measuring
the voltage at the node i with respect to bus b. Since all other bus currents are zero we obtain
from the above consideration.
VI = Zh Ii; k = 1, 2, ........................ m
and
VI = Z" II
..... (4.21)
..... (4.22)
62 Power System Analysis
Letting II = 1.0 p.u. Zh can be seen as v I which is the same as vI
But v/=VaVbeal
..... (4.23)
It is already stated that the current through the added link iab = 0
Treating aI as a branch, current in this element in terms of primitive admittances and
the voltages across the elements
i
al
= Yaf al • e
al
+ Ya/xy . e
xy
..... (4.24)
Where
YafXY are the mutual admittances of any element xy in the partial network with respect
to al and exy is the voltage across the element xy in the partial network.
But iaf = iab = 0
Hence, equation (4.23) gives
Note that
and
Therefore
(i.e.)
since
Also,
Yalaf = Yabab
Yafxy = Yabxy
eaf = [ Yabxy ' ~ X y 1
Yabab
Yabxyexy
v, = va  Vb +
Yabab
II = 1.0 p.u.
i = 1, ............... , m
i "# I
exy=vxvy
Thus, using equation 4.20 and putting II = 1.0 p.u.
..... ( 4.24)
..... (4.26)
..... ( 4.27)
..... (4.28)
..... ( 4.29)
Building of Network Matrices 63
..... (4.30)
i = 1,2, ............... , m
i::l=l
In this way, all the mutual impedance in the last row and last column of equation (4.19)
can be calculated.
Computation of Self impedance
Now, the value of ZII' the self impedance in equation (4.30) remains to be computed. For this
purpose, as in the case of a branch, a unit current is injected at bus I and the voltage with
respect to bus b is measured at bus I. Since all other bus currents are zero.
and
But
PARTIAL NETWORK
® U<it"{
Ref. BUS
@
Fig. 4.8 Addition of a Link (Calculation of Self Impedance).
Vk=Zk' I,; k = 1,2 ............... , m
v, = Z, I,
,
I, = 1 p.u. = ial
..... (4.31)
..... (4.32)
..... (4.33)
The current i
a
, in terms of the primitive admittances and voltages across the elements
=1
Again, as
YaIxy = Yabxy and
 
Then, from eqn. (4.34) 1 = Ya'a' eat + Yabxyexy
..... (4.34)
..... (4.35)
..... (4.36)
64 Power System Analysis
 
eal =
 (1 + Yabxy exy )
...... (4.37)
Yabab
Substituting
e =VV
xy x y
  I  I
 ZXI 1 ZYI' I
= ZXI  ZYI (since II = 1.0 p.u)

Z" = Zal  Zbl +
1 + Yabxy (ZXI  ZYI )
Yabab
..... (4.38)
Case (i) : no mutual impedance
If there is no mutual coupling between the added link and the other elements in the
partial network
Hence we obtain

Yabxy are all zero
1
=zabab
Yabab
Z/i = Zai  Zbl; i = 1, 2, ............. m
i ~ I
Case (ii) : no mutual impedance and a is reference node
If there is no mutual coupling and a is the reference node
Zal= 0; }
Z/i = Zbl
Also
Z " = Zbl + zabab
..... (4.39)
..... (4.40)
..... (4.41)
..... (4.42)
..... (4.43)
Thus all the elements introduced in the performance equation of the network with the
link added and node I created are determined.
It is required now to eliminate the node \.
For this, we short circuit the series voltage source VI' which does not exist in reality
From eqn. (4.19)
Building of Network Matrices

V BUS = [ZBUS ]IBUS + Z,iI,
V, = Z'j.lBUS + Z"I,; j = 1,2, ................. , m
= 0 (since the source is short circuited)
Solving for II from equation (4.45)
I
_  Z'J.lBUS
,
ZI/
Substituting in equation (4.44)
65
..... (4.44)
..... (4.45)
..... (4.46)
..... ( 4.4 7)
This is the performance equation for the partial network including the link ab
incorporated.
From equation (4.47) we obtain
and for any element
ZBUS (modified) = [ZBus(befOreaddition oflink)  ZI' Z,j]
Z"
Z'j(mod ified) = [Z,j(befOre addition of link  ZI,Z'j 1 ..... (4.48)
Z"
Removal of Elements or Changes in Element
Consider the removal of an element from a network. The modified impedance can be obtained
by adding in parallel with the element a link, whose impedance is equal to the negative of the
impedance to be removed.
In a similar manner, if the impedance of the element is changed, then the modified
impedance matrix obtained by adding a link in parallel with the element such that the equivalent
impedance of the two elements is the desired value.
66
@
PARTIAL
OR
Zxy
FULL NETWORK
6)
@
NETWORK
Zxy
6)
ZXy
Z"xy
Power System Analysis
PARTIAL
OR
FULL NETWORK
NETWORK
x
Y
Fig. 4.9 Removal or Change in Impedance of an Element.
Zxy changed to ZI
XY
1 I 1
=+
I Z il
Zxy xy ZXY
However, the above are applicable only when there is no mutual coupling between the
element to be moved or changed with any element or elements of partial network.
4.4 Removal or Change in Impedance of Elements with Mutual Impedance
Changes in the configuration of the network elements introduce changes in the bus currents of
the original network. In order to study the effect of removal of an element or changes in the
impedance of the element can be studied by considering these changes in the bus currents.
The basic bus voltage relation is

with changes in the bus currents denoted by the vector ~ I B u s the modified voltage
performance relation will become
..... ( 4.49)
Building of Network Matrices 67
V BUS is the new bus voltage vector. It is desired now to calculate the impedances Z:j
of the modified impedance matrix [ Z I BUS ] .
The usual method is to inject a known current (say 1 p.u) at the bus j and measure the
voltage at bus i.
Consider an element pq in the network. Let the element be coupled to another element
in the network rs. If now the element pq is removed from the network or its impedance is
changed then the changes in the bus currents can be represented by
®eeil
M<
   I ~ ~ irs
I... ®
0 ~ .   ~ 1 ~           ~ ~   . 0
Fig. 4.10
Inject a current of 1 p.u. at any jlh bus
I
j
= 1.0
Ik = 0 [k = 1,2, ................. , n; k:;t: j]
Then
n
v/ = IZlk (Ik +AI
k
)
k=1
..... ( 4.50)
i = I, 2 ................... n. With the index k introduced, equation may be understood
from (Fig. 4.10).
68 Power System Analysis
From equation
)
Lllk Lllpq,kq
LlIk =Llirs;k=r
LlIk =Llirs;k=s
V,' = Z lje1 + Z ,j Llipq  ZiqLl ipq + Z,r Lli
rs
 Z,sLli
rs
= Z'J + (Z,p Z,q)Llipq + (Zir ZJLl irs
..... (4.50(a))
..... (4.51)
If n, are used as the subscripts for the elements of both pq and rs then
V,' = Zij + (ZiCl  i = 1, 2, 3 .............. , n ..... (4.52)
From the performance equation of the primitive network.
. .... (4.53)
Where [Y
sm
] and [Ysm]l are the square sub matrices of the original and modified primitive
admittance matrices. Consider as an example, the sytem in Fig 4.11 (a), Y matrix is shown.
IfY2 element is removed, the yl matrix is shown in Fig. 4.11(b).
Y,
(1)1_..
@
(1) (2) (3)
Y2
(1)
[Yf
0
Y: j
y = (2)
Y22
(3)
Y32 Y33
Y,
@
(1) (2) (3)
I _ (I)
[Yf
0
Y  (2)
Y22
(b)
(3) 0
@
Fig. 4.11
Building of Network Matrices 69
Then, Y
sm
and Ysm
l
are given: Y
sm
= and Y'sm =
Thus, the rows and column of the sub matrices Y
sm
and Ysm
l
correspond to the network
elements pq and rs (Fig. 4.10)
The subscripts of the elements of (Iy sm IIylsm I ) are and y8. We know that
substituting from eqn. (4.52)
for
I I
vyand v8
..... ( 4.54)
1  
Vy8 =ZYJ Z8J ...... (4.55)
Substituting from eqn.(4.55) for into eqn.(4.53)
..... (4.56)
Solving eqn. (5.56) for
Where U is unit matrix
Designating sm ) = [y sm ]  ] giving the changes in the admittance matrix ..... (4.58)
and the term
by F, the multiplying factor
[Zyj Z8J]
substituting equation (4.60) in equation (4.52)
V! = Zij + (Zlo.  ZiP )[F ]1 sm] 1 [ZYJ  Z8J
..... ( 4.59)
..... ( 4.60)
..... (4.61 )
The above equation gives the bus voltage vi at the bus i as a result of injecting I p.u.
current at bus j and the approximate current changes.
The ij the element of modified bus impedance matrix is then,
ZI'J = ZiJ + (Zlo.  ZiP) [F ]1 sm] [Zy,  ZOJ]
The process is to be repeated for each j = 1, 2, ........ n to obtain all element of ZI
BUS
'
70 Power System Analysis
Worked Examples
E.4.1 A transmission line exists between buses 1 and 2 with per unit impedance
0.4. Another line of impedance 0.2 p.u. is connected in parallel with it making
it a doublcircuit line with mutual impedance of 0.1 p.u. Obtain by building
algorithm method the impedance of the twocircuit system.
Solution:
Consider the system with one line
Bus 1
Bus2
0.4 p.u line
Fig. E.4.1
Taking bus (1) as reference the ZBUS is obtained as
(1) (2)
(1) 0 0
(2) 0 0.4
1QU
1 n° 2
_ ! O.lp.u _
0.4 p.u
Fig. E.4.2
Now consider the addition of the second line in parallel with it
The addition of the second line is equivalent to addition of a link. The augmented
impedance matrix with the fictitious node I introduced.
Z = (2)
zl
(I)
Building of Network Matrices
Z = 1 2(2)
abxy 12(1)
a=l;x=l
b = 2; Y = 2
12(1) 12(2)
[
0.4 O.IJl
0.1 0.2
Y abxy (ZXI  ZYI)
Zii = Zal  Zbl + ='
Yabab
71
[
1
1  2(1) 1  2(2)
YabXy=[ZabXyJ
1
(008
1
00)=12(1) [2.857 1.4286]
. . . I 12(2) 1.4286 5.7143
Z =Z 7. +
Yabxy  )
h ai bl Y
abab
(1.4286)(0  0.2)
Z21 = ZI2 = 0  0.4 + 5.7143 = 0.35
II + YabXY  [1 + (1.4286)(0  (0.35)]
Z" = ZaJ  a bl + = 0  (0.35) +
Yabab 5.7143
= 0.35 + 0.2625 = 0.6125
(2) (I)
Z d = (2) [0.4 0.35]
augmente
(I) 0.35 0.6125
Now, eliminating the fictions bus 1 (modified) = = Z22 _ Z21  zl2
zll
= 0.4  (0.35)(0.35) = 0.4  0.2 = 0.2
0.6125
(2)
ZBUS = (2) I 2 I
72 Power System Analysis
E. 4.2 The double circuit line in the problem E 4.1 is further extended by the addition
of a transmission line from bus (1). The new line by virtue of its proximity to
the existing lines has a mutual impedance of 0.05 p.u. and a self  impedance
of 0.3 p.u. obtain the bus impedance matrix by using the building algorithm.
Solution : Consider the extended system
Fig. E.4.3
Nowa=landb=3
Also a is the reference bus
  
Yabxy (ZXI  Zy;)
~ i = z a l +
Yabab
The primitive impedance matrix Zabxy is given by
2
1 2(1)
1 2(1) r 0.4
1 2(2) 1 3
Zabxy = 1 2(2) 0.1
13 0.05
[YabXY ] = [ZabXY t J
1.2(1)
1 2(1)
r
2.9208
1.4634
 0.4878
=
1 2(2)
13
0.1 0.051
0.2 0
o 0.3
1.2(2)
1.4634
5.7317
0.2439
1.3
04878]
0.2439
3.4146
Building of Network Matrices 73
Setting b = 3; i = 2; a = 1
[y 1312(I)Y 1312(2)] [Z12  Z22] 0 + [(0.4878)(0.2439)] [0  0.2]
z12  Z22 0  0.2
Z 32 = Z 12 + Y1313 ==== = 3.4146
= 0.04828 = 0.014286
3.4146
1 + YI312(1)YI312(2) 1 +  0.4878 0.24.)9
[
][
Z13 Z23] [ " ][0.014286
l
J
z13 Z23 0.014286
Z33 = ZI3 + '=.:.:= = 0 + ='=
Yl313 3.4146
1.0034844 = 0.29388
3.4146
ZBUS = (2)
(3)
(2)
[
0.2
0.01428
(3)
0.01428]
0.29388
E 4.3 The system E4.2 is further extended by adding another transmission line to
bus 3 w itil 001£ in pedance of 0 .3 p.u .0 bta.in tile Z BUS
Solution:
2 0.2
0.3
1
/=
0.4
3
4
0.3 p.u
Fig. E.4.4
74 Power System Analysis
Consider the system shown above with the line 4 added to the previous system.
This is the case of the addition of a branch. Bus (3) is not the reference bus.
a=3
b=4
There is no mutual coupling.
i = 1, 2, ........... m i :;: b
Zbb = zab + zabab
setting i = 1, 2 and 3 respectively we can compute.
Z41 = z41 = 0 (ref. Node) = z31
Z42 = z32 = 0 == 0.01428
Z41 == Z33 == 0.29288
z4i == z31 + Z44_44 = 0.29288 + 0.3 = 0.59288
(2) (3) (4)
(2) l 0.2 0.1428 0.1428 j
ZBUS = (3) 0.01428 0.29288 0.29288
(4) 0.01428 0.29288 0.59288
E. 4.4 The system in E 4.3 is further extended and the radial system is converted
into a ring system joining bus (2) to bus (4) for reliability of supply. Obtain
the ZBUS.
The self impedance of element 5 is 0.1 p.u
Solution:
2
I
3 5
4
Fig. E.4.5
Building of Network Matrices 75
The ring system is shown in figure now let a = 2 and b = 4 addition of the line 5 is addition of
a link to the existing system. Hence initially a fictitious node I is created. However, there is no
mutual impedance bus (2) is not a reference node.
with i = 2
with i = 3
setting i = 4
Z,i = zal  zbl
zil = zal  zbl + zabab
zZI = zZ2  Z42 = zi2 = 0.2  0.01428 = 0.18572
z31 = ~ 3  z43 = zl3 = 0.01428  0.29288 =  0.27852
Z41 = ZI4 = z24  Z44 = 0.1428  0.59288 = 0. 5786
Z (augmented) = zll + zal  a
bl
+ zabab
= Z21 Z41 + 0.1 = 0.18572 + 0.5786 + 0.1 = 0.86432
(2) (3) (4) (I)
(2)
[0.2 0.01428
0.01428
0.
18572
1
(3) 0.01428 0.29288 0.29288  0.27852
(4) 0.01428 0.29288 0.59288  0.5786
(I) 0.18572  0.27582  0.5786 0.86432
Now it remains to eliminate the fictitious node I.
( d
·fi d) =  Z21 ZI2  0 2 _ (0.18572)(0.18572)  0 16
z?2 mo 1 Ie Zz2  .  .
 zn 0.86432
z_ (modified) = Z _ Z21 ZI3
.l3 23 Z
Ii
= 0.01428  (0.18572)(0.27852) = 0.01428 + 0.059467 = 0.0741267
0.86432
Z?I ZI4
Zz4 (modified) = z33  
ZII
= 0.01428  (0.18572)(0.5786) = 0.01428 + 0.1243261 = 0.1386
0.86432
• z31 zl3
Z33 (modIfied) = Z33 = 
zn
= 0.59288  (0.27582)(0.27852) = 0.59288  0.0897507 = 0.50313
0.86432
76 Power System Analysis
Z34 (modified) = z43 (modified)
= 0.2928  (0.27852)(0.5786) = 0.29288  0.186449 = 0.106431
0.86432
z (modified) = z _ Z41 Zl4
44 44 Z
II
= 0.59288  (0.5786)(0.57861) = 0.59288  0.38733 = 0.2055
0.86432
The ZBUS for the entire ring system is obtained as
(2) (3)
(2) [0.16 0.0741267
ZBUS = (3) 0.0741267 0.50313
(4) 0.1386 0.106431
(4)
0.
1386
1
0.106431
0.2055
E 4.5 Compute the bus impedance matrix for the system shown in figure by adding
element by element. Take bus (2) as reference bus
Solution:
j 0.25 p.u
@
Fig. E.4.6
Stepl Taking bus (1) as reference bus
(2)
ZBUS = (2) I j0.25 I
0.1 p.u
t
@
Building of Network Matrices 77
Step2 Ass line joining buses (2) and (3). This is addition of a branch with mutuals.
a = (2); b = (3)
j 0.25
@
Fig. E.4.7
(2) (3)
Z = (2) jO.25 Z23
BUS
(3) Z32 Z33
  
Y abxy (ZXI  zYI)
zbl = zal +
Yabab
j 0.5
The primitive impedance matrix.
Hence
[
jO.5  jO.l]
z(pnmitive) = •
 JO.l jO.2S
[
 j4.347 jO.869]
Yabxy = [z]pnmlllve
1
= jO.869  j2.1739
Z32 = J·0.25 + jO.869(0  jO.25) = J·0.25 + J·0.099 = J·0.349
 j2.1739
= . + 1 + 0.869(0  j0.349) = '0.349 + '0.5 = '0.946
Z33 JO.349 _ j2.1739 J J J
78 Power System Analysis
(2) (3)
z = (2) jO.25 j0.349
BUS
(3) j0.349 jO.946
Step3 : Add the live joining (l) and (3) buses. This is addition of a link to the existing
system with out mutual impedance.
A fictitious bus I is created.
j 0.25
Unk oddod /
Zli = Zbl
j 0.25
®
Fig. E.4.8
zn = z bi + zabab
Z12 = Z32 = j 0.349
zl3 = z33 = j 0.9464
zn = Z31 + zl313
= +j 0.9464 + j 0.25
= j 1.196
The augmented impedance matrix
(2)
ZEUS = (3)
(2)
jO.25
jO.349
j 0.5
(3)
jO.349
jO.946
(I)  jO.349  jO.9464
The factious node (I) is now eliminated.
Z ry (modified) = Z ry _ z21 Z12
2_ 2_ Z
11
(4)
 jO.349
 jO.9464
j1.l96
Building of Network Matrices
Hence
= jO.25 _ ( j0.349)(  j0.349) = 0.1481
jl.196
Z? (modified) = z (modified) = z ,_ Z21 zp
~ u ~ Z
II
= '0.349 _ (jO.349)( jO.9464) = 0.072834
J j1.l96
. Z31 zl3
z33 (modIfied) = z33  
Z II
(
 '09464)2
= j 0.94645  J. = 0.1976
j1.196
Z _[iO.1481 i
O
.
0728
l
BUS  iO.0728 jO.l976J
79
E. 4.6 Using the building algorithm construct zBUS for the system shown below.
Choose 4 as reference BUS.
@
0.2 p.u
4
0.1 p.lI
3
0.5 p.lI
0.3 p.u
2
0.3 p.u
1
@
Fig. E.4.9
Solution:
Stepl Start with element (1) which is a branch a = 4 to b = 1. The elements of the bus
impedance matrix for the partial network containing the single branch are
80
0.3
Fig. E.4.10
Taking bus (4) as reference bus
(4) (1)
(4) rrffij0
z 
BUS  (1) 0 0.3
Power System Analysis
Since node 4 chosen as reference. The elements of the first row and column are zero
and need not be written thus
(1)
ZBUS = (1) ~
Step2 Add element (2) which is a branch a = 1 to b = 2. This adds a new bus.
Ref. ®
0.3
Fig. E.4.11
(1) (2)
Z =
(I) 0.3 Z12
BUS (2)
Z21 Z22
Z12 = Z21 = Zll = 0.3
z22 = Z12 + z1212 = 0.3 + 0.5 = 0.8
(I) (2)
(1) ~ . 3 0.3
Z 
BUS  (2) 0.3 0.8
.@
Branch Added
2
0.5 p.u
Step3 Add element (3) which is a branch a = 2 to b = 3. This adds a new BUS. The
BUS impedance matrix.
Building of Network Matrices
@r
Ref. ® _1 __
(1)
ZBUS = (2)
(3)
0.2 p.u
3
0.3 .u
Fig. E.4.12
(1) (2) (3)
0.3 0.3
z\3
OJ 0.8
Z23
Z31 Z23 Z33
ZI3 = ~ 1 = Z21 = 0.3
z32 = z23 = ~ 2 = 0.8
0.5 p.u 2
_1_...1._ CD
Z33 = ~ 3 + Z2323 = 0.8 + 0.2 = 1.0
(1) (2) (3)
(1) OJ 0.3 0.3
Hence, ZBUS = (2)
0.3 0.8 0.8
(3) OJ 0.8 1.0
81
Step4 Add element (4) which is a link a = 4; b=3. The augmented impedance matrix
with the fictitious node I will be.
I
0.2 p.u
I
3
4 0.3 p.u
0.5 p.u
2
0.3 p.u
I I
Fig. E.4.13
82
(1) (2) (3) (l)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(l)
0.3
0.3
0.3
Z/1
0.3
0.8
0.8
Z/2
0.3
0.8
1.0
Z/3
ZIf = zlI  z31 = 0.3
Zzl = z12  z32 = 0.8
z31 = Z \3  Z 33 = 1.0
z\I
Z2/
Z3/
zli
zlI = z31 + Z4343 = {I) + 0.3 = 1.3
The augmented matrix is
(1) (2)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(l)
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
To eliminate the [Ih row and column
0.3
0.8
0.8
0.8
(3) (l)
0.3 0.3
0.8 0.8
1.0 1.0
1.0 1.3
Power System Analysis
1 _ _ (Zll XZn) _ 0 3 _ (0.3)(0.3)  0 230769
Zll  Zll  .  .
Zll 1.3
1 _ 1 _ _ (Zll)(Z21) 03 (0.3)(0.8) 01153
Z21  z12  z12  .  .
Zll 1.3
1 _ 1 _ _ (Zll )(ZI3) _ 0 3 _ (0.3)(1.0)  0 06923
Z31  zI3  zI3  .  .
Zll 1.3
1 _ _ (Z21 )(Z12) _ 0 8 _ (0.8)(0.8)  0 30769
Z22  Z22  .  .
Zll 1.3
1 _ 1 _ _ (Z31)(Z12) _ 08 (1.0)(0.8)  018461
Z23  Z32  Z32  .  .
Zll 1.3
Building of Network Matrices 83
and, thus,
Step5
4
(1)
ZBUS = (2)
(3)
(1)
0.230769·
0.1153
0.06923
(2) (3)
0.1153 0.06923
0.30769 0.18461
0.18461 0.230769
Add element (5) which is a link a = 3 to b = 1, mutually coupled with element
(4). The augmented impedance matrix with the fictitious node I will be
0.3
(1)
(2)
(3)
(I)
0.3
Fig. E.4.14
(1) (2)
0.230769 0.1153
0.1153 0.30769
0.06923 0.18461
Zll z12
(3)
0.06923
0.18461
0.230769
z13
Y3123(Z21 Z31)
zll =z/l =Z31 Zll +
Y3131
Y3123(Z22 Z32)
zl2 = Z21 = Z32  z12 + 
Y3131
2
(I)
Zu
Z21
Z31
Zll
84 Power System Analysis
Invert the primitive impedance matrix of the partial network to obtain the primitive
admittance matrix.
4 1(1) 1 2(2) 2 3(3) 43(4) 3 1(5)
4 1(1) 0.3 0 0 0 0
1 2(2) 0 0.5 0 0 0
[ZXYXY] = 2  3(3)
0 0 0.2 0 0.1
43(4) 0 0 0 0.3 0
3 1(5) 0 0 0.1 0 0.4
4 1(1) 1 2(2) 2 3(3) 43(4) 3 1(5)
41(1) 3.33 0 0 0 0
I 1 2(2) 0 0.2 0 0 0
[ZXYXY t = [y XYXy] = 2  3(3)
0 0 5.714 0 1.428
43(4) 0 0 0 3.33 0
3 1(5) 0 0 1.428 0 2.8571
(1.428)(0.1153  0.06923)
zll = Z12 =.0.06923  0.230769 + = 0.18456
2.8571
= = (1.428)(0.30769  0.18461) = 000779
z12 z21 0.18461  0.1153 + 2.8571 .
Z31 = zI3 = 0.230769  0.06923 + (1.428)(0.18461  0.230769) = 0.1846
2.8571
_ 8 ) 1 + (1.428)(0.00779  0.1846)  0 8075
zlI
0
.
1
46(0.1845 + 2.8571  .
(1)
(2)
(3)
(I)
(1)
0.230769
0.1153
0.06923
 0.18456
(2)
0.1153
0.30769
0.18461
0.00779
(3) (1)
0.06923  0.18456
0.18461 0.00779
0.230769 0.186
0,1846 0.8075
Building of Network Matrices 85
To Eliminate [lh row and column:
Z ~ \ = ZII _ (ZlI)(Z\1) = 0.230769 (0.18456)(0.18456) = 0.18858
ZII 0.8075
\  \   _ (ZlI)(Z\2) _ 01153 (0.18456)(0.00779)  011708
Z12  Z2\  Z\2   .  .
z\\ 0.8075
(Z21 )(Z\2) = 0.30769 _ (0.00779)(0.00779) = 0.30752
z\l 0.8075
\  \   (ZlI)(Z\3) _ 0 06923 _ (0.18456)(0.1846)  011142
z\3  Z3\  z\3   .  .
ZII 0.8075
Z ~ 3 = Z33  (Z31 )(Z13) = 0.230769 _ (0.1846)(0.1846) = 0.18857
z\\ 0.8075
Z ~ 2 = Z ~ 3 = Z23  (Z21 )(Z3\) = 0.18461 _ (0.00779)(0.1846) = 0.18283
zlI 0.8075
(1) (2) (3)
(1)
and ZBUS = (2)
0.18858 0.11708 0.11142
0.11708 0.30752 0.18283
(3) 0.11142 0.18283 0.18858
E 4.7 Given the network shown in Fig. E.4.1S.
@
@
I
3
I
0.2
4 0.3
0.5 2
I
0.3
I
®
CD
Fig. E.4.1S
86
Its ZBUS is as follows.
(1)
laus = (2)
(3)
0.230769
0.1153
0.06923
Power System Analysis
0.1153 0.0623
0.30769 0.18461
0.18461 0.230769
If the line 4 is removed determine the Z BUS for the changed network.
Solution: Add an element parallel to the element 4 having an impedance equal to impedance of
element 4 with negative sign.
1 1 1 1 1
=+ =+=0
lnew ladded lexisting
0.3 0.3
This amount to addition of a link.
®
5 4
OJ 0.3
where
I
®
(1)
Zsus = (2)
(3)
(l)
3
0.2
1
OJ
Fig. E.4.16
(1) (2)
0.230769 0.1153
0.1153 0.30769
0.06923 0.18461
ZII Z/2
ZII = zlI = z31 = 0.06923
~ I = z12 = Z32 = 0.18461
Z31 = zl3 = z33 = 0.230769
z/1 = Z31 + z4343
~
0.5
I
(3)
0.0623
0.18461
0.230769
z/3
= (0.230769) + (0.3) = 0.06923
@
2
<D
(/)
zlI
Z21
Z31
zl/
Building of Network Matrices
The augmented zBUS is then
(1)
ZBUS = (2)
(3)
(I)
Eliminating the fictitious node I
(1)
0.230769
0.1153
0.06923
0.06923
(2) (3) (I)
0.1153 0.0623 0.06923
0.30769 0.18461 0.18461
0.18461 0.230769 0.230769
0.18461 0.230769 0.06923
Z ~ 2 = Z ~ 3 = Z23  (Z21 )(ZI3) = 0.18461 (0.18461)(0.2307669) = 0.8
z"  0.06923
Z ~ l = Z:3 = z13  (Z21 )(Z31) = (0.06923)  (0.230769) = 0.3
z"
Z ~ 2 = Z22  (Z21 )(Z12) = (0.30769) _ (0.18461)(0.18461) = 0.8
z\\  0.06923
Z\ = Z _ (Z31 )(Z\3) = (0.230769) _ (0.230769)(0.230769) = 1.0
33 33 Z\\ _ 0.06923
The modified Zaus is
(1)
ZBUS = (2)
(3)
(1) (2) (3)
0.3 0.3 0.3
0.3 0.8 0.8
0.3 0.8 1.0
87
88 Power System Analysis
E 4.8 Consider the system in Fig. E.4.17.
0.08 + jO.24
Fig. E.4.17
Obtain ZBUS by using building algorithm.
Solution:
Bus (1) is chosen as reference. Consider element 1 (between bus (I) and (2))
(2)
ZBUS = (2) I 0.08 + jO.24 I
StepI Add element 2 ( which is between bus (1) and (3))
0.08 + jO.24
®
Fig. E.4.18
This is addition of a branch. A new bus (3) is created. There is no mutual impedance.
(2) (3)
ZBUS = (2) 0.08 + jO.24 0.0 + jO.O
(3) 0.0 + jO.O 0.02 + jO.06
Building of Network Matrices
Step2 add element 3 which is between buses (2) and (3)
0.08 + jO.24
@
Fig. E.4.19
A link is a ~ d e d . Fictitious node I is introduced.
(2)
0.08 + jO.24
(3)
0.0+ jO.O
(I)
0.08+ jO.24 (2)
ZBUS = (3)
0.0+ jO.O 0.02 + jO.06  (0.02 + jO.06)
(I) 0.08+ jO.24  (0.02 + jO.006)
eliminating the fictitious node I
7_ (modified) = 7_ _ Z21 Zl2
l2 l2 Z
II
= (0.08 + jO.24) _ (0.08 + jO.24)2 = 0.04 + jO.l2
0.49+ j0.48
~ 3 (modified) = ~ 2 (modified)
0.16+ jO.48
= [ _ ZZI ZIJ] _ 0 0 '00 (0.8 + jO.24 )(0.02 + jO.06)
ZZ3  • + } . +
zl/ 0.16+ j0.48
= 0.01 + jO.03
Z33 (modified) = 0.0175 + j 0.0526
The zBUS matrix is thus
(2) (3)
ZBUS = (2) [0.04 + jO.12 0.01 + jO.03 ]
(3) 0.01 + jO.03 0.0175 + jO.0526
89
90 Power System Analysis
E 4.9 Given the system of E4.4. An element with an impedance of 0.2 p.u. and
mutual impedance of 0.05 p.u. with element 5. Obtained the modified bus
impedance method using the method for computations of ZBUS for changes
in the network.
Solution:
0.3
3
~
and
2
0.2
t 0.1
0.4
I
0.3
4
Fig. E.4.20
Element added is a link
a = 2 ; b = 4. A fictitious node is I is created.
(2)
(3)
(4)
(/)
(2)
0.16
0.0741267
0.1386
Z/2
(3) (4)
0.0741267 0.1386
0.50313 0.106431
0.106437 0.2055
Z/3 Z,4
1 + Yabxy (ZXI  Zyt)
Z" = Zal  Zbl + ..::.....::...
Yabab
The primitive impedance matrix is
I
I
1
0
.
2
I
5
I
0.1
I
I
•
~ 1 6
0.05
I
I
I
I
I
Z21
Z31
Z41
Zll
Building of Network Matrices
1 2(2)
[z]= 1 3
34
2  4(1)
2  4(2)
91
1  2(1) 1.2(2) 1  3 3  4 2.4(1) 2.4(2)
0.4 0.1 0.05 0 0 0
0.1 0.2 0 0 0 0
0.05 0 0.3 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0.3 0.1 0.05
0 0 0 0 0.05 0.2
The added element 6 is coupled to only one element (i.e.) element 5. It is sufficient to
invert the sub matrix for the coupled element.
24(1) 24(2)
Z b = 2  4(\) 0.1 0.05
a 'Y
2  4(2) 0.05 0.2
[
\ 1.4285  2.857]
YalHY = _ 2.857 5.7 \ 43
= 0.16 0.1386 + (2.857)(0 16  0.1386) = 0.01070
5.7143
Z =Z =0.7412670.10643+ (2.857)(0.7410.10643) =0.1614
31 13 5.7143
= O. \ 386  0.2055 + (2.857)(0.1386  0.2055) = 0.03345
5.7143
Z = 0.0107 _ (0.03345) + 1 + (2.857)(0.0107  (0.03345) = 0.19707
1/ 5.7143
The augmented matrix is then
92 Power System Analysis
(2) (3) (4) (I)
(2)
[°
0
1600
0.0741 0.1386
0
0
0107]
(3) 0.0741 0.5031 0.1064 0.01614
(4) 0.1386 0.1064 0.2055 0.0.3345
(I) 0.0107 0.01614 0.03345 0.19707
(0.0107)2
Z22 (modified) = 0.16  = 0.1594
0.19707
Z23 (modified) = Z32 (modified)
= 0.01070x(O.01614) = 0 7497
0.0741 0.19707 .
Z24 (modified) = Z42 (modified)
= 0.1386 _ 0.01070 x (0.03345) = 0.1404
0.19707
Z33 (modified) = 0.50313 _ (0.01614)2 = 0.5018
0.19707
Z43 (modified) = Z34 (modified)
= 0.106431  (0.03345)(0.01614) = 0.10369
0.19707
(0.0334)2
Z44 (modified) = 0.2055  = 0.1998
0.19707
Hence the ZBUS is obtained by
(2)
ZBUS= (3)
(4)
(2)
[
0.1594
0.07497
0.1404
(3)
0.07497
0.5018
0.10369
(4)
0.1404]
0.10369
0.1998
Building of Network Matrices 93
E 4.10 Consider the problem E.4.9. If the element 6 is now removed obtain the
ZBUS'
Solution:
2
0.2
0.3 ! 0.1
0.4
1
3
0.3
4
Fig. E.4.21
where a = 2; = 4 i = 1,2, ............. ,n
and y = 2; 8 = 4
the original primitive admittance matrix
24(1) 24(2)
[y sm] = 2  4(1)
24(2) 2.857: 5.7143
I
The modified primitive admittance matrix
12(1) 12(2)
0.1
[Ysm] 1= 12(1) [+ OIl i 0]
1 2(2) O·rO
I
1
1
0
.
2
1
5
1
1
1
16
0.05
1
1
1
I
{ [ ][ ]
1 }= [11.4285  2.857] = [10 0] = [1.4285  2.857]
Ysm Y
sm
2.857 5.7143 ° ° 2.857 5.7143
94
Computing term by term
ZyCl  Zoo  Zyf3  ZIIf3 = [(2)
(2)
Power System Analysis
[
0. ~ ~ 9 4 0. i ~ ~ 4 ] 1
0.1594 0.1594
(2) (2)
ZlIa =Z24 =Z42 =(4) [0.1404 0.1404]
(4) 0.1404 0.1404
(4) (4)
Zya =(2) [0.1404 0.1404]
(2) 0.1404 0.1404
(4) (4)
ZIIf3 = (4) [0.1998 0.1998]
(4) 0.1998 0.1998
[
0.1594 0.1594]_ [0.1404 0.1404]
Zya  Zoo  Zyf3 + ZIIf3 = 0.1594 0.1594 0.1404 0.1404
_ [0.1404 0.1404]+[0.1998 0.1998]
0.1404 0.1404 0.1998 0.1998
= [0.0784 0.0784]
0.0784 0.0784
[L\y 8m UZya  ZlIa  Zyf3  ZIIf3 J
= [1.4285  2.857] [0.0784 0.784] [ 0.1120  0.1120]
 2.857 5.7143 0.0784 0.0784  0.2240 0.2240
[
1 0] [0.1120 0.1120] [1.112 0.112]
F = U  fly sm (Zra  ZOIl  Zrj3 + Zoj3) = 0 1  0.2240 0.2240 = _ 0.224 0.7760
[F]l =[0.87387 0.12612]
0.25225 1.25225
[
F]IL\ =[0.87387 0.12612][ 1.4285 2.8571]=[ 1.6086 3.2173]
Ysm 0.25225 1.25225 2.8571 5.7143 3.2173 6.435
Building of Network Matrices 95
The elements of modified ZBUS are then given by
= Zij + tztU  )[F ]1 [fiy sm ][Zyt  ZOt ]
For i = 2; j = 2
z\, Z" + ([Z" z"l [Z" z"l [M]' ) (
= 0.1594 + [0.15940.1594] [0.1404 0.1404D
[
1.6086 3.2173] [ 0.1594 _ 0.1404 I
3.2173 6.435 0.1594 0.1404)
r ][1.6086 3.2173][0.019]
= 0.1594 + lO.019 0.019
3.2173 6.435 0.019
= 0.1594 + [ 0.03056 0.0611] = 0.1594 + 0.00058026 = 0.15998 = 0.16
[
0.019]
0.019
Let i = 2; j = 3
[
1.6086  3.2173] [ 0.03146]
=0.07497+[0.0190.019]
3.2173 6.435 0.03146
= 0.07491 + [ 0.030560.0611] = 0.07497  0.00096075 = 0.074040
[
 0.03146]
 0.03146
Let i = 2; j = 4
Zi4 = 0.1404 + [ 0.03056 0.0611] = 0.1404  0.001814 = 0.13858
[
0.0594]
0.0594
Let i == 3;j = 3
[
 1.6086  3.2173] [ 0.03146]
= 0.5018 + [ 0.03146  0.03146]
3.2173 6.435 0.03146
= 0.5018 + [0.0506  0.10 1228] = 0.5018 + 0.001592 = 0.503392
[
 0.03146]
 0.03146
For i == 3; j = 4
96
P 4.1
Power System Analysis
[
0.0594]
Z ~ 4 = 0.103691 + [0.05060  0.101228 J
 0.0594
= 0.103691 + 0.003006 = 0.106696
Similarly for I == j =
[
1.6086
Z ~ 4 =0.1998+[0.0594 0.0594J
3.2173
 3.2173] [ 0.0594]
6.435  0.0594
=0.1998+[0.09556 0.19113J =0.205476
[
 0.0594]
0.0594
Hence the ZBUS with the element 6 removed will be
(2)
ZBUS = (3)
(4)
3
(2) (3)
0.15998 0.074040
0.07404 0.503392
0.13858 0.106696
Problems
CD
Fig. P 4.14
(4)
0.13858
0.106696
0.20576
2
Form the bus impedance matrix for the system shown in Fig. P 4.1 the line data is
given below.
Element Numbers Bus Code Self Impedance
I (2)  (3) 0.6 p.u.
2 (I)  (3) 0.5 p.u.
3 (I)  (2) 0.4 p.u.
Building of Network Matrices 97
P 4.2 0 btam 1he m odilied ZBUS if a line 4 is added parallel to line I across the busses (2)
and (3) with a self impedance of 0.5 p.u.
P 4.3 In the problem P 4.2 ifthe added line element 4 has a mutual impedance with respect
to line element 1 of 0.1 p.u. how will the ZBUS matrix change?
Questions
4.1 Starting from Z BUS for a partial network describe step  by  step how you will
obtain the Z BUS for a modified network when a new line is to be added to a bus in the
existing network.
4.2 Starting from Z BUS for a partial network describe step by step how you will obtain
the Z BUS for a modified network when a new line is to be added between two buses
of the existing network.
4.3 What are the advantages of Z BUS building algorithm?
4.4 Describe the Procedure for modification of Z BUS when a line is added or removed
which has no mutual impedance.
4.5 Describe the procedure for modifications ofZ BUS when a line with mutual impedance
is added or removed.
4.6 Derive the necessary expressions for the building up of Z BUS when (i) new element
is added. (ii) new element is added between two existing buses. Assume mutual
coupling between the added element and the elements in the partial network.
4.7 Write short notes on
Removal ofa link in Z BUS with no mutual coupling between the element deleted and
the other elements in the network.
4.8 .Derive an expression for adding a link to a network with mutual inductance.
4.9 Derive an expression for adding a branch element between two buses in the ZBUS
building algorithm.
4.10 Explain the modifications necessary in the Z BUS when a mutually coupled element is
removed or its impedance is changed.
4.11 Develop the equation for modifying the elements of a bus impedance matrix when
it is coupled to other elements in the network, adding the element not creating a
new bus.
5 POWER FLOW STUDIES
Power flow studies are performed to determine voltages, active and reactive power etc. at
various points in the network for different operating conditions subject to the constraints on
generator capacities and specified net interchange between operating systems and several other
restraints. Power flow or load flow solution is essential for continuous evaluation of the
performance of the power systems so that suitable control measures can be taken in case of
necessity. In practice it will be required to carry out numerous power flow solutions under a
variety of conditions.
5.1 Necessity for Power Flow Studies
Power flow studies are undertaken for various reasons, some of which are the following:
I. The line flows
2. The bus voltages and system voltage profile
3. The effect of change in configuration and incorporating new circuits on system
loading
4. The effect of temporary loss of transmission capacity and (or) generation on system
loading and accompanied effects.
5. The effect of inphase and quadrative boost voltages on system loading
6. Economic system operation
7. System loss minimization
8. Transformer tap setting for economic operation
9. Possible improvements to an existing system by change of conductor sizes and
system voltages.
Power Flow Studies
99
For the purpose of power flow studies a single phase representation of the power network
is used, since the system is generally balanced. When systems had not grown to the present
size, networks were simulated on network analyzers for load flow solutions. These analyzers
are of analogue type, scaled down miniature models of power systems with resistances,
reactances, capacitances, autotransformers, transformers, loads and generators. The generators
are just supply sources operating at a much higher frequency than 50 Hz to limit the size ofthe
components. The loads are represented by constant impedances. Meters are provided on the
panel board for measuring voltages, currents and powers. The power flow solution in obtained
directly from measurements for any system simulated on the analyzer.
With the advent of the modern digital computers possessing large storage and high
speed the mode of power flow studies have changed from analog to digital simulation. A large
number of algorithms are developed for digital power flow solutions. The methods basically
distinguish between themselves in the rate of convergence, storage requirement and time of
computation. The loads are gerally represented by constant power.
Network equations can be solved in a variety of ways in a systematic manner. The most
popular method is node voitage method. When nodal or bus admittances are used complex
linear algebraic simultaneous equations will be obtained in terms of nodal or bus currents.
However, as in a power system since the nodal currents are not known, but powers are known
at almost all the buses, the resulting mathematical equations become nonlinear and are required
to be solved by interactive methods. Load flow studies are required as has been already explained
for power system planning, operation and control as well as for contingency analysis. The bus
admittance matrix is invariably utilized in power flow solutions
5.2 Conditions for Successful Operation of a Power System
There are the following:
1. There should the adequate real power generation to supply the power demand at
various load buses and also the losses
2. The bus voltage magnitUdes are maintained at values very close to the rated values.
3. Generators, transformers and transmission lines are not over loaded at any point of
time or the load curve.
5.3 The Power Flow Equations
Consider an nbus system the bus voltages are given by
~ VI LO
l
V= ............ .
Vn LOn
The bus admittance matrix
[Y] = [G] + j [B]
..... (5.1 )
..... (5.2)
100
Power System Analysis
where
" glk j j b
lh
Y
I
= IVII L8
1
= iV
2
1 (Cos 8
1
+ j sin (
1
)
VI: = IVkl Li\ = !Vki (Cos c\ + j sin 8
k
)
The current injected into the network at bus 'i'
..... (5.3)
..... (5.4 )
II = YII VI T YIC Vc + .... + Yin Vn where n is the number of buses
n
II  L Y
lk
V
k
bl
The complex power into the system at bus i
S=P+J'O=VI*
1 I ! 1 I
n
L IV V, Y,lexp(8 0, 8,)
k=1 I I,
Equating the real and imaginary parts
11
PI = k:1 IV
I
V k Ylkl Cos (8
1
 (\  8
1k
)
n
and 0
1
= L IV V, Y,I Sin(8 8, 8,)
k=1 I I. I, I,
where j= 1.2 ...... , n
..... (5.5 )
..... (5.6)
..... (5.7)
..... (5.8)
Excluding the slack bus, the above power flow equations are 2 (n  I) and the variables
are PI" 0
1
, IVII and Ld
l
Simultaneous solution to the 2 (n  I) equations
p 
01
n
, IV
I
V
k
Cos «\  i\  8
1k
) = 0
, I
k ct slack bus
n
OGI  0
01
 IV
I
V k Ylkl Sin (8
1
 c\  8
1k
) = 0
k *' slack bus
Constitutes the power flow or load flow solution.
..... (5.9)
..... (5.10)
The voltage magnitudes and the phase. angles at all load buses are the quantities to be
determined. They are called state variables or dependent variables. The specified or scheduled
values at all buses are the independent variables.
Y matrix interactive methods are based on solution to power flow equations using their
current mismatch at a bus given by
..... ( 5.11 )
Power Flow Studies
101
or using the voltage form
fl.1,
..... (5.12)
I YII
At the end of the interactive solution to power flow equation, fl.1, or more usually fI. V,
should become negligibly small so that they can be neglected.
5.4 Classification of Buses
(a) Load hus : A bus where there is only load connected and no generation exists is
called a load bus. At this bus real and reactive load demand P
d
and Q
d
are drawn
from the supply. The demand is generally estimated or predicted as in load forecast
or metered and measured from instruments. Quite often, the reactive power is
calculated from real power demand with an assumed power factor. A load bus is
called a p, Q bus. Since the load demands P
d
and Q
d
are known values at this
bus. The other two unknown quantities at a load bus are voltage magnitude and its
phase angle at the bus. In a power balance equation P d and Q
d
are treated as negative
quantities since generated powers P g and Q g are assumed positive.
(b) VoltaKe controlled bus or generator bus:
A voltage controlled bus is any bus in the system where the voltage magnitude can
be controlled. The real power developed by a synchronous generator can be varied
b: changing the prime mover input. This in turn changes the machine rotor axis
position with respect to a synchronously rotating or reference axis or a reference
bus. In other words, the phase angle of the rotor 0 is directly related to the real
power generated by the machine. The voltage magnitude on the other hand,
mainly, influenced by the excitation current in the field winding. Thus at a generator
bus the real power generation P" and the voltage magnitude IV 01 can be specified. It
is also possible to produce vars by using capacitor or reactor banks too. They
compensate the lagging or leading val's consumed and then contribute to voltage
control. At a generator bus or voltage controlled bus, also called a PVbus the
reactive power Q
g
and 8fl are the values that are not known and are to be computed.
(c) ,",llIck htl.\'
In a network as power from the generators to loads through transmission
lines power loss occurs due to the losses in the line conductors. These losses when
included, we get the power balance relations
PgP
d
 ..... (5.14)
QgQdQI =0 ..... (5.15)
where P <; and Qo are the total real and reactive generations, P d and Q d are the total
real ancf reactive power demands and P land OI. are the power losses in the
transmission network. The values ofP g' 0 g' P d and 0 d are either known or estimated.
Since the flow of cements in the various lines in the transmission lines are not
known in advance, PI. and OI. remains unknown before the analysis of the network.
But. these losses have to be supplied by the generators in the system. For this
102
Power System Analysis
purpose, one of the geneFators or generating bus is specified as 'slack bus' or
'swing bus'. At this bus the generation P g and Q
g
are not specified. The voltage
magnitude is specified at this bus. Further, the voltage phase angle 8 is also fixed at
this bus. Generally it is specified as 0° so that all voltage phase angles are measured
with respect to voltage at this bus. For this reason slack bus is also known as
reference bus. All the system losses are supplied by the generation at this bus.
Further the system voltage profile is also influenced by the voltage specified at this
bus. The three types of buses are illustrated in Fig. 5.1.
Slack bus IV d. 8
1
= 0° specified P l'
Q
1
to be
determined at the
end of the
solution
P 3' Q3' IV 31. 8
3
Load bus P 3. 0
3
specified IV 31.8
3
are not known
Fig. 5.1
Bus classification is summarized in Table 5.1.
Table 5.1
Generator bus P 2'
IV 2i spcified O
2
,
8
2
to be known
Bus Specified variables Computed variables
Slack bus Voltage magnitude and its phase angle Real and reactive powers
Generator bus Magnitudes of bus voltages and real Voltage phase angle and
(PV  bus or voltage powers (limit on reactive powers) reat.:tive power.
controlled bus)
Load bus Real and reactive powers Magnitude and phase
angle of bus voltages
5.5 Bus Admittance Formation
Consider the transmission system shown in Fig. 5.1.
Fig. 5.2 Three bus transmission system.
Power Flow Studies
103
The line impedances joining buses 1, 2 and 3 are denoted by z 12' z 22 and z31 respectively.
The corresponding line admittances are Y\2' Y22 and Y31
The total capacitive susceptances at the buses are represented by YIO' Y20 and Y30'
Applying Kirchoff's current law at each bus
In matrix from
II : VI Y \0 + (V 1  V 2) Y \2 + (V 1  V 3) Y \3 }
12  V 2 Y20 + (V 2  VI) Y 21 + (V 2  V 3) Y23
13 = V 3 Y 30 + (V 3  VI) Y 31 + (V 3  V 2) Y 32
 Y12
..... (5.15)
 Y0 1 X
Y 20 + Y 12 + Y 23
 Y23
 Y13 1
Y 30 + Y 13 + Y 23
where
Y12
Y22
Y32
Y
II
:YlO+YI2+Y13}
Y
22
 Y20 + YI2 + Y23
Y33 = Y30 + Y\3 + Y23
are the self admittances forming the diagonal terms and
Y
12
: Y
21
: Y12}
y 13  Y 31  y 13
Y
23
=Y
32
=Y23
..... (5.16)
..... (5.17)
..... (5.18)
are the mutual admittances forming the offdiagonal elements of the bus admittance
matrix. For an nbus system, the elements of the bus admittance matrix can be written down
merely by inspection of the network as
diagonal terms
11
Y
II
= Ylo + LYlk
k;\
b'l
off and diagonal terms
Y
1k
=Ylk
..... (5.19)
If the network elements have mutual admittance (impedance), the above formulae will
not apply. For a systematic formation of the ybus, linear graph theory with singular
transformations may be used.
104 Power System Analysis
5.6 System Model for Load Flow Studies
The variable and parameters associated with bus i and a neighboring bus k are represented in
the usual notation as follows:
Bus admittance,
Y
lk
= I Y ik I exp j e Ik = I Y ik I (Cos qlk + j sin elk)
Complex power,
S
 p +' Q  V I"
I  I J I  I I
Using the indices G and L for generation and load,
PI = P
GI
 P
LI
= Re [Vi I*J
Q
I
= Q
Gi
 Q
Li
= 1m [Vi I"J
The bus current is given by
I
BUS
= Y BUS' V BUS
Hence, from eqn. (5.22) and (5.23) from an nbus system
" P  iQ. n
II = I : '=YiIV, + LYikV
k
Vj k=l
k"l
and from eqn. (5.26)
V = __ 1 [PI  jQ,  ~ Y V 1
' y. V. .L... ,k k
II , k=l
k"l
Further,
n
Pi + jQj = V , L Y , ~ V:
k=l
In the polar form
n
P,+jQj=L lV, V
k
Y,klexpj(D
I
D
k
elk)
k=l
so that
n
P, = L lV, V
k
YjkICOS(Oj Ok elk)
k=1
and
n
Q, = L IV
i
V
k
Y,k Isin (OJ Ok elk)
k=l
i = 1, 2, ..... n; i =F slack bus
..... (5.20)
..... (5.21)
..... (5.22)
..... (5.23)
..... (5.24)
..... (5.25)
..... (5.26)
..... (5.27)
..... (5.28)
..... (5.29)
..... (5.30)
..... (5.31)
Power Flow Studies
105
The power flow eqns. (5.30) and (5.31) are nonlinear and it is required to solve 2(nl)
such equations involving i V, I, 8
"
P, and Q
,
at each bus i forthe load flow solution. Finally, the
powers at the slack bus may be computed from which the losses and all other line flows can
be ascertained. Vmatrix interactivt! methods are based on solution to power flow relations
using their current mismatch at a bus given by
n
~ I = I  "Y
"
V,
1 1 L
or using the voltage from
, ~ I ,
~ V,  ~ 
YII
..... (5.32)
..... (5.33)
The convergence of the iterative methods depends on the diagonal dominance of the
bus admittance matri\.. The self·admittances of the buses, are usually large, relative to the
mutual admittances and thus, usually convergence is obtained. Junctions of very high and low
series impedances and large capacitances obtained in cable circuits long, EHV lines, series and
shunt compensation are detrimental to convergence as these tend to weaken the diagonal
dominance in the Vmatrix. The choice of slack bus can affect convergence considerably. [n
difficult cases. it is possible to obtain convergence by removing the least diagonally dominant
row and column of Y. The salient features of the Vmatrix iterative methods are that the
elements in the summation tenm in cqn. (5.26) or (5.27) are on the average only three, even
for welldeveloped power systems. The sparsity of the Vmatrix and its symmetry reduces
both the storage requirement and the computation time for iteration. For a large, well conditioned
system of nbuses, the number of iterations required are of the order of n and total computing
time varies approximately as n
2
.
Instead of using eqn (5.25). one can select the impedance matrix and rewrite the
equation a ~
v = Y I I ~ 7. I
..... (5.34 )
The Zmatrix method is not usually very sensitive to the choice of the slack bus. It can
easily be verified that the Zmatrix is not sparse. For problems that can be solved by both
Zmatrix and Vmatrix methods, the former are rarely competitive with the Vmatrix methods.
5.7 GaussSeidel Iterative Method
GaussSeidel iterative method is very simple in concept but may not yield convagence to the
required solution. However, whcn the initial solution or starting point is very close to the actual
solution convergence is gcncrally ontained. The following example illustrator the method.
Consider the equations:
2x + 3y = 22
3\. + 4y = 31
The free solution to thc above equations is .... == 5 and y = 4
106
Power System Analysis
If an interactive solution using GaussSeidel method is required then let u,; assume a
starting value for x = 4.8 which is nearer to the true value of 5 we obtain from the given
equations
22  2x 34 4y
Y =  and x = 3
3
Iteration 1 : Let x = 4.8; y = 4.13
with y = 4.13; x = 6.2
Iteration 2 x = 6.2; y = 3.2
Y = 3.2; x = 6.06
Iteration 3 : x = 6.06 y = 3.29
y = 3.29 x = 5.94
Iteration 4 : x = 5.96 y = 3.37
Y = 3.37 x = 5.84
Iteration 5 : x = 5.84 Y = 3.44
Y = 3.44 x = 5.74
Iteration 6 : x = 5.74 Y = 3.5
Y = 3.5 x = 5.66
The iteractive solution slowly converges to the true solution. The convergence of the
method depending upon the starting values for the iterative solution.
In many cases the conveyence may not be ohtained at all. However, in case of power
flow studies, as the bus voltages are not very far from the rated values and as all load flow
studies are performed with per unit values assuming a flat voltage profile at all load buses of
(I + jO) p.LI. yields convergence in most of the cases with appriate accleration factors chosen.
5.8 Gauss  Seidel Iterative Method of Load Flow Solution
In this method, voltages at all buses except at the slack bus are assumed. The voltage at the
slack bus is specified and remains fixed at that value. The (nI) bus voltage relations.
v = J_ r P, . jQ,  y V
'y V* k
" , 0_1
I = 1, 2, ..... n; i :f= slack bus
..... (5.35)
are solved simultaneously for an improved solution. In order to accelerate the convergence, all
newlycomputed values of bus voltages are substituted in eqn. (5.35). Successively the bus
voltage equation of the (m + 1)th iteration may then be written as
V(m+l) = _I [p ,jQ, _ y v:(m+l) _ y v:(m) l
I Y V(m)* k k I
"i J
..... (5.36)
Power Flow Studies
107
The method converges slowly because of the loose mathematical coupling between the
buses. The rate of convergence of the process can be increased by using acceleration factors
to the solution obtained after each iteration. A fixed acceleration factor ex (I ::; ex ::; 2) is
normally used for each voltage change.
Y _
L\ iex y*y ..... (5.37)
I 11
The use of the acceleration factor amounts to a linear extrapolation of VJ" For a given
system. it is quite often found that a nearoptimal choice of ex e>.ists as suggested in literature
over a range of operating conditions. Even though a complex value of ex is suggested in
literature, it is more convenient to operate with real values given by
..... (5.38)
Alternatively, different acceleration factors may be used for real and imaginary parts of
the voltage.
Treatment of a PV  bus
The method of handling a PVbus requires rectangular coordinate representation for the voltages.
Letting
Y
i
= v, + jv, ..... (5.39)
Where v, and v, are the real and imaginary components ofY
i
the relationship .
..... (5.40)
must be satisfied. so that the reactive bus power required to establish the scheduled bus
I b
. f IITI) (m) f
vo tage can e computed. The estimates 0 voltage components. v, and v, a ter
m iterations must be adjusted to satisfy eqn. (5.40). The Phase angle of the estimated bus
voltage is
[
"(m)]
8(m) = tan I _V_I_
I '(m)
v,
..... (5.41)
Assuming that the phase angles of the estimated and scheduled voltages are equal, then
the adjusted estimates of V'(II1) and V"(JII) are
. I
v
l
(lIl) = IV I cos8(m)
I ( new) I scheduled I
..... (5.42)
and
V"(I11) = IV I sin 8(111)
I(ncw) I scheduled I
..... (5.43)
These values are used to calculate the reactive power Using these reactive powers
0:
1111
and voltages I a new estimate V:
r
<1+11 is calculated. The flowchart for computing
the solution of load tlow using gaussseidel method is given in Fig. 5.3.
108
Power System Analysis
While computing the reactive powers, the limits on the reactive sourCt! must be taken
into consideration. If the calculated value of the reactive power is beyond limits. Then its value
is fixed at the limit that is violated and it is no longer possible to hold the desired magnitude of
the bus voltage, the bus is treated as a PQ bus or load bus.
No
VIm) =_I_[<PJ jQ,J
I Y,J vim)
!.=..!.. Y v(m"l) _ i Y VIm)]
k = I Ik k I . ~ I + I II. k
Yes
Yes
m=m+ I
Calculate line flows and slack bus
PO\\ er
Fig. 5.3 Flowchart for Gauss  Seidel iterative method for load flow solution using V8us.
Power Flow Studies
109
5.9 NewtonRaphson Method
The generated NewtonRaphson method is an interactive algorithm for solving a set of
simultaneous nonlinear equations in an equal number of unknowns. Consider the set of nonlinear
equations.
fl (Xl' X
2
' ...... , Xn) = YI' i = I, 2, .... , n
. .... (5.44)
with initial estimates for \
. (0) (0) (0)
XI • x
2
..... ., xn
which are not far from the actual solution. Then using Taylor's series and neglecting
the higher order terms, the corrected set of equations are
(
(0) + AX (0) + A XIO) + A. )_ ..... (5.45)
XI 0 I,X
2
oX
2
, .. •• .. , n oXn  YI
where L\ \ are the corrections to XI = (i = I, 2, ..... , n)
A set of linear equations, which define a tangent hyperplane to the function fl (x) at the
given iteration point (x:O)) are obtained as
L\Y= JL\X ..... (5.46)
where L\ Y is a column vector determined by
f (
(0) (0»)
YI  I XI , ..... ,x
n
L\X is the column vector of correction terms L\ x" and J is the Jacobian matrix for the
function f given by the first order partial derivatives evaluated at X (0) The corrected solution is
I
obtained as
X;IJ = x;O) + L\xl
The square Jacobian matrix J is defined by
Of
l
J =
II. Cx
k
..... (5.47)
..... (5.48)
The above method of obtaining a converging solution for a set of nonlinear equations
can be used for solving the load flow problem. It may be mentioned that since the final voltage
solutions are not much different from the nominal values, Newton  Raphson method is
particularly suited to the load flow problem. The matrix J is highly sparse and is particularly
suited to the load flow application and sparsity  programmed ordered triangulation and back
substitution methods result in quick and efficient convergence to the load flow solution. This
method possesses quadratic convergence and thus converges very rapidly when the solution
point is close.
There are two methods of solution for the load flow using Newton  Raphson method.
The first method uses rectangular coordinates for the variables, while the second method uses
the polar coordinate formulation.
110
Power System Analysis
5.9.1 The Rectangular Coordinates Method
The power entering the bus i is given by
parts.
Where
and
S, = P, + j 0,
v =0 v, + jv,
,
Y ,k = G,k + j B,k
(P, + jO,) = ((v: + jv:')t  jB,k   j
k=1 )
..... (5.49)
..... (5.50)
Expanding the right side of the above equation and separating out the real and imaginary
. .... (5.51 )
0, = f[v:(G" G'k +G,k
..... (5.52)
These are the two power relations at each bus and the lineanzed equations of the form
(5.46) are written as
I
r oP
I
oP
I
oP
I
I r Av,
l
I
Uv'; 0<_1
av
ll
_
1
oP
II
_
1
oP
lI
_
1
oP
n
_
1
oP
II
_
1
av'l
av:'_1 av:: av::_
1
III
..... (5.53)
00
1 OQn1 00
1
00
112
av'; av
"
av'; av
"
III III
00,,1 00,,1 00111 oonI
av'l av';
"
"
av
III
av
III nI '
Matrix equation (5.53) can be solved for the unknowns and (i = I, 2, ... , n 1),
leaving the slack bus at the nth bus where the voltage is specified. Equation (2.33) may be
written compactly as
..... (5.54)
where H, N, M and L are the submatrices of the Jacobian. The elements of the Jacobian are
obtained by differentiating Eqns. (5.51) and (5.52). The offdiagonal and diagonal elements of
Power Flow Studies
H matrix are given by
oP "
Cv.' = G 'k V k + B ,k V k ,i * k
k
The offdiagonal and diagonal elements ofN are:
oP , , "n (" , )
,: =B"v,+2G"v
k
+B"v,+2>G,k
V
k+
B
"v
k
oV
k
k=!
k"',
The offdiagonal and diagonal elements of submatrix M are obtained as,
aQ " ,
,' = G ,k V  B,k v, ' k * i
av '
k
Finally, the offdiagonal and diagonal elements of L are given by
aQ ' "
,' = G ,k v  B ,k v, , k * i
0V k '
(lQ, = G " ') B '
, " v,  ~ "v,
GV,
It can be noticed that
L,k =  H,k
and N,k = M,k
i (G ,k v ' ~  B ,k V k )
k =!
k ""
111
..... (5.55)
..... (5.56)
..... (5.57)
..... (5.58)
..... (5.59)
..... (5.60)
..... (5.61 )
..... (5.62)
This property of symmetry of the elements reduces computer time and storage.
Treatment of Generator Buses
At all generator buses other than the swing bus, the voltage magnitudes are specified in addition
to the real powers. At the ith generator bus
1 1
2 '0 "7
V, = v, + v,
..... (5.63)
112
Power System Analysis
Then, at all the generator nodes, the variable will have to be replaced by
But,
I 1
2 _ , (1(1 11) "
 ,i\V,+ "
?V, ?v,
..... (5.64)
This is the only modification required to be introduced in eqn. (5.60)
5.9.2 The Polar Coordinates Method
The equation for the complex power at node i in the polar form is given in eqn. (5.60) and the
real and reactive pO\vers at bus i are indicated in eqn. (5.30) and (5.31). Reproducing them
here once again for convenience.
and
P, = t lV, V
k
y"lcos(o,  Ok  8,,)
k=!
n
0, = L lV, V, V,k Isin (0, 0,  8,,)
..... (5.65)
..... (5.66)
The Jocobian is then formulated in terms of IV I and 8 instead of V,' and V, in this case.
Eqn. (5.46) then takes the form
= [: I]
..... (5.67)
The otTdiagonal and diagonal elements of tile submatrices H, N, M and L are determined
by differentiating eqns. (5.30) and (5.31) with respect to 8 and IV: as before. The offdiagonal
and diagonal elements of H matrix are
2P, =IV, V, V,kl sin (o,ok 8,,),i*k
(lok
..... ( 5.68)
..... (5.69)
The Jacobian is then formulated in terms of IV I and 8 instead of V,' and V," in this case.
Eqn. (5.46) then takes the form
[H Nl[ M 1
l  M L i\ 1 V I
..... (5.70)
Power Flow Studies
113
The offdiagonal and diagonal elements of the submatrices H, N, M and L are determined
by differentiating eqns. (5.30) and (5.31) with respect to 8 and IVI as before. Tlw offdiagonal
and diagonal elements of H matrix are
(lP
I
= IV V, Y I . 8)' k
I , Ik sin °1  Uk  Ik' I *
cUk
"'p 11
I = I IV
I
V
k
Ylklcos(8
1
i\ 8
Ik
),i*k
(,8
k
K=!
The offdiagonal and diagonal elements ofN matrix are
= IV
I
Y,k I sin (8, 8
k
8,k)
8: V
k
I
k"l
The offdiagonal and diagonal elements ofM matrix are
='IV
I
V
k
Y,klCos(8
1
8
k
8
Ik
)
k
Finally, the offdiagonal and diagonal elements of L matrix are
I = lV, Ylk Isin (81  i\  81k )
..... (5.71 )
..... (5.72)
..... (5.73)
..... (5.74)
..... (5.75)
..... (5.76)
..... (5.77)
..... (5.78)
[t is seen from the elements of the Jacobian in this case that the symmetry that existed
in the rectangular coordinates case is no longer present now. By selecting the variable as
,M and IVI / IVI instead equation (5.70) will be in the form
= I H N] r
LM L IN
..... (5.79)
[n this case it will be seen that
Hlk = Llk
and
114
Power System Analysis
or, in other words, the symmetry is restored. The number of elements to be calculated for an
ndimensional Jacobian matrix are only n + n
2
/2 instead of n
2
, thus again saving computer
time and storage. The flow chart for computer solution is given in Fig. 5.4.
m=m+l
p,(I11) = It VY. V,. cos(i"  Ok  e,k )
0,(111) = f V,V
k
V,k sin(o, Ok e,k)
,=1
= P (scheduled) _ p(m) .
I I ,
=O,(scheduled)O,(m)
Solve the equation:
Calculate the changes in variables
1 V I(m+ 1)= 1 V I(m) + i\V I(m)
8(m+ 1)= 8(111) +
Yes
Calculate Ime llows
and power at slack
bus
Fig. 5.4 Flow chart for Newton  Raphson method (Polar coordinates) for load flow
. solution.
Power Flow Studies
115
Treatment of Generator Nodes
For a PVbus. the reactive power equations are replaced at the ith generator bus by
1 I
" '2 "2
VI = VI +VI
..... (5.80)
The elements of M are given by
..... (5.81)
and ..... (5.82)
Then elements of L are given by
 )1 1"  .
Llk "11 Vk O,I,ck
C V
k
,
.. ... (5.83)
and
')2
L = II Iv 'I:::: 21
V
112
01 ciVil I I
..... (5.84)
Newtons method converges in 2 to 5 iterations from a flat start ([V} = 1.0 p.u and 0 = 0)
independent of system size. Previously stored solution can be used as starting values fONapid
convergence. Iteration time can be saved by using the same triangulated Jacobian matrix for
two or more iterations. For typical, large size systems, the computing time for one Newton 
Raphson iteration is roughly equivalent to seven Gauss  Seidel iterations.
The rectangular formulation is marginally faster than the polar version because there are
no time consuming trigonometric functions. However, it is observed that the rectangular
coordinates method is less reliable than the polar version.
5.10 Sparsity of Network Admittance Matrices
For many power networks, the admittance matrix is relatively sparse, where as the impedance
matrix is full. In general, both matrices are nonsingular and symmetric. III the admittance
matrix. each nonzero off diagonal element corresponds to a network branch connecting the
pair of buses indicated by the row and column of the element. Most transmission networks
exhibit irregularity in their connection arrangements, and their admittance matrices are relatively
sparse. Such sparse systems possess the following advantages:
1. Their storage requirements are small, so that larger systems can be solved.
2. Direct solutions using triangularization techniques can be obtained much faster unless
the independent vector is extremely sparse.
3. Round off errors are very much reduced.
The exploitation of network sparsity requires sophisticated programming techniques.
116
Power System Analysis
5.11 Triangular Decompostion
Matrix inversion is a very inefficient process for computing direct solutions, especjally for
large, sparse systems. Triangular decomposition of the matrix for solution by Gussian
elimination is more suited for load flow solutions. Generally, the decomposition is accomplished
by elements below the main diagonal in successive columns. Elimination by successive rows is
more advantageous from computer programming point of view.
Consider the system of equations
Ax=b ..... (5.84)
where A is a nonsingular b is a known vector containing at least one nonzero element
and x is a column vector of unknowns.
To solve eqn. (5.84) by the triangular decomposition method, matrix A is augmented by
b as shown
I all
an aln
b
l
I
a
22
a
2n
bo
l:::
a
n2 ann
b
n
The elements of the first row in the augmented matrix are divided by all as indicated by
the following step with superscripts denoting the stage of the computation.
. .... (5.85)
..... (5.86)
In the next stage a
21
is eliminated from the second row using the relations
,(I) _, II) .  2
a
21
.. a21a.:'lall'.I ........... n
..... (5.87)
..... (5.88)
(2) _ ( I ] (I) ._
a
2J
 a
2J
'.I
3
' ......... ,n
..... (5.89)
Power Flow Studies
The resulting matrix then becomes
using the relations
1
o
a
lll
all}
b
l
b b(1)
(3) = 3  a
31
I
~ : : : I
ann b
ll
J
b
(2)  b(l) (l)b(2)'  4
3  1 an ' ,J , ....... ,n
f 1
(3) _ 1 (1)·_
a
3
lTl a
3J
,J4, ....... ,\1
a
13
117
..... (5.90)
..... (5.91 )
..... (5.92)
..... (5.93)
..... (5.94)
..... (5.95)
The elements to the left of the diagonal in the third row are eliminated and further the
diagonal element in the third row is made unity.
After n steps of computation for the nth order system of eqn. (5.84). the augmented
matrix will he obtained as
a(l)
III
b(l)
I
a
(2
)
2n
b ~ 2 )
o
bIll)
11
By back substitution, the solution is obtained as
x = b(ll)
n n
 b(IlI) (nI)
x
n
_
l
 nI anI ,n ........ xll
11
X = b
ll
)  "all)x
I I ~ 1J I
1=1+1
..... (5.96)
..... (5.97)
..... (5.98)
For matri" inversion of an nth order matrix. the number of arithmetical operations required
is n
3
while for the triangular decomposition it is approximately ( ~ ~ ) .
118
Power System Analysis
5.12 Optimal Ordering
When the A matrix in eqn. (5.84) is sparse, it is necessary to see that the accumulation of
non zero elements in the upper triangle is minimized. This can be achieved by suitably
ordering the equations, which is referred to as optimal ordering.
Consider the network system having five nodes as shown in Fig. 5.5.
2
3
@
4
Fig. 5.5 A Five Bus system.
The ybus matrix of the network will have entries as follows
234
x x y x
2 x x 0 0 =y
3 x 0 x 0
4 x 0 0 x
After triangular decomposition the matrix will be reduced to the form
123 4
I x y x
2 0 x x =y
300 I x
4 0 0 0
..... (5.99)
..... (5.100)
By ordering the nodes as in Fig. 5.6 the bus admittance matrix will be of the form
1 2 ~ 4
I I x 0 0 x
210 x 0 x =Y ..... (5.101)
310 0 x y
4 I x x x x
Power Flow Studies
3
4
Fig. 5.6 Renumbered five bus system.
As a result of triangular decomposition, the Vmatrix will be reduced to
123 4
I ~
210 lOx =Y
300 I x
4 0 0 0
119
..... (5.102)
Thus, comparing the matrices in eqn. (5.100) and (5.102) the nonzero off diagonal
entries are reduced from 6 to 3 by suitably numbering the nodes.
Tinney and Walker have suggested three methods for optimal ordering.
I. Number the rows according to the number of nonzero, offdiagonal elements before
elimination. Thus, rows with less number of off diagonal elements are numbered
first and the rows with large number last.
2. Number the rows so that at each s.tep of elimination the next row to be eliminated is
the one having fewest nonzero terms. This method required simulation of the
elimination process to take into account the changes in the nonzero connections
affected at each step.
3. Number the rows so that at each step of elimination, the next row to be eliminated is
the one that will introduce fewest new nonzero elements. This requires simulation
of every feasible alternative at each step.
Scheme I. is simple and fast. However, for power flow solutions, scheme 2. has proved to be
advantageous even with its additional computing time. If the number of iterations is large,
scheme 3. may prove to be advantageous.
5.13 Decoupled Methods
All power systems exhibit in the steady state a strong interdependence between active powers
and bus voltage angles and between reactiye power and voltage magnitude. The coupling
between real power and bus voltage magnitude and between reactive power and bus voltage
120
Power System Analysis
phase angle are both relatively weak. This weak coupling is utilized in the development of the
so called decoupled methods. Recalling equitation (5.79)
by neglecting Nand M sub matrices as a first step, decoupling can be obtained .so that
I f1P I = I HI· IMI
and
I f1Q I = I L I . I f1 I VI/I V I
..... (5.103)
..... (5.104)
The decoupled method converges as reliability as the original Newton method from
which it is derived. However, for very high accuracy the method requires more iterations
because overall quadratic convergence is lost. The decoupled Newton method saves by a
factor of four on the storage for the J  matrix and its triangulation. But, the overall saving is
35 to 50% of storage when compared to the original Newton method. The computation per
iteration is 10 to 20% less than for the original Newton method.
5.14 Fast DecoupJed Methods
For security monitoring and outagecontingency evaluation studies, fast load flow solutions
are required. A method developed for such an application is described in this section.
The elements of the submatrices Hand L (eqn. (5.79)) are given by
H,k = I (V, V k Y,k) I sin (0,  Ok  e,k)
where
= I (V, V k Y,k) I sin O,k Cos e,k  cos O,k Cos e,k)
= I V, V
k
I [G,k sin e,k  B ,k cos O,k]
0,  Ok = O,k
Hkk= ~ ] V , V
k
Y,kl
sin
{o,D
k
8,k)
= + I V, e I YII I sin e,k I V, 12 i V,k I sin e,k
 .zJV, V
k
Y,k Isin{o,  Ok  e,k)
Lkk = 2 V, YII sin 8
11
+ L V
k
Y,k sin(D, Ok  8
,k
)
With f1 IVI / IVI formulation on the right hand side.
..... (5.105)
..... (5.106)
..... (5.107)
LKK = 2 jV,2 YIII sin 9
11
+ LIV, V
k
Y,klsin{o, Ok 8
ik
)
..... (5.108)
Assuming that
Power Flow Studies
and
Sin 8
1k
=:= 0
Gik sin 8
1k
::; B'k
Q
::; B ly21
I 11 1
H
I y21 B
kk  1 l' II
L =IV"IB
kk I l' 11
L
 'V"I B
Ik  i" Ik
Rewriting eqns. (5.103) and (5.104)
or
lL1pl = [IVI B' I V] L18
IL1QI =1 y I B" I V I ~ ~ ~ I
lL1pl = B' [L18]
IVI
IL1QI = B"[L11 V I]
IV!
121
..... (5.109)
..... (5.110)
..... (5.11 I)
..... (5.112)
..... (5.113)
Matrices R' and B" represent constant approximations to the slopes of the tangent hyper
planes of the functions L1P / iVI and L1Q / IVi respectively. T h ~ y are very close to the Jacobian
sub matrices Hand L evaluated at system noload.
Shunt reactances and offnominal inphase transformer taps which affect the Mvar
110ws are to be omitted from [B '] and for the same reason phase shifting elements are to be
omitted from [Bit].
Both l B '1 and [B It] are real and spars e and need be triangularised only once, at the
beginning of the study since they contain network admittances only.
The method converges very reliably in two to five iterations with fairly good accuracy
even for large systems. A good, approximate solution is obtained after the 1 SI or 2nd iteration,
The speed per iteration is roughly five times that of the original Newton method.
5.15 Load Flow Solution Using Z Bus
5.15.1 Bus Impedance Formation
Any power network can be formed using the following possible methods of construction.
I. A line may be added to a reference point or bus.
122
Power System Analysis
2. A bus may be added to any existing bus in the system other than the reference bus
through a new line, and
3. A line may be added joining two existing buses in the system forming a loop.
The above three modes are illustrated in Fig. 5.7.
(a)
Lllle added to
reference bus
k
0+<>0 New
System Zhne
(b)
Lme added to any bus other
than reference line
Fig. 5.7 Building of Z  Bus.
bus
Zhne
B,
i
System r k
(cl
Line added Joining two
existing buses
5.15.2 Addition of a Line to the Reference Bus
If unit current is injected into bus k no voltage will be produced at other buses of the systems.
Zlk = Zkl = 0, i 7 k
The driving point impedance of the new bus is given by
Zkk = Zlllle
i = 1.0
. Z ..... 1
System :>+<1 J ~ l
Fig. 5.8 Addition of the line to reference line
5.15.3 Addition of a Radial Line and New Bus
: .... (5.114)
..... (5.115)
Injection of unit current into the system through the new bus k produces voltages at all other
buses of the system as shown in Fig. 5.9.
These voltages would of course. be same as that would be produced if the current were
injected instead at bus i as shown.
i = I 0
Z ..... 1
System :+1 J ~ l
Fig. 5.9 Addition of a radial line and new bus.
Power Flow Studies
123
Therefore,
therefore,
..... (5.116)
The dimension of the existing Z  Bus matrix is increased by one. The off diagonal
elements of the new row and column are the same as the elements of the row and column of
bus i of the existing system.
5.15.4 Addition of a Loop Closing Two Existing Buses in the System
Since both the buses are existing buses in the system the dimension of the bus impedance
matrix will not increase in this case. However, the addition of the loop introduces a new axis
which can be subsequently eliminated by Kron's reduction method.
System i = 1.0
:l
SystCI11
r
(a)
Fig. 5.10 (a) Addition of a loop (b) Equivalent representation
The 5ystems in Fig. 5.1 O( a) can be represented alternatively as in Fig. 5.1 O(b).
The link between i and k requires a loop voltage
V
100p
= 1.0 (ZI1  Z2k + Zkk  Zlk + Z Illle)
for the circulation of unit current
The loop impedance is
..... (5.117)
Zioop = ZII + 7:
kk
 2Z
,k
+ ZI111e ..... (5.118)
The dimension of Z matrix is increased due to the introduction of a new axis due to the
loop 1
and
The new loop axis can be eliminated now. Consider the matrix
124
Power System Analysis
It can be proved easily that
..... ( 5. J 18)
using eqn. (5. J 18) all the additional elements introduced by the loop can be eliminated.
The method is illustrated in example E.5.4.
5.15.5 Gauss  Seidel Method Using Zbus for Load Flow Solution
An initial bus voltage vector is assumed as in the case ofY  bus method. Using these voltages,
the bus currents are calculated using eqn. (5.25) or (5.26).
P  iQ
1= I . I v V
y'  I I
..... (5.119)
where Y
I
is the total shunt admittance at the bus i and Y
II
VI is the shunt current flowing
from bus i to ground.
A new bus voltage estimate is obtained for an nbus system from the relation .
y '=Z I ~ y
bu, bu, bus R
..... (5,120)
Where Y R is the (n  I) x ! dimensional reference voltage vector containing in each
clement the slack bus voltage. It may he noted that since the slack bus is the reference bus, the
dimension of the Zhu, is (n I y (n I).
The voltages are updated from iteration to iteration using the relation
11 n
ym+1 =y + "Z I III +1 + "Z I
fm
)
I S L. ~ I k k L. Ik k
k ~ 1 k ~ 1
k"S b,S
Then
5.16 Convergence Characteristics
..... (5.121)
i = 1,2, ........ , n
S = slack bus
The numher of iterations required for convergence to solution depends considerably on the
correction to voltage at each bus. If the correction DY, at hus i is multiplied by a factor a, it is
found that acceleration can be obtained to convergence rate. Then multiplier a is called
acceleration factor. The difference between the newly computed voltage and the previous
voltage at the bus is multiplied by an appropriate acceleration factor. The value ofa that generally
improves the convergence is greater than are. In general I < a < 2 and a typical value for a =
1.5 or 1.6 the use of acceleration factor amounts to a linear extrapolation of bus voltage YI' For
a given system, it is quite often found that a near optimal choice of a exists as suggested in
literature over a range of operating condition complex value is also suggested for a. Same
suggested different a values for real and imaginary parts of the bus voltages.
Power Flow Analysis ]25
The convergence of iterative methods depends upon the diagonal dominance of the bus
admittance matrix. The self adm ittances of the buses (diagonal terms) are usually large relative
to the mutual admittances (offdiagonal terms). For this reason convergence is obtained for
power flow solution methods.
Junctions of high and low series impedances and large capacitances obtained in cable
circuits. long EHV lines. series and shunt. Compensation are detrimental to convergence as
these tend to weaken the diagonal dominance in Y bus matrix. The choice of swing bus may
also affect convergence considerably. In ditlicult cases it is possible to obtain convergence by
removing the least diagonally dominant row and column ofYbus. The salient features ofYbus
matrix iterative mf"thods are that the element in the summation term in equation ( ) or ( ) are on
the average 2 or 3 only even for well developed power systems. The sparsity of the Ymatrix
and its symmetry reduces both the storage requirement and the computation time for iteration.
For large well conditioned system of n huses the numher of iterations req uired are of the
order n and the total computing time varies approximately as n ~ .
In contrast, the NewtonRaphson method gives convergence in 3 to 4 iterations. No
acceleration factors are needed to the used. Being a gradient method solution is obtained must
taster than any iterative method.
126 Operation and Control in Power Systems
\Vorked Examples
E 5.1 A three bus power system is shown in Fig. ES.l. The system parameters are
given in Table ES.l and the load and generation data in Table ES.2. The voltage at
bus 2 is maintained at l.03p.u. The maximum and minimum reactive power
limits of the generation at bus 2 are 35 and 0 Mvar respectively. Taking bus 1 as
slack bus obtain the load flow solution using Gauss  Seidel iterative method
using Y B u ~
E 5.1 A three bus power system
Table E 5.1 Impedance and Line charging Admittances
Bus Code ik Impedance (p.u.) Z,I.. Line charging Admittance (p.u) y,
12 O.OS ~ j O 24 0
13 0.02 +jO.06 0
23 O.06+jO.OIR U
Table E 5.2 Scheduled Generation, Loads and Voltages
Bus No i Bus voltage Vi
I 1.05 +jO.O
2 1.03 +jO.O
..,
.:l

Solution:
The line admittance are obtained as
)'12 = 1.25  j3.75
Y23  ~ 1.667  j5.00
Y13 = 5.00  jIS.OO
Generation Load
MW Mvar MW Mvar

 0 0
20

50 20
0 0
(j)
25
I
1
Power Flow Analysis 127
The bus admittance matrix is formed using the procedure indicated in section 2.1 as
r 6.25
 j1B.75 1.25 + j3.75 5.0
+ j15.0l
Y
Blis
= 1.25 + j3.73 2.9167  jB.75 j1.6667 + j5.0 I
• I
5.0 + j15.0 1.6667 + j5.0 6.6667  j20.0 J
Gauss  Seidel Iterative Method using Y Bl!S
The voltage at hus 3 is assumed as 1 + jO. The initial voltages are therefore
Vir!) = 1.05 + jO.O
viol == 1.03 + jO.O
Vf') = 1.00 + jO.O
Base MVA = 100
Iteration 1 : It is required to calculate the reactive power O
2
at bus 2, which is a P V or voltage
controlled bus
= !V
2
!sch coso
2
= (1.03)(1.0) = 1.03
new) co, V
23Ch
sin oi
U
) = (1.03)(0.0) = 0.00
±
b:d
.>'2
Substituting the values
= k1.03.)2 B.75 + (of 8.75 J+ 0(1.05)(1.25) + 0.(3.75)
1.03[(0)(1.25)  (1.05)(3.75)]
+ (0)[(1)( 1.6667) + (0)(5.0)]
 1.03[(0)( 1.6667)  (1)( 5)]
= 0.07725
Mvar generated at bus 2
Mvar injection into bus 2 + load Mvar
0.07725 + 0.2 = 0.27725 p.u.
27.725 Mvar
128
This is within the limits specified.
The voltage at bus i is
Operation and Control in Power Systems
y(m+l) = ~ [ P I  jQI _ ~ y(m+l) _ ~ VIm)]
I y Y (In )* L.. Y Ik k L.. Y Ik k
II I k ~ 1 k=I+1
(2.9167  j8.75)
[
 0.3  0.?7725 _ (1.25 + j3.75)(l.05 + jO.O) + (1.6667 + j5.0)(1 + jO.O)]
_ 1.03  ,0.0
Vii) = 1.01915 jO.032491
= 1.0196673L 1.826°
An acceleration factor of 1.4 is used for both real and imaginary parts.
The accelerated voltages is obtained lIsing
v ~ = 1.03 + 1.4(1.01915 1.03) = 1.01481
v; = 0.0 + 1.4(0.032491  0.0) = 0.0454874
Yi
l
) (accelerated) = 1.01481 jO.0454874
= 1.01583L  2.56648°
The voltage at hus 3 is given by
6.6667  j20
= 1.02093  jO.0351381
Power Flow Analysis
The accelerated value of obtained lIsing
v', = 1.0 + 1.4(1.02093  1.0) = 1.029302
= 0 + 1.4( 0.0351384  0) = 0.0491933
Vjl) = 1.029302  jO.049933
= 1.03048L  2.73624
0
The voltages at the end of the first iteration are
VI = 1.05 + jO.O
= 1.01481 jO.0454874
Vjl) = 1.029302 jO.0491933
Check for convergence: An accuracy of 0.001 is taken for convergence
[
'l
0
I [, ll) [, IO)
L1V
2
J = v1J  v
1
=1.014811.03=0.0152
[
"IO) [" ll) [" Ill)
L1v
2
= V2J  v
2
=0.04548740.0=0.0454874
[
"lUI [,,11 [,,0
1
tW
J
= V,J  V3J =1.0293021.0=0.029302
129
[AVJIII =0,0491933 0.0:0.0491933
The magnitudes of all the voltage changes are greater than 0.001.
Iteration 2 : The reactive power Q
2
at bus 2 is calculated as before to give
8(11 = tanI hE = tanI [=0.0454874J = 2.56648°
2 [vJII 1.01481
= 1.03cos(2.56648°) = 1.02837
[
,,)11 _I I' (II ' ° 
V2J  V
2sch
·sm8
2
1.03sm(2.56648 )  0.046122
[V
2ne
.. J
I
) = 1.02897  jO.046122
= (1.02897)' (8.75) + (0.046122)" (8.75)
+( 0.0461 22)[1.05( \.25) + (0)(  3. 75)J
 (1.02897)[(0)(\.25)  (1.05)( 3.75)1 +
 (1.02897)[( n.0491933)( 1.6667)  5)]
co 0.0202933
130 Operation and Control in Power Systems
Mvar to be generated at bus 2
= Net Mvar injection into bus 2 + load Mvar
=  0.0202933 + 0.2 = 0.1797067 p.u. = 17.97067Mvar
This is within the specified limits. The voltages are, therefore, the same as before
VI = 1.05 + jO.O
vii) = 1.02897  jO.0.46122
Vjl) = 1.029302 jO.0491933
~ h e New voltage at bus 2 is obtained as
V
O
) _ 1 [  0.3 + jO.0202933 ]
2  2.9 I 67  j8.75 1.02827 + jO.046122
 (1.25 + j3.75)(I 05 + jO)
 (1.6667 + j5) . (\ .029302  jO.0491933)]
= 1.02486  jO.0568268
The accelerated value of V?) is obtained from
"
v ~ = 1.02897 + 1.4(\ .02486  1.02897) = 1.023216
v ~ = 0.046 I 22 + 1.4( 0.0568268)  (0.046122 = 0.0611087)
vi
2
)' = 1.023216  jO.0611 087
The new voltage at bus 3 is calculated as
V(l) I [ 6.6 + jO.25 ]
J  6.6667  j20 1.029302 + jO.0491933
 (  5 + jI5)(1.05 + jO.O)
 (1.6667 + j5.0)· (1.023216  jO.0611)]
= 1.0226  jO.0368715
The accelerated value of Vi
2
) obtained from
v ~ = 1.029302 + 1.4(1.0226  1.029302) = 1.02
v ~ =(0.0491933)+1.4(0.0368715)+
(0.0491933) = 0.03194278
vf) = 1.02  jO.03194278
The voltages at the end of the second iteration are
V I = 1.05 + jO.O
Power Flow Analysi.\·
vi
2
) = 1.023216 jO.0611087
Vfl = 1.02  jO.03194278
131
The procedure is repeated till convergence is obtained at the end of the sixth iteration.
The results are tahulated in Table E5.1 (a)
Table ES.I (a) Bus Voltage
Iteration 8us I 8us 2 8us 3
0 1.05 +jO 1.03 +jO 1.0 + jO
I 1.05 + jO 1.01481 jO.04548 1.029302  jO.049193
2 1.05 + iO 1.023216,0.0611087 I 02  jO.OJ 19428
3 I 05 ' ,0 I 033·l76 ,0 04813X3 ,003508
·1 lOS + iO I 0227564  ,0 051 J2l) I 0124428 ,00341309
5 I 05 + ,0 1027726,00539141 I 0281748  ,0.0363943
6 1.05 +jO 1'()29892  ,0.05062 1.02030 I  jO.0338074
7 1.05 + jO I. 0284 78 .iO 05 101 17 1.02412 jO.034802
Line flow from hus 1 to bus 2
S'2 .' V,(V;  V;)Yt2 = 0.228975 + jO.017396
Line flow from bus 2 to bus 1
S2' = v
2
(v;  V;)Y;1 = ·0.22518  jO.OOS9178
Similarly, the other line flows can be computed and are tabulated in Table ES.I (b). the
slack bus power obtained by adding the flows in the lines terminating at the slack bus, is
Line
12
21
13
31
23
32
PI + jQI = 0.228975 + jO.017396 t 0.684006 + jO.225
= (0.912981 + jO.242396)
Table E5.1(b) Line Flows
P Power Flow
Q
+ 0.228975 0.017396
 0.225183 0.0059178
0.68396 0.224
 0.674565 0.195845
 0.074129 0.0554
007461 ·0.054
132 Operation and Control in Power Systems
E 5.2 Consider the bus system shown in Fig. E 5.2.
5
E 5.2 A six bus power system.
The following is the data:
Line impedance (p.u.) Real Imaginary
14 0.57000 EI 0.845 EI
15 1.33000 E2 3.600 /::2
23 3.19999 E2 1750 El
24 I. 73000 E2 0.560 EI
2(, 30()()OO L2 1500 EI
45 1 94000 f:2 0625 El
Scheduled generation and bus voltages:
Bus Code P Assumed bus voltage Generation Load
MWp.u. Mvar p.u MWp.u. Mvarp.u
1 1 05 +jO 0    
(specitied)
2  1.2 0.05  
3  1.2 0.05  
. ~
   1.4 0.05
:\    0.8 0.D3
6    0.7 0.02
(a) Taking bus  I as slack bus and using an accelerating factor of 1.4, perform load
flow by Gauss  Seidel method. Take precision index as 0.000 I.
(b) Solve the problem also using NewtonRaphson polar coordinate method.
Power Flow Analysis 133
Solution:
The bus admittance matrix is obtained as :
Bus Code Admittance (p.u.)
PQ Real Imaginary
11 14.516310 32 57515
14 ·5 486446 8 13342
15 9.029870 24.44174
22 7.329113 28.24106
23 1.0 II 091 5.529494
25 5035970 16.301400
26 1.282051 6410257
32 1.011091 5.529404
33 1.011091 5.529404
41 5.486446 8 133420
44 10.016390 22727320
45 4.529948 14.593900
51 9029870 2..J.441740
52 ·5.035970 163014()0
54 4.529948 14593900
5 _. 5
18.59579() 55.33705()
6  2 ··1.282051 6..J 1()257
6  6 1.282051 6.410254
All the bus voltages, y(O), are assumed to be I + jO except the specified voltage at bus
I which is kept fixed at 1.05 + jO. The voltage equations for the fist GauseSeidel iteration are:
V(I) '" _1_1 1'2 .iQ 2
2 y I V (0)'
2 l_ 2
. Y2'V,(0). Y
2
,V;"I. y, V
IO
)'1
_h I, !
.i
(I) I [ p ~ '  jQ1
V CO" ..  .
~ Y V
IO
)'
II I
134 Operation and Control in Power Systems
y!l) =_I_[P5 jQ5 _y Y _y y(l) _Y_ y(l)]
) Y y (0)' 51 I 51 2 )4 4
55 5
Substituting the values. the equation for solution are
1 .28.24100)X[I.2
j
O.05
J
l
 7.329113 J ljO
 (I .011091 + j5.529404)x (I + jO) (5.03597 + jI6.3014)(1 + jO)
 (I  282051 + j16.30 14 )(1 + jO)
= 1.016786 + jO.0557924
y(l) = ( I _ .5.52424) x [1.2  jO.05]
:1 1.0 I 109 I J I  jO
_. ( 1.0 I 1091 + j5.529404) x (1.016786 + jO.0557924)
= I .089511 + j0.3885233
y(l) =( I _ .22.72732)X[I.4+ jO.005]
4 10.01639 J. 1 jO
 (5.486
2
,46 + j8.133342) x (1.05 + jO.)
 (4.529948 + jl 4.5939)(1 + jO)
= 0.992808  jO.0658069
y!l) = ( __ I ___ . ·55.33705) x [ 0.8 +
) 18.59579 J 1 jO
 (9.02987 + j24.44174) x (1.05 + jO)
 (5.03597 + jl 6.30 14)(1.016786 + jO.0557929)
 (4.529948 + jl 4.5939)(0.992808  jO.0658069)
= 1.028669  jO.O 1879179
y(I)=( 1 .6.410257JX[0.7+
j
O.02]
6 1.282051 J 1  jO
 (1.282051  j6.4 I 0257) x (1.0 I 6786 + jO.0557924)
= 0.989904  jO.0669962
The results of these iterations is given in Table 5.3 (a)
Table ES.3(a)
It.No Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5 Bus 6
0 1+ jO.O I +.10.0 I +jO 0 I +jO.O I +jO 0
I 1.016789 + jO.0557924 1.089511 + jO 3885233 0.992808  jO 0658069 1.02669jO.0 1879179 0989901 .10.0669962
2 1.05306 + jO.1O 18735 1.014855 + .10.2323309 1.013552  jO.0577213 1.0·l2189 + jO.O 177322 1.041933 +.10.0192121
3 I 043568 + jO 089733 I 054321 + jO 3276035 1.021136  jO 0352727 1034181 +jO.00258192 I 014571jO 02625271
4 1.047155 +.10.101896 I 02297 + .10.02763564 1.012207  .10.05()0558 1.035391 + jO 00526437 I 02209 +.10 0064356n
5 1040005+jO.093791 103515 + jO.3050814 1.61576 _. jO 04258692 0.033319 + jO.003697056 1014416jO.01319787
6 I 04212 + .10.0978431 1.027151 +.102901358 1.013044 .1004646546 10.33985 + jO.004504417 1.01821jOOO1752973
7 1.040509 + jO.0963405 1.031063 + jO.2994083 1.014418  jO.0453101 I 033845 ... jO 00430454 1016182 .1000770664
1\ 1.041414+j0097518 1.028816 + jO 294465 1.013687  jO 045610 I I 033845 + jO.004558826 I 017353  jO 0048398
9 1.040914 + jO.097002 1.030042 + jO.2973287 1014148 jO 04487629 1.033711 +jO.0044 13647 1016743 jO.0060342
10 1.041203 + jO.0972818 1.02935 +.102973287 1.013881  jO.04511174 1.03381 + jO.004495542 IOI7089jO.00498989
II 1.041036 + jO.097164 1.029739 + jO.296598 1.01403.1° 04498312 I 03374 +jO.004439559 1.016877 jO 00558081
12 1.041127 +jO.0971998 1.029518 + jO 2960784 1013943 .1004506212 1.033761 + jO 00447096 1.016997  .10.00524855
13 1.041075 +.10.0971451 1.029642 + .10.2963 715 1.019331 j004501488 1.033749 + jO.OO4454002 1.016927 jO 00543323
14 1.041 104 + .10.0971777 1.02571 + jO.2962084 1.0013965 jO.04504223 1.033756 + .10.004463 713 IOI6967jO.00053283
136 Operation and Control in Power Systems
In the polar form, all the voltages at the end of the 14th iteration are given
in Table E5.3(b).
Table E5.3(b)
Bus Voltage magnitude (p.u.) Phase angle (0)
I I OS 0
2 () 045629 5.3326
3 1071334 16.05058
4 1.014964 2.543515
5 I 033765 2.473992
6 1.016981 3.001928
(b) Newton  Raphson polar coordinates method
The bus admittance matrix is written in polar form as
[
19.7642L71.6
0
3.95285LI08.4°
Y
sus
= 3.95285L108.4° 9.2233IL71.6°
15.8114L  108.4 ° 5.27046L  108.4
0
Note that
The initial bus voltages are
VI = 1.05 LOO
viol = 1.03LOO
viOl = 1.0LOo
15.8114L 108.4°1
5.27046L 108.4°
21.0819L71.6°
The real and reactive powers at bus 2 are calculated as follows :
P2 = IV
1
VI Y
11
Icos(oiO)  01  8
21
)+ [vi Yn[ cos( 8
22
)+
7 (1.03) (1.05) (3.95285) cos (108°.4) + (1.03)2 (9.22331) cos (108°.4)
+ (1.03)2 (9.22331) cos (71°.6) +(1.03)(1.0)(5.27046) cos (108°.4)
~ 0.02575
Power Flow Analysis
137 .
O
2
= IV
2
VI Y21  8
1
 8
21
)+ Iv} y
22
1 sin( 8
22
)+
IV
2
V
3
Y
23
I sin (8iol
= (1.03) (1.05) (3.95285) sin (108°.4) + (1.03)2 (9.22331) sin (71.6°)
+ (1.03) (1.0) (5.27046) sin (108.4°)
= 0.07725
Generation of p. u Mvar at bus 2
= 0.2 + 0.07725
= 0.27725 = 27.725 Mvar
This is within the limits specitied. The real and reactive powers at bus 3 are calculated
in a similar way.
P3 = 8
1
8
31
)+!Vj01V
2
Y
32
! 8
2
8
32
)+
IVjO)2 Y33Icos(833)
= (1.0) (1.05) (15.8114) cos (108.4°) +
(1.0) (1.03) (5.27046) cos (108.4°)
+ (1.0)2 (21.0819) cos (71.6°)
= 0.3
0
3
= 8
1
8
31
)+lvjO)V
2
8
2
9
32
)+
IVJ0
12
Y
31
Isin( 8
33
)
= (1.0) 1.05 (15.8114) sin (108.4°) + (1.0) (1.03) (5.27046)
sin (108.4°)
+ (1.0)2 (21.0891) sin (71.6°)
=  0.9
The difference between scheduled and calculated powers are
= 0.3  0.02575 = 0.32575
= 0.6 ; (0.3) = 0.3
= 0.25  (0.9) = 0.65
It may be noted that has not been computed since bus 2 is voltage controlled bus.
since I, 1 and I
138 Operation and Control in Power Systems
are greater than the specified limit of 0.0 I, the next iteration is computed.
Iteration I : Elements of the Jacobian are calculated as follows.
oP
2
= Iv, V(O) y"  8(0)  8,,)
c8, ) '  , .'
= (1.03) (1.0) (5.27046) sin (I 08.4()) 5.15
ap2 I I . ((O) (0) )
28
2
=v
2
VI Y21 SIn\8
2
8
1
8
21
+
IV2 8
23
)
=  (1.03) (1.05) (3.95285) sin (108.4°) +
(1.03) (!.O) (5.27046) sin (108.4°)
= 9.2056266
CP2 I I ((O) (0) )
8, 8
23
Ou,
J
=0 (1.03) (5.27046) cos (108.4°)
=  1.7166724
cP} =IV(O)V Y ISin(8(O) 8))
"I:: 3 I 31 3 _ L
CU3
= (0.0) (1.03) (5.27046) sin (108.4°)
=  5.15
oP, IV(O)V y I . (dO) I:: 8) IV(O)V Y I . {I:: (0) dO) 8 )
00 = 3 1 )1 SIn\u) UI  31 + 3 2 32 SIn\U3 u2  32
3
=  (1.0) (1.05) (15.8114) sin (108.4°)  5.15
= 20.9
IV
2
Y32Icos(ojO) oiO) 8
32
)
= 2(1.0) (21.0819) cos (71.6°) + (1.05) (15.8114) cos (108.4°) +
(1.03) (5.27046) cos (108.4°)
= 6.366604
Power Flow Analysis
8Q
3
:=: IV(O)V y ICOS(O(O)  0(0)  e )
cO, 3 I 32 , 2 32
= (1.0) (1.03) (5.27046) cos (108.4()
= 1.7166724
?Q
3
Iv(OIV I (dO) e)
cO, :=: , I Y cos u 3  U I  31 +
.'
IV
(O)V I \:(0) 8 )
3 2 Y
32
cosu2 u3  32
=c (1.0) (1.05) (15.8114) cos (108.4()  1.7166724
=  6.9667
IV2 Y32Isin(oiO) 8
32
)
139
= 2(1.0) (21.0819) sin (71.6°) + (1.05) (15.8114) sin (108.4°) +
(1.03) (5.27046) sin (108.4(1)
= 19.1
From eqn. (5.70)
r
· 0.325751 [9.20563
0.3 = 5.15
0.65 1.71667
 5.15
20.9
 6.9967
Following the method of triangulation and back substations
l
 0.353861l I
0.3 = 5.15
 0.035386 + 1.71667
0.55944
20.9 6.36660 t\b,
6.9667 19.1
r
0.353861 [I
 0.482237 = 0
+0.710746 _0
0.55944 1
18.02 5.40623 M,
 6.006326 19.42012 L {\IV l
140
Finally.
Thus,
Operation and Control in Power Systems
r 0.35386]11 0.55944
l
0.0267613 =lO I 0.3
0.55 0 0 21.22202
= (0.55) /(21.22202) = 0.025917
=  0.0267613  (0.3) (0.025917)
=  0.0345364 rad
'"  1.98°
Ml = 0.035286  (0.55944) (0.034536)  (0.18648) (0.025917)
==  0.049874 rad
=  2.8575°
At the end of the firs iteration the bus voltages are
VI = 1.05 LO
o
V 2 = 1.03 L2.85757°
V3 == 1.025917 L1.9788°
The real and reactive powers at bus 2 are computed :
pil) = (1.03)(1.05)(3.95285)[cos(2.8575)  0(108.4°)
+ (1.03) 2 (1.025917)(5.27046) cos[( 2.8575)  (1.9788)  108.4 °
0.30009
= (1.03)(1 .05)(3.95285)[sin( 2.8575)  O( 108.4 0)
+ (1.03)2 (9.22331) sin[( 2.85757)  (1.9788)  108.4
0
)]
= 0.043853
Generation of reactive power at bus 2
= 0.2 + 0.043853 = 0.243856 p.ll. Mvar
= 24.3856 Mvar
This is within the specified limits.
The real and reactive powers at bus 3 are computed as
pjl) = (1.025917)(1.05)(l5.8117)cos[(1.09788)  0 108.4 0)]
+ (l.025917)(l.03)(5.27046)cos[(1.0988)  (2.8575) 108.4]
+ (1.025917)\21.0819) cos(71.60)
= 0.60407
Power Flow Analysis
== (1.025917)(1.05 )(15.8114) sin[( 1.977)  108.4
0
)]
+ (1.025917)(1.03)(5.27046) sinl( 1.9788)  (2.8575)  108.4
0
)1
+ (21.0819)sin(71.6o)
= 0.224
The differences between scheduled powers and calculated powers are
= 0.3  (0.30009) = 0.00009
I) = 0.6  (0.60407) = 0.00407
;\Q\I) co 0.25  (0.2224) = 0.0276
141
Even though the first two differences are within the limits the last one, oil) is greater
than the specified limit 0.0 I. The next iteration is carried out in a similar manner. At the end of
the second iteration even also is found to be within the specified tolerance. The results are
tabulated in table E5.4(a) and E5.4(b)
Table E5.4 (a) Bus voltages
Iteration Bus I Bus 2 Bus 3
0 I.05LOo I 03LOo I.LOo
I I.05LOo I.03L2.85757 1.025917 L1.9788
2 I.05LO
o
1.03L2.8517 1.024 76L 1. 94 7
Table E5.4 (b) Line Flows
Line P Power Flow
Q
.
12 02297 n.O 16533
21  022332 o ()O49313
13 O.683
C
)/) 0.224
31  0674565 0.0195845
23 0.074126 0.0554
32 007461  0.054
142 Operation and Control in Power Systems
E5.3 For the given sample power system find load flow solution using NR polar
coordinates method, decoupled method and fast decoupled method.
5
3 4
(a) Power system
Bus Code Line impedance Zpq Line charging
12 0.02 +jO.24 j 0.02
23 004 + jO.02 j 0 02
35 0.15 + jO.04 j 0.025
34 0.02 +jO.06 j 0.01
45 0.02 +jO.04 i 0.01
51 0.08 +jO.02 j 0.2
(b) Linedata
Bus Code (Slack) Generation Load
I
11.724  j24.27
2 10 + j20
3 0+ jO
4 0 + jO
5 1.724+ .14.31
I
2
3
4
5
Mw Mvar MW
0 0
()
50 25 15
0 0 45
0 0 40
0 0 50
.
(c) Generation and load data
2
10 + j20
3
0+ jO
4
0+ jO
10962  j24.768 0.962 + j4.808 0 + jO
0.962+j4.808 6783.121.944 5+jI5
O+jO )1.115 15j34.98
0+ jO 0 82·, .12.192 10+ .120
(d) Bus admittance matrix
Fig. E 5.3
Mvar
0
10
20
15
25
5
1.724+ j4.31
° +. jO
0822 + j2.192
·10 + j20
12.546  j26.447
Power Flow Analysis
Solution:
The Residual or Mismatch vector for iteration no: I is
dp[2] = 0.04944
dp[3] =0.041583
dp[4] = 0.067349
dp[5] = 0.047486
dQ[2] = ·0.038605
dQ[3] = 0.046259
dQ[4] = 0.003703
dQ[5] = 0.058334
The New voltage vector after iteration I is :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 1.984591 F : 0.008285
Bus no 3 E : 0.882096 F : 0.142226
Bus no 4 E : 0.86991 F : 0.153423
Bus no 5 E : 0.875810 F : 0.142707
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 2 is
dp[2] = 0.002406
dp[3] = 0.001177
dp[4] = 0.004219
dp[5] = 0.000953
dQ[2] = 0.001087
dQ[3] = 0.002261
dQ[4] = 0.000502
dQ[5] = 0.002888
The New voltage vector after iteration 2 is :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984357 F : 0.008219
Bus no 3 E : 0.880951 F : 0.142953
Bus no 4 E : 0.868709 F : 0.154322
Bus no 5 E : 0.874651 F : 0.143439
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 3 is
143
144 Operation and Control in Power Systems
dp[2] = 0.000005
dp[3] = 0.000001
dp[4] = 0.000013
dp[5] = 0.000001
dQ[2] = 0.000002
dQ[3] = 0.000005
dQ[4] = 0.000003
dQ[5] = 0.000007
The final load flow solution (for allowable error.OOOt) :
bus no 1 Slack P = 1.089093 Q = 0.556063 E = 1.000000 F = 0.000000
bus no 2 pq P = 0.349995 Q = 0.150002 E = 0.984357
bus no 3 pq P = 0.449999 Q = 0.199995 E = 0.880951
bus no 4 pq P = 0.399987 Q = 0.150003 E = 0.868709
bus no 5 pq P = 0.500001 Q = 0.249993 E = 0.874651
Decoupled load flow solution (polar coordinate method)
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 0 is
dp[2] = 0.350000
dp[3] = 0.450000
dp[4] = 0.400000
dp[5] = 0.500000
dQ[2] = 0.190000
dQ[3] = 0.145000
dQ[4] = 0.130000
dQ[5] = 0.195000
The new voltage vector after iteration 0 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.997385 F : 0.014700
Bus no 3 E: 0.947017 F: 0.148655
Bus no 4 E : 0.941403 F : 0.161282
Bus no 5 E: 0.943803 F: 0.150753
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: I is
dp [2] = 0.005323
F = 0.008219
F = 0.1429531
F = 0.154322
F = 0.143439
Power Flow Analysis
dp[3] = 0.008207
dp[4] = 0.004139
dp[5] =0.019702
dQ[2] = 0.067713
dQ[3] = 0.112987
dQ[ 4] = 0.159696
dQ[5] = 0.210557
The new voltage vector after iteration 1 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.982082 F : 0.013556
Bus no 3 E : 0.882750 F : 0.143760
Bus no 4 E : 0.870666 F : 0.154900
Bus no 5 E : 0.876161 F : 0.143484
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:2 is
dp[2] = 0.149314
dp[3] = 0.017905
dp[4] = 0.002305
dp[5] = 0.006964
dQ[2] = 0.009525
dQ[3] = 0.009927
dQ[4] = 0.012938
dQ[5] = 0.007721
The new voltage vector after iteration 2 :
Bus no 1 E: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E: 0.981985 F: 0.007091
Bus no 3 E : 0.880269 F : 0.142767
Bus no 4 E: 0.868132 F: 0.154172
Bus no 5 E : 0.874339 F : 0.143109
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:3 is
dp[2] = 0.000138
dp[3] = 0.001304
dp[4] = 0.004522
145
146
dp[ 5] = 0.006315
dQ[2] = 0.066286
dQ[3] = 0.006182
dQ[ 4] = 0.001652
dQ[5] = 0.002233
Operation and Control in Power Systems
The new voltage vector after iteration 3 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984866 F : 0.007075
Bus no 3 E : 0.881111 F: : 0.142710
Bus no 4 E : 0.868848 F : 0.154159
Bus no 5 E : 0.874862 F : 0.143429
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:4 is
dp[2] = 0.031844
dp[3] = 0.002894
dp[4] = O.M0570
til
dp[5] = 0.001807
dQ[2] = 0.000046
dQ[3] = 0.000463
dQ[ 4] = 0.002409
dQ[5] = 0.003361
The new voltage vector after iteration 4 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984866 F : 0.008460
Bus no 3 E: 0.881121 F: 0.142985
Bus no 4 E : 0.868849 F : 0.1546330
Bus no 5 E : 0.874717 F : 0.143484
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:5 is
dp[2] = 0.006789
dp[3] = 0.000528
dp[4] =0.000217
dp[5] = 0.0000561
dQ[2J ~ . 0.000059
Power Flow Analysis
dQ[3 J = 0.000059
dQ[4] = 0.000635
dQ[5] = 0.000721
The new voltage vector after iteration 5 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984246 F : 0.008169
Bus no 3 E : 0.880907 F : 0.1.42947
Bus no 4 E : 0.868671 F : 0.154323
Bus no 5 E : 0.874633 F : 0.143431
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 6 is
dp[2] = 0.000056
dp[3] = 0.000010
dp[ 4] = 0.000305
dp[5] = 0.000320
dQ[2] = 0.003032
dQ[3] = 0.000186
dQ[4] = 0.000160
dQ[5] = 0.000267
The new voltage vector after iteration 6 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984379 F : 0.008165
Bus no 3 E : 0.880954 F : 0.142941
Bus no 4 E : 0.868710 F : 0.154314
Bus no 5 E : 0.874655 F : 0.143441
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:7 is
dp[2] =  0.001466
dp[3] = 0.000 I 06
dp[4] = 0.000073
dp[5] = 0.000156
dQ[2] = 0.000033
dQ[3] = 0.000005
dQ[41 = 0 . O O O I 5 ~
147
148 Operation and Control in Power Systems
dQ[5] = 0.000166
The new voltage vector after iteration 7 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.954381 F : 0.008230
Bus no 3 E : 0.880958 F : 0.142957
Bus no 4 E : 0.868714 F : 0.154325
Bus no 5 E : 0.874651 F: 0.143442
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 8 is
dp[2] = 0.000022
dp[3] = 0.00000 I
dp[4] = 0.000072
dp[5] = 0.000074
dQ[2] = 0.000656
dQ[3] = 0.000037
dQ[4] = 0.000048
dQ[5] = 0.000074
The new voltage vector after iteration 8 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984352 F : 0.008231
Bus no 3 E : 0.880947 F : 0.142958
Bus no 4 E : 0.868706 F : 0.154327
Bus no 5 E : 0.874647 F : 0.143440
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:9 is
dp[2] = 0.000318
dp[3] = 0.000022
dp[ 4] = 0.000023
dp[5] = 0.000041
dQ[2] = 0.000012
dQ[3] = 0.000000
dQr 4] = 0.000036
dQ[5] = 0.000038
The new voltage vector after iteration 9 :
Power Flow Analy.flis
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984352 F : 0.008217
Bus no 3 E : 0.880946 F : 0.142954
Bus no 4 E : 0.868705 F : 0.154324
Bus no 5 E : 0.874648 F : 0.143440
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: lOis
dp[2] = 0.000001
dp[3] = 0.000001
dp[4] = 0.000017
dp[S] = 0.000017
dQ[2] = 0.000143
dQ[3] = 0.000008
dQ[4] = 0.000014
dQ[5] = 0.000020
The new voltage vector after iteration 10 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984658 F : 0.008216
Bus no 3 E : 0.880949 F : 0.142954
Bus no 4 E : 0.868707 F : 0.154324
Bus no 5 E : 0.874648 F : 0.143440
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: II is
dp[2] = 0.000069
dp[3] = 0.000005
dp[ 4] = 0.000006
dp[51 = 0.000011
dQ[2] = 0.000004
dQ[3] = 0.000000
dQ[4] = 0.000008
dQ[5] = 0.000009
The final load flow solution after 11 iterations
(for allowable arror.OOO I)
149
150 Operation and Control in Power Systems
The final load flow solution (for allowable error.OOOl) :
Bus no 1 Slack P = 1.089043 Q = 0.556088 E = 1.000000
Bus no 2 pq P = 0.350069 Q = 0.150002 E = 0.984658
Bus no 3 pq P = 0.450005 Q = 0.199995 E = 0.880949
Bus no 4 pq P = 0.399994 Q = 0.150003 E = 0.868707
Bus no 5 pq P = 0.500011 Q = 0.249991 E = 0.874648
Fast decoupled load flow solution (polar coordinate method)
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:O is
dp[2] = 0.350000
dp[3] = 0.450000
dpf4] ~ 0.400000
dp[5] = ···0.500000
dQ[21 = 0.190000
dQ[3] = 0.145000
dQ[4] = 0.130000
dQ[5] = 0.195000
The new voltage vector after iteration 0 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.997563 F : 0.015222
Bus no 3 E: 0.947912 F: 0.151220
Bus no 4 E : 0.942331 F : 0.163946
Bus no 5 E : 0.944696F : 0.153327
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: I is
dp[2] = 0.004466
dp[3] = 0.000751
dp[ 41 =. 0.007299
dpr 5] ~ ·0.012407
dQ[21 = 0.072548
dQ[3] == 0.118299
dQ[4] = 0.162227
dQr5] = 0.218309
The new voltage vector after iteration 1 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F . 0.000000
F = 0.000000
F = 0.008216
F = 0.142954
F = 0.154324
F = 0.143440
Power Flow Analysis
Bus no 2 E ; 0.981909 F ; 0.013636
Bus no 3 E ; 0.882397 F ; 0.143602
Bus no 4 E ; 0.869896 F ; 0.154684
Bus no 5 E ; 0.875752 F ; 0.1433 12
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 2 is
drl21 ~ O. I 5366 I
dp[3] ~ 0.020063
dp[4] = 0.005460
dpr5] = 0.009505
dQr2] = 0.011198
dQ[31 = 0.014792
dQ[4] = 0.000732
dQ[5] = 0.002874
The new voltage vector after iteration 2 :
Bus no IE; 1.000000 F ; 0.000000
Bus no 2 E ; 0.982004 F ; 0.007026
Bus no 3 E ; 0.8805 15 F ; O. 142597
Bus no 4 E ; 0.868400 F ; 0.153884
Bus no 5 E ; 0.874588 F ; 0.143038
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 3 is
dp[2] = 0.000850
dp[3] = 0.002093
dp[4] = 0.000155
dp[5] =0.003219
dQ[2] = 0.067612
dQ[3] = 0.007004
dQ[4] = 0.003236
dQ[5] = 0.004296
The new voltage vector after iteration 3 :
Bus no IE; 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984926 F : 0.007086
Bus no 3 E : 0.881246 F : O. I 42740
151
152 Operation and Control in Power Systems
Bus no 4 E : 0.869014 F : 0.154193
Bus no 5 E : 0.874928 F : 0.143458
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 4 is
dp[2] = 0.032384
dp[3] = 0.003011
dp[4] =0.001336
dp[5] = 0.002671
dQ[2] = 0.000966
dQ[3] = 0.000430
dQ[41 = 0.000232
dQ[5] = 0.001698
The new voltage vector after iteration 4 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984862 F : 0.008488
Bus no 3 E : 0.881119 F : 0.143053
Bus no 4 E : 0.868847 F : 0.154405
Bus no 5 E: 0.874717 F: 0.143501
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 5 is
dp[2] = 0.000433
dp[3] = 0.000006
dp[ 4] = 0.000288
dp[5] = 0.000450
dQ[2] = 0.014315
dQ[3] = 0.000936
dQ[4] = 0.000909
dQ[5] = O.OOJ 265
The new voltage vector after iteration 6 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984230 F : 0.008463
Bus no 3 E : 0.881246 F : 0.143008
Bus no 4 E : 0.869014 F : 0.154357
Power Flow Analysis
Bus no 5 E : 0.874607 F : 0.143433
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 6 is
dp[2] = 0.006981
dp[3] = 0.000528
dp[4] = 0.000384
dp[5] = 0.000792
dQ[2] = 0.000331
dQ[3] = 0.000039
dQ[4] = 0.000155
dQ[5] = 0.000247
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 7 is
dp[2] = 0.000144
dp[3] = 0.000050
dp[4] = 0.000080
dp[5] = 0.000068
dQ[2] = 0.003107
dQ[3] = 0.000162
dQ[4] = 0.000255
dQ[5] = 0.000375
The new voltage vector after iteration 7 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984386 F : 0.008166
Bus no 3 E : 0.880963 F : 0.142943
Bus no 4 E: 0.868718 F: 0.154316
Bus no 5 E : 0.874656F : 0.143442
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 8 is
dp[2] = 0.001523
dp[3] = 0.000105
dp[4] = 0.000115
dp[5] = 0.000215
dQ[2] = 0.000098
153
154
dQ[3] = 0.000024
dQr·tl =0.000037
dQ15] 00.000038
Operation and Control in Power Systems
The new voltage vector after iteration 8 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F: 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984380 F : 0.008233
Bus no 3 E : 0.880957 F : O. I 4296 I
Bus no 4 E : 0.8687 I 4 F : O. I 54329
Bus no,) E : 0.874651 F : 0.143442
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 9 is
dp[2] = 0.000045
dp[3] = 0.000015
dp[ 4] = 0.000017
dp[5] = 0.000008
dQ[2] ~ 0.000679
dQl3] = 0.00003 I
dQ[4] = 0.000072
dQ[5] = 0.000 105
The new voltage vector after iteration 9 :
Bus no IE: 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984350 F : 0.008230
Bus no 3 E : 0.880945 F : 0.142958
Bus no 4 E : 0.868704 F : O. I 54326
Bus no 5 E : 0.874646 F : O. I 43440
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: lOis
dp[2] = 0.000334
dp[3] = 0.000022
dpl41 "" 0.000033
dp[5] =0.000056
dQI21 = 0.000028
dQI3 J= 0.000007
dQr 41 = 0.000007
Power Flow Analysis
dQ[5] = 0.000005
The new voltage vector after iteration 10 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E : 0.984352 F : 0 .. 008216
Bus no 3 E : 0.880946 F : 0.142953
Bus no 4 E : 0.898705 F : 0.154323
Bus no 5 E : 0.874648 F : 0.143440
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 11 is
dpP1 = 0.000013
dpl31 ~ 0.000004
dp[4] = 0.000003
dpr5] = 0.000000
dQr21 = 0.000149
dQ[31 = ·0.000007
dQ[4] = 0.000020
dQ[5] = 0.000027
The new voltage vector after iteration 11 :
Bus no 1 E : 1.000000 F : 0.000000
Bus no 2 E: 0.984358 F: 0.008216
Bus no 3 E : 0.880949 F : 0.142954
Bus no 4 E : 0.868707 F : 0.154324
Bus no 5 E : 0.874648 F : 0.143440
The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 12 is
dp[21 c0.000074
dp[ 31 = 0.000005
dp[4] = 0.000009
dp[5] = 0.000014
dQr21 = 0.000008
dQr31 : ~ 0.000002
dQf41 = 0.000001
dQr 5 J' 0.000000
155
..
156 Operation and Control in Power Systems
The load flow solution
Bus no I Slack P = 1.089040 Q = 0.556076 E = 1.000000 F = 0.000000
Bus no 2 pq P = 0.350074 Q = 0.150008 E = 0.984358 F = 0.008216
Bus no 3 pq P = 0.450005 Q ' ~  O . 199995 E = 0.880949 F = 0.142954
Bus no 4 pq P = 0.399991 Q ~ 0.150001 E == 0.868707 F = 0.154324
Bus no 5 pq P = 0.500014 Q = 0.250000 E = 0.874648 F = 0.143440
E5.4 Obtain the load flow solution to the system given in example E5.1 lIsing ZBus. Use
Gauss  Seidel method. Take accuracy for convergence as 0.000 I.
Solution:
The bus impedance matrix is formed as indicated in section 5.15. The slack bus is
taken as the reference bus. In this example. as in example 5.1 bus I is chosen as the
slack bus.
(i) Add element 12. This is addition of a new bus to the reference bus
Z = (2)
BUS (2) [0.05 + jO.24 [
(ii) Add element 13. r his is also addition of a new bus to the reference bus
(2) (3)
(2) 0.08 + jO.24 0.0 + jO.O
Zsus = (3) 0.0 + jO.O 0.02 + jO.06
(iii) Add element 23. This is the addition of a link between two existing buses 2
and 3.
Z2IOOp = Zloop_2 = Z22  Z23 = 0.08+jO.24
Z3_loop = Zloop_3 = Z32  Z33 = (0.02+jO.06)
ZlooplooP = Z22 + Z33  2 Z23 + Z23 23
= (0.08+jO.24)+(0.02+jO.06)(0.06 + .i0.18)
= 0.16 +j0.48
(2)
Zsus = (3)
C
The loop is now eliminated
(2)
0.08 + jO.024
0.0 + jO.O
0.08 + jO.24
. Z2loop Zloop2
Z22 = Z 22  ''
Zlooploop
(3)
(0
0+ jO 0.08 + jO.24
0.02 + jO.06  (0.02 + jO.06)
 (0.02 + jO.006) 0.16+jO.48
Power Flow Analysis
Similarly
= (0.08 + jO.24) _ (0.8 + jO.24)2
0.16 + j0.48
= 0.04 + jO.12
= z' = [Z?' _ Z2loop ZIOOP3]
_3 32 _.' Z
looploop
= (0.0 + jO.O) _ (0.8 + jO.24)( 0.02  jO.06)
0.16+j0.48
= 0.0 1+ jO.03
= 0.0175 + jO.0526
The Z  Bus matrix is thus
Z _[0.04+
j
O.
12
1 0.01+jO.03 ]_
Bus  0.0 I + jO.03 0.017 + jO.0525 
[
0.1265L71.565° I 0.031623L71.565° 1
0.031623L71.565° 0.05534L71.S6SO
The voltages at bus 2 and 3 are assumed to be
via) = 1.03 + jO.O
viol = 1.0 + jO.O
Assuming that the reactive power injected into bys 2 is zero,
Q
2
= 0.0
The bus currents and are computed as
1(0) = 0;3+ jO.O =0.29126 '0.0 = 0.29126L1800
2 1.03 _ jO.O J
= 0.6 + !0.25 = 0.6 _ jO.25 = 0.65LI57.38
0
. 1.0 + JO.O
Iteration I : The voltage at bus 2 is computed as
VI + Z22 + Z23 1(0)
1.05LOO + (0.1265L71.5650(0.29126L180o +
(0.031623L71.565° )(0.65L157.38°
1.02485  jO.05045
1.02609L2.8182
157
158 Operation and Control in Power Systems
The new bus current is now calculated.
(I) II I I
1 I = V 2 I V,eh _ 1 !
 Z» l' I'VII)I I
 2 I
..J
= 1.02609L  2.8182 x ( 1.03 _ I) = 0.0309084L _ 74.38320
0.1265L71.565° 1.02609
0(0) = Im[Vi
ll
= Im[I.02609L  2.8182° JO.0309084L74.383°
=0.03
= + = 0.0 + 0.03 = 0.03
III) = 0.3 jO.3 = 0.29383LI82.891 8°
2 J.02609L _ 2.81820
Voltage at bus 3 is now calculated
VII) = V + Z 1\1) + Z 1
1
(0)
3 I 32 _ 3. 3
= 1.05LO.OO + (0.031623L71.5650) (0.29383LI82.8320) +
(0.05534':::71.565° )(0.65LI57.38° )
= (1.02389  jO.036077) = 1.0245':::  2.018°
1(1) = 0.65LI57.38° = 0.634437 LI55.36°
3 1.0245L2.0 180
The voltages at the end of the first iteration are:
VI = 1.05 LOO
vii) = 1.02609L  2.8182°
VP) = 1.0245L  2.018°
The differences in voltages are
8 Vjl) = (1.02485  jO.05045)  0.03 + jO.O)
= 0.00515  jO.05045
Vjl) = (1.02389  jO.036077)  (1.0 + jO.O)
= (0.02389  jO.036077)
Power Flow Analysis 159
Both the real and imaginary parts are greater than the specified limit 0.00 I.
Iteration 2 :
= VI +Z22Iil) +Z21
= 1.02 LOo + (0.1265L71.5650)(0.29383 L 182.892°) +
(0.031623L71.5650) (0.63447 L 155.36°)
= 1.02634  jO.050465
= 1.02758 L2.81495°
1.02758L2.81495° i 1.03 _I]
1.1265L  71.565° L 1.02758
= 0.01923L74.38°
L'10i
'
) = Im[ vi
2
) r]
= [m(1.02758L  2.81495)(0.0 1913L74.38°)
= 0.0186487
= oil) + L'10i
'
)
= 0.03 + 0.0 I 86487 = 0.0486487
0.3  jO.0486487
I  "
2  I .02758L2.81495°
== 0.295763LI86.393°
V f) = 1.05LOo + (0.31623L7 I .565° (O.295763LI 86.4 ° +
0.05534L71.565° )(0.634437 LI55.36° )
= 0.65LI57.38° =0.6343567LI55.434
0
 1.02466LI.9459°
L'1 viI) = (1.02634  jO.050465)  (1.02485  jO.0504 I) = 0.00149  jO.000015
L'1Vjl) = (1.024  jO.034793)  (1.02389  jO.036077) = 0.00011 + jO.OOI28
As the accuracy is still not enough, another iteration is required.
Iteration 3 :
= 1.05LO
o
+ (0.1265L71.5650)(0.295763LI86.4°) +
(0.031623L71.565° )(0.63487 LI 55.434 0)
= 1.0285187  jO.051262
:c 1.0298L _ 2.853 °
160 Operation and Control in Power Systems
= J.0298L  2.853° = 0.001581L74.418
0
 0.1265L71.565° 1.0298
= 0.00154456
Qi
3
) = 0.0486487 + 0.001544 = 0.0502
1\3) = 0.3 jO.0502 =0.29537LI86.6470
 0.0298L2.853°·
Vj31 = 1.05LO
o
+ (0.031623L71.5650) + (0.29537 LI86.6470) +
(0.05534L71.565° )(0.634357 L155.434
0
)
= 1.024152  jO.034817 == 1.02474L 1.9471°
1(3) =  0.65  LI57.38° = 0.6343LI55.4330
3 J.02474LJ.9471 °
oil vi 2) = (1.0285187  jO.051262)  (1.02634  jO.050465)
= 0.0021787  0.000787
oilV12 I = (1.024152  jO.034817)  (1.024  jO.034793)
= 0.000152  jO.00002
Iteration 4 "
= 1.02996L  2.852°
= 0.0003159L  74.417°
= 0.0000867
= 0.0505
= 0.29537 LI86.7°
vi
4
) = 1.02416  JO.034816 = 1.02475L 1.947°
oil V?) = 0.000108 + jO.000016
oil Vj3) = 0.00058 + jO.OOOOOI
The final voltages are
VI = 1.05 + jO.O
V
2
= 1.02996L2.852°
V3 = 1.02475L1.947°
The line flows may be calculated further if required.
Power Flow Analysis 161
Problems
PS.I Obtain a load flow solution for the system shown in Fig. PS.l Llse
(i) GaLlss ~ Seidel method
(ii) NR polar coordinates method
Bus code pq Impedance Zpq Line charges Y pq/s
1 ~ 2 0.02 +jO 2 0.0
2 ~ 3 0.01 + jO.025 0.0
3 ~ 4 0.02 + jO.4 0.0
3 ~ 5 0.02 + 0.05 0.0
~ ~ 5 0.015 +jO 04 O.D
15 0015t.lOO4 0.0
Values are given in p.Ll. on a base of IOOMva.
162 Power System Analysis
The scheduled powers are as follows
Bus Code (P) Generation Load
Mw Mvar MW Mvar
1 (slack bus) 0 0 0 0
2 80 35 25 15
3 0 0 0 0
4 0 0 45 15
5 0 0 55 20
Take voltage at bus I as I LOo p.u.
PS.2 Repeat problem P5.1 with line charging capacitance Y p/2 = jO.025 for each line
PS.3 Obtain the decoupled and fast decouple load flow solution for the system in P5.1 and
compare the results with the exact solution.
PS.4 For the 51 bus system shown in Fig. P5.!, the system data is given as follows in p.u.
Perform load flow analysis for the system
Line data Resistance Reactance Capacitance
23 0.0287 0.0747 0.0322
34 0.0028 0.0036 0.0015
36 0.0614 0.1400 0.0558
37 00247 0.0560 0.0397
78 0.0098 0.0224 0.0091
89 00190 0.0431 0.0174
910 0.0182 0.0413 0.0167
10 11 0.0205 0.0468 0.0190
1112 0.0660 0.0150 0.0060
12  13 0.0455 0.0642 0.0058
13  14 01182 0.2360 0.0213
14  15 0.0214 0.2743 0.0267
15  16 0.1336 0.0525 0.0059
1617 0.0580 0.3532 0.0367
Contd. ....
Power Flow Analysis 163
Line data Resistance Reactance Capacitance
17  18 0.1550 0.1532 0.0168
18  19 01550 0.3639 0.0350
1920 0.1640 0.3815 0.0371
20  21 0.1136 0.3060 0.0300
20 23 0.0781 0.2000 0.0210
23  24 0.1033 0.2606 0.0282
12  25 0.0866 0.2847 0.0283
25  26 0.0159 0.0508 00060
26  27 00872 0.2870 00296
27  28 0.0136 0.0436 0.0045
28  29 0.0136 0.0436 0.0045
29  30 0.0125 00400 0.0041
30  31 0.0136 00436 00045
27  31 00136 () 0436 0.0045
30  32 00533 () 1636 0.0712
32  33 0.0311 0.1000 00420
32  34 0.0471 o 1511 0.0650
30  51 0.0667 0.1765 0.0734
51  33 00230 0.0622 0.0256
35  50 0.0240 01326 0.0954
35  36 00266 01418 0.1146
39  49 0.0168 00899 0.0726
36  38 0.0252 0.1336 0.1078
38  1 00200 0.1107 00794
38  47 0.0202 0.1076 00869
47  43 0.0250 0.1336 0.1078
42  43 0.0298 0.1584 0.1281
4041 0.0254 0.1400 0.1008
Comd .....
164 Power System Analysis
Line data Resistance Reactance Capacitance
41  43 0.0326 0.1807 0.1297
43  45 0.0236 0.1252 01011
43  44 0.0129 00715 0.0513
45  46 0.0054 0.0292 0.0236
441 0.0330 0.1818 0.1306
461 0.0343 0.2087 0.1686
149 0.0110 0.0597 0.1752
49  50 00071 0.0400 0.0272
37  38 0.0014 0.0077 0.0246
47  39 0.0203 0.1093 0.0879
48 2 0.0426 0.1100 0.0460
3  35 00000 00500 0.0000
7 36 0.0000 () 0450 0.0000
t
I1  .17 0.0000 0.0500 0.0000
14  47 0.0000 0.0900 0.0000
16  39 0.0000 0.0900 0.0000
1840 0.0000 0.0400 0.0000
20  42 0.0000 .0.0800 0.0000
24·B 0.0000 0.0900 0.0000
27  45 0.0000 0.0900 0.0000
26 44 0.0000 0.0500 0.0000
30  46 0.0000 0.0450 0.0000
134 0.0000 0.0630 0.0000
!
212 0.0000 0.2500 0.0000
!
4  5 0.0000 0.2085 0.0000
I
1941 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000
Power Flow Analysis 165
Fig. P5.4 51 Bus Power System.
Bus P Q TAP
3 35 1.0450
7  36 1.0450
11  37 1.0500
14  47 1.0600
16  39 1.0600
18  40 1.0900
1941 1.0750
20  42 1.0600
24 43 1.0750
3046 1.0750
1 34 1.0875
21 22 1.0600
54 1.0800
27  45 10600
26  44 1.0750
166 Power System Analysis
Bus Data  Voltage and Scheduled Powers
Bus no Voltage magnitude Voltage phase angle Real power Reactive power
(p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.)
1 10800 00000 0.0000 0.0000
2 ] 0000 00000  0.5000  0.2000
3 1.0000 00000  09000 0.5000
4 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
5 1.0000 0.0000 0.1190 0.0000
6 1.0000 0.0000 0.1900  0.1000
7 1.0000 00000  0.3300 0.1800.
8 10000 00000  0 4400  02400
9 10000 0.0000  0.2200 0.1200
10 10000 0.0000 0.2100  01200
II 1.0000 0.0000  0.3400  0.0500
12 1.0000 00000  0.2400  0.1360
13 10000 0.0000  0.1900  0.1100
14 1.0000 00000  0.1900  0.0400
IS 1.0000 0.0000 0.2400 0.0000
16 10000 0.0000  0.5400  0.3000
17 10000 0.0000  0.4600  0.2100
18 10000 0.0000  0.3700  0.2200
19 1.0000 0.0000  0.3100 0.0200
20 10000 0.0000  03400  0.1600
21 10000 00000 00000 0.0000
22 10000 0.0000  0 1700  0 0800
13 10000 0.0000  0.4200  0.2300
2 ~ 1.0000 00000  0.0800  0.0200
25 1.0000 0.0000 0.1100  0.0600
26 1.0000 0.0000  0.2800  0.1400
27 1.0000 00000  0.7600  0.2500
28 I OOO()
00000  08000  0.3600
Contd. ....
Power Flow Analysis 167
Bus no Voltage magnitude Voltage phase angle Real power Reactive power
(p.u.) (p.u.) (p.u.)
29 1.0000 0.0000  0.2500  0.1300
30 1.0000 0.0000  0.4700 0.0000
31 1.0000 0.0000  0.4200 0.1800
32 1.0000 0.0000  0.3000  0.1700
33 1.0000 0.0000 0.5000 0.0000
34 1.0000 0.0000  05800  0.2600
35 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
36 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
37 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
38 I. 0000 0.0000 17000 0.0000
39 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
40 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
41 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
42 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
43 1.0000 00000 0.0000 0.0000
44 1.0000 0.0000 17500 0.0000
45 1.0000 0.0000 00000 0.0000
46 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
47 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000
48 1.0000 00000 0.5500 0.0000
49 1.0000 0.0000 35000 00000
50 1.0000 0.0000 1.2000 o.oono
51 1.0000 0.0000  0.5000  0.3000
168 Power System Analysis
Bus No. Voltage at VeB Reactive power limit
15 1.0300 0.1800
30 1.0000 0.0400
33 1.0000 0.4800
38 1.0600 0.9000
44 10500 04500
48 10600 02000
49 1.0700 0.5600
50 1.0700 1.500
P 5.4 The data for a 13 machine, 71 bus, 94 line system is given. Obtain the load flow
solution.
Data :
No. of buses 71
No. of lines 94
Base power (MVA) 200
No. of machines 13
No. of shunt loads 23
BUS NO GENERATION LOAD POWER
I   0.0 00
2 00 0.0 0.0 0.0
3 506.0 150.0 0.0 0.0
4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
6 100.0 32.0 00 00
7 0.0 00 12.8 8.3
8 300.0 125.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.0 0.0 185.0 130.0
10 0.0 0.0 80.0 50.0
II 0.0 0.0 155.0 96.0
12 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Contd .....
Power Flow Analysis 169
BUS NO GENERATION LOAD POWER
13 0.0 0.0 100.0 62.0
14 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
15 180.0 110.0 00 0.0
16 0.0 0.0 73.0 45.5
17 0.0 0.0 36.0 22.4
18 0.0 0.0 16.0 9.0
19 0.0 0.0 320 19.8
20 00 0.0 270 16.8
21 0.0 0.0 32.0 In
22 0.0 0.0 0.0 00
23 00 0.0 75.0 46.6
24 0.0 0.0 00 0.0
25 0.0 00 133.0 825
26 00 0.0 00 00
27 3000 75.0 0.0 00
28 0.0 0.0 30.0 20.0
29 260.0 70.0 0.0 0.0
30 0.0 0.0 120.0 0.0
31 0.0 0.0 160.0 74.5
32 0.0 0.0 0.0 994
33 0.0 0.0 0.0 00
34 0.0 0.0 112.0 69.5
35 0.0 0.0 0.0 00
36 0.0 0.0 50.0 32.0
37 00 0.0 1470 92.0
38 00 0.0 935 880
39 25.0 30.0 0.0 0.0
40 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
41 0.0 0.0 225.0 123.0
42 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
43 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Contd. ....
170 Power System Analysis
BUS NO GENERATION LOAD POWER
44 180.0 55.0 0.0 0.0
45 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
46 0.0 0.0 78.0 38.6
47 0.0 0.0 234.0 145.0
48 340.0 250.0 0.0 0.0
49 0.0 0.0 295.0 183.0
50 00 0.0 40.0 24.6
51 0.0 0.0 2270 142.0
52 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
53 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
54 0.0 0.0 \08.0 68.0
55 0.0 0.0 25.5 48.0
56 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
57 00 00 556 35.6
58 0.0 0.0 420 27.0
59 0.0 0.0 57.0 27.4
60 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
61 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
62 0.0 0.0 40.0 27.0
63 0.0 0.0 33.2 20.6
64 300.0 75.0 0.0 0.0
65 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
66 96.0 25.0 0.0 0.0
67 0.0 0.0 14.0 6.5
68 90.0 25.0 0.0 0.0
69 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
70 0.0 0.0 11.4 7.0
71 0.0 0.0 0.0 00
Power Flow Analysis 171
LINE DATA
Line No From Bus To Bus Line impedance 112 Y charge Turns Ratio
1 9 8 0.0000 0.0570 0.0000 1.05
2 9 7 0.3200 0.0780 0.0090 100
3 9 5 0.0660 0.1600 0.0047 1.00
4 9 10 0.0520 0.1270 0.0140 1.00
5 10 11 0.0660 0.1610 0.0180 1.00
6 7 10 0.2700 0.0700 0.0070 100
7 12 11 0.0000 0.0530 0.0000 0.95
8 II 13 0.0600 01480 0.0300 1.00
9 14 13 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 1.00
10 13 16 0.9700 0.2380 0.0270 1.00
11 17 15 0.0000 0.0920 0.0000 1.05
12 7 6 00000 0.2220 0.0000 1.05
13 7 4 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 1.00
14 4 3 0.0000 0.0330 0.0000 1.05
15 4 5 0.0000 0.1600 0.0000 1.00
16 4 12 0.0160 0.0790 0.0710 1.00
17 12 14 0.0160 0.0790 0.0710 1.00
18 17 16 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 0.95
19 2 4 0.0000 0.0620 0.0000 1.00
20 4 26 0.0190 0.0950 0.1930· 0.00
21 2 1 0.0000 0.0340 0.0000 1.05
22 31 26 0.0340 0.1670 01500 1.00
23 26 25 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 0.95
24 25 23 02400 0.5200 0.1300 1.00
25 22 23 00000 00800 0.0000 0.95
26 24 22 0.0000 0.0840 0.0000 0.95
27 22 17 0.0480 0.2500 0.0505 1.00
28 2 24 00100 0.1020 0.3353 1.00
29 23 21 0.0366 0.1412 0.0140 1.00
30 21 20 0.7200 0.1860 0.0050 1.00
31 20 III 01460 0.3740 0.0100 1.00
Contd.
171 Power System Analysis
Line No From Bus To Bus Line impedance 112 Y charge Turns Ratio
32 19 18 0.0590 0.1500 0.0040 1.00
33 18 16 0.0300 00755 0.0080 1.00
34 28 27 0.0000 0.0810 0.0000 1.05
35 30 29 0.0000 0.0610 0.0000 105
36 32 31 0.0000 0.0930 00000 0.95
37 31 30 0.0000 00800 0.0000 0.95
38 28 32 00051 0.0510 0.6706 1.00
39 3 33 0.0130 00640 0.0580 1.00
40 31 47 O.()110 0.0790 01770 1.00
41 2 32 0.0158 0.1570 0.5100 1.00
42 33 34 00000 0.0800 0.0000 095
43 35 33 0.0000 0.0840 0.0000 0.95
44 35 24 0.0062 00612 0.2120 1.00
45 34 36 0.0790 0.2010 0.0220 1.00
46 36 37 0.1690 04310 0.0110 1.00
47 37 38 0.0840 01880 0.0210 1.00
48 40 39 00000 0.3800 0.0000 1.05
49 40 38 0.0890 0.2170 0.0250 1.00
50 38 41 0.1090 0.1960 0.2200 1.00
51 41 51 0.2350 0.6000 0.0160 1.00
52 42 41 0.0000 0.0530 0.0000 0.95
53 45 42 0.0000 0.0840 0.0000 0.95
54 47 49 0.2100 0.1030 0.9200 1.00
55 49 48 0.0000 0.0460 0.0000 105
56 49 50 00170 00840 0.0760 100
57 49 42 0.0370 0.1950 00390 1.00
58 50 51 00000 0.0530 00000 0.95
59 52 50 0.0000 0.0840 0.0000 0.95
60 50 55 0.0290 0.1520 0.0300 1.00
61 50 53 0.0100 0.0520 0.0390 1.00
62 53 54 0:0000 0.0800 0.0000 0.95
63 57 54 00220 0.0540 0.0060 1.00
Contd. ....
Power Flow Analysis 173
Line No From Bus To Bus Line impedance 112 Y charge Turns Ratio
64 55 56 0.0160 0.0850 0.0170 1.00
65 56 57 00000 0.0800 0.0000 1.00
66 57 59 0.0280 0.0720 0.0070 1.00
67 59 58 0.0480 0.1240 0.0120 1.00
68 60 59 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 1.00
69 53 60 0.0360 0.1840 0.3700 1.00
70 45 44 0.0000 0.1200 0.0000 1.05
71 45 46 0.0370 0.0900 0.0100 1.00
72 46 41 0.0830 0.1540 0.0170 100
73 46 59 0.1070 0.1970 0.0210 1.00
74 60 61 0.0160 0.0830 0.0160 1.00
75 61 62 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 0.95
76 58 62 00420 01080 0.0020 1.00
77 62 63 0.0350 0.0890 0.0090 100
78 69 68 0.0000 0.2220 0.0000 1.05
79 69 61 0.0230 0.1160 0.1040 1.00
80 67 66 0.0000 0.1880 0.0000 1.05
81 65 64 00000 0.0630 0.0000 1.05
82 65 56 0.0280 0.1l40 0.0290 1.00
83 65 61 0.0230 0.1140 0.0240 1.00
84 65 67 0.0240 0.0600 0.0950 1.00
85 67 63 0.0390 0.0990 0.0100 1.00
86 61 42 0.0230 0.2293 0.0695 1.00
87 57 67 0.0550 0.2910 00070 LOO
88 45 70 01840 OA680 00120 1.00
89 70 38 0.1650 0.4220 0.0110 1.00
90 33 71 0.0570 0.2960 0.0590 1.00
41 71 37 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 0.95
92 45 41 0.1530 0.3880 0.1000 1.00
n 35 43 0.0131 01306 0.4293 1.00
~ 
9l 52 52 0.0164 0.1632 0.5360 1.00
174 Power System Analysis
Shunt Load Data
S.No Bus No Shunt Load
1 2 000  0.4275
2 13 0.00 0.1500
3 20 0.00 0.0800
4 24 0.00  0.2700
5 28 0.00  0.3375
6 31 0.00 0.2000
7 32 0.00  0.8700
8 34 0.00 0.2250
9 35 0.00  0.3220
10 36 0.00 0.1000
11 37 0.00 0.3500
12 38 0.00 0.2000
13 41 0.00 0.2000
14 43 0.00  02170
15 46 0.00 0.1000
16 47 000 0.3000
17 50 0.00 0.1000
18 51 0.00 0.1750
19 52 0.00 0.2700
20 54 0.00 0.1500
21 57 0.00 0.1000
22 59 0.00 0.0750
23 21 0.00 0.0500
Power Flow Analysis
Questions
5.1 Explain the importance of load flow studies.
5.2 Discuss breifly the bus classification.
5.3 What is the need for a slack bus or reference bus? Explain.
5.4 Explain GaussSeidel method of load flow solution.
175
5.5 Discuss the method ofNewtonRaphson method in general and explain its applicalibility
for power flow solution.
5.6 Explain the PolarCoordinates method of NewtonRaphson load flow solution.
5.7 Give the Cartesian coordinates method or rectangular coordinates method of Newton
Raphson load flow solution.
5.8 Give the flow chart for Q.No. 6.
5.9 Give the flow chart for Q.No. 7.
5.10 Explain sparsity and its application in power flow studies.
5.11 How are generator buses are P, V buses treated in load flow studies?
5.12 Give the algorithm for decoupled load flow studies.
5.13 Explain the fast decouped load flow method.
5.14 Compare the GaussSeidel and NewtonRaphson method for power flow solution.
5.15 Compare the NewtonRaphson method, decoupled load flow method and fast
decouped load flow method.
6 SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Electrical networks and machines are subject to various types of faults while in operation.
During the fault period, the current flowing is determined by the internal e.m.fs of the machines
in the network, and by the impedances of the network and machines. However, the impedances
of machines may change their values from those that exist immediately after the fault occurrence
to different values during the fault till the fault is cleared. The network impedance may also
change, if the fault is cleared by switching operations. It is, therefore, necessary to calculate
the shortcircuit current at different instants when faults occur. For such fault analysis studies
and in general for power system analysis it is very convenient to use per unit system and
percentage values. In the following this system is explained.
6.1 Per Unit Quantities
The per unit value of any quantity is the ratio of the actual value in any units to the chosen base
quantify of the same dimensions expressed as a decimal.
Actual value in any units
Per unit quantity = ..
base or reference value In the same umts
In power systems the basic quantities of importance are voltage, current, impedance
and power. For all per unit calculations a base KVA or MVA and a base KV are to be chosen.
Once the base values or reference values are chosen. the other quantities can be ohtained as
follows:
Selecting the total or 3phase KVA as base KVA, for a 3phase system
Short Circuit Analysis
base KVA
Base current in amperes = h
,,3 [base KV (Iinetoline)]
· . [base KV (linetoline)2 x 1000]
Base Impedance In ohms = h[ ]
,,3 (base KV A)/3
B
. d . h (base KV (linetoline)2
ase Impe ance In 0 ms =
base MVA
· d . h (base KV (linetoline)2 x \000
Base Impe ance In 0 m = ''
base KVA
Hence,
where base KVA and base MVA are the total or three phase v.tllles.
If phase values are used
base KVA
Base current in amperes = baseKV
base voltage
Base impedance in ohm = =
base current
(base K V)2 x \000
base K V A per phase
· . (base KV)2
Base Impedance In ohm = b MVA h
ase per p ase
In all the above relations the power factor is assumed unity, so that
base power K W = base K VA
(actual impedance in ohm) x KVA
Per unit impedance = 2
(base K V) x 1000
Now,
Some times, it may be required to use the relation
( I
. d . h) (Per unit impedance in ohms) (base KV)2 x \000
actua Impe ance In 0 m = . . : . . . . . . .    ~      . : . . . . . . . : . .       ' '    
base KVA
177
Very often the values are in different base values. In order to convert the per unit
impedance from given base to another base, the following relation can be derived easily.
Per unit impedance on new base
(
new KVA base )(giVen KV base)2
Z u = Z U
new p gIven p. given KV A base new KV base
178 Power System Analysis
6.2 Advantages of Per Unit System
1. While performing calculations, referring quantities from one side of the transformer
to the other side serious errors may be committed. This can be avoided by using per
unit system.
2. Voltages, currents and impedances expressed in per unit do not change when they
are referred from one side of transformer to the other side. This is a great advantage'.
3. Per unit impedances of electrical equipment of similar type usually lie within a narrow
range, when the equipment ratings are used as base values.
4. Transformer connections do not affect the per unit values.
5. Manufacturers usually specify the impedances of machines and transformers in per
unit or percent of name plate ratings.
6.3 Three Phase Short Circuits
In the analysis of symmetrical threephase short circuits the following assumptions are
generally made.
1. Transformers are represented by their leakage reactances. The magnetizing current,
and core fusses are neglected. Resistances, shunt admittances are not considered.
Stardelta phase shifts are also neglected.
2. Transmission lines are represented by series reactances. Resistances and shunt
admittances are neglected.
3. Synchronous machines are represented by constant voltage sources behind
subtransient reactances. Armature resistances, saliency and saturation are neglected.
4. All nonrotating impedance loads are neglected.
5. Induction motors are represented just as synchronous machines with constant voltage
source behind a reactance. Smaller motor loads are generally neglected.
Per unit impedances of transformers : Consider a singlephase transformer with primary and
secondary voltages and currents denoted by V I' V 2 and I I' 12 respectively.
VI 12
we have, =
V
2
II
V
Base impedance for primary = _I
II
V
2
Base impedance for secondary = G
ZI II ZI
Per unit impedance referred to primary = (VI/II) VI
Short Circuit Analysis
[2 Z2
Per unit impedance referred to secondary = V
2
Again, actual impedance referred to secondary = Z,
Per unit impedance referred to secondary
(
Yy2, )2
= Per unit impedance referred to primary
179
Thus, the per unit impedance referred remains the same for a transformer on either
side.
6.4 Reactance Diagrams
[n power system analysis it is necessary to draw an equivalent circuit for the system. This is
an impedance diagrams. However, in several studies, including shortcircuit analysis it is
sufficient to consider only reactances neglecting resistances. Hence, we draw reactance
diagrams. For 3phase balanced systems, it is simpler to represent the system by a single line
diagram without losing the identify of the 3phase system. Thus, single line reactance diagrams
can be drawn for calculation.
This is illustrated by the system shown in Fig. 6.1 (a) & (b) and by its single line
reactance diagram .
.cY ei
Gene transformer Lines
(a) A power system
Fig. 6.1
6.5 Percentage Values
(b) Equivalent singleline reactance
diagram
The reactances of generators, transformers and reactors are generally expressed in percentage
values to permit quick short circuit calculation.
Percentage reactance is defined as :
[X
% X = xIOO
y
180
where, I = full load current
V = phase voltage
X = reactance in ohms per phase
Power System Analysis
Short circuit current Isc in a circuit then can be expressed as,
_ V = V. I xlOO
Isc  X V. (%X)
I . 100
%X
Percentage ~ a c t a n c e can expressed in terms of KVA and KV as following
From equation
Alternatively
(%X) . V (%X)V
2
X = = ''
1.1 00 1 00 . V . I
(%X) (KV)2 10
== ''
KVA
KVA
(%X) = X. 10 (KV)2
V V
(%X) . xIOOO
1000 1000
V
100. .I
1000
As has been stated already in short circuit analysis since the reactance X is generally
greater than three times the resistance, resistances are neglected.
But, in case percentage resistance and therefore, percentage impedance values are required
then, in a similar manner we can define
and
IR
% R = x 100
V
IZ
%Z= xIOO
V
with usual notation.
The percentage values of Rand Z also do not change with the side of the transformer or
either side of the transformer they remain constant. The ohmic values of R, X and Z change
from one side to the other side of the transformer.
when a fault occurs the potential falls to a value determined by the fault impedance.
Short circuit current is expressed in term of short circuit KVA based on the normal system
voltage at the point of fault.
6.6 Short Circuit KVA
It is defined as the product of normal system voltage and short circuit current at the point of
fault expressed in KVA.
Short Circuit Analysis
Let V = normal phase voltage in volts
1= fall load current in amperes at base KVA
% X = percentage reactance of the system expressed on base KVA.
The short circuit current,
100
JSc = I. %X
The three phase or total short circuit KVA
3.V Isc 3.V.I 100 3V I 100
1000 (%X) 1000 1000 %X
100
Therefore short circuit KVA = Base KVA x (%X)
181
In a power system or even in a single power station different equipment may have
different ratings. Calculation are required to be performed where different components or
units are rated differently. The percentage values specified on the name plates will be with
respect to their name plate ratings. Hence. it it necessary to select a common base KVA or MVA
and also a base KY. The following are some of the guide I ines for selection of base values.
1. Rating of the largest plant or unit for base MVA or KVA.
2. The total capacity ofa plant or system for base MVA or KVA.
3. Any arbitrary value.
(
Base KVA) .
(
%X) =. (% X at UOIt KVA)
on new base Unit K V A
Ifa transformer has 8% reactance on 50 KVA base, its value at 100 KVA base will be
(
100)
(%X)IOO KVA = 50 x 8 = 16%
Similarly the reactance values change with voltage base as per the relation
where X I = reactance at voltage V I
and X
2
= reactance at voltage V 2
For short circuit analysis, it is often convenient to draw the reactance diagrams
indicating the values in per unit.
182 Power System Analysis
6.7 Importance of Short Circuit Currents
Knowledge of short circuit current values is necessary for the following reasons.
1. Fault currents which are several times larger than the normal operating currents
produce large electro magnetic forces and torques which may adversely affect the
stator end windings. The forces on the end windings depend on both the d.c. and
a.c. components of stator currents.
2. The electro dynamic forces on the stator end windings may result in displacement of
the coils against one another. This may result in loosening of the support or damage
to the insulation of the windings.
3. Following a short circuit, it is always recommended that the mechanical bracing of
the end windings to checked for any possible loosening.
4. The electrical and mechanical forces that develop due to a sudden three phase short
circuit are generally severe when the machine is operating under loaded condition.
S. As the fault is cleared with in 3 cycles generally the heating efforts are not considerable.
Short circuits may occur in power systems due to system over voltages caused by
lightning or switching surges or due to equipment insulation failure or even due to insulator
contamination. Some times even mechanical causes may create short circuits. Other well
known reasons include linetoline, linetoground, or linetoline faults on over head lines. The
resultant short circuit has to the interrupted within few cycles by the circuit breaker.
It is absolutely necessary to select a circuit breaker that is capable of operating
successfully when maximum fault current flows at the circuit voltage that prevails at that
instant. An insight can be gained when we consider an RL circuit connected to an alternating
voltage source, the circuit being switched on through a switch.
6.8 Analysis ofRL Circuit
Consider the circuit in the Fig. 6.2.
+
s
t = 0'·
R
L
Fig. 6.2
Let e = Emax Sin (rot + a) when the switch S is closed at t = 0+
di
e = Emax Sin (rot + a) = R + L dt
Short Circuit Analysis
a is determined by the magnitude of voltage when the circuit is closed.
The general solution is
where
and
E 
[
Rt 1
i= max Sin (cot+a8)e L Sin (a8)
IZI
IZI = ~ R
2
+ co
2
L2
coL
8 = TanI 
R
The current contains two components :
Emax
a.c. component = IZT Sin (cot + a  8)
and
Rt
Emax e L· e)
d.c. component = IZT Sm (a
If the switch is closed when a  e = 1t or when a  8 = 0
the d.c. component vanishes.
1t
the d.c. component is a maximum when a  8 = ± '2
6.9 Three Phase Short Circuit on Unloaded Synchronous Generator
183
If a three phase short circuit occurs at the terminals of a salient pole synchronous we obtain
typical oscillograms as shown in Fig. 6.3 for the short circuit currents the three phases.
Fig. 6.4 shows the alternating component of the short circuit current when the d.c. component
is eliminated. The fast changing subtransient component and the slowly changing transient
components are shown at A and C. Figure 6.5 shows the electrical torque. The changing field
current is shown in Fig. 6.6.
From the oscillogram of a.c. component the quantities x;;, x ~ , xd and x ~ can be
determined.
If V is the line to neutral prefault voltage then the a.c. component.
ia c = ~ = I" , the r.m.s subtransient short circuit. Its duration is determined by Td' ' the
xl]
V
subtransient direct axis time constant. The value of ia c decreases to 7 when t > Td'
, d
with Td as the direct axis transient time constant when t > Td
V
184 Power System Analysis
The maximum d.c. offset component that occurs in any phase at (l = 0 is
. k2 V IITA
1 (t)"L.e
d,c, max xd
where T A is the armature time constant.
Fig. 6.3 Oscillograms of the armature currents after a short circuit.
F
J
: ~     ___ 0
  B
i:: r
~ 0
u 1 ~
61
t sec. ~
Fig. 6.4 Alternating component of the short circuit armature current
Short Circuit Analysis
o 0.10 020 030
..... t
0.40 0.50
Fig. 6.5 Electrical torque on threephase termlnaJ short circuit.
Field current after
short circuit
o ,_+____ ..... ____________________ .. .;..
t +
Fig. 6.6 Oscilogram of the field current after a short circuit.
6.10 Effect of Load Current or Prefault Current
185
Consider a 3phase synchronous generator supplying a balanced 3phase load. Let a three
phase fault occur at the load terminals. Before the fault occurs, a load current IL is flowing into
the load from the generator. Let the voltage at the fault be v f and the terminal voltage of the
generator be Vt' Under fault conditions, the generator reactance is xd'
The circuit in Fig. 6.7 indicates the simulation of fault at the load terminals by a parallel
switch S.
E; = V
t
+ j Xd' IL = VI' +(Xext + j xd)I
L
where E; is the subtransient internal voltage.
186 Power System Analysis
s
Fault
Fig. 6.7
For the transient state
E ~ = VI + j xd IL
= V
f
+ (Zext + j xd ) I L
E; or E ~ are used only when there is a prefault current I
L
. Otherwise E
g
• the steady
state voltage in series with the direct axis synchronous reactance is to be used for all calculations.
Eg remains the same for all IL values, and depends only on the field current. Every time, of
course, a new E; is required to be computed.
6.11 Reactors
Whenever faults occur in power system large currents flow. Especially, if the fault is a dead
short circuit at the terminals or bus bars t?normous currents flow damaging the equipment and
its components. To limit the flow of large currents under there circumstances current limiting
reactors are used. These reactors are large coils covered for high selfinductance.
They are also so located that the effect of the fault does not affect other parts of the
system and is thus localized. From time to time new generating units are added to an existing
system to augment the capacity. When this happens, the fault current level increases and it
may become necessary to change the switch gear. With proper use of reactors addition of
generating units does not necessitate changes in existing switch gear.
6.12 Construction of Reactors
These reactors are built with non magnetic core so that saturation of core with consequent
reduction in inductance and increased short circuit currents is avoided. Alternatively, it is
possible to use iron core with airgaps included in the magnetic core so that saturation is avoided.
6.13 Classification of Reactors
(i) Generator reactors, (ii) Feeder reactors, (iii) Busbar reactors
Short Circuit Analysis 187
The above classification is based on the location ofthe reactors. Reactors may be connected in
series with the generator in series with each feeder or to the bus bars.
(i) Generator reactors
The reactors are located in series with each of the generators as shown in
Fig. 6.8 so that current flowing into a fault F from the generator is limited.
Generators
Bus
Bars
Fig. 6.8
Disadvantages
(a) In the event of a fault occuring on a feeder, the voltage at the remaining
healthy feeders also may loose synchronism requiring resynchronization later.
(b) There is a constant voltage drop in the reactors and also power loss, even
during normal operation. Since modern generators are designed to with stand
dead short circuit at their terminals, generator reactors are nowadays not
used except for old units in operation.
(ii) Feeder reactors: In this method of protection each is equipped with a
series reactor as shown in Fig. 6.9.
In the event of a fault on any feeder the fault current drawn is restricted by the
reactor.
Generators
Reactors
Bars
JC'
Fig. 6.9
188
F
Power System Analysis
Disadvantages: I. Voltage drop and power loss still occurs in the reactor for a
feeder fault. However, the voltage drop occurs only in that particular feeder reactor.
2. Feeder reactors do not offer any protection for bus bar faults. Neverthless,
busbar faults occur very rarely.
As series reactors inhererbly create voltage drop, system voltage regulation will
be impaired. Hence they are to be used only in special case such as for short
feeders of large crosssection.
(iii) Bus bar reactors: In both the above methods, the reactors carry full load current
under normal operation. The consequent disadvantage of constant voltage drops
and power loss can be avoided by dividing the bus bars into sections and inter
connect the sections through protective reactors. There are two ways of doing
this.
(a) Ring system :
In this method each feeder is fed by one generator. Very little power flows
across the reactors during normal operation. Hence, the voltage drop and
power loss are negligible. If a fault occurs on any feeder, only the generator
to which the feeder is connected will feed the fault and o ~ h e r generators are
required to feed the fault through the reactor.
(b) Tiebar system: This is an improvement over the ring system. This is shown
in Fig. 6.11. Current fed into a fault has to pass through two reactors in
series between sections.
F F
BVS
Bars
BVS
bar
Tie
bar
Generators
F2
Peeders
Fig. 6.10 Fig. 6.11
Another advantage is that additional generation may be connected to the
system without requiring changes in the existing reactors.
The only disadvantage is that this systems requires an additional busbar
system, the tiebar.
Short Circuit Analysis 189
Worked Examples
E 6.1 Two generators rated at 10 MVA, 11 KV and 15 MVA, 11 KV respectively are
connected in parallel to a bus. The bus bars feed two motors rated 7.5 MVA and
10 MVA respectively. The rated voltage of the motors is 9 KV. The reactance of
each generator is 12% and that of each motor is 15% on their own ratings.
Assume 50 MVA, 10 KV base and draw the reactance diagram.
Solution:
The reactances of the generators and motors are calculated on 50 MVA, 10 KV base values.
Reactance of generator I = X
G1
= 12 . C ~ r . ( ~ ~ ) = 72.6%
(
11)2 (50)
Reactance of generator 2 = X
G2
= 12 10 . 10 = 48.4%
Reactance of motor I = X
M1
= 15 . ( I ~ r ( ~ . ~ ) = 81 %
Reactance of motor 2 = X
M2
= 15 (1
9
0 r ( ~ ~ J = 60.75%
The reactance diagram is drawn and shown in Fig. E.6.1.
Fig. E.6.1
E.6.2 A 100 MVA, 13.8 KV, 3phase generator has a reactance of 20%. The generator is
connected to a 3phase transformer T I rated 100 MVA 12.5 KV 1110 KV with 10%
reactance. The h.v. side of the transformer is connected to a transmission line of
reactance 100 ohm. The far end of the line is connected to a step down transformer
T 2' made of three singlephase transformers each rated 30 MVA, 60 KV / 10 KV
with 10% reactance the generator supplies two motors connected on the l.v. side
T2 as shown in Fig. E.6.2. The motors are rated at 25 MVA and 50 MVA both at
10 KV with 15% reactance. Draw the reactance diagram showing all the values in
per unit. Take generator rating as base.
190 Power System Analysis
Solution:
Base MVA = 100
Base KV = 13.8
110
Base KV for the line = 13.8 x 12.5 = 121.44
,J3 x66KV 114.31
Linetoline voltage ratio ofT2 = 10KV :=w
121.44xl0 ,
Base voltage for motors = 114.31 = 10.62 KV
% X for generators = 20 % = 0.2 p.ll.
(
12.5J2 100
% X for transformer T) = 10 x 13.8 x 100 = 8.2%
% X for transformer T2 on ,J3 x 66 : 10 KV and 3 x 30 MVA base = 10%
% X for T2 on 100 MVA, and 121.44 KV: 10.62 KV is
% X T2 = 10 x C ~ . ~ 2 r x C ~ ~ J = 9.85 % = 0.0985 p.ll.
(
121.44J2
Base reactance for line = 100 = 147.47 ohms
100
Reactance of line· = 147.47 = 0.678 p.ll.
(
10 J2 (90J
Reactance of motor M) = lOx 10.62 25 = 31.92%
= 0.3192 p.ll.
(
10 J2 (90J
Reactance of motor M2 = 10 x 10.62 50 = 15.96%
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.2.
Fig. E.S.2
Short Circuit Analysis 191
E.6.3 Obtain the per unit representation for the threephase power system shown in
Fig. E.6.3.
Generator 1 : 50 MVA,
Generator 2 : 25 MVA,
Generator 3 : 35 MVA.,
Transformer T 1 : 30 MV A,
Transformer T2 : 25 MVA,
Fig. E.6.3
10.5 KV; X = 1.8 ohm
6.6 KV; X = 1.2 ohm
6.6 KV; X = 0.6 ohm
11/66 KV, X = 15 ohm/phase
66/6.2 KV, as h.v. side X = 12 ohms
Transmission line : XL = 20 ohm/phase
Solution:
Let base MVA = 50
base KV = 66 (L L)
Base voltage on transmission as line 1 p.u. (66 KV)
Base voltage for generator I : 11 KV
Base voltage for generators 2 and 3 : 6.1 KV
20x50
p.u. reactance of transmission line = 66
2
= 0.229 p.u.
'1'5 x50
p.ll. reactance of transformer T] = ~ = 0.172 p.u.
12x 50
p.ll. reactance of transformer T2 = 6T = 0.1377 p.u.
l.&x 50
p.u. reactance of generator 1 = (11)2 = 0.7438 p.u.
1.2 x 50
p.u. reactance of generator 2 = (6.2)2 = 1.56 p.u.
0.6x50
p.u. reactance of generator 3 = (6.2)2 = 0.78 p.u.
192 Power System Analysis
E 6.4 A single phase two winding transformer is rated 20 KVA, 480/120 V at 50 HZ. The
equivalent leakage impedance of the transformer referred to I.v. side is 0.0525
78.13° ohm using transformer ratings as base values, determine the per unit
leakage impedance referred to the h.v. side and t.v. side.
Solution
Let base KVA = 20
Base voltage on h.v. side = 480 V
Base voltage on l.v. side = 120 V
The leakage impedance on the l.v. s i d ~ of the transformer
= Z = V
base
2
12 VA base
(120)2
20,000 = 0.72 ohm
p.LI. leakage impedance referred to the l.v. of the transformer
0.0525 78.13°
= Zp u 2 = = 0.0729 78.13°
0.72
Equivalent impedance referred to h.v. side is
( ~ ~ ~ r [(0.0525 70.13°] = 0.84 78.13°
( 480)2
The base impedance on the h. v. side of the transformer is 20,000 = 11.52 ohm
p.LI. leakage impedance referred to h.v. side
0.84 78.13° = 0.0729 78.13° p. u.
11.52
E.6.5 A single phase transformer is rated at 110/440 V, 3 KVA. Its leakage reactance
measured on 110 V side is 0.05 ohm. Determine the leakage impedance referred
to 440 V side.
Solution:
(0.11)2 x 1000
Base impedance on 110 V side = 3 = 4.033 ohm
0.05
Per unit reactance on 110 V side = 4.033 = 0.01239 p.u.
(
440)2
Leakage reactance referred to 440 V side = (0.05) 110 = 0.8 ohm
. 0.8
Base impedance referred to 440 V side = 64.53 = 0.01239 p.u.
Short Circuit Analysis 193
E.6.6 Consider the system shown in Fig. E.6.4. Selecting 10,000 KVA and 110 KVas
base values, find the p.u. impedance ofthe 200 ohm load referred to 110 KV side
and 11 KV side.
II KVI 1I0KV IIOKV/55KV
200 ohm
XII =9% X
I2
1
Fig. E.6.4
Solution:
Base voltage at p = 11 KY
110
Base voltage at R = = 55 K Y
Base impedance at R =
55
2
x 1000
10,000
200 ohm
= 302.5 ohm
p.u. impedance at R = 302.5 ohm = 0.661 ohm
Base impedance at =
110
2
x 1000
10,000
= 1210 ohm
Load impedance referred to = 200 x 22 = 800 ohm
800
p.lI. impedance of load referred to = 1210 = 0.661
Similarly base impedance at P =
112 x 1000
10,000
= 121.1 ohm
Impedance of load referred to P = 200 x 22 x 0.12 = 8 ohm
8
p.lI. impedance of load at P = 12.1 = 0.661 ohm
194 Power System Analysis
E.6.7 Three transformers each rated 30 MVA at 38.1/3.81 KV are connected in
stardelta with a balanced load of three 0.5 ohm, star connected resistors. Selecting
a base of 900 MVA 66 KV for the h.v. side of the transformer find the base values
for the I. v. side.
Solution.
Fig. E.G.5
(base KY
L
_ d
2
(3.81)2
Base impedance on I. Y. side = = 0.1613 ohm
Base MYA 90
0.5
p.lI. load resistance on 1.Y. side = 0.1613 = 3.099 p.lI.
Base impedance on h.Y. side = (66)2 = 48.4 ohm
90
(
66 J2
Load resistance referred to h.Y. side = 0.5 x 3.81 = 150 ohm
150
p.lI. load resistance referred to h.Y. side = 48.4 = 3.099 p.lI.
The per unit load resistance remains the same.
E.6.8 Two generators are connected in parallel to the I.v. side of a 3phase deltastar
transformer as shown in Fig. E.6.6. Generator 1 is rated 60,000 KVA, 11 KV.
Generator 2 is rated 30,000 KVA, 11 KV. Each generator has a subtransient
reactance of xd = 25%. The transformer is rated 90,000 KVA at 11 KV f.. / 66 KV
Y with a reactance of 10%. Before a fault occurred the voltage on the h.t. side of
the transformer is 63 KY. The transformer in unloaded and there is no circulating
current between the generators. Find the subtransient current in each generator
when a 3phase short circuit occurrs on the h.t. side of the transformer.
Short Circuit Analysis
60,000 KVA
11 KV
"''1,
11 KV /66 KV
~ ~
Solution:
"'' r'
30,OOOKVA
11 KV
Fig. E.S.S
l1,/Y
Let the line voltage on the h.v. side be the base KV = 66 KV.
Let the base KVA = 90,000 KVA
tr 90,000
Generator 1 : xd = 0.25 x 60,000 = 0.375 p.u.
90,000
For generator 2 : xd = 30,000 = 0.75 p.u.
The internal voltage for generator I
0.63
Eg1 = 0.66 = 0.955 p.u.
The internal voltage for generator 2
0.63
Eg2 = 0.66 = 0.955 p.u.
195
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.7 when switch S is closed, the fault condition
is simulated. As there is no circulating current between the generators, the equivalent reactance
0.375 x 0.75
of the parallel circuit is 0.375 + 0.75 = 0.25 p.u.
j 0.10
s
Fig. E.S.7
196 Power System Analysis
Th b
· ,,0.955. 27285
e Sll traQslent current I = = J. p.lI.
(j0.25 + jO.1 0)
The voltage as the delta side of the transformer is (j 2.7285) G 0.10) = 0.27205 p.u.
I;' = the subtransient current flowing into fault from generator
0.955  0.2785
I;' =
j 0.375
1.819 p.u.
0.955  0.27285
Similarly,
12 =
j 0.75
= j 1.819 p.u.
The actual fault currents supplied in amperes are
1.819 x 90,000
II' = r;; = 8592.78 A
",3 x II
0.909 x 90,000
I; = J3 x II = 4294.37 A
E.6.9 R station with two generators feeds through transformers a transmission system
operating at 132 KV. The far end of the transmission system consisting of 200 km
long double circuit line is connected to load from bus B. If a 3phase fault occurs
at bus B, determine the total fault current and fault current supplied by each
generator.
Select 75 MVA and I1 KVon LV side and 132 KVon h.v. side as base values.
111132 KV
75 MVA A
75MVA
B
200Km
10%
25MVA
~ 2 5 ~
0.189 ohm/phaselKm
10% 8%
111132 KV
Fig. E.S.S
Solution:
p. u. x of generator 1 = j 0.15 p. u.
Short Circuit Analysis
75
p.u. x of generator 2 = j = 0.10 25
= j 0.3 p.u.
p.u. x of transformer T, = j 0.1
75
p.u. x of transformer T2 = j 0.08 x 25 = j 0.24
j 0.180x200x75 .
p.u.xofeachline= 132xl32 =JO.1549
The equivalent reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.9 (a), (b) & (c).
j 0.5 j 0.1
j 0.1549
jO.1549
(a)
j 0.7745
jO.17 + jO.07745 = j 0.2483
(b) (c)
Fig. E.6.9
Fig. E.6.9 (a), (b) & (c) can be reduced further into
Zeq = j 0.17 + j 0.07745 = j 0.248336
I LO
o
.
Total fault current =  J 4.0268 p. u.
j 0.248336
75 x 1000
Base current for 132 KY circuit = J3 x 132 = 328 A
197
198 Power System Analysis
Hence actual fault current =  j 4.0268 x 328 = 1321 A L 90
0
75 x 1000
Base current for 11 KV side of the transformer = {;;3 = 3936.6 A
",",xlI
Actual fault current supplied from 11 KV side = 3936.6 x 4.0248 ;:= 1585 J. 9 A L90
0
1585139 L  90° x j 0.54 .
Fault current supplied by generator I = j 0.54 + j 0.25 = J 10835.476 A
15851.9xj 0.25
Fault current supplied by generator 2 = j 0.79 = 5016.424 A L90o
E.6.10 A 33 KV line has a resistance of 4 ohm and reactance of 16 ohm respectively.
The line is connected to a generating station bus bars through a 6000 KVA step
up transformer which has a reactance of 6%. The station has two generators
rated 10,000 KVA with 10% reactance and 5000 KVAwith 5% reactance. Calculate
the fault current antl short circuit KVA when a 3phase fault occurs at the h.v.
terminals of the transformers and at the load end of the line.
Solution:
10,000 KVA
10%
rv}..,
rv}__ l
5%
5,000 KVA
60,000 KVA
6 ~ ,
FI
Fig. E.S.10 (a)
33 KV
4 + j 16
Let 10,000 KVA be the base KVA
Reactance of generator 1 Xo 1 = 10%
5 x 10,000
Reactance of generator 2 X
02
= 5000 = 10%
6 x 10,000
Reactance of transformer X
T
= 6 000 = 10%
,
The line impedance is converted into percentage impedance
KVA. X 10,000x16
% X = ; % X = = 14.69%
10(KVf Lme IOx(33)2
Short Circuit Analysis
19000x 4
% R
Line
= :: = 3.672 %
10(33)2
199
(i) For a 3phase fault at the h.y. side terminals of the transformer fault impedance
(
IOXI0)
=  + 10= 15 %
10 + 10
Fig. 6.10 (b)
10,000 x 100
Short circuit KVA fed into the fault = 15 KYA
= 66666.67 KYA
= 66.67 MYA
For a fault at F2 the load end of the line the total reactance to the fault
= 15 + l4.69
= 29.69 %
Total resistance to fault = 3.672 %
Total impedance to fault = ~ 3 . 6 7 2 2 + 29.69
2
= 29.916 %
100
Short circuit KVA into fault = 29.916 x 10,000
= 33433.63 KYA
= 33.433 MYA
E.6.11 Figure E.6.11 (a) shows a power system where load at bus 5 is fed by generators
at bus 1 and bus 4. The generators are rated at 100 MVA; 11 KV with subtransient
reactance of 25%. The transformers are rated each at 100 MVA, 11/112 KVand
have a leakage reactance of 8%. The lines have an inductance of 1 mH 1 phase
1 km. Line L1 is 100 krri long while lines L2 and L
J
are each of 50 km in length.
Find the fault current and MVA for a 3phase fault at bus S.
200 Power System Analysis
Fig. E.6.11 (a)
Solution:
Let base MVA = 100 MVA
Base voltage for l.v. side = II KVand
Base voltage for h. v. side = 112 KV
Base impedance for h.v. side of transformer
112x112
100 = 125.44 ohm
Base impedance for l.v. side of transformer
II x II
= 100 = l.21 ohm
Reactance of line Ll = 2 x P x 50 x 1 x 10
3
x 100 = 31.4 ohm
3l.4
Per unit reactance of line Ll = 125.44 = 0.25 p.u.
271: x 50 x 1 x 10
3
x 50
p.u. impedance of line L? = = 0.125 p.u.
 125.44
p.u. impedance of line L3 = 0.125 p.u.
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. 6.11 (b).
c
Fig. E.6.11 (b)
Short Circuit Analysis 201
By performing conversion of delta into star at A, Band C, the star impedances are
j 0.25xj 0.125
Z\ = j 0.25+ j 0.125+ j 0.125 = j 0.0625
Z =
2
j 0.25 x j 0.125
j 0.5
= j 0.0625
j 0.125xj 0.125
and Z =
3
j 0.5
= j 0.03125
The following reactance diagram is obtained.
j 0.2 j 0.08 J 0.08
B
j 0.03125
Fig. E.6.11 (c)
This can be further reduced into Fig. E.6.ll (d).
Fig. E.6.11 (d)
i 0.0625
Finally this can be put first into Fig. E.6.11 (e) and later into Fig. E.6.l1 (t).
j 0.345
2
(e)
j O. 03125
Fig. E.6.11
j O. 20375
(f)
202 Power System Analysis
Fault MVA = 0.20375 = 4.90797 p.u.
= 100 MVA x 4.90797 = 490.797 MVA
1
Fault current = j 0.20375 = 4.90797 p.u.
100x 10
6
Base current =  515 5 Amp
.J3 x I 12 x 10
3
 .
Fault current = 4.90797 x 515.5
= 2530 Amp
E.6.12 Two motors having transient reactances 0.3 p.u. and subtransient reactances
0.2 p. u. based on their own ratings of 6 MVA, 6.8 KV are supplied by a transformer
rated 15 MVA, 112 KY / 6.6 KV and its reactance is 0.18 p.u. A 3phase short
circuit occurs at the terminals of one of the motors. Calculate (a) the subtransient
fault current (b) subtransient current in circuit breaker A (c) the momentary
circuit rating of the breaker and (d) if the circuit breaker has a breaking time
of 4 cycles calculate the current to be interrupted by the circuit breaker A.
~ 5 M V A
Infinite 112/KV/6.6 KV
bus X = 0.1 p.ll
Solution:
Let base MVA = 15
Base KV for Lv side = 6.6 KV
Base KV for h.v side = 112 KV
15
Fig. E.6.12 (a)
For each motor xd = 0.2 x (; = 0.5 p.u.
15
For each motor xd = 0.3 x (; = 0.75 p.u.
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.12 (b).
Short Circuit Analysis 203
Fig. E.6.12 (b)
Under fault condition the reactance diagram can be further simplified into Fig. E.6.12 (c).
._...F
j 0.18 J 0.18
,(1 LOIri
j 0.5
Fig. E.6.12 (c)
Impedance to fault = 111
++
jO.18 jO.5 jO.S
1 LOo
j 0.5
Subtransient fault current = j 0.1047 = j 9.55 p.u.
15 x 10
6
Base current = r;; 3 = 1312.19 A
,,3 x 6.6 x 10
Subtransient fault current = 1312.19 x (j 9.55)
= 12531.99 Amps (lagging)
(b) Total fault current from the infinite bus.
I LOo
jO.18 = j 5.55 p.u.
204 Power System Analysis
1 LOo
Fault current from each motor == jO.5 == j 2p.u.
Fault current into breaken A is sum of the two currents from the in infinite bus
and from motor 1
== j 5.55 + (j 2) == j 7.55 p.u.
Total fault current into breaken == j 7.55 x 1312.19
== 9907 Amps
(c) Manentary fault current taking into the d.c.
offset component is approximately
1.6 x 9907 == 15851.25 A
(d) For the transient condition, that is, after 4 cycles the motor reactance changes to
0.3 p.u.
The reactance diagram for the transient state is shown in Fig. E.6.12 (d).
j 0.18
,..11 LOIi
j 0.6
Fig. E.6.12 (d)
The fault impedance is 111 == j 0.1125 p.u.
++
jO.15 jO.6 jO.6
1 LOo
The fault current == jO.1125 = j 8.89 p.u.
Transient fault current = j 8.89 x 1312.19
== 11665.37 A
If the d.c. offset current is to be considered it may be increased by a factor of
say 1.1.
So that the transient fault current == 11665.3 7 x 1.1
= 12831.9 Amp.
Short Circuit Analysis
E.6.13 Consider the power system shown in Fig. E.6.13 (a).
A C D B
II KV 11.0/IIOKV IIOKV/II KV
Delta/star Star/delta
Fig. E.6.13 (a)
100MVA
110 KVIlI KV
XlI =0.2
205
The synchronous generator is operating at its rated MVA at 0.95 lagging power factor
and at rated voltage. A 3phase short circuit occurs at bus A calculate the per unit value of (i)
subtransient fault current (ii) subtransient generator and motor currents. Neglect prefault current.
Also compute (iii) the subtransient generator and motor currents including the effect of pre fault
currents.
(110)2
Base line impedance =  = 121 ohm
100
20
Line reactance in per unit = ill = 0.1652 p.u.
The reactance diagram including the effect of the fault by switch S is shown in
Fig. E.6.13 (b).
j 0.2 j 0.2 j 0.08
j 0.1 j 0.1652 j 0.1
Fig. E.6.13 (b)
Looking into the network from the fault using Thevenin's theorem Zth = j X
th
=
(
0.15 x 0.565 )
j 0.15 + 0.565 = j 0.1185
206 Power System Analysis
(i) The subtransient fault current
1" _ 0.565 I" _ 0.565 x j8.4388 _.
lm  0.565 + 0.15 f  0.7125  J 6.668
(ii) The motor subtransient current
I"  0.15 I" _ 0.15 _.
m  0.715 f  0.715 x 8.4388  J 1.770 p.u.
100MVA
(iii) Generator base current = .fj x l1KV = 5.248 KA
, 100
Generator prefault current = .fj x II [COSI 0.95]
= 5.248 L18°.19 KA
5.248 L  18° .19 = 1 L 18°.19
Iload = 5.248
= (0.95  j 0.311) p.u.
The subtransient generator and motor currents including the prefault currents are
I; = j 6.668 + 0.95 j 0.311 = j 6.981 + 0.95
= (0.95 j 6.981) p.u. = 7.045 82.250 p.u.
I ~ = :i 1.77  0.95 + jO.3ll = 0.95 j 1.459
= 1.74 L56.93°
E.6.14 Consider the system shown in Fig. E.6.14 (a). The percentage reactance of each
alternator is expressed on its own capacity determine the short circuit current
that will flow into a dead three phase short circuit at F.
10,000 KVA
40%
G
1
".J
15,000 KVA
60%
G
2
".J
11,000 V
    ~ ~    r     ~     B V S
Bars
F
Fig. E.6.14 (a)
Short Circuit Analysis
Solution:
Let base KVA = 25,000 and base KV = 11
25,000
% X of generator 1 = x 40 = 100%
10,000
25,000
% X of generator 2 = 15,000 x 60 = 100%
, 25,000 10
3
Line current at 25,000 KVA and 11 KV = ~ x 3 = 1312.19 Amperes.
v3xll1O .
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.14 (b).
F
Fig. E.6.14 (b)
100x 100
The net percentage reactance upto the fault = 100 + 100 = 50%
IxlOO
Short circuit current = %X =
13 12. 1 9 x 100
50
= 2624.30 A
207
E.6.15 A3phase, 25 MVA, 11 KV alternator has internal reactance of 6%. Find the
external reactance per phase to be connected in series with the alternator so
that steady state short circuit current does not exceed six times the full load
current.
Solution:
25 x 10
6
Full load current = ~ 3 = 1312.9 A
v3xllx1O
11 x 10
3
Vphase = Jj
= 6351.039 volts.
Fullload current 1
Total % X = .. x 100 =  x 100
Short CIrCUIt current 6
= 16.67 %
208 Power System Analysis
External reactance needed = 16.67  6 = 10.67 %
Let X be the per phase e'xternal reactance required in ohms.
IX
% X =  x 100
Y
1312.19X.100
10.67 = 6351.0393
6351.0393 x 10.67
1312.19 x 100
X= = 0.516428 ohm
E.6.16 A 3phase line operating at 11 KV and having a resistance of 1.5 ohm and
reactance of 6 ohm is connected to a generating station bus bars through a
5 MVA stepup transformer having reactance of 5%. The bus bars are supplied
by a 12 MVA generator having 25% reactance. Calculate the short circuit KVA
fed into a symmetric fault (i) at the load end of the transformer and (ii) at the
h. v. terminals of the transformer.
Solution:
A B
&r.l _II KV_+lt
(1.5 + j 6) v.J,
12 MVA 5 MVA
25% 5%
Fig. E.6.15
Let the base KYA = KYA
%X of alternator as base KYA = 25%
12,000
%X of transformer as 12,000 KYA base = 5000 x 5 = 12%
,
12,000
%X of line = x 6 = 59.5%
10(11)2
12,000
%R of line = x 1.5 = 14.876 %
10(11)2
(i) %XTotal = 25 + 12 + 59.5 = 96.5%
%RTotal = 14.876%
%ZTotal = + {14.876)2 = 97.6398%
Short Circuit Analysis
12,000x 100
Short circuit KVA at the far end or load end F2 = 97.6398 = 12290
If the fault occurs on the h. v. side of the transformer at F 1
0/0 X upto fault F1 = % XG + % X
T
= 25 + 12
= 37 %
Short circuit KVA fed into the fault
12,000x 100
37
= 32432.43
209
E.6.17 A 3phase generating station has two 15,000 KVA generators connected in parallel
each with 15% reactance and a third generator of 10,000 KVA with 20% reactance
is also added later in parallel with them. Load is taken as shown from the station
busbars through 6000 KVA, 6% reactance transformers. Determine the
maximum fault MVA which the circuit breakers have to interrupt on (i) t.v. side
and (ii) as h.v. side of the system for a symmetrical fault.
15,000 KYA
Fig. E.6.17 (a)
Solution'
15 x 15,000
% X of generator G 1 = 15,000 '" 15%
% X of generator G
2
= 15%
% X of generator G
3
=
% X of transformer T =
20 x 15000
10,000
6 x 15,000
6000
=30%
= 15%
6000 KYA
~ 6 %
(i) If fault occurs at F l' the reactance is shown in Fig. E.6.17 (b).
2111
15%
Fig. E.6.17 (b/
I
The total % C upto fault ~
J I I
++
15 15 30
=6%
15,000 x 100
Fault MVA = 6 = 250,000 KVA
= 250 MVA
Power System Analysis
(ij I I f the fault occurs at F 2' the reactance diagram wi II be as in Fig. E.6.17 (c) .
•
15%
Fig. E.6.17 (c)
The total %X upto fault 6% + 15.6 = 21 %
15,000x 100
Fault MVA = 21 x 100 = 71.43
E.6.18 There are two generators at bus bar A each rated at 12,000 KVA, 12% reactance
or another bus B, two more generators rated at 10,000 KVA with 10% reactance
are connected. The two bus bars are connected through a reactor rated at
5000 KVA with 10% reactance. If a dead short circuit occurs between all the
phases on bus bar B, what is the short circuit MVA fed into the fault?
Short Circuit Analysis
12,000 KVA 12.000 KVA 10,000 KVA 10.000 KVA
12% 'V 12% 'V 10% 'V 10% 'V
A     ~         ~   ~
5000 MVA
10%
Fig. E.S.18 (a)
F
Solution'
12%
Let 12,000 KVA be the base KVA
% X of generator G] = 12 %
% X of generator G
2
= 12 %
lOx 12000
% X of generator G
3
= 10,000 cc 12%
% X of generator G
4
= 12%
% X of bus bar reactor =
lOx 12000
5,000
= 24%
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.18 (b).
12% 12%

F
(b)
Fig. E.S.18
30x6
% X up to fault = 30+6 = 50%
12,000x 100
Fault KVA = 6 = 600,000 KVA
= 600 MVA
30%
6%
(c)
21 1
F
212 Power System Analysis
E.6.19 A power plant has two generating units rated 3500 KVA and 5000 KVA with
percentage reactances 8% and 9% respectively. The circuit breakers have
breaking capacity of 175 MVA. It is planned to extend the system by connecting
it to the grid through a transformer rated at 7500 KVA and 7% reactance.
Calculate the reactance needed for a reactor to be connected in the busbar
section to prevent the circuit breaker from being over loaded if a short circuit
occurs on any outgoing feeder connected to it. The bus bar voltage is 3.3 KV.
3500 KVA 5000 KVA
A "'v
8%
9%
Rcactor
CB
Solution .
Let 7,500 KYA be the base KYA
8x 7500
Fig. E.S.19 (a)
O'n X of generator A =  = 17.1428%
3500
% X of generator B =
9 x 7500
5000
= 13.5%
°:0 X of transformer = 7% (as its own base)
I he reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6. 19 (b).
13.5% 7%
x
F
(b)
Fig. E.S.19
~ 7 %
7.5524%
X+7%
(c)
Short Circuit Analysis
[
Note: ( I I + _1 ) = 7.5524]
17.142813.5
The short circuit KVA should not exceed 175 MVA
Total reactance to fault = ([ + ]
= (X + 7) (7.5524) % = (X + 7) (7.5524) %
X + 7'+ 7.5524 X + 14.5524
. . X(X + 14.5524)
Short CIrCUIt KVA = 7500 x 100 (X + 7)(7.5524)
This should not exceed 175 MVA
Solving
Again
7500x 100(X + 14.5524)
175 x 10
3
= 
(X + 7)(7.5524)
X = 7.02%
KVA . (X) 7500 x (X)
% X = = __ C:..'
10{KV)2 \0 x {3.3)2
7.02 x \0 x 3.3
2
X = = 0.102 ohm
7500
In each share of the bus bar a reactance of 0.1 02 ohm is required to be inserted.
213
E.6.20 The short circuit MVA at the bus bars for a power plant A is 1200 MVA and for
another plant B is 1000 MVA at 33 KV. If these two are to be interconnected by
a tieline with reactance 1.2 ohm. Determine the possible short circuit MVA at
both the plants.
Solution:
Let base MVA = 100
base MVA
% X of plant I = short circuit MV A x 100
100
= 1200 x 100 = 8.33%
214 Power System Analysis
100
% X of plan 2 = 1000 x 100 = 10%
% X of interconnecting tie line on base MVA
100x 10
3
= 10x(3.3)2 x 1.2 = 11.019 %
For fault at bus bars for generator A
% X = +
= 5.9657 %
base M V A x 1 00
Short circuit MVA = 
%X
100 x 100
5.96576 = 1676.23
For a fault at the bus bars for plant B
A.r B
8.33%
10%
,* Fa
11.019%
Fig. E.S.20
% X = = 6.59 %
100 x 100
Short circuit MVA = 6.59 = 1517.45
E.6.21 A power plant has three generating units each rated at 7500 KVA with 15%
reactance. The plant is protected by a tiebar system. With reactances rated at
7500 MVA and 6%, determine the fault KVA when a short circuit occurs on one
of the sections of bus bars. If the reactors were not present what would be the
fault KVA.
Short Circuit Analysis 215
Solution:
The equivalent reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.6.21 (a) which reduces to Fig. (b) & (c).
15%
15%
6%
7500
6%
7500 7500 7500
15%
7500
6%
'15%
~
(a)
7500
6%
F ~          '   
15%
F ~               ~
(b) (c)
18%
15%
F ~               ~    
(e)
Fig. E.6.21
15%
16.5%
F
(d)
216 Power System Analysis
15x16.5
The total % X up to fault F = IS + 16.5 = 7.857 %
7500 x 100
The short circuit KVA = 7.857 = 95456.28 KVA = 95.46 MVA
Without reactors the reactance diagram will be as shown.
IS x 7.5
The total % X up to fault F = 15+7.5 = 5 %
Short circuit MVA =
7500x 100
5
= 150,000 KVA
= 150 MVA
Problems
P:6.1 There are two generating stations each which an estimated short circuit KVA of
500,000 KVA and 600,000 KVA. Power is generated at 11 KY. If these two stations
are interconnected through a reactor with a reactance of 0.4 ohm, what will be the
short circuit KVA at each station?
P.6.2 Two generators P and Q each of6000 KVA capacity and reactance 8.5% are connected
to a bus bar at A. A third generator R of capacity 12,000 KVA with 11 % reactance is
connected to another bus bar B. A reactor X of capacity 5000 KVA and 5% reactance
is connected between A and B. Calculate the short circuit KVA supplied by each
generator when a fault occurs (a) at A and (b) at B.
P.6.3 The bus bars in a generating station are divided into three section. Each section is
connected to a tiebar by a similar reactor. Each section is supplied by a 25,000 KVA,
II KV. 50 Hz, three phase generator. Each generator has a short circuit reactance of
18%. When a short circuit occurs between the phases of one of the section
busbars, the voltage on the remaining section falls to 65% of the normal value.
Determine the reactance of each reactor in ohms.
Questions
6.1 Explain thr importance of perunit system.
6.2 What do you understand by shortcircuit KVA ? Explain.
6.3 Explain the construction and operation of protective reactors.
6.4 How are reactors classified? Explain t h ~ merits and demerits of different types of
system protection u s i n ~ reactors.
7 UNBALANCED FAULT ANALYSIS
Three phase systems are accepted as the standard system for generation, transmission and
utilization of the bulk of electric power generated world over. The above holds good even
when some of the transmission lines are replaced by dc links. When the three phase system
becomes unbalanced while in operation, analysis becomes difficult. Dr. c.L. Fortesque proposed
in 1918 at a meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers through a paper titled
"Method of Symmetrical Coordinates applied to the solution of polyphase Networks", a very
useful method for analyzing unbalanced 3phase networks.
Faults of various types such as linetoground, linetoline, threephase short
circuits with different fault impedances etc create unbalances. Breaking down of line conductors
is also another source for unbalances in Power Systems Operation. The symmetrical
Coordinates proposed by Fortesque are known more commonly as symmetrical components
or sequence components.
An unbalanced system ofn phasors can be resolved into n systems of balanced phasors.
These subsystems of balanced phasors are called symmetrical components. With reference to
3phase systems the following balanced set of three components are identified and defined.
(a) Set of three phasors equal in magnitude, displaced from each other by 120
0
in phase
and having the same phase sequence as the original phasors constitute positive
sequence components. They are denoted by the suffix I.
218 Power System Analysis
(b) Set of three phasors equal in magnitude, displaced from each other by 120
0
in phase,
and having a phase sequence opposite to that of the original phasors constitute the
negative sequence components. They are denoted by the suffix 2.
(c) Set of three phasors equal in magnitude and alI in phase (with no mutual phase
displacement) constitute zero sequence components. They are denoted by the suffix
o. Denoting the phases as R, Y and B V R' V Y and VB are the unbalanced phase
voltages. These voltages are expressed in terms of the sequence V Ri'
V yl' VBI' V R2' V Y2' V B2 and V RO' V YO' V BO as folIows :
VR=VRI+VR2+VRO ..... (7.1)
V
Y1
Vy=VYI + V
y2
+V;O
VB = V B I + V B2 + V 80
Positive Sequence Components
..... (7.2)
..... (7.3)
Negative Sequence Components
Zero Sequence Components
Fig. 7.1
7.1 The Operator "a"
In view of the phase displacement of 120°, an operator "a" is used to indicate the phase
displacement, just as j operator is used to denote 90
0
phase displacement.
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
a = I.L120o = 0.5 + jO.866
a 2 = IL240 0 = 0.5  jO.866
a
3
=IL360
o
=l+jO
so that I + a + a
2
= 0 + jO
The operator is represented graphically as follows:
a
I, a' ..... ::*;:..... 1. a
3
Note that
Fig. 7.2
2"
J
a = lL120
0
= I.e 3
4"
J
a 2 = lL240 ° = I.e 3
6"
1
a
3
= lL360
0
= I.e 3 = l.e.l
21t
a
7.2 Symmetrical Components of Unsymmetrical Phases
219
With the introduction of the operator "a" it is possible to redefine the relationship between
unbalanced phasors of voltages and currents in terms of the symmetrical components or
sequence components as they are known otherwise. We can write the sequence phasors with
the operator as foilows.
V
R1
= V
R1
V
R2
= V
R2
V
Ro
= V
Ro
2
V
Y1
= a V
R1
V
Y2
= aV
R2
V
yo
= V
RO
..... (7.4)
220 Power System Analysis
The voltage and current phasors for a 3phase unbalanced system are then
represented by
Y
R
= Y
R1
+ Y
R2
+ Y
RO
}
Yy =a
2
Y
R1
+aY
R2
+ Y
RO
Y
B
= aY
R1
+ a
2
YR2 + Y
RO
..... (7.5)
IR = IRI +IR2 +IRO }
Iy = a 2IRI + aIR2 + I
RO
IB = aIRl + a 2IR2 + I
RO
..... (7.6)
The above equations can be put in matrix form considering zero sequence relation as the
first for convenience.
[V' [1
I HV" 1
Yy = 1 a
2
a Y
R1
Y
B
I a a
2
Y
R2
..... (7.7)
[lJ[:
IE"]
and
a
2
a IRI
a a 2 IR2
..... (7.8)
Eqs. (7.7) and (7.8) relate the sequence components to the phase components through
the transformation matrix.
. .... (7.9)
consider the inverse of the transformation matrix C
..... (7.10)
Then the sequence components can be obtained from the phase values as
..... (7.11 )
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 221
and ..... (7.12)
7.3 Power in Sequence Components
The total complex power flowing into a three  phase circuit through the lines R, Y, B is
s = P + jQ = VI •
= VRIR'+VyIy'+VzI/
Written in matrix notation
Also
From equation (7.14)
..... (7.13)
..... (7.14)
..... (7.15)
..... (7.16)
..... (7.17)
..... (7.18)
I]ll l]lIRO]'
a
2
I a a
2
IR1 ..... (7.19)
a I a 2 a 'R2
222 Power System Analysis
Note that C
t
C· = 3 U
..... (7.20)
Power in phase components is three times the power in sequence components.
The disadvantage with symmetrical components is that the transformation matrix
C is not power invariant or is not orthogonal or unitary.
7.4 Unitary Transformation for Power Invariance
It is more convenient to define "c" as a unitary matrix so that the transformation becomes
power invariant.
That is power in phase components = Power in sequence components. Defining a
transformation matrix T which is unitary, such that,
)
1
..... (7.21)
a
a
[:
I HV
RO
j
a
2
a V
R1
..... (7.22)
VB .1 a a
2
V
R2
[:
I ] r
RO
j
and a
2
a IRI
..... (7.23)
a
a
2
IR2
so that
r' = [J3] [:
a
..... (7.24)
a
2
[VRO J [J3H
..... (7.25)
VR1 = 3 1
a
V
R2
1 a
2
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 223
and ..... (7.26)
s = P + jQ = V ,* ..... (7 .27)
= l' r::1' ..... (7.29)
a
1
, ..... (7.32)
VB V
R2
I a a
224 Power System Analysis
..... (7.35)
..... (7.36)
Thus with the unitary transformation matrix
.... (7.37)
we obtain power invariant transformation with sequence components.
7.5 Sequence Impedances
Electrical equipment or components offer impedance to flow of current when potential is
applied. The impedance offered to the flow of positive sequence currents is called "positive
sequence impedance ZI' The impedance offered to the flow of negative sequence currents is
called negative sequence impedance Z2' When zero sequence currents flow through components
of power system the impedance offered is called zero sequence impedance ZOo
7.6 Balanced Star Connected Load
Consider the circuit in the Fig. 7.3.
z r
m ~
~ l ,
Fig. 7.3
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 225
A three phase balanced load with self and mutual impedances Zs and Zm drawn currents
la' Ib and Ie as shown. Zn is the impedance in the neutral circuit which is grounded draws and
current in the circuit is In'
The linetoground voltages are given by
Va = Zs Ia + Zm Ib + Zm 'e + Zn 'n }
Vb = Zm Ia + Zs Ib + Zm 'e + Zn 'n
Ve = Zm la + Zm Ib + Zs Ie + Zn 'n
Since, Ia + Ib + 'e = 'n
Eliminating 'n from eqn. (7.38)
[
Va] [Zs +Zn
Vb = Zm + Zn
Vc Zm + Zn Zm + Zn
Put in compact matrix notation
[Vabel = [Zabel [Iabe]
V = [A] V 0.1,2
abc a
and I = [A] ,0,1,2
abe a
Premultiplying eqn. (7.40) by [A]I and using eqns. (7.41) and (7.42)
we obtain,
V
a
O,},2 = [A]I [Zabel [A] I
a
O,I,2
Defining [Z]o,}) = [AI] [Zabel [A]
~ 1[:
lr+
Z
,
Zm +Zn
Zm +z"f
a
2
Zm + Zn Zs + Zil Zm +ZIl I
a
a
2
1 Zm + Zn Zm +Zn Zs + Zn I
~ fez, +
3Z
r 2Z
m
)
0
z , ~ z J
Zs Zm
0
If there is no mutual coupling
rz, + 3Z,
0
~ J
[ZO,},2] = ~ Zs
0
1
a
a
..... (7.38)
..... (7.39)
..... (7.40)
..... (7.41)
..... (7.42)
..... (7.43)
..... (7.44)
;,]
..... (7.45)
..... (7.46)
From the above, it can be concluded that for a balanced load the three sequences are
indepedent, which means that currents of one sequence flowing will produce voltage drops of
the same phase sequence only.
226 Power System Analysis
7.7 Transmission Lines
Transmission lines are static components in a power system. Phase sequence has thus, no
effect on the impedance. The geometry of the lines is fixed whatever may be the phase sequence.
Hence, for transmission lines
ZI = Z2
we can proceed in the same way as for the balanced 3phase load for 3phase transmission
lines also
a
Va
Vb . b
Vc
,'" c
Z,
at
Zm(
b
l
zm( I
c
t
V I
Tb
la + Ib + Ie
~
0 0
Fig. 7.4
[Vabel = [V
abe
]  [V
abe
,] = [Zabel [Iabe]
[ZO,I,2] = [AI] [Zabel [A]
o
Vi
c
Vi
d
..... (7.47)
..... (7.48)
..... (7.49)
..... (7.50)
..... (7.51)
The zero sequence currents are in phase and flow through the line conductors only if a
return conductor is provided. The zero sequence impedance is different from positive and
negative sequence impedances.
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 227
7.8 Sequence Impedances of Transformer
For analysis, the magnetizing branch is neglected and the transformer is represented by an
equivalent series leakage impedance.
Since, the transformer is a static device, phase sequence has no effect on the winding
reactances.
Hence
where Z, is the leakage impedance
If zero sequence currents flow then
Zo = ZI = Z2 '= Z,
In stardelta or deltastar transformers the positive sequence line voltage on one side
leads the corresponding line voltage on the other side by 30°. It can be proved that the phase
shift for the line voltages to be 30° for negative sequence voltages.
The zero sequence impedance and the equivalent circuit for zero sequence currents
depends upon the neutral point and its ground connection. The circuit connection for some of
the common transformer connection for zero sequence currents are indicated in Fig. 7.5.
a ~ ~ a l
a
roQO'
at
,?(
'n.
.g
a ~ ~ a l
a ~
_al
if
y
•
g
a ~ ~ a l
a ~
__ al
1
if
[>
g
a ~ ~ a l
a 0
I l ~ a l
~ ~
Fig. 7.5 Zero sequence equivalent circuits.
228 Power System Analysis
7.9 Sequence Reactances of Synchronous Machine
The positive sequence reactance of a synchronous machine may be Xd or X
d
' or Xd"
depending upon the condition at which the reactance is calculated with positive sequence
voltages applied.
When negative sequence cements are impressed on the stator winding, the net flux
rotates at twice the synchronous speed relative to the rotor. The negative sequence reactance
is approximately given by
X
2
= Xd" ..... (7.52)
The zero sequence currents, when they flow, are identical and the spatial distribution of
the mmfs is sinusoidal. The resultant air gap flux due to zero sequence currents is zero. Thus,
the zero sequence reactance is approximately, the same as the leakage flux
Xo=X, ..... (7.53)
7.10 Sequence Networks of Synchronous Machines
Consider an unloaded synchronous generator shown in Fig. 7.6 with a neutral to ground
connection through an impedance Zn' Let a fault occur at its terminals which causes currents'
la' Ib and Ic to flow through its phass a, b, and c respectively. The generated phase voltages are
E
a
, Eb and Ec' Current In flows through the neutral impedance Zn'
~ I a
Fig. 7.6
7.10.1 Positive Sequence Network
Since the generator phase windings are identical by design and oonstruction the generated
voltages are perfectly balanced. They are equal in magnitude with a mutual phase shift of 120°.
Hence, the generated voltages are of positive sequence. Under these conditions a positive
sequence current flows in the generator that can be represented as in Fig. 7.7.
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 229
Fig. 7.7
ZI is the positive sequence impedance of the machine and la' is the positive sequence
current in phase a. The positive sequence network can be represented for phase 'a' as shown
in Fig. 7.8.
Ref. bus
~                   ~ a
Fig. 7.8
V
a
\ = Ea  Ia\ . Z,
7.10.2 Negative Sequence Network
..... (7.54 )
Synchronous generator does not produce any nagative sequence voltages. If negative sequences
currents flow through the stator windings then the mmf produced will rotate at synchronous
speed but in a direction opposite to the rotation of the machine rotor. This causes the negative
sequence mmf to move past the direct and quadrature axes alternately. Then, the negative
sequence mmf sets up a varying armature reaction effect. Hence, the negative sequence reactance
is taken as the average of direct axis and quadrature axis subtransient reactances.
X
2
= (Xd" + X
q
")/2 ..... (7.55)
The negative sequence current paths and the negative sequene network are shown in
Fig. 7.9.
230 Power System Analysis
Reference bus
Z2
Iv.,
1'1
c
+
~ I a 2
(a) (b)
Fig. 7.9
..... (7.56)
7.10.3 Zero Sequence Network
Zero sequence currents flowing in the stator windings produce mmfs which are in time phase.
Sinusoidal space mmf produced by each of the three stator windings at any instant at a point
on the axis of the stator would be zero, when the rotor is not present. However, in the actual
machine leakage flux will contribute to zero sequence impedance. Consider the circuit in
Fig. 7.10 (a).
Fig. 7.10 (a)
Since laO = lbo = leO
The current flowing through Zn is 3 laO.
The zero sequence voltage drop
VaO = 3 laO Zn  laO ZgO
Zgo = zero sequence impedance per phase of the generator
Hence, Zo
1
= 3Z
n
+ Zgo
so that VaO = laO Zo
1
..... (7.57)
..... (7.58)
..... (7.59)
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 231
The zero sequence network is shown in Fig. 7.10 (b).
Reference bus
~                    o a
Fig. 7.10 (b)
rhus, it is possible to represent the sequence networks for a power system differently
as different sequence currents flow as summarized in Fig. 7.11.
Positive
~ I a l
+
+
Sequence
tVal
Network
~ I a 2
Negative +
Sequence
t
Va
2
Network
Zero
~ I a o
+
Sequence
jVao
Network
Fig. 7.11
7.11 Unsymmetrical Faults
The unsymmetrical faults generally considered are
• Line to ground fault
• Line to line fault
• Line to line to ground fault
Single line to ground fault is the most common type of fault that occurs in practice.
Analysis for system voltages and calculation of fault current under the above conditions of
operation is discussded now.
232 Power System Analysis
7.12 Assumptions for System Representation
I. Power system operates under balanced steady state conditions before the fault occurs.
Therefore, the positive, negative and zero seq. networks are uncoupled before the
occurrence of the fault. When an unsymmetrical fault occurs they get interconnected
at the point of fault.
2. Prefault load current at the point of fault is generally neglected. Positive sequence
voltages of all the three phases are equal tothe prefault voltage V F' Prefault bus
voltage in the positive sequence network is V F'
3. Tranformer winding resistances and shunt admittances are neglected.
4. Transmission line series resistances and shunt admittances are neglected.
5. Synchronous machine armature resistance, saliency and saturation are neglected.
6. All nonrotating impedance loads are neglected.
7. Induction motors are either neglected or represented as synchronous machines.
It is conceptually easier to understand faults at the terminals of an unloaded synchronous
genrator and obtain results. The same can be extended to a power system and results obtained
for faults occurring at any point within the system.
7.13 Unsymmetrical Faults on an Unloaded Generator
Single Line to Ground Fault:
Consider Fig. 7.12. Let a line to ground fault occur on phase a.
b
Fig. 7.12
We can write under the fault condition the following relations.
Va =0
Ib = 0
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
and
It is assumed that there is no fault impedance.
IF = la + Ib + Ie = Ia = 31al
I
Now I =  (l + al + an I )
al 3 abe
1
I =  (I + anI + a I )
a2 3 abe
1
lao = "3 (la + Ib + Ie)
Substitute eqn. (7.61) into eqns. (7.60)
Ib = Ie = 0
233
..... (7.61)
..... (7.62)
..... (7.63)
Hence the three sequence networks carry the same current and hence all can be connected
in series as shown in Fig. 7.13 satisfying the relation.
Fig. 7.13
..... (7.63a)
Since Va = 0
234
Hence,
Ea = Ial ZI + Ia2 Z2 + lao Zo + 3I
al
Zn
Ea = Ial [ZI + Z2 + Zo + 3Z
n
]
. 3.E
a
I = ;",
a (ZI + Z2 + Zo + 3Z
n
)
The line voltages are now calculated.
Va=O
Vb = V + a
2
V + a V
ao al a2
= (IHn Zo) + a
2
(Ea  Ia ZI) + a (Ia Z2)
u 1 2
= a
2
E  I (ZO + a
2
ZI + a Z ~ )
3 al 
Substituting the value of I
al
Since
Ea
V = a
2
E  "
b a (ZI + Z2 + Zo )
V =V +a V +arV
c ao al 32
= (lao Zo) + a (Ea  Ial ZI) + a
r
(l
a2
Z2)
I = I = 1
al a2 ao
Power System Analysis
..... (7.64)
..... (7.65)
..... (7.66)
The phasor diagram for single line to ground fault is shown in Fig. 7.14.
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 235
LJI.,X,
Li
l
.2
X2
Fig. 7.14
7.14 LinetoLine Fault
Consider a line to line fault across phases band c as shown in Fig. 7.15.
rova
~ I a
Fig. 7.15
From the Fig. 7.15 it is clear that
and
1==0 }
la ==1
b c
V ==V
b c
..... (7.67)
236 Power System Analysis
Utilizing these relations
I 1
I =  (I + al + a
2
I ) =  (a
2
 a) I
a1 3 abc 3 b
1 1
I =  (I + a
2
I + a I ) =  (a
2
 a) I
a2 3 abc 3 b
1 1
I =  (I + I + I ) =  (0 + I  I ) = 0
ao 3
a
b c 3 b b
Since
Vb=Vc
a
2
V + a V + V = a V + a
2
V + V
a1 a2 ao a1 a2 ao
(a
2
 a) V = Cal  a) V
81 32
V
a1
=V
a2
The sequence network connection is shown in Fig. 7.16.
Fig. 7.16
From the diagram we obtain
Ea  Ia1 Z1 =  la2 Z2
= 'a Z2
1
Ea = Ia (Z1 + Z2)
1
E
I = . a
a1 Z1 +Z2
..... (7.68)
..... (7.69)
..... (770)
..... (7.71)
..... (7.72)
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
Also,
1 1
V =  (V + a V + a
Z
V ) =  [V + (a + a
Z
) V ]
al 3 abc 3 a b
1 1
V =  (V + aZV + a V) =  [V + (a
Z
+ a) V ]
az3 abc 3 a b
Since 1 + a + a
Z
= 0; a + a
Z
= I
I
Hence V =V =  (V + V)
al az 3 a b
Again
Ia = lal + laZ = lal  lal = 0
I = a
Z
I + al = (a
Z
 a) I
b al az al
(a
z
 a)Ea
ZI +Z2
EaZ2 (a + a
2
) Ea (Z2)
Zl +Z2 Zl + Z2
237
..... (7.73)
..... (7.74)
..... (7.75)
..... (7.76)
..... (7.77)
..... (7.78)
..... (7.79)
238 Power System Analysis
The phasor diagram for a double line fault is shown in Fig. 7.17.
Ea
Fig. 7.17
7.15 Double Line to Ground Fault
Consider line to line fault on phases band c also grounded as shown in Fig. 7.18.
1
=v
3 a
a
00 va
~ I a
b
Fig. 7.18
..... (7.80)
..... (7.81)
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
Further
Hence
But
and
1
V =  (V + a
2
V + a V )
a2 3 abc
1
=V
3 a
In may be noted that
IF = Ib + I = a
2
I + a I + I + a I + a
2
I + a I
c al a2 ao al a2 ao
= (a + a
2
) I (a + a
2
) I + 2 I
aJ a2 ao
=  1  I + 21 =  I  1  1 + 31
al a2 an al a2 ao ao
=  (I + 1 + 1 ) + 3 I = 0 + 3 1 = 31
al a2 an ao ao ao
The sequence network connections are shown in Fig. 7.19.
Fig. 7.19
239
..... (7.82)
..... (7.83)
..... (7.84 )
..... (7.85)
..... (7.86)
Power System Analysis
Similarly  lao Z ~ =  la2 Z2
If
Z2 Ea
Z
2
1 =1 
an a2 Z ~ Z]Z2 + Z2Z0 + ZOZ]
V =V +V +V
a a] a2. aO
= Ea  la] £]  la2 Z2  lao (ZO + 3Z
n
)
= E _ Ea (Z2 +Zo) Z + Ea
Z
O
Z
2 + Ea·
Z
2 (Zo +3Zn )
a ~ Z]Z2 ] ~ Z]Z2 ~ Z]Z2
E. [Z2Z0 + 3Z
2
Z
n
] + alE. [Z]Z2 + Z2Z0 + ZOZ]  Z2Z]  ZoZ]]
~ Z ] Z 2 + aEaZOZ2
Ea [ ZOZ2 + a
2
Z
O
Z
2
+ aZ
O
z
2
+ 3Z
2
Z
n
]
V = ==
b ~ Z ] Z 2
Ea [ ZOZ2 (I + a + a
2
) + 3Z
2
Z
n
] 3.E
a
.Z2Zn
Z]Z2 + Z2
Z
0 + ZOZ4 Z]Z2 + Z2Z0 + ZOZ]
Zn = 0; Vb = 0
..... (7.87)
..... (7.88)
..... (7.89)
..... (7.90)
..... (7.91 )
Unblllllnced Fllult Anlllysis 241
The phasor diagram for this fault is shown in Fig. 7.20.
Ea
Fig. 7.20
7.16 SingleLine to Ground Fault with Fault Impedance
If in (7.13) the fault is not a dead short circuit but has an impedance ZF then the fault in
represented in Fig. 7.21. Egn. (7.63a) willbe modified into
ob
Fig. 7.21
..... (7.92)
242 . Power System Analysis
Substituting Y
a
= 0 and solving for la
3E
a
1 = '':
a Z, + Z2 + Zo + 3 (Zn + Zd
..... (7.93)
7.17 LinetoLine Fault with Fault Impedence
Consider the circuit in Fig. (7.22) when the fault across the phases band c has an impedence
ZF'
~ I a
Fig. 7.22
'a = 0
..... (7.94 )
and 'b =  'e
Y
b
 Y
e
= ZF 'b
..... (7.95)
(Yo +aTY, +aY
2
)(Y
O
+aY, +a
2
y
2
)
= ZF (10 + aTJI, + aJ
2
) ..... (7.96)
Substituting eqn. (7.95) and (7.96) in eqn.
(a
2
 a) Y I  (a
2
 a) Y 2 = ZF (a
2
 a) I I
i.e., ..... (7.97)
The sequence nehosh connection in this case will be as shown in Fig. (7.23).
,ZF
Fig. 7.23
Unbalanced Fllult Analysis
7.18 Double LinetoGround Fault with Fault Impedence
This can is Illustrated in Fig. 7.24.
Fig. 7.24
The representative equations are
la = 0
But,
and also,
So that
or
Vb = Ve
Vb = (Ib + Ie) (ZF + Zn)
10 + [I + [2 = 0
V 0 + a V I + a
2
V 2 = Va + a ~ V I + a V 1
(a
2
 a)V
I
= ( a ~  a) V ~
VI = V
2
243
..... (7.98)
..... (7.99)
Further,
Since
(V 0 + a" V I + a V ~ ) = (10 + a
2
I I + a l ~ + 10 + aJ I + a
2
1
2
) ZF + Zn)
a
2
,1 a =[
(V? VI) = (Zn + ZF) [210  II  [2)\
But since [0 =  II  [2
Vo  VI = (Zn + ZF) (
21
0 + 1
0
) = 3(ZF + Zn)'[O
..... (7.100)
Hence, the fault conditioris are given by
10 + II + 12 = 0
VI =V
2
and
Vo  VI = 3(ZF + Zn)' [0
Ea
= and so on as in case (7.15)
Z6 Z,
Z, + 1 =
Zo + Z2
..... (7.101 )
244 Power System Analysis
where
The sequence network connections are shown in Fig. 7.25.
V
2
10
Fig. 7.25
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 245
Worked Examples
E.7.1 Calculate the sequence components of the followinmg balanced linetonetwork
voltages.
r
Van] [220 ~ j
V = Vbn = 220 /120
0
KV
Ven 220 /+ 120
0
Solution:
I
= "3 [ 2 0 0 ~ + 200/120
0
+ 220 /+ 120
0
]
=0
1
VI ="3 [Van+aVbn+a2Ven]
1
= "3 [220 &:. + 220 11200 + 120
0
) + 120 /(120
0
+ 240
0
)]
= 220lsEKV
1 ~ 2
V =  [V + aV + a V ]
2 3 an bn en
I
= "3 [220 ~ + 220/120
0
+ 240
0
+ 220 /120
0
+ 120
0
I
= "3 [220 + 220 120
0
+ 220 240
0
]
=0
Note: Balanced three phase voltages do not contain negative sequence components.
E.7.2 Prone that neutral current can flow only if zerosequence currents are
present
Solution:
la = lal + la2 + laO
Ib = a21al + ala2 + lao
Ie = alai + a21a2 + laO
If zerosequence currents are not present
then laO = 0
246 Power System Analysis
In that case
I + Ib + I = I + I + a
2
1 + aI + al I + a
2
1
a c al a2 al a2 a a2
= (I + al + a
2
1 ) + (J + a
2
1 + al )
a I a I a I a2 a2 a2
=0+0=0
The neutral cement In = IR = Iy + Is = O. Hence, neutral cements will flow only in case
of zero sequence components of currents exist in the network.
E.7.3 Given the negative sequence cements
1= [::1 = !iir l
Ie l100 /120
0
J
Obtain their sequence components
Solution'
I
= '3 [100 lJE + 100/120
0
+ 100 /120
0
= 0 A
1
I =  [I + aI + arl ]
I 3 abc
I
= '3 + 100/120
0
+ 120
0
+ 100 /120
0
+ 240
0
]
I
=  + 100/240
0
+ 100/120
0
]
3 >
=0 A
1 ,
1= [I +aI +aI]
2 3 abc
1
= '3 [100 + 100/120
0
+ 240
0
+ 100/120
0
+ 240
0
]
I
= '3 [IOO&:,. + + 100/.Q:J
= 100A
Note: Balanced currents of any sequence, positive or negative do not contain currents
of the other sequences.
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
E.7.4 Find the symmetrical components for the given three phase currents.
la= 1 0 ~
Solution
Ib = 101 90°
Ie = 15/135°
1
1 ][10 l!t.j
a
2
10 /_90°
a 10 /135
0
10="3 [100°+ 1090°+ 15135°]
I
= "3 [10 (l + jO.O) + 10 (0  j 1.0) + 15 ( 0.707 + j 0.707)
1
= "3 [10  jlO  10.605 + j 10.605]
I I
= "3 [ 0.605 + j 0.605] = "3 [0.8555]/135
0
= 0.285/135
0
A
1
'I ="3 [ I O ~ + 10/90
0
+ 120°+ 15/135
0
+240
0
]
1
= "3 [10 (I + jO.O) + 10130
0
+ 15/15
0
1
= 3 [10 + 10 (0.866 + j 0.5) + 15 (0.9659 + jO.2588]
1 I
== 3[33.1485 + j 8.849] == 3 [34.309298]/15
0
= 11.436/15
0
A
I
1
2
= 3 [ I ~ + 10/240°90
0
+ 15/135
0
+ 120°]
1
= 3 [10 (l + jO) + 10 (0.866 + jO.5) + 15 ( 0.2588  j 0.9659)
1
= 3 [2.542  j 9.4808]
= 3.2744/105
0
A
247
248 Power System Analysis
E.7.S In a fault study problem the following currents are measured
IR = 0
Iy = 10 A
IB =  10 A
Find the symmetrical components
Solution
1
IR =  [1 + a I + a
2
I ]
I 3 R y B
I 10
="3 [0a(l0)+a
2
(10)]= Jj A
1
IR2 = "3 [IR + a
2
Zy + a J
B
]
1 10
= "3 (a
2
.10 + a (10) =  Jj
1
IRo = "3 (lR + ~ + I
B
)
1
=  (1010)=0
3
E.7.6 Draw the zero sequence network for the system shown in Fig. (E.7.6).
Solution
~ h e zero sequence 'network is shown Fig. (E.7.6)
Zero sequence network for the given system
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 249
E.7.7 Draw the sequence networks for the system shown in Fig. (E. 7.7).
T . ~
LI
L2HfHM
if
XLI
X
T1
X
L2
X X M
Y
T2
L / ~
if/L
Fig. E. 7.7
XLI
Refcrcncc
Positive sequence network
Negative sequence network
X
Mo
Zero sequence network
250 Power System Analysis
E.7.8 Consider the system shown in Fig. E. 7.8. Phjlse b is open due to conductor
break. Calculate the sequence currents and the neutral current.
Ia = 100i1EA
Ib = 100/120
0
A
IOOIit
<0
Solution
I = [;: 1 = [1 lJr..1 A
Ie 100 [120°
J
'0 = "3 [JOOLQ:+ 0 + 100/120°]
1
= "3 [100 (l + jO) + 0 + 100 ( 0 . .5 + j 0.866)
100
= 3 [0.5 + j 0.866]  33.31§Q° A
1
'1 = "3 + 0 + 100/1200 + 240
0
]
1 200
= "3 = 3 = 66.66 A
1
12 = "3 + 0 + 100/120
0
+ 120
0
]
I
="3 [100 [I + jO  0.5  j 0.866]
100
= 3 [ 0.5  j 0.866] =
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
Nuetral current In = 10 + II + 12
= 100&: + 0 +100/120
0
= 100 [I + jO  0.5 + jO.866]
= 1001Q.Q° A
Also, In = 3 10 = 3 (33.33 (60
0
) = IOOIQ.Q° A
251
E.7.9 Calculate the subtransient fault current in each phase for a dead short circuit
on one phase to ground at bus 'q' for the system shown in Fig. E.7.9.
E=I!Jf +1 ..... Q
@> xl=xc=jO.ll cg
X2 = JO.17
Xo = jO.06
Xo = jO.33
p/6
XI =x2 = jO.IO xI =x2 =xo =10.10
All the reactances are given in p.u on the generator base.
Solution:
(a) Positive sequence network.
= jO.2
X2 = )0.22
Xo = )0.15
Yl
J 0.17
j 0.22
(b) Negative sequence network.
p q
J 0.1
j 0.33 j 0.1
j 0.06
j 0.15
(c) zero sequence network.
252 Power System Analysis
The three sequence networks are shown in Fig. (a,b and c). For a linetoground fault
an phase a, the sequence networks are connected as in Fig. E. 7.9 (d) at bus 'q'.
j 0.14029
lilt
Negative sequence
E.7.9 (d)
The equivalent positive sequence network reactance Xp is given form Fig. (a)
1 1 1
=+
Xp 0.47 0.2
Xp = 0.14029
The equivalent negative sequence reactance Xn is given from Fig. (b)
1 1 1
x:: = 0.48 + 0.22 or Xn = 0.01508
The zerosequence network impedence is j 0.15 the connection of the three sequence
networks is shown in Fig. E. 7.9(d).
10 = II = 12 = jO.14029+ jO.150857 + jO.15
JlsL .
j0.44147 =  J2.2668 p. u
E.7.10 In the system given in example (E.7.9) if a line to line fault occurs calculate the
sequence components of the fault current.
Solution:
The sequence network connection for a linetoIine fault is shown in Fig. (E.7.1O).
Unbalanced Fault Analysis 253
j 0.14029
1/sL
j 0.150857
From the figure
II!L:. ~
I = I = + ===
J 2 jO.1409+ jO.150857 jO.291147
=  j 3.43469 p.u
E.7.11 If the linetoline fault in example E.7.9 takes place involving ground with no
fault impedance determine the sequence componenets of the fault current and
the neutral fault current.
Solution
The sequence network connection is shown in Fig.
jO.14029
jO.15085
1 ~
I J = jO.14029+=H=o:.1:50=8=57:):(j=0.=15:)
jO.150857 + jO.15
112: 1 ~
j 0.15
jO.14029+ jO.0752134 jO.2155034
=  j 4.64 p.u
12 =  j(4.64) (. jO.15 ) =  j2.31339 p.u
J0.300857
I =  '(4.64) (jO.150857) =  . 2.326608 .u
o J j 0.300857 J P
The neutral fault current = 3 jo = 3( j2.326608) =  j6.9798 p.u
254 Power System Analysis
E.7.12 A dead earth fault occurs on one conductor of a 3phase cable supplied by a
5000 KVA, threephase generator with earthed neutral. The sequence impedences
of the altemator are given by
Z1 = (0.4 + j4) n; Z2 = (0.3 + jO.6) nand
Zo = (0 + j 0.45) n per phase
The sequence impedance of the line up to the point offault are (0.2 + jO.3) n, (0.2 +
j 0.3)W, (0.2 + j 0.3) nand (3 + j 1) n. Find the fault current and the sequence
components of the fault current. Aslo find the linetoearth voltages on the infaulted
lines. The generator line voltage is 6.6 KY.
Solution
Total positive sequence impedance is Z1 = (0.4 + j 4) + (0.2 + j 0.3) = (0.6 + j 4.3) n.
Total negative sequence impedence to fault is Zo = (0.3 + j 0.6) + (0.2 + .iO.3)
= (0.5 + jO.9) n
Total zerosequecne ill'pedence to fault is ZO = (0 + j 0.45) + ( 3 + j 1.0 ) = (3 t
j 1.45) n Z1 + Z2 + Z3 = (0.6 + j 4.3) + (0.5 + j 0.9) + (3.0 + j 1.45)
= (4.1 + j 6.65) n
6.6x 1000
la1 = laO = Ia2 = .J3
= 487.77 58°.344 A
= (255.98  j 415.198) A
Ia = 3 x 487.77 1580.344
= 1463.31 A [58°.344
381O.62A
.
(4.1 + j6.65) :Z.8.1233
E.7:13 A 20 MVA, 6.6 KV star connected generator has positive, negative and zero
sequence reactances of 30%, 25% and 7% respectively. A reactor with 5%
reactance based on the rating of the generator is placed in the neutral to groud
connection. A linetoline fault occurs at the terminals of the generator when it
is operating at rated voltage. Find the initial symmetrical linetoground r.m.s
fault current. Find also the linetoline voltage.
Solution
Z1 = j 0.3; Z2 = j 0.25
Zo = j 0.07 + 3 x j 0.05 = j 0.22
I/sr. 1 .
Ia1 = Ta1 = j(O.3) + j(0.25) = jO.55 = J1.818 p.u
20x 1000
=  j 1.818 x r;; =  j 3180 Amperes
",3 x 6.6
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
lao = 0 as there is no ground path
Va = Ea  la, Z, l
a2
Z2
1 =  j 1.818 (j 0.0.3 jO.25)
= 0.9091 x 3180 = 2890.9 V
Vb = a
2
E  (a
2
la, Z, + ala2 Z2)
= (0.5  j 0.866).1 + j,.fj (j 1.818) G 0.3)
= ( jO.866  0.5 + j 0.94463)
== ( 0.5 + j 0.0786328) x 3180
== ( 1590 + j 250) == 1921.63
V c == Vb == 192 I .63 V
255
E.7.14 A balanced three phase load with an impedence of (6j8) ohm per phase, connected
in star is having in parallel a delta connected capacitor bank with each phase
reactance of27 ohm. The star point is connected to ground through an impedence
of 0 + jS ohm. Calculate the sequence impedence of the load.
Solution
The load is shown in Fig. (E.7.14).
fl 1\ b
256
Converting the delta connected capacitor tank into star
CA/phase  27 ohnm
1
Cy/phase = 3" 27 = a ohm
Power System Analysis
The positive sequence network is shown in Fig. E. 7.14(a)
60
+ J80
The negative sequence network is also the same as the positive sequence network
Z
ZI' Z2 = Zstar II 3" delta
(6+j8Xj9) = 72j54
6+j8j9 6jl
= 14.7977 /27
0
.41 ohm
The zero sequence network is shown in Fig.
60
9 0 ~
6.082/9°.46
27
Jxn
T j,=j9"
~ J + jS"
0
r
Zo = Zstar + 3 2n = 6 + j8 I 3U5)
= (6 + j 23) ohm = 23.77 80°.53
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
Problems
P 7.1 Determine the symmetrical components for the three phase currents
IR = 15 LO
o
, Iy = 15/230° and 18 = 15/130
0
A
257
P 7.2 The voltages at the terminals of a balanced load consisting of three 12 ohm
resistors connected in star are
V
RY
= 120 LO
o
V
V
YB
= 96.96 L121.44° V
V
BR
= 108 L1300 V
Assuming that there is no connection to the neutral of the load determine the
symmetrical components of the line currents and also from them the line currents.
P 7.3 A 50 Hz turbo generator is rated at 500 MVA 25 KV. It is star connected and
solidly grounded. It is operating at rated voltaage and is on noload. It!; reactances
are xd" = xl = x
2
= 0.17 and X
o
= 0.06 per unit. Find the subtransient line current
for a single line 'to ground fault when it is disconnected from the system.
P 7.4 Find the subtransient line current for a linetoline fault on two phases for the
generator in problem (7.3)
P 7.5 A 125 MVA, 22 KV turbo generator having xd" = Xl = x
2
= 22% and X
o
= 6% has
a current limiting reactor of 0.16 ohm in the neutral, while it is operating on no
load at rated voltage a double lineto ground fault occurs on two phases. Find the
initial symmetrical r.m.s fault current to the ground.
Questions
7.1 What are symmetrical components? Explain.
7.2 What is the utility of symmetrical components.
7.3 Derive an expression for power in a 3phase circuit in terms of symmetrical
components.
7.4 What are sequence impedances? Obtain expression for sequence impedances in a
balanced static 3phase circuit.
7.5 What is the influence of transformer connections in singlephase transformers
connected for 3phase operation.
7.6 Explain the sequence networks for an synchronous generator.
7.7 Derive an expression for the fault current for a single lineto ground fault as an
unloaded generator.
7.8 Derive an expression for the fault current for a doubleline fault as an unioaded
generator.
258 Power System Analysis
7.9 Derive an expression for the fault current for a doublelineto ground fault as an
unloaded generator.
7.10 Draw the sequence network connections for singlelineto ground fault, double line
fault and double line to ground fault conditions.
7.11 Draw the phasor diagrams for
(i) Singlelineto ground fault
(ii) Doubleline fault and
(iii) Doubleline to ground fault
Conditions as on unloaded generator.
7.12 Explain the effect of prefault currents.
7.13 What is the effect of fault impedance? Explain.
8 POWER SYSTEM STABILITY
8.1 Elementary Concepts
Maintaining synchronism between the various elements of a power system has become an
important task in power system operation as systems expanded with increasing inter connection
of generating stations and load centres. The electromechanical dynamic behaviour of the prime
movergeneratorexcitation systems, various types of motors and other types of loads with
widely varying dynamic characteristics can be analyzed through some what oversimplified
methods for understanding the processes involved. There are three modes of behaviour generally
identified for the power system under dynamic condition. They are
(a) Steady state stability
(b) Transient stability
(c) Dynamic stability
Stability is the ability of a dynamic system to remain in the same operating state even
after a disturbance that occurs in the system.
Stability when used with reference to a power system is that attribute of the system or
part of the system, which enables it to develop restoring forces between the elements thereof,
equal to or greater than the disturbing force so as to restore a state of equilibrium between the
elements.
260 Power System Analysis
A power system is said to be steady state stable for a specific steady state operating
condition, if it returns to the same state operating condition following a disturbance.
Such disturbances are generally small in nature.
A stability limit is the maximum power flow possible through some particular point in
the system, when the entire system or part of the system to which the stability limit refers is
operating with stability.
Larger disturbances may change the operating state significantly, but still into an acceptable
steady state. Such a state is called a transient state.
The third aspect of stability viz. Dynamic stability is generally associated with excitation
system response and supplementary control signals involving excitation system. This will be
dealt with later.
Instability refers to a conditions involving loss of 'synchronism' which in also the same
as 'falling out o'fthe step' with respect to the rest of the system.
8.2 Illustration of Steady State Stability Concept
Consider the synchronous generatormotor system shown in Fig. 8.1. The generator and
motor have reactances Xg and Xm respectively. They connected through a line of reactance
Xe' The various voltages are indicated.
Xe
Fig. 8.1
From the Fig. 8.1
E=E +J·xJ·
g m '
Eg Em
1= .x where X = X + X + X
J gem
Power del ivered to motor by the generator is
P = Re [E J*]
Power System Stability 261
E 2 Eg Em
= g Cos 90°  Cos (90 + 0)
X X
..... (8.1 )
P is a maximum when 0 = 90°
Eg Em
P = =
max X
..... (8.2)
The graph of P versus 0 is called power angle curve and is shown in Fig. 8.2. The
system will be stable so long dP is positive. Theoretically, if the load power is increased in
do
very small increments from 0 = 0 to 0 = rr./2, the system will be stable. At 8 = rr./2. The steady
state stability limit will be reached.,p max is dependent on E
g
, Em and X. Thus, we obtain the
following possibilities for increasing the value of Pmax indicated in the next section.
Fig. 8.2
8.3 Methods for Improcessing Steady State Stability Limit
1. Use of higher excitation voltages, thereby increasing the value of Eg.
2. Reducing the reactance between the generator and the motor. The reactance X = Xg
+ Xm + Xe is called the transfer reactance between the two machines and this has to
be brought do\\n to the possible extent.
262 Power System Analysis
8.4 Synchronizing Power Coefficient
Eg Em
P = Sin 0
X
We have
The quantity
is called Synchronizing power coefficient or stiffness.
For stable operation dP, the synchronizing coefficient must be positive.
do
8.5 Transient Stability
..... (8.3)
Steady state stability studies often involve a single machine or the equivalent to a few machines
connected to an infinite bus. Undergoing small disturbances. The study includes the behaviour
of the machine under small incremental changes in operating conditions about an operating
point on small variation in parameters.
When the disturbances are relatively larger or faults occur on the system, the system
enters transient state. Transient stability of the system involves nonlinear models. Transient
internal voltage E; and transient reactances X ~ are used in calculations.
The first swing of the machine (or machines) that occur in a shorter time generally does
not include the effect off excitation system and loadfrequency control system. The first
swing transient stability is a simple study involving a time space not exceeding one second.
If the machine remains stable in the first second, it is presumed that it is transient stable for
that disturbances. However, where disturbances are larger and require study over a longer
period beyond one second, multiswong studies are performed taking into effect the excitation
and turbinegenerator controls. The inclusion of any control system or supplementary control
depends upon the nature of the disturbances and the objective of the study.
8.6 Stability of a Single Machine Connected to Infinite Bus
Consider a synchronous motor connected to an infinite bus. Initially the motor is supplying a
mechanical load P rno while operating at a power angle 0
0
, The speed is the synchronous speed
())s' Neglecting losses power in put is equal to the mechanical load supplied. If the load on the
motor is suddenly increased to PmI' this sudden load demand will be met by the motor by
giving up its stored kinetic energy and the motor, therefore, slows down. The torque angle 0
increases from 0
0
to 0
1
when the electrical power supplied equals the mechanical power
demand at b as shown in Fig. 8.3. Since, the motor is decelerating, the speed, however, is
Power System Stability 263
less than Ns at b. Hence, the torque 'angle ()' increases further to ()2 where the electrical power
P
e
is greater than P
ml
, but N = Ns at point c. At this point c further increase of () is arrested as
P e > P ml and N = Ns. The torque angle starts decreasing till °
1
is reached at b but due to the
fact that till point b is reached P
e
is still greater than Pm!' speed is more than N
s
. Hence, ()
decreases further till point a is reacted where N = Ns but P
ml
> P
e
• The cycle of oscillation
continues. But, due to the damping in the system that includes friction and losses, the rotor is
brought to the new operating point b with speed N = N
s
.
In Fig. 8.3 area 'abd' represents deceleration and area bce acceleration. The motor will
reach the stable operating point b only if the accelerating energy AI represented by bce equals
the decelerating energy A2 represented by area abd.
It
Fig. 8.3 Stability of synchronous motor connected to infinite bus.
8.7 The Swing Equation
The interconnection between electrical and mechanical side of the synchronous machine is
provided by the dynamic equation for the acceleration or deceleration ofthe combinedprime
mover (turbine)  synchronous machine roter. This is usually called swing equation.
The net torque acting on the rotor of a synchronous machine
where
WR
2
T=a.
g
T = algebraic sum of all torques in Kgm.
a = Mechanical angular acceleration
WR2 = Moment of Inertia in kgm
2
..... (8.4 )
264 Power System Analysis
Electrical angle ..... (8.5)
Where 11 m is mechanical angle and P is the number of poles
The frequency
PN
f= 120
Where N is the rpm.
60f P
rpm 2
(
60f)
11e =  11m
rpm
..... (8.6)
..... (8.7)
The electrical angular position d in radians of the rotor with respect to a synchronously
rotating reference axis is be = 11 e  coot ..... (8.8)
Where Wo = rated synchronous speed in rad./sec
And t = time in seconds (Note: 8 + coat = 11 e)
The angular acceleration taking the second derivative of eqn. (8.8) is given by
From eqn. (8.7) differentiating twice
d 2 11 ( 60 f) d 2 11
_e=l _m
dt
2
rpm dt 2
From eqn. (8.4)
T = WR 2 r rpm) d 2 11 e = WR 2 (rpm ') d 2 8
g ,60f dt
2
g 60f dt
2
..... (8.9)
Power System Stability
Let the base torque be defined as
torque in per unit
Kinetic energy K.E.
Where
Defining
I WR
2
2
= 0)0
2 g
') rpm
COo = ... 1(
60
H
kinetic energy at rated speed
baseKYA
_ ~ WR 2 (,",1( rpm)2 ___ _
? g v ~ 60 base K Y A
KE atrated speed
265
..... (8.10)
..... (8.11 )
. .... (8.12)
..... (8.13 )
The torque acting on the rotor of a generator includes the mechanical input torque from
the prime mover, torque due to rotational losses [(i.e. friction, windage and core loss)], electrical
output torque and damping torques due to prime mover generator and power system.
The electrical and mechanical torques acting on the rotor of a motor are of opposite sign
and are a result of the electrical input and mechanical load. We may neglect the damping and
rotational losses, so that the accelerating torque.
T =T T
a In e
Where Te is the airgap electrical torque and Tin the mechanical shaft torque.
266 Power System Analysis
..... (8.14)
(i.e.,)
d 28 = 7tf (T _ T )
dt2 H In e
..... (8.15)
Torque in per unit is equal to power in per unit if speed deviations are neglected. Then
The eqn. (8.15) and (8.16) are called swing equations.
It may be noted, that, since 8 = S  mot
d8 dS
d"t=d"t
mo
Since the rated synchronous speed in rad/sec is 27tf
dS d8
+m
dt  dt ()
we may put the equation in another way.
1
Kinetic Energy = 2" 1m2 joules
..... (8.16)
The moment of inertia I may be expressed in louie  (Sec)2/(rad)2 since m is in rad/sec.
The stored energy of an electrical machine is more usually expressed in mega joules and angles
in degrees. Angular momentum M is thus described by mega joule  sec. per electrical degree
M = l.m
Where m is the synchronous speed of the machine and M is called inertia constant.
In practice m is not synchronous speed while the machine swings and hence M is not strictly
a constant.
The quantity H defined earlier as inertia constant has the units mega Joules.
stored energy in mega joules
H =      ~    . : "    "     
machine rating in mega voltampers(G)
1 2 1
but stored energy = 1m =  MOl
2 2
..... (8.17)
Power System Stability
In electrical degrees (j) = 360f (= 2nD
1 I
GH =  M(360f) =  M2nf = Mnf
2 2
GH
M = nf mega joule  sec/elec degree
H
In the per unit systems M = nf
So that
d
2
0 = nf(p _P)
dt2 H In e
which may be written also as
This is another form of swing equation.
Further
So that
with usual notation.
EV
S
· s;:
p =  lllu
e X
8.8 Equal Area Criterion and Swing Equation
267
..... (8.18)
..... (8.19)
..... (8.20)
..... (8.21 )
. .... (8.22)
..... (8.23)
Equal area criterion is applicable to single machine connected to infinite bus. It is not directly
applicable to multi machine system. However, the criterion helps in understanding the factors
that influence transient stability.
The swing equation connected to infinite bus is given by
H dro
 =p p =p
n f d t
2
mea
..... (8.24)
or ..... (8.25)
268 Power System Analysis
Also ..... (8.26)
Now as t increases to a maximum value 8max where d8 = 0, Multilying eqn (8. I I) on
dt
d8
both sides by 2 dt we obtain
2 d
2
8 db = Pa 2 db
dt
2
dt M dt
Integrating both sides
(
d8)2 = ~ fp d8
dt M a
db = ~ ~ r<' P d8
dt M 1<>0 a
1t
Fig. 8.4 Equal area criterion.
8
0
is the initial rotor angle from where the rotor starts swinging due to the disturbance.
d8
For Stability dt = °
Hence,
Power System Stability 269
i.e.,
The system is stable, if we could locate a point c on the power angle curve such that
areas Al and A2 are equal. Equal area criterion states that whenever, a disturbance occurs, the
acclerating and decelerating energies involved in swinging of the rotor of the synchronous
machine must equal so that a stable operating point (such as b) could be located.
But
i.e.,
But
Hence
A I ~ A2 = 0 means that,
P e = P max sin (5
Pm «51  (50) + Pmax (cos (51  cos (50)
I
P max (cos (51  cos (52) + P ml «52  (51) = 0
p ml [(52  (50] = P max [COS (50  COS (52)
P
ml
COS (50  COS (52 = P [(52  (50]
max
..... (8.27)
The above is a transcendental equation and hence cannot be solved using nonnal algebraic
methods.
8.9 Transient Stability Limit
Now consider that the change in Pm is larger than the change shown in Fig. 8.5. This is
illustrated in Fig. 8.5.
In the case AI> A
2
. That is, we fail to locate an area A2 that is equal to area AI. Then, as
stated the machine will loose its stability since the speed cannot be restored to N
s
.
Between these two cases of stable and unstable operating cases, there must be a limiting
case where A2 is just equal to AI as shown in Fig. 8.6. Any further increase in P ml will cause
270 Power System Analysis
A2 to be less than AI' P ml  P mO in Fig. 8.6 is the maximum load change that the machine can
sustain synchronism and is thus the transient stability limit.
180
Fig. 8.5 Unstable system (A
1
> A
2
) .
MW
a
plf
1t
Fig. 8.6 Transient stability limit.
8.10 Frequency of Oscillations
Consider a small change in the operating angle <>0 due to a transient disturbance by 60.
Corresponding to this we can write
0 = 0° + 60
and
where 6P
e
is the change in power and POe' the initial power at 0°
(P e + 6P e) = P max sin 0° + P max cos 0°) 60
Power System Stability
Also,
Hence,
Pm = P e
O
= P max sin 8°
(P m  Peo + ilP
e
)
= P
max
sin 8°  [P max sin 8°  [P max cos 8°) il8]
= (P max as 8°) il8
P
d is the synchronizing coefficient S.
The swing equation is
2H d
2
8°
___ = P = P _ P 0
00 dt
2
a m e
Again,
Hence,
where So is the synchronizing coefficient at Peo.
Therefore,
271
which is a linear secondorder differential equation. The solution depends upon the sign
of 8°. If 8° is positive, the equation represents simple harmonic motion.
The frequency of the undamped oscillation in
00 =)00 8°
m 2 H ..... (8.28)
The frequency f is given by
f = _I)oo8
0
2n 2 H
..... (8.29)
Transient and fault clearance time consider the electrical power system shown is
Fig. 8.7. If a 3phase fault occurs near the generator bus on the radial line connected to it,
power transmitted over the line to the infinite bus will become zero instantaneously. The
mechanical input power Pm remains constant. Let the fault be cleared at 8 = 0\ . All the
mechanical input energy represented by area abc d = AI' will be utilized in accelerating the
rotor from 8
0
to 8\ . Fault clearance at 8\ angle or point c will shift the operating point from
c to e instantaneously on the P  8 curve. At point f, an area A2 = d e f g is obtained which is
equal to A\ Fig. 8.8 .. The rotor comes back from f and finally settles down at 'a' where
Pm = P e' 8\ is called the clearing angle and the corresponding time t\ is called the critical
clearing time tc for the fault from the inception of it at 80'
272 Power System Analysis
Line
p
Inf. bus
Radial line
Fig. 8.7
8.11 Critical Clearing Time and Critical Clearing Angle
If, in the previous case, the clearing time is increased from tl to tc such that °
1
is 0e as shown
in Fig. 8.9, Where AI is just equal to A
2
, Then, any furter increase in the fault cleaing time tl
P
e
    ~                   ~ ~ o
0
1
Fig. 8.8
beyond t
e
, would not be able to enclosed an area A2 equal to AI' This is shown in Fig. 8.10.
Beyond 0e' A2 starts decreasing. Fault clearance cannot be delayed beyond te' This limiting
fault clearance angle De is caIled critical clearing angle and the corresponding time to clear the
fault is called critical clearing time te'
P
e
e
~           ~   ~ ~ ~ 8
Fig. 8.9
Power System Stability 273
Fig. 8.10
From Fig. 8.9
8
max
= 1t  8
0
Pm = P max sin 00
A
2
= (max(PmaxsinaP
m
) deS
= P max (cos <\  cos 0maJ  Pm (Omax  <\)
AI =A
2
gives
Pm
cos 8 =  [( 1t  ° ) ° ] + cos (1t  8 )
C P max o· 0 0
..... (8.30)
During the period of fault the swing equation is given by
d
r
8 1t f
 =  (P  P ). But since P = 0
d t
r
H me. e
274
During the fault period
dro 1t f
=P
d{ H m
1
dro dt £1tf
Integrating both sides 2 = H Pm dt
dt
do 1tf
= P t
dt H m
and integrating once again
1tf
0=Pt
2
+K
c 2H m
At t = 0; 0 = 0
0
, Hence K = 0
0
Hence
Hence the critical cleaning time tc =
Power System Analysis
... (8.3l )
sec. ..... (8.32)
8.12 Fault on a DoubleCircit Line
Consider a single generator or generating station sup lying power to a load or an infinite ·bus
through a double circuit line as shown in Fig. 8.11.
,
v
Generator
Infinite
bus
Fig.8.11 Doublecircuit line and fault.
EV 1 1 1
The eletrical power transmitted is given by P e = :,  sin 0 where  =  + 
12 Xd + X12 X12 Xl X2
and xd is the transient reactance of the generator. Now, if a fault occurs on line 2 for example,
then the two on either side will open and disconnect the line 2. Since, XI > x
I2
(two lines in parallel), the P  0 curve for one line in operation is given by
EV
Pel = sin 0
Xd + xI
Power System Stability 275
. win be below the P  8 curve P as shwon in Fig. 8.12. The operating point shifts from a to b
on curve P e and the rotor to poin 0 where 8 = 8
1
, Since the rotor speed is not
synchronous, thk rotor decelerates till point d is reched at 8 = 8
2
so that area AI (= area a b c)
is equal to area A2 (= area c d e). The rotor will finally settle down at point c due to damping.
At point c
P = P
m el
Fig. 8.12
8.13 Transient Stability When Power is Transmitted During the Fault
Consider the case where during the fault period some load power is supplied to the load or to
the infinite bus. If the P8 curve during the fault is represented by curve 3 in Fig. 8. 13.
p
I
I
I outpu
:during fault
ClUVe 3
d
Fig. 8.13
276 Power System Analysis
Upon the occurrence of fault, the operating point moves from a to b on the during the
fault curve 3. When the fault is cleared at 0 = 0l' the operating point moves from b to c along
the curve P
e3
and then shifts to point e. If area d e f g e could equal area abc d (A2= AI) then
the system wUl be stable.
If the fault clearance is delayed till 8
1
= Oc as shown in Fig. 8.14 such that area abc d
(AI) is just equal to and e d f (A
2
) then
r8
C
(P
max
sinoPm)do= r,max(pm:x sinoPm) do
ko c
Pel before fault
P.2 after fault
Fig. 8.14 Critical clearing anglepower transmitted during fault.
It is clear from the Fig. 8.14 that 0max = 1t  0
0
= 1t  sin
I
~
P
max2
Integrating
(Pm' 0 + Pmax' COS 0) (: + (p
max
2 COSOPm·O) ,tu=O
Pm (Oc  oJ + P max 3 (cos 0c  cos 0
0
) + Pm (Omax  0c)
+ P max2 (cos 0max  cos 0c) = 0
The angles are all in radians.
..... (8.33)
Power System Stability 277
8.14 Fault Clearance and Reclosure in DoubleCircuit System
Consider a double circuit system as in section 8.12. If a fault occurs on one of the lines while
supplying a power of P mo; as in the previous case then an area A2 = AI will. be located and the
operating characteristic changes from prefault to during the fault. If the faulted line is removed
then power transfer will be again shifted to postfault characteristic where line I only is in
operation. Subsequently, if the fault is cleared and line 2 is reclosed, the operation once again
shifts back to prefault characteristic and normalcy will be restored. For stable operation area
AI (= area abcd) should be equal to areaA
2
(= area defghk). The maximum angle the rotor
swings is 53' For stability °
2
should be lessthan om' The illustration in Fig. 8.15 assumes fault
clearance and instantaness recJosure.
p
Fig. 8.15 Fault clearance and reclosing.
8.15 Solution to Swing Equation StepbyStep Method
Solution to swing equation gives the change in 5 with time. Uninhibited increase in the value of
5 will cause instability. Hence, it is desired to solve the swing equation to see that the value of
5 starts decreasing after an initial period of increase, so that at some later point in time, the
machine reaches the stable state. Gnerally 8, 5, 3 or 2 cycles are the times suggested for circuit
breaker interruption after the fault occurs. A variety of numerical stepbystep methods are
available for solution to swing equation. The plot of 5 versus t in seconds is called the swing
curve. The stepbystep method suggested here is suitable for hand calculation for a single
machine connected to system.
278 Power System Analysis
Since 8 is changing continuously, both the assumption are not true. When ~ t is made
very, small, the calculated values become more accurate.
Let the time intervals be ~ t
Consider, (n  2), (n  I) and nth intervals. The accelerating power Pais computed at the
end of these intervals and plotted at circles in Fig. 8.16 (a).
(a)
Pa(n2)
P
a
(n2)
Pa (n)
P
a
n2 n  l n
Assumed
(b)
Actual
OJ",,  '/,
OJ"n  312
ffi,
(c)
. }
• _ _ _ _ t./5n
}
t./5  1 • ___ ___ __ 0
n2 n  l n
Fig. 8.16 Plotting swing curve.
Note that these are the beginnings for the next intervals viz., (n  I), nand (n + I).
Pais kept constant between the mid points of the intervals.
Likewise, w
r
' the difference betwen wand Ws is kept constant throughout the interval at
the value calculated at the mid point. The angular speed therefore is assumed to change between
(n  3/2) and (n  1/2) ordinates
dO)
we know that ~ O ) = dt' ~ t
Power System Stability 279
Note that these are the beginnings for the next intervals viz., (n  I), nand (n + I).
Pais kept constant between the mid points of the intervals.
Likewise, w
r
' the difference betwen wand Ws is kept constant throughout the interval at
the value calculated at the mid point. The angular ,speed therefore is assumed to change between
(n  3/2) and (n  1/2) ordinates
dro
we know that ilro = dt' ilt
Hence
_ d
2
8 ilt = 180f P ilt
ror(nl)ror(n3/2) dt 2 ' H a(nl)'
..... (8.34)
Again change in 8
d8
il8 = dt . ilt
i.e., ..... (8.35)
for (n  I )th inteJl.Yal
and il8
n
= 8
n
 8
n
_ 1 = ror (n _ 112) • ilt ..... (8.36)
From the two equations (8.16) and (8.15) we obtain
..... (8.37)
Thus, the plot of 8 with time increasing after a transient disturbance has occured or
fault takes place can be plotted as shown in Fig. 8.16 (c).
8.16 Factors Affecting Transient Stability
Transient stability is very much affected by the type of the fault. A three phase dead short
circuit is the most severe fault; the fault severity decreasing with two phase fault and single
lineto ground fault in that order.
If the fault is farther from the generator the severity will be less than in the case of a
fault occurring at the terminals of the generator.
Power transferred during fault also plays a major role. When, part of the power generated
is transferred to the load, the accelerating power is reduced to that extent. This can easily be
understood from the curves of Fig. 8.16.
280 Power System Analysis
Theoretically an increase in the value of inertia constant M reduces the angle through
which the rotor swings farther during a fault. However, this is not a practical proposition
since, increasing M means, increasing the dimensions of the machine, which is uneconomical.
The dimensions of the machine are determined by the output desired from the machine and
stability cannot be the criterion. Also, increasing' M may interfere with speed governing system.
Thus looking at the swing equations
M d 22
0
= P
a
= P _ P = P _ EV Sino
dt m e m X
l2
the possible methods that may improve the transient stability are:
(i) Increase of system voltages, and use of automatic voltage regulators.
(ii) Use of quick response excitation systems
(iii) Compensation for transfer reactance X
I2
so that P
e
increases and Pm  P
e
= PI
reduces.
(iv) Use of high speed circuit breakers which reduce the fault duration time and
hence the acclerating power.
When faults occur, the system voltage drops. Support to the system voltages by automatic
voltage controllers and fast acting excitation systems will improve the power transfer during
the fault and reduce the rotor swing.
Reduction in transfer reactance is possible only when parallel lines are used in place of
single line or by use of bundle conductors. Other theoretical methods such as reducing the
spacing between the conductorsand increasing the size of the conductors dre not practicable
and are uneconomical.
Quick opening of circuit breakers and single pole reclosing is helpful. Since majority of
the faults are faults selective single pole opening and reclosing will ensure transfer
of power during the fault and improve stability.
8.17 Dynamic Stability
Consider a synchronous machine with terminal voltage V
t
• The voltage due to excitation acting
along the quadrature axis is Eq and is the voltage along this axis. The direct axis rotor angle
with respect to a synchronously revolving axis is d. If a load change occurs and the field
current If is not changed then the various quantities mentioned change with the real power
delivered P as shown in Fig. 8.17 (a).
Power System Stability 281
1)
"'I
E'
q
VI
V
t
1)
p
Fig. 8.17 (a)
In case the field current If is changed such that the transient flux linkages along the
qaxis E ~ proportional to the field flux linkages is maintained constant the power transfer
could be increased by 3060% greater than case (a) and the quantities for this case are plotted
in Fig. 8.17 (b).
Eq
:q I       T    E ~
VI
1)
~                 ~ p
Fig. 8.17 (b)
If the field current If is changed alongwith P simultaneously so that V
t
is maintained
constant, then it is possible to increase power delivery by 5080% more than case (a). This is
shown in Fig. 8.17 (c).
Eq
Eq 1 I::::::::::=r E ~
EI
q
V
t
1)
~                 ~ p
Fig. 8.17 (c)
282 Power System
It can be concluded from the above, that excitation control has a great role to play in
power system stability and the speed with which this control is achieved is very important in
this context.
E.V
Note that Pm ax = X
and increase of E matters in increasing P max'
In Russia and other countries, control signals utilizing the derivatives of output current
and terminal voltage deviation have been used for controlling the voltage in addition to propostional
control signals. Such a situation is termed 'forced excitation' or 'forced field control'. Not only
the first derivatives of L'11 and L'1 Yare used, but also higher derivatives have been used for
voltage control on load changes.
There controller have not much control on the first swing stability, but have effect on
the operation subsequent swings.
This way of system control for satisfactory operation under changing load conditions
using excitation control comes under the purview of dynamci stability.
Power System Stabilizer
An voltage, regulator in the forward path of the excitergenerator system will introduce a
damping torque and under heavy load contions'this damping torque may become ndegative.
This is a situation where dynamic in stability may occur and casue concern. It is also observed
that the several time constants in the forward path of excitation control loop introduce large
phase lag at low frequencies just baoe the natural frequency of the excitation system.
To overcome there effects and toi improve the damping, compensating networks are
introduced to produce torque in phase with the speed.
Such a network is called "Power System Stabilizer" (PSS).
8.18 Node Elimination Methods
In all stability studies, buses which are excited by internal voltages of the machines only are
considered. Hence, load buses are eliminated. As an example consider the system shown in
Fig. 8.18.
&J X/l I C\
Infm;to b",
Fig. 8.18
Power System Stability 283
Fig. 8.18 (a)
The transfer reactance between the two buses (I) and (3) is given by
1 1 1
Where
=+
X
/ll2
XII XIZ
If a fault occurs an all the phases on one of the two parallel lines, say, line 2, then the
reactance diagram will become as shown in Fig. 8.18(b).
Fig. 8.18 (b)
Since, no source is connected to bus (2), it can be eliminated. The three reactances
between buses (1), (2), (3) and (g) become a star network, which can be converted into a
delta network using the standard formulas. The network willbe modified into Fig. 8.18 (c).
<D Q)
Fig. 8.18 (c)
284 Power System Analysis
X:3 is the transfer reactance between buses (I) and (3).
Consider the same example with delta network reproduced as in Fig. 8.18 (d).
Q)
t'
Fig. 8.18 (d)
For a three bus system, the nodal equations are
Since no source is connected to bus (2), it can be eliminated.
Le., 12 has to be mode equal to zero
y 21 V 1 + Y 22 V 2 + Y 23 V 3 = 0
Hence V
 Y21 V  Y
23
V
2 Y 1 Y 3
22 22
This value of V 2 can be substituted in the other two equation of ( ) so that V 2 is
eliminated
Power System Stability 185
Worked Examples
E 8. t A 4pole, 50 Hz, 11 KV turbo generator is rated 75 MW and 0.86 power factor
lagging. The machine rotor has a moment of intertia of 9000 Kgm2. Find the
inertia constant in MJ / MVA and M constant or momentum in MJs/elec degree
Solution:
co = 211:f = 100 11: rad/sec
. . 1 2 1 2
Kmetlc energy = 2")eo = 2" x 9000 + (10011:)
= 443.682 x 10
6
J
= 443.682 MH
75
MYA rating of the machine = 0.86 = 87.2093
MJ 443.682
H = MY A = 87.2093 = 8.08755
GH 87.2093 x 5.08755
M = 180f = 180 x 50
= 0.0492979 MJS/O dc
E 8.2 Two generaton rated at 4pole, 50 Hz, 50 Mw 0.85 p.f (lag) with moment of inertia
28,000 kgm
1
.ad lpole, 50Hz, 75 MW 0.82 p.f (lag) with moment of inertia
t 5,000 kg_m
1
are eoaRected by a transmission line. Find the inertia constant of
each machine and tile inertia constant of single equivalent machine connected to
infinite bus. Take 100 MVA base.
Solution:
For machine I
1
K.E = 2" x 28,000 x (10011:)2 = 1380.344 x 10
6
J
50
MVA = 0.85 = 58.8235
1380.344
HI = 58.8235 = 23.46586 MJ!MYA
58.8235 x 23.46586 1380.344
MI =
180 x 50 180x 50
= 0.15337 MJS/degree elect.
For the second machine
286 Power System Analysis
1 1
K.E = "2 x 15,000 "2 x (100 n)2 = 739,470,000 J
= 739.470 MJ
75
MVA = 0.82 = 91.4634
739.470
H2 = 91.4634 = 8.0848
91.4634 x 8.0848
M2 = 180 x 50 = 0.082163 MJS/oEIc
M1M2 0.082163xO.15337
M = '"
Ml+M2 0.082163+0.15337
0.0126
0.235533 = 0.0535 MJS/Elec.degree
GH = 180 x 50 x M = 180 x 50 x 0.0535
= 481.5 MJ
on 100 MVA base, inertia constant.
481.5
H = 100 = 4.815 MJIMVA
E 8.3 A four pole synchronous generator rated no MVA 12.5 KV, 50 HZ has an inertia
constant of 5.5 MJIMVA
(i) Determine the stored energy in the rotor at synchronous speed.
(ii) When the generator is supplying a load of 75 MW,the input is increased by
10 MW. Determine the rotor acceleration, neglecting losses.
(iii) If the rotor acceleration in (ii) is maintained for 8 cycles, find the change in the
torque angle and the rotor speed in rpm at the end of 8 cycles
Solution:
(i) Stored energy = GH = 110 x 5.5 = 605 MJ where G = Machine rating
(ii) P a = The acclerating power = 10 MW
d
2
0 GH d
2
0
10 MW = M dt2 = 180f dt2
Power System Stability 287
=10
180 x 50 dt
2
d
2
8 d
2
8 10
0.0672 dt
2
= 10 or dt2 = 0.0672 = 148.81
a = 148.81 elec degrees/sec
2
(iii) 8 cyles = 0.16 sec.
Change in
8= !..xI48.8Ix(0.16)2
2
Rotor speed at the end of 8 cycles
__ 120f .(1:) x t __ 120 x 50
P u 4 x 1.904768 x 0.16
= 457.144 r.p.m
E 8.4 Power is supplied by a generator to a motor over a transmission line as shown in
Fig. E8.4(a). To the motor bus a capacitor of 0.8 pu reactance per phase is connected
through a switch. Determine the steady state power limit with and without the
capacitor in the circuit.
___ X':':'hn::.::e_=_0_.2.:.P_'U __ Ip.u
x
l1
=O.lp.u l x
l2
=O.lp.u
Xd = 0.8p.u T'=
E = 1.2p.u
Xc = 0.5p.u
Fig. E.8.4 (a)
Steady state power limit without the capacitor
1.2 x 1 1.2
P = ::= = 0.6 pu
ma,1 0.8 + 0.1 + 0.2 + 0.8 + 0.1 2.0
With the capacitor in the circuit, the following circuit is obtained.
0.8 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.8
Fig. E.8.4 (b)
288 Power System Analysis
Simplifying
jl.1 j 0.9
E = 1.2
 j 0.8
Fig. E.S.4 (c)
Converting the star to delta network, the transfer reactance between the two nodes X
12
.
Fig. E.S.4 (d)
(j1.1)(j0.9) + (j0.9)(jO.8) + (jO.8 x jl.1)
X\2 = jO.8
0.99 + 0.72 + 0.88 0.99 + 1.6 jO.61
= =
 jO.8  jO.8 0.8
= jO.7625 p.u
1.2x 1
Steady state power limit = 0.7625 = 1.5738 pu
E 8.5 A generator rated 75 MVA is' delivering 0.8 pu power to a motor through a
transmission line of reactance j 0.2 p.u. The terminal voltage of the generator is
1.0 p.u and that of the motor is also 1.0p.u. Determine the genera,tor e.m.f behind
transient reactance. Find also the maximum power that can be transferred.
Solution:
When the power transferred is 0,8 p.u
1.0 x 1.0 sin a 1
0.8 = (0.1 + 0.2) = 0.3 sin e
 Sin e = 0.8 x 0.3 = 0.24
Power System Stability
j 0.1
__ O_I·2 __ ffi,
J 0.1
Fig. E.8.5
Current supplied to motor
lL13.o8865 lLOo
1=
jO.3
(0.9708 + jO.24) I
jO.3
0.0292 + jO.24
jO.3 = j 0.0973 + 0.8 = 0.8571/Tan
1
0.1216
1 = 0.8571 /6.
0
934
Voltage behind transient reactance
= lLO
o
+ j 1.2 (0.8 + j 0.0973)
= 1 + j 0.96  0.11676
= 0.88324 +.i 0.96
= 1.0496 47°.8
EV 1.0496xl
P
max
= X = 1.2 = 0.8747 p.u
289
E 8.6 Determine the power angle characteristic for the system shown in Fig. E.8.6(a).
The generator is operating at a terminal voltage of 1.05 p.u and the infinite bus is
at 1.0 p.u. voltage. The generator is supplying 0.8 p.u power to the infinite bus.
j 0.4 pu bus
Fig. E.8.6 (a)
Solution:
The reactance diagram is drawn in Fig. E.8.6(b).
290 Power System Analysis
j 0.4 pu
Fig. E.8.6 (b)
jO.4
The transfer reactance between.V
I
and V is = j 0.1 + 2 = j 0.3 p.u
we have
V
t
V . ~ (1.05)(1.0) .
x Sin u == 0.3 Sin 0 = 0.8
Solving for 0, sin 0 = 0.22857 and 0 = 13°.21
The terminal voltage is 1.05/13
0
.21 '
1.022216 + j 0.24
The current supplied by the generator to the infinite bus
1=
1.022216 + jO.24  (1 + jO)
jO.3
(0.022216+ jO.24)
jO.3 • = 0.8  j 0.074
= 1.08977/5.°28482 p.u
The transient internal voltage in the generator
EI = (0.8  j 0.074) j 0.25 + 1.22216 + j 0.24
= j 0.2 + 0.0185 + 1.02216 + j 0.24
= 1 .040 + j 0.44
= 1.1299 /22°.932
The total transfer reactance between E
l
and V
. . jO.4.
= J 0.25 + J 0.1 + 2 = J 0.55 p.u
The power angle characteristic is given by
p = E I V sin 0 == (1.1299).(1.0) sin 0
e X jO.55
P e = 2.05436 sin 0
Power System Stability 291
E 8.7 Consider the system in E 8.1 showin in Fig. E.8.7. A three phase fault occurs at
point P as shown at the mid pOint on line 2. Determine the power angle
characteristic for the system with the fault persisting.
Lme!
Fig. E.8.7
Solution:
The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.8.7(a).
i 0.4
Fig. E.S.7 (a)
Infinite
bus
The admittance diagram is shown in Fig. E.8.7(b).
 j 2.5
(D...J
 j 5.0  j 5.0
Fig. E.8.7 (b)
292 Power System Analysis
The buses are numbered and the bus admittance matrix is obtained.
(2)
CD
 j 1.85271
0.0
j 2.8271
0.0 j 2.85271
 j 7.5 j 2.5
j 2.5  j 10.3571
Node 3 or bus 3 has no connection to any source directly, it can be eliminated.
Yl3
Y
31
Y II (modIfied) = Y II (old)  ~
(2.8527)(2.85271)
=  j 2.8571  (10.3571)
=  2.07137
(2.85271)(2.5)
YI2 (modlfied)=0 (10.3571) =0.6896
_ Y
32
Y
23
Y
22
(modlfied)Y
22
(old)  Y
33
(2.5)(2.5)
=  7.5  (10.3571) =  6.896549
The modified bus admittance matrix between the two sources is
CD
(2)
CD
2.07137 0.06896
(2)
0.6896 6.89655
The transfer admittance between the two sources is 0.6896 and the transfer reactance
= 1.45
1.05 x 1
P
2
= 1.45 sin 8 p.u
or P
e
= 0.7241 sin 8 p.u
Power System Stability 293
E 8.8 For the system considered in E.8.6 if the H constant is given by 6 MJ/MVA obtain
the swing equation
Solution:
H d
2
0
The swing equation is f ) = P  P
e
= P
a
, the acclerating power
7t dt In
If 0 is in electrical radians
ISOx 50 P _
6 a  1500 P
a
E 8.9 In E8.7 jf the 3phase fault i,s cleared on line 2 by operating the circuit breakers
on both sides of the line, determine the post fault power angle characteristic.
Solution: The net transfer reactance between EI and Va with only line 1 operating is
j 0.25 + j 0.1 + j 0.4 = j 0.75 p.u
P =
e
(1.05)(1.0)
jO.75
Sin 0 = 1.4 Sin 0
E8.10 Determine the swing equation for the condition in E 8.9 when 0.8 p.u power is
delivered.
Given
Solution:
1
M = 1500
ISOf lS0x50
==
H 6
1 d
2
0
= 1500
1500 dt2' = O.S  1.4 sin 0 is the swing equation
where 0 in electrical·degrees.
E8.11 Consider example E 8.6 with the swing equation
P
e
= 2.05 sin 0
If the machine is operating at 28° and is subjected to a small transient disturbance,
determine the frequency of oscillation and also its period.
Given H = 5.5 MJIMVA
P e = 2.05 sin 28° = 0.9624167
Solution:
dP
e
do = 2.05 cos 28° = 1.7659
294 Power System Analysis
The angular frequency of oscillation = con
CO = )COS
O
= 21tx50x1.7659
n 2H 2x5.5
= 7.099888 = 8 elec rad/sec.
I 4
f =  x 8 =  = 1.2739 Hz
n 21t 1t
1 1
Period of oscillation = T = fll = 1.2739 = T = 0.785 sec
E8.12 The power angle characteristic for a synchronous generator supplying infinite
bus is given by
P
e
= 1.25 sin 8
The H constant is 5 sec and initially it is delivering a load of 0.5 p.u. Determine the
critical angle.
Solution:
P
mo
0.5
P = I 25 = 0.4 = Sind 8
0
; 80 = 23°.578
max .
Cos 80 = 0.9165
80 in radians = 0.4113
280 = 0.8226
1t  280 = 2.7287
Cos 8
e
= 1.09148  0.9165 = 0.17498
be = 79°.9215
E8.13 Consider the system shown in Fig. E.8.13.
Fig. E.8.13
Power System Stability 295
x ~ = 0.25 p.u
lEI = 1.25 p.u and IVI = 1.0 p.lI ; XI = X
2
= 0.4 p.u
Initially the system is operating stable while delivering a load of 1.25 p.lI. Determine the
stability of the system when one of the lines is switched off due to a fault.
Solution.
When both the lines are working
1.25 x I 1.25
Pe max = 0.25 + 0.2 = 0.45 = 2.778 p.u
When one line is switched off
At point C
pI = 1.25 x I = 1.25 =
emax 0.25 + 0.4 0.65 1.923 p.u
Pea = 2.778 Sin 8
0
= 1.25 p.u
Sin 8
0
= 0.45
8
0
= 26°.7437 = 0.4665 radinas
P ~ = 1.923 Sin 8
1
= 1.25
Sin 8
1
= 0.65
8
1
= 40°.5416
== 0.7072 radian
296 Power· System Analysis
0] 07072
A] = area abc = fO.
25
1.923sino)do
00 04665
0.7072
= 1.25
I + 1.923 Cos 0
0.4665
= 0.300625 + (0.255759) = 0.0450
Maximum area available = area c d f g c = A2 max
Om ax 1t0 7072
A =
2 max
f (P:P,)do= f (1.923Sino1.25)do
0] 07072
139°.46
= 1.923 Cos 0 I
40°.5416
= 0.7599  1.25 x 1.7256
1.25 (2.4328  0.7072)
= 0.7599  2.157 = 1.3971 »A]
The system is stable
[Note: area A] is below P
2
= 1.25 line and
area A2 is above P 2 = 1.25 line; hence the negative sign]
ES.14 Determine the maximum value of the rotor swing in the example ES.13.
Solution:
Maximum value of the rotor swing is given by condition
AI =A
2
AI = 0.044866
02
A2 = f(1.25 + 1.923 Sino}do
oj
= (1.25 O
2
+ 1.25 x 0.7072)  1.923 (Cos O
2
 0.76)
i.e., = + 1.923 Cos O
2
+ 1.25 °
2
= 2.34548  0.0450
i.e., = 1.923 Cos O
2
+ 1.25 °
2
= 2.30048
By trial and error °
2
= 55°.5
Power System Stability 297
E8.15 The M constant for a power system is 3 x 104 S2/elec. degree
The prefault, during the fault and post fault power angle characteristics are given by
P = 2.45 Sin °
el
and
P = 0.8 Sin °
e2
P
e
= 2.00 Sin ° respectively
3
choosing a time interval of 0.05 second obtain the swing curve for a sustained fault on
the system. The prefault power transfer is 0.9 p.u.
SolutIOn:
P = 0.9 = 2.45 Sin °
el °
(
0.9 )
The initial power angle 0
o
= SinI 2.45
= 21.55°
At t = 0_ just before the occurrence of fault.
P max = 2.45
Sin 0
o
= Sin 21 °.55 = 0.3673
P
e
= P max Sin 0
o
= 0.3673 x 2.45 = 0.9
P
a
= 0
At t = 0+, just after the occurrence of fault
P max = 0.8; Sin °
0
= 0.6373 and hence
P
e
= 0.3673 x 0.8 = 0.2938
P
a
, the acclerating power = 0.9  P
e
= 0.9  0.2938 = 0.606
Hence, the average acclerating powr at t = 0ave
0+0.606
2
= 0.303
I
( ~ t ) 2 P _ (0.05 x 0.05) _ _ x _ °
M a  3 X 104  8.33 P
a
 8.33 0.303  2 .524
~ o = 2°.524 and 0° = 21 °.55.
The calculations are tabulated upto t = 0.4 sec.
298 Power S.ystem 1nalysis
Table 8.1
S.No t (sec) P
max
Sin .s P = P =
M .s 
•
a
M
(p.u.)
P max Sin .s
0.9 p. p. = 8.33 x p.
I. 0 2.45 0.3673 0.9 0   2155°
0+
0.8 0.3673 0.2938 0.606
 
21.55°
°ave
0.3673

0.303 2.524 2°.524 24°.075
2. 0.05 0.8 0.4079 0.3263 0.5737 4.7786 7°.3 24°.075
3. 0.10 0.8 0.5207 0.4166 0.4834 4.027 II °.327° 31.3766
4. 0.15 0.8 0.6782 0.5426 0.3574 2.977 14°.304 42°.7036
5. 0.20 0.8 08357 0.6709 0.2290 1.9081 16°.212 570.00
6. 0.25 0.8 0.9574 0.7659 0.1341 1.1170 170.329 73°.2121
7. 0.30 0.8 0.9999 0.7999 0.1000 08330 18°.1623 90.5411
8. 0.35 0.8 0.9472 0.7578 0.1422 1.1847 19°.347 108.70
9 0.40 0.8 0.7875 0.6300 0.2700 2.2500 21°.596 128.047
149°.097
Table of results for E8.1S.
From the table it can be seen that the angle 0 increases continuously indicating instability.
160 E (8.15)
140
\
'"
"
tb
120
'"
Curve I
0
<.0 100
1
80
60
40
•
20
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 • 0.5
Power System Stability 299
ES. t 6 If the fault in the previous example E.S. t 4 is cleared at the end of 2.5 cycles
determine the swing curve and examine the stability of the system.
Solution:
As before
(M2 )
P = 8 33 P
M a . a
2.5 cycles second
Time to clear the fault =
50 cycles
= 0.05 sec.
In this the calculations performed in the previous example E8. 14 hold good for Dave'
However, since the fault in cleared at 0.05 sec., there will two values for P one for
a1
P
e
= 0.8 sin 8 and another for P = 2.00 sin 8.
2 e3
At t = 0.5  Gust before the fault is cleared)
P max = 0.5; Sin 8 = 0.4079, and
P
e
= P max Sind 8 = 0.3263, so that P
a
= 0.9  P
e
= 0.57367
giving as before 8 = 24°.075
But, at t = 0.5+ Gust after the fault is cleared) P max becomes 2.0 p.u at the same 8 and
P
e
= P max Sin 8 = 0.8158. This gives a value for P
a
= 0.9  0.8158 = 0.0842. Then for
t = 0.05 are the average accelerating power at the instant of fault clearance becomes
and
P
a
ave =
0.57367 + 0.0842
2
= 0.8289
( ~ t ) 2
M . P
a
= 8.33 x 0.3289 = 2°.74
A8 = 5.264
8 = 5.264 + 24.075 = 29°.339
These calculated results and further calculated results are tabulated in Table 8.2.
300 Power System Analysis
Table 8.2
S.No t
Pm ••
Sin /) P = P =
(dt)2
d/) /)
• •
M
P
max
Sin /) 0.9  p. p. = 8.33 x p.
I. 0 2.45 0.3673 0.9 0
 
21.55°
O ~ 0.8 03673 0.2938 0.606

 21.55°
°ave
0.3673

0.303 2.524 2.524 24.075
2. 0.05 0.8 0.4079 0.3263 0.5737   

0.05+ 2.0 0.4079 0.858 0.0842   
O.O\ve
0.4079  0.3289 2.740 5.264 29.339
3. 0.10 2.0 0.49 0.98 0.08 0.6664 4.5976 33.9J67
4. 0.15 2.0 0.558 1.1165 0.2165 1.8038 2.7937 36.730
5. 0.20 2.0 0.598 1.1196 0.296 2.4664 0.3273 37.05
6. 0.25 2.0 0.6028 1.2056 0.3056 2.545 2.2182 34°.83
7.
0.39 2.0 0.5711 1.1423 0.2423 2.018 4.2366 30°.5933
Table of results for E8.15.
The fact that the increase of angle 8, started decreasing indicates stability of the system.
ES.17 A synchronous generator represented by a voltage source of 1.1 p.u in series with
a transient reactance of jO.1S p.u and an inertia constant H = 4 sec is connected
to an i n f i n i t ~ bus through a transmission line. The line has a series reactance of
j0.40 p.u while the infinite bus is represented by a voltage source of 1.0 p.u.
The generator is transmitting an active power of 1.0 p.u when a 3phase fault occurs at
its terminals. Determine the critical clearing time and critical clearing angle. Plot the
swing curve for a sustained fault..
Solution:
Power System Stability _
8
e
= COSI [(1t  28
0
}sin 8
0
 COS 8
0
]
= COSI [(ISOo  2 x 30° )Sin 30°  Cos 30° ]
= = COSI [l.S07]
= 79°.59
Critical clearing angle = 79°.59
Critical clearing time =
49.59 x 3.14
8  8 = 79° 59 30° = 49 59° = rad
e 0   ISO
t =
e
= 0.S6507 rad
2 x 4 x 0.S6507
Ix3.14x50
= 0.2099 sec
Calculation for the swing curve
Let
_ (ISOf) 2
[\8
n
8
n
_
l
+ H [\t Pa(nI)
[\t = 0.05 sec
8
n
_
1
=30°
ISOf ISOx50
=
H 4
= 2250
H I
M = ISOf = 2250 = 4.44 x 104
([\t)2 P = (0.05 x 0.05) P = 5.63 P
M a (4,44 x 10
4
) a a
Accelerating power before the occurrence of the fault = P a = 2 Sin 8
0
 1.0 = 0
Accelerating power immediately after the occrrence of the fault
P
a
+ = 2 Sin 8
0
 0 = I p.u
0+1
301
Average acclerating powr = 2 = 0.5 p.u. Change in the angle during 0.05 after
fault occurrence.
302
= 5.63 )( 0.5 = iO.81
8
1
= 30° + 2°.S1 = 32°.S1
The results are plotted in Fig. ES.17.
Power System Analysis
Onemachine system swing curve. Fault cleared at Infs
1400
1200
"1' ....
1000 .... , ............ r············\"" ........ t············:···········
800
600
400
200
....... : ....... ,!' ....... : ...... .
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.4
t, sec
Fig. E.8.17 (a)
Onemachine system swing curve. Fault cleared at Infs
: : :
80 ....... ; ........... \ ......... ..;. .......... \ ............. ( ........ ! ......... ,. .......... : .......... '" ... .
70 ... . ... , ............ i .......... : ........... 1... ......... j ......... + ......... , ......... .i.. ........ ; ......... .
: : . : ; : : :
60 ... : .... ; ......... ; .......... ; ....... (·······t········
1
·········;····· .. ! ........... ; ........ .
50 ..... .
. : ...... ........... .. .
40 ....
0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.2
t, sec
Fig. E.8.17 (b)
The system is unstable.
Power Sy!tem Stability 303
E8.18 In example no. E8.17, if the fault is cleared in 100 msec, obtain the swing curve.
Solution:
The swing curve is obtained using MATLAB and plotted in Fig. E.S.IS.
Onemachine system swing curve. Fault cleared at 0.1 s
70. .' . .
60' ... ; .... , .. : ........... .
: . :
50 .. : .. : ... : :.. ., ...... .
. ':' .• \"
40
30
..... , ..... , :., ........... \ ... ;'.:" .. :'.: .. " .. .
o .
__ __ __ __ __
o 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
t, sec
Fig. E8.18
The system is stable.
Problems
PS.I A 2 pole, 50 Hz, II KV synchronous generator with a rating of 120 Mw and 0.S7
lagging power factor has a moment of inertia of 12,000 kgm
2
. Calculate the constants
HandM.
PS.2 A 4pole synchronous generator supplies over a short line a load of 60 Mw to a load bus.
If the maximum steady stae capacity of the transmission line is 110 Mw, determine the
maximum sudden increase in the load that can be tolerated by the system without loosing
stability.
PS.3 The prefault power angle chracteristic for a generator infinite bus system is given by
P
e
= 1.62 Sin 0
I .
and the initial load supplied is I R.U. During the fault power angle characteristic is given by
.
P
e
= 0.9 Sin 0
2
Determine the critical clearing angle and the clearing time.
PS.4 Consider the system operating at 50 Hz.
G 11118
1 X = 0.25 p.ll 0
xd = 0.25p.u I LO
H=2.3 sec
If a 3phase fault occurs across the generator terminals plot the swing curve.
Plot also the swing curve, if the fault is cleared in 0.05 sec.
304 Power System Analysis
Questions
8.1 Explain the terms
(a) Steady state stability (b) Transient stabiltiy (c) Dynamic stability
8.2 Discuss the various methods of improving steady state stability.
8.3 Discuss the various methods of improving transient stability.
8.4 Explain the term (i) critical clearing angle and (ii) critical clearing time
8.5 Derive an expression for the critical clearing angle for a power system consisting of
a single machine supplying to an infinite bus, for a sudden load increment.
8.6 A double circuit line feeds an infinite bus from a power statio'll. If a fault occurs on
one of the lines and the line is switched off, derive an expression for the critical
clearing angle.
8.7 Explain the equal area critrion.
8.8 What are the various applications of equal area criterion? Explain.
8.9 State and derive the swing equations
8.10 Discuss the method of solution for swing equation.
Ojective Questions
I 0 Base current in amperes is
BaseKVA
(a) .J3 Base KV(line to line)
BaseKVA
(b) BaseKV(lineto line)
BaseKVA
(c) , 
3 Base KV (line to line)
20 Base impedance in ohms is
[Base Voltage in KV (line  to line)]X 1000
(a)
baseKVA
[Base Voltage in KV (line  to line)]2 X 1000
(b)
baseKVA
[Base Voltage in KV (line  to  line) J2 X 3
(c) baseKVA
30 Impedance in ohms is
(poUo impedance) [base KV (line  to line)f
(a)
baseKVA xlOOO
(pouoimpedance)[baseKV (line  to line»)2 x 1000
(b) .J3 base KVA
(poUo impedance) [base KV (line  to line)]2 x I 000
(c)
baseKVA
306 Objective Questions
4. Per unit impedance on new KVA and KV base is
(a) ( p.u.impedanceon ] (giVen KVA base) ( new KV base )2
given KV A and KV base New KV A base given KV base
(b) ( p.u.impedanceon ](giVen KVA base) (giVen KV base)2
given KV A and KV base New KV A base new KV base
(
p.u.impedance on ) ( new KV A base) (giVen KV base)2
(c) given KVA andKV base given KVA base new KV base
5. Which of the following is false?
(a) An element of a graph is called an edge.
(b) Each line segment is called an element.
( c ) Each current source is replaced by a short circuit in a graph.
6. The rank of a graph is
(a) n (b) nI (c) n+I
where n is the number of nodes in the graph.
7. In a graph if there are 4 nodes and 7 elements the number of links is
(a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 5
8. Which of the following statements is true?
(a) n basic cutsets are linearly independent where n is the number of nodes.
(b) The cut set is a minimal set of branches of the graph.
(c) The removal of k branches does not reduce the rank of a graph provided that no
proper subset of this set reduces the rank of the graph by one when it is removed
from the graph.
9. The dimension of the bus incidence matrix is
(a) e x n (b) e x (n I ) (c) e x e
10. If Ab and AI are the sub matrices of bus incidence matrix A containing branches and links
only and k is the branch path incidence matrix then []
(a) A b kt = U (b) kt = Ab (c) AI A
b

I
= kt
Objective Questions
11. Which of the following statements is true?
(a) There is a onetoone correspondence between links and basic cut sets.
(b) A, A
b
' = 8 where 8 is the basic cut set incidence matrix.
(c) 8, = A, kt where 8, is the basic cut set incidence matrix containing links only.
12. Identify the correct relation
(a) Y BUS = [st] [y] [B]
(b) Y'oop = [C
t
] [y] [C]
(c) Y BR = [B]l [y] [B]
13. Identify the current relations
(a) [Al] [y] [A] = Y'oop
(b) [Bl] [y] [8] = ZBR
(c) [Cl] [z] [C] = Z'oop
307
14. With the addition of a branch to a partial network with usual notation, the mutual
impedance is given by [ ]
YabXY (:ZXI  ZYI )
(a) Zbl = Zal +  ~  '      ' .
Yabab
Yabxv (Zal  Zbl )
(b) Zbl = Zal + "''
Yabab
YabXY (ZYI • Zal )
(c) Z bl = Z 81 + "''
Y abab
15. The self impedance Zbb of a branch ab added to an existing partial network is given
by [ ]
1 + YabXY (Zab  ZXY )
(a) Zbb = Zab + =....:.:::...''''
Yabab
1 + YabXY (ZX8  Zxy )
(b) Zbb = Zab + ''
Y abab
308 Objective Questions
16. If in q.no 18 there is no mutual coupling
(a) Zbb = Zab (b) Zbb = Zab + zabab (c) Zbb = zabab
17. If in q. no 18 there is no mutual coupling and if "a" is the reference node
(a) Zbb = zabab (b) Zbb = Zab (c) Zbb = Zab + zabab
18. Modified impedances are computed when the fictitious node introduced for the addition
of a link is eliminated. Then ZjJ (modified) [ ]
Z Z
(a) Z (before elimination) __ II _IJ
'I Zn
Z
(b) Z'I (before elimination)  zi
,I IJ
(ZII  Zlj)
(c) Z'J (before elimination)
19. Identify the correct relation
(a) a
2
=  0.5 + j 0.866
20. Which of the following is correct
(a) VR=VRO+aVRI+a2VR2
(b) a = 1. eJ 47t! 3
(c) 1+a+a
2
=0+jO
(b) The sequence compoenets are related to the phase components through the
translonnation matrix C " l: :' a: j
21. For stationery bi lateral unbalanced network elements
() Z
RY ZYR dZ
RR
ZYY
a ab = ab an ab = ab
(b) Z
RY ZYR dZ
RR
ZYY
ab=ab
an
ab= ab
(
c) ZRY"# ZYY
ab ab
Objective Questions 309
22. For balanced rotating 3phase network elements
(
a) ZRY  ZYR
ab  ab
(
b) ZRY ot= ZYR
ab ab
(c) The admittances are symmetric
23. A balanced three phase element with balanced excitation can be considered as a single
phase element [ ]
(a) true
(b) false
(c) some times it is true
24. For a stationary 3phase network element ab, zero sequence impedance is given
by [ ]
25. For a 3phase stationary network element the positive impedance is given by [
(b) Z ~ )  2 Z ~ ~
26. For a 3phase stationary network element the negative sequence impedance is given
by [ ]
27. The inertia constant H is of the order of
(a) H = 4 (b) H = 8 (c) H = I
28. When a synchronous machine is working with 1.1 p.lI excitation and is connected to an
infinite bus of voltage 1.0 p.u. delivering power at a load angle ono
o
the power delivered
with x d = 0.8 p.u. and x q = 0.6 p.u. [ ]
(a) P = 0.675 (b) P = 0.6875 (c) P = 1.375
Neglect reluctance power
29. Unit inertia constant H is defined as
(a) Ws / Pr (b) Pr / ws (c) Ws Pr / rad
310
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
Objt:;ctive Questions
At a slackbus the quantities specified are
(a) P and Q (b)
P and IVI
(c) IVI and 8 Cd) P and 8
At a load bus the quantities specified are
(a) P and IVI (b) Q and IVI (c) PandQ (d) IVI and 8
At a Generator bus the quantities specified are [
(a) IVI and 8 (b)Q and IVI (c) Pand Q (d) P and IVI
In load flow studies, the state variables are [
(a) P andQ (b) IVI and 8
(c) P and IVI (d) P and 8
Which one of the following is not correct?
n
(a) P  jQ =V' ~ Y V
, ., 'j=J ') J
(b) V, = IV,I (Cos 8, + j Sin 8)
11 N N
(c) Real power loss = ~ P, = ~
P
g
,
 ~
P
d
,
,=1 ,=1 ,=1
(Total generation)  (Total load)
N
(d) Q= ~
IY'I Vi VII COS (8,  8)  8,) ,
.1=1
Which of the following is true?
(a) GaussSeidel method is a direct solution method for power flow
(b) All iterative methods ensure convergence
(c) A generator bus is also called a swing bus
(d) If the reactive generation exceeds the limit then the P, IVI bus will become a P,
Q bus
36. The number of iteration required for an nbus system in GaussSeidel method are
approximately [ ]
(a) n (b) n
2
(c) 3 (d)
n(n + \)
2
37. The number of iteration required for an nbus system in NewtonRaphson method are
approximately [ ]
(a) n (b) n
2
(c) 3 (d)
n(n + 1)
2
Objective Questions 311
38. With usual notation which of the following is true for a decoupled model
(a) L\P = [H] L\8
(c) L\P = [M] L\IVI
(b)
(d)
L\Q = [L] L\8
L\IVI
L\P = [M] IVT
39. The speed of fast decoupled load flow method when compared to NewtonRaphson
method is [ ]
(a) Veru slow
(b) almost the same
(c) double the NR method speed per iteration
(d) Five times the NR method speed per iteration
40. Which of the following is true?
(a)
Bore KVA (%X)
Short circuit KVA = 100
100
(b) I
short
ClfCUI! = I
full
load x (%X)
v
( c ) %Z =  x 100
IZ
41. Which of the following is not true
42.
43.
(a) In a feeder reactor protection, there is no protection for busbar fautls.
(b) In a tiebar system current fed into a fault has to pass through two reactors
in series.
(c) In ring system of reactor connection the voltage drop and power loss are
considerable.
The operator 'a' is given by
(a) EI1200
(b)
C11200
(c)
EI600
( d)
E J600
(a
2
 a) is given by
jJ3 j J3
I
1
(a) (b) (c)
jjj
(d)
 jJ3
44. Phase voltages E
a
, Eb and Ec are related to symmetrical components Yo, V 1 and V 2; then
which of the following is true? [ ]
1
(a) V =(E +aE +a
2
E) (b) VaO=Ea+Eb+Ec
a2 3 abc
(c)
1
V =  (E + a
2
E + aE )
al 3 abc
(d)
312 Objective Questions
45. For the solution of 3phase star connected unbalanced load problem which method is
more suitable [ ]
(a) Symmetrical components (b) Direct analysis
(c) Thevenin's theorem (d) Mil1man's theorem
46. If lSI' Is2 and Iso are star cQnnected network sequence current components and I
dl
, Id2
and Ido are delta connected network sequence currents for the same unbalnced network,
then [ ]
(a)
(c) I = 0
sO
47. In case of stardelta connected transformers
(b)
(d)
Is2 = j .J3 Id2
1
I =  1
sl j.J3 dl
(a) There is only a phase shift of 90° between the sequence components on
either side
(b) There is only a change in the magnitude
(c) There is change both in phase and magnitude
(d) There is no change
48. The positive sequence impedance component of three unequal impedances Za' Zb and ZC
IS [ ]
1
(a) "3 (Za + aZ
b
+ a
2
Z
c
)
1
(b) "3 CZ
a
+ a
2
Zb + a Zc)
(c) (Za + aZ
b
+ a
2
Z
c
) Cd) (Za + a
2
Zb + aZ
e
)
49. For a single linetoground fault, the terminal conditions are
(a) Va = 0; Ib = Ie = 0 (b) Ib = Ie; Vb = Vc
(c)
Vb + Vc
V= '1=1=0
a 2' b e
50. For a double line fault on phase band c
(a)
3E
a
I = =
a ZI + Z2 + Zo
Cd)
Objective Questions 313
51. For an ungrounded neutral, in case of a doubleline to ground fault on phases b
and c [ ]
(i)
Eo
I =
al Z\ +Z\ '
(a) (i) only is correct
(c) (i) and (ii) are both correct
(b) (ii) only is correct
(d) both (i) and (ii) are false
52. A 15MVA, 6.9 KV generator, star connected has positive, negative and zero
sequence reactances of 50%, 50% and 10% respectively. A linetoline fault occurs
at the terminals of the generator operating on noload. What is the positive sequence
component of the fault current in per unit. []
(a)  j p.u (b)  2j p.u. (c)  0.5 j p.u. (d) 0.5 j p.u.
53. What is the negative sequence component of fault current in Q.No. (11)
(a) ( j 0.5  0.866) (b) G 0.5  j 0.866)
(c) +jp.u (d) G 0.5 + 0.866)
54. In Q.No. (52) if the fault is a linetoground fault on phase a then, the positive
sequence component of the fault current in p.u. is '[]
(a) + j 0.9 p.u (b)  j 0.9 p.u. (c) + j \.0 p.u. (d)  j 0.866 p.u.
55. The most common type of fault to occur is []
(a) Symmetrical 3phase fault (b) Single linetoground fault
(c) Double line fault (d) Double linetoground fault
56. The zero sequence network for the transformer connection deltastar with star
point earthed is given by [ ]
   ~   
(a) (b)
0
(c) (d)
314 Objective Questions
57. The negative sequence reactance of a synchronous machine is given by
(a) j ( x ~ ; x ~ 1
(c) j ( x ~ ~ x; 1
(b) j ( x; ; x; 1
(d) j ( x ; ~ x ; l
58. A star connected synchoronous machine with neutral point grounded through a
reactance xn and winding zero sequence reactance Xo experiences a single lineto
ground fault through an impedance xf" The total zero sequence impedance is
[ ]
(a) xo+ xn + x
f
(b) x
O
+3x
n
+x
f
(c) Xo + 3x
n
+ 3x
f
(d) 3 (XO+xn+x
f
)
59. In case of a turbo generator the positvie sequence reactnce
(a) Under subtransient state is more than transient state but less than steady
state synchronous reactnace
(b) Under subtransient state is less than transient state and morethan
synchronous reactance
(c) The transient state reactance is more than subtransient state reactance but
less than synchronous reactance
(d) The transient state reactane is less than subtransient state, but more than
synchronous reactance.
60. A synchronous machine having E = 1.2 p.u is supplying power to an infinite bus
with voltage 1.0 p.u. If the transfer reactace is 0.6 p.u, the steady stae power
limit is
(a) 0.6 p.u (b) 1.0 p.u (c) 2 p.u
61. A synchronous generator is feeding as infinite bus through a transmission line. If
the middle of the line a shunt reactor gets connected, the steadystate stability
limit will [ ]
(a) increase (b) decrease ( c ) remain unaltered
62. A synchronous generator is supplying power to an infinite bus through a
transmission line. If a shunt capacitor is added near the middle of the line, the
steady state stabil ity limit will [ ]
(a) increase (b) decrease ( c ) remain unaltered
Objective Questions 315
63. If the shunt capacitor in q.no. (3) is shifted to the infinite bus, the stability limit
will [ ]
(a) increase (b) decrease ( c ) remain unchanged
64. Which of the following is correct
(a) In steady state stability excitation response is important
(b) In transient stability studies, excitation response is important
(c) Dynamic stability is independent of excitation system response
65. Coefficient of stiffness is defines as
E.V ~
(a) Cosu
X
EV
S
· ~
(b)  mu
X
(c)
EV
X
66. For a step load disturbance, the frequency of oscillations is given by
1 (08
0
(a)f= 
2n .fiH
67. Critical clearing angle for a step load change is
(c) f= _1 ~ ( O 8 0
2n 2H
68. If power is transmitted during the fault period on a doubleline circuit with fault
as one of the lines the critical clearing angle 8
c
is given by [ ]
316 Objective Questions
69. In step by step method of solution to swing equation
(a) = on_I  0n_2 =
(b) = On  On _ 1 = ffir (n _ I) .
(c) = 0n_l 0n2 = ffi
r
(n2)
Objective Questions 317
Answers to Objective Questions
1. (a)
26. (b) 51. (c)
2. (b)
27. (b) 52. (a)
3. (c)
28. (b) 53. (a)
4. (c)
29. (c) 54. (b)
5. (c)
30. (c) 55. (b)
6. (b)
31. (c) 56. (c)
7. (b)
32. (d)
57. (b)
8. (b)
33. (b) 58. (c)
9. (b)
34. (d) 59. (c)
10. (a)
35. (d) 60. (c)
11. (c)
36. (a) 61. (b)
12. (c)
37. (c) 62. (a)
13. (c)
38. (a) 63. (c)
14. (a) 39. (d)
64. (a)
IS. (b)
40. (b) 65. (a)
16. (b)
41. (c) 66. (c)
17. (a)
42. (a) 67. (b)
18. (a)
43. (b) 68. (a)
19. (c)
44. (d) 69. (a)
20. (b)
45. (d)
21. (c)
46. (c)
22. (c)
47. (c)
23. (c)
48. (a)
24. (c)
49. (a)
25. (a)
50. (c)
"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"
INDEX
B
Base current in amperes 177
Base impedence in ohms J 77
Basic cutset incidence matrix 20
Basic cutset 10
Basic Loop incidence matrix 21
Basic loops 9
Branch path incidence matrix 19
Bus bar reactors 188
Bus incidence matrix 18
Cotree 8
Convrgence J 24
c
Critical clearing angle 272
Critical clearing time tc 272
Cut set 9
D
Oecoupled methods 119
Double line to ground fault 238
Dynamic stability 259
Dynamic stability 280
E
Edge 6
Element node incidence matrix 18
Equal area criterion 267
F
Fast decoupled methods 120
Feeder reactors 187
Frequency of oscillations 270
320
G
Gaussseidel iterative method 105
Generator reactors 187
Generator bus I 0 I
Graph 6
J
Jacobian 110
L
Linetoline fault 235
Load bus 101
Load flow 100
N
Negative sequence components
Negative sequence network 229
Newtonraphson method 109
Node 6
Nonsingular 115
0
Optimal ordering 118
Operator "a" 218
p
Partial network 53
Path 7
Per unit impedence 177
Per unit quantities 176
Percentage values 179
Polar coordinates Method 112
Positive 2 I 7
218
Power System Analysis
Positive sequence components 217
Power flow 100
Positive sequence network 228
Primitive network 4
R
Rank of a graph 7
Reactance diagrams 179
Reactors I 86
Rectangular coordinates method 110
s
Sequence components 2 I 7
Sequence impedance of transformer 227
Sequence impedances 224
Sequence networks of
Synchronous machines 228
Sequence reactances of
Synchronous machine 228
Short circuit KVA 180
Single line to ground fault 232
Singular transformation 24
Slack bus 101
Sparsity 115
Stability 259
Steady state stability 259
Stepbystep method 277
Subgraph 7
Swing equation 263
Symmetric 115
Symmetrical components 217
Synchronizing power coefficient 262
a
Index
T
Transient stability 259
Transient stability limit 269
Tree 8
Triangular decomposition 116
u
Uniatary transformation 222
Unsymmetrical faults 231
v
Vertex 6
Voltage controlled bus 101
z
Zero sequence components 218
Zero sequence Network 230
321
Power System Analysis
"This page is Intentionally Left Blank"
Power System Analysis
Prof. P.S.R. Murthy
B.Sc. (Engg.) (Hons.) ME.,
Dr.  ING (Berlin), F.I.E. (India) Life Member  ISTE (Formerly Principal O.U. College of Engineering & Dean, Faculty of Engineering, O.U. Hyderabad) Principal, Sree Datha Institute of Engineering and Science, Sheriguda, Ibrahim Patnam, Hyderabad (AP).
BSP BS Publications
44309, Giriraj Lane, Sultan Bazar, Hyderabad  500095 A.P. Phone: 04023445688
Copyright © 2007, by Publisher All rights reserved
No part of this book or parts thereof may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any language or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the publishers.
Published by :
SSP BS Publications
44309, Giriraj Lane, Sultan Bazar, Hyderabad  500 095 A. P. Phone: 04023445688 email: contactus@bspublications.net www.bspublications.net
Printed at:
AdithyaArt Printers Hyderabad.
ISBN: 9788178001616
Preface
Power System analysis is a prerequisite course for electrical power engineering students. In Chapter I. introductory concepts about a Power system, network models, faults and analysis;the primitive network and stability are presented. Chapter 2 deals with the graph theory that is relevant to various incidence matrices required for network modelling are explained. Chapter 3 explains the various incidence matrices and network matrices. Chapter 4 discusses, stepbystep method of building of network matrices. Chapter 5 deals with power flow studies. Both GaussSeidel method and NewtonRaphson methods are explained. In NewtonRaphson method both the Cartesion coordinates method and polar coordinates methods are discussed. In chapter 6 short circuit analysis is explained Per unit quantity and percentage values are defined. Analysis for symmetrical faults is discussed. The utility of reactors for bus bar and generator protection is also explained. Unbalanced fault analysis is presented in chapter 7. Use of symmetrical components and network connections are explained. Chapter 8 deals with the power system stability problem. Steady state stability. transient stability and dynamic stability are discussed.
It is earnestly hoped that this book will meet the requirements of students in the subject power system analysis.
 Author
"This page is Intentionally Left Blank" .
L. day and night over the last few months.Acknowledgment My sincere thanks go to Mr. my well wisher for taking great pains in transferring script material and proof material between my residence and the press with a great smiley face.Y. Proprietor of BS Publications for his constant encouragement to me to write and complete this book on 'Power System Analysis'. Swarupa for MATLAB assistance. M. Nikhil Shah. My thanks also go to Mr. Author . I thank Mrs. Narasimha Rao.
"This page is Intentionally Left Blank" .
.Contents Preface ................................3 2................... 9 Basic CutSets ...............4 1........ .............................. (vii) Acknowledgment................... (ix) 1 Introduction I...................................................3 1......................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Tree and CoTree ..................................................................................... 3 Faults and Analysis .... 9 Basic Loops .....................................................................................1 2......5 The Electrical Power System ......5 2..................................................................................................................................... Questions .......................................... 5 2 Graph Theory 2...... II IS 16 ....................... ' .................. 3 The Primitive Network ..... I Network Models ......................................................................................................6 Introduction ............................................................ I 1............2 2..........................................................................................4 2................2 1......... 6 Definitions ......................................... 8 CutSet ......................... 10 vVorked Examples Prohlems ................. 4 Power System Stability .................................................
.... 106 NewtonRaphson Method .....Path Incidence Matrix K ....... ...... 18 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 28 29 33 51 52 4 Building of Network Matrices 4..........................10 3.... ....................... Basic Loop Incidence Matrix .......7 5..................................... ...........................1 5..................................................... .. Worked Examples..............8 5.............. 98 Conditions for Successful Operation of a Power System ................. ....................................9..................... 70 Problems ....... ..4 Partial Network ...... .....6 5.............................3 4.. 101 Bus Admittance Formation .......7 3............................. Branch Admittance and Branch Impedance Matrices ........................................... 99 Classification of Buses ....................... 53 Addition ofa Branch .................................1 3............................................... Network Performance Equations ...... 109 5...............................................4 3................................................................3 3... 66 Worked Examples.................... ...........6 3................................................................................................. 60 Removal or Change in Impedance of Elements with Mutual Impedance .. 96 Questions................. ........ 102 System Model for Load Flow Studies ... 99 The Power Flow Equations ....4 5. 105 Gauss ........................ " ...................................2 4................................ Basic CutSet Incidence Matrix ......... ......................................................................2 The Polar Coordinates Method ........................................... : ..... 97 5 Power Flow Studies 5.....................................3 5... Bus Admittance Matrix by Direct Inspection .......... ............... 110 5......................... Bus Admittance Matrix and Bus Impedance Matrix ... ...5 5..9 3............ 104 GaussSeidel Iterative Method ....................... ...8 3................. Problems ..........................................................1 The Rectangular Coordinates Method . Loop Impedance and Loop Admittance Matrices ............................................................. Branch ..........................2 5........................................................................................... .................................9 Necessity for Power Flow Studies ... Network Matrices ................................................5 3....... 112 ............2 3............. '" .......... : ..................... ....(xii) Content~ 3 Incidence Matrices 3.......... ........................................Seidel Iterative Method of Load Flow Solution .......... Bus Incidence Matrix .........................9....11 Element Node Incidence Matrix ..................... 55 Addition ofa Link ............................................................ Questions ...................................................1 4.......
........ ................. ......................................11 6........... Problems Questions .................. 122 Addition of a Radial Line and New Bus .......................... ............................................................ ................................................ 182 Importance of Short Circuit Currents .....................................................................2 6............................. 181 Percentage Values .............12 5......................... 121 5...... 185 Reactors . 186 Classification of Reactors ....... ...................................................................................................3 5........................................................................................... .............. 216 Questions........................................................ ..............2 5............. ..... ................... .... 187 Worked Examples...... ..... 175 Convergence Characteristics ....................6 6.10 6...15 (xiii) Sparsity of Network Admittance Matrices ...........................16 Bus Impedance Formation ...... ....... 116 Optimal Ordering ......4 5....10 5.............. 115 Triangular Decompostion .. 6 Short Circuit Analysis 6......................... ................................... 118 Decoupled Methods .....................................................................1 5...................................................13 5.......................... 124 126 . 178 Three Phase Short Circuits .............................13 Per Unit Quantities ......Contents 5.............15.........12 6. 183 Analysis ofRL Circuit ....................14 5...........11 5......................... ....................... 124 Worked Examples .......................15.................... Problems .....Seidel Method Using Zbus for Load Flow Solution .................................................... 122 Addition of a Loop Closing Two Existing Buses in the System ........................ ................................................ 120 Load Flow Solution Using Z Bus ......1 6.........15......15............................................... 178 Reactance Diagrams .. 181 Short Circuit KVA ................. ...........15........ 119 Fast Decoupled Methods .... 176 Advantages of Per Unit System ....................5 5. 2 I 6 .. ..... ................................7 6......5 6.................................................. .................................. 161 ........... 189 ........ ....... ................... ............ 184 Three Phase Short Circuit on Unloaded Synchronous Generator ..... 185 Effect of Load Current or Prefault Current ........... .......... 123 Gauss ...... ...........3 6..... .................................................. 186 Construction of Reactors ..8 6........................... 121 Addition of a Line to the Reference Bus ........4 6...............9 6....................................
.................. ........................... 228 Sequence Networks of Synchronous Machines ............... 221 Unitary Transformation for Power Invariance .......................................... 229 Zero Sequence Network .........1 8.................................................... 241 LinetoLine Fault with Fault Impedence ................................ 228 7..............................................................(xiv) Contents 7 Unbalanced Fault Analysis 7..........10 The Operator "'a'" .....................................................2 7.............................. ......... 231 Assumptions for System Representation ................................6 8...................7 7.............. 235 Double Line to Ground Fault .... ............1 7..3 8... 218 Symmetrical Components of Unsymmetrical Phases .....3 7....... 222 Sequence Impedances . 242 Double LinetoGround Fault with Fault Impedence ....10.5 8...3 7.............................................................................................18 Positive Sequence Network ......11 7... 262 Stability ofa Single Machine Connected to lnfinite Bus ..............8 7... 232 LlnetoLine Fault .......... ................2 8...........................................8 Elementary Concepts ........ 263 Equal Area Criterion and Swing Equation .............................. 224 Transmission Lines ................................... 261 Synchronizing Power Coefficient ..............................16 7....................................... .................................. 224 Balanced Star Connected Load ...........................14 7......................... 267 .........13 7..................... 243 Worked Examples...... 257 8 Power System Stability 8..........................................10.................. 238 SingleLine to Ground Fault with Fault Impedance ............17 7........ 245 Problems ......................................... 227 Sequence Reactances of Synchronous Machine .. 259 Illustration of Steady State Stability Concept ............7 8..6 7............... 230 Unsymmetrical Faults ........................ 257 Questions .......................... .... ..........................................15 7.........................................12 7............ ...........5 7................................. 262 Transient Stability ........ .... ............ ...................... 228 Negative Sequence Network ....................... I 7. .......... ......................... ................................................... 226 Sequence Impedances of Transformer .....................................4 8............................................ 262 The Swing Equation ................... 219 Power in Sequence Components .........4 7.................... 260 Methods for Improcessing Steady State Stability Limit ..9 7....................................................................................................................... 232 Unsymmetrical Faults on an Unloaded Generator .......10.2 7.................................................................
............................. 277 Solution to Swing Equation StepbyStep Method ...................................... 270 Critical Clearing Time and Critical Clearing Angle .... ...9 8... ............................... ..............................11 8....................................17 8.......... 303 Questions........... 275 Fault Clearance and Reclosure in DoubleCircuit System .................................................................. .......................... ........ 305 Answers to Objective Questions ...... ........ 317 Index .......... .................................................................................... ..................14 8.... ..........................16 8............. 272 Fault on a DoubleCircuit Line ............................................... 304 Objective Questions ............ 274 Transient Stability When Power is Transmitted During the Fault .15 8................................. 282 Worked Examples ............... ........18 (xv) Transient Stability Limit ................................. 269 Frequency of Oscillations .... .. ................ .......... ...13 8..... 285 Problems .................. .......... ...................10 8..... ......................................................................................... ............................ ....... 319 ............................ 280 Node Elimination Methods .......... 279 Dynamic Stability ....Contents 8.......................................................12 8......... 277 Factors Affecting Transient Stability ................... .....
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loads. The power demand is more than doubling every decade. power generation originally confined to steam engines expanded using (steam turbines) hydro electric turbines. Since then. Power system analysis is the subject in the branch of electrical power engineering which deals with the determination of voltages at various buses and the currents that flow in the transmission lines operating at different voltage levels. For the analysis of a power system in operation . Thomas Alva Edison was the first to conceive an electric power station and operate it in Newyork in 1882. Planning. circuit breakers etc. The inter connection of the various generating stations to load centers through EHV and UHV transmission lines necessitated analytical methods for analysing various situations that arise in operation and control of the system. transmission lines. nuclear reactors and others. The modern power system has features unique to it self.1 INTRODUCTION Power is an essential prerequisite for the progress of any country. It is the largest man made system in existence and is the most complex system. the solution of which requires extensive application of mathematical methods from various branches. transformers. 1. buses. operation and control of interconnected power system poses a variety of challenging problems.1 The Electrical Power System The electrical power system is a complex network consisting of generators.
Accordingly it may be algebraic equations. For transient stability studies involving sudden changes in load or circuit condition due to faults.. derivative and integral controllers or optimal controllers using Kalman's feed back coefficients. For studying the steady state performance a number of matrix models are needed. For study of fault currents the equivalent circuit in Fig.2 . In this state power flow equations are nonlinear due to the presence of product terms of variables and trigonometric terms.1. The solution techniques involves numerical (iterative) methods for solving nonlinear algebraic equations. transfer function and state variable models are better suited to implement proportional.2 can be reduced to Fig.>++ Loads Sending end step up transformer Generators Receiving end stepdown transformer Fig.2 Power System Analysis a suitable model is needed.1 Generators Sending end Transformer Transmission Lines Receiving end transformer Load Fig. The analysis of the system for small load variations. differential equations. 1. 1. Consider the power System shown in Fig. differential equations describing energy balance over a few halfcycles of time period are required.. wherein speed or frequency and voltage control may be required to maintain the standard values. However.2. 1. it is possible to conceive a quasistatic state during which period the loads could be considered constant. NewtonRaphson method is the most commonly used mathematical technique.3 upto the load terminals neglecting the shunt capacitances of the transmission line and magnetizing reactances of the transformers. The power system is never in steady state as the loads keep changing continuously. The equivalent circuit for the power system can be represented as in Fig. This model basically depends upon the type of problem on hand. Transmission Line . transfer functions etc. This period could be 15 to 30 minutes. 1. 1. 1.
the machine reactances may change and assume different values fot different situations. 1. To build such a model. 1.3 Faults and Analysis Study of the network performance under fault conditions requires analysis of a generally balanced network as an unbalanced network. 1. For small variations. it is required to develop both Zbus and Vbus models for the network. Under balanced operation. Also. The ultimate objective of power system control is to maintain continuous supply of power with acceptable quality.Introduction 3 TransmIssIon Lines Tran. Thus. Either or e= Z. heaters. all the threephase voltages are equal in magnitude and displaced from each other mutually by 120 0 (elec. balancing the electrical characteristics. dc motors. rectifiers. . may have very different models depending upon the composition of its constituents.). graph theory and incidence matrices will be quite convenient. The control of a turbo generator set to suit to the varying load requirement requires a model. lighting loads. turbo generator and power system itself as all these constitute the components of a feedback loop for control. welding transformers etc. It may be noted that unbalanced transmission line configuration is balanced in operation by transposition. This interconnected network configuration expands continuously.3 While the reactances of transformers and lines which are static do not change under varying conditions of operation. Quality is defined in terms of voltage and frequency. e model can be used for steady state network solution. This requires modeling of speed governor. composite loads containing 3phase motors. Such a model can be obtained using transfer function concept and control can be achieved through classical or modern control theory.i i =Y. A systematic procedure is needed to build a model that can be constantly upgraded with increasing interconnections. a linearized model is convenient to study.2 Network Models Electrical power network consists of large number of transmission lines interconnected in a fashion that is dictated by the development of load centers..former Fig. Network solutions can be carried out using Ohm's law and Kirchoff's laws. Iphase motors.
Network solution under these conditions can be obtained by using transformed variables through different component systems involving the concept of power invariance.b zab is the self impedance of network element ab.lab Vab=VaVb ~ • • b r Vb Fig.4 I • • b Vb a and b are the terminals of a network element ab. • a 8 eab • Zab ~ v·1 iab • Fig. 1. 1. Fig (1. jab is the current through the network element ab.4 Power System Analysis Under fault conditions.. 1. In this course all these aspects will be dealt with in modeling so that at an advanced level. + . the threephase voltages may not be equal in magnitude and the phase angles too may differ widely from 1200 (elec.. eab is the source voltage in series with the network element a . A primitive network is a set of unconnected elements. Every power system element can be described by a primitive network.4) we have the relation Vab + eab = zab iab ..1) In the admittance form the network element may be represented as in Fig. From the Fig. ( 1.5 .. the variables are currents and voltages. +' lab . Vab is the voltage across the network element ab.5) .4 The Primitive Network Network components are represented either by their impedance parameters or admittance parameters. (1. analyzing and developing of suitable control strategies could be easily understood using these models wherever necessary.lab (]) Yab Va • r • a ~ lab . Va and Vb are voltages at a and b.4) represents the impedance form.( 1.) even if the transmission and distribution networks are balanced. The situation changes into a case of unbalanced excitation.
elements of [y] matrix are obtained by taking reciprocals of the elements of [z] matrix. sudden load loss or increment.5 Power System Stability Power system stability is a word used in connection with alternating current power systems denoting a condition where in.5) In eqs. 1... ( 1... cd or Yab...5) we have the relation iab + jab = Yab Vab 5 ..( 1.5) constitute a primitive network.. (1.4) or in the form i+ j =[y]y . the various alternators in the system remain in synchronous with each other.3) A set of unconnected elements that are depicted in Fig.. The performance equations for the primitive networks may be either in the form ~+y=[z1i .4) or (1. While in general [y] matrix can be obtained by inverting the [z] matrix. ab or Yab.ab' The offdiagonal elements may in a similar way contain the mutual impedances or mutual admittances denoted by zab. connected to infinite bus gives an insight into the stability problem.Introduction Yab is the self admittance of the network element ab jab is the source current in paraliel with the network element ab From Fig.....2) The series voltage in the impedance form and the parallel source current in the admittance form are related by the equation. (1. study of these topics is very important for electrical power engineering students.. when there is no mutual coupling. as otherwise.5) the matrices [z] or [y] contain the self impedances or self admittances denoted by zab. circuit opening and reswitching etc. At a first level. . Study of this aspect is very important. due to a variety of changes. then the matrices [z] and [y] are diagonal matrices.. Study of simple power systems with single machine or a group of machines represented by a single machine. such as.. (1.{lA) and (1.( 1. occuring in the system continuously some where or other may create blackouts.. short circuits at different locations. Ifthere is no mutual coupling. cd where ab and cd are two different elements having mutual coupling. faults on lines. Lb=Yabeab .
In Electrical Engineering Graph Theory is used to predict the behaviour of the network in analysis.dge: An element of a graph is called an edge. . However. It may be mentioned that Kirchoff was the first to develop theory of trees for applications to electrical network. physical. social and biological sciences.1 GRAPH THEORY Introduction Graph theory has many applications in several fields such as engineering. Node or Vertex: The terminal of an element is called a node or a vertex. 2. In this chapter a brief account of graphs theory is given that is relevant to power transmission networks and their analysis.2 Definitions Elemellt of a Graph: Each network element is replaced by a line segment or an arc while constructing a graph for a network.2 2. Each potential source is replaced by a short circuit. T. Each line segment or arc is cailed an element. Degree: The number of edges connected to a vertex or node is called its degree. linguistics etc. Any physical situation that involves discrete objects with interrelationships can be represented by a graph. for smaller networks node or mesh analysis is more convenient than the use of graph theory. The advent of high speed digital computers has made it possible to use graph theory advantageously for larger network analysis. Each current source is replaced by an open circuit.
(a) (b) Fig. r. Planar Graph : A graph is said to be planar.2(a). 2. 2. Oriented Graph: An oriented graph is a graph with direction marked for each element Fig. if it can be drawn withoutout cross over of edges. Path: A path is defined as a subgraph of connected elements SLlch that not more than two elements are connected to anyone node. Closed Path or Loop: The set of elements traversed starting from one node and returning to the same node form a closed path or loop. The oriented connected graph is shown in Fig.2(a) shows the single line diagram of a simple power network consisting of generating stations.2 (a) Power system singleline diagram (b) Positive sequence network diagram . 2. if the node is a terminal of the element.1 (a) Planar Graph (b) NonPlanar Graph. Fig.I where n is the number of nodes in the graph. Nodes can be incident to one or more elements. The actual interconnections of the elements gives a graph. If there is a path between every pair of nodes then the graph is said to be connected. J). Otherwise it is called nonplanar (Fig. transmission lines and loads. The network can thus be represented by an interconnection of elements.Graph Theory 7 Graph: An element is said to be incident on a node.3 (a) (b) Fig.3 for the same system.2(b) shows the positive sequence network of the system in Fig. Alternatively. 2. a graph is said to be connected if there exists at least one path between every pair of nodes. 2. Rank: The rank of a graph is n . Sub Graph: Any subset of elements of the graph is called a subgraph A subgraph is said to be proper if it consists of strictly less than all the elements and nodes of the graph. 2. 2.
.. 2.~ ~ CD . The number of nodes and the number of branches in a tree are related by b = nI .1~Q) 4 5 Fig.1). There is a cotree for every tree.3...4 (a) Tree for the system in Fig.. not necessarily connected called cotree... (2. Cotree is the complement of tree. Cotree: The links form a subgraph. (2.. 2.. The branches of a tree are called twigs. but. (2.. from eq. it can be written that l=en+1 ..3 ".2) Hence. There exists only one path between any pair of nodes on a tree ') every connected graph has at least one tree 3.. /.. For a connected graph and subgraph: I.4(a) and Fig.tree of the graph for the system shown in Fig. containing no loops. 5 . n = number of nodes = 4 / 2 .('4 e = number of elements = 6 b=nI=41=3 I =en+I=64+1=3 / / @ Fig.Power System Analysis ~ CD..3 Oriented connected graph.3 Tree and CoTree Tree: A tree is an oriented connected subgraph of an oriented connected graph containing all the nodes of the graph.. 2....... The remaining branches of the graph are called links or chords. 2..3) A tree and the corresponding co . (2..4(b). 2. 2.1 ) If e is the total number of elements then the number of links I of a connected graph with hranches b is given by I==e·h . .+. A tree has (nI) branches where n is the number of nodes of graph G. every tree has two terminal nodes and 4.. 2.. the rank of a tree is nI and is equal to the rank of the graph.3 are indicated in Fig._.
3.3).4(a) if the link 6 is added. a loop containing the elements 126 is obtained..6(a).4 (b) Cotree for the system in Fig. 2.5 CutSet A Cut set is a minimal set of branches K of a connected graph G. provided no proper subset of this set reduces the rank of G by one when it is removed from G. Fig.._ e 3 (b) . 2..4 Basic Loops 1\ loop is obtained whenever a link is added to a tree. Fig. I I . Consider the graph in Fig. 2.6 .5 shows the basic loops for the tree in Fig. Loops which contain only one link are called independent loops or hasic loops.: @ Fig._ I e _e .3 (e) Fig.. . . 2. 2. .4(a).. 2.. It is also true that the removal of K branches reduces the rank of G by one. As an example to the tree in Fig... It can be observed that the number of basic loops is equal to the number of links given by equation (2. GL 5 .Graph Theory 5 9 CD+.5 Basic loops for the tree in Fig.4(a). 2. 2.. 2... which is a closed path. such that the removal of all K branches divides the graph into two parts...2) or (2.+. 2._ (a) e {.  CD ~=+~@ . 2.
The orientation of the basic cutset is chosen as to coincide with that of the branch of the tree defining the cutset. 2. 3 may also be a cutset.: Fig. 8 5 . For this reason. Also. . The cut set is a minimal set of branches of the graph. the n I basic cutsets of a tree are linearly independent. In both the above cases the rank both of the sub graphs is 1 + 1 = 2.4(a). 4. if branches 1.4(a). 2.1) = 4 ."If' 1~~~4. In a similar way C cutset cuts the branch 3 and links 4 and 5 and is oriented in the same direction as branch 3. Each group is in one of the two sub graphs. Cutset A contains the branch 1 and links 5 and 6 and is oriented in the same way as branch J. 3) set is a subset of (I.6(c) Branches I. 2. If branches 1 and 3 are removed two sub graphs are obtained as in Fig. Finally cutset B cutting branch 2 and also links 4. 2. 3) set. All the links which go from one part of this disconnected tree to the other.10 Power System Analysis The rank of the graph = (no.. removal of which cuts the graph into two parts.. then these independent cutsets are called basic cutsets. Now consider the tree in Fig. Each basic cutset contains at least one branch with respect to which the tree is defined which is not contained in the other basic cutset.6 BasiC CutSets If each cutset contains only one branch.7. Consider a twig bk of the tree.. If the twig is removed the tree is separated into two parts. 2. 4 and 3 are removed the graph is divided into two sub graphs as shown in Fig. together with the twig bk constitutes a cutset called basic cutset. It separates nodes of the graphs into two graphs. 2. It can be noted that (I. Thus 1 and 3 may be a cutset.7 Cutset for the tree in Fig. of nodes n . 4..@ ~ @ 3 :.6(b). Consider node (1) and branch or twig 1.I = 3. 2. 6 and 5 is oriented as branch 2 and the cutsets are shown in Fig. In order to understand basic cutsets select a tree.
3 Tree : A connected subgraph containing all nodes of a graph. E. E.1 For the network shown in figure below.Graph Theory 11 Worked Examples 2. draw the graph and mark a tree. .® 6 3 CD ~~~~ ® 2 @ Fig. QDe__________~5.2.2 Number of nodes n = 5 Number of elements e = 6 The graph can be redrawn as.2. How many trees will this graph have? Mark the basic cutsets and basic loops. but no closed path is called a tree.1 Solution: Assume that bus (1) is the reference bus 4 Fig.__.2. E. 5 6 3 Fig.
E... ®___4~~ c <D~+~~ A~~@ Fig. the cutsets A. of branches = 4. are shown in figure.. E../ . ~ D ./ . 8 Fig.. 0 \ ). E. ... 2.B.D../".2 Show the basic loops and basic cutsets for the graph shown below and verify any relations that exist between them./..2./ ./ \ \ \ <D~~~~~e @ 2 ® Fig./.4 Number of branches n1 = 51 = 4 Number of links = eb = 64 = 2 (Note: Number of links = Number of cotrees).6 .2.C.2.3 6 .12 5 Power System Analysis ®~. (Take 1234 as tree 1).S The number of basic cutsets = no.
Fig. . C.. draw the tree and the corresponding cotree. Choose a tree of your choice and hence write the cutset schedule. The number of basic cuts (4) = number of branches b(4). D.9 Oriented connected graph.. Branches. loops that contain only one link are called basic loops..2. B. E. 13 ~~~ ' . b=n1 =51=4 I =eb =84=4 The four loops are shown in Fig.~o_+_<:)@ Fig.o.Graph Theory Solution: .7 Tree and Cotree for the graph. If a link is added to the tree a loop is formed. CD o. 2.3 For the graph given in figure below.2..2. Fig. E.. E.S Basic cut sets A.
7.5 3. C.. Fig.3.2. D.. B..4 2.6 6.2. a tree and its cotree. E.O.2. E.4 For the power systems shown in figure draw the graph. E. The fcut set schedule (fundamental or basic) A: B: c: D: 1.11 Solution: <D Q .10 Basic cut sets A.12 .O+~ @ Fig...3.2 2..14 Solution: Power System Analysis Fig.
13 Tree and Cotree 2. P. Fig.1 Draw the graph for the network shown. P. E.Graph Theory 15 CD ® Fig.1 P 2.2 Draw the graph for the circuit shown.2. Draw a tree and cotree for the graph.4.2.2 . Fig. Problems P 2.2.
number of branches. Define the following terms.2 2.3 Mark basic cutsets.3 Draw the graph for the network shown. basic loops and open loops. Power System Analysis Fig. Questions 2.2. P. (i) Graph (ii) Node (iii) Rank of a graph (iv) Path 2.16 P 2.5 . Define the following terms with suitable example: (i) Tree (ii) Branches (iii) Links (iv) CoTree (v) Basic loop Write down the relations between the number of nodes.1 Explain the following terms: (i) Basic loops (ii) Cut set (iii) Basic cut sets Explain the relationship between the basic loops and links.4 2. basic cutsets and the number of branches.3 2. number of links and number of elements.
branch admittance matrix etc.3 INCIDENCE MATRICES There are several incidence matrices that are important in developing the various networks matrices such as bus impedance matrix. These various incidence matrices are basically derived from the connectivity or incidence of an element to a node. Incidence Matrices The following incidence matrices are of interest in power network analysis. using singular or non singular transformation. (a) Elementnode incidence matrix (b) Bus incidence matrix (c) Branch path incidence matrix (d) Basic cutset incidence matrix (e) Basic loop incidence matrix Of these. the bus incidence matrices is the most important one : . cutset or loop. path..
a pq = 0 if the plh element is not incident to the glh node. 2. The rank of than n the number of nodes in the graph.. 2.2(a) is obtained. It is seen from the elements of the matrix that g~O u pg 3 = 0. .1 ) It can be inferred that the columns of A are linearly independent. It is denoted by A . The element node incidence matrix for the graph of Fig. ~ 1 2 4 (0) (I) I (2) (3) 1 1 1 I A 3 1 I 1 4 5 6 I 1 1 1 Fig...2(b) contains a reference reflected in Fig..3).I) and the rank will therefore be. [n fact any node of the connected graph can be selected as the reference node.1 the busincidence matrix for the system in Fig..1. The matrix obtained by deleting the column corresponding to the reference node in the element node incidence matrix A is called bus incidence matrix A.3 as a reference node.. 3. 3. A is less 3.2 Bus Incidence Matrix The network in Fig. 3.2. the dimension of this matrix is ex (n . Deleting the column corresponding to node (0) from Fig. 2. n .1 Element Node Incidence Matrix Element node incidence matrix A shows the incidence of elements to nodes in the connected graph. where b is the number of branches in the graph.1 Elementnode incidencematrix for the graph of Fig. 2. This is shown in Fig.1 = b.. The incidence or connectivity is indicated by the operator as follows: a pq = 1 if the plh element is incident to and directed away from the g the node. a pq = I if the plh element is incident to and directed towards the g the node. The elementnode incidence matrix will have the dimension exn where 'e' is the number of elements and n is the number of nodes in the graph. (3. 2.3 is shown in Fig..18 Power System Analysis 3. Thus. p = I. . 6 . 3. (2..
opposite direction. 3. the matrix A can be partitioned into two submatrices Ab of the dimension bx (n . shows the incidence of branches to paths in a tree. as the name itself suggests. 2..2). 3. The rows of A" correspond to branches and the rows of A (Fig. This is shown in ~ A= 1 2 3 (1) (2) (3) ~ 1 (1 ) (2) (3) 1 1 1 1 1 I I A= I 2 3 4 5 Ab 4 5 6 AI 1 6 Fig.Path Incidence Matrix K Branch path incidence matrix.3). If the rows are arranged in the order of a specific tree.3 Branch . 3.4(a). 3.I). Kpq Kpq = 1 If the pth branch is in the path from qth bus to reference and oriented in the If the pth branch is not in the path from the qth bus to reference. I ' +1 I 1 4 5 6 1 1 +1 1 Fig. =0 For the system in Fig. Node (0) is assumed as reference.Incidence Matrices 19 ~ 1 (I ) I (2) (3) A= 2 . 3. 3.2 Bus Incidence Matrix for graph in (2. the branchpath incidence matrix K is shown in Fig.3 Partitioning of matrix A. .1) and AI of dimension I" (n .4. I correspond to links.3) for the matrix in (Fig. The elements of this matrix are indicated by the operators as follows: Kpq = I If the pth branch is in the path from qth bus to reference and oriented in the same direction.
if the pth clement is incident to and oriented in the opposite direction as the qth basic cutset. 3..~·Q) " ~ • C BaSIC Cutsets B A C CV 3 / 1 2 I 1 1 \ I B= / .. cotree Fig. For the example on hand.3(a) basic clitset incidence matriA B is obtained a~ in Fig.. the paths and buses can be related by All Kl c~. r3 rq (he cc 0 if the pth clement is incident to and oriented in the same direction as the qth hasic cutset. It is possible to partition the basic cutset incidence matrix B into two submatrices UB and lJ I cOl:responding to branches and Iinks respectively..6). _4 __ / Iillt+_fX".4 BranchPath Incidence Matrix for network While the branch path incidence matrix relates branches to paths..6 Power System Analysis '" /'''' /' .. 2... 3""" CD . the sub matrix Ab of Fig..5 BaSIC Cutset incidence matrix for the graph in 3. For the graph in Fig.5(a) drawn and shown.... Kl = Ab I .. ... (3. The elements of the matrix are indicated by the operator as follows: 0"Ci ~rq ... 3.. 3...2) Hence 3... ~. 5 .20 "..1 ~ / ~ 1 2 3 (I) (2) (3) Path 3 / / 1 1 0 ~ /~ ~ 1 1 ® tree ...... Thus... . U where LJ is a unit matrix..(4 3 4 \ 1 \ 5 I 6 I Fig. 3.4 Basic CutSet Incidence Matrix ['his matriA depicts the connectivity of elements to basic cutsets of the connected graph. The basic cut~set incidence matrix has the dimensiol1 e x b... .. if the pth element is not incident to the qth basic cutset.3 gives the connectivity between branches and buses... the partitioned matrix is shown in (Fig.. P:h path1~.
..5 The identity matrix U b shows the onetoone correspondence between branches and basic cutsets.. It may be recalled that the incidence of links to buses is shown by submatrix AI and the !Ilcidence of branches to buses by A b . 1 3.3 basic loops are defined and in Fig.\) BI=AIK t This is illustrated in Fig. The incidence of the elemenb is indicated by the operator as follows: Y .6 Illustration of equation AI Kt =8 .5) 0 0 \ \ \ 0 \ 1 0 0 \ 0 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 0 0 I \ \ 0 0 Fig..c: 0 QJ C B= co «l " Ub 3 4 \ \ 5 \ \ 6 \ \ 0 .4) A b. (3. 3.6). (3. I rq if the pth element is incident to and oriented in the same direction as the qth basic loop.Incidence Matrices 21 Basic Cutsets B C \ \ \ \ ~ \ 2 Basic Cutsets <Jl A .:: c .:.2) Kt Substituting this result in equation (3... There is a onetoone correspondence between branches and basic cutsets. (3.I However from equation (3.. Basic Loop incidence matrix C shows the incidence of the elements of the connected graph to the basic loops... 3.3 ) . ' <Jl BI Fig.sion are shown.. 0  .5 Basic Loop Incidence Matrix In section 2... (3. 3. . Since the incidence of I inks to buses is given by BlAb = AI Therefore BI = AI Ab I = .7 basic loops for the sample system under discu<....
transmission lines.9..9 Partitioning of basic loop incidence matrix. transformers.. I and the matrix is shown in ~ c= 1 2 3 4 D E F I 1 I 1 1 1 1 0 I 1 5 6 1 Fig. E. 3. shown the onetoone correspondence of links to basic loops. . B. 3.. x The basic loop incidence matrix has the dimension e Fig. Cb 5 6 ~ :J '" c:: UI Fig..8 Basic loop incidence matrix for Fig.3. Some are in series and some are in shunt connection. 3. 3. capacitor banks etc. The unit matrix V. C). circuit breakers. ~ c= 1 2 3 4 Basic loops 1 1 I 1 1 1 I I I I I~ . if the pth element is not incident to the qth loop..<:: u <lJ Basic loops '" CO c:: c::I . 7. F) and open loops (A. 3. It is possible to partition the basic loop incidence matrix as in Fig.7 Basic loops (D.8. which are all connected together to perform specific function. 3.6 Network Performance Equations The power system network consists of components such as generators. Fig.22 Ypq = Power System Analysis 1 Ypq = 0 if the pth element is incident to and oriented in the opposite direction as the qth basic loop.
in the bus frame of reference the performance of the power network is described by (n1) independent nodal equations.... Consider a 3bus or 3node system. we can obtain the performance equations in the branch frame of reference. (3. In the impedance form the performance equation. (3.10) where f BR Vector of currents through branches.  . where n is the total number of nodes.Incidence Matrices 23 Whatever may be their actual configuration... Vector of impressed bus currents.6) V BUS = T BUS = [ZBUS] = Vector of bus voltages measured with respect to a reference bus... Bus impedance matrix The elements of bus impedance matrix are open circuit driving point and transfer impedances. . network analysis is performed either by nodal or by loop method. In the admittance frame of reference .. then b independent branch equation of the form  V BR == [ZBR ]. (3.9) ... In case of power system. Then (1) (1) [ZBUS] = (2) rZ11 Z21 Z31 (2) z12 Z22 Z32 (3) The impedance elements on the principal diagonal are called driving point impedances of the buses and the offdiagonal elements are called transfer impedances of the buses.7) where [YBUS ] == bus admittance matrix whose elements are short circuit driving point and transfer admittances. (3... In the admittance form .. By definition .8) In a similar way....IBR describe network performance.. generally... If b is the number of branches. (3. following Ohm's law will be V ==[ZBUS] IBus where. Thus.. each node is also a bus.
The impedance model given by e =Z..12) where..7 Network Matrices It is indicated in Chapter . (3. i or the admittance model i =Y. the performance equation can be described by I independent loop equations where I is the number of links or basic loops.1 that network solution can be carried out using Ohm's Law and KirchoWs Law. I LOOP and in the admittance form I LOOP = [YLOOP]... e can be used depending upon the situation or the type of problem encountered.VLOOP  . (a) Singular transformation and (b) Direct method . (3. Thus it is necessary to derive equations that relate these various models. in the loop frame of reference.24 V BR Power System Analysis Vector of voltages across the branches... V LOOP = Vector of basic loop voltages  It O()p Vector of hasic loop currents [ZLOOp J = Loop impedance matrix Loop admittance matrix [ Y LOOP] = 3.. Network matrices can be formed hy two methods: Viz. Like wise. the bus impedance or bus admittance are used.. [ZBR] = Branch impedance matrix whose elements are open circuit driving point and transfer impedances of the branches of the network. In most of the power network solutions. In network analysis students of electrical engineering are familiar with nodal analysis and mesh analysis using Kirchoff's laws. [Y BR] = Branch admittance matrix whose elements are short circuit driving point and transfer admittances of the branches of the network.11 ) . In the impedance from V lOOP = rZ LOClP 1.
(3.. IBus = [AI]] Substituting eqs.5)......13) . (1. each element is the algebraic sum of the currents that terminate at any of the buses. wherein.... the algebraic sum of currents at any node or bus must be zero.. (3.. (3.17) .1) to bus quantities of the network using bus incidence matrix..16) In the bus frame. (3.. Hence... [AI] i thus is a vector. the transpose of the bus incidence matrix [A I]  i + [A I] ] = A I [y] u . (3.. i+ j =[y]u Pre multiplying by [N].8 Bus Admittance Matrix and Bus Impedance Matrix The bus admittance matrix Y BUS can be obtained by determining the relation between the variables and parameters of the primitive network described in section (2.15) into (3.14) and (3..15) I BUS = [A I ] [y] U .. Consider eqn. (3..14) Again [AI] J term indicates the algebraic sum of source currents at each of the buses and must equal the vector of impressed bus currents.18) .. (3.13) Matrix A shows the connections of elements to buses.....Network Matrices 25 Singular Transformations The network matrices that are used commonly in power system analysis that can be obtained by singular transformation are : (i) (ii) Bus admittance matrix Bus impedance matrix Branch admittance matrix Branch impedance matrix Loop impedance matrix Loop admittance matrix (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 3. Hence [AI] i = 0 . power in the network is given by [IBus']IYBus = PBUS Power in the primitive network is given by . Following Kirchoff's current law.
.26) Once [Y BUS] is evaluated from the above transformation.. (3..15) gives [I BUS • r = [j' r A' ..22) into (3...21) into (3..24) [y BUS] V BUS [N] [y] [A] .29) .27) 3. (3. (ZBUS) can be determined from the relation. (3.. for transformation of variables to be invariant..28) [8]1 [y] ~ .... For the primitive network  i + j = [y]u Prerpultiplying by Bt [B]l i + [8]t j == . ZBUS =Y 0s = {[At][y][A] s }l ....23) [N] [y] [A] V BUS ... (3 :22) ... (3..19) ... Substituting eqn.21) G*) t [A].. that the bus frame of referee corresponds to the given primitive network in performance. VBUS = (j')tu i. That is to say.25) [Y BUS] = ... (3..9 Branch Admittance and Branch Impedance Matrices In order to obtain the branch admittance matrix Y BR' the basic cutset incidence matrix [8].. (3.. (3. (3..... (3. (3. (3.e..26 Power System Analysis Power must be invariant.20) However. is used. (3.... The variables and parameters of primitive network are related to the variables and parameters of the branch admittance network.16) IBUS From eqn.... as A is real matrix A = A * [IBus']1 = (j")t[A] Substituting (3. Power consumed in both the circuits is the same... 3.. Therefore [I BUS ]V BUS = [j ]u  •  *  ...19) Conjugate transpose of eqn..7 I BUS Hence == == .
..35) ...... Thus each element of the vector [Bt] i represents the algebraic sum of the currents entering a sub network which must be zero by Kirchoff's law. then..e. (3.[V] B~ = {[B t ][y][B]} 1 . (3.. (3... _..3\) gives previous eqn..34) .32) IBR = [B]t[y][B]V BR However.VBR = j \) conjugate transpose of eqn. (3. (3.. ) \) = [B]V BR = ...... (3.33) r t [B] • = I BR"t.t_ IBR . (3.. (3.40) [Z]BR = .. Every cutset divides the network into two connected sub networks. Substituting this in the [B] .Network Matrices It is clear that the matrix [B] shows the incidence of elements to basic cutsets. (3.....30) [Bt] j is a vector in which each element is the algebraic sum of the source currents of the elements incident to the basic cutset and represents the total source current in parallel with a branch.... ... (3. the branch voltages and currents are related by  . [Bt] j therefore.38) [Y BR] = [B]l [y] [B] . .39) Since. (3. is given by [Z]BR = [Y BR]I . the basic cutset matrix [B] is a singular matrix the transformation [Y BR] is a singular transformation of [y].. = IBR ... t _ _.35) into (3. (3..36) Substituting eqs... Hence. (i. (3..31 ) .32) IBR = [Bt][y]u For power invariance..37) lBR =[YBR].. (3.32) (j)'t [B]*VBR = (f)t u As [B] is a real matrix [B]* Hence.38) comparing (3..37) and (3.. The branch impedance matrix.. 27 Each element of the vector [Bt] i is the algebraic sum of the currents through the elements that are connected to a basic cutset.VBR ..
The performance equation of the primitive network is \) + e = [Z] i Premultiplying by [CI] . as [C] is a real matrix [C] = [CO] Hence..28 Power System Analysis 3.. Hence...41) ..42) As the matrix [C] shows the incidence of elements to basic loops.45) Therefore.... [CI] \) yields the algebraic sum of the voltages around each basic loop.43) From power invariance condition for both the loop and primitive networks ..10 Loop Impedance and Loop Admittance Matrices The loop impedance matrix is designated by [ZLooP]' The basic loop incidence matrix [C] is used to obtain [ZLoOp] in terms of the elements of the primitive network. (3.45) & (3. Also [CI] e gives the algebraic sum of source voltages around each basic loop... (3.46) . (3. (3. (3.47) V LOOP = [C t ] [z][C]lLOoP  .. (3...43) (ILOOP*)I [CI]e=[i*]'e . (3... .48) However. (3. (3.44) for all values of e ... Substituting VLOOP from eqn. so that. i = [C]ILOOP ...43).11) is V LOOP = [Z LOOP ]1 LOOP . [CI] ~ = O... i = [Co] I lLOoP However. (3. (3. (3... . (3..... for the loop frame of reference the performance equation from eqn.... By Kirchoff's voltage law.. the algebraic sum of the voltages around a loop is zero..47) From eqns...49) ..
. Fig. below.50) [C] being a singular matrix the transformation eqn. The three transmission lines are replaced by their "1t equivalents". GI Load <II .Network Matrices comparing (3. l [ZLOOPt == [Y LOOP] 3..10 The equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.. . The generator is represented by a voltage source in series with the impedance. 3...48) & (3. [Y BR]I == [ZBR] [CI] [Z] [C] == [ZLOOP]. (3.50) is a singular transformation [Y LOOP] == [ZI LOOP ] == {[C]I [z] [C]}I . if there are no mutual impedances between elements.49) equation 29 [ZLOOP] == [ct] [z] [C] of [z].. (3. [Y BUS]I == [ZBUS] [BI] [y] [B] == [Y BR]. This is explained by taking an example.y of Singular Transformations [ztl == [y] [AI] [y] [A] == [Y BUS].. (3. by direct inspection of the network.51) Summar. Consider the three bus power system as shown in Fig.11 Bus Admittance Matrix by Direct Inspection Bus admittance matrix can be obtained for any network.. The loop admittance matrix is obtained from ..
VI II CD Is '7 Z7 17 19 Z9 VI @ 12 ® Zs 16 Z6 Z3 V3 13 '4 Z4 15 Z5 Fig..53) . 3.17 = V2 Y5 + (V 2 .11 The equivalent circuit is further simplified as in the following figure combining the shunt admittance wherever feasible.12 The three nodes are at voltage V I' V2 and V3 respectively above the ground.V2) Y 7 + (V] ....V2) Y 7 . (3. The Kirchofrs nodal current equations are written as follows: At Node I : I] = 17 + Is + 14 I] = (V] .30 Power System Analysis Fig.. (3..V3) Y8 + V] Y4 At Node 2 : .52) 12 = 15 + 19 .. 3.V3 ) y 9 .(V I .
(3.... They are called mutual admittances or transfer admittances.....V2 Y9+ V3 (Y 6 + Yg+ Y9) Thus we get the matrix relationship from the above . The diagonal elements are denoted by YII = Y4 + Y7 + Yg } Y22 = Y5 + Y7 + Y9 and Y33 = Y6 + Yg + Y9 They are called self admittances of the nodes or driving point admittances.V3 Yg I2=VI Y7+V2(YS+Y7+Y9)V3 Y9 I3 = VI Yg + V2 Y9.57) It may be recognized that the diagonal terms in the admittance matrix at each of the nodes are the sum of the admittances of the branches incident to the node..59) using double suffix denoting the nodes across which the admittances exist. Thus the relation in eqn. The matrix can be written easily by direct inspection of the network.wise incident on the node.V2 Y7 .... (3.. The offdiagonal elements are denoted by Y I2 =Y7 Y13 =Yg Y 21= Y7 . (3.V3 Y6 Re arranging the terms the equations will become II = VI (Y4 + Y7 + Yg) ..55(b)) .54) .. The off ... (3.. (3..V3) Yg + (V 2 ...Network Matrices At Node 3 : 13 = 31 Ig + 19 ..diagonal elements.16 .diagonal terms are the negative of these admittances branch . (3... (3. 3... the diagonal element is the negative sum of the off .58) Y 23 =YS Y 31 =Yg Y 32 = Y9 ..V3) Y9 .91 can be rewritten as .55(a)) ..55(c)) ..... (3. Thus..V3 (Yg+ Y9+ Y6) The last of the above equations may be rewritten as 13 = VI Yg .56) = (V 1 .
.32 Power System Analysis . the general expression for the source current towards the node i is given by Ii = I n YI) vJ .60) ..62) j=l . (3. if there are n independent buses.61) In power systems each node is called a bus. Thus... (3... (3...... i '* j ..
~o_~~~ 2 Fig. A.l. ® 5 @ 3 6 2 Fig.1 For the network shown in figure form the bus incidence matrix.l. ®o~__o@ B~ __ I I t / ffiol~__<"r_~o® ~ Fig.2 The basic loops are shown in the following figure.l.Network Matrices 33 Worked Examples E 3. E._4o@ / / 4 J( / / / / / ffio.l . the basic cutsets are marked. E. branch path incidence matrix K and loop incidence matrix C. E. 5 @O_.1 Solution: For the tree and cotree chosen for the graph shown below. Bus (l) is taken as reference.
E. E 3.3.3. E.34 (i) Power System Analysis Bus incidence matrix Number of buses == number of nodes ~ 1 2 (2) (3) (4) (5) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A== 3 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 4 1 0 0 5 6 1 1 Fig..6 Branches and the paths. .I I I 61 I I I I I I ~ ~ 2 +® +Fig.: = ~ 1 1 Al 1 0 Fig..:.S (ii) Branch path incidence matrix (K) : @o0111:1J@ 5 I . = Y = GO Wl ~ 1 2 5 6 3 4 (2) (3) (4) (5) 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~s B branches L links Buses 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 Ab 1 1 0 .4 A== = . .
Network Matrices 35 ~ 1 K= 2 5 6 (2) (3) (4) (5) 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 Fig.25 j 0.4 jO. (iii) Basic loop incidence matrix C : ~ 1 C= 2 3 4 A B 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 r~ 1 C= 2 5 A B 1 6 3 4 5 6 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Fig.25 Fig. E. E 3.3.2 Form the YBUS by using singular transformation for the network shown in Fig.3. including the generator buses.8 Branches and the paths.7 Branches and the paths. E 3.9 . jO.4 j 0. E.
E.3.10 The oriented graph is shown in Fig.3.12 .36 Power System Analysis Solution: The given network is represented in admittance form Fig.11 b c @ The above graph can be converted into the following form for convenience f e Fig. below @: a.3. CDC>ilo@ f b c o4fo@ e d Fig. E. E.
Network Matrices the element node incidence matrix is given by e\n a b A = c d e f 1\ 37 I 0 2 0 0 3 0 4 0 0 +1 1 0 +1 0 0 I 1 +1 0 +1 0 1 0 0 0 0 +1 0 1 0 +1 0 1 0 Bus incidence matrix is obtained by deleting the column corresponding to the reference bus. e\bl a b 2 3 0 4 0 1 +1 0 0 A=C d e f b\el 1 0 0 1 +1 0 0 0 1 0 0 +1 0 1 1 0 0 +1 a b c 0 d 0 e 0 f N=2 3 [_~1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 ~11 f 0 0 0 0 0 (1) 1 1 4 The bus admittance matrix 1 YBUS = [A]I [y] [A] a b 0 c 0 0 d 0 0 0 e 0 0 0 0 (2) 0 0 (3) 0 1 (4) 0 0 0 0 a Y a b 0 [y] [A] = c 0 d 0 e 0 f Yb 0 0 0 Yc 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 Yd 0 Y e 0 1 0 I 0 0 0 0 Yf 0 .
5 4 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 (4) 0 0 ~Il 0 0 4 5 4 0 0 4 2.5 10 whence.5 2.5 13 4 4 6. Y BUS = 0 2.S.5 [y][A] = 0 0 4 5 4 0 0 2. E.5 0 0 0 2.5 4 [ 2~5 2. E.3.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.5 0 E 3.5 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 2.3.5 YBUS = [A]l [y] [A] = (2) 0 (3) 0 (lr a b 0 c 0 d e 0 f 2 2. Fig.38 Power System Analysis 5 2.3 Find the YBUS using singular transformation for the system shown in Fig.13 .
1S 1\ The element mode incidence matrix A is given by (0) (1) (2) (3) (4) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 I 2 3 1\ 1 0 0 0 0 0 I 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 A= 4 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 7 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 8 9 0 1 0 ..COtree Fig..3..3.14 A tree and a cotree are identified as shown below. E..Network Matrices Solution: The graph may be redrawn for convenient as follows 7 39 Graph Fig. E.... _ _ _ _Tree ..
1 (1) (2) (3) (4) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 0 0 1 0 0 Ab 1 = Al 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 4 A= 5 6 7 8 9 [ 1 [~J = l U I 0 0 0 1 0 0 YIO 0 Y20 0 0 Y30 0 0 0 Y 40 0 0 0 0 Y34 0 0 0 0 0 Y23 0 0 0 0 0 0 YI2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 y3 0 0 0 Given [y] == 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 [Y Bus] == AI [y] A 0 Y20 YIO 0 0 0 0 Y40 0 0 0 0 Y34 0 0 0 0 0 Y23 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 y3 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 [y][A] == 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y30 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 .40 Power System Analysis The bus incidence matrix is obtained by deleting the first column taking (0) node as reference.
Y23 Y12 .Network Matrices 0 Y20 41 YIO 0 0 Y30 0 0 0 Y40 Y34 0 0 0 0 0 YI2 0 0 0 Y23 Y12 Y24 0 Y34 Y23 0 0 Y24 0 0 Y\3 0 Y\3 0 0 0 Y20 YIO 0 0 Y30 0 0 0 Y 40 Y34 0 (1) [At] [y] [A] = (2) (3) (4) [~ 0 1 2 3 4 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 0 1 6 0 1 1 7 1 1 8 0 1 0 9 0 0 0 0 Y12 0 0 0 .Y23 Y24 (y 30 + Y 13 + Y 23 + Y 34 ) Y34 ~y~ 1 .16 ..Y23 + Y12 + Y23 + Y24) .) (Y20 Y12 y13 .Y34 (y 40 + Y 34 + Y 24 ) E 3.Y24 0 Y34 Y23 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 r'] 0 0 Y24 0 0 Y\3 0 Y13 0 0 0 Y BUS = flY"~ +y" Y12 .3.4 Derive an expression for 5 ZIOOP for the oriented grapb shown below Fig.Y13 +y. E.
shown Power System Analysis . e 1 I 2 A 1 B C D E F 1 1 G 1 1 0 1 1 1\ C 3 I 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 4 5 0 1 [*.Open loops Fig..42 Solution: Consider the tree and cotree identified in the Fig....17 1\ The augmented loop incidence matrix C is obtained as shown from the Fig.+.3. E.l 6 7 1 The basic loop incidence matrix e 1 I E F 1 1 G 1 1 0 1 1 2 C= 3 6 4 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 [~b] 5 7 1 ZIOOp = [Ct] [Z] [C] = [CUUI][~~: ~~lll [~:] [Zloop]= C~[Zbb]cb + [Zbb]cb +CaZbl]+[Zn] .•• Basic loops ...
5 jO. E. Take bus (l)as reference.Network Matrices 43 Note: It is not necessary to form the augmented loop incidence matrix for this problem only loop incidence matrix suffices].u.4 (1) (3) Fig.j12.3.02 + j 0.+ _ jO.l 1 1 = (2)[_ j12 (3) jl0 + jl0 ] .jO.l jOA E 3. Compute the YBUS by singular transformation. Solution: (2) j 0. 3 <D~~"'1/#@ Fig.18 (2) YBUS 1 1 (2) .19 .3. E 3.5 jO.02. Each line has a series impedance of (0.l  (3) 1 (3) [ .5 For the system shown in figure obtain YBUS by inspection method.08) and half line charging admittance of jO. The impedance marked are in p. E.6 Consider the linear graph shown below which represents a 4 bus transmission system with all the shunt admittance lumped together. Compute the YBUS also by inspection.l 1 +1 jO.
75 0 0 0 0 2.jll. the transport of the bus 1 0 0 2 0 3 4 5 0 1 1 0 1 3 1 0 0 2 I 1 1 0 I 0 0 0 I I I The primitive admittance matrix [ y ] is shown below.44 Solution: Power System Analysis The half line charging admittances are all connected to ground.7.e ==Z 0.jl1.5 0 0 0 0 2. The bus incidence matrix is given by (0) 1 A= (1) (2) (3) 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 2 3 0 1 1 0 0 0 a 4 5 0 0 I incidence matrix is given by.94 . Taking this ground as reference and eliminating it.94 .jl1.jl1.94.08 2.94 .75 0 0 0 0 0 2. YI 0 [y]= 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Y3 0 0 0 Y4 0 0 Ys The admittance of all the branches are the same i.75 0 0 2.02 + jO.75 [y]= 0 0 0 0 0 .94 .jl1.
94.75 0+ jO .294 + jl1.j11.75 + jO.2.75 .94 + j11.94 .94 .j11.2.94 + jl1.2.94 .75 0 0 0 0 0 2.j11.75 0+ jO 0+ jO 0+ jO 0+ jO .jl1.75 0+ jO .75] Yoo = [5.75 5.94+jll.94+ j11.75 0 0 0 0 0 2.88 .94 .j23.75 Y BUS = [N] [y] [A] [~I 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 j} 0+ jO 0+ jO 0+ jO 2.75 0+ jO 2.2.94.2.94 + j11.75 0 0 0 0 0 2.2.j11.75 .94 + j11.94 + j11. 75 0 0 • 0 45 1 0 I 0 1 0 0 0 I I 0 1 1 I 1 0 I 0+ jO 0+ jO 0+ jO 2.75 294+ j11.jl1.75 2.75 5.2.94 + jl1.94.94 .94 .46] Yoo = Y22 = 5.82 .j 11.j11.j35.94 .jll.j35.2.75 0+ jO .88 .j 11.75 0+ jO 0+ jO 0+ jO 0+ jO .75 .j23.88.94 .94 .94 .82 .5 2.94 + jl1.75 0+ jO 2.j23.75 0 0 0 0 0 2.2.75 .2.j11.94.j11.75 .75 0+ jO .75 8.94 + j11.94 + jl1.94 + j11.75 2.j11.94 + j11.2.25 .94 .94 + j11.75 0+ jO .75 2.5 .Network Matrices [y] [A] = 2.jl1.75 2.94 .94 + jl1.88.94 .2.2.75 I Solution by inspection including line charging admittances: Yoo = Y01 + Y03 + Yo ~ + Yo 3/2 Yoo = [2.94 + j11.2.jI1.7 .75 0+ jO 2.75 8.94 + j11.46 Yl1 = YIO + Y12 + Y13 + YIO/2 + Y12/2 + Y13/2 Y33 = [Y30 + Y31 + Y32 + Y30/2 + Y31/2 + Y32/2] .02 + 2.75 2.02 + jO.75 2.75 .j 23.75 .94 + j11.jI 1.2.jI 1.2.
20 Taking bus (1) as reference the graph is drawn as shown in Fig.75 YI2 = Y21 = (Yo2) = 0 Y03 = Y30 = (Y03) = 2.94 + j 11.88 .94 + j 11. The transmission lines are connected between buses 12.2.2 and jO. jO.j35.94 + j 11.46 I The slight changes in the imaginary part of the diagnal elements are due to the line charging capacitances which are not neglected here.75 2.75 8.l.1 Fig.82 .1 respectively.4 ® """'" j 0.94 + j 11.94 + jl1. 14.2 jO.j 11.19 5. Generators are connected at buses 1 and 3 reactances of which are jO.2.75 2.25 @ jO.75) YOI 2.94+ jl1.94 + jl1.94 + jl1.7 A power system consists of 4 buses.j 35. E.5 j 0.j23. Find the bus admittance matrix (i) by direct inspection (ii) using bus incidence matrix and admittance matrix.4 and j 0.82 .75 5.46 Power System Analysis Yll = Y33 = 3 (2.02) = 8.82 .75 .5.88 .94 + jll.94 + jl1.94 .l9 .25 + j 0.94+ jl1. Solution: jO.19] the off diagonal elements are = YIO = YOI = 2. jO.94+ jl1. E 3.82 .75) + 3 00.75 .1 j 0.l respectively.2. 23 and 34 and have reactances jO.94+jll.2.75 0 .2.006 YII = Y33 = [8.j 35.25.94+ jll.75 Y2b = Y32 = (Y23) = (2.75 8.46 .75 0 2. .j35.75 2.j23.75) Y31 = Y\3 = (Y\3) = (2.
2S jO.2S jO.2S 0 I jO.jI2.S I I jO..4 jO..S .1 0  (2) I (3) 0 jO.S j2.4 jO.0 0 j4. E.S JIO + j2 JIO .1 jO.:::j 0.0 .I I This reduces to (1) (2) (3) 0 (4) I 2 3 4 .4 jO.0 j4..jI2 Deleting the reference bus (1) (2) (2) (3) (4) 0 .S I jO.21 Only the network reactances are considered. By direct inspection: (1) I 2 3 4 +jO.j6.S .4 1 1 I .5 JIO jlO .S 0 (4) I +jO.5 0 YBUS = (3) (4) j2.5 j2.j6.0 0 j2..3.0 ... Generator reactances are not considered.2S I 1 1 +jO.5 I I 1 jO.Network Matrices @ .j6.1 jO.~~.j12.4 3 ® 4 47 CD Fig.S 0 j2.jI2.+jO.
j125 jIO jl0 o 1 0 .5 The bus incidence matrix is from the graph (2) (3) (4) 0 A=2 3 4 0 1 +1 1 0 0 1 +1 0 0 j2.5 jl0 0 and y.j6.j2.48 By singular transformation The primitive impedance matrix Power System Analysis 1 1 2 0 0 0 jO. A= I 1 1 0 i4 .5 0 ..5 3 0 0 0 4 [z]= 2 3 4 IT II jO.5 j2.j. 3 4 1 2 j2 3 j4 1 1 0 0 .5 i21 ~1O 0 0 NyA= [I ~ 0 0 1 0 ~} j4 0 0 0 jl0 j2 .5 j2.5 .j120 .j2.5 j2.jl0 = [.4 The primitive admittance matrix is obtained by taking the reciprocals of z elements since there are no matrices.
2 49 4 5 j 0. E.831 0. E.22 Solution: Solution is obtained using singular transformation The primitive admittance matrix is obtained by inverting the primitive impedance as 4 2 3 5 10 0 0 0 0 0 6.2 j 0.66 0 0 0 [y]= 1 0 0 6.3.952 2.952 1 J ® @ CD ® Fig.8 For the system shown in figure for m YBUS' j 0.Network Matrices E 3.381 I 0 0 0 0 0 2.3. ~ ~jO'1 Q) Fig.23 .5 CD 1__.66 0 0 2 0 0.
66 0 0 0 [YJ= 1 0 0 6.50 Power System Analysis From the graph shown in figure the elementnode incidence matrix is given by e \ node 0 1 0 1 0 +1 2 A= 3 4 5 0 0 0 +1 1 0 2 +1 1 3 0 0 0 +1 +1 1 0 I Taking bus zero as reference and eliminating its column the bus incidence matrix A is given by (I) 0 (2) +1 1 1 0 1 (3) 0 0 0 +1 +1 2 A= 3 4 +1 +1 1 0 5 0 0 0 IO 0 0 6.381 0 0 2.42 1.831 .66J 6.66 0 6.42 1.42 1.32 0 6.858 19.66 .952 2. 0.66 6.518 2.66 6.66 6.8580 r 9.66 0 0 2 0 0.66 0 0 1.42 = 2.66 0 10 0 6.51 6.952 0 0 0 The bus admittance matrix YBUS is obtained from YBUS =Ny A 0 1 • 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 ~r:1 +1 I +1 I I 0 +1 0 0 +1 ~} 13.
j 0.5 "" / @ jO. P. CD @ j 0.4 j 0.2 • j 0.5 Fig.2 Compute the bus admittance matrix for the power shown in figure by (i) direct inspection method and (ii) by using singular transformation.5 / i 0.3 Fig.1 "" ® P 3.25 j 0. P.Network Matrices 51 Problems P 3.1 Determine ZLOOP for the following network using basic loop incidence matrix.3.l.5 j 0.2 .
9 Ct [z] C Show that YBR = Bt [y] B where [y] is the primitive admittance matrix and B is the basic cut set matrix Prove that ZBR = AB ZBUS ABT with usual notation Prove that YBR = K YBUS Kt with usual notation .52 Questions 3. Show that ZLOOP = 3.2 3.5 Power System Analysis Derive the bus admittance matrix by singular transformation Prove that ZBUS = Kt ZBR K Explain how do you form YBUS by direct inspection with a suitable example.4 3.6 3. Derive the expression for the loop impedance matrix ZLOOP using singular trar.3 3.8 3.7 3.sformation in terms of primitive impedance matrix Z and the basic loop incidence matrix C.1 3. Derive the expression for bus admittance matrix Y BUS in terms of primitive admittance matrix and bus incidence matrix.
removal of lines and change in parameters. B. Such an algorithm would be very convenient for various manipulations that may be needed while the system is in operation such as addition of lines. K and B.4 BUILDING OF NETWORK MATRICES Introduction In Chapter 4 methods for obtaining the various network matrices are presented. a partial network is considered. A. C for singular and nonsingular transformation respectively. Further. It is possible to build the Z bus by using an algorithm where in systematically element by element is considered for addition and build the complete network directly from the element parameters. Thus. C. the procedure for obtaining Y or Z matrices in any frame of reference requires matrix transformations involving inversions and multiplications. This could be a very laborious and time consuming process for large systems involving hundreds of nodes.1 BIIS 4. At the beginning to stal1 with.1 Partial Network In order to huild the network element hy element. this element having two terminals connected to tWll nodes . These methods basically depend upon incidence matrices. The basic equation that governs the performance of a network is V BUS = rZBlJ<i  1. the building up of the network and its ZS\ IS or Y sus model a single element I is considered.
.2 . then it may be either a branch or a link. The branch is connected in series with the existing node either (1) or (2) giving rise to a third node (3).. 4. to which.1 In this case no new bus is formed. in step that follows a branch or a link is added. The terminals of the already existing network will be called (x) and (y). @ 2 (a) Branch 2 CD (b) Branch and Link @ Fig.. We shall use the notation (a) and (b) for the nodes of the element added either as a branch or as a link.2). On the contrary.. This is shown in (Fig. When we connect any other element 2 to this element 1.54 Power System Analysis say (1) and (2) will have one of the terminals as reference or ground. as element by element is added to an existing network. 4. Thus. Thus if node (1) is the reference then the element will have its own self impedance as ZBUS. 4.1).. The element I with nodes (1) and (2) is called the partial network that is already existing before the branch or link 2 is connected to the element. CD e . the network already in existence is called the partial network. Thus generalizing the process consider m buses or nodes already contained in the partial network in which (x) and (y) are any buses (Fig. 4. a link is connected across the terminals (1) and (2) parallel to element I. PARTIAL NETWORK ® Branch @6 Ref.... BUS ADDITION OF A BRANCH CD @ @ ® @ @ PARTIAL NETWORK Fig..
Building of Network Matrices
Recalling Eqn. (4.1)
55
V BUS = [ZBUS ]1 BUS
in the partial network (m x 1) dimension.
[ZBUS]
will be of[m
x
m] dimension while
VBUS
and
IBUS
will be of
The voltage and currents are indicated in (Fig. 4.3)
PARTIAL NETWORK
I
II
I
12
(
t
I
t
I
~
mlO
6 6
) Ref. BUS
V2~·~~ VI~·~J
Fig. 4.3 Partial Network.
The performance equation (4.1) for the partial network is represented in the matrix form as under.
VI V2 ZII ZI2 ... Zlm Z21 Z22··· Z 2m II 12
..... (4.1 )
Vm
Zml Zm2 ... Zmm
1m
4.2
Addition of a Branch
Consider an element ab added to the node (a) existing in the partial network. An additional node (b) is created as in (Fig. 4.4)
l
(
PARTIAL NETWORK
I
I
()
CD
@
6
®
Branch added
®
@
) Ref. BUS
@
Fig. 4.4 Addition of a Branch.
56
The performance equation will be
Power System Analysis
..... (4.2)
_______  ___
Zml Zm2 ... Zma ... ____ L __ _ 2mb  Zmm Zbl Zb2 ... Zba ... Zbm : Zbb
The iast row and the last column in the Zmatrix are due to the added node b Zbi = Zib········ ...... where i = 1,2, ............... m for all passive bilateral elements. The added branch element ab may have mutual coupling with any of the elements of the partial network.
Calculation of Mutual Impedances
It is required to find the self and mutual impedance elements of the last row and last column of eq. (4.2). For this purpose a known current, say I = 1 p.u. is injected into bus K and the voltage is measured as shown in (Fig. 4.5) at all other buses. We obtain the relations.
PARTIAL NETWORK
®
iab
®
Ref. BUS
~
Branch added
~
:~
!
b~
:
Fig. 4.5 Partial Network with Branch Added (Calculations of Mutual Impedances).
VI = ZIk1k
V2 =
Z2k 1k
..... (4.3)
Building of Network Matrices
Since Ik is selected as 1 p.u. and all other bus currents are zero. Zbk can be known setting Ik=l.O, from the measured value of Vb'
57
..... (4.3a)
We have that
..... (4.4)
Also,
ab = [ ~ xy 1 [Yabab Y"yab
I
Yabxy [e ab Yxyxy exy
1 1
..... (4.5)
Yabab = self admittance of added branch ab .Y abxy = mutual admittance between added branch ab and the elements xy of partial network
Y = transpose of Yabxy xyab
Y"yxy = primitive admittance of the partial network iab = current in element ab eab = voltage across the element ab It is clear from the (Fig. 4.5) that iab = 0 ..... (4.6) But, eab is not zero, since it may be mutually coupled to some elements in the partial network. Also, exy=VxV y where Vx and Vy are the voltages at the buses x and Y in the partial network. The current in ab iab = Yabab eab + ..... (4.7)
Y ~ xy = 0 abxy
..... (4.8)
58
From equation (4.6) Yabab eab + Yabxy xy  Yabxy e xy Yabab substituting equation (4.7)
 YabxyCV x  V y)
Power System Analysis
e
=
0
..... (4.9)
Yabab From equation (4.4) Yabx/ V x  V y) Vb = Va + "Yabab
..... (4.10)

..... (4.11)
Using equation (4.3) a general expression for the mutual impedance Zbl between the added branch and other elements becomes Yabxy (Zxi  ZYI ) Zbi = Zai + 'Yabab i = I,2, ....... ,m; i i: b Calculation of self impedance of added branch Zab' In order to calculate the self impedance Zbb once again unit current Ib = 1 p.u. will be injected into bus b and the voltages at all the buses will be measured. Since all other currents are zero.
..... (4.12)
VI = ZIb1b
V2 =
Z2b 1b
..... (4.13)
Vm = 2mb1b
Vq = Zbb1b
Building of Network Matrices
PARTIAL NETWORK
59
@
CD
6 ®
I
©
Fig.4.6 Partial Network with Branch Added (Calculations of Self Impedance).
The voltage across the elements of the partial network are given by equation (4.7). The currents are given by equation (4.5) Also, iab=Ib =1

..... (4.14)

From equation (4.8) iab = Yababeab + Yabxy exy = 1 But Therefore

exy = Vx  Vy
1 = Yabab eab + Yebxy (Vx  Vy)
Hence
..... (4.15)
Note:
= (Zxb  Zyb) Ib = (Zxb  Zyb) substituting from equation (4.16) into (4.15) [I+Yabxy(Zxb ZYb)] Yabab From equation (4.4) Vb = Va  eab Therefore Vb=Va+ ll+Yabxy(Zxb ZYb)J Yabab ..... (4.16)
..... (4.16a)
Yab _ ab is the self admittance of branch added ab also

Yabxv is the mutual admitt",nce vector between ab and xyo
60
Vb=Zbblb' Va = Zab Ib' Ib = 1 p.u.

Power System Analysis
and Hence,
1+ Y abxy (Zxb  Zyb)
Zbb = Zab +
Yabab
..... ( 4.17)
Special Cases,'
If there is no mutual coupling from equation (4.12) with And since Z
ab  ab
=
1 Y abab
Yabxy
=0
IZb, = Zall;
From equation (4.17)
i
=
1,2, ................ , m; i
=1=
b
IZbb = Zab + Zababl
If there is no mutual coupling and a is the reference bus equation (4.12) further reduces to with From eqn. (4.17) and
Zal = 0
Z bl = 0
i=I,2, ................. ,m;i=l=b
Zab = 0 Zbb = Zab  abo
4.3
Addition of a Link
PARTIAL NETWORK
®u~(
CD
®
Ref. BUS
@
~~~~~I V, ..____________________I
~
Vb~
V2~.
Vl~~
Fig. 4.7 Addition of a Link (Calculation of Mutual Impedance).
Building of Network Matrices
Consider the partial network shown in (Fig. 4.7) Consider a link connected between a and b as shown.
61
The procedure for building up ZBUS for the addition of a branch is already developed. Now, the same method will be used to develop an algorithm for the addition of a link. Consider a fictitious node I between a and b. Imagine an voltage source VI in series with it between I and b as shown in figure (4.6). Voltage VI is such that the current through the link ab (ie) iah = 0 eab = voltage across the link ab VI = source voltage across Ib = elb Thus we may consider that a branch aI is added at the node (a) since the current through the link is made zero by introducing a source voltage VI. Now consider the performance equation
E BUS = [ZBUS] . !sus

..... (4.18)
once again the partial network with the link added
2
VI V2 VI Va Vm
VI
ZlI 2 Z21 Zil a Za1
Z12 Z22 ZI2 Za2
Zli Z2i Zii ZI2
a ... Zla Z2a Zia Zaa
m I Zlm II ZII Z2m : Z21 Zun II Zil I I Zam
I I I I I I I I I
II
12
==
•
II ..... (4.19) la 1m II
Zal

I I m Zml Zm2 Zml Zma Zmm : Zml TI Z/1 Z/2 ... Z/i ... Z/a ... Z/m : Z"
Also, the last row and the last column in Zmatrix are due to the added fictitious node I. VI=VIV b
..... (4.20)
Calculation of Mutual Impedances
The element Zh' in general, can be determined by injecting a current at the ith bus and measuring the voltage at the node i with respect to bus b. Since all other bus currents are zero we obtain from the above consideration. VI and
=
Zh Ii; k
Z" II
=
1, 2, ........................ m
..... (4.21) ..... (4.22)
VI =
62
Power System Analysis
Letting II = 1.0 p.u. Zh can be seen as v I which is the same as vI But v/=VaVbeal
..... (4.23)
It is already stated that the current through the added link iab = 0
Treating aI as a branch, current in this element in terms of primitive admittances and the voltages across the elements ial = Yaf al • eal + Ya/xy . exy Where YafXY are the mutual admittances of any element xy in the partial network with respect to al and exy is the voltage across the element xy in the partial network. But iaf = iab = 0 Hence, equation (4.23) gives
..... (4.24) ..... (4.24)
Note that and
Yalaf = Yabab Yafxy = Yabxy eaf = [ Yabxy Yabab
..... (4.26)
..... ( 4.27)
Therefore
'~Xy 1
..... (4.28)
v, = va  Vb +
Yabxyexy Yabab
(i.e.)
since
II = 1.0 p.u. i = 1, ............... , m
i
"#
I
Also,
exy=vxv y
..... ( 4.29)
Thus, using equation 4.20 and putting II = 1.0 p.u.
Building of Network Matrices
63
..... (4.30)
i = 1,2, ............... , m i::l=l
In this way, all the mutual impedance in the last row and last column of equation (4.19) can be calculated.
Computation of Self impedance
Now, the value of ZII' the self impedance in equation (4.30) remains to be computed. For this purpose, as in the case of a branch, a unit current is injected at bus I and the voltage with respect to bus b is measured at bus I. Since all other bus currents are zero.
PARTIAL NETWORK
®U<it"{
Ref. BUS @
Fig. 4.8 Addition of a Link (Calculation of Self Impedance).
Vk=Zk' I,;
and But k = 1,2 ............... , m ..... (4.31) ..... (4.32)
=
v, = Z,, I,
I, = 1 p.u.
ial
..... (4.33)
The current ia, in terms of the primitive admittances and voltages across the elements ..... (4.34) =1 Again, as YaIxy = Yabxy and ..... (4.35)
..... (4.36)

Then, from eqn. (4.34) 1
=
Ya'a' eat + Yabxyexy

we short circuit the series voltage source From eqn. (4.Zbl. (4. For this. Z/i = Zbl Also Z " = Zbl + zabab } ..40) i~I .........43) Thus all the elements introduced in the performance equation of the network with the link added and node I created are determined.37) = ZXI . 2. (4.Zbl + Yabab Case (i) : no mutual impedance If there is no mutual coupling between the added link and the other elements in the partial network Yabxy are all zero =zabab Yabab Hence we obtain Z/i 1 .(1 + Yabxy exy ) Yabab Substituting exy =VVy x .......42) ..19) VI' which does not exist in reality ...64 eal Power System Analysis ......ZXI ZYI' I I  = ..39) = Zai ... (4.ZYI ) ..41) Case (ii) : no mutual impedance and a is reference node If there is no mutual coupling and a is the reference node Zal= 0....0 p. (4.ZYI (since II = 1...I1. ... i = 1. m .. It is required now to eliminate the node \...u) 1 + Yabxy (ZXI .38) Z" = Zal . (4.... (4... (4.
ZI' Z.. ..48) Consider the removal of an element from a network.46) Substituting in equation (4.ZI..j] Z" and for any element Z'j(mod ified) = [Z.. ..Z'j Z" Removal of Elements or Changes in Element 1 .. In a similar manner..... if the impedance of the element is changed.. m 0 (since the source is short circuited) .lBUS + Z"I.. The modified impedance can be obtained by adding in parallel with the element a link. (4. ( 4... (4.. From equation (4. whose impedance is equal to the negative of the impedance to be removed.44) ..47) we obtain ZBUS (modified) = [ZBus(befOreaddition oflink) ....... (4.Building of Network Matrices  65 .. then the modified impedance matrix obtained by adding a link in parallel with the element such that the equivalent impedance of the two elements is the desired value.45) I _ ..j(befOre addition of link . .... (4...2... = Z'j.lBUS ZI/ ...44) V BUS = [ZBUS ]IBUS + Z.. V. j = = 1.Z'J.45) Solving for II from equation (4...4 7) This is the performance equation for the partial network including the link ab incorporated..iI.
4 Removal or Change in Impedance of Elements with Mutual Impedance Changes in the configuration of the network elements introduce changes in the bus currents of the original network... 4... 4.9 Removal or Change in Impedance of an Element. ( 4. The basic bus voltage relation is with changes in the bus currents denoted by the vector performance relation will become ~IBus  the modified voltage . Zxy Y changed to ZI XY 1 I 1 =+I Z xy ZXY il Zxy However.49) . In order to study the effect of removal of an element or changes in the impedance of the element can be studied by considering these changes in the bus currents. the above are applicable only when there is no mutual coupling between the element to be moved or changed with any element or elements of partial network.66 Power System Analysis @ PARTIAL OR FULL NETWORK Zxy ZXy PARTIAL OR FULL NETWORK 6) @ NETWORK NETWORK x Zxy Z"xy 6) Fig.
The usual method is to inject a known current (say 1 p.. Let the element be coupled to another element in the network rs. at any jlh bus Ij = 1.0 M< Ik I~~ irs = 0 [k n = 1. ® 0~....u... 4. n.. ( 4. 2 .... ..u) at the bus j and measure the voltage at bus i. .. With the index k introduced. 4.......... k:....t: j] Then v/ =IZlk (Ik +AI k=1 k) i = I.. Consider an element pq in the network.0 Fig.10 Inject a current of 1 p... equation may be understood from (Fig...Building of Network Matrices 67 V BUS is the new bus voltage vector.50) ®eeil I ... If now the element pq is removed from the network or its impedance is changed then the changes in the bus currents can be represented by ...2....~1~~~... .. n...... It is desired now to calculate the impedances Z:j of the modified impedance matrix [ Z I BUS ] .10).
52) From the performance equation of the primitive network.. 3 ... ~ are used as the subscripts for the elements of both pq and rs then V. the sytem in Fig 4.. IfY2 element is removed..j Llipq .11 (a)..q)Llipq + (Zir ZJLl irs .~ )LliCl~ i = 1.. n .' = Zij + (ZiCl  Z. ..51) If n. Y matrix is shown.k=s From equation Lllk_=Lli.ZiqLl ipq + Z.. 2.(2) (2) (3) 0 Y22 0 [Yf @ (b) (3) ~1 Fig..sLli rs = Z'J + (Z. ..... (4.pq.' = Z lje1 + Z . 4.p Z. (1)1_... (4. Consider as an example.. the yl matrix is shown in Fig.11(b).Z.kq LlIk =Llirs.... 4. @ (1) (2) (3) Y2 (1) y = (2) (3) 0 [Yf Y22 Y32 Y: Y33 j Y.. (4.~=! ) .r Lli rs ... @ (1) I _ (I) Y .. Y.50(a)) V.k=r LlIk =Llirs. . (4.11 .....53) Where [Ysm] and [Ysm]l are the square sub matrices of the original and modified primitive admittance matrices..68 Power System Analysis Lllk Lllpq.
. . (4.P 1 ~ I . (5.56) for ~io. 4..Z8J The above equation gives the bus voltage vi at the bus i as a result of injecting I p.. (4.54) substituting from eqn. the multiplying factor ...~ and y8.... .. We know that . ( 4..56) Solving eqn.58) by F..55) for V~8 into eqn.13= [F]I[~Ysm] substituting equation (4..59) [Zyj Z8J] . . (4..ZiP )[F]1 [~y sm] [ZYJ .. . The ij the element of modified bus impedance matrix is then. n to obtain all element of ZIBUS ' .p Where U is unit matrix Designating and the term (~y sm ) = [y sm ] ..52) ..ZOJ] = The process is to be repeated for each j 1.52) for I vyand v8 Vy8 =ZYJ Z8J +([Zyo.55) Substituting from eqn.u.. ( 4..60) in equation (4...ZiP) [F ]1 [~y sm] [Zy.61 ) V! = Zij + (Zlo..Building of Network Matrices 69 Then... 2. ( 4..10) The subscripts of the elements of (Iy sm IIylsm I ) are a...][Zyo.53) .60) ~io. (4. (4.(4... the rows and column of the sub matrices Ysm and Ysm l correspond to the network elements pq and rs (Fig.. Ysm and Ysm l are given: Ysm = [~:~ ~::] and Y'sm [Y~2 ~] = Thus.. ZI'J =ZiJ + (Zlo..][Z&x]+[Zyp])~lo.....(4..[Y~m ] giving the changes in the admittance matrix . 1 current at bus j and the approximate current changes.
4 ~ 1QU 1 n~O_.u_.u _ 0.4. E.1 A transmission line exists between buses 1 and 2 with per unit impedance 0.70 Power System Analysis Worked Examples E. Z zl = (2) (I) ._2n° _ ! O.2 p.u. Solution: Consider the system with one line Bus 1 Bus2 0.u 2 Fig.2 Now consider the addition of the second line in parallel with it The addition of the second line is equivalent to addition of a link.lp. Obtain by building algorithm method the impedance of the twocircuit system.1 p.u line Fig.4. The augmented impedance matrix with the fictitious node I introduced. is connected in parallel with it making it a doublcircuit line with mutual impedance of 0.2p.1 Taking bus (1) as reference the ZBUS is obtained as (2) (1) (1) (2) 0 0 0 0.4. E.u.4 p.4.. Another line of impedance 0.4 p.
6125 (2) (I) Zaugmented = (2) [0.4286)(0 .7143 = 0.4 .Building of Network Matrices 12(1) 12(2) Z = 1.7143 = 0.4 abxy 12(1) [ 0.IJl a=l.35] (I) 0.857 1.zl2 zll = 0.2(2) 0.~YI)J =0 .35) + ~'''''" [1 + (1.4 + (1.2(2) Z h ai 7.1 0.2(1) 1.2 71 O.0.35 Z" =ZaJ  a bl + = II + YabXY (~XI .(0.4286 5.35)] Yabab 5. I 12(2) 1.2625 0.35 0.2 0. + bl Yabxy (~XI Y abab ~YI ) Z21 = ZI2 = 0 .35) = 0.Zbl + ='Yabab YabXy=[ZabXyJ 1 [(_O~~I =Z 00~1) .35 + 0.2 = 0. 1 (008 00)=12(1) [2.4 .0.6125 ZBUS = (2) I2 I (2) .(0. eliminating the fictions bus 1 ~2 (modified) = Z~2 = Z22 _ Z21 .4286)(0 .0.2) 5. .7143 1 1.ZYI) Zii = Zal .35)(0.(0.x=l b = 2.4 0. Y = 2 Yabxy (ZXI .4286] .6125 Now.
4.2(1) 1.2(1) = 2.05 o [YabXY ] = [ZabXY 1.2(2) 13 r t J 1.051 0 0.3 0.2(2) 1.4 0. obtain the bus impedance matrix by using the building algorithm.3 1.1 0.Zy.2(1) 1.1 is further extended by the addition of a transmission line from bus (1). 4.impedance of 0.2(1) 1.2(2) 13 r 1. Solution : Consider the extended system 2 Fig.05 p.0.u.1 0.2439 1. E.2 0.) ~i=zal+ The primitive impedance matrix Zabxy is given by Zabxy = 1.7317 0.3 0.4634 5.2(2) 1.u.3 p.2439 3.4878 .72 Power System Analysis E.2 The double circuit line in the problem E 4. and a self .9208 1.4634 04878] 0. The new line by virtue of its proximity to the existing lines has a mutual impedance of 0.3 Nowa=landb=3 Also a is the reference bus  Yabab  Yabxy (ZXI .4146 .
4 .2 is further extended by adding another transmission line to bus 3 w itil 001£ in pedance of 0 .0.29388 ZBUS = (2) (3) E 4.4146 Z33 = Z23] Z23 [ " J 1.24.4146 (2) (3) 0. i = 2.0 bta.2439)] [0 .04828 = 0.4878 0.4878)(0.3 1 0.in tile Z BUS Solution: 2 0.2 0.:= = 0 + ='=Yl313 3.2 0.4. E.29388 3.014286 ZI3 + '=.2] 0 .3 p.0.3 The system E4. a = 1 0 + [(0.4 3 /= 4 0.01428 0.01428] [ 0.)9 z13 0.Building of Network Matrices Setting b 73 = 3.2 + Y1313==== = 3.0.u Fig.0034844 = 0.:.4146 Z22] Z22 [y 1312(I)Y 1312(2)] [Z12 z12 = 0.014286 Z 32 = Z 12 3.4146 l Z13 ][0.014286 1 + [YI312(1)YI312(2) ][ 1 + .3 p.u .
.2 0.1428 0. Node) 0 == 0. ..4 The system in E 4. E.4.3 is further extended and the radial system is converted into a ring system joining bus (2) to bus (4) for reliability of supply.29288 0.74 Power System Analysis Consider the system shown above with the line 4 added to the previous system.59288 (4) (2) 0. Z41 = z41 = 0 (ref....29288 j 0.01428 0.. The self impedance of element 5 is 0. m i :..29288 0.29288 + 0.u Solution: 2 I 3 5 4 Fig...01428 0.1 p. This is the case of the addition of a branch.5 .: b Zbb = zab + zabab = z31 setting i = 1. a=3 b=4 There is no mutual coupling. 2 and 3 respectively we can compute. 4..01428 0. Obtain the ZBUS. 2.3 (3) = 0.59288 E. i = 1. Bus (3) is not the reference bus.29288 == == Z33 z31 Z42 = z32 = Z41 z4i == + Z44_44 (2) (3) (4) ZBUS = l = 0.1428 0.
86432 Z33 (modIfied) • z31 zl3 = Z33 = .86432 = 0.18572)(0. Hence initially a fictitious node I is created.86432 = 0.0.01428 0..0.01428 0. Z.01428 .27852 1 0.zbl zil = zal .0.ZII = 0. there is no mutual impedance bus (2) is not a reference node.29288 0.0.86432 (2) (3) (4) 0.27582 .01428  (0..1 = 0.01428 + 0. However.1 = 0.18572)(0.86432 .1386 0.18572 z43 setting i 4 = ZI4 = zl3 = 0.27852) 0.2 _ (0. 0.5786) = 0.2 .18572 + 0. z?2  ·fi ( mo d 1 Ie d) = Zz2 _ Z21 ZI2  zn Z21 ZI3 Z Ii .. zn = 0.01428 + 0.0.18572)(0.01428 = 0. 5786 = zll (augmented) + zal  a bl + zabab = Z21.5786 0.16 0.0.2 0.59288  0.86432 .Building of Network Matrices 75 The ring system is shown in figure now let a = 2 and b = 4 addition of the line 5 is addition of a link to the existing system.0.(0.29288 = .0741267 Zz4 (modified) = Z?I ZI4 z33 .5786 Now it remains to eliminate the fictitious node I.01428 .59288 (I) (2) (3) (4) (I) [0.Z44 = 0.01428 0.59288  (0.l3 z_ (modified) = Z 23 = 0.059467 = 0.0 .18572) .5786 + 0.27852 = z24 .50313 .27582)(0.59288 = 0.29288 18572 .zbl with with i= 2 i= 3 = zZI z31 Z41 Z = zZ2 = ~3  + zabab Z42 = zi2 = 0.1428 .18572 .0.i = zal .0 .27852) 0.0897507 = 0.29288 0.01428 0.Z41 + 0.1243261 = 0.
1386 (3) 0.1 p.5 Compute the bus impedance matrix for the system shown in figure by adding element by element.2928 z (modified) = (0.106431 (4) 1386 0.106431 0.0741267 0.50313 0.25 p.106431 44 z 44 _ Z41 Zl4 Z II = 0.(0.59288 . E.u t 0.2055 0.38733 = 0.5786) 0.2055 1 E 4.59288 .29288  0.5786)(0. 0.86432 = 0.186449 = 0.6 Stepl Taking bus (1) as reference bus ZBUS = (2) Ij0.86432 The ZBUS for the entire ring system is obtained as ZBUS (2) (2) [0.u @ @ Fig.4.76 Z34 Power System Analysis (modified) = z43 (modified) = 0.16 = (3) 0.0.25 I (2) . Take bus (2) as reference bus Solution: j 0.57861) = 0.0741267 (4) 0.27852)(0.
25 + =.j2.j0.5 = '0.j2.1739 J J J .Building of Network Matrices 77 Step2 Ass line joining buses (2) and (3).25 Z32 Z23 Z33 Yabxy (ZXI .jO. jO.5 • [ .zYI) zbl = zal   + Yabab The primitive impedance matrix.869(0 .349 + '0.l . jO.869(0 .869] .j4.869 jO. a = (2).1739 = J·0.5 @ Fig. b = (3) j 0.1739 z(pnmitive) = 1 Yabxy = [z]pnmlllve.099 = J·0.= Hence Z32 = J·0.349 + 1 + 0.347 [ jO.7 (2) (3) Z BUS = (2) (3)  jO.25 j 0.2S .jO.349) = '0.4.l] jO.25 + J·0. E.349 Z33 JO.25) .946 _ j2.JO. This is addition of a branch with mutuals.
349 + zl313 zl3 = z33 = zn = Z31 = = +j 0.9464 j1.25 j 0.jO.25 j 1. Z 2_ ry (modified) = Z ry 2_ _ z21 Z12 Z 11 . A fictitious bus I is created. E.349 jO.349 .4.9464 = Z32 = j 0.946 .78 (2) (3) j0.25 j0.8 Zli = Zbl zn = z bi Z12 + zabab j 0.9464 The factious node (I) is now eliminated.196 The augmented impedance matrix (2) (2) ZEUS (3) (4) jO.l96 = (3) (I) . j 0.9464 + j 0.jO.349 .jO.25 j 0.349 jO.25 jO.5 Unk oddod / ® Fig.jO.349 jO.946 Power System Analysis z BUS = (2) (3) jO.349 Step3 : Add the live joining (l) and (3) buses. This is addition of a link to the existing system with out mutual impedance.
1 p. 0. The elements of the bus impedance matrix for the partial network containing the single branch are ..1976 BUS  _[iO.349)( jO.072834 z33 = z33 .lI 0.5 p. _ Z21 zp ~ Z II = '0.'09464)2 J.6 Using the building algorithm construct Choose 4 as reference BUS.1481 jl.196 Z? ~ (modified) = z u (modified) = z . = 0.jO.94645  (.3 p.l976J l zBUS E.j0.1481 i O.Building of Network Matrices = 79 jO.u 1 2 @ Fig.349 _ (.0728 jO.u 0.4.Z II Z31 zl3 = j 0.2 p.25 _ (. 4. j1. @ for the system shown below.349)( .3 p.l96 (modIfied) .349) = 0.9 Solution: Stepl Start with element (1) which is a branch a = 4 to b = 1.j0.9464) J j1.196 Hence Z = 0.u 4 0.lI 3 0.0728 iO. E.
3 + 0.@ Branch Added Step2 Add element (2) which is a branch a = 1 to b = 2. The BUS impedance matrix. E.(1) ~.3 0.3 = Z12 + z1212 = 0.5 p. .3 Since node 4 chosen as reference.4.10 Taking bus (4) as reference bus (4) (1) zBUS  (4) rrffij0 (1) 0 0. 2 0.u Ref. ® Fig.8 BUS  Add element (3) which is a branch a = 2 to b = 3.5 = 0. This adds a new BUS.11 (1) (2) Z12 Z22 Z = BUS (I) (2) 0.3 0. The elements of the first row and column are zero and need not be written thus (1) ZBUS = (1) ~ .8 (I) (2) Z Step3 0. This adds a new bus.3 Power System Analysis Fig.80 0.3 .3 Z21 Z12 z22 = Z21 = Zll = 0. E.4.3 (2) 0.
2 p.3 0.2 (1) (2) (3) Hence. E.12 (1) (2) (3) (1) ZBUS = (2) 0. The augmented impedance matrix with the fictitious node I will be.5 p..3 0.u 0.Building of Network Matrices @r0._ CD Fig.u 2 0.2 p.u 3 I 0. ® _ .4. ZBUS ZI3 = ~1 = Z21 = = 1. I 4 0.3 .3 p..8 OJ 0.5 p.0 (1) = (2) (3) OJ 0.u 81 3 0.8 1.8 + 0.u 2 0.3 p.u Ref.13 I .3 z\3 OJ 0.8 0. b=3.4.8 Z33 = ~3 + Z2323 = 0. E.3 0.1.1_ _ _1_.u I Fig.8 Z23 Z31 Z23 Z33 (3) 0..0 Step4 Add element (4) which is a link a = 4...3 0.3 z32 = z23 = ~2 = 0.
.3 1 _ 1 _ _ (Z31)(Z12) _ Z23 .3 0.3 = 1.Z22 Zll 0 3 _ (0.0 230769 .. .3 (2) (3) (l) To eliminate the [Ih row and column 1 _ _ (Zll XZn) _ Zll .3 0.0 Z/3 z\I Z2/ Z3/ zli 0.3)(1.3 0. 1..0 Zzl = zlI z12 .z12 . . 1.8) .8 (l) ZIf = zlI .3 0. .8 (3) (l) 0.3 0.z32 = z31 = Z \3  Z 33 = = z31 + Z4343 = {I) + 0.8 1.8 0.8 0.3 0.3 1.8 1.8 1.3)(0.3 0. 1.z31 = 0.0 0.018461 .Z32 Zll ..3 0.3 08.8) .3 0.zI3 . .. 1.3 0.0 30769 .0)(0.8 Z/2 (1) (2) (3) 0.0 06923 .z12 .3 The augmented matrix is (1) (1) (2) 0.Zll Zll 0 3 _ (0.. 1.0) .8 0.3)(0.3 (0.82 (1) Power System Analysis (2) (3) (l) 0.(1.0 1.8) 01153 .3 1 _ 1 _ _ (Zll)(Z21) 03Z21 .0 1.3) .8)(0.3 0.3 0 8 _ (0.zI3 Zll 1 _ _ (Z21 )(Z12) _ Z22 .3 Z/1 0. Zll 1 _ 1 _ _ (Zll )(ZI3) _ Z31 .Z32 .
230769 z13 (I) Zu Z21 Z31 Zll (I) zll =z/l =Z31 Zll +Y3131 Y3123(Z22 Z32) Y3131 Y3123(Z21 Z31) zl2 = Z21 = Z32 .4. .230769· 0. The augmented impedance matrix with the fictitious node I will be 4 0.06923 83 and.06923 Zll (2) 0.3 0. (1) ZBUS (2) 0..1153 0..1153 0.14 (1) (2) (3) (1) 0..230769 =(2) (3) Step5 Add element (5) which is a link a = 3 to b = 1.1153 0.06923 0. mutually coupled with element (4).06923 0.18461 (3) 0.3 2 Fig. E.30769 0.230769 0.18461 z12 (3) 0.z12 +.Building of Network Matrices (1) 0.18461 0. thus.1153 0.18461 0.30769 0.
06923 + (1.0.8571 zll = Z12 =.2(2) [ZXYXY] = 2 .18461 .18461 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0.428)(0.1846 .2(2) 4 1(1) 1.1845 + 2.428 0 0 2.18456 0.0.0.06923 = = z21 0.00779 0.0.1153 0.06923) 2.186 0.428 5.18461 .428)(0.8571 .84 Power System Analysis Invert the primitive impedance matrix of the partial network to obtain the primitive admittance matrix.8571 .3 0 0 0.18456 z12 0.33 0 0 0 0 0 0.06923 (1) .1153 + (1.33 0 0 0 1.230769 .06923 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3(3) 43(4) 3 1(5) 1.428)(0..428)(0.230769) = 0.1153 .1846) .714 0 0 0 3.3 0 0 0. 1 46(0.0.230769 .0.18456 0.0.8075 0.2(2) 2 3(3) 43(4) 3 1(5) 0 0 0.4 41(1) [ZXYXY t I = [y XYXy] = 2 .1 0.1153 0.30769 0.0.230769 0.18461) = 000779 2.8571 0 (1.1846 2.00779 .2(2) 2 3(3) 43(4) 3 1(5) 3. (1) (1) (2) (3) (I) zlI (2) (3) 0.1 0 0.0.230769 + = 0.2 0 0 0 0 1.30769 .8571 _ 8 ) 1 + (1.3(3) 43(4) 3 1(5) 4 1(1) 1. Z31 = zI3 = 0. 4 1(1) 1.0 8075 0 .18461 0.00779 0.
18283 0.230769.(0.4. @ @ I 4 0.1S.1846) .18456)(0.8075 \ .Z\2 z\\ (Z21 )(Z\2) z\l = 0. 0.18461 _ (0.30752 0.\ .(Z21 )(Z3\) zlI = 0.18858 0. E.18858 0.3 3 0. 0.8075  z\3 .8075 Z~3 = Z33  (Z31 )(Z13) z\\ = 0.Z2\ .00779)(0.1846)(0.z\3  \  \   (ZlI)(Z\3) _ ZII 0 06923 _ (0.230769 _ (0.8075 01153.8075 = 0.011142 .18858 = (2) (3) E 4.00779) .18283 0.18283 (1) and ZBUS (1) (2) (3) 0.30752 0.Z3\ . E.011708 .18456)(0.4.18456)(0.3 I CD Fig.1846) = 0. .11708 0..1846) 0.2 I 0.Building of Network Matrices To Eliminate [lh row and column: 85 Z~\ = ZII _ (ZlI)(Z\1) ZII = 0.18857 0.18456) = 0.1S .(0.11142 0._ (ZlI)(Z\2) _ Z12 .30769 _ (0.00779) = 0.8075 Z~2 = Z~3 = Z23 . .5 2 I ® 0.11708 0.7 Given the network shown in Fig.11142 0.00779)(0.
16 <D (/) zlI Z21 Z31 Zsus = (2) (3) (l) 0. (1) laus = (2) (3) 0.18461 0.1153 0.18461 0.5 2 OJ 0.06923 .30769 0.06923 0.1153 (3) 0.86 Its ZBUS Power System Analysis is as follows.2 5 4 @ ~ 0.1153 0.18461 Z/2 zl/ where ZII = zlI = = z31 = 0.0623 0.30769 0.3 1 ® I (1) (1) 0.0623 0. ® 3 0.230769 z/3 Fig.18461 ~I Z31 = = z12 zl3 Z32 = z33 = 0. 1 1 =+ lnew ladded 1 lexisting 1 1 =+=0 0.230769) + (0.230769 z/1 = Z31 + z4343 = (0.06923 = 0.3 This amount to addition of a link.230769 If the line 4 is removed determine the Z BUS for the changed network.3 0.230769 0.06923 ZII OJ I (2) 0.1153 0.4.3) = 0. E. Solution: Add an element parallel to the element 4 having an impedance equal to impedance of element 4 with negative sign.230769 0.18461 0.
(0.3 0.18461 (3) 0.30769) _ (0.230769 0.1153 0.18461.3 z" = (0.230769) = 1.06923 (2) (3) (I) 0.06923) .0 .18461)(0.06923 Z~l = Z:3 = z13 Z~2 (Z21 )(Z31) = (0.06923 (2) 0.8  = Z22 .06923 The modified Zaus is (1) ZBUS = (2) (3) (1) (2) 0.30769 0.3 0.230769 0.230769) = 0.230769) _ (0.8 (3) 0.18461 0.06923 Z\ 33 =Z 33 _ (Z31 )(Z\3) Z\\ = (0.0.(0.230769)(0.2307669) = 0.18461)(0.8 .18461 0.3 0.3 0.0623 (I) 0.06923 0.06923 Eliminating the fictitious node I Z~2 = Z~3 = Z23  (Z21 )(ZI3) = z" 0.(Z21 )(Z12) z\\ 0.8 0.Building of Network Matrices The augmented zBUS 87 is then (1) ZBUS = (1) 0.8 1.0 _ 0.1153 0.230769 0.18461) = 0.18461 0.3 0.230769 0.
17 Obtain ZBUS by using building algorithm.06 = (2) 0. E.08 + jO.88 E 4.O 0. Power System Analysis 0.0 + jO. E.08 + jO.02 + jO. E.4.24 Fig.08 + jO.4. A new bus (3) is created.8 Consider the system in Fig. There is no mutual impedance.18 This is addition of a branch.24 0.0 + jO. (2) ZBUS (3) 0.24 ® Fig.O (3) .4. Consider element 1 (between bus (I) and (2)) (2) ZBUS = (2) I 0.24 I StepI Add element 2 ( which is between bus (1) and (3)) 0.17.08 + jO. Solution: Bus (1) is chosen as reference.
Building of Network Matrices
Step2 add element 3 which is between buses (2) and (3)
89
0.08 + jO.24
@
Fig. E.4.19
A link is a~ded. Fictitious node I is introduced. (2) 0.08 + jO.24 0.0+ jO.O
(3) 0.0+ jO.O
ZBUS
(2) = (3) (I)
(I) 0.08+ jO.24  (0.02 + jO.06) 0.16+ jO.48
0.02 + jO.06
0.08+ jO.24  (0.02 + jO.006)
eliminating the fictitious node I
l2
7_
(modified)
=
7_
l2
_
Z21 Zl2
Z
II
= (0.08 + jO.24) _
~3
(0.08 + jO.24)2 0.49+ j0.48
= 0.04 + jO.l2
(modified) = ~2 (modified)
_
ZZ3
= [
ZZI ZIJ] _0 •0 + }'00 + (0.8 + jO.24 )(0.02 + jO.06) .
zl/
0.16+ j0.48
= 0.01 + jO.03
Z33 (modified) = 0.0175 + j 0.0526 The
zBUS
matrix is thus (2) (3) = (2) [0.04 + jO.12 0.01 + jO.03 ] 0.01 + jO.03 0.0175 + jO.0526 (3)
ZBUS
90
Power System Analysis E 4.9 Given the system of E4.4. An element with an impedance of 0.2 p.u. and mutual impedance of 0.05 p.u. with element 5. Obtained the modified bus impedance method using the method for computations of ZBUS for changes in the network.
Solution:
2
I
0.2 0.3
t
I
0.1 0.1
3
~
0.4
5
I 10.2 I I I I
~16
0.05
0.3 4
•
I I I I
Fig. E.4.20
Element added is a link a = 2 ; b = 4. A fictitious node is I is created.
(2) (3) (4) (/)
(2) 0.16
0.0741267 0.1386
Z/2
(3) 0.0741267
0.50313 0.106437
(4) 0.1386
0.106431 0.2055
I
Z21
Z31
Z41 Zll
Z/3
Z,4
and
1+ Yabxy (ZXI  Zyt) Z" = Zal  Zbl + ..::.....::...Yabab
The primitive impedance matrix is
Building of Network Matrices
91
1  2(1) 1.2(2) 1  3 3  4 2.4(1) 2.4(2) 0.4 0.1 0.05 0 0 0 1 2(2) 0.1 0.05 0 0 0 0.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.3 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.05 0 0 0 0.05 0.2
[z]=
1 3
34
2  4(1)
2  4(2)
The added element 6 is coupled to only one element (i.e.) element 5. It is sufficient to invert the sub matrix for the coupled element.
Z ab'Y
24(1) 24(2) = 2  4(\) 0.1 0.05 2  4(2) 0.05 0.2 \ 1.4285  2.857] = [ _ 2.857 5.7 \ 43
YalHY
= 0.16 0.1386 + (2.857)(0 16  0.1386) = 0.01070 5.7143 Z =Z
31 13
=0.7412670.10643+ (2.857)(0.7410.10643) =0.1614 5.7143
= O. \ 386  0.2055 + (2.857)(0.1386  0.2055) = 0.03345 5.7143 Z
1/
=
0.0107 _ (0.03345) + 1+ (2.857)(0.0107  (0.03345) = 0.19707 5.7143
The augmented matrix is then
92
Power System Analysis
(2) (3) (4)
[° 1600
0
(2)
(3) 0.0741 0.5031 0.1064 0.01614
(4) 0.1386 0.1064 0.2055 0.03345
(I)
0.01614 0.19707
0.0741
00107]
0
0.1386 0.0107
0.0.3345
(I)
Z22 (modified)
= 0.16 
(0.0107)2 0.19707
= 0.1594
Z23 (modified) = Z32 (modified)
=
0.0741
0.01070x(O.01614) 0.19707
= 0 7497
.
Z24 (modified) = Z42 (modified)
= 0.1386 _ 0.01070 x (0.03345) = 0.1404
0.19707
Z33 (modified) = 0.50313 _ (0.01614)2 0.19707 Z43 (modified) = Z34 (modified)
= 0.5018
= 0.106431  (0.03345)(0.01614) = 0.10369
0.19707 (0.0334)2 0.19707
Z44 (modified) Hence the
ZBUS
= 0.2055 
= 0.1998
is obtained by
(2) ZBUS= (3) (4)
[
(2) 0.1594
0.07497 0.1404
(3) 0.07497
0.5018 0.10369
(4)
0.1404] 0.10369 0.1998
Building of Network Matrices
E 4.10
93
Consider the problem E.4.9. If the element 6 is now removed obtain the
ZBUS'
Solution:
2
I
1
0.2 0.3
!
1 0.3 4
0.1 0.1
10 .2 1
5
3
~
0.4
1 1 1
0.05
16 1 1 1
I
Fig. E.4.21
where a = 2; ~ = 4 and y = 2; 8 = 4
i = 1,2, ............. ,n
the original primitive admittance matrix
24(1) 24(2)
[y sm] = 2 
4(1) 24(2)
[!!.~3~~J_=3:8_5}]
2.857: 5.7143
I
The modified primitive admittance matrix
12(1) 12(2) [Ysm] 1= 12(1) 1 2(2)
[+ OIl i 0] =[1~ O·rO
°°
~l
=~Ysm
{ [ ][ sm ] 1}= [11.4285  2.857] = [10 0] = [1.4285  2.857] Ysm Y 2.857 5.7143 2.857 5.7143
94
Computing term by term
Power System Analysis
0. ZyCl  Zoo  Zyf3  ZIIf3 = [(2) 0. (2) [ 0.1594 0.1594
(2) (2)
~~94 i~~4]1
ZlIa =Z24 =Z42 =(4) [0.1404 0.1404] (4) 0.1404 0.1404
(4) (4)
Zya =(2) [0.1404 0.1404]
(2) 0.1404 0.1404
(4) (4)
ZIIf3 = (4) [0.1998 0.1998] (4) 0.1998 0.1998 0.1594 0.1594]_ [0.1404 0.1404] 0.1404 0.1404
Zya  Zoo  Zyf3 + ZIIf3 = [ 0.1594 0.1594
_ [0.1404 0.1404]+[0.1998 0.1998] 0.1404 0.1404 0.1998 0.1998 = [0.0784 0.0784] 0.0784 0.0784
[L\y 8m UZya  ZlIa  Zyf3  ZIIf3 J
= [1.4285
 2.857
 2.857] [0.0784 0.784] [ 0.1120  0.1120] 5.7143 0.0784 0.0784  0.2240 0.2240
F = U  fly sm (Zra  ZOIl  Zrj3 + Zoj3)
=[ 0
1 0] [0.1120 0.1120] 1  0.2240 0.2240
= _0.224
[1.112
0.112] 0.7760
[F]l
[F]IL\
=[0.87387 0.25225
0.12612] 1.25225 2.8571]=[ 1.6086 5.7143 3.2173 3.2173] 6.435
Ysm
=[0.87387 0.25225
0.12612][ 1.4285 1.25225 2.8571
03056 0.j = 3 = 0.001814 = 0.1404 0.Zi~ )[F]1 [fiy sm ][Zyt .0611] 0.1404D 1.2173 6.00058026 = 0.03056 0.0.0.2173] [.2173][0. j = 2 z\.03146 4 .019 = 0.6086 .1404 0.ZOt ] 2.503392 [ .1.6086 .019][1. j = . j = 4 0.03146 = 0.0.2173] [.10 1228] .03146 = 0. ~ Z" + ([Z" z"l.030560.0506 For i == 3.16 2.435 0.0.0.03146 2.Building of Network Matrices The elements of modified ZBUS are then given by 95 Z~j For i = = Zij + tztU .[0.1404 + [.03146] [ 3.019] 3.2173 6.00096075 = 0.1404) I = 0.15998 = 0.001592 = 0.0594] [ 0. j 3 Z~3 =0.019] [ 0.3.03146 .3.019 0.[Z" z"l [M]' jAy~) ) ( [~::H~::]l = 0.07491 + [.1594].6086 3.03146] 6.0611] Let i == 3.435 0.2173] [ [ 3.1594 + r lO.2173 .6086 3.1594 + 0.0.1404  0.5018 + 0.03146] = 0.019] [ 3.1594 0.5018 + [.0.0.07497 .435 0.1594 + [0.074040 .0611] [ Let i = 0.13858 Z~3 = 0.0.03146] 6.07497+[0.03146] = 0.0190.0.5018 + [0.1594 + Let i = [.435 0.019 = = 0.2173 1.1594 _ 0.0.0.15940.0594 Zi4 = 0.
0594 Hence the ZBUS with the element 6 removed will be (2) (3) 0.13858 0.503392 0.0.0.1 CD 3 2 Fig.3. P 4.1998+[0.0. P 4.103691 + 0.106696 Similarly for I == j = 1. Element Numbers I Bus Code (2) .0594J [ 6.14 Form the bus impedance matrix for the system shown in Fig.(2) Self Impedance 0.1 the line data is given below.0594] Z~4 = 0. 0.106696 0.6086 .0594] Z~4 =0.13858 (2) ZBUS = (3) 0.435 3.205476 [ 0.2173] [.(3) (I) .0.2173 .96 Power System Analysis 0.1998+[0.09556 0.103691 + [0.0.106696 0.0594] =0.u.074040 (4) 0.u.003006 = 0. 0.5 p.4 p.20576 (4) Problems P 4.0594 0.u. 2 3 .101228 J [ .6 p.19113J .0594 = 0.(3) (I) .05060 .07404 0.0594 =0.15998 0.
Develop the equation for modifying the elements of a bus impedance matrix when it is coupled to other elements in the network. Derive the necessary expressions for the building up of Z BUS when (i) new element is added.3 4.11 .by .2 ifthe added line element 4 has a mutual impedance with respect to line element 1 of 0.6 4. Starting from Z BUS for a partial network describe step by step how you will obtain the Z BUS for a modified network when a new line is to be added between two buses of the existing network.step how you will obtain the Z BUS for a modified network when a new line is to be added to a bus in the existing network.1 Starting from Z BUS for a partial network describe step .5 p.2 97 0 btam 1he m odilied ZBUS if a line 4 is added parallel to line I across the busses (2) and (3) with a self impedance of 0. Write short notes on Removal ofa link in Z BUS with no mutual coupling between the element deleted and the other elements in the network. 4. In the problem P 4.8 4. adding the element not creating a new bus.1 p.u.3 Questions 4.2 4.7 .4 4. 4.10 4. how will the ZBUS matrix change? P 4. Explain the modifications necessary in the Z BUS when a mutually coupled element is removed or its impedance is changed. (ii) new element is added between two existing buses. Derive an expression for adding a branch element between two buses in the ZBUS building algorithm.u. Describe the procedure for modifications ofZ BUS when a line with mutual impedance is added or removed.Derive an expression for adding a link to a network with mutual inductance. Assume mutual coupling between the added element and the elements in the partial network.9 4.5 4. What are the advantages of Z BUS building algorithm? Describe the Procedure for modification of Z BUS when a line is added or removed which has no mutual impedance.Building of Network Matrices P 4.
5. The effect of inphase and quadrative boost voltages on system loading 6. The bus voltages and system voltage profile 3. System loss minimization 8. some of which are the following: . Power flow or load flow solution is essential for continuous evaluation of the performance of the power systems so that suitable control measures can be taken in case of necessity.1 Necessity for Power Flow Studies I.5 POWER FLOW STUDIES Power flow studies are performed to determine voltages. Power flow studies are undertaken for various reasons. Transformer tap setting for economic operation 9. 5. The effect of change in configuration and incorporating new circuits on system loading 4. at various points in the network for different operating conditions subject to the constraints on generator capacities and specified net interchange between operating systems and several other restraints. In practice it will be required to carry out numerous power flow solutions under a variety of conditions. Possible improvements to an existing system by change of conductor sizes and system voltages. Economic system operation 7. The effect of temporary loss of transmission capacity and (or) generation on system loading and accompanied effects. The line flows 2. active and reactive power etc.
currents and powers. When nodal or bus admittances are used complex linear algebraic simultaneous equations will be obtained in terms of nodal or bus currents. storage requirement and time of computation. The methods basically distinguish between themselves in the rate of convergence. Meters are provided on the panel board for measuring voltages. Generators.2 Conditions for Successful Operation of a Power System 1. These analyzers are of analogue type. Vn The bus admittance matrix [Y] = LOn ..Power Flow Studies 99 For the purpose of power flow studies a single phase representation of the power network is used.. since the system is generally balanced. There are the following: 5. (5. scaled down miniature models of power systems with resistances. capacitances. .... The bus voltage magnitUdes are maintained at values very close to the rated values. autotransformers.. as in a power system since the nodal currents are not known. The generators are just supply sources operating at a much higher frequency than 50 Hz to limit the size ofthe components..1 ) V= . loads and generators... The most popular method is node voitage method.. Network equations can be solved in a variety of ways in a systematic manner.. The power flow solution in obtained directly from measurements for any system simulated on the analyzer.. operation and control as well as for contingency analysis.... When systems had not grown to the present size. (5. transformers..3 The Power Flow Equations ~ VI Consider an nbus system the bus voltages are given by LO l .. Load flow studies are required as has been already explained for power system planning. The bus admittance matrix is invariably utilized in power flow solutions 5. With the advent of the modern digital computers possessing large storage and high speed the mode of power flow studies have changed from analog to digital simulation. the resulting mathematical equations become nonlinear and are required to be solved by interactive methods. 3. The loads are represented by constant impedances. reactances. However. The loads are gerally represented by constant power. networks were simulated on network analyzers for load flow solutions. There should the adequate real power generation to supply the power demand at various load buses and also the losses 2. but powers are known at almost all the buses... A large number of algorithms are developed for digital power flow solutions.2) [G] + j [B] . transformers and transmission lines are not over loaded at any point of time or the load curve.
Simultaneous solution to the 2 (n . I. + Yin Vn ~ where n is the number of buses .9) k ct slack bus n OGI  0 01  k~l IV I Vk Ylkl Sin (8 1 c\ ..i\ .....6) PI and where are PI" = k:1 IV I Vk Ylkl Cos (8 1... (5....7) ...~ Y. 8.. (5.... angles at all load buses are the quantities to be determined. n Excluding the slack bus... ( 5..I) and the variables 0 1 IVII and Ld l .. 1 I. Y matrix interactive methods are based on solution to power flow equations using their current mismatch at a bus given by .lexp(8 I . (5.. (5.. (5.) L 8..~ .) I~ I~ Equating the real and imaginary parts 11 .. the above power flow equations are 2 (n ...10) k *' slack bus Constitutes the power flow or load flow solution. j= 1. ~ n . k=1 IV I V. They are called state variables or dependent variables.100 Power System Analysis where )'1~'iYlk:~ ".~ Y.I) equations p 01 .81k ) = 0 ...8 1k ) n . .. The specified or scheduled values at all buses are the independent variables...11 ) . The voltage magnitudes and the phase.L Ylk Vk bl The complex power into the system at bus i S=P+J'O=VI* 1 I ! 1 I n L 0.. (5..I Sin(8 I .glk j blh j YI = IVII L8 1= iV21(Cos 81+ j sin ( 1 ) VI: = IVkl Li\ = !Vki (Cos The current injected into the network at bus 'i' II = ......8 1k ) = 0 . (5..(\ .8) 0 = k=1 IV I V.5 ) II .. (5...4 ) c\ + j sin 8k ) YII VI n T YIC Vc + ...2 .. 8. I IV I Vk YI~! Cos «\ .3) .
The values ofP g' 0 g' Pd and 0 d are either known or estimated. (b) VoltaKe controlled bus or generator bus: A voltage controlled bus is any bus in the system where the voltage magnitude can be controlled. Thus at a generator bus the real power generation P" and the voltage magnitude IV 01 can be specified.\' In a network as power tlow~ from the generators to loads through transmission lines power loss occurs due to the losses in the line conductors. These losses when included. and OI. The other two unknown quantities at a load bus are voltage magnitude and its phase angle at the bus. Quite often. also called a PVbus the reactive power Q g and 8fl are the values that are not known and are to be computed.. influenced by the excitation current in the field winding. are the power losses in the transmission network. PI. At this bus real and reactive load demand Pd and Qd are drawn from the supply.. we get the power balance relations PgPd  PL'~O .. fl... 5.. For this . remains unknown before the analysis of the network. The voltage magnitude on the other hand.15) QgQdQI =0 where P<. A load bus is al~o called a p.14) . This in turn changes the machine rotor axis position with respect to a synchronously rotating or reference axis or a reference bus. i~ mainly.1. The real power developed by a synchronous generator can be varied b: changing the prime mover input. In a power balance equation Pd and Qd are treated as negative quantities since generated powers Pg and Qg are assumed positive.. the reactive power is calculated from real power demand with an assumed power factor. (5. V. Pd and Qd are the total real ancf reactive power demands and Pland OI.". Since the load demands Pd and Q d are known values at this bus. Since the flow of cements in the various lines in the transmission lines are not known in advance.4 Classification of Buses (a) Load hus : A bus where there is only load connected and no generation exists is called a load bus.. In other words. the phase angle of the rotor 0 is directly related to the real power generated by the machine. YII .Power Flow Studies or using the voltage form ~V=I 101 fl. Q bus. The demand is generally estimated or predicted as in load forecast or metered and measured from instruments. or more usually fI. (5.. and Qo are the total real and reactive generations.1.llIck htl. It is also possible to produce vars by using capacitor or reactor banks too.12) At the end of the interactive solution to power flow equation.. should become negligibly small so that they can be neglected. But. At a generator bus or voltage controlled bus.. (c) . (5. They compensate the lagging or leading val's consumed and then contribute to voltage control.. these losses have to be supplied by the generators in the system.
83 are not known Fig. Magnitude and phase angle of bus voltages 5. . The three types of buses are illustrated in Fig. Further the system voltage profile is also influenced by the voltage specified at this bus. For this reason slack bus is also known as reference bus. 0 3 specified IV 31. 5.1.:tive power.1.2 Three bus transmission system. 5. 5. 5. Fig.1 Bus classification is summarized in Table 5. 81 0° specified P l' Q1 to be determined at the end of the solution Generator bus P 2' IV 2i spcified O2. 83 Load bus P3.5 Bus Admittance Formation Consider the transmission system shown in Fig.bus Generator bus (PV . one of the geneFators or generating bus is specified as 'slack bus' or 'swing bus'.102 Power System Analysis purpose. Table 5.1 Bus Slack.bus or voltage controlled bus) Load bus Specified variables Voltage magnitude and its phase angle Magnitudes of bus voltages and real powers (limit on reactive powers) Real and reactive powers Computed variables Real and reactive powers Voltage phase angle and reat. The voltage magnitude is specified at this bus. the voltage phase angle 8 is also fixed at this bus. At this bus the generation Pg and Q g are not specified. All the system losses are supplied by the generation at this bus. Further. = Slack bus IV d. Generally it is specified as 0° so that all voltage phase angles are measured with respect to voltage at this bus.1. 82 to be known P3' Q3' IV 31.
18) Y23 =Y 32 =Y23 are the mutual admittances forming the offdiagonal elements of the bus admittance matrix.y 13 ... (5.Y 31 . The corresponding line admittances are Y\2' Y22 and Y31 The total capacitive susceptances at the buses are represented by YIO' Y20 and Y30' Applying Kirchoff's current law at each bus II : VI Y\0 + (V 1 . 2 and 3 are denoted by z 12' z 22 and z31 respectively..V2 Y20 + (V 2 .19) Y 1k =Ylk If the network elements have mutual admittance (impedance). linear graph theory with singular transformations may be used.. (5.....17) Y33 = Y30 + Y\3 + Y23 are the self admittances forming the diagonal terms and Y 12 : Y 21 : Y12} y 13 . (5. . For a systematic formation of the ybus. the above formulae will not apply.V 3) Y23 13 = .. (5..16) Y II :YlO+YI2+Y13} Y 22 . the elements of the bus admittance matrix can be written down merely by inspection of the network as diagonal terms 11 YII off and diagonal terms = Ylo + LYlk k....Y23 ..VI) Y 21 + (V 2 .\ b'l ..Y0 1 1 X Y30 + Y13 + Y23 Y12 Y22 Y32 where . (5..Y13 Y20 + Y12 + Y23 .Y20 + YI2 + Y23 .VI) Y 31 + (V 3 ..15) V 3 Y30 + (V 3 . For an nbus system.V3) Y\3 } 12 ..Power Flow Studies 103 The line impedances joining buses 1..V2) Y\2 + (V 1 .V2) Y32 In matrix from ..Y12 .
. n II = I : '=YiIV. = L lV.. . .iQ...... II .. (5..... ~Y V 1 ..25) Using the indices G and L for generation and load. (5.....6 System Model for Load Flow Studies The variable and parameters associated with bus i and a neighboring bus k are represented in the usual notation as follows: . (5. (5.26) and from eqn.QLi = 1m [Vi I"J The bus current is given by IBUS = YBUS' VBUS Hence.~ V: k=l n ..LY...31) i = 1..20) Bus admittance..p I +' Q I ....23) from an nbus system " P . (5. (5. (5. = L IVi k=l n Vk Y... k=1 n Vk YjkICOS(Oj Ok elk) .24) .... (5.. (5.22) and (5. k=l Vk Y. (5.. S I .22) ....27) k=l k"l Further...26) 1 V = _ _ [PI ....V I I" I J = I Y ik I exp j e Ik = I Y ik I (Cos qlk + j sin elk) .PLI = Re [Vi I*J QI = QGi . (5... (5.klexpj(D I D k elk) .jQ. + LYikV k Vj k=l k"l . (5...L.. Ylk Complex power..104 Power System Analysis 5.. n.21) . 2.slack bus .+jQj=L lV.28) In the polar form n P. i =F..k Isin (OJ Ok elk) .29) so that P. from eqn. V. ' y.30) and Q.23) . Pi + jQj = V.. PI = PGI ....k k .. (5..
Junctions of very high and low series impedances and large capacitances obtained in cable circuits long. Consider the equations: 2x + 3y 3\. the powers at the slack bus may be "computed from which the losses and all other line flows can be ascertained. 8 P. += 22 5 and y = 4 4y = 31 == The free solution to thc above equations is .. at each bus i forthe load flow solution. (5. Vmatrix interactivt! methods are based on solution to power flow relations using their current mismatch at a bus given by n ~ I1 = I 1 . the former are rarely competitive with the Vmatrix methods. . I. [n difficult cases. (5. The sparsity of the Vmatrix and its symmetry reduces both the storage requirement and the computation time for iteration. ~ YII .Power Flow Studies 105 The power flow eqns. Finally..~I... it is possible to obtain convergence by removing the least diagonally dominant row and column of Y. series and shunt compensation are detrimental to convergence as these tend to weaken the diagonal dominance in the Vmatrix. The salient features of the Vmatrix iterative methods are that the elements in the summation tenm in cqn.. relative to the mutual admittances and thus.34 ) The Zmatrix method is not usually very sensitive to the choice of the slack bus.. 5.25)..26) or (5.. It can easily be verified that the Zmatrix is not sparse. even for welldeveloped power systems. For a large... I . usually convergence is obtained..31) are nonlinear and it is required to solve 2(nl) such equations involving i V. the number of iterations required are of the order of n and total computing time varies approximately as n2 . Instead of using eqn (5. L " . whcn the initial solution or starting point is very close to the actual solution convergence is gcncrally ontained. However.. . are usually large.32) or using the voltage from ~ V. The self·admittances of the buses."Y V. and Q. (5. The following example illustrator the method.7 GaussSeidel Iterative Method GaussSeidel iterative method is very simple in concept but may not yield convagence to the required solution. (5. The choice of slack bus can affect convergence considerably.30) and (5. .27) are on the average only three. EHV lines. one can select the impedance matrix and rewrite the equation a~ v= Y I I ~ 7. For problems that can be solved by both Zmatrix and Vmatrix methods. (5..33) The convergence of the iterative methods depends on the diagonal dominance of the bus admittance matri\. well conditioned system of nbuses.
. v = J_ P. . In order to accelerate the convergence..2..8 which is nearer to the true value of 5 we obtain from the given equations 22 . y = 4.jQ....l ~ y v:(m) k "i J lI . The voltage at the slack bus is specified and remains fixed at that value.29 Iteration 3 : x = 6.06 y = 3..13. _ V(m)* ~y "~I L.66 The iteractive solution slowly converges to the true solution.74 Y = 3..8.36) .84 Y = 3.. Y = 3.and x = 33 Iteration 1 : Let x = 4.5 x = 5. assume a starting value for x = 4.LI.35)..44 x = 5. 'y " r V* .. y = 3.'~ k~..'~ v:(m+l) _ k L. Successively the bus voltage equation of the (m + 1)th iteration may then be written as V(m+l) I = _I Y [p .. However.44 Iteration 6 : x = 5..74 Y = 3.. ~y ~ 0_1 L... in case of power flow studies.96 x = 5.Seidel Iterative Method of Load Flow Solution In this method.. n.106 Power System Analysis If an interactive solution using GaussSeidel method is required then let u.37 Iteration 5 : x = 5.2 x = 6. In many cases the conveyence may not be ohtained at all. The convergence of the method depending upon the starting values for the iterative solution. x = 6.. The (nI) bus voltage relations.84 x = 5.29 Iteration 4 : x = 5. voltages at all buses except at the slack bus are assumed.94 y = 3. jQ..13 with y = 4... yields convergence in most of the cases with appriate accleration factors chosen.2.8 Gauss .35) I = 1. . all newlycomputed values of bus voltages are substituted in eqn. (5.37 Y = 3..2x 34 4y Y = . (5.2 Iteration 2 x = 6. as the bus voltages are not very far from the rated values and as all load flow studies are performed with per unit values assuming a flat voltage profile at all load buses of (I + jO) p.5 Y = 3. 2. 5.. i :f= slack bus are solved simultaneously for an improved solution.06 y = 3..'~ ~"I V k . (5.
.38) Alternatively. The rate of convergence of the process can be increased by using acceleration factors to the solution obtained after each iteration. then the adjusted estimates of V'(II1) and V"(JII) are . The flowchart for computing the solution of load tlow using gaussseidel method is given in Fig. (5.... and v.. L\ iex y*y I 11 Y _ L\S~ .. vo Itage can be computed. .. (5.42) . 2) is normally used for each voltage change. .. (5..41) Assuming that the phase angles of the estimated and scheduled voltages are equal.40)..Power Flow Studies 107 The method converges slowly because of the loose mathematical coupling between the buses. (5.40) must be satisfied.bus The method of handling a PVbus requires rectangular coordinate representation for the voltages. (m) a f ter m iterations must be adjusted to satisfy eqn. different acceleration factors may be used for real and imaginary parts of the voltage. Treatment of a PV . The estimates 0 f voltage components. Even though a complex value of ex is suggested in literature. it is more convenient to operate with real values given by . ex ::.. 5. ...IITI) and v.43) I(ncw) IV I I scheduled sin 8(111) I These values are used to calculate the reactive power O~m). Using these reactive powers 0: 1111 and voltages Vir'I~L I a new estimate V: r<1+11 is calculated....39) Where v... (5. .3. it is quite often found that a nearoptimal choice of ex e>. A fixed acceleration factor ex (I ::..37) The use of the acceleration factor amounts to a linear extrapolation of VJ" For a given system.ists as suggested in literature over a range of operating conditions.. are the real and imaginary components ofY i the relationship ..... + jv.. v. The Phase angle of the estimated bus voltage is 8(m) = tan I _V_I_ I "(m)] '(m) [ v. (5... (5. Letting Y i = v. (5. so that the reactive bus power required to establish the scheduled bus . I v l (lIl) and V"(I11) I ( new) = IV I = I scheduled cos8(m) I ..
J !. k Yes m=m+ I Yes Calculate line flows and slack bus PO\\ er Fig..3 Flowchart for Gauss . Then its value is fixed at the limit that is violated and it is no longer possible to hold the desired magnitude of the bus voltage. . the limits on the reactive sourCt! must be taken into consideration.~I+I Y VIm)] II.=.. the bus is treated as a PQ bus or load bus.Seidel iterative method for load flow solution using V8us. If the calculated value of the reactive power is beyond limits. No VIm) I =_I_[<P jQ.108 Power System Analysis While computing the reactive powers.I Y v(m"l) _ i k= Y. 5.J vim) J Ik k I.!.
. .Raphson method is particularly suited to the load flow problem... .Power Flow Studies 109 5.. n . ... XIO) n + oXn )_ A.. while the second method uses the polar coordinate formulation.... the corrected set of equations are (0) ( XI + 0AX I...Raphson method. (5. Then using Taylor's series and neglecting the higher order terms.x (0») n X (0) I L\X is the column vector of correction terms L\ x" and J is the Jacobian matrix for the function f given by the first order partial derivatives evaluated at obtained as X. Xn) = YI' i = I. . It may be mentioned that since the final voltage solutions are not much different from the nominal values..programmed ordered triangulation and back substitution methods result in quick and efficient convergence to the load flow solution.48) The above method of obtaining a converging solution for a set of nonlinear equations can be used for solving the load flow problem..47) The square Jacobian matrix J is defined by J II.45) where L\ \ are the corrections to = (i = I. The matrix J is highly sparse and is particularly suited to the load flow application and sparsity . 2. Newton ...9 NewtonRaphson Method The generated NewtonRaphson method is an interactive algorithm for solving a set of simultaneous nonlinear equations in an equal number of unknowns. which define a tangent hyperplane to the function fl (x) at the given iteration point (x:O)) are obtained as L\Y= JL\X .. The first method uses rectangular coordinates for the variables... (5.. ...X (0) + oX A 2 XI 2 . (5.. . n) A set of linear equations. (5. .. ..  YI .O) + L\xl . = Ofl Cx k .. •• .44) with initial estimates for \ XI . .. (5. (0) • x 2 .... . fl (Xl' X2 ' .IJ = The corrected solution is x. ....... This method possesses quadratic convergence and thus converges very rapidly when the solution point is close. There are two methods of solution for the load flow using Newton .... 2. .46) where L\ Y is a column vector determined by YI  f I (XI(0) . (0) xn (0) which are not far from the actual solution.. Consider the set of nonlinear equations...
54) where H. + jv. = f[v:(G" ~=I v~ G'k v~)V:'(G'k v~ +G. 2. 00...j V'~ k=1 ) .k (P. ...~ ....49) Where and v .. ..k + j B.. (5.50) Expanding the right side of the above equation and separating out the real and imaginary parts.1 av'l av'... (5. M and L are the submatrices of the Jacobian..k Xv~ .51 ) 0. + j 0.jB. leaving the slack bus at the nth bus where the voltage is specified. . (5.51) and (5.53) can be solved for the unknowns ~v: and ~< (i = I.k v~)] ....53) ~v'.52). 00111 00 112 av III oonI av "III " . = P. 0<_1 Ov~ I I r . The offdiagonal and diagonal elements of .. ~v " nI ' Matrix equation (5.k = G. =0 Y .110 Power System Analysis 5. n 1).33) may be written compactly as . (5. (5... (5... av ll _ 1 Uv'. Equation (2.) = ((v: + jv:')t (G. v. + jO.1 The Rectangular Coordinates Method The power entering the bus i is given by S..1 av III " av'. . The elements of the Jacobian are obtained by differentiating Eqns... ~QIII av'. . N.v~)1 V~ .. (5.9.52) These are the two power relations at each bus and the lineanzed equations of the form (5.~ I l ~PIII oPII _ 1 av'l oPlI _ 1 av:'_1 oPn _ 1 oPII _ 1 av::_ 1 av:: 00 1 ~v III ~Ol 00 1 OQn1 av III 00...46) are written as oPI oPI oPI ~PI r Av.
i ..' k oP = G 'k V k + B . 2 '0 "7 ..55) .. k *.i *.. 1 = v..k = M. "n ( " .k v.k " ....k v..57) ..k = .+2>G.. (5...60) Finally.. (5... B..58) k"'.. (5. At the ith generator bus 1 V.+2G"v k +B"v.k V k . GV.k .i .B ..k V aQ " av k '  .+ v.61 ) 0V k (lQ.k v aQ ' ' " ... the voltage magnitudes are specified in addition to the real powers. (5..62) It can be noticed that L.: =B"v..Power Flow Studies H matrix are given by 111 Cv... . The offdiagonal and diagonal elements of submatrix M are obtained as.. Treatment of Generator Buses At all generator buses other than the swing bus..k and N... .k This property of symmetry of the elements reduces computer time and storage.k v'~ . (5. .k V k+ B"v k oV k k=! oP .... i k =! k "" (G .' = G .63) .B V k ) . .. (5.' = G .. (5.. ' k *.~ "v..H.. " v. ) . (5. (5.59) . = G " ') B ' .56) The offdiagonal and diagonal elements ofN are: . the offdiagonal and diagonal elements of L are given by .
).... (5. (5.46) then takes the form [~~l = [: ~l[ ~ ~~ I] 2P... N. 2 _ c(I~J) ?V.66) The Jocobian is then formulated in terms of IV I and 8 instead of V.ok..31) with respect to 8 and IV: as before. (5.67) The otTdiagonal and diagonal elements of tile submatrices H. (5.8.30) and (5..30) and (5.. = t k=! n k~! lV. V.68) .+ . 11) ?v. ..Ok . " ~v. in this case..46) then takes the form I~P] l~O .i*k (lok .60) 5. V.60) and the real and reactive pO\vers at bus i are indicated in eqn.. .' and V.k Isin (0.65) and 0.kl sin (o. (5. The offdiagonal and diagonal elements of H matrix are ...i\V. V. (5. = L lV. =IV. at all the generator nodes.69) The Jacobian is then formulated in terms of IV I and 8 instead of V..9. (1(1 ~. Reproducing them here once again for convenience. M and L are determined by differentiating eqns..) .112 Then.2 The Polar Coordinates Method The equation for the complex power at node i in the polar form is given in eqn.. Eqn. . " . I 1~V..[H Nl[ i\M1 M L 1V I .) .. (5. 0.... Eqn...' and V. Power System Analysis will have to be replaced by ~IVJ But. the variable ~O. (5.. P.8. ( 5.... (5.. (5..31). V.70) .. (5..8. Vk y"lcos(o. (5.64) This is the only modification required to be introduced in eqn." in this case.
.k) ..31) with respect to 8 and IVI as before..i*k (. (5.30) and (5..... cUk YIk Isin (~ 1 . By selecting the variable as .. M and L are determined by differentiating eqns.klCos(8 1 8 k 8 Ik ) ..... Tlw offdiagonal and diagonal elements of H matrix are (lP ~~ I = IVI V...M and ~ IVI / IVI instead equation (5. (5.71 ) IVI Vk Ylklcos(8 1 i\ 8 Ik ). (5...Power Flow Studies 113 The offdiagonal and diagonal elements of the submatrices H... (5.... (5...77) .8 k K=! The offdiagonal and diagonal elements ofN matrix are I ~.72) ~ = IV 8: Vk I I Y. 8 k 8. (5.78) [t is seen from the elements of the Jacobian in this case that the symmetry that existed in the rectangular coordinates case is no longer present now....70) will be in the form r"~~I [ ~P] IH N] IN = ~Q LM L ... (5...k Isin (8. N... (5.. (5..74) k"l The offdiagonal and diagonal elements ofM matrix are ~il k ='IVI Vk Y.73) . "'p = I 11 .79) [n this case it will be seen that Hlk = Llk and .76) Finally. °  Uk ~  8)'I Ik' *k .81k ) . (5. Ylk Isin (81  i\ ....75) . the offdiagonal and diagonal elements of L matrix are (l~~~ I = lV.
thus again saving computer time and storage. solution.k) ~p(m) = PI (scheduled) _ I p(m) .Ok  e.(m) Yes Calculate Ime llows and power at slack bus Solve the equation: Calculate the changes in variables 1 V I(m+ 1)= 1 V I(m) + i\V I(m) 8(m+ 1)= 8(111) + ~81(m) m=m+l Fig. V.Raphson method (Polar coordinates) for load flow . the symmetry is restored. ~O~m) =O. Ok e.4. The flow chart for computer solution is given in Fig. . p. The number of elements to be calculated for an ndimensional Jacobian matrix are only n + n2/2 instead of n2 . cos(i" .VkV.114 Power System Analysis or.(111) = f V. 5.k ) 0.=1 . .4 Flow chart for Newton . in other words.(scheduled)O. 5.k sin(o..(I11) = It VY.
. (5. (5. Iteration time can be saved by using the same triangulated Jacobian matrix for two or more iterations.. 5. (5.ck C Vk . where as the impedance matrix is full.. (5. large size systems. both matrices are nonsingular and symmetric.10 Sparsity of Network Admittance Matrices For many power networks.u and 0 = 0) independent of system size.I.. In general.c~vJ )1 V 1" . "11 O. The rectangular formulation is marginally faster than the polar version because there are no time consuming trigonometric functions.. Such sparse systems possess the following advantages: 1.82) Llk .. the admittance matrix is relatively sparse. . For typical. so that larger systems can be solved. Most transmission networks exhibit irregularity in their connection arrangements. However.83) and L = 01 o~ II ':1~V ')2 ciVil Iv 'I:::: 21 V 112 I I .80) The elements of M are given by .. k . Their storage requirements are small..... 3.. 2.84) Newtons method converges in 2 to 5 iterations from a flat start ([V} = 1. each nonzero off diagonal element corresponds to a network branch connecting the pair of buses indicated by the row and column of the element. the computing time for one Newton Raphson iteration is roughly equivalent to seven Gauss . Direct solutions using triangularization techniques can be obtained much faster unless the independent vector is extremely sparse...Power Flow Studies 115 Treatment of Generator Nodes For a PVbus.. The exploitation of network sparsity requires sophisticated programming techniques. . it is observed that the rectangular coordinates method is less reliable than the polar version. and their admittance matrices are relatively sparse..81) and Then elements of L are given by .. Round off errors are very much reduced..0 p. III the admittance matrix... Previously stored solution can be used as starting values fONapid convergence. (5. the reactive power equations are replaced at the ith generator bus by 1VI I " = '2 "2 VI +VI .Seidel iterations.
.... Consider the system of equations Ax=b . sparse systems.(I) _.. matrix A is augmented by b as shown Iall I an a 22 a n2 aln a 2n ann bl bo bn l::: The elements of the first row in the augmented matrix are divided by all as indicated by the following step with superscripts denoting the stage of the computation.11 Triangular Decompostion Matrix inversion is a very inefficient process for computing direct solutions.... (5.:'lall'. II) ....2 a 21 .. especjally for large..I. To solve eqn... (5.. .3' .. .88) a 2J  (2) _ ( I ] (I) ... Triangular decomposition of the matrix for solution by Gussian elimination is more suited for load flow solutions....n . Generally.. (5.I... .87) ....84) where A is a nonsingular ma~rix.. (5... b is a known vector containing at least one nonzero element and x is a column vector of unknowns....89) . Elimination by successive rows is more advantageous from computer programming point of view. (5. the decomposition is accomplished by elements below the main diagonal in successive columns.84) by the triangular decomposition method. . n ... (5..... _ ai~1 a 2J '. (5. a21a.116 Power System Analysis 5..85) ...86) In the next stage a 21 is eliminated from the second row using the relations .
. (5. the augmented matrix will he obtained as a(l) III b(l) I a (2 ) 2n b~2) o x = b(ll) n n bIll) 11 By back substitution....98) = b ll ) I  "all)x I ~ 1J 1=1+1 For matri" inversion of an nth order matrix...91 ) ...... the number of arithmetical operations required is n3 while for the triangular decomposition it is approximately ( ~~) .. After n steps of computation for the nth order system of eqn..... (5.....92) (2) b3  b(l) 1 (l)b(2)' an ' ..J.4.n .. (5. ...84).... (5..96) nI (nI) anI xn _ X I l  ..94) a3 (3) _ lTl1 f 1 a 13 a 3J .95) The elements to the left of the diagonal in the third row are eliminated and further the diagonal element in the third row is made unity.97) ... the solution is obtained as ..90) l b(3) = b 3  a 31 b(1) I .n .. (5..b(IlI) 11 ..\1 (1)·_ ... (5... .Power Flow Studies The resulting matrix then becomes 1 117 o a lll using the relations all} ann ~:::I b ll J .. ...... (5..93) . (5.. (5. (5......J4.... . xll ..
..5 A Five Bus system.. This can be achieved by suitably ordering the equations.. (5..84) is sparse. (5...101) 310 0 4I x x x x y x .. The ybus matrix of the network will have entries as follows 234 x x y x 2 3 x x x 0 0 =y x .zero elements in the upper triangle is minimized.99) 0 0 4 x 0 0 x After triangular decomposition the matrix will be reduced to the form 123 4 I x y x 2 0 300 x x x =y ..118 Power System Analysis 5.100) I 4 0 0 0 By ordering the nodes as in Fig.5. (5. Consider the network system having five nodes as shown in Fig... 5.12 Optimal Ordering When the A matrix in eqn. 2 3 @ 4 Fig. (5. which is referred to as optimal ordering. 5.6 the bus admittance matrix will be of the form 1 2 ~ I x 0 0 x 210 x 0 x =Y I 4 . it is necessary to see that the accumulation of non.. 5.
Tinney and Walker have suggested three methods for optimal ordering. for power flow solutions. 2.Power Flow Studies 119 3 4 Fig. (5. may prove to be advantageous. Number the rows so that at each s. If the number of iterations is large. (5. This method required simulation of the elimination process to take into account the changes in the nonzero connections affected at each step. Number the rows according to the number of nonzero. the Vmatrix will be reduced to 123 4 210 I~ lOx =Y I x . As a result of triangular decomposition. offdiagonal elements before elimination. the next row to be eliminated is the one that will introduce fewest new nonzero elements.tep of elimination the next row to be eliminated is the one having fewest nonzero terms.. rows with less number of off diagonal elements are numbered first and the rows with large number last. comparing the matrices in eqn. 5. Number the rows so that at each step of elimination. 5. Scheme I. scheme 3. Thus. This requires simulation of every feasible alternative at each step. I. has proved to be advantageous even with its additional computing time.102) 300 4 0 0 0 Thus.13 Decoupled Methods All power systems exhibit in the steady state a strong interdependence between active powers and bus voltage angles and between reactiye power and voltage magnitude. The coupling between real power and bus voltage magnitude and between reactive power and bus voltage . However..102) the nonzero off diagonal entries are reduced from 6 to 3 by suitably numbering the nodes..6 Renumbered five bus system.. is simple and fast.100) and (5. scheme 2. 3.
. The decoupled Newton method saves by a factor of four on the storage for the J .k) I sin O.k Cos e.79) by neglecting Nand M sub matrices as a first step.e.kl sin {o. for very high accuracy the method requires more iterations because overall quadratic convergence is lost.. Recalling equitation (5.k ) . Vk Y.. Vk I [G.. Ok 8 ik ) .k Cos e.104) The decoupled method converges as reliability as the original Newton method from which it is derived.. (5.k) .k) = I (V. decoupling can be obtained . However. Ok Vk 8 ...k I sin e. (5... 12 i V..k Hkk=.k sin e.2 YIII sin 9 11 + LIV.Ok . 5.14 Fast DecoupJed Methods For security monitoring and outagecontingency evaluation studies.107) With f1 IVI / IVI formulation on the right hand side.matrix and its triangulation.k Vk Y. Y....zJV.~]V.106) . .k .k I V. ..B . (5.k) + I V.108) Assuming that . YII sin 8 11 + L Vk Y.79)) are given by H..k Isin{o.k .Ok .105) where = I V.cos O. Lkk = 2 V. (5. eI YII I sin e. fast load flow solutions are required. A method developed for such an application is described in this section. Vk Y.e. The computation per iteration is 10 to 20% less than for the original Newton method.k) I sin (0.so that I f1P I = I HI· IMI and I f1Q I = I L I .. The elements of the submatrices Hand L (eqn..120 Power System Analysis phase angle are both relatively weak.k) ..klsin{o...Ok = O. But. (5.k] 0.. (5.D k 8. This weak coupling is utilized in the development of the so called decoupled methods. (5..k cos O. the overall saving is 35 to 50% of storage when compared to the original Newton method.. I f1 I VI/I V I .k sin(D. LKK = 2 jV..103) .. = Vk Y. .k = I (V.
(5.Power Flow Studies Sin 8 1k and =:= 121 0 ::.15.103) and (5. The method converges very reliably in two to five iterations with fairly good accuracy even for large systems. A good.15 Load Flow Solution Using Z Bus 5.110) ... Both l B '1 and [B It] are real and spars e and need be triangularised only once... 5. . B 11 ly21 1 H kk I y21 B II l' 1 ... The speed per iteration is roughly five times that of the original Newton method. approximate solution is obtained after the 1SI or 2nd iteration. (5.. (5. Gik sin 81k B'k Q I ::..109) L kk =IV"IB 11 I l' LIk .112) ...113) Matrices R' and B" represent constant approximations to the slopes of the tangent hyper planes of the functions L1P / iVI and L1Q / IVi respectively. (5..... (5.104) lL1pl = [IVI B' I V] L18 IL1QI or lL1pl = B' [L18] .. Shunt reactances and offnominal inphase transformer taps which affect the Mvar 110ws are to be omitted from [B '] and for the same reason phase shifting elements are to be omitted from [Bit]..1 Bus Impedance Formation Any power network can be formed using the following possible methods of construction... Th~y are very close to the Jacobian sub matrices Hand L evaluated at system noload. (5.11 I) =1 y I B" I V I ~ ~~ I IVI IL1QI = B"[L11 V I] IV! .'V"I BIk i" Rewriting eqns. A line may be added to a reference point or bus. at the beginning of the study since they contain network admittances only.. I..
i If unit current is injected into bus k no voltage will be produced at other buses of the systems.1 System :>+<1 J~ l Fig..9 Addition of a radial line and new bus. 5. 5. ...Bus. and 3. A line may be added joining two existing buses in the system forming a loop.15. A bus may be added to any existing bus in the system other than the reference bus through a new line. 5. be same as that would be produced if the current were injected instead at bus i as shown. Z i = 1. 5. (5.....0 .8 Addition of the line to reference line 5.. .115) . System (cl i Zhne rk (a) (b) Lllle added to reference bus Lme added to any bus other than reference line Line added Joining two existing buses Fig. 5.7. 5.. Zlk Zkl 7 k : ... .2 Addition of a Line to the Reference Bus = = 0...9. System :+1 J~ l Z i= I 0 .3 Addition of a Radial Line and New Bus Injection of unit current into the system through the new bus k produces voltages at all other buses of the system as shown in Fig.1 Fig.. These voltages would of course. k 0+<>0 New bus System Zhne B.114) The driving point impedance of the new bus is given by Zkk = Zlllle ...122 Power System Analysis 2. (5... The above three modes are illustrated in Fig.15..7 Building of Z .
Z2k + Zkk .1 O( a) can be represented alternatively as in Fig.4 Addition of a Loop Closing Two Existing Buses in the System Since both the buses are existing buses in the system the dimension of the bus impedance matrix will not increase in this case.118) The dimension of Z matrix is increased due to the introduction of a new axis due to the Zioop .10 (a) Addition of a loop (b) Equivalent representation The 5ystems in Fig.Zlk + Z Illle) for the circulation of unit current The loop impedance is = ZII + 7: kk ..Power Flow Studies Therefore.116) The dimension of the existing Z .Bus matrix is increased by one..k + ZI111e . 5.0 ~~ (a) Fig...117) loop 1 and The new loop axis can be eliminated now.. (5..1 O(b).15.. SystCI11 :l d~ r ~kZI".2Z . (5.. The link between i and k requires a loop voltage V 100p = 1. 5.0 (ZI1 .. However. The off diagonal elements of the new row and column are the same as the elements of the row and column of bus i of the existing system. Consider the matrix . 5.. 5. (5.e System i = 1. the addition of the loop introduces a new axis which can be subsequently eliminated by Kron's reduction method.. 123 therefore. ..
Then multiplier a is called acceleration factor.5. y bu..121) k"S b. (5.. J 18) using eqn. k~1 k~1 11 n .S Then i = 1.2. ..bus method. it is quite often found that a near optimal choice of a exists as suggested in literature over a range of operating condition complex value is also suggested for a.119) VI where YI is the total shunt admittance at the bus i and Y II from bus i to ground. 5. The voltages are updated from iteration to iteration using the relation ym+1 = y I fm + "Z I III +1 + "Z Ik I k ) S L... (5.. at hus i is multiplied by a factor a.I y (n I).26). (5. If the correction DY. I bus ~y R .. Using these voltages.Seidel Method Using Zbus for Load Flow Solution An initial bus voltage vector is assumed as in the case ofY . The difference between the newly computed voltage and the previous voltage at the bus is multiplied by an appropriate acceleration factor. The value ofa that generally improves the convergence is greater than are. is (n.. Same suggested different a values for real and imaginary parts of the bus voltages.iQ I v y' I V I . (5..25) or (5.. . In general I < a < 2 and a typical value for a = 1. the dimension of the Zhu.5 Gauss .15. the bus currents are calculated using eqn... ~Ik k L. (5.. 1= PI ...6 the use of acceleration factor amounts to a linear extrapolation of bus voltage YI' For a given system.124 It can be proved easily that Power System Analysis . it is found that acceleration can be obtained to convergence rate...4. The method is illustrated in example E..I) x ! dimensional reference voltage vector containing in each clement the slack bus voltage... ( 5. '=Z bu. It may he noted that since the slack bus is the reference bus.120) Where Y R is the (n ....5 or 1. n S = slack bus 5. J 18) all the additional elements introduced by the loop can be eliminated. is the shunt current flowing A new bus voltage estimate is obtained for an nbus system from the relation .16 Convergence Characteristics The numher of iterations required for convergence to solution depends considerably on the correction to voltage at each bus. ..
long EHV lines. No acceleration factors are needed to the used. The sparsity of the Ymatrix and its symmetry reduces both the storage requirement and the computation time for iteration. In ditlicult cases it is possible to obtain convergence by removing the least diagonally dominant row and column ofYbus. series and shunt. . The self adm ittances of the buses (diagonal terms) are usually large relative to the mutual admittances (offdiagonal terms). The choice of swing bus may also affect convergence considerably. Junctions of high and low series impedances and large capacitances obtained in cable circuits. Compensation are detrimental to convergence as these tend to weaken the diagonal dominance in Y bus matrix. For large well conditioned system of n huses the numher of iterations req uired are of the order n and the total computing time varies approximately as n~. For this reason convergence is obtained for power flow solution methods. the NewtonRaphson method gives convergence in 3 to 4 iterations. The salient features ofYbus matrix iterative mf"thods are that the element in the summation term in equation ( ) or ( ) are on the average 2 or 3 only even for well developed power systems.Power Flow Analysis ]25 The convergence of iterative methods depends upon the diagonal dominance of the bus admittance matrix. Being a gradient method solution is obtained must taster than any iterative method. In contrast.
I.j3.jIS.2 Scheduled Generation. 0 12 O.06+jO.:l Bus voltage Vi 1.2.u.1 A three bus power system Table E 5.03 +jO.03p. ES.02 +jO.126 Operation and Control in Power Systems \Vorked Examples E 5.1 A three bus power system is shown in Fig.OO Y23 ~ = Y13 .05 +jO..) Z.75 1.u.667 . Loads and Voltages Bus No i I 2 . Taking bus 1 as slack bus obtain the load flow solution using Gauss . The maximum and minimum reactive power limits of the generation at bus 2 are 35 and 0 Mvar respectively. The voltage at bus 2 is maintained at l.O  Generation MW Load MW I 1 Mvar  Mvar 0 20 0 20 0 50 (j) .1 Impedance and Line charging Admittances Bus Code ik Impedance (p. Line charging Admittance (p.u) y.00 5.l and the load and generation data in Table ES.00 .Seidel iterative method using Y Bu~ E 5.06 O.OIR 0 U Table E 5.OS ~jO 24 13 23 0..l.25 .O 1. The system parameters are given in Table ES.j5. 0 25 Solution: The line admittance are obtained as )'12 = 1..
Seidel Iterative Method using YBl!S The voltage at hus 3 is assumed as 1 + jO.j20.0 + j3.07725 Mvar generated at bus 2 Mvar injection into bus 2 + load Mvar 0.27725 p.(3.6667) .O viol Vf') == 1.O Base MVA = 100 Iteration 1 : It is required to calculate the reactive power O2 at bus 2.6667 6.75 + j5.6667) + (0)(5.03)(0.O = 1. which is a P.25 .6667 .0 5. 27.(1)( 5)] = 0.75 .0 j1.25 5.03.03)(1.00 b:d ±[(e.1 as YBlis = 1.75)] + (0)[(1)( 1.0l + •j5.)2 B.05)(3. The initial voltages are therefore Vir!) = 1.25 2.>'2 Substituting the values Q~O) J+ 0(1.j1B.2 = 0.03 + jO.1.75 1.0 r6.jB.0) = 0.725 Mvar .03[(0)(1.0 J + j15.9167 1.73 + j15.V or voltage controlled bus e~(neW) = e~( new) co.(neW)e~G2k +e~B2.00 + jO.u.(1.0)] .03[(0)( 1.03 V23Ch sin oi U ) = (1.75 .07725 + 0.75) 1.05)(1.05 + jO.6667 + j3.75 + (of 8. !V2 !sch coso 2 = (1.Power Flow Analysis 127 The bus admittance matrix is formed using the procedure indicated in section 2.25) + 0.0) = 1.25) .0 II Gauss .)(C~(new)~~Glk e~B2k)] = k1.
9167 .01481. The voltage at bus i is Operation and Control in Power Systems y(m+l) I = ~[PIY(InjQI _ L..75)(l.01915 1.0.56648° The voltage at hus 3 is given by 6.0196673L 1.826° An acceleration factor of 1.0.25 + j3.02093 .4(0.2.0.4(1.0351381 .75) .6667 + j5. The accelerated voltages is obtained lIsing v~ = 1. YIk y(m+l) _ L.j20 = 1.3 . YIk VIm)] ~ k ~ y k )* II I k~1 k=I+1 (2.128 This is within the limits specified.05 + jO.O)] [_ 1.4 is used for both real and imaginary parts.0)(1 + jO.0) = 0.01481 v.O) + (1.03) = 1.6667 .032491 = 1.jO. = l 0..01915.jO.j8.032491 .jO.0454874 = 1.01583L .?7725 _ (1.0.03 .0 + 1.0 Vii) = 1.03 + 1.0454874 Yi ) (accelerated) = 1..
75) +( 0.0454874 Vjl) = 1.4( 0.0152 v 2J [L1v "IO) = [" ll) .(1.0293021. 75)J .' 2 1.25) + (0)( .0491933)( 1..75)1 + .001.0=0.0202933 .01481. Iteration 2 : The reactive power Q 2 at bus 2 is calculated as before to give 8(11 2 = tanI hE = tanI [=0. _I I' ° J I) = 1.jO.03=0.4(1.0491933 129 Vjl) = 1. ll) [L1V 'l I = [v1J .04548740.0491933 0.1 IO) =1.73624 0 The voltages at the end of the first iteration are VI = 1.56648 ) ..049933 = 1..J V3J J [AVJIII =[AV~JII_[L1V~t =0.V2sch ·sm8 (II .0454874 V2J v 2 1 [tW "lUI = [.["2 Ill) =0.(1.029302 V.56648°) = 1.O V~I) = 1.0 =1.6667) co (1.11 .(1.1.75) +.05( \.25) .02897)[( n.02897 .0) = 0.jO.0454874J = 2.0:0.jO.0351384 .jO.014811.05 + jO.0461 22)[1.0491933 The magnitudes of all the voltage changes are greater than 0..02897)[(0)(\.0) = 1.02897)' (8.02093 .3.0491933 Check for convergence: An accuracy of 0.046122)" (8.046122 [V 2ne.03sm(2.(0.Power Flow Analysis The accelerated value of V~II obtained lIsing v'.0 + 1.0~~9302)( 5)] 0.2.[.03cos(2.56648° [vJII 1.[.029302.029302 .029302 v'~ = 0 + 1.001 is taken for convergence 0 .03048L .046122 Q~I) = (1.02837 [v~t =IV2schl·cos8~1) .05)( 3.01481 = 1. = 1.0=0.)11 [V2J .0.
029302 + jO.j20 1.6667 .05 + jO.5 + jI5)(1.0368715 The accelerated value of Vi 2 ) obtained from v~ = 1. (\ . the same as before vii) ~he = 1.029302.O) .02897) = 1.0568268) .(1.46122 Vjl) = 1.4(1.25 ] 6.03194278 vf) VI = = 1.0)· (1.02486 .0491933 .02 .023216 .0202933 + 0.6667 + j5.3 + jO.02897 .0491933) = 0.0491933)+1.jO.97067Mvar This is within the specified limits.75 1.0368715)+ (0.j8. The voltages are.2 VI = 1.1.029302) = 1.O 0.0202933 ] 2.0491933)] = 1.0568268 The accelerated value of V?) is obtained from " v~ = 1.6 + jO.4(0.jO.6667 + j5) .0.02 v~ =(0.4( 0.jO.4(\ .0226 .046122 = 0.05 + jO.0491933 New voltage at bus 2 is obtained as VO) 2 _  1 [ .02897 + 1.jO.023216 .046 I 22 + 1.0.02486 .0.023216 v~ =.0611087) vi2 )' = 1.(1.jO.(1.75)(I.jO.O .130 Mvar to be generated at bus 2 = Operation and Control in Power Systems Net Mvar injection into bus 2 + load Mvar = = .0226 .1797067 p.02827 + jO.046122 .(0.05 + jO. therefore.jO.( .9 I 67 .1.0611)] = 1.029302 .u.0.0611 087 The new voltage at bus 3 is calculated as V(l) J  I [ 6.05 + jO) .029302 + 1.25 + j3. = 17.03194278 The voltages at the end of the second iteration are 1.jO.
02030 I .228975 Power Flow Q 0.017396 = t 0.0274·~8 I 2 3 ·1 .)Yt2 Line flow from bus 2 to bus 1 = 0.0 051 J2l) 1027726.049193 I 02 .00341309 I 0281748 .01481 jO.I (b).225183 0.OOS9178 Similarly..jO.228975 + jO.68396 .003508 I 0124428 .684006 + jO.0611087 I 033·l76 .)Y.029302 .iO I 05 ' .04548 1.02 .00539141 1'()29892 .jO.017396 S2' = v (v.22518 .jO.03 +jO 1.(V.0 + jO 1.05 +jO 1.225 (0. .0611087 Vfl = 1.034802 5 6 7 I. the other line flows can be computed and are tabulated in Table ES. The results are tahulated in Table E5.0 lOS + iO I 05 + .02412 jO.0.0554 ·0.195845 0.iO 05 101 17 Line flow from hus 1 to bus 2 S'2 .023216.jO.0363943 1.1 (a) Table ES.05062 1.V.912981 + jO. is PI + jQI = 0. the slack bus power obtained by adding the flows in the lines terminating at the slack bus.228975 + jO.05 +jO 1.Power Flow Analysi.1(b) Line Flows Line 12 21 13 31 23 32 P + 0.jO.05 +.05 + jO 1.' V.054 .1 2 = ·0.0 04813X3 I 0227564 .OJ 19428 I.0.03194278 The procedure is repeated till convergence is obtained at the end of the sixth iteration. 0284 78 .224 0.0.0..0.074129 007461 .jO.242396) Table E5..017396 0.I (a) Bus Voltage Iteration 0 8us I 8us 2 8us 3 1.05 + jO 1. .0 1.674565 .V.023216.0059178 0.0.0338074 1.\· 131 vi 2) = 1.
u.845 3.2 0.I as slack bus and using an accelerating factor of 1. The following is the data: Line impedance (p.02 (specitied) 2 3 .57000 1.33000 3.4. perform load flow by Gauss . Real 0.05 1. 5 E 5.2 Consider the bus system shown in Fig. Solve the problem also using NewtonRaphson polar coordinate method.2.~  :\ 6    0.8 0.u.) 14 15 23 24 2(.560 1500 0625 EI /::2 El EI EI El 45 Scheduled generation and bus voltages: Bus Code P Assumed bus voltage Generation MWp.D3 0. E 5.u.132 Operation and Control in Power Systems E 5. 1 1 05 +jO 0 Load MWp.u Mvar p.2 A six bus power system.05 0. (b) . Mvarp. 73000 30()()OO 1 94000 EI E2 E2 E2 L2 f:2 Imaginary 0.4 0. Take precision index as 0.Seidel method.05 0.u 1.19999 I.7 (a) Taking bus .600 1750 0.000 I.2 1.
) Real 14. 5 62 6..410254 133 PQ 11 14 15 22 23 25 26 32 33 41 44 45 51 52 54 5 _.iQ (0)' 2 2 l_ V 2 .44174 28.(0).529948 9029870 ·5.V IO )' I II .Power Flow Analysis Solution: The bus admittance matrix is obtained as : Bus Code Admittance (p.i V (I) ~ CO" .59579() ··1. I Y [p~'jQ1 .529948 18.. are assumed to be I + jO except the specified voltage at bus I which is kept fixed at 1. Y2'V.J 1()257 6.Y 2.J. y..529404 8 133420 22727320 14."I.282051 1.IO )'1! _h .011091 1.486446 10.593900 2.011091 5.u.33705() 6.6 All the bus voltages.035970 4.329113 1. y(O).016390 4.V.516310 ·5 486446 9..282051 1..301400 6410257 5. V I.05 + jO.529404 5.282051 Imaginary 32 57515 8 13342 24.441740 163014()0 14593900 55. The voltage equations for the fist GauseSeidel iteration are: V(I) '" 2 _1_1 y I 1'2 .0 II 091 5035970 1..029870 7.24106 5.529494 16.
0557924) = 0.(5.(I .59579 J 1.4+ jO. the equation for solution are y~I)=(  .529404) x (1.jO.0557924) = I .01639 _ J .028669 .(1.(4.992808 .0669962 The results of these iterations is given in Table 5.jO.989904 .O~.24100)X[I.) .089511 + j0.05 + jO) .02987 + j24.02] J 11 6 .133342) x (1.05 7.22.5939)(1 + jO) = 0.0.2.30 14)(1.8 + jO.jO .0 I 6786 + jO.282051 + j16.6.jO.0557924 y(l) :1 =( I 1.jO.134 Operation and Control in Power Systems y!l) ) =_I_[P5yjQ Y 55 (0)' 5 5 _y 51 YI _y 51 y(l) 2 _Y_ )4 y(l)] 4 Substituting the values.0658069) = 1.3885233 y(l) 4 =( 10.0 I 109 I _ .529948 + jl 4.44174) x (1.1. ·55.282051 .05] J I .005] 1.282051 .0 I 1091 + j5.30 14 )(1 + jO) l J .(I .05 + jO.016786 + jO.016786 + jO.28.5939)(0.329113 J ljO 1 .7+jOO.4 I 0257) x (1.jO .72732)X[I.52424) x [1.0658069 y!l) ) = ( _____.(4.33705) x [.l I 18.3 (a) .410257JX[0.jO _. I .O 1879179 j y(I)=( 1.(9.j O.011091 + j5.jO.3014)(1 + jO) = 1.486 2 + j8.(5.016786 + jO.5. (.03597 + jl 6.46 .j6.992808 .2 .03597 + jI6.529948 + jl 4.0557929) .529404)x (I + jO) (5.
3050814 1.041036 + jO.10.05()0558 1.0557924 1.033761 + jO 00447096 1.04511174 1.031063 + jO.OO4454002 1.jO 0352727 1.10.097002 1.016927 jO 00543323 IOI6967jO...016997 .040914 + jO.040509 + jO.jO.33985 + jO.Table ES.041414+j0097518 1.028816 + jO 294465 1.041 104 + .033711 +jO.O I +.0192121 I 014571jO 02625271 I 02209 +.10.1004506212 1.03381 + jO.jO.992808 .02763564 103515 + jO.0 1879179 1.02669jO.2962084 0.3(a) It.0963405 1. jO 00430454 I 033845 + jO.O 177322 1034181 +jO.01403.089511 + jO 3885233 1.1000770664 I 017353 .101896 1040005+jO.jO 0048398 1016743 jO.2973287 1.1O 18735 I 043568 + jO 089733 1.296598 1.016789 + jO.10.00498989 1.029642 + .04504223 1.1° 04498312 1013943 .10.10.10 0064356n 1014416jO.102973287 1.0 I +jO 0 I +jO.No Bus 2 Bus 3 Bus 4 Bus 5 Bus 6 0 1+ jO.10.10.10..033749 + jO.10.102901358 1.041127 +jO.029739 + jO.014855 + .0971777 1.013044 .041203 + jO.O I +jO 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 1\ 1.019331 j004501488 1.027151 +..02571 + jO.10.097164 1.016877 jO 00558081 1.047155 +.0·l2189 + jO.01821jOOO1752973 1016182 .004504417 I 033845 .0971998 1.0044 13647 1.033319 + jO.004558826 1.014418 .0972818 1.013687 .0577213 1.2963 715 1.0978431 1.10.004463 713 0989901 .0453101 1.041075 +.05306 + jO.jO 045610 I 1014148 jO 04487629 1.004495542 I 03374 +jO.004439559 1.021136 .0060342 IOI7089jO.02935 +.0013965 jO.2994083 1.00524855 1.jO 0658069 1.00258192 1..2323309 I 054321 + jO 3276035 I 02297 + .jO.041933 +.00053283 9 10 II 12 13 14 .029518 + jO 2960784 1.012207 .0971451 1.61576 _.033756 +.003697056 10.093791 I 04212 + . jO 04258692 1.10.1004646546 1.01319787 1.035391 + jO 00526437 0.013552 .030042 + jO.0669962 1.013881 .
7642L71.4° 15.03)2 (9.27046L 108.001928 I 2 3 4 5 6 I OS () 045629 1071334 1.95285) cos (108°.6) +(1.4) ~ 0.95285L108.4°1 5.6 0 3.136 Operation and Control in Power Systems In the polar form.108.543515 2.03LOO viol viOl = 1.95285LI08.u.03)(1.27046) cos (108°.0LOo The real and reactive powers at bus 2 are calculated as follows : P2 = IV1 VI Y 11 Icos(oiO)  01  8 21 )+ [vi Yn[ cos(.(1.3(b) Bus Voltage magnitude (p.4) + (1.8 22 )+ 7 (1.014964 I 033765 1.6° 5.4° [ 15.016981 (b) Newton .473992 3.0819L71.05 LOO = 1.Raphson polar coordinates method The bus admittance matrix is written in polar form as 19.03)2 (9.22331) cos (71°.4 0 ° The initial bus voltages are VI = 1.6° Ysus = 3.4 Note that 9.05058 2. all the voltages at the end of the 14th iteration are given in Table E5.03) (1. Table E5.05) (3.2233IL71.3(b).3326 16.22331) cos (108°.108.0)(5.27046L .8114L 108.8114L .4° 21.4) +.02575 .) Phase angle (0) 0 5.
P3 = IVj01VIY31Icos(8~Ol 8 1 8 31 )+!Vj01V 2 Y32 ! cos(8~Ol 8 2 8 32 )+ IVjO)2 Y33Icos(833) (1.8 21 )+ IV 2 V3 Y23 I sin (8iol = Iv} y 1 8 sin(22 22 )+ 8~OI823) (1.03) (5.8114) sin (108.9) = 0.6 .27046) cos (108.0819) cos (71.07725 0. The real and reactive powers at bus 3 are calculated in a similar way.03) (5.3 .25 .95285) sin (108°.0)2 (21.(0.0) (1.05) (3.05) (15. I~piol 1and !~o~O) I . since !~piO) I.4°) + (1.0) (5.03)2 (9.0) 1.3 ~02 ~oiO) = 0.8 33 ) (1.9 The difference between scheduled and calculated powers are ~piO' = 0. u Mvar at bus 2 = = 0.6°) 0.2 + 0.65 It may be noted that has not been computed since bus 2 is voltage controlled bus.Power Flow Analysis 137 .81 .725 Mvar This is within the limits specitied.0891) sin (71.4°) + (1.22331) sin (71.6°) = 0.07725 + (1.6°) =  = 0..03) (1.3 0 3 = IVjO)VIY31Isin(8~Ol 8 1 8 31 )+lvjO)V2 Y32Isin(8~O) 8 2 9 32 )+ IVJ0 12 Y31 Isin(.0.0) (1.4) + (1.05 (15.27725 = 27.03) (1.02575 = 0.32575 ~p~O) = 0.(0.27046) sin (108.0) (1.4°) + (1.4°) = + (1.3) = 0.27046) sin (108.4°) = Generation of p.0)2 (21.8114) cos (108. O2 = IV 2VI Y21 ISin(8~Ol .
03) (1.03) (!.27046) sin (108. 8.0819) cos (71.27046) cos (108.03) (5.8(0)  ) ' ~  .0) (1.27046) sin (I 08.4°) = 6.6°) + (1. . the next iteration is computed. 8 23 ) (1.) . (dO) 00 = IV(O)V1 y )1 ISIn\u) 3 3 UI  8) + IV(O)V 2 Y32 ISIn\U3 .05) (15. oP 2 = Iv. 2 IV2 VjO)Y23lsin(8~0) _0~0) 8 23 ) =  (1.03) (5.0) (21.4°) + (1. Iteration I : Elements of the Jacobian are calculated as follows.7166724 =  CU3 cP} =IV(O)V I Y31 ISin(8(O) o~O) 8)) "I:: 3 3 _ L = (0.366604 .27046) sin (108.03) (5.15 = 20.0) (5.4°) = 9. {I:: (0) 31 3 dO) u2  8 32 ) =  (1.9 IV 2 Y32Icos(ojO) oiO) 8 32 ) = 2(1.0) (1. V(O) y" ISin{8~0) .4°) . J =0 CP 2 I I ((O) (0) 8.4°) =  5.4°) + (1.5.15 I:: oP.15 ap ((O) (0) 28 =v 2 VI Y21 SIn\8 2 8 1 8 21 ) + 2 I I.' = (1.95285) sin (108.05) (15..27046) cos (108.03) (1.0 I.8114) sin (108.8114) cos (108.O) (5.4°) 1.2056266 ~=V2Y23COS\02 Ou. c8.4()) ~ 5.138 Operation and Control in Power Systems are greater than the specified limit of 0.05) (3.
55944 20. u3 (O)V I (~«(l) IV3 2 Y32 cosu2  U ~I  e) + 31 u3 \:(0)  8 32 ) =c (1.6. 0(0)  2 e ) 32 = = (1.6.0) (1.65 1.4() 1.9 .20563 0.Power Flow Analysis 139 8Q 3 cO.1.7166724 = .7166724 ?Q 3 cO.9 6.9667 0.70) · r 0.55944 18. 5.03) (5.710746 _0 19.4() .9967 Following the method of triangulation and back substations .6°) + (1.36660 19.8114) sin (108.15 20.18648'lr~0.4°) + (1.0819) sin (71.27046) cos (108. :=: IV(O)V y ICOS(O(O) 3 I 32 .9667 IV2 Y32Isin(oiO) O~()) 8 32 ) = 2(1.71667 0.4(1) = 19.035386 + 1.0.' :=: Iv(OIVI Y.325751 [9.3 = 5.8114) cos (108.42012 L{\IV l .186481l~021 6. ~IV.5.15 0.1~ Icos (dO) .353861l I 0.3 = 5.05) (15.0) (1.71667 . (5.40623 M.27046) sin (108.1 t\b.03) (5. 1 r+0.0) (21. .006326 0.1 From eqn.0.482237 = 0 [I 0.05) (15.02 .6.I 0.353861 .15 l .0.
The real and reactive powers at bus 3 are computed as pjl) = (1.22202) = 0.9788) .03 L2.243856 p.03)(1 .30009 Q~I) = (1.1.4 ° 0.(1. = (0. Mvar This is within the specified limits.8575° At the end of the firs iteration the bus voltages are VI = 1.025917)(5.035286 .0267613 .03)(1.2 + 0.8575) .27046)cos[(1.043853 Generation of reactive power at bus 2 = = 0.05)(l5.85757° V3 == 1.8117)cos[(1.03)(5.140 Operation and Control in Power Systems Finally.85757) .8575) 108.(2.3856 Mvar = 0.4 0)] + (l.18648) (0.98° Ml = == .05)(3.0 108.9788° The real and reactive powers at bus 2 are computed : pil) = (1.05)(3. l ~83 r 0.025917)\21.60407 .22331) sin[( 2.0.049874 rad =  2.55) /(21.(0.(0.0988) .03) 2 (1.3) (0.0819) cos(71.27046) cos[( 2.4°) + (1.05 LO o V 2 = 1.025917)(1.55 ~IV31 0.O( 108.4] + (1.0267613 =lO 0.95285)[sin( 2.4 0) + (1.(0.35386]11 0.034536) .03)2 (9.025917 L1.8575) .4 0 )] = 0.9788) .0(108.108.3 21.09788) .ll.108.025917) '" .8575) .18648]r~82j~ 0.025917) =  0.025917)(l.0.55944) (0.60) =.95285)[cos(2.0345364 rad 0.0.043853 24.22202 ~83 ~IV31 Thus.025917 = .55944 I 0 0 0.(1.
(2.05LO o Bus 2 I 03LOo I.30009) = 0.05LOo I. Q n.25 . The results are tabulated in table E5.6o) = 0.8575) .0276 Even though the first two differences are within the limits the last one.6 co (0.8517 Bus 3 I.00407 0.9788) .O 16533 o ()O49313 0.025917)~ (21.8114) sin[( 1.4 0 )] + (1.03L2.LOo 1.977) .03L2.4 (a) Bus voltages Iteration 0 I 2 Bus I I.(0.108.4(b) Table E5. oil) is greater than the specified limit 0. 94 7 Table E5.025917)(1.27046) sinl( 1.683 C )/) .4 (b) Line Flows Line 12 21 13 31 23 32 P 02297 .224 The differences between scheduled powers and calculated powers are ~pil) ~P~ I) .05 )(15.108.3 = 0.60407) = 0.4(a) and E5.00009 (0.024 76L 1.\Q\I) = 0.025917 L1.022332 O. At the end of the second iteration even l~03 also is found to be within the specified tolerance.054 .0 I.2224) = 0.Power Flow Analysis 141 Q~I) == (1.0819)sin(71.03)(5.224 0.0.0195845 0.4 0 )1 + (1. The next iteration is carried out in a similar manner.85757 1.05LOo I.0674565 0.0554 .025917)(1.9788 1.074126 007461 Power Flow .
08 +jO.546 .02 +jO.15 + jO.724+ j4.724 .121.j24.724+ .04 0.808 O+jO 0+ jO ° ·10 + j20 12.98 10+ .06 0. 5 3 4 (a) Power system Bus Code 12 23 35 34 45 51 Line impedance Zpq 0.j24.14.962+j4.02 +jO.04 0.115 0 82·. .31 +. 2 10 + j20 0 (c) Generation and load data I 3 0+ jO 0.962 + j4.24 004 + jO.3 .768 0.192 4 0+ jO 0 + jO 5+jI5 15j34.27 2 3 4 5 10 + j20 0+ jO 0 + jO 1.3 For the given sample power system find load flow solution using NR polar coordinates method.02 j 0 02 j 0.12.944 )1.808 6783.01 i 0.120 5 1.j26.31 10962 .01 j 0.192 11. decoupled method and fast decoupled method.2 (b) Linedata Bus Code (Slack) I Generation Mw Mvar 0 50 0 0 0 25 0 0 0 MW () Load Mvar 0 10 20 15 25 2 3 4 5 15 45 40 50 .025 j 0. E 5.02 0.02 Line charging j 0. jO 0822 + j2.142 Operation and Control in Power Systems E5.02 +jO.447 (d) Bus admittance matrix Fig.
041583 dp[4] = 0.008219 Bus no 3 E : 0.000502 dQ[5] = 0.0.874651 F :.882096 F :.008285 Bus no 3 E : 0.984591 F :.880951 F :.000953 dQ[2] = 0.0.038605 dQ[3] = 0.0.142226 Bus no 4 E : 0.153423 Bus no 5 E : 0.046259 dQ[4] = 0.001087 dQ[3] = 0.0.000000 F : 0.002406 dp[3] = 0.143439 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 3 is 143 .0.Power Flow Analysis Solution: The Residual or Mismatch vector for iteration no: I is dp[2] = 0.142707 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 2 is dp[2] = 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 1.003703 dQ[5] = 0.04944 dp[3] =0.0.984357 F :.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.002888 The New voltage vector after iteration 2 is : Bus no IE: 1.868709 F :.86991 F :.002261 dQ[4] = 0.154322 Bus no 5 E : 0.067349 dp[5] = 0.058334 The New voltage vector after iteration I is : Bus no 1 E : 1.142953 Bus no 4 E : 0.001177 dp[4] = 0.000000 F : 0.004219 dp[5] = 0.0.875810 F :.047486 dQ[2] = ·0.0.
500000 0.000005 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.089093 bus no 2 pq P = 0.1429531 F = dp[4] = 0.000001 0.150002 E = 1.556063 Q = 0.349995 bus no 3 pq P = 0.350000 dp[3] dp[4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQ[4] dQ[5] = = = = 0.0.000005 0.150003 E = 0.0.880951 Q = 0.399987 bus no 5 pq P = 0.000001 0.008219 F = 0.130000 0.144 dp[2] dp[3] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQ[4] dQ[5] = = Operation and Control in Power Systems 0.984357 F = 0.0.000013 = = = = = The final load flow solution (for allowable error.000000 F = 0.947017 F:.005323 .000000 E = 0.150753 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: I is dp [2] = 0.145000 0.161282 Bus no 5 E: 0.0.014700 Bus no 3 E: 0.148655 Bus no 4 E : 0.OOOt) : bus no 1 Slack P = 1.249993 E = 0.450000 0.000000 F : 0.943803 F:.000002 0.143439 Decoupled load flow solution (polar coordinate method) The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 0 is dp[2] = 0.000007 Q = 0.997385 F :.400000 0.449999 bus no 4 pq P = 0.154322 F = 0.868709 Q = 0.874651 0.500001 Q = 0.000003 0.941403 F :.199995 E = 0.190000 0.195000 = = = The new voltage vector after iteration 0 : Bus no IE: 1.
000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.Power Flow Analysis dp[3] = 0.008207 dp[4] = 0.009927 0.0.143484 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:2 is dp[2] dp[3] dp[4] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQ[4] = = 145 0.142767 Bus no 4 E: 0.004522 .007721 The new voltage vector after iteration 2 : Bus no 1 E: 1.067713 dQ[3] = 0.017905 0.870666 F :.001304 dp[4] = 0.143760 Bus no 4 E : 0.874339 F :.112987 dQ[ 4] = 0.143109 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:3 is dp[2] = 0.0.000000 F : 0.0.0.000138 dp[3] = 0.882750 F :.868132 F:.019702 dQ[2] = 0.004139 dp[5] =0.009525 0.0.154172 Bus no 5 E : 0.013556 Bus no 3 E : 0.012938 = dp[5] = 0.210557 The new voltage vector after iteration 1 : Bus no 1 E : 1.876161 F :.981985 F:.154900 Bus no 5 E : 0.002305 0.0.0.880269 F :.159696 dQ[5] = 0.149314 0.0.000000 F : 0.006964 = = = dQ[5] = 0.000000 Bus no 2 E: 0.007091 Bus no 3 E : 0.982082 F :.
0.002233 The new voltage vector after iteration 3 : Bus no IE: 1.008460 Bus no 3 E: 0.154159 Bus no 5 E : 0.881121 F:.143429 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:4 is dp[2] = 0.868848 F :.874717 F :.874862 F :.002894 dp[4] = O.003361 The new voltage vector after iteration 4 : Bus no IE: 1.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.0.006182 dQ[ 4] = 0.0.000000 F : 0.0.000000 F : 0.001807 dQ[2] = 0.000046 dQ[3] = 0.0000561 0.881111 F: :.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.0.146 Operation and Control in Power Systems dp[ 5] dQ[2] = 0.000463 dQ[ 4] = 0.031844 dp[3] = 0.142710 Bus no 4 E : 0.984866 F :.0.006315 0.002409 dQ[5] = 0.006789 dp[3] = 0.001652 dQ[5] = 0.868849 F :.007075 Bus no 3 E : 0.000217 dp[5] dQ[2J = ~.0.000059 .142985 Bus no 4 E : 0.1546330 Bus no 5 E : 0.143484 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:5 is dp[2] = 0.0.984866 F :.066286 = dQ[3] = 0. 0.000528 dp[4] =0.M0570 til dp[5] = 0.
Power Flow Analysis dQ[3 J = 0.008165 Bus no 3 E : 0.868710 F :.868671 F :.000305 dp[5] = 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.0.000267 dQ[4] = 0.000056 0.874633 F :.1.OOOI5~ dQ[41 = .000186 0.143431 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 6 is dp[2] dp[3] dp[ 4] = = = 0.000059 dQ[4] = 0.143441 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:7 is dp[2] dp[3] dp[4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] = = = = = = 0.0.000156 0.154314 Bus no 5 E : 0.880954 F :.154323 Bus no 5 E : 0.142941 Bus no 4 E : 0.000033 0.000160 = The new voltage vector after iteration 6 : Bus no 1 E : 1.000010 0.000721 The new voltage vector after iteration 5 : Bus no 1 E : 1.000320 dQ[2] = 0.000073 0.000005 0.0.000635 dQ[5] = 147 0.42947 Bus no 4 E : 0.001466 0.874655 F :.003032 dQ[3] dQ[5] = 0.0.000000 F : 0.000 I 06 0.880907 F :.000000 F : 0.0.984246 F :.0.0.984379 F :.0.008169 Bus no 3 E : 0.
984352 F :.000036 0.0.154325 Bus no 5 E : 0.868714 F :.148 dQ[5] = Operation and Control in Power Systems 0.874651 F:.008231 Bus no 3 E : 0.0.000656 0.874647 F :.0.00000 I 0.0.000023 0.000037 = dQ[4] = 0.000041 0.0.954381 F :.868706 F :.0.000022 dp[ 4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQr 4] dQ[5] = = = = 0.143440 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:9 is dp[2] = 0.000000 F : 0.880947 F :.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.000074 The new voltage vector after iteration 8 : Bus no 1 E : 1.000072 0.880958 F :.0.000000 0.154327 Bus no 5 E : 0.143442 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no : 8 is dp[2] = 0.000022 dp[3] dp[4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] = = = = 0.000048 dQ[5] = 0.142957 Bus no 4 E : 0.0.000038 = = The new voltage vector after iteration 9 : .000166 The new voltage vector after iteration 7 : Bus no 1 E : 1.000318 dp[3] = 0.000000 F : 0.000074 0.000012 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.142958 Bus no 4 E : 0.008230 Bus no 3 E : 0.
000008 dQ[5] = 0.0.142954 Bus no 4 E : 0.154324 Bus no 5 E : 0.flis Bus no 1 E : 1.0.143440 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: lOis dp[2] = 149 0.000143 0.868707 F :.143440 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: II is dp[2] dp[3] = = 0.868705 F :.0.0.000008 = dQ[4] = 0.000020 The new voltage vector after iteration 10 : Bus no 1 E : 1.142954 Bus no 4 E : 0.000014 dQ[5] = 0.Power Flow Analy.880949 F :.000017 dp[S] dQ[2] dQ[3] = = 0.000006 dp[51 = 0.000000 F : 0.OOO I) .000004 dQ[3] = 0.000069 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.0.984658 F :.000011 dQ[2] = 0.000009 The final load flow solution after 11 iterations (for allowable arror.874648 F :.0.874648 F :.000017 0.984352 F :.008216 Bus no 3 E : 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.0.000005 dp[ 4] = 0.0.154324 Bus no 5 E : 0.000000 dQ[4] = 0.000000 F : 0.000001 dp[4] = 0.880946 F :.008217 Bus no 3 E : 0.000001 dp[3] = 0.
0.997563 F :.218309 dp[3] = 0.880949 E = 0.143440 Fast decoupled load flow solution (polar coordinate method) The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no:O is dp[2] dp[3] dpf4] dp[5] dQ[21 = = ~ = 0.007299 ·0.350000 0.500011 Q = 0.008216 F = 0.947912 F:.350069 Bus no 3 pq P = 0.150003 Q = 0.0.130000 dQ[5] = 0.000000 F = 0.0.868707 E = 0.556088 Bus no 2 pq P = 0.OOOl) : Bus no 1 Slack P = 1.012407 0.150002 Q = E = 1.162227 0.399994 Bus no 5 pq P = 0.400000 ···0.154324 F = 0.118299 = = The new voltage vector after iteration 1 : Bus no 1 E : 1.000751 =.004466 0.249991 F = 0.942331 F :.199995 0.500000 0.195000 The new voltage vector after iteration 0 : Bus no 1 E : 1.089043 Q = 0.000000 E = 0.145000 dQ[4] = 0.874648 F = 0.944696F :. ~ = dQ[3] == 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.984658 E = 0.0.450005 Bus no 4 pq P = 0.072548 0.163946 Bus no 5 E : 0.151220 Bus no 4 E : 0.000000 F .153327 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: I is dp[2] dp[ 41 dpr 5] dQ[21 dQ[4] dQr5] = 0.450000 0.0.142954 Q = 0.190000 = dQ[3] = 0.015222 Bus no 3 E: 0.000000 F : 0.000000 .150 Operation and Control in Power Systems The final load flow solution (for allowable error.
0.1433 12 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 2 is drl21 dp[3] ~ ~ 151 O..0.. 0.0.0.000732 dQ[5] = 0.005460 dpr5] = 0.875752 F . 1.003236 dQ[5] = 0.0. 0.. I42740 ... 142597 Bus no 4 E .009505 dQr2] dQ[31 = = 0.O.002874 The new voltage vector after iteration 2 : Bus no IE.0. I 5366 I 0.8805 15 F . 0..0.143602 Bus no 4 E . 0.981909 F . 0.004296 The new voltage vector after iteration 3 : Bus no IE.000155 dp[5] =0.874588 F .984926 F :.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.007026 Bus no 3 E .007086 Bus no 3 E : 0.0.Power Flow Analysis Bus no 2 E ..014792 dQ[4] = 0.882397 F .982004 F .002093 dp[4] = 0.003219 dQ[2] = 0..000000 F : 0. 0. 0.0.000000 Bus no 2 E .000850 dp[3] = 0.868400 F .881246 F :.143038 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 3 is dp[2] = 0. 1.067612 dQ[3] = 0. 0.020063 dp[4] = 0.000000 F .153884 Bus no 5 E .013636 Bus no 3 E .O.011198 0.869896 F .154684 Bus no 5 E .007004 dQ[4] = 0.
0.000006 0.000000 F : 0.000288 0.874717 F:.881119 F :.143053 Bus no 4 E : 0.000450 0.0.154405 Bus no 5 E: 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.002671 dQ[2] = 0.001698 The new voltage vector after iteration 4 : Bus no 1 E : 1.003011 dp[4] =0.000430 0.143501 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 5 is dp[2] dp[3] dp[ 4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQ[4] dQ[5] = = 0.000966 dQ[3] dQ[41 = = 0.881246 F :.0.032384 dp[3] = 0.154193 Bus no 5 E : 0.008488 Bus no 3 E : 0.0.0.OOJ 265 = = = = = = The new voltage vector after iteration 6 : Bus no IE: 1.000433 0.000936 0.0.000909 O.0.0.000232 dQ[5] = 0.984862 F :.143008 Bus no 4 E : 0.874928 F :.014315 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.868847 F :.154357 .000000 F : 0.152 Operation and Control in Power Systems Bus no 4 E : 0.869014 F :.143458 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 4 is dp[2] = 0.869014 F :.001336 dp[5] = 0.984230 F :.008463 Bus no 3 E : 0.0.
006981 0.000039 0.000528 0.000155 0.000162 0.868718 F:.000098 = = = = .000105 0.874656F :.Power Flow Analysis Bus no 5 E : 0.0.000375 = = = The new voltage vector after iteration 7 : Bus no IE: 1.000384 0.001523 0.000792 0.0.000068 0.880963 F :.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.0.000255 0.154316 Bus no 5 E : 0.143442 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 8 is dp[2] dp[3] dp[4] dp[5] dQ[2] = 0.142943 Bus no 4 E: 0.003107 0.0.008166 Bus no 3 E : 0.143433 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 6 is dp[2] dp[3] dp[4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQ[4] dQ[5] = = = = = = = = 153 0.000215 0.000115 0.984386 F :.000144 dp[3] = 0.000247 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 7 is dp[2] = 0.874607 F :.000000 F : 0.000331 0.000050 dp[4] dp[5] dQ[2] dQ[3] dQ[4] dQ[5] = = = 0.000080 0.0.
000024 dQr·tl =0.008230 Bus no 3 E : 0.O.000072 dQ[5] = 0.O.000056 dQI21 = 0. I 43440 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: lOis dp[2] = 0.000022 dpl41 "" 0.880945 F :.000000 F: 0.000334 dp[3] = 0.000000 F : 0.000038 The new voltage vector after iteration 8 : Bus no IE: 1.142958 Bus no 4 E : 0.0. I 4296 I Bus no 4 E : 0. I 54329 Bus no.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.000028 dQI3 J= 0.874646 F :. I 54326 Bus no 5 E : 0.154 dQ[3] = Operation and Control in Power Systems 0.868704 F :.143442 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 9 is dp[2] = 0.000008 dQ[2] ~ 0.880957 F :.0.O.000 105 The new voltage vector after iteration 9 : Bus no IE: 1.008233 Bus no 3 E : 0.) E : 0.000017 dp[5] = 0.984350 F :.000033 dp[5] =0.000037 dQ15] 00.000679 dQl3] = 0.874651 F :.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.8687 I 4 F :.000045 dp[3] = 0.984380 F :.0.O.000007 dQr 41 = 0.0.000007 .00003 I dQ[4] = 0.000015 dp[ 4] = 0.
000005 The new voltage vector after iteration 10 : Bus no 1 E : 1.000003 ~ = dpr5] = 0.880946 F :.984358 F:.000000 .142953 Bus no 4 E : 0.154323 Bus no 5 E : 0.000008 0.Power Flow Analysis dQ[5] = 155 0.143440 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 12 is dp[21 c0.000001 dQr 5 J' 0.000000 F : 0.008216 Bus no 3 E : 0.000002 :~ dQf41 = 0.000009 0.000013 0.143440 The residual or mismatch vector for iteration no: 11 is dpP1 dpl31 dp[4] = 0.000020 dQ[5] = 0.000000 Bus no 2 E: 0.000027 The new voltage vector after iteration 11 : Bus no 1 E : 1.000074 dp[ 31 = 0.0.868707 F :.0.142954 Bus no 4 E : 0.000000 F : 0.0.0.000007 dQ[4] = 0.0.000004 0.874648 F :.984352 F :.898705 F :.0 .154324 Bus no 5 E : 0.0..000014 0.000000 Bus no 2 E : 0.000149 dQ[31 = ·0.000005 dp[4] dp[5] dQr21 dQr31 = = = .. 008216 Bus no 3 E : 0.880949 F :.874648 F :.000000 dQr21 = 0.0. 0.
02 + jO.24 [ (ii) Add element 13.06) 0.150008 199995 0.O 0.2 Z23 + Z23 23 = (0.008216 F = 0.18) 0. Use Gauss .000000 E = 0.0 + jO.1 lIsing ZBus.02+jO.O 0. r his is also addition of a new bus to the reference bus (2) (3) (2) 0. In this example.06)(0.02 + jO.000000 F = 0.06 .08 + jO.4 Operation and Control in Power Systems no I no 2 no 3 no 4 no 5 Slack P = 1. . = Zloop_2 = Z22 Z3_loop = Zloop_3 = Z32 Z2IOOp ZlooplooP = Z22 Z23 = 0.0 + jO.08 + jO.08+jO.16+jO.O 0.48 = (2) (2) (3) (0 0. as in example 5.'' Z2loop Zloop2 Zlooploop .05 + jO.24)+(0. The bus impedance matrix is formed as indicated in section 5.15.24 0.(0.08 + jO.874648 F = 0.24 0+ jO 0.Seidel method.000 I.024 0.880949 E == 0.250000 = E = 1.450005 pq P = 0. Take accuracy for convergence as 0.08 + jO.06) + Z33 .24 .154324 F = 0.02 + jO.02+jO.16 +j0.556076 Q Q Q Q = '~O. (i) Add element 12.(0.399991 pq P = 0.i0.06 Zsus (iii) = (3) Add element 23.48 0.08+jO.02 + jO.500014 Q = 0.984358 E = 0. This is addition of a new bus to the reference bus Z BUS Solution: = (2) (2) [0.24 Z33 = (0. This is the addition of a link between two existing buses 2 and 3.1 bus I is chosen as the slack bus. ~ 0.089040 pq P = 0.142954 F = 0.868707 E = 0.006) Zsus = (3) C The loop is now eliminated Z22 = Z 22 .350074 pq P = 0.06 + . The slack bus is taken as the reference bus.150001 0.0 + jO.156 The load flow solution Bus Bus Bus Bus Bus E5.143440 Obtain the load flow solution to the system given in example E5.
jO.05045 1.017 + jO.565° )(0.O Assuming that the reactive power injected into bys 2 is zero.1265L71.S6SO 1 The voltages at bus 2 and 3 are assumed to be via) = 1.38 0 1.03 Similarly Z~3 = 0.8182 .O =0.0 1+ jO.08 + jO.05534L71.6 _ jO.05LOO + (0.Bus matrix is thus Z Bus _[0. Q 2 = 0.8 + jO.24)( 0.0 I + jO.16+j0.02485 .02 .0 The bus currents I~O) and I~O) are computed as 1(0) = 0.16 + j0.8 + jO.29126L180o + (0.031623L71.Power Flow Analysis 157 = (0.565° I 0.0 + JO.jO.031623L71.3+ jO.O Iteration I : The voltage at bus 2 is computed as V~I) VI + Z22 I~G) + Z23 1(0) 1.25 = 0.65L157.48 = 0.O viol = 1.29126L1800 2 1.03 0.03 _ jO.565° [ 0.06) 0.12 z~ _3 = z'32 = [Z?' _ Z2loop ZIOOP3] _.6 + !0.04+ j O.5650(0.24) _ (0. 12 1 0.O J I~O) .0 + jO.0 + jO.'0.03 ]_ 0.0525 0.O) _ (0.01+jO.031623L71.29126.565° 0.1265L71.' Z looploop = (0.24)2 0.48 = 0.0175 + jO.02609L2.65LI57.0526 The Z .38° 1.0 = 0.03 + jO.04 + jO.25 = 0. = 0.
02609L _ 2.29383LI82.81820 Voltage at bus 3 is now calculated VII) = V I + Z 32 1\1) + Z 3.0 + jO.5650) (0.2.2.1 1(0) 3 _ 3 = 1.0 180 3 The voltages at the end of the first iteration are: VI = 1.jO.jO.018° The differences in voltages are 8 Vjl) = (1.02609L .65LI57.8182 0.38° = 0.0. ~ 1~IJ I = V2  (I) II I V.158 Operation and Control in Power Systems The new bus current I~O) is now calculated.03 O~I) = O~O) + ~O~O) = 0.J I I = 1.891 8° 2 J.(1.0245L .02389 .29383LI82.2.02609L .036077) .O) = 0.OO + (0.36° 1.565° )(0.38320 0(0) Im[Vi ll ~liO)*] = Im[I.0 + 0.018° 1(1) = 0.2.8182° JO.03 _ 1.3 = 0.jO.00515 .05 LOO vii) = 1.05045 ~ Vjl) = (1.8182° VP) = 1.8320) + (0.02609 I) = 0.565° = x ( 1.eh I _ 1I! l' Z»  I'VII)I 2 .036077) .383° =0.0245L2.036077) = 1.03 = 0.031623L71.02485 .02389 .05LO.jO.02609L .65LI57.05534':::71.634437 LI55..2.1265L71.O) = (0.0309084L _ 74.0245'::: .0309084L74.03 + jO.02389 .jO.3.03 III) = 0.38° ) = (1.05045) .jO.
4 ° + 0.892°) + (0.OOI28 As the accuracy is still not enough.295763LI86.02389 .38°) = 0.00011 + jO.02758L .81495° 1.02466LI.853 ° .02 LOo (0.565° (O.0 1913L74.02485 .051262 1.565° = i 1.1265L71.000015 = (1.81495° == 0.02758 0.031623L71.38° L'10i' ) = Im[ vi 2 ) (L'1I~1) r] = [m(1. V~3) = 1.03 + 0.0298L _ 2.434 0 L'1 viI) L'1Vjl) Iteration 3 : (1.02758 L2.jO.Power Flow Analysis Both the real and imaginary parts are greater than the specified limit 0.05LO o + (0.434 0) = :c 1.02634 .jO.5650) (0.036077) = 0.jO.03 _I] L1.05LOo + (0.3 .36°) = = 1.034793) .38° 1.00 I.02634 .0285187 .1265L71.5650)(0.050465) .jO.0486487 " I C~) 2  0.36° ) I~2)  = 0.65LI57.63487 LI 55.024 .jO.63447 L 155.5650)(0.jO.565° )(0.9459° = =0.jO. another iteration is required.(1.634437 LI55.1265L .0 I 86487 = 0.050465 1.jO.81495)(0.02758L2.71.2.31623L7 I . 159 Iteration 2 : V~2) = VI = +Z22Iil) + +Z21 [~I) 1.0486487 I .565° )(0.4°) + (0.0504 I) = 0.031623L71.(1.01923L74.295763LI86.29383 L 182.05534L71.02758L2.393° Vf) = 1.00149 .295763LI 86.81495° ~[I_)I)_~ 1.0186487 O~2) = = oil) + L'10i' ) 0.6343567LI55.
9471 2) ° oil vi = (1.031623L71.29537LI86.29537 LI86.024 .947° The line flows may be calculated further if required.jO.(1.434 0 ) = 1.853° 0.4330 J.001581L74.0.jO.02474LJ.024152 .0298 oilQ~2) = 0.947° oil V?) = 0.O V 2 = 1.05534L71.0505 1~4) = 0.0.034817) .0285187 .0298L2.jO.000108 + jO.0486487 + 0.034793) = 0.jO.00002 Iteration 4 " V~4) = 1.05LO o + (0.852° V3 = 1.02416  JO.000787 oilV12 I = (1.3.0021787 .0000867 Q~4) = 0.0502 =0.OOOOOI The final voltages are VI = 1.7° vi 4 ) = 1.6470 0.jO.6470) + (0.00058 + jO.565° [~1] = 0.02996L .6343LI55.634357 L155.0003159L .2.02474L 1.034817 == 1.160 Operation and Control in Power Systems 1~2) = J.852° oilI~3) = 0.418 0 1.853°· Vj31 = 1.38° = 0.0502 1\3) =  0.05 + jO.29537 LI86.001544 = 0.000152 .02475L 1.LI57.565° )(0.9471° 1(3) 3 = . .417° oilQ~3) = 0.034816 = 1.00154456 Qi3) = 0.02634 .024152 .jO.051262) .5650) + (0.74.(1.0298L  2.02475L1.1265L71.000016 oil Vj3) = 0.65 .jO.02996L2.050465) = 0.
02 + jO.D 0. PS.01 + jO.0 0.0 O.02 + 0.025 0.015 +jO 04 0015t.05 0.l Llse (i) (ii) GaLlss ~ Seidel method NR polar coordinates method Bus code pq 1~2 2~3 3~4 Impedance Zpq Line charges Y pq/s 0.I Obtain a load flow solution for the system shown in Fig.4 0. on a base of IOOMva.Power Flow Analysis 161 Problems PS.Ll.02 +jO 2 0.lOO4 0.0 3~5 ~~5 15 Values are given in p.0 0.0 0. .
0174 0.0167 0.0397 0.0091 0.0267 0.2360 0.16 1617 Resistance 0.0455 01182 0...0468 0.11 1112 12 .15 15 .u.0015 0.!.0558 0.1 with line charging capacitance Y p/2 = jO.0214 0.0190 0.0205 0.3 Obtain the decoupled and fast decouple load flow solution for the system in P5.u.1336 0. PS.0036 0.0322 0. Perform load flow analysis for the system Line data 23 34 36 37 78 89 910 10.0150 0.0224 0.0287 0.025 for each line PS.0660 0.1400 0.0614 00247 0.0060 0.0413 0.0747 0. PS.0431 0.0213 0.14 14 . the system data is given as follows in p.4 For the 51 bus system shown in Fig.0642 0.0580 Reactance 0. .0058 0.13 13 .3532 Capacitance 0.0098 00190 0.0367 Contd.0525 0.2 Repeat problem P5.0059 0..0560 0. P5.1 and compare the results with the exact solution. .2743 0.0182 0.162 The scheduled powers are as follows Bus Code (P) Generation Mw 1 (slack bus) 2 3 4 5 0 80 0 0 0 Mvar 0 35 0 0 0 Power System Analysis Load MW 0 25 0 45 55 Mvar 0 15 0 15 20 Take voltage at bus I as I LOo p.0028 0.
1550 01550 0.32 32 ..43 42 .0159 00872 0.0136 00136 00533 0.1008 163 o 1511 0.51 51 .30 30 .0508 0.0300 0.50 35 .0045 0.1336 0.0471 0.0371 0.3060 0.0350 0.0311 0.0136 0.0041 00045 0.3815 0.0136 0.0283 00060 00296 0.1146 0.0252 00200 0.0298 0.1078 00794 00869 0.0240 00266 0..29 29 .47 47 .36 39 .1136 0.31 30 .1281 0.28 28 .0168 0.33 35 .1765 0.0712 00420 0.38 38 .1532 0.1078 0.25 25 .1400 Comd.3639 0.0250 0.0436 0.1336 0.0045 0.19 1920 20 .43 4041 Resistance 0.1033 0.24 12 .21 20.26 26 .Power Flow Analysis Line data 17 .0866 0.2847 0.0045 0..0650 0.1584 0.2000 0.0954 0.0781 0.1076 0.0282 0.23 23 .2606 0.0125 0.1640 0.0202 0.1000 Capacitance 0.0622 01326 01418 00899 0.49 36 .0734 0.1107 0.0726 0.33 32 ..31 27 .0667 00230 0. .0256 0.0168 0.27 27 .0436 00400 00436 () 0436 () 1636 0.0254 Reactance 0.0210 0.18 18 .1 38 .2870 0.34 30 .
39 48 2 3 .0236 0.0326 0.0246 0.0000 0.0000 0.1818 0.46 441 461 149 49 .0500 0.0900 0.0900 0.0292 0.0000 0.35 0.1752 0.0000 0.0000 0.1297 01011 0.0000 0.0203 0.0900 0.0236 0.0000 0.0000 0.45 43 .2500 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0513 0.47 16 .0110 00071 0.0000 7 36 t I1 .38 47 .0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0800 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1093 0.50 37 .0400 0.0800 0.46 134 ! 212 4 .0000 0.0900 0.0597 0.0000 0.164 Power System Analysis Line data Resistance Reactance Capacitance 41 ..0000 0.0879 0.1252 00715 0.0460 0.0000 0.5 1941 I ! .0000 0.39 1840 20 .1807 0.0400 .0450 0.1686 0.17 14 .0129 0.1306 0.0630 0.0343 0.0000 0.0272 0.0000 0.0426 00000 0.0000 0.0054 0.1100 00500 () 0450 0.0500 0.2085 0.0014 0.43 43 .0077 0.0000 0.42 24·B 27 .44 45 .0.45 26.44 30 .0000 0.0000 0.0330 0.2087 0.
0600 1.0450 1.0750 1.42 24 43 3046 1 34 21 22 54 27 .36 11 .0800 10600 1.0875 1.0750 1.39 18 . Bus P.0450 1.0750 .45 26 .0500 1.44 TAP 1. P5.0750 1.Q 3 35 7 .0600 1.Power Flow Analysis 165 Fig.4 51 Bus Power System.0600 1.0900 1.47 16 .40 1941 20 .37 14 .0600 1.
0.0.0.0.1900 .1100 .4200 .0000 I OOO() 00000 00000 00000 0.2100 .0.0000 .09000 0.3600 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 13 2~ 25 26 27 28 Contd.0000 .0000 0.u.3000 .1190 0.1600 0.0200 .0000 00000 0.0500 .0000 0..0000 0. .0000 1.0000 00000 0.2400 .1900 0.u.2500 .0.0000 0.0.2200 0.0.2300 .0000 1.2000 0.0000 0..0000 .0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.1800.0200 .0.0000 10000 1.3700 .0000 0.0400 0.2100 .0.0000 0.1000 0.) Reactive power (p.0. .0.u.0000 00000 0.1400 .0 1700 .0000 1.0000 1.1200 .0000 0.0000 .0.0..0000 0.0.0.0 4400 .0000 00000 00000 0.0.) Voltage phase angle Real power (p.0000 0.0000 1.3100 .0.4600 .3300 .01200 .08000 0.1100 .7600 .0000 1.1360 .3400 .0. .2200 0.5000 0.0.0000 10000 10000 10000 1.166 Power System Analysis Bus Data .0000 0.0800 0.0000 1.2800 .0.1900 .02400 0.) 1 2 3 4 5 6 10800 ] 0000 1.0.0000 10000 10000 10000 1.0000 00000 0.0.0.0.Voltage and Scheduled Powers Bus no Voltage magnitude (p.0000 00000 00000 0.0.03400 00000 .2400 .5400 .5000 .0000 .0000 10000 10000 10000 10000 1.0.0.0000 1.0.0.0.0600 .0 0800 .
1800 .0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.1300 0.0000 1.0000 0.) Voltage phase angle Real power (p.) Reactive power (p.3000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0.2500 .u.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 00000 0.0000 0.0000 0.4200 .0000 0.0.0000 1.2600 0.3000 .0000 0.0.0000 1.2000 .0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 00000 0.0000 .5000 .0000 0.Power Flow Analysis 167 Bus no Voltage magnitude (p.0000 1.0000 00000 I.0000 1.0000 0.0000 17500 00000 0.0000 0.0000 0.u.05800 0.1700 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.) 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 1.5000 .0000 17000 0.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0.0000 0.0000 .0.0000 0.0000 1.0000 1.u.0000 1.0000 0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0.5500 35000 1. 0000 1.0.0000 1.0000 0.0000 0.0000 o.0000 0.4700 .0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.oono .0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0.
0 100.0 300. 94 line system is given.0 0.0 00 8.0 00 0. of machines No.0 0.1800 0.0 0. Obtain the load flow solution.0 0.0 0.0 80.0 0.0 96.0600 10500 10600 1.0700 0.9000 04500 02000 0.0 150. of shunt loads 71 94 200 13 23 BUS NO I GENERATION LOAD POWER 00 506.0 0.0300 1.0000 1. of buses No.0 155.0 0.0 185.5600 1.0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 Contd.0700 1.0 0. Voltage at VeB Reactive power limit 15 30 33 38 44 48 49 50 1.0 0.0 50. Data : No.0 0.0 32.0 0.0 0.0 0..500 P 5.4 The data for a 13 machine..0 0.168 Power System Analysis Bus No.8 0.0400 0.0 0.0 00 125.0 0..4800 0.0 0.. 71 bus.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0000 1.0 0. of lines Base power (MVA) No.0 00 12.0 0.0 130. .0 0.
0 0.0 0.0 0.5 994 00 69.0 70.0 00 133.0 50.0 0.0 75.0 0.0 0.8 16.0 00 0.0 0.0 1470 935 0.0 19.0 0. .0 880 0.Power Flow Analysis 169 BUS NO 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 GENERATION 0.0 74.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 123.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 22.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 9.0 0.0 0.0 00 3000 0.0 0.0 0.0 00 00 25.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 92. ..0 0..0 825 00 00 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 225.0 00 73.0 0.0 320 270 32.0 0.0 260.0 16.0 0.0 112.0 0.0 30.0 0.0 0.0 36.0 0.0 110.0 0.0 0.8 In 00 46.5 00 32.0 LOAD 100.0 Contd.0 0.0 160.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0..0 POWER 62.0 0.0 45.0 0.0 180.0 30.0 0.0 75.0 120.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.
0 0.0 00 0.0 96.0 14.0 0.0 00 0.6 0.0 0.0 78.0 300.5 0.0 0.0 40.0 0.0 0.0 40.0 27.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 0.0 33.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 \08.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 340.0 0.0 0.0 11.0 0.0 0.0 24.0 0.0 35.0 38.0 75.0 295.0 250.170 Power System Analysis BUS NO GENERATION LOAD POWER 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 180.6 142.0 0.0 556 420 57.6 145.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 6.0 7.0 0.6 27.0 25.0 183.0 0.2 0.5 0.0 90.0 2270 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 00 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 .0 68.0 48.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 27.0 0.0 234.0 20.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 55.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.
0000 0.0180 0.0620 0.0090 0.0000 0.0050 0.1300 0.00 1.0000 0.0800 0.3200 0.1860 0.0070 0.0000 0.9700 0.00 1.95 1.0190 0.00 100 0.00 1.0600 0.0920 0.0160 0.0000 0.00 0.7200 01460 0.05 1.0790 0.00 0.0000 0.0530 01480 0.00 1.0505 0.95 1.1020 0.3353 0.5200 00800 0.0140 0.00 1.0000 0.0800 0.95 1.0000 0.1930· 0.0000 0.0340 0.05 1.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.05 1.0480 00100 0.00 1.0300 0.0000 01500 0.0790 0.0570 0.0000 0.0000 02400 00000 0.3740 112 Y charge 0.0840 0.0660 0.0000 0.0700 0.0000 0.00 1.05 100 1.2220 0.0710 0.00 0.0000 00000 0.0000 0.1670 0.0800 0.0000 0.2380 0.0800 0.0660 0.00 1.0000 0.0330 0.0520 0.00 11 10 11 13 13 16 15 6 4 3 5 12 14 16 4 26 1 26 25 23 23 22 17 24 21 20 III 14 13 17 7 7 4 4 4 12 17 2 4 2 31 26 25 22 24 22 2 23 21 20 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Contd.0140 0.00 1.0160 0.1600 0.0780 0.1270 0.0270 0.0710 0.2500 0.Power Flow Analysis LINE DATA Line No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 171 From Bus 9 9 9 9 10 7 12 II To Bus 8 7 5 10 Line impedance 0.0000 0.0000 0.00 1. .0000 0.95 0.1610 0.0100 Turns Ratio 1.1600 0.95 1.05 1.00 1.0340 0.0366 0.0047 0.0000 0.2700 0.0000 0.00 1.00 1.1412 0.0000 0.0950 0.
2010 04310 01880 0.00 0.00 40 41 47 32 34 33 24 36 37 38 39 38 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 51 41 42 49 48 50 42 51 50 55 53 54 54 42 45 47 49 49 49 50 52 50 50 53 57 Contd.1030 0. .00 1.1960 0.95 1.00 1.0000 0.0460 00840 0.2200 0.95 1.00 0.0158 00000 0.0000 0.0000 0. .0000 0.6000 0.95 1.2350 0.0000 00051 0.0370 00000 0.1090 0.0800 0.0000 0.1690 0.0062 0.00 095 0..00 1.6706 0.95 1.0000 0.95 0.00 1.0540 0.1500 00755 0.0800 0.1570 0.0000 0.2100 0.00 1.0580 01770 0.0100 0:0000 00220 0.0520 0.0390 0.0000 0.0790 0.0530 0.0000 0.171 Line No From Bus To Bus Line impedance Power System Analysis 112 Y charge Turns Ratio 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 19 18 28 30 32 31 28 3 31 2 33 35 35 34 36 37 40 40 38 41 18 16 27 29 31 30 32 33 0.0220 0.0930 00800 0.0790 0.0840 0.0890 0.00 1.0000 0.0000 0.00 1.3800 0.0160 0.5100 0.0590 0.2120 0.0040 0.0000 0.0610 0.1950 0.0760 00390 00000 0.00 1.0510 00640 0.0110 0.0290 0.2170 0.95 1.05 105 0.0000 00170 0.95 0..0810 0.0000 0.05 1.0530 0.0210 0.0840 00612 0..()110 0.00 1.00 1.0000 0.00 0.0000 0.00 1.95 0.0130 O.0250 0.0080 0.0840 0.0300 0.0300 0.00 1.0000 0.0840 00000 0.0000 00000 0.0060 1.1520 0.00 105 100 1.0000 0.9200 0.
3700 0.0240 0.0000 0.2960 0.0280 0.00 1.0000 0.0120 0.0630 0.95 1.95 1.05 1.00 92 ~ n 9l .0695 00070 00120 0.00 1.00 0.0800 0.0000 00420 0.0720 0.0210 0.00 100 1.1880 0.0100 0.00 1.2293 0.00 1.1840 0.0950 0.00 1.1l40 0.0480 0.2910 OA680 0.0000 0.00 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 41 LOO 1.1632 0.0900 0.0350 0.0000 0.0830 0.0230 0.0800 0.00 1.0170 0.1160 0.0000 0.0100 0.05 1.1970 0.0230 0.0360 0.0290 0.0160 0.0170 0.0830 0.1040 0.0020 0.1140 0.00 1.1070 0.0164 0.0000 0.05 1.0990 0.1650 0.0160 00000 0.0550 01840 0.0000 0.00 1.0800 0.0890 0.0000 0.0240 0.4220 0.1540 0.05 1.00 1.0160 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.3880 01306 0.0000 0.00 1.1240 0.2220 0.0090 0.0000 0.0370 0.0800 01080 0.0000 0.1000 0.0570 0.00 1.0230 0.00 1.0600 0.1530 0.1200 0.0110 0.0850 0.0590 0.0070 0.00 1.5360 1.4293 0.0131 0.Power Flow Analysis 173 Line No From Bus To Bus Line impedance 112 Y charge Turns Ratio 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 55 56 57 59 60 53 45 45 46 46 60 61 58 62 69 69 67 65 65 65 65 67 61 57 45 70 33 71 45 35 52 56 57 59 58 59 60 44 46 41 59 61 62 62 63 68 61 66 64 56 61 67 63 42 67 70 38 71 37 41 43 52 0.00 100 1.00 0.0000 0.0000 00000 0.0390 0.0280 0.
00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Load .0800 .2000 .00 0.0.00 0.00 0.00 0.3220 0.4275 0.1000 0.00 000 0.00 0.3500 0.0.2000 0.00 0.0.00 0.0500 22 23 .2700 .00 0.3375 0.174 Power System Analysis Shunt Load Data S.1000 0.3000 0.0750 0.1000 0.2000 .0.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Bus No 2 13 20 24 28 31 32 34 35 36 37 38 41 43 46 47 50 51 52 54 57 59 21 Shunt 000 0.0.02170 0.00 0.00 0.1500 0.1750 0.1500 0.00 0.2700 0.00 0.2250 .00 0.00 0.1000 0.00 0.8700 0.00 0.
5. 5.11 How are generator buses are P. . 5. 5.12 Give the algorithm for decoupled load flow studies.6 Explain the PolarCoordinates method of NewtonRaphson load flow solution.Power Flow Analysis 175 Questions 5.9 Give the flow chart for Q.15 Compare the NewtonRaphson method. 7.4 Explain GaussSeidel method of load flow solution. 5. 5.5 Discuss the method ofNewtonRaphson method in general and explain its applicalibility for power flow solution. 6. 5.2 Discuss breifly the bus classification.10 Explain sparsity and its application in power flow studies. 5. 5. 5. 5.1 Explain the importance of load flow studies. 5.14 Compare the GaussSeidel and NewtonRaphson method for power flow solution. V buses treated in load flow studies? 5.8 Give the flow chart for Q.3 What is the need for a slack bus or reference bus? Explain.7 Give the Cartesian coordinates method or rectangular coordinates method of NewtonRaphson load flow solution. 5.13 Explain the fast decouped load flow method.No.No. decoupled load flow method and fast decouped load flow method.
m. the impedances of machines may change their values from those that exist immediately after the fault occurrence to different values during the fault till the fault is cleared. for a 3phase system . and by the impedances of the network and machines. For such fault analysis studies and in general for power system analysis it is very convenient to use per unit system and percentage values. the current flowing is determined by the internal e. In the following this system is explained. However. For all per unit calculations a base KVA or MVA and a base KV are to be chosen. During the fault period. Per unit quantity = Actual value in any units .6 SHORT CIRCUIT ANALYSIS Electrical networks and machines are subject to various types of faults while in operation. if the fault is cleared by switching operations. Once the base values or reference values are chosen. 6.fs of the machines in the network.1 Per Unit Quantities The per unit value of any quantity is the ratio of the actual value in any units to the chosen base quantify of the same dimensions expressed as a decimal. impedance and power. The network impedance may also change. base or reference value In the same umts In power systems the basic quantities of importance are voltage. It is. the other quantities can be ohtained as follows: Selecting the total or 3phase KVA as base KVA. necessary to calculate the shortcircuit current at different instants when faults occur. current. . therefore.
so that base power K W = base KVA Now..' ....Short Circuit Analysis base KVA . Base Impedance In ohms .~. = ... the following relation can be derived easily..:.:...... h (base KV (linetoline)2 x \000 Base Impe ance In 0 m = . it may be required to use the relation (Per unit impedance in ohms) (base KV)2 x \000 base KVA Very often the values are in different base values.. Base Impedance In ohm = b (base KV)2 MVA h ase per p ase In all the above relations the power factor is assumed unity.. h Base Impe ance In 0 ms = = Hence......'' . d ...base KVA where base KVA and base MVA are the total or three phase v. new KVA base )(giVen KV base)2 ( given KV A base new KV base .' .. · d . If phase values are used base KVA Base current in amperes = baseKVBase impedance in ohm = =(base KV)2 x \000 base KVA per phase base voltage base current · ...3 (base KV A)/3 (base KV (linetoline)2 base MVA h 177 Base current in amperes = · . In order to convert the per unit impedance from given base to another base.:... h) (actua I Impe ance In 0 m Per unit impedance on new base Z u = Z U new p gIven p..tllles.3 [base KV (Iinetoline)] [base KV (linetoline)2 x 1000] h[ ] .. d . Per unit impedance = (actual impedance in ohm) x KVA 2 (base KV) x 1000 Some times.
referring quantities from one side of the transformer to the other side serious errors may be committed. 3. when the equipment ratings are used as base values. The magnetizing current. Stardelta phase shifts are also neglected. All nonrotating impedance loads are neglected. Armature resistances. Per unit impedances of electrical equipment of similar type usually lie within a narrow range. Induction motors are represented just as synchronous machines with constant voltage source behind a reactance. Manufacturers usually specify the impedances of machines and transformers in per unit or percent of name plate ratings. 2. Resistances and shunt admittances are neglected. 3. 6. 4. 5. 4. 1. Transmission lines are represented by series reactances. Synchronous machines are represented by constant voltage sources behind subtransient reactances. shunt admittances are not considered. This is a great advantage'.2 Advantages of Per Unit System Power System Analysis 1. Per unit impedances of transformers : Consider a singlephase transformer with primary and secondary voltages and currents denoted by V I' V2 and II' 12 respectively.3 Three Phase Short Circuits In the analysis of symmetrical threephase short circuits the following assumptions are generally made.178 6. saliency and saturation are neglected. This can be avoided by using per unit system. Smaller motor loads are generally neglected. While performing calculations. we have. 5. Transformers are represented by their leakage reactances. Voltages. currents and impedances expressed in per unit do not change when they are referred from one side of transformer to the other side. and core fusses are neglected. = VI 12 II V2 Base impedance for primary V = _I II = Base impedance for secondary V2 G = Per unit impedance referred to primary ZI (VI/II) II ZI VI . 2. Resistances. Transformer connections do not affect the per unit values.
Thus.5 Percentage Values The reactances of generators. it is simpler to represent the system by a single line diagram without losing the identify of the 3phase system. . transformers and reactors are generally expressed in percentage values to permit quick short circuit calculation.cY ei HIi~LOM Gene transformer Lines (a) A power system (b) Equivalent singleline reactance diagram Fig.1 6. 6. Hence. 6. However. )2 Again. in several studies. This is an impedance diagrams. single line reactance diagrams can be drawn for calculation. actual impedance referred to secondary = Z. Percentage reactance is defined as : % X = xIOO [X y . Per unit impedance referred to secondary = Per unit impedance referred to primary Thus.Short Circuit Analysis 179 [2 Z2 2 Per unit impedance referred to secondary = V( Yy2. we draw reactance diagrams.1 (a) & (b) and by its single line reactance diagram . including shortcircuit analysis it is sufficient to consider only reactances neglecting resistances. 6. For 3phase balanced systems. This is illustrated by the system shown in Fig. the per unit impedance referred remains the same for a transformer on either side.4 Reactance Diagrams [n power system analysis it is necessary to draw an equivalent circuit for the system.
.. resistances are neglected. I = full load current V = phase voltage Power System Analysis X = reactance in ohms per phase Short circuit current Isc in a circuit then can be expressed as. V . X and Z change from one side to the other side of the transformer. I V. percentage impedance values are required then. when a fault occurs the potential falls to a value determined by the fault impedance. The percentage values of Rand Z also do not change with the side of the transformer or either side of the transformer they remain constant.. (%X) I .X V.= ''1. V (%X)V X = . I 1000 V V V (%X) (KV)2 10 == ''KVA Alternatively KVA (%X) = X. 10 (KV)2 As has been stated already in short circuit analysis since the reactance X is generally greater than three times the resistance. But.180 where. . The ohmic values of R.1 00 100 .. .. in case percentage resistance and therefore. Short circuit current is expressed in term of short circuit KVA based on the normal system voltage at the point of fault. I (%X). xIOOO 1000 1000 100. in a similar manner we can define %R = x IR V 100 and IZ %Z= xIOO V with usual notation. 100 xlOO Percentage ~actance %X can expressed in terms of KVA and KV as following 2 From equation (%X) . _ V= Isc . 6.6 Short Circuit KVA It is defined as the product of normal system voltage and short circuit current at the point of fault expressed in KVA.
Rating of the largest plant or unit for base MVA or KVA.V Isc 1000 3. ( %X)on =. The total capacity ofa plant or system for base MVA or KVA. Calculation are required to be performed where different components or units are rated differently. 2. Any arbitrary value.Short Circuit Analysis Let V = normal phase voltage in volts 1= fall load current in amperes at base KVA %X = 181 percentage reactance of the system expressed on base KVA. . its value at 100 KVA base will be (%X)IOO KVA = ( 50 100) x 8 = 16% Similarly the reactance values change with voltage base as per the relation where X I and = reactance at voltage V I X2 = reactance at voltage V2 For short circuit analysis. 1.I 100 (%X) 1000 3V I 1000 100 %X 100 Therefore short circuit KVA = Base KVA x (%X) In a power system or even in a single power station different equipment may have different ratings. ( new base Base KVA) . The following are some of the guide Iines for selection of base values. %X The three phase or total short circuit KVA 3. The short circuit current. (% X at UOIt KVA) Unit KVA Ifa transformer has 8% reactance on 50 KVA base. JSc 100 = I. Hence.V. it is often convenient to draw the reactance diagrams indicating the values in per unit. 3. it it necessary to select a common base KVA or MVA and also a base KY. The percentage values specified on the name plates will be with respect to their name plate ratings.
and a. Following a short circuit. Fault currents which are several times larger than the normal operating currents produce large electro magnetic forces and torques which may adversely affect the stator end windings. It is absolutely necessary to select a circuit breaker that is capable of operating successfully when maximum fault current flows at the circuit voltage that prevails at that instant. The electro dynamic forces on the stator end windings may result in displacement of the coils against one another.2. 2. 6. 4. s t = 0'· R + L Fig. it is always recommended that the mechanical bracing of the end windings to checked for any possible loosening. The electrical and mechanical forces that develop due to a sudden three phase short circuit are generally severe when the machine is operating under loaded condition. or linetoline faults on over head lines. As the fault is cleared with in 3 cycles generally the heating efforts are not considerable. The resultant short circuit has to the interrupted within few cycles by the circuit breaker. 3.7 Importance of Short Circuit Currents 1. Short circuits may occur in power systems due to system over voltages caused by lightning or switching surges or due to equipment insulation failure or even due to insulator contamination. 6. Knowledge of short circuit current values is necessary for the following reasons.c. This may result in loosening of the support or damage to the insulation of the windings. components of stator currents.2 Let e = Emax Sin (rot + a) when the switch S is closed at t = 0+ di e = Emax Sin (rot + a) = R + L dt . Other well known reasons include linetoline. 6. The forces on the end windings depend on both the d. S. linetoground. An insight can be gained when we consider an RL circuit connected to an alternating voltage source. the circuit being switched on through a switch.c. Some times even mechanical causes may create short circuits.8 Analysis ofRL Circuit Consider the circuit in the Fig.182 Power System Analysis 6.
s subtransient short circuit.6.c.8) and d.c. xd and x~ can be determined. 6.9 Three Phase Short Circuit on Unloaded Synchronous Generator If a three phase short circuit occurs at the terminals of a salient pole synchronous we obtain typical oscillograms as shown in Fig.c.c. The changing field current is shown in Fig.e) 8 =0 If the switch is closed when a the d. component vanishes. 6.8 = ± '2 1t 6. Figure 6. 6..c.4 shows the alternating component of the short circuit current when the d.3 for the short circuit currents the three phases. component the quantities x. Its duration is determined by Td' ' the subtransient direct axis time constant. component is eliminated. The general solution is i= E IZI max Sin (cot+a8)e L Sin (a8) [ Rt 1 where and IZI = ~R 2 + co 2 L2 coL 8 = TanI R The current contains two components : a. V when t > Td' .m. the r.c. component is a maximum when a .5 shows the electrical torque. The fast changing subtransient component and the slowly changing transient components are shown at A and C. From the oscillogram of a. component = Emax IZT Sin (cot + a . If V is the line to neutral prefault voltage then the a. component.c. x~..Short Circuit Analysis 183 a is determined by the magnitude of voltage when the circuit is closed. component = IZT Emax e Rt L· Sm (a. Fig. e = 1t or when a  the d. ia c = ~ xl] = I" . The value of ia c decreases to with Td as the direct axis transient time constant when t > Td V 7d .
Fig.._ _ t 0 B 0 61 F sec. max (l = 0 is ..4 Alternating component of the short circuit armature current . ~ Fig.e xd k2 V IITA where TA is the armature time constant. 6.3 Oscillograms of the armature currents after a short circuit.c.184 Power System Analysis The maximum d.c. i:: ~ u 1~ :~ J r . (t)"L. 6.. offset component that occurs in any phase at 1 d.
t + Fig..7 indicates the simulation of fault at the load terminals by a parallel switch S.5 Electrical torque on threephase termlnaJ short circuit. Before the fault occurs..6 Oscilogram of the field current after a short circuit.10 020 030 0.. E.... Field current after short circuit o.40 0. 6. .____________________.Short Circuit Analysis 185 o 0. t Fig. Let the voltage at the fault be vf and the terminal voltage of the generator be Vt' Under fault conditions. . the generator reactance is xd' The circuit in Fig.. 6.. is the subtransient internal voltage..._+____. a load current IL is flowing into the load from the generator.50 .10 Effect of Load Current or Prefault Current Consider a 3phase synchronous generator supplying a balanced 3phase load.. Let a three phase fault occur at the load terminals. 6. . 6. = Vt + j Xd' IL = VI' +(Xext + j xd)I L where E.
and depends only on the field current. the fault current level increases and it may become necessary to change the switch gear. Every time. Eg remains the same for all IL values.13 Classification of Reactors (i) Generator reactors. (iii) Busbar reactors . Alternatively. To limit the flow of large currents under there circumstances current limiting reactors are used. 6. a new E.186 Power System Analysis s Fault Fig.11 Reactors Whenever faults occur in power system large currents flow. From time to time new generating units are added to an existing system to augment the capacity. 6. is required to be computed. Otherwise Eg• the steady state voltage in series with the direct axis synchronous reactance is to be used for all calculations.7 For the transient state E~ = VI + j xd IL = Vf + (Zext + j xd ) IL E. 6. of course. it is possible to use iron core with airgaps included in the magnetic core so that saturation is avoided. They are also so located that the effect of the fault does not affect other parts of the system and is thus localized. (ii) Feeder reactors. if the fault is a dead short circuit at the terminals or bus bars t?normous currents flow damaging the equipment and its components. When this happens. These reactors are large coils covered for high selfinductance. 6. Especially. or E~ are used only when there is a prefault current IL . With proper use of reactors addition of generating units does not necessitate changes in existing switch gear.12 Construction of Reactors These reactors are built with non magnetic core so that saturation of core with consequent reduction in inductance and increased short circuit currents is avoided.
Generators Bus Bars Fig. 6. Generators ~~r~~~~BVS Reactors JC' ~ Bars ~ Fig. 6. generator reactors are nowadays not used except for old units in operation. even during normal operation. 6.9 . Reactors may be connected in series with the generator in series with each feeder or to the bus bars.9.8 Disadvantages (a) In the event of a fault occuring on a feeder. Since modern generators are designed to with stand dead short circuit at their terminals. (b) There is a constant voltage drop in the reactors and also power loss.Short Circuit Analysis 187 The above classification is based on the location ofthe reactors. In the event of a fault on any feeder the fault current drawn is restricted by the reactor.8 so that current flowing into a fault F from the generator is limited. (ii) Feeder reactors: In this method of protection each f~eder is equipped with a series reactor as shown in Fig. the voltage at the remaining healthy feeders also may loose synchronism requiring resynchronization later. (i) Generator reactors The reactors are located in series with each of the generators as shown in Fig. 6.
Generators (iii) BVS Bars F F F BVS bar Tie bar F2 Peeders Fig. Voltage drop and power loss still occurs in the reactor for a feeder fault. the voltage drop and power loss are negligible. the reactors carry full load current under normal operation.10 Fig. system voltage regulation will be impaired. 6.11. Hence they are to be used only in special case such as for short feeders of large crosssection.11 Another advantage is that additional generation may be connected to the system without requiring changes in the existing reactors. Neverthless. only the generator to which the feeder is connected will feed the fault and o~her generators are required to feed the fault through the reactor. Feeder reactors do not offer any protection for bus bar faults. The consequent disadvantage of constant voltage drops and power loss can be avoided by dividing the bus bars into sections and inter connect the sections through protective reactors. 6. Hence. busbar faults occur very rarely. Very little power flows across the reactors during normal operation. Bus bar reactors: In both the above methods. the voltage drop occurs only in that particular feeder reactor. This is shown in Fig. . the tiebar. 6. (a) Ring system : In this method each feeder is fed by one generator. (b) Tiebar system: This is an improvement over the ring system. 2. There are two ways of doing this. If a fault occurs on any feeder. Current fed into a fault has to pass through two reactors in series between sections. The only disadvantage is that this systems requires an additional busbar system.188 Power System Analysis Disadvantages: I. As series reactors inhererbly create voltage drop. However.
5 MVA and 10 MVA respectively.5 KV1110 KV with 10% reactance.6. E.75% 9 Reactance of motor 2 = XM2 = 15 (1 0 r( r(~~ The reactance diagram is drawn and shown in Fig.2. (I~ ~. The bus bars feed two motors rated 7. Reactance of generator I = XG1 = 12 . .6% = 48. 13. Solution: The reactances of the generators and motors are calculated on 50 MVA. The reactance of each generator is 12% and that of each motor is 15% on their own ratings. 3phase generator has a reactance of 20%. 60 KV / 10 KV with 10% reactance the generator supplies two motors connected on the l. Take generator rating as base.6.6. The far end of the line is connected to a step down transformer T 2' made of three singlephase transformers each rated 30 MVA. The motors are rated at 25 MVA and 50 MVA both at 10 KV with 15% reactance.Short Circuit Analysis 189 Worked Examples E 6.2 A 100 MVA.1 Two generators rated at 10 MVA. 10 KV base values. Draw the reactance diagram showing all the values in per unit. Fig. (50) 10 = 72.6. Assume 50 MVA. 10 KV base and draw the reactance diagram.1 E.8 KV. The h.v.1. The generator is connected to a 3phase transformer T I rated 100 MVA 12. 11 KV respectively are connected in parallel to a bus. C ~ r. 11 KV and 15 MVA.v. side T2 as shown in Fig.4% 11)2 Reactance of generator 2 = XG2 = 12 ( 10 Reactance of motor I = X M1 = 15 . The rated voltage of the motors is 9 KV. E.(~~) . E.~) = 81 % J = 60. side of the transformer is connected to a transmission line of reactance 100 ohm.
ll.5J2 100 10 x ( 13.47 ohms 0.2.96% The reactance diagram is shown in Fig.6.92% 0.5 = 121. = % X for transformer T) 12.44xl0 114. 121.S.J3 x66KV 10KV = 114.2 .8 110 Base KV for the line = 13.190 Solution: Base MVA = 100 Base KV = Power System Analysis 13.2 p.678 p. and 121.0985 p. Fig.62 J2 (90J 25 31.62 J2 (90J = 15.3192 p.8 x 12.62 KV is % X T2 = 10 x C~.2% = % X for transformer T2 on . 10.ll.~2r xC~~J = 9.31 = .44 Linetoline voltage ratio ofT2 = Base voltage for motors % X for generators = = . E. = = = 10 lOx ( 10.31 :=w 121. Reactance of motor M2 = 10 x 10 50 ( 10.47 Reactance of motor M) = 147.62 KV 20 % = 0.8 x 100 8.J3 x 66 : 10 KV and 3 x 30 MVA base 10% % X for T2 on 100 MVA. E.ll.44 KV: 10.85 % = = 0.ll.44J2 Base reactance for line = ( 100 100 Reactance of line· = 147.
0.1377 p. Transmission line : XL = 20 ohm/phase Solution: Let base MVA = 50 base KV = 66 (L.3 Obtain the per unit representation for the threephase power system shown in Fig. Transformer T 1 : 30 MVA. 6.6.6x50 p.u.v.2 KV. = 6T = 12x 50 = 0. E.6 ohm X = 15 ohm/phase X 66/6.6.Short Circuit Analysis 191 E.229 p. reactance of transmission line = 66 2 '1'5 x50 ~ 20x50 = 0.2)2 = 1. reactance of transformer T2 = = 0. 11/66 KV.7438 p. reactance of transformer T] p.3 Generator 1 : 50 MVA.6 KV.8 ohm X = 1. side X = 12 ohms Transformer T2 : 25 MVA.u.u.u. (66 KV) Base voltage for generator I : 11 KV Base voltage for generators 2 and 3 : 6. Generator 2 : 25 MVA.2 ohm X = 0. 6. reactance of generator 2 = (6. = 1.ll. p.L) Base voltage on transmission as line 1 p.u.u. reactance of generator 1 = (11)2 1.2)2 = 0. l. Generator 3 : 35 MVA.&x 50 p.ll. .u.u.6. as h. 10.56 p. p.5 KV.6 KV.u.u.2 x 50 0. E. Fig..1 KV p.78 p.172 p.u. reactance of generator 3 = (6.3.
84 78.v.033 = 0.01239 p. leakage impedance referred to the l.v.05) ( = 0.05 Per unit reactance on 110 V side = 4.4 A single phase two winding transformer is rated 20 KVA. side and t.13° ( 480)2 The base impedance on the h.033 ohm 0.53 = 0.LI.13° = 0. side of the transformer is 20.72 ohm p. Solution Let base KVA = 20 Base voltage on h. u.0525 78.192 Power System Analysis E 6. 440)2 110 Leakage reactance referred to 440 V side = (0. Its leakage reactance measured on 110 V side is 0.v. Determine the leakage impedance referred to 440 V side. of the transformer (120)2 20. 480/120 V at 50 HZ.v.0525 70.11)2 x 1000 3 = 4. side is = Zp u 2 = (~~~r [(0.52 = = 11.5 A single phase transformer is rated at 110/440 V.6. side.v.0729 78.v.000 = = Z = V base 2 12 VA base 0.72 Equivalent impedance referred to h. side Base voltage on l. The equivalent leakage impedance of the transformer referred to I.v.13° 11. 3 KVA.13°] = 0.u. leakage impedance referred to h. . side is 0.u. side = = 480 V 120 V sid~ The leakage impedance on the l.v.0525 78.52 ohm 0.LI.13° ohm using transformer ratings as base values.000 p.01239 p.13° p. of the transformer 0. Solution: Base impedance on 110 V side = (0.0729 78. determine the per unit leakage impedance referred to the h. E. side 0.05 ohm.8 ohm .v.8 Base impedance referred to 440 V side = 64.84 78. 0.13° 0. v.
impedance at R = 302.' 1 200 ohm Fig. E.u.1 = 0.661 ohm 1102 x 1000 10.lI.1 ohm Impedance of load referred to P = 200 x 22 x 0. Selecting 10. E.661 112 x 1000 Similarly base impedance at P = 10.6.12 = 8 ohm 8 p.000 = Base impedance at ~ = 1210 ohm Load impedance referred to ~ = 200 x 22 = 800 ohm 800 p. II KVI 1I0KV IIOKV/55KV ~o"oo~VA~Q~~ ~ XII =9% X I2 ~7:.6.000 KVA and 110 KVas base values. find the p.6 Consider the system shown in Fig.000 = Base impedance at R = 302.lI.4.661 ohm .5 ohm = 0.000 = 121.5 ohm 200 ohm p.Short Circuit Analysis 193 E. impedance ofthe 200 ohm load referred to 110 KV side and 11 KV side. impedance of load referred to ~ = 1210 = 0.4 Solution: Base voltage at p = 11 KY Base voltage at R = ~2 110 = 55 K Y 2 55 x 1000 10. impedance of load at P = 12.6.u.
The per unit load resistance remains the same.lI.Y. Before a fault occurred the voltage on the h. side of the transformer is 63 KY. Each generator has a subtransient reactance of xd = 25%.81 150 Load resistance referred to h.Y.4 ohm 90 66 J2 0. Solution.v. v. Generator 1 is rated 60. E. Fig.Y. side 0.000 KVA. Base impedance on h. side = (66)2 = 48.lI.7 Three transformers each rated 30 MVA at 38. 11 KV. load resistance referred to h. Selecting a base of 900 MVA 66 KV for the h.5 ohm. / 66 KV Y with a reactance of 10%.8 Two generators are connected in parallel to the I. Find the subtransient current in each generator when a 3phase short circuit occurrs on the h.t. side of a 3phase deltastar transformer as shown in Fig. star connected resistors.5 0.6. side = = 150 ohm p.6.6. side of the transformer find the base values for the I. side = (base KYL _ d 2 Base MYA = (3. Y.4 = 3.099 p.000 KVA at 11 KV f. 11 KV. The transformer is rated 90. The transformer in unloaded and there is no circulating current between the generators. . side = 48.t. side of the transformer.1613 = 3.1/3.lI.81)2 90 = 0.5 x ( 3.81 KV are connected in stardelta with a balanced load of three 0.000 KVA.099 p. Generator 2 is rated 30.1613 ohm p..5 Base impedance on I. load resistance on 1.Y.lI.194 Power System Analysis E. side.6.G. E.v. E.
10 s Fig.25 p.000 = 0.6.955 p.375 p. the equivalent reactance 0. E.66 = 0.75 p.v. For generator 2 : xd = 90.u.66 0.63 0.375 + 0.955 p. The internal voltage for generator I Eg1 = 0.375 x 0. j 0.u. As there is no circulating current between the generators. xd = 0.25 x tr 90.000 = 0.u.000 KVA 11 KV "''1.7 . side be the base KV Let the base KVA = 90.u.7 when switch S is closed.Short Circuit Analysis 60.63 0.000 KVA Generator 1 : = 66 KV. E.S Solution: Let the line voltage on the h.75 = 0. the fault condition is simulated.u. The reactance diagram is shown in Fig.75 of the parallel circuit is 0./Y "'' r' 30.000 60.000 30. 195 11 KV /66 KV ~~ l1.OOOKVA 11 KV Fig.S. The internal voltage for generator 2 Eg2 = = 0. E.S.
x II = 8592.1 0) Th e Sll btraQslent The voltage as the delta side of the transformer is (j 2. 27285 p. u.955 .78 A I.= 0 .0.' = G0.75 1.7285) I.819 p. 9 5 5 .27205 p. determine the total fault current and fault current supplied by each generator.u. . The actual fault currents supplied in amperes are II' = 1.375 0.25 + jO.3 r. Select 75 MVA and I1 KVon LV side and 132 KVon h.909 x 90.' Similarly.196 · Power System Analysis .6.27285 j 0.000 x II J3 = 4294.0.2785 j 0. E. side as base values.189 ohm/phaselKm 8% 111132 KV Fig. = 0.v.819 x 90.37 A E. 111132 KV 75 MVA A 75MVA B 200Km 10% 25MVA ~25~ 10% 0.819 p.955 . = 0.10) = 0.S. x of generator 1 = j 0.15 p. current I.S Solution: p. = J.u. 12 = = j 1.. The far end of the transmission system consisting of 200 km long double circuit line is connected to load from bus B.9 R station with two generators feeds through transformers a transmission system operating at 132 KV. (j0.u.000 ".lI. the subtransient current flowing into fault from generator I. u. If a 3phase fault occurs at bus B.
9 Fig.u.1549 The equivalent reactance diagram is shown in Fig. u.10 25 = 197 j 0. = j 0.u. x of transformer T. j 0.9 (a). (b) & (c) can be reduced further into Zeq = j 0.07745 = j 0.7745 jO.xofeachline= j 0.08 x 25 = j 0.1549 jO.17 + j 0.2483 (b) (c) Fig.6. x of generator 2 = j = 0. x of transformer T2 = j 0. 75 x 1000 J3 x 132 = 328 A .248336 J 4. (b) & (c).24 p.1549 (a) j 0. E.248336 =  Total fault current I LO o j 0.9 (a). Base current for 132 KY circuit = .17 + jO.6.0268 p.1 75 p.5 j 0. p. E.180x200x75 .1 j 0. 132xl32 =JO.07745 = j 0. E.u.Short Circuit Analysis 75 p.3 p.6.u.u.
476 A = = 5016.xlI .000 KVA rv}.. 33 KV 4 + j 16 FI 5% 5.198 Hence actual fault current =  Power System Analysis j 4.6 A ".. 1585139 L .000 6 000 = . X = 10(KVf .0268 x 328 = 1321 A L 90 0 75 x 1000 {.424 A L90o E.6 x 4.10 A 33 KV line has a resistance of 4 ohm and reactance of 16 ohm respectively.3 = 3936.54 Fault current supplied by generator I = Fault current supplied by generator 2 j 0. 10% The line impedance is converted into percentage impedance %X KVA.000 KVA with 10% reactance and 5000 KVAwith 5% reactance. The line is connected to a generating station bus bars through a 6000 KVA stepup transformer which has a reactance of 6%.79 = J 10835. terminals of the transformers and at the load end of the line.:= Base current for 11 KV side of the transformer = Actual fault current supplied from 11 KV side = 3936.000 5000 = 10% 6 x 10.90° x j 0.S. Calculate the fault current antl short circuit KVA when a 3phase fault occurs at the h.25 j 0. 10% 60.0248 1585 J.".25 15851.69% .000 KVA be the base KVA Reactance of generator 1 Xo 1 = 10% Reactance of generator 2 X02 = Reactance of transformer XT = 5 x 10.. The station has two generators rated 10.54 + j 0.v. 9 A L900 .000 KVA Fig.6. Solution: 10.000x16 = IOx(33)2 = 14. E.10 (a) Let 10.9xj 0.000 KVA 6~ rv}_ _l . %X Lme 10.
69 % Total resistance to fault = 3.6.672 % Total impedance to fault = = ~3. The lines have an inductance of 1 mH 1 phase 1 km.433 MYA E.916 x 10.672 % 10(33)2 (i) 199 For a 3phase fault at the h. .67 KYA 66. The generators are rated at 100 MVA.67 MYA For a fault at F2 the load end of the line the total reactance to the fault = 15 + l4.63 KYA 33.10 (b) Short circuit KVA fed into the fault = = = 10.y. Line L1 is 100 krri long while lines L2 and L J are each of 50 km in length. 11/112 KVand have a leakage reactance of 8%.11 (a) shows a power system where load at bus 5 is fed by generators at bus 1 and bus 4.+ 10= 15 % 10 + 10 IOXI0) Fig.11 Figure E. The transformers are rated each at 100 MVA.. Find the fault current and MVA for a 3phase fault at bus S.Short Circuit Analysis 19000x 4 % RLine = ::.6722 + 29.000 x 100 15 KYA 66666. 6.69 = 29.69 2 29.916 % = = = Short circuit KVA into fault 100 29. 11 KV with subtransient reactance of 25%.6. side terminals of the transformer fault impedance = ( .000 33433.= 3.
6.125 p.44 ohm Base impedance for l.u.u.v.u. 271: x 50 x 1 x 103 x 50 p. E. E. side = II KVand Base voltage for h. The reactance diagram is shown in Fig.11 (b).v.44 = 0.4 Per unit reactance of line Ll = 125. impedance of line L3 = 0.6.125 p.u.44 p.v.u.6.11 (b) . c Fig. side of transformer = Reactance of line Ll 100 II x II = l. v.11 (a) Solution: Let base MVA = 100 MVA Base voltage for l. side of transformer 112x112 100 = 125. side = 112 KV Base impedance for h. impedance of line L? = 125.21 ohm = 2 x P x 50 x 1 x 103 x 100 = 31. = 0.200 Power System Analysis Fig.4 ohm 3l.25 p.
125 Z\ = j 0.Short Circuit Analysis 201 By performing conversion of delta into star at A.6. E. 03125 j O. E.125xj 0.6. Band C.6. E.03125 Fig.25 x j 0. Z3 = j 0.125 = j 0. the star impedances are j 0.11 (d) Finally this can be put first into Fig.125 = j 0.5 j 0. E. Fig.5 The following reactance diagram is obtained. j 0.6.0625 Z2 = and j 0.125+ j 0.25+ j 0. E.03125 j 0.ll (d).08 B J 0. E.11 (e) and later into Fig.6.25xj 0.2 j 0. 20375 (e) Fig.0625 j 0.345 2 j O.125 = j 0.08 i 0.l1 (t).0625 j 0.11 (f) .11 (c) This can be further reduced into Fig.6.
u.90797 p.u.2 p.797 MVA 1 Fault current = j 0.12 Two motors having transient reactances 0.12 (a) Solution: Let base MVA = 15 Base KV for Lv side = 6.5 2530 Amp E.90797 = 490.5 p.u.515 5 Amp .1 p. A 3phase short circuit occurs at the terminals of one of the motors. and subtransient reactances 0.3 x (.3 p.20375 = 4. Calculate (a) the subtransient fault current (b) subtransient current in circuit breaker A (c) the momentary circuit rating of the breaker and (d) if the circuit breaker has a breaking time of 4 cycles calculate the current to be interrupted by the circuit breaker A.u. u.ll Fig. .6 KV Base KV for h. E. E.18 p.6 KV X = 0.75 p. 112 KY / 6.8 KV are supplied by a transformer rated 15 MVA.90797 = 515.12 (b). based on their own ratings of 6 MVA.6.6. = 0.2 x (. 100x 10 6 Base current = Fault current . 6.20375 = 4. 15 0. = 4.6 KV and its reactance is 0. For each motor = The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. Infinite bus ~5MVA 112/KV/6.202 Power System Analysis Fault MVA = 0.u.J3 x I 12 x 103 x .u. = 0.6. = 100 MVA x 4.90797 p.v side = 112 KV For each motor xd xd = 15 0.
19 x (j 9. .12 (c).6. E.18 J 0. 3 = 1312.u.S 1 LOo Subtransient fault current = j 0.12 (c) Impedance to fault = 111 ++jO. .5 jO..99 Amps (lagging) (b) Total fault current from the infinite bus.1047 = j 9. E.6.55 p.18 = j 5.5 Fig.12 (b) Under fault condition the reactance diagram can be further simplified into Fig.19 A .Short Circuit Analysis 203 Fig. I LOo jO.6 x 10 Subtransient fault current = 1312.18 jO. 15 x 106 Base current = r.F .18 j 0.3 x 6._..55) = 12531. E..(1 LOIri j 0.5 j 0.55 p.6.u..
55 == 9907 Amps x 1312..25 A (d) For the transient condition. Total fault current into breaken == j 7. offset current is to be considered it may be increased by a factor of say 1. E.6 Fig. offset component is approximately 1.c.9 Amp. .u.19 == 11665.6. Fault current into breaken A is sum of the two currents from the in infinite bus and from motor 1 == j 5.19 (c) Manentary fault current taking into the d.89 1312.6 1 LOo The fault current == jO.12 (d).1 = 12831.u.1125 = j 8.15 jO.3 p.6.18 .6 jO.1125 p.. So that the transient fault current == 11665.89 p.3 7 x 1.37 A If the d. ++jO.5 == j 2p.u.u.11 LOIi j 0.u.55 p. E.c.204 Fault current from each motor == Power System Analysis 1 LOo jO. x Transient fault current = j 8.6 x 9907 == 15851. that is.12 (d) The fault impedance is 111. after 4 cycles the motor reactance changes to 0. j 0.== j 0.55 + (j 2) == j 7.1. The reactance diagram for the transient state is shown in Fig.
E. Neglect prefault current.~ J+IXL=200hm+I.u. Also compute (iii) the subtransient generator and motor currents including the effect of pre fault currents..1652 Fig.1 j 0. j 0.13 (a) The synchronous generator is operating at its rated MVA at 0.6.= 121 ohm (110)2 100 = Line reactance in per unit ill 20 = 0.13 (b).1 0.15 + 0.Short Circuit Analysis E.0/IIOKV Delta/star IIOKV/II KV Star/delta =0.13 (a). The reactance diagram including the effect of the fault by switch S is shown in Fig.565 = Zth = j X th = j 0.6.565 ) j ( 0.08 j 0. E. Base line impedance = .1652 p.2 j j 0.2 Fig.6.13 Consider the power system shown in Fig. E.13 (b) Looking into the network from the fault using Thevenin's theorem 0. A C D B 100MVA 110 KVIlI KV XlI 205 .6. A 3phase short circuit occurs at bus A calculate the per unit value of (i) subtransient fault current (ii) subtransient generator and motor currents.~MV~ II KV 11. E.95 lagging power factor and at rated voltage.2 j 0.1185 .6.15 x 0.
19 = (0.u.15 f 0.045 82.000 KVA 40% 15.fj x II 100 [COSI 100MVA .000 V Bars F Fig.93° E. = 7.95 j 6.248 1 L 18°.248 L18°. Generator base current = .J 6.fj x l1KV = 5.u.14 Consider the system shown in Fig.565 + 0.u.15 I" _ 0.19 5.18° .000 KVA 60% G1 ". The percentage reactance of each alternator is expressed on its own capacity determine the short circuit current that will flow into a dead three phase short circuit at F.95 + jO.981 + 0.7125 .95 .0.95 j 1.248 KA .565 x j8.770 p.0.206 (i) Power System Analysis The subtransient fault current 1" _ lm  0. The subtransient generator and motor currents including the prefault currents are I.715 f . 8.95] = 5.95 j 0.248 L .4388 _. E.4388 .250 p.565 I" _ 0.J ~~r~BVS 11.74 L56.6.6.459 = 1.77 .0. Generator prefault current = 0.14 (a) . I~ = j 6.j 0. 0.668 + 0. E.95 = (0.311 = j 6.311) p. 10.0.6.J G2 ".981) p.u.15 m .3ll = 0.J 1.19 KA = Iload = 5. = :i 1.668 (ii) The motor subtransient current I" .14 (a).715 (iii) x _.
30 A E.14 (b) 100x 100 The net percentage reactance upto the fault = 100 + 100 = 50% IxlOO %X 13 12.Short Circuit Analysis Solution: Let base KVA = 25. F Fig.000 10. 25 MVA.000 % X of generator 2 = 15.6.000 KVA and 11 KV 25. 11 KV alternator has internal reactance of 6%. Short CIrCUIt current = 16. Solution: Full load current = 11 x 10 3 Vphase = v3xllx1O ~ 25 x 106 3 = 1312.6.. E. .000 and base KV = 11 % X of generator 1 = 25.000 x 60 = 100% .15 A3phase.14 (b).19 Amperes. The reactance diagram is shown in Fig. Find the external reactance per phase to be connected in series with the alternator so that steady state short circuit current does not exceed six times the full load current. E. Line current at 25.6. 19 x 100 = Short circuit current = 50 = 2624.9 A Jj = 6351.67 % x 100 =  6 x 100 . 1 Total % X = Fullload current .000 ~ = 103 x 3 v3xll1O = 1312.000 x 207 40 = 100% 25.039 volts.
0393 10.876% %ZTotal = ~{96.000 %X of transformer as 12.67 = = 0.5% %RTotal = 14.000 10(11)2 12. %X of line = 12.516428 ohm 1312.19X.876 % %XTotal = 25 + 12 + 59.6398% . v.5 = 96.5 ohm and reactance of 6 ohm is connected to a generating station bus bars through a 5 MVA stepup transformer having reactance of 5%.5)2 + {14. 5 MVA 5% Fig.67 % Power System Analysis Let X be the per phase e'xternal reactance required in ohms. %X =  IX x 100 Y 1312.. The bus bars are supplied by a 12 MVA generator having 25% reactance.l_ I I V _ + .6 = 10.5 + j 6) v. Solution: A B 12 MVA 25% ~ &r. Calculate the short circuit KVA fed into a symmetric fault (i) at the load end of the transformer and (ii) at the X= 6351.000 KYA base = 5000 x 5 = 12% .15 Let the base KYA = ~2.6.19 x 100 E. terminals of the transformer.000 KYA %X of alternator as base KYA = 25% 12.0393 x 10.5% %R of line = (i) x 1.67 h.000 10(11)2 x 6 = 59.J..5 = 14.6.100 6351.208 External reactance needed = 16. E.16 A 3phase line operating at 11 KV and having a resistance of 1.67 .876)2 = 97.l t~Load K ~ ~ (1.
000 % X of transformer T = 6000 = =30% 15% (i) If fault occurs at F l' the reactance is shown in Fig.000 KVA generators connected in parallel each with 15% reactance and a third generator of 10.000 KVA with 20% reactance is also added later in parallel with them. 6% reactance transformers.6. Load is taken as shown from the station busbars through 6000 KVA. 15. side of the system for a symmetrical fault.v.000 6 x 15. E.17 A 3phase generating station has two 15.000 '" 15% % X of generator G2 = 15% % X of generator G 3 = 20 x 15000 10. E.6. .000x 100 37 = 32432.6.43 E. Determine the maximum fault MVA which the circuit breakers have to interrupt on (i) t.000 15. side and (ii) as h.Short Circuit Analysis 12.17 (b). v.6398 = 12290 209 Short circuit KVA at the far end or load end F2 = If the fault occurs on the h.000x 100 97.17 (a) Solution' % X of generator G 1 = 15 x 15. side of the transformer at F 1 0/0 X upto fault F1 = % XG + % XT = 37 % = 25 + 12 Short circuit KVA fed into the fault 12.000 KYA 6000 KYA ~6% Fig.v.
what is the short circuit MVA fed into the fault? .6.000 KVA 250 MVA (ij I I f the fault occurs at F2' the reactance diagram wi II be as in Fig. two more generators rated at 10.6. E.2111 Power System Analysis 15% Fig.000 x 100 6 = = 250.000 KVA with 10% reactance are connected.6.17 (c) .6.43 E.000 KVA.6 = 21 % Fault MVA = 15. 12% reactance or another bus B.000x 100 21 x 100 = 71. The two bus bars are connected through a reactor rated at 5000 KVA with 10% reactance.17 (c) The total %X upto fault 6% + 15.17 (b/ The total % C upto fault ~ J ++15 15 30 I I I =6% Fault MVA = 15.18 There are two generators at bus bar A each rated at 12. E. • 15% Fig. E. If a dead short circuit occurs between all the phases on bus bar B.
Short Circuit Analysis 12.000 = 24% The reactance diagram is shown in Fig.S.000 KVA 10% 'V 10.000x 100 6 = = .000 KVA 600 MVA 12.6.000 KVA 12% 'V 21 1 12.S.18 (b).000 12% cc 12% lOx 12000 % X of bus bar reactor = 5.000 KVA 10% 'V A~~~ 5000 MVA 10% F Fig.18 (a) Solution' Let 12. E.000 KVA 12% 'V 10. E.000 KVA be the base KVA % X of generator G] = 12 % % X of generator G2 = 12 % % X of generator G3 % X of generator G4 = = lOx 12000 10.18 30x6 30+6 (c) % X up to fault Fault KVA = = = 50% 600. E. 30% 12% 12% 12% 6% F F (b) Fig.
.5% % X of generator B = °:0 X of transformer = 7% (as its own base) I he reactance diagram is shown in Fig.1428% 3500 9 x 7500 5000 = 13.19 .5% 7% 7.6. The circuit breakers have breaking capacity of 175 MVA.19 A power plant has two generating units rated 3500 KVA and 5000 KVA with percentage reactances 8% and 9% respectively. E. 13.= 17.6.19 (a) Solution .212 Power System Analysis E. 3500 KVA A "'v 5000 KVA ~7% 9% Rcactor 8% CB Fig. Calculate the reactance needed for a reactor to be connected in the busbar section to prevent the circuit breaker from being over loaded if a short circuit occurs on any outgoing feeder connected to it.. The bus bar voltage is 3. E. 19 (b).S.5524% X+7% x F (b) (c) Fig.S.500 KYA be the base KYA O'n 8x 7500 X of generator A = . It is planned to extend the system by connecting it to the grid through a transformer rated at 7500 KVA and 7% reactance. Let 7. E.3 KV.
Short Circuit Analysis 213 Note: ( [ I I + _1 ) = 7..5524) Solving Again X = 7. Solution: Let base MVA = 100 % X of plant I = base MVA short circuit MV A x 100 100 = 1200 x 100 = 8.6.5~24 + X~7 ] = (X + 7) (7.2 ohm. X(X + 14. E.5 The short circuit KVA should not exceed 175 MVA Total reactance to fault = ([ 7.5524 X + 14.02 x \0 x 3.(X + 7)(7.3)2 C:.5524 .33% .102 ohm In each share of the bus bar a reactance of 0.1 02 ohm is required to be inserted..02% %X = KVA ..5524) 175 x 103 = .5524] 17.5524) % = (X + 7) (7.3 2 7500 = 0.5524) % X + 7'+ 7. ..5524) Short CIrCUIt KVA = 7500 x 100 (X + 7)(7. (X) = _ _ (X) 7500 x 10{KV)2 \0 x {3.20 The short circuit MVA at the bus bars for a power plant A is 1200 MVA and for another plant B is 1000 MVA at 33 KV...5524) This should not exceed 175 MVA 7500x 100(X + 14. Determine the possible short circuit MVA at both the plants..142813. If these two are to be interconnected by a tieline with reactance 1.' X = 7.
33% 10% ..019 % For fault at bus bars for generator A % X = ([8.* Fa 11.~49+ I~] = 6.21 A power plant has three generating units each rated at 7500 KVA with 15% reactance.B 8.6. With reactances rated at 7500 MVA and 6%..2 = 11..~19] = 5.23 For a fault at the bus bars for plant B A.. E.59 % 100 x 100 6.96576 = 1676.20 %X= ([19.3)2 x 1.59 = 1517.r.S. If the reactors were not present what would be the fault KVA.~3 + 21. .%X 100 x 100 5.214 Power System Analysis 100 % X of plan 2 = 1000 x 100 = 10% % X of interconnecting tie line on base MVA 100x 10 3 = 10x(3. determine the fault KVA when a short circuit occurs on one of the sections of bus bars.9657 % base M V A x 100 Short circuit MVA = .45 Short circuit MVA = E. The plant is protected by a tiebar system.019% Fig.
Short Circuit Analysis Solution: 215 The equivalent reactance diagram is shown in Fig. E.21 . E.6.6.21 (a) which reduces to Fig. 7500 15% 7500 '15% 7500 15% ~ 7500 6% 7500 6% 7500 6% (a) 15% 15% 16. (b) & (c).5% 6% F ~' F F~~ (b) (c) (d) 18% 15% 15% F~~ (e) Fig.
000 KVA with 11 % reactance is connected to another bus bar B. II KV.4 Explain thr importance of perunit system.857 Power System Analysis The short circuit KVA = = 95456. the voltage on the remaining section falls to 65% of the normal value.5 The total % X up to fault F = 15+7. The bus bars in a generating station are divided into three section.1 There are two generating stations each which an estimated short circuit KVA of 500.2 6.2 P.5 The total % X up to fault F = IS + 16.000 KVA.46 MVA Without reactors the reactance diagram will be as shown.5% are connected to a bus bar at A.1 6. Each generator has a short circuit reactance of 18%. three phase generator.28 KVA = 95.5 = 5 % Short circuit MVA = = = 7500x 100 5 150.3 6.6. Each section is connected to a tiebar by a similar reactor.3 Questions 6. P.6.000 KVA 150 MVA Problems P:6.000 KVA.4 ohm.857 % 7500 x 100 7. Power is generated at 11 KY. Determine the reactance of each reactor in ohms. IS x 7. 50 Hz.000 KVA and 600.216 15x16. Calculate the short circuit KVA supplied by each generator when a fault occurs (a) at A and (b) at B. How are reactors classified? Explain system protection usin~ reactors.5 = 7. Explain the construction and operation of protective reactors. Each section is supplied by a 25. What do you understand by shortcircuit KVA ? Explain. If these two stations are interconnected through a reactor with a reactance of 0. th~ merits and demerits of different types of . A third generator R of capacity 12. what will be the short circuit KVA at each station? Two generators P and Q each of6000 KVA capacity and reactance 8. A reactor X of capacity 5000 KVA and 5% reactance is connected between A and B. When a short circuit occurs between the phases of one of the section busbars.
The symmetrical Coordinates proposed by Fortesque are known more commonly as symmetrical components or sequence components. These subsystems of balanced phasors are called symmetrical components.L. linetoline. transmission and utilization of the bulk of electric power generated world over. analysis becomes difficult. c. a very useful method for analyzing unbalanced 3phase networks. They are denoted by the suffix I. Dr. With reference to 3phase systems the following balanced set of three components are identified and defined. The above holds good even when some of the transmission lines are replaced by dc links. Faults of various types such as linetoground. (a) Set of three phasors equal in magnitude. An unbalanced system ofn phasors can be resolved into n systems of balanced phasors. Breaking down of line conductors is also another source for unbalances in Power Systems Operation. displaced from each other by 1200 in phase and having the same phase sequence as the original phasors constitute positive sequence components.7 UNBALANCED FAULT ANALYSIS Three phase systems are accepted as the standard system for generation. Fortesque proposed in 1918 at a meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers through a paper titled "Method of Symmetrical Coordinates applied to the solution of polyphase Networks". threephase short circuits with different fault impedances etc create unbalances. When the three phase system becomes unbalanced while in operation. .
2) .1 The Operator "a" In view of the phase displacement of 120°.. They are denoted by the suffix 2. and having a phase sequence opposite to that of the original phasors constitute the negative sequence components..O VB = V BI + V B2 + V 80 . just as j operator is used to denote 90 0 phase displacement. an operator "a" is used to indicate the phase displacement...... . 7. (7. (7. (c) Set of three phasors equal in magnitude and alI in phase (with no mutual phase displacement) constitute zero sequence components. Y and B V R' V Y and VB are the unbalanced phase voltages. These voltages are expressed in terms of the sequence componel~s VRi' V yl' VBI' V R2' V Y2' V B2 and V RO' V YO' V BO as folIows :VR=VRI+VR2+VRO Vy=VYI + Vy2 +V. Denoting the phases as R.1 7.218 Power System Analysis (b) Set of three phasors equal in magnitude..1) . displaced from each other by 1200 in phase. (7.3) V Y1 Positive Sequence Components Negative Sequence Components Zero Sequence Components Fig... They are denoted by the suffix o...
L120o = 0..5 .. V R1 = V R1 V R2 = V R2 VRo = VRo VY1 = a 2 VR1 VY2 = aV R2 V yo .5 + jO.e. 1.e a 2 = lL240 J3 a 2" ° = I.866 a 2 = IL240 0 = 0. We can write the sequence phasors with the operator as foilows. 7...::*...... a3 Fig..4) = V RO . (7.2 Note that a = lL120 0 = I.jO.:.Unbalanced Fault Analysis a = I. a' .e J31 4" 6" 3 a 3 = lL360 0 = I.2 Symmetrical Components of Unsymmetrical Phases With the introduction of the operator "a" it is possible to redefine the relationship between unbalanced phasors of voltages and currents in terms of the symmetrical components or sequence components as they are known otherwise.e = l..l 21t 7..866 a 3 =IL360 o =l+jO so that I + a + a2 = 219 0 + jO The operator is represented graphically as follows: a I.
(7. (7.. (7.......8) relate the sequence components to the phase components through the transformation matrix. (7.9) consider the inverse of the transformation matrix C ..6) [V' and Yy = 1 a 2 a YB I a a2 [1 IHV"1 YR1 YR2 IRI IR2 ..10) Then the sequence components can be obtained from the phase values as .... .7) [lJ[: a2 a a a2 IE"] . .5) . (7.....7) and (7....11 ) . (7. (7...220 Power System Analysis The voltage and current phasors for a 3phase unbalanced system are then represented by YR = YR1 + YR2 + YRO } Yy =a 2YR1 +aY R2 + YRO YB = aY R1 + a 2YR2 + YRO IR = IRI +IR2 +I RO } Iy = a 2IRI + aIR2 + I RO IB = aIRl + a 2IR2 + I RO The above equations can be put in matrix form considering zero sequence relation as the first for convenience.... .. (7..8) Eqs..
.17) ....phase circuit through the lines R..... (7...19) IR1 I a2 a 'R2 ...13) VRIR'+VyIy'+VzI/ Written in matrix notation . (7..... (7. (7.3 Power in Sequence Components The total complex power flowing into a three .14) .Unbalanced Fault Analysis 221 and . (7. (7..16) ..12) 7... (7.... (7..18) From equation (7.. Y.......14) a a I]llI 2 a a 2 l]lIRO]' .15) Also . B is s = P + jQ =VI • = ..
...... "c" as a unitary matrix so that the transformation becomes That is power in phase components = Power in sequence components. The disadvantage with th~se symmetrical components is that the transformation matrix C is not power invariant or is not orthogonal or unitary.20) Power in phase components is three times the power in sequence components.. T~ [~l[: VB ) a a a~1 a2 a . (7...1 [::H~l [: r' = a 2 a a] I 2 a rj RO IRI IR2 . (7.25) .. (7.. (7.24) [VRO VR1 VR2 J [J3H a:][~:J 3 = 1 a 1 a2 .22) ..23) so that [J3] [: a a2 ~j ..222 Note that Ct C· = 3 U Power System Analysis . 7. Defining a transformation matrix T which is unitary.... (7.. such that.21) [~: H~l [: and I a a 2 RO HVR1 V VR2 j ... (7...4 Unitary Transformation for Power Invariance It is more convenient to define power invariant....
26) s= P + jQ = V ..* ...32) .. a a ~Jl .....29) r ~:1t =r~::1[~lr: VB VR2 1 I a.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 223 and . (7. (7.27) = r~: l' r::1' . (7.... (7 ..
3... (7...3 . z m~ r ~l.... Fig. The impedance offered to the flow of positive sequence currents is called "positive sequence impedance ZI' The impedance offered to the flow of negative sequence currents is called negative sequence impedance Z2' When zero sequence currents flow through components of power system the impedance offered is called zero sequence impedance ZOo 7.. (7.36) Thus with the unitary transformation matrix . 7..35) .. 7.37) we obtain power invariant transformation with sequence components.. 7.5 Sequence Impedances Electrical equipment or components offer impedance to flow of current when potential is applied. (7.6 Balanced Star Connected Load Consider the circuit in the Fig.224 Power System Analysis .
2 abe a Premultiplying eqn.. (7..}) = [AI] [Zabel [A] lr+ Z .40) by [A]I and using eqns.41) and (7.1. (7..I. (7. (7.}...~zJ ..2 and I = [A] ...Zm 'e + Zn 'n } Vb = Zm Ia + Zs Ib + Zm 'e + Zn 'n Ve Since... = . . + 3Z If there is no mutual coupling r 1 ~ Zm + Zn m Zs + Zn +z"f .] I aa 1 I 2Z 0 ) Zs Zm 0 z. (7. it can be concluded that for a balanced load the three sequences are indepedent..38) Va] Vb Vc [Zs +Zn [ = Zm + Zn Zm + Zn Zm + Zn ..0..38) Zm la + Zm Ib + Zs Ie + Zn 'n = Ia + Ib + 'e 'n Eliminating 'n from eqn.. (7.. Zn is the impedance in the neutral circuit which is grounded draws and current in the circuit is In' The linetoground voltages are given by Va = Zs Ia + Zm Ib +. 0 Zs 0 ~J .41) . (7. (7..46) From the above. = + 3Z. (7..2 = [A]I [Zabel [A] IaO.2 [Z]o..43) .45) [ZO. (7. which means that currents of one sequence flowing will produce voltage drops of the same phase sequence only.}... (7...42) .....2] rz.1... (7..42) ....40) . ~ 1[: a a 2 Zm +Zn Zs + Zil Zm +Zn Zm + Zn Zm Zm +ZIl a2 ~ fez..44) we obtain..Unbalanced Fault Analysis 225 A three phase balanced load with self and mutual impedances Zs and Zm drawn currents la' Ib and Ie as shown.39) Put in compact matrix notation [Vabel = [Zabel [Iabe] Vabc = [A] Va0.... Defining VaO.
..50) o ..'" c Zm( bl Vi d zm( 0 ~ ct I Tb V Vi c I la + Ib + Ie 0 Fig..226 Power System Analysis 7. 7. (7. no effect on the impedance.. (7...2] = [AI] [Zabel [A] .47) . . for transmission lines ZI = Z2 we can proceed in the same way as for the balanced 3phase load for 3phase transmission lines also Z.. The geometry of the lines is fixed whatever may be the phase sequence..] = [Zabel [Iabe] [ZO.... Hence.b Vc ... (7..7 Transmission Lines Transmission lines are static components in a power system.. (7..49) . (7.51) The zero sequence currents are in phase and flow through the line conductors only if a return conductor is provided. Phase sequence has thus. The zero sequence impedance is different from positive and negative sequence impedances.I. a at Va Vb ...48) [Vabel = [Vabe ] .4 .[V abe ...
the transformer is a static device. The zero sequence impedance and the equivalent circuit for zero sequence currents depends upon the neutral point and its ground connection. 7. Hence where Z.g a~ _al • g a~ _ _ al 1 g a~~al ~~ a 0 Il~al Fig. It can be proved that the phase shift for the line voltages to be 30° for negative sequence voltages. is the leakage impedance If zero sequence currents flow then Zo = ZI = Z2 '= Z. . In stardelta or deltastar transformers the positive sequence line voltage on one side leads the corresponding line voltage on the other side by 30°.5 Zero sequence equivalent circuits. the magnetizing branch is neglected and the transformer is represented by an equivalent series leakage impedance.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 227 7. The circuit connection for some of the common transformer connection for zero sequence currents are indicated in Fig. 7. a~~al .8 Sequence Impedances of Transformer For analysis.?( 'n. a~~al y if a~~al [> if a roQO' at . phase sequence has no effect on the winding reactances.5. Since.
6 with a neutral to ground connection through an impedance Zn' Let a fault occur at its terminals which causes currents' la' Ib and Ic to flow through its phass a. 7.1 Positive Sequence Network Since the generator phase windings are identical by design and oonstruction the generated voltages are perfectly balanced. the same as the leakage flux Xo=X. The negative sequence reactance is approximately given by X2 = Xd" . b. (7.52) The zero sequence currents.53) 7.. 7.. ... Under these conditions a positive sequence current flows in the generator that can be represented as in Fig.. When negative sequence cements are impressed on the stator winding. the generated voltages are of positive sequence.7.9 Sequence Reactances of Synchronous Machine The positive sequence reactance of a synchronous machine may be Xd or Xd' or Xd" depending upon the condition at which the reactance is calculated with positive sequence voltages applied. The generated phase voltages are Ea. They are equal in magnitude with a mutual phase shift of 120°.10 Sequence Networks of Synchronous Machines Consider an unloaded synchronous generator shown in Fig. 7.228 Power System Analysis 7..10. The resultant air gap flux due to zero sequence currents is zero. (7. and c respectively. the net flux rotates at twice the synchronous speed relative to the rotor. Hence...6 7. . Thus. are identical and the spatial distribution of the mmfs is sinusoidal. when they flow. the zero sequence reactance is approximately. Eb and Ec' Current In flows through the neutral impedance Zn' ~Ia Fig.
Z.. Then. 7.10.. bus ~~a Fig.55) The negative sequence current paths and the negative sequene network are shown in Fig.. 7...Unbalanced Fault Analysis 229 Fig. The positive sequence network can be represented for phase 'a' as shown in Fig. .54 ) 7.Ia\ .. X 2 = (Xd" + X q")/2 . .. If negative sequences currents flow through the stator windings then the mmf produced will rotate at synchronous speed but in a direction opposite to the rotation of the machine rotor.9. 7. the negative sequence mmf sets up a varying armature reaction effect. the negative sequence reactance is taken as the average of direct axis and quadrature axis subtransient reactances. 7..2 Negative Sequence Network Synchronous generator does not produce any nagative sequence voltages. (7. This causes the negative sequence mmf to move past the direct and quadrature axes alternately. (7. Hence.8.8 Va \ = Ea . Ref.7 ZI is the positive sequence impedance of the machine and la' is the positive sequence current in phase a.
9 . in the actual machine leakage flux will contribute to zero sequence impedance. 7...56) 7. (7.laO ZgO Zgo = . Sinusoidal space mmf produced by each of the three stator windings at any instant at a point on the axis of the stator would be zero.... (7.10. 7..58) ....57) . (7. 7..10 (a). Consider the circuit in Fig.59) zero sequence impedance per phase of the generator Zo 1 = 3Zn + Zgo VaO = laO Zo 1 Hence. when the rotor is not present. Fig.230 Power System Analysis Reference bus Z2 Iv.. so that . The zero sequence voltage drop VaO = 3 laO Zn ....3 Zero Sequence Network Zero sequence currents flowing in the stator windings produce mmfs which are in time phase.10 (a) Since laO = lbo = leO The current flowing through Zn is 3 laO.. However... 1'1 ~Ia2 c + (a) (b) Fig. (7.
11. . 7. 7. 7. Reference bus 231 ~oa Fig.11 7.Unbalanced Fault Analysis The zero sequence network is shown in Fig. it is possible to represent the sequence networks for a power system differently as different sequence currents flow as summarized in Fig. 7.10 (b). Analysis for system voltages and calculation of fault current under the above conditions of operation is discussded now. ~Ial + + tVal Positive Sequence Network Negative Sequence Network ~Ia2 + t Va 2 Zero Sequence Network ~Iao + jVao Fig.11 Unsymmetrical Faults The unsymmetrical faults generally considered are • • • Line to ground fault Line to line fault Line to line to ground fault Single line to ground fault is the most common type of fault that occurs in practice.10 (b) rhus.
2. Synchronous machine armature resistance. Prefault load current at the point of fault is generally neglected. 7.12 Assumptions for System Representation I. Tranformer winding resistances and shunt admittances are neglected. It is conceptually easier to understand faults at the terminals of an unloaded synchronous genrator and obtain results.232 Power System Analysis 7. Therefore. 4. When an unsymmetrical fault occurs they get interconnected at the point of fault.13 Unsymmetrical Faults on an Unloaded Generator Single Line to Ground Fault: Consider Fig. networks are uncoupled before the occurrence of the fault. All nonrotating impedance loads are neglected. Va =0 Ib = 0 .12. 7. saliency and saturation are neglected. negative and zero seq. Induction motors are either neglected or represented as synchronous machines. Transmission line series resistances and shunt admittances are neglected.~a ~Ia b ~_oc Fig. Power system operates under balanced steady state conditions before the fault occurs. 7. 5. Let a line to ground fault occur on phase a. r~. 6. The same can be extended to a power system and results obtained for faults occurring at any point within the system. Positive sequence voltages of all the three phases are equal tothe prefault voltage VF' Prefault bus voltage in the positive sequence network is VF' 3.12 We can write under the fault condition the following relations. the positive. 7.
.... 7....13 .... 7. (7..63) Hence the three sequence networks carry the same current and hence all can be connected in series as shown in Fig.61) into eqns..13 satisfying the relation.Unbalanced Fault Analysis and It is assumed that there is no fault impedance. Fig.61) = "3 Ie (la + Ib + Ie) Substitute eqn.. (7.. (7. (7. 233 IF = la + Ib + Ie = Ia = 31al Now Ial =  I + be 3 (laal + an I ) 1 + b aI 3 (IaanI +e ) 1 Ia2 lao =  . (7.63a) Since Va = 0 .60) Ib = = 0 . (7.62) ...
7....Ia ZI) + a (Ia Z2) u 1 2 = a 2 E3 ." ..Ial ZI) + a r (l a2 Z2) I = 1 a2 ao +a V +arV ... (7.. . (7.. 3. Power System Analysis a I = .E .66) The phasor diagram for single line to ground fault is shown in Fig.234 Ea = Ial ZI + Ia2 Z2 + lao Zo + 3Ial Zn Ea = Ial [ZI + Z2 + Zo + 3Zn] Hence.64) The line voltages are now calculated. (7.Ial (ZO + a 2 ZI + a Z~) Substituting the value of I al V b = Ea a2 E .a (ZI + Z2 + Zo + 3Z n ) ....."...14..a (ZI + Z2 + Zo ) ... Va=O Vb = V = 2 ao + a V al + a V a2 (IHn Zo) + a2 (Ea .65) V =V c = Since I al = ao al 32 (lao Zo) + a (Ea .
7.14 7.67) and Vb ==V c .15. (7..14 LinetoLine Fault Consider a line to line fault across phases band c as shown in Fig. 7.2 X2 Fig. 7..15 it is clear that 1==0 } la ==1 b c .Unbalanced Fault Analysis 235 LJI.15 From the Fig... Li l .X.. 7. rova ~Ia Fig.
68) 1 1 2 + 2I + a I a2 = .(Iaal + a2 I ) = . .(a .. (7..(0 + Ib . 7..(I a + Ib + Ic) = ..a) V = Cal .....236 Utilizing these relations Power System Analysis I 1 + bc Ia1 = .16.16 From the diagram we obtain Ea .72) .a Z1 +Z2 ..Ib) = 0 3 3 Since Vb=Vc a2 Va1 + a Va2 + Vao = a Va1 + a2 Va2 + Vao (a 2 ..69) 1 1 Iao = ..71) Fig.a) Ib 3 3 ..(Iaab c ) = ..Ia1 Z1 = .. (7. (7....a) I b 3 3 I . (7..a) V 81 32 . (770) Va1 =V a2 The sequence network connection is shown in Fig.la2 Z2 = 1 Z2 Ea = Ia (Z1 + Z2) 1 'a I = a1 E .(a2 .. 7..
75) Ia = lal + laZ = lal ..76) .73) ..lal = 0 Ib = aZ Ial + al az = (aZ.[V a + (a + aZ Vb] +a ) 3 bc 3 1 1 Vaz3 (Va b c = .... (7. 1 1 Val = ... (7. (7.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 237 .a)Ea ZI +Z2 .. (7...[Va + (aZ+ a) Vb] = + aZV + a V) 3 1 + a + aZ = 0.(V a + V) 3 b .....77) EaZ2 (a + a Zl +Z2 2 ) Ea (Z2) Zl + Z2 ....78) ..79) . (7.a) Ial (a z ...... (7. a + aZ= I Since Hence Again I Val =V az = ....(Va V + aZV ) = .74) Also... (7.
(7.18 .15 Double Line to Ground Fault Consider line to line fault on phases band c also grounded as shown in Fig. (7.. 00 a ~Ia va b Fig. 7. 7..238 Power System Analysis The phasor diagram for a double line fault is shown in Fig. 7...18.81) .17..80) =va 3 1 .. 7.17 7. Ea Fig...
.85) .1ao + 31 ao = ..19....19 .Ia2 + 21 an = .... 7.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 1 Va2 = 3 (Va 2 V + c ) + ab a V 239 =V a 3 Further 1 .1al . Fig.(I al + 1a2 + 1an ) + 3 Iao = 0 + 3 1ao = 31 ao The sequence network connections are shown in Fig....84 ) In may be noted that IF = = Ib + Ic = a2 Ial + a Ia2 + Iao + a Ial + a2 Ia2 + a Iao (a + a2) I (a + a2) I + 2 I aJ a2 ao = .. (7.. (7.... (7..1a2 .82) Hence But .83) and . (7.Ial .. (7.86) .. 7..
Z2Z] .. +V aO = = Ea ..90) E..89) an a2 Z~ £]  Z2 Va =V a] +V a2.....91 ) Zn = 0.Z2Zn Z]Z2 + Z2Z0 + ZOZ] . (7. Vb = 0 .E a. (7..88) .....la] Z E _ Ea (Z2 +Zo) Z + Ea ZO 2 + Ea· Z2 (Zo +3Z n ) a ~ Z]Z2 ] ~ Z]Z2 ~ Z]Z2 ...lao (ZO + 3Zn) . (7.Power System Analysis ..ZoZ]] ~Z]Z2 + aEaZOZ2 V = == b 2 Ea [ ZOZ2 + a ZO 2 + aZO 2 + 3Z 2 Zn ] Z z ~Z]Z2 2 Ea [ ZOZ2 (I + a + a ) + 3Z 2Z n] Z]Z2 + Z2 Z0 + ZOZ4 If 3... [Z2Z0 + 3Z 2Zn ] + alE.lao Z~ 1 =1 =  la2 Z2 Ea Z2 Z]Z2 + Z2Z0 + ZOZ] la2 Z2 . (7. (7.87) Similarly ... [Z]Z2 + Z2Z0 + ZOZ] ..
20 7.92) .21 . (7. 7. Egn..Unblllllnced Fllult Anlllysis The phasor diagram for this fault is shown in Fig.13) the fault is not a dead short circuit but has an impedance ZF then the fault in represented in Fig..~a ob ~__oc Fig. (7. Ea 241 Fig. 7. 7.21..16 SingleLine to Ground Fault with Fault Impedance If in (7.63a) willbe modified into ~Ia ~..20. 7.
22 and 'a = 0 'b = .. (7....Y e = ZF 'b . = ZF (10 + aTJI...'e Y b .a) Y2 = ZF (a2 .. (7...a) I I . 7..22) when the fault across the phases band c has an impedence ZF' ~Ia Fig.242 Substituting Y a = 0 and solving for la ..96) (Yo +aTY..94 ) .23).. Power System Analysis 1 = '': 3E a a Z. +aY 2)(Y O+aY..e.17 LinetoLine Fault with Fault Impedence Consider the circuit in Fig..95) +a2y 2) . (7...a) Y I i. + aJ 2) Substituting eqn..95) and (7. + Z2 + Zo + 3 (Zn + Zd . (7.23 .ZF Fig. (7.93) 7. (7.97) The sequence nehosh connection in this case will be as shown in Fig.96) in eqn..  (a2 . 7. . (a 2 . (7.. (7..
VI = 3(ZF + Zn)' [0 =...VI = (Zn + ZF) (21 0 + 10 ) = 3(ZF + Zn)'[O Hence.. Fig..98) But. and also.II  [2 Vo .18 Double LinetoGround Fault with Fault Impedence This can is Illustrated in Fig.and so on as in case (7.a)V I = (a~ .100) 0 VI =V 2 and Vo .= . + 1.VI) = (Zn + ZF) [21 0 [0 II  [2)\ = .a) V~ VI = V2 2 2 .. So that or Further. the fault conditioris are given by 10 + II + 12 = .99) (V 0 + a" V I + a V~) = (10 + a II + al~ + 10 + aJ I + a 12 ) ZF + Zn) a2 .a =[ (V?.. (7.. 7.24..15) Ea Z6 Z.. (7. Z.101 ) Zo + Z2 . 7.Unbalanced Fllult Analysis 243 7.24 The representative equations are la = 0 Vb = Ve Vb = (Ib + Ie) (ZF + Zn) [I . Since But since 10 + + [2 =0 V0 + a V I + a2 V2 = Va + a~ V I + a V1 (a 2 ... (7...1.... (7.
7.25 . 7.25.244 where Power System Analysis The sequence network connections are shown in Fig. V2 10 Fig.
.
7.7. + 220 11200 + 1200 ) + 120 /(120 0 + 240 0 )] "3 1 220lsEKV 1 ~ 2 V 2 = 3 [V an + aV bn + a V en ] = "3 "3 I I [220 ~ + 220/1200 + 240 0 + 220 /120 0 + 1200 [220 + 220 1200 + 220 240 0 ] = =0 Note: Balanced three phase voltages do not contain negative sequence components. Van] V = Vbn [220 220 /120 0 KV 220 /+ 120 0 rVen "3 1 I = ~ j Solution: = [200~ + 200/120 0 + 220 /+ 1200 ] =0 VI ="3 = = [Van+aVbn+a2Ven] [220 &:.1 Calculate the sequence components of the followinmg balanced linetonetwork voltages.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 245 Worked Examples E. E.2 Prone that neutral current can flow only if zerosequence currents are present la Ib lal + la2 + laO a21al + ala2 + lao Solution: = = = alai + a21a2 + laO If zerosequence currents are not present Ie then laO = 0 .
neutral cements will flow only in case of zero sequence components of currents exist in the network.Q:J = 100A Note: Balanced currents of any sequence. 1=. + 100~ + 100/.[10()~ + 100/2400 + 100/1200 ] 3 > =0 A 1 . E. positive or negative do not contain currents of the other sequences. Hence.3 Given the negative sequence cements 1= [::1 =r:~~ !iir l Ie l100 /120 0 J Obtain their sequence components Solution' = '3 I [100 lJE + 100/120 0 + 100 /120 0 = 0 A 1 I I = .[Ia b c +aI +aI] 2 3 = = '3 '3 I 1 [100 ~ + 100/1200 + 240 0 + 100/1200 + 2400 ] [IOO&:. .[I aaI + c ] + b arl 3 = '3 I [100~ + 100/1200 + 120 0 + 100 /120 0 + 240 0 ] I = .246 In that case Power System Analysis Ia + Ib + Ic = Ial + Ia2 + a21al + aI a2 + al a I + a2 1 a2 = (I aI + al aI + a21 ) + (J aI a2 + a21 + al ) a2 a2 =0+0=0 The neutral cement In = IR = Iy + Is = O..7.
Unbalanced Fault Analysis E.285/135 0 A 1 'I ="3 [IO~+ = 10/900 + 120°+ 15/135 0 +240 0 ] "3 1 [10 (I + jO.605 + j 0.866 + jO.0.jlO .866 + j 0.4808] 3.90° 15/135° l!t.707 + j 0.O) + 101300 + 15/15 0 = 1 3 [10 + 10 (0.0) + 15 (.2744/105 0 A 1 = = .605] I "3 "3 I 1 I = = "3 [.j 0.O) + 10 (0 .10.707) [10 .8555]/135 0 0.j a 10 /135 0 10="3 = 1 [100°+ 1090°+ 15135°] [10 (l + jO.605 + j 10.0.2588] == 3[33.309298]/15 0 = 1 I 11.j 1.849] == 3 [34.5) + 15 (0. la= 10~ Ib Ie Solution 2 a1 ][10 /_90° 10 247 = = 101.0.1485 + j 8.5) + 15 (.9659) 3 [2.7.436/15 0 A I 12 = 3 [I~+ 10/240°900 + 15/135 0 + 120°] = 1 3 [10 (l + jO) + 10 (0.j 9.2588 .4 Find the symmetrical components for the given three phase currents.9659 + jO.542 .605] = "3 = [0.
(E.7. (E.6) Zero sequence network for the given system .S Power System Analysis In a fault study problem the following currents are measured IR = 0 Iy = 10 A IB = .7.6).10 A Find the symmetrical components Solution IR I = 3 [1 R + a Iy + a2 IB] 1 I 10 ="3 [0a(l0)+a2 (10)]= Jj A IR2 = 1 "3 [IR + a2 Zy + a JB] 1 10 = "3 (a 2 .6 Draw the zero sequence network for the system shown in Fig.7.Jj 1 IRo = "3 (lR + ~ + IB) 1 = .10 + a (10) = .248 E. Solution ~he zero sequence 'network is shown Fig.7.(1010)=0 3 E.
7.7 Draw the sequence networks for the system shown in Fig.7 XLI if/L Refcrcncc Positive sequence network Negative sequence network X Mo Zero sequence network . 7.Unbalanced Fault Analysis E.7). 7. (E. E.~ X T1 LI XLI X L2 L2HfHM X T2 XM L/~ Fig. 249 if Y T.
250 E. Phjlse b is open due to conductor break.5 .866] .33~A 100 ...31§Q° A '1 = "3 1 [100~ + 0 + 100/1200 + 240 0 ] = 12 = "3 "3 I 1 1 [100~+ 100~ = 3. Ia = 100i1EA Ib = 100/1200 A IOOIit <0 Solution I=[.8 Power System Analysis Consider the system shown in Fig.j 0.866] 3 [. 7.5 .5 + j 0.0.66 A 200 [IOO~ + 0 + 100/1200 + 1200 ] ="3 = [100 [I + jO . Calculate the sequence currents and the neutral current.7.[0.j 0. E.1 A = Ie 100 [120° J '0 = "3 [JOOLQ:+ 0 + 100/120°] = "3 1 [100 (l + jO) + 0 + 100 (.0.866] = 33.866) = 100 3.5 + j 0.: 1[1 ~o lJr.33.8.0.= 66.
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
Nuetral current In
= =
251
10 + II + 12
100&: + 0 +100/120 0 100 [I + jO  0.5 + jO.866] 1001Q.Q° A
= =
Also, In E.7.9
=
3 10 = 3 (33.33 (600 ) = IOOIQ.Q° A
Calculate the subtransient fault current in each phase for a dead short circuit on one phase to ground at bus 'q' for the system shown in Fig. E.7.9.
E=I!Jf
~ ~1_Lin_e+1~ ~ .....
~ @>
JO.17
jO.06
x~=jO.16
X2 =
xl=xc=jO.ll Xo = jO.33
cg
~
Q
X~ = jO.2
X2
= )0.22
Xo = )0.15
p/6
xI =x2 =xo =10.10
Xo
=
Yl
XI =x2
=
jO.IO
All the reactances are given in p.u on the generator base.
Solution:
(a) Positive sequence network.
J 0.17
j 0.22
(b) Negative sequence network.
p
q
J 0.1
j 0.06
j 0.33
j 0.1
j 0.15
(c) zero sequence network.
252
Power System Analysis
The three sequence networks are shown in Fig. (a,b and c). For a linetoground fault an phase a, the sequence networks are connected as in Fig. E. 7.9 (d) at bus 'q'.
j 0.14029
lilt
Negative sequence
E.7.9 (d)
The equivalent positive sequence network reactance Xp is given form Fig. (a) 1 1 1 =+Xp 0.47 0.2
Xp
=
0.14029
The equivalent negative sequence reactance Xn is given from Fig. (b) 1 1 1 = 0.48 + 0.22 or Xn = 0.01508
x::
The zerosequence network impedence is j 0.15 the connection of the three sequence networks is shown in Fig. E. 7.9(d).
10 = II = 12 = jO.14029+ jO.150857 + jO.15
j0.44147
JlsL
= 
J2.2668 p. u
.
E.7.10 In the system given in example (E.7.9) if a line to line fault occurs calculate the sequence components of the fault current.
Solution:
The sequence network connection for a linetoIine fault is shown in Fig. (E.7.1O).
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
253
j 0.14029
1/sL
From the figure I
J
j 0.150857
=
I =
2
II!L:.
jO.1409+ jO.150857
~ + ===jO.291147
=  j 3.43469 p.u
E.7.11 If the linetoline fault in example E.7.9 takes place involving ground with no
fault impedance determine the sequence componenets of the fault current and the neutral fault current.
Solution
The sequence network connection is shown in Fig.
jO.14029
jO.15085
j 0.15
1~
IJ
=
jO.14029+=H=o:.1:50=8=57:):(j=0.=15:) jO.150857 + jO.15
112:
jO.14029+ jO.0752134
=  j 4.64 p.u
1~
jO.2155034
12
= 
j(4.64) (. jO.15 ) =  j2.31339 p.u J0.300857 '(4.64) (jO.150857) j 0.300857
=  .
I = o

J
J
2.326608 .u P
The neutral fault current
= 3 jo = 3( j2.326608) =  j6.9798 p.u
254
Power System Analysis
E.7.12 A dead earth fault occurs on one conductor of a 3phase cable supplied by a 5000 KVA, threephase generator with earthed neutral. The sequence impedences of the altemator are given by
Z1 = (0.4 + j4) n; Z2 = (0.3 + jO.6) nand Zo
=
(0 + j 0.45) n per phase
The sequence impedance of the line up to the point offault are (0.2 + jO.3) n, (0.2 + j 0.3)W, (0.2 + j 0.3) nand (3 + j 1) n. Find the fault current and the sequence components of the fault current. Aslo find the linetoearth voltages on the infaulted lines. The generator line voltage is 6.6 KY.
Solution
Total positive sequence impedance is Z1
=
= (0.4 + j 4) + (0.2 + j 0.3) = (0.6 + j 4.3) n.
Total negative sequence impedence to fault is Zo = (0.3 + j 0.6) + (0.2 + .iO.3) (0.5 + jO.9) n
t
Total zerosequecne ill'pedence to fault is ZO = (0 + j 0.45) + ( 3 + j 1.0 ) = (3 j 1.45) n Z1 + Z2 + Z3 = (0.6 + j 4.3) + (0.5 + j 0.9) + (3.0 + j 1.45)
=
(4.1 + j 6.65) n
6.6x 1000
la1 = laO = Ia2 =
= =
.J3
(4.1 + j6.65)
381O.62A . :Z.8.1233
487.77 58°.344 A (255.98  j 415.198) A 1463.31 A [58°.344
Ia = 3 x 487.77 1580.344
=
E.7:13 A 20 MVA, 6.6 KV star connected generator has positive, negative and zero sequence reactances of 30%, 25% and 7% respectively. A reactor with 5% reactance based on the rating of the generator is placed in the neutral to groud connection. A linetoline fault occurs at the terminals of the generator when it is operating at rated voltage. Find the initial symmetrical linetoground r.m.s fault current. Find also the linetoline voltage.
Solution
Z1 = j 0.3; Z2 = j 0.25 Zo = j 0.07 + 3 x j 0.05 = j 0.22 Ia1
=
Ta1
=
1 j(O.3) + j(0.25) = jO.55
I/sr.
=
. J1.818 p.u
= 
j 1.818 x
20x 1000 r;; ",3 x 6.6
= 
j 3180 Amperes
Unbalanced Fault Analysis
lao
=
255
0 as there is no ground path Va = Ea  la, Z, l a2 Z2 1 =  j 1.818 (j 0.0.3 jO.25)
= 0.9091 x 3180 = 2890.9 V
Vb = a2 E  (a2 la, Z, + ala2 Z2)
= (0.5  j 0.866).1
+ j,.fj (j 1.818) G0.3)
= ( jO.866  0.5
+ j 0.94463)
x
== ( 0.5 + j 0.0786328)
3180
== ( 1590 + j 250) == 1921.63
V c == Vb == 192 I .63 V
E.7.14 A balanced three phase load with an impedence of (6j8) ohm per phase, connected in star is having in parallel a delta connected capacitor bank with each phase reactance of27 ohm. The star point is connected to ground through an impedence of 0 + jS ohm. Calculate the sequence impedence of the load.
Solution
The load is shown in Fig. (E.7.14).
fl 1\ b
256
Converting the delta connected capacitor tank into star CA/phase  27 ohnm 1 Cy/phase = 3" 27 = a ohm
Power System Analysis
The positive sequence network is shown in Fig. E. 7.14(a)
60
+ J80
The negative sequence network is also the same as the positive sequence network Z ZI' Z2 = Zstar II 3" delta (6+j8Xj9) = 72j54 6+j8j9 6jl
=
90~
6.082/9°.46
14.7977 /27 0 .41 ohm
The zero sequence network is shown in Fig.
60
Jxn
T
r
27
j,=j9"
~ J + jS"
0
Zo
= Zstar + 3 2n = 6 + j8 I 3U5) = (6 + j 23) ohm = 23.77 80°.53
4 7.4 Find the subtransient line current for a linetoline fault on two phases for the generator in problem (7. while it is operating on noload at rated voltage a double lineto ground fault occurs on two phases.2 7.m. It is operating at rated voltaage and is on noload. What is the influence of transformer connections in singlephase transformers connected for 3phase operation. .44° V 108 L1300 V Assuming that there is no connection to the neutral of the load determine the symmetrical components of the line currents and also from them the line currents.5 7.1 Determine the symmetrical components for the three phase currents IR = 15 LOo. What are sequence impedances? Obtain expression for sequence impedances in a balanced static 3phase circuit. Iy = 15/230° and 18 = 15/1300A P 7.2 The voltages at the terminals of a balanced load consisting of three 12 ohm resistors connected in star are V = 120 LO o V RY V YB VBR = = 96.s fault current to the ground.6 7.3 7. Derive an expression for the fault current for a single lineto ground fault as an unloaded generator. It!. 22 KV turbo generator having xd" = Xl = x2 = 22% and Xo = 6% has a current limiting reactor of 0.06 per unit.96 L121. What is the utility of symmetrical components. Find the subtransient line current o for a single line 'to ground fault when it is disconnected from the system. It is star connected and solidly grounded.16 ohm in the neutral.Unbalanced Fault Analysis 257 Problems P 7.3) P 7.7 7.17 and X = 0. P 7. P 7.5 A 125 MVA. Derive an expression for power in a 3phase circuit in terms of symmetrical components. Derive an expression for the fault current for a doubleline fault as an unioaded generator.3 A 50 Hz turbo generator is rated at 500 MVA 25 KV. Questions 7.8 What are symmetrical components? Explain. Explain the sequence networks for an synchronous generator. Find the initial symmetrical r. reactances are xd" = xl = x2 = 0.1 7.
Draw the phasor diagrams for (i) Singlelineto ground fault Doubleline fault and Doubleline to ground fault (ii) (iii) Conditions as on unloaded generator.13 Explain the effect of prefault currents. What is the effect of fault impedance? Explain.12 7.11 Power System Analysis Derive an expression for the fault current for a doublelineto ground fault as an unloaded generator. . double line fault and double line to ground fault conditions. Draw the sequence network connections for singlelineto ground fault.258 7.9 7.10 7. 7.
The electromechanical dynamic behaviour of the prime movergeneratorexcitation systems. They are (a) Steady state stability (b) Transient stability (c) Dynamic stability Stability is the ability of a dynamic system to remain in the same operating state even after a disturbance that occurs in the system. . Stability when used with reference to a power system is that attribute of the system or part of the system.1 POWER SYSTEM STABILITY Elementary Concepts Maintaining synchronism between the various elements of a power system has become an important task in power system operation as systems expanded with increasing inter connection of generating stations and load centres.8 8. equal to or greater than the disturbing force so as to restore a state of equilibrium between the elements. various types of motors and other types of loads with widely varying dynamic characteristics can be analyzed through some what oversimplified methods for understanding the processes involved. which enables it to develop restoring forces between the elements thereof. There are three modes of behaviour generally identified for the power system under dynamic condition.
Such disturbances are generally small in nature. but still into an acceptable steady state. 8. This will be dealt with later. The generator and motor have reactances Xg and Xm respectively. 8. The third aspect of stability viz.260 Power System Analysis A power system is said to be steady state stable for a specific steady state operating condition. Dynamic stability is generally associated with excitation system response and supplementary control signals involving excitation system. Such a state is called a transient state. 8.2 Illustration of Steady State Stability Concept Consider the synchronous generatormotor system shown in Fig. Instability refers to a conditions involving loss of 'synchronism' which in also the same as 'falling out o'fthe step' with respect to the rest of the system. Larger disturbances may change the operating state significantly. 8.1. if it returns to the same st~ady state operating condition following a disturbance. Xe Fig.1 From the Fig. They ~re connected through a line of reactance Xe' The various voltages are indicated.1 E=E m +J·xJ·' g 1= Eg Em . when the entire system or part of the system to which the stability limit refers is operating with stability.x where X = Xg e m +X +X J Power del ivered to motor by the generator is P = Re [E J*] . A stability limit is the maximum power flow possible through some particular point in the system.
Use of higher excitation voltages. The reactance X = Xg + Xm + Xe is called the transfer reactance between the two machines and this has to be brought do\\n to the possible extent. The system will be stable so long dP is positive.Cos 90° Cos (90 + 0) = X X . Fig. Em and X.Power System Stability 261 E 2 Eg Em g../2. Thus. Reducing the reactance between the generator and the motor. 8. At 8 = rr. The steady state stability limit will be reached. Theoretically.3 Methods for Improcessing Steady State Stability Limit 1. (8..2 8.2.p max is dependent on E g. we obtain the following possibilities for increasing the value of Pmax indicated in the next section. (8. the system will be stable. thereby increasing the value of Eg.2) The graph of P versus 0 is called power angle curve and is shown in Fig./2..1 ) P is a maximum when 0 = 90° P max = =X Eg Em . 8.. 2... . if the load power is increased in do very small increments from 0 = 0 to 0 = rr....
8. P= Eg Em X Sin 0 do 8. multiswong studies are performed taking into effect the excitation and turbinegenerator controls. however.5 Transient Stability Steady state stability studies often involve a single machine or the equivalent to a few machines connected to an infinite bus. where disturbances are larger and require study over a longer period beyond one second. The speed is the synchronous speed ())s' Neglecting losses power in put is equal to the mechanical load supplied. The study includes the behaviour of the machine under small incremental changes in operating conditions about an operating point on small variation in parameters. the motor is decelerating. it is presumed that it is transient stable for that disturbances. Since. 8.262 Power System Analysis 8. The inclusion of any control system or supplementary control depends upon the nature of the disturbances and the objective of the study. However.6 Stability of a Single Machine Connected to Infinite Bus Consider a synchronous motor connected to an infinite bus.3) is called Synchronizing power coefficient or stiffness. For stable operation dP. (8. If the machine remains stable in the first second. The first swing of the machine (or machines) that occur in a shorter time generally does not include the effect off excitation system and loadfrequency control system. is .4 Synchronizing Power Coefficient We have The quantity . Transient stability of the system involves nonlinear models.3. Undergoing small disturbances. When the disturbances are relatively larger or faults occur on the system. The torque angle 0 increases from 00 to 0 1 when the electrical power supplied equals the mechanical power demand at b as shown in Fig.. the system enters transient state. The first swing transient stability is a simple study involving a time space not exceeding one second. Initially the motor is supplying a mechanical load Prno while operating at a power angle 00. the synchronizing coefficient must be positive... Transient internal voltage E. If the load on the motor is suddenly increased to PmI' this sudden load demand will be met by the motor by giving up its stored kinetic energy and the motor. slows down. and transient reactances X~ are used in calculations.. therefore. the speed.
. The motor will reach the stable operating point b only if the accelerating energy AI represented by bce equals the decelerating energy A2 represented by area abd. The net torque acting on the rotor of a synchronous machine WR 2 T=a. Hence.. but N = Ns at point c. ° In Fig.3 area 'abd' represents deceleration and area bce acceleration. At this point c further increase of () is arrested as Pe > Pml and N = Ns. But. It Fig. 8. This is usually called swing equation. 8. The torque angle starts decreasing till 1 is reached at b but due to the fact that till point b is reached Pe is still greater than Pm!' speed is more than N s . Hence. the torque 'angle ()' increases further to ()2 where the electrical power Pe is greater than Pml . g where T = . a = Mechanical angular acceleration WR2 = Moment of Inertia in kgm 2 ..Power System Stability 263 less than Ns at b. (8. () decreases further till point a is reacted where N = Ns but Pml > Pe• The cycle of oscillation continues.. the rotor is brought to the new operating point b with speed N = N s .4 ) algebraic sum of all torques in Kgm. due to the damping in the system that includes friction and losses.3 Stability of synchronous motor connected to infinite bus.synchronous machine roter. 8.7 The Swing Equation The interconnection between electrical and mechanical side of the synchronous machine is provided by the dynamic equation for the acceleration or deceleration ofthe combinedprime mover (turbine) .
.7) differentiating twice _e=lf) d 2 11 ( 60 dt 2 _m d 2 11 rpm dt 2 From eqn.. (8.9) ... (8..11m rpm . 60f rpm P 2 60f) 11e = ( .8) is given by From eqn.60f dt 2 g 60f dt 2 r . (8...8) rotating reference axis is be = 11 e . (8..6) Where N is the rpm.5) PN f= 120 .7) The electrical angular position d in radians of the rotor with respect to a synchronously .. (8./sec t = time in seconds (Note: 8 + coat = 11e) The angular acceleration taking the second derivative of eqn. (8..4) T = WR 2 rpm) d 2 11 e = WR 2 (rpm ') d 2 8 g . (8......264 Power System Analysis Electrical angle Where 11 m is mechanical angle and P is the number of poles The frequency ......coot Where And Wo = rated synchronous speed in rad.. (8.
.... (8.e..". (8. so that the accelerating torque. .. friction. electrical output torque and damping torques due to prime mover generator and power system. We may neglect the damping and rotational losses... (8. The electrical and mechanical torques acting on the rotor of a motor are of opposite sign and are a result of the electrical input and mechanical load.E. T a =TIn Te Where Te is the airgap electrical torque and Tin the mechanical shaft torque.Power System Stability Let the base torque be defined as 265 .11 ) Kinetic energy K.13 ) The torque acting on the rotor of a generator includes the mechanical input torque from the prime mover... windage and core loss)].. = 0)0 I WR 2 2 g 2 . torque due to rotational losses [(i. 60 1(baseKYA Defining H kinetic energy at rated speed ? _ ~ WR 2 g (.10) torque in per unit ..12) Where COo ') rpm = . (8.1( rpm)2 ____ v~ 60 base KYA KE atrated speed .. .....
It may be noted.mo Since the rated synchronous speed in rad/sec is 27tf +m d8 dS dS d8 dt .16) The eqn.15) and (8. Then ..16) are called swing equations. (8..14) d 28 = 7tf (T _ T ) dt2 H In e (i. since 8 = S .:"" stored energy in mega joules machine rating in mega voltampers(G) . per electrical degree M = l. (8.17) but stored energy = 1 2 1 1m = . The quantity H defined earlier as inertia constant has the units mega Joules. (8. that.... (8..) . In practice m is not synchronous speed while the machine swings and hence M is not strictly a constant. (8..15) Torque in per unit is equal to power in per unit if speed deviations are neglected.e.mot d"t=d"t... Angular momentum M is thus described by mega joule ....dt () we may put the equation in another way.MOl 2 2 .. The stored energy of an electrical machine is more usually expressed in mega joules and angles in degrees.....266 Power System Analysis . Kinetic Energy = 2" 1m2 joules 1 The moment of inertia I may be expressed in louie .sec.m Where m is the synchronous speed of the machine and M is called inertia constant.(Sec)2/(rad)2 since m is in rad/sec. H= ~.
. .. (8..: S lllu X So that with usual notation...20) So that d 0 = nf(p _P) dt2 H In e ...18) 1 I GH = ...sec/elec degree .Power System Stability In electrical degrees (j) 267 = 360f (= 2nD .. (8. (8....23) 8.. It is not directly applicable to multi machine system...M2nf = Mnf 2 2 M = GH nf mega joule .22) EV · s.25) .. (8. The swing equation connected to infinite bus is given by H dro ..M(360f) = ...=p p =p n f d t2 mea ..8 Equal Area Criterion and Swing Equation Equal area criterion is applicable to single machine connected to infinite bus. Further p = e ... (8.. .19) In the per unit systems M 2 = H nf .. (8...24) or .. However... (8. (8.21 ) which may be written also as This is another form of swing equation. the criterion helps in understanding the factors that influence transient stability....
Multilying eqn (8.. I I) on dt 2 dt Integrating both sides d8)2 = ~ ( dt M db dt M dt fp a d8 =~~ 1<>0 Pa d8 r<' M 1t Fig...26) = 0. 80 is the initial rotor angle from where the rotor starts swinging due to the disturbance.4 Equal area criterion. 8.. For Stability dt d8 = ° Hence. (8.268 Power System Analysis Also Now as t increases to a maximum value 8max where d8 dt d8 both sides by 2 dt we obtain 2 d 8 db = Pa 2 db 2 . .
there must be a limiting case where A2 is just equal to AI as shown in Fig.5. A I ~ A2 = 0 means that.. 8. The system is stable.. 8.9 Transient Stability Limit Now consider that the change in Pm is larger than the change shown in Fig. (8. 8. if we could locate a point c on the power angle curve such that areas Al and A2 are equal. pml [(52 .(50) + Pmax (cos (51 .27) The above is a transcendental equation and hence cannot be solved using nonnal algebraic methods. 8.Power System Stability 269 i. In the case AI> A2.5.. But Pe = Pmax sin (5 Pm «51 . the acclerating and decelerating energies involved in swinging of the rotor of the synchronous machine must equal so that a stable operating point (such as b) could be located.cos (50) I Pmax (cos (51 .6. we fail to locate an area A2 that is equal to area AI. Any further increase in Pml will cause .. This is illustrated in Fig.cos (52) + Pml «52 .[(52 .(51) = 0 i. Between these two cases of stable and unstable operating cases..e. That is.(50] max But Hence .(50] COS = Pmax [COS (50  COS (52) (50  COS Pml (52 = P. as stated the machine will loose its stability since the speed cannot be restored to Ns . Then.. Equal area criterion states that whenever.e. a disturbance occurs.
PmO in Fig.6 is the maximum load change that the machine can sustain synchronism and is thus the transient stability limit. 8. MW plf a 1t Fig. 8.10 Frequency of Oscillations Consider a small change in the operating angle <>0 due to a transient disturbance by 60.5 Unstable system (A 1 > A 2) . 180 Fig. 8. 8.270 A2 Power System Analysis to be less than AI' Pm l . Corresponding to this we can write 0 = 0° + 60 and where 6Pe is the change in power and PO the initial power at 0° e' (P e + 6Pe) = Pmax sin 0° + Pmax cos 0°) 60 .6 Transient stability limit.
The mechanical input power Pm remains constant. Let the fault be cleared at 8 = 0\ ... At point f. If a 3phase fault occurs near the generator bus on the radial line connected to it. Pm = PeO = P max sin 8° (P m . The solution depends upon the sign of 8°... an area A2 = d e f g is obtained which is equal to A\ Fig.. power transmitted over the line to the infinite bus will become zero instantaneously.28) The frequency f is given by f = _I)oo8 2n 2 H . The frequency of the undamped oscillation in 00 m =)00 8° 2H 0 .[P max sin 8° .7 . (8. Hence.. Hence. which is a linear secondorder differential equation...8 curve. 8.Peo + ilP e) = P max sin 8° .29) Transient st~bility and fault clearance time consider the electrical power system shown is Fig. The swing equation is 2H d 8° ___ = P = P _ P 0 00 2 dt 2 a m e Again.. Fault clearance at 8\ angle or point c will shift the operating point from c to e instantaneously on the P . (8. The rotor comes back from f and finally settles down at 'a' where Pm = Pe' 8\ is called the clearing angle and the corresponding time t\ is called the critical clearing time tc for the fault from the inception of it at 80' . If 8° is positive. the equation represents simple harmonic motion.8 . 8.[P max cos 8°) il8] = (P max as 8°) il8 271 P d d~ is the synchronizing coefficient S.Power System Stability Also. where So is the synchronizing coefficient at Peo. Therefore. All the mechanical input energy represented by area abc d = AI' will be utilized in accelerating the rotor from 80 to 8\ .
7 8. Where AI is just equal to A 2. 8. Fault clearance cannot be delayed beyond te' This limiting fault clearance angle De is caIled critical clearing angle and the corresponding time to clear the fault is called critical clearing time te' Pe e ~~~~~8 Fig. bus Radial line Fig. Then.9 .10. 8. the clearing time is increased from tl to tc such that 1 is 0e as shown in Fig.9. 8. Beyond 0e' A2 starts decreasing. any furter increase in the fault cleaing time tl Pe ° 01 ~~~o Fig.272 Line p Power System Analysis Inf. 8. would not be able to enclosed an area A2 equal to AI' This is shown in Fig. in the previous case.11 Critical Clearing Time and Critical Clearing Angle If.8 beyond te. 8.
cos 0maJ  Pm (Omax  <\) AI =A2 gives Pm cos 8C = .rom Fig....9F 8max = 1t .P ).Power System Stability 273 Fig.30) During the period of fault the swing equation is given by  dr 8 1t f =(P .10 . But since P = 0 d tr H me. 8. e . 8. (8..80 Pm = Pmax sin 00 A2 = (max(PmaxsinaPm) deS = Pmax (cos <\ .Pmax [(1t  °)°] o· 0 + cos (1t  80) .
3l ) Hence the critical cleaning time tc = sec.. Since.P t m 1tf 0 = .E Infinite bus Fig.8. Now.0 curve for one line in operation is given by Pel EV = Xd + xI sin 0 . 8. . if a fault occurs on line 2 for example. (8. (8. Hence K = 00 Hence ~.11 Doublecircuit line and fault. XI > x I2 (two lines in parallel).P t2 +K c 2H m At t = 0. the P .12 Fault on a DoubleCircit Line Consider a single generator or generating station sup lying power to a load or an infinite ·bus through a double circuit line as shown in Fig.. 0 = 00 . then the two circuitbrea~ers on either side will open and disconnect the line 2. = :. v Generator ~IC~ x~...12 Xd + X12 EV sin 0 where  1 = 1 + 1 X12 Xl X2 and xd is the transient reactance of the generator.11.274 During the fault period dro 1t f =P d{ H m Integrating both sides Power System Analysis 1 2 dro dt dt = £1tf H Pm dt do 1tf dt H and integrating once again =..32) 8. The eletrical power transmitted is given by Pe ....
12. The rotor will finally settle down at point c due to damping. At point c Pm = Pe l Fig. thk rotor decelerates till point d is reched at 8 = 8 2 so that area AI (= area a b c) is equal to area A2 (= area c d e).8 curve P as shwon in Fig. 8. 8.12 8. 8.13 Transient Stability When Power is Transmitted During the Fault Consider the case where during the fault period some load power is supplied to the load or to the infinite bus.Power System Stability 275 . 13 . The operating point shifts from a to b on p~ curve Pe and the rotor ~IJcelerates to poin 0 where 8 = 8 1. Since the rotor speed is not synchronous. 8. If the P8 curve during the fault is represented by curve 3 in Fig. win be below the P . p I outpu :during fault ClUVe 3 I I d Fig.13 .
. 8. . If the fault clearance is delayed till (A I) is just equal to and e d f (A 2) then 81 = Oc as shown in Fig..14 such that area abc d c r8 C (P ko max sinoPm)do= r.0c) + P max2 (cos 0max .max(pm:x sinoPm) do Pel before fault P.cos 0c) = 0 .2 after fault Fig. 8. It is clear from the Fig. (8. When the fault is cleared at 0 = 0l' the operating point moves from b to c along the curve Pe3 and then shifts to point e.276 Power System Analysis Upon the occurrence of fault.oJ + P max 3 (cos 0c . If area d e f g e could equal area abc d (A2= AI) then the system wUl be stable.cos 0 0 ) + Pm (Omax .I ~ Pmax2 (Pm' 0 + Pmax'COS 0) (: + (pmax 2 COSOPm·O) . the operating point moves from a to b on the during the fault curve 3.14 that 0max = Integrating 1t  00 = 1t .33) The angles are all in radians.. 8.tu=O Pm (Oc .14 Critical clearing anglepower transmitted during fault..sin.
. Subsequently. the machine reaches the stable state. the operation once again shifts back to prefault characteristic and normalcy will be restored. 3 or 2 cycles are the times suggested for circuit breaker interruption after the fault occurs. it is desired to solve the swing equation to see that the value of 5 starts decreasing after an initial period of increase.15 Solution to Swing Equation StepbyStep Method Solution to swing equation gives the change in 5 with time. 8.12. The stepbystep method suggested here is suitable for hand calculation for a single machine connected to system. so that at some later point in time.Power System Stability 277 8. If the faulted line is removed then power transfer will be again shifted to postfault characteristic where line I only is in operation. ° p Fig.15 assumes fault clearance and instantaness recJosure. Hence. Uninhibited increase in the value of 5 will cause instability. as in the previous case then an area A2 = AI will.15 Fault clearance and reclosing . 5.14 Fault Clearance and Reclosure in DoubleCircuit System Consider a double circuit system as in section 8. 8. be located and the operating characteristic changes from prefault to during the fault. 8. if the fault is cleared and line 2 is reclosed. The maximum angle the rotor swings is 53' For stability 2 should be lessthan om' The illustration in Fig. For stable operation area AI (= area abcd) should be equal to areaA 2 (= area defghk). Gnerally 8. A variety of numerical stepbystep methods are available for solution to swing equation. If a fault occurs on one of the lines while supplying a power of Pmo. The plot of 5 versus t in seconds is called the swing curve.
Likewise.I). OJ"n  n.'/ ./5 0  1 n2 n. (n . Pais kept constant between the mid points of the intervals.3/2) and (n . . The accelerating power Pais computed at the end of these intervals and plotted at circles in Fig. When very. 8.16 (a).1/2) ordinates we know that ~O) = dt' ~t dO) . both the assumption are not true..I) and nth intervals.l n Fig. the calculated values become more accurate.. (c) • ___ _ • ___ ___ . (n ./5 n } t. (n . small. (a) Pa(n2) Pa (n 2) Pa (n) Pa n2 (b) OJ". The angular speed therefore is assumed to change between (n . Note that these are the beginnings for the next intervals viz. wr ' the difference betwen wand W s is kept constant throughout the interval at the value calculated at the mid point.16 Plotting swing curve.2).l n Assumed Actual 312 ffi. } __ t.278 Power System Analysis ~t Since 8 is changing continuously. Let the time intervals be ~t is made Consider. nand (n + I). 8.
dt 2 ' H a(nl)' 2 dro Hence Again change in 8 . 8..Yal and = dt .. (8.... for (n .16) and (8.3/2) and (n . 8. the fault severity decreasing with two phase fault and single lineto ground fault in that order. 8.8n _ 1= ror (n _ 112) • ilt .. A three phase dead short circuit is the most severe fault.s peed therefore is assumed to change between (n ...34) il8 i. The angular . Power transferred during fault also plays a major role. ilt . part of the power generated is transferred to the load.16... Likewise.I )th inteJl. When. the plot of 8 with time increasing after a transient disturbance has occured or fault takes place can be plotted as shown in Fig..16 (c).. (8.. (8.36) From the two equations (8.37) Thus.1/2) ordinates we know that ilro = dt' ilt _ d 8 ilt = 180f P ilt ror(nl)ror(n3/2).16 Factors Affecting Transient Stability Transient stability is very much affected by the type of the fault.. This can easily be understood from the curves of Fig.Power System Stability 279 Note that these are the beginnings for the next intervals viz.. w r' the difference betwen wand Ws is kept constant throughout the interval at the value calculated at the mid point.. the accelerating power is reduced to that extent. of a .. (8.15) we obtain .35) d8 il8 n = 8 n .. Pais kept constant between the mid points of the intervals. (n . nand (n + I). If the fault is farther from the generator the severity will be less than in the case fault occurring at the terminals of the generator.e.I).
which is uneconomical. If a load change occurs and the field current If is not changed then the various quantities mentioned change with the real power delivered P as shown in Fig. Since majority of the faults are line~toground faults selective single pole opening and reclosing will ensure transfer of power during the fault and improve stability. (iii) (iv) When faults occur.17 Dynamic Stability Consider a synchronous machine with terminal voltage Vt • The voltage due to excitation acting along the quadrature axis is Eq and E~ is the voltage along this axis. increasing the dimensions of the machine.P e = PI reduces. increasing'M may interfere with speed governing system. Support to the system voltages by automatic voltage controllers and fast acting excitation systems will improve the power transfer during the fault and reduce the rotor swing. Reduction in transfer reactance is possible only when parallel lines are used in place of single line or by use of bundle conductors. this is not a practical proposition since. Also. Use of high speed circuit breakers which reduce the fault duration time and hence the acclerating power. The dimensions of the machine are determined by the output desired from the machine and stability cannot be the criterion. Thus looking at the swing equations 0 M d 22 = Pa = P _ P = P _ EV Sino dt m e m X l2 the possible methods that may improve the transient stability are: (i) (ii) Increase of system voltages. Other theoretical methods such as reducing the spacing between the conductorsand increasing the size of the conductors dre not practicable and are uneconomical. and use of automatic voltage regulators. 8.17 (a). Quick opening of circuit breakers and single pole reclosing is helpful. the system voltage drops. Use of quick response excitation systems Compensation for transfer reactance X I2 so that Pe increases and Pm . However. The direct axis rotor angle with respect to a synchronously revolving axis is d. increasing M means. . 8.280 Power System Analysis Theoretically an increase in the value of inertia constant M reduces the angle through which the rotor swings farther during a fault.
Power System Stability 281 1) E'q VI 1) "'I Fig. then it is possible to increase power delivery by 5080% more than case (a). 8.17 (a) Vt p In case the field current If is changed such that the transient flux linkages along the qaxis E~ proportional to the field flux linkages is maintained constant the power transfer could be increased by 3060% greater than case (a) and the quantities for this case are plotted in Fig. 8.17 (c).E~ Vt ~~p Fig.17 (c) . 8. This is shown in Fig. :q VI 1) Eq ITE~ ~~p Fig. Eq EI 1) q 1 Eq I::::::::::=r.17 (b).17 (b) If the field current If is changed alongwith P simultaneously so that Vt is maintained constant. 8. 8.
Such a network is called "Power System Stabilizer" (PSS). control signals utilizing the derivatives of output current and terminal voltage deviation have been used for controlling the voltage in addition to propostional control signals. Not only the first derivatives of L'11 and L'1 Yare used. buses which are excited by internal voltages of the machines only are considered. but have effect on the operation subsequent swings. As an example consider the system shown in Fig. Fig. Such a situation is termed 'forced excitation' or 'forced field control'. It is also observed that the several time constants in the forward path of excitation control loop introduce large phase lag at low frequencies just baoe the natural frequency of the excitation system.rl>X'2I~ X/l &J I C\ Infm. Hence. compensating networks are introduced to produce torque in phase with the speed. but also higher derivatives have been used for voltage control on load changes. 8. that excitation control has a great role to play in power system stability and the speed with which this control is achieved is very important in this context.18 Node Elimination Methods In all stability studies.18 . This way of system control for satisfactory operation under changing load conditions using excitation control comes under the purview of dynamci stability.V and increase of E matters in increasing Pmax' In Russia and other countries. 8. load buses are eliminated.to b".282 Power System Analysi~ It can be concluded from the above. Power System Stabilizer An voltage. Note that Pm ax = X E. ~. 8. To overcome there effects and toi improve the damping. This is a situation where dynamic in stability may occur and casue concern.18. regulator in the forward path of the excitergenerator system will introduce a damping torque and under heavy load contions'this damping torque may become ndegative. There controller have not much control on the first swing stability.
<D Q) Fig.18(b). Fig.18 (c). 8.18 (c) . it can be eliminated.18 (b) Since. line 2. 8. say. then the reactance diagram will become as shown in Fig.Power System Stability 283 Fig. The three reactances between buses (1). (3) and (g) become a star network. 8. (2). The network willbe modified into Fig. no source is connected to bus (2). 8.18 (a) The transfer reactance between the two buses (I) and (3) is given by Where 1 1 1 =+X /ll2 XII XIZ If a fault occurs an all the phases on one of the two parallel lines. which can be converted into a delta network using the standard formulas. 8.
18 (d) For a three bus system. it can be eliminated.. 12 has to be mode equal to zero y 21 V 1 + Y 22 V 2 + Y 23 V 3 = 0 Hence 23 V2. 8.. the nodal equations are Since no source is connected to bus (2). Q) t' Fig. 8. Consider the same example with delta network reproduced as in Fig.Y21 V1 .Y V3 Y Y 22 22 This value of V2 can be substituted in the other two equation of ( eliminated ) so that V2 is .284 Power System Analysis X:3 is the transfer reactance between buses (I) and (3). Le.18 (d).
Take 100 MVA base.2093 = 75 H = MJ 443. t A 4pole. Find the inertia constant of each machine and tile inertia constant of single equivalent machine connected to infinite bus.82 p.344 x 106 J 50 MVA = 0.344 HI = 58.344 180 x 50 180x 50 0.86 power factor lagging.2 Two generaton rated at 4pole. . The machine rotor has a moment of intertia of 9000 Kgm2.85 = 58.000 kg_m 1 are eoaRected by a transmission line.46586 MJ!MYA MI = = 58.8235 1380. Find the inertia constant in MJ / MVA and M constant or momentum in MJs/elec degree Solution: co = 211:f = 100 11: rad/sec Kmetlc energy .85 p. For the second machine . 50 Hz.2093 8.8235 x 23.08755 GH 87.f (lag) with moment of inertia 28.0492979 MJS/O dc E 8.Power System Stability 185 Worked Examples E 8.08755 M = 180f = 180 x 50 = 0. 50 Mw 0. 75 MW 0.682 MY A = 87.8235 = 23.E = 2" x 28.000 x(10011:)2 1 = 1380.f (lag) with moment of inertia t 5.15337 MJS/degree elect.86 = 87.682 x 106 = J 443.682 MH MYA rating of the machine = 0.46586 1380.ad lpole.2093 x 5. = 1 1 2")eo 2 = 2" x9000 + (10011:) 2 = 443. Solution: For machine I K. 11 KV turbo generator is rated 75 MW and 0. 50 Hz.000 kgm1 . 50Hz.
neglecting losses.degree = 180 x 50 x M 481.15337 = 0.0535 on 100 MVA base.000 "2 1 x (100 n)2 = = 739.470 MJ 75 MVA = 0.082163+0.235533 GH = = 0. H= 100 = 4.286 Power System Analysis K.470 H2 = 91.4634 = 8.470.5 E 8. (ii) When the generator is supplying a load of 75 MW.0126 0. 50 HZ has an inertia Determine the stored energy in the rotor at synchronous speed.5 KV.0848 180 x 50 = 0. inertia constant.000 J 739.5 MJIMVA (i) no MVA 12. find the change in the torque angle and the rotor speed in rpm at the end of 8 cycles Solution: (i) Stored energy = GH = 110 x 5.82 = 91.082163 MJS/oEIc M= '" M1M2 Ml+M2 0.E = "2 1 x 15.4634 739.815 MJIMVA 481. Determine the rotor acceleration.4634 x 8.5 = 605 MJ where G = Machine rating (ii) Pa = The acclerating power = 10 MW 10 MW = d20 GH d20 M dt2 = 180f dt2 .15337 0.5 MJ 180 x 50 x 0.3 A four pole synchronous generator rated constant of 5.0535 MJS/Elec. 10 MW.082163xO.0848 M2 = 91.the input is increased by (iii) If the rotor acceleration in (ii) is maintained for 8 cycles.
Determine the steady state power limit with and without the capacitor in the circuit.4(a).8 Fig.16 sec.0672 dt 2 = 10 or dt2 = 0.0672 = 148.8 + 0.81 elec degrees/sec 2 (iii) 8 cyles = 0.u x l2 =O. Change in 8= !.5p.u T'= Xc = 0.1 0.p. Generator~ ~+I x l1 =O.u Xd = ___ X':':'hn::.2.m E 8.1 = 1.2p.::e_=_0_.4 Power is supplied by a generator to a motor over a transmission line as shown in Fig.8.xI48.u 1.2 x 1 0.16)2 2 Rotor speed at the end of 8 cycles __ 120f .8 0.8.904768 x 0.P_'U__ ~+_~ ~Motorv= Ip.0 With the capacitor in the circuit.2 + 0.1 + 0..8Ix(0.8 + 0.2 = 0. To the motor bus a capacitor of 0.4 (b) .8p.16 = 457.lp.6 pu 2. 0.144 r.u l E= 0.81 a = 148.2 0. the following circuit is obtained.lp. E. E8.Power System Stability 287 180 x 50 dt 2 =10 d 28 d 28 10 0.1 0.:.8 pu reactance per phase is connected through a switch.u Fig.4 (a) Steady state power limit without the capacitor P ma.(1:) x t __ 120 x 50 P u 4 x 1. E.1 ::= 1.
99 + 0.6 jO.88 0.5 A generator rated 75 MVA is' delivering 0.3 sin e e = 0.u and that of the motor is also 1.0 sin (0. E.61 = =.8 = .u 0.4 (d) (j1.1) jO.jO.24 .8 0.4 (c) Converting the star to delta network.0 p.f behind transient reactance.8) + (jO.1 + 0.0p.8 = X\2 = jO. The terminal voltage of the generator is 1.2 p.u.0 x 1. Fig.8 Fig.8 .9)(jO.m.1)(j0.9 Power System Analysis E = 1. E.7625 p.7625 = 1.8 p. Determine the genera.u.288 Simplifying jl.8 x jl.2 .99 + 1.1 j 0.u 1.8 pu power to a motor through a transmission line of reactance j 0.j 0.9) + (j0.2) a 1 = 0.jO. Find also the maximum power that can be transferred. Solution: When the power transferred is 0.Sin 1.3 = 0.tor e. the transfer reactance between the two nodes X 12 .8 x 0.2x 1 Steady state power limit = 0.72 + 0.8 0.S.S.5738 pu E 8.
.3 0.u.6(a). voltage.8. E... The generator is supplying 0.9708 + jO. Gen~:: ~. E.11676 = = 0.88324 +.~.. j 0.0973) = 1 + j 0.0973 + 0.o8865 lLOo 1= (0.8 0.96 1.24 jO.0 p. E.8.2 = 0.i 0.3 j 0.6(b).4 pu bus Fig.3 = = 1 = 0.8571 /6. J 0.05 p.1 Current supplied to motor lL13.~r_J_.6 (a) Solution: The reactance diagram is drawn in Fig.1 0. .u power to the infinite bus.0292 + jO. The generator is operating at a terminal voltage of 1.2 (0.0.0496 47°.=JO_I·2_ _+_~ Fig.1 .Power System Stability 289 j 0.0496xl 1.6 Determine the power angle characteristic for the system shown in Fig. E.8 + j 0.8747 p.8571/Tan. 0934 Voltage behind transient reactance = lLOo + j 1.96 .~ ~ ~_+I__~.5 ffi.u E 8.8.O_.8 p.u and the infinite bus is at 1.8 = Pmax X EV = 1.4_p_u_.1216 jO.8.24) I jO.
24 1.02216 + j 0.24) jO.2 + 0.= J 0.05)(1.°28482 p.3 .1 + 2.022216 + j 0.08977/5.4 pu Power System Analysis Fig.074) j 0.j 0.0) 0.25 + J 0.25 + 1. = E I V sin 0 == (1.24 j 0.932 The transient internal voltage in the generator EI = = = = The total transfer reactance between E l and V = J 0. .290 j 0.040 + j 0. Sin 0 = 0.022216 + jO.55 p.4.074 = 1.8 .4 j 0.55 Pe = 2.6 (b) The transfer reactance between.05/13 0 .u (0.3 (0.1299).8.24 .8 Solving for 0. t = jO.0) sin 0 X jO.22216 + j 0.(1.u ~ Sin u == (1. sin 0 = 0.3 p.1 + 2 = j 0.3 • = 0.V I and V is we have VV x .1299 /22°.44 1.21 The terminal voltage is 1.05436 sin 0 . jO.8 .u The power angle characteristic is given by p e .0185 + 1.22857 and 0 = 13°.(1 + jO) 1= ' jO.j 0.21 1. E.022216+ jO.24 The current supplied by the generator to the infinite bus 1.
E. ..Power System Stability 291 E 8.1 showin in Fig. i 0.7(a).. E. Lme! Infinite bus Fig.j 5.8.4 Fig. E.S. A three phase fault occurs at point P as shown at the mid pOint on line 2.0 .7 Consider the system in E 8.8. Determine the power angle characteristic for the system with the fault persisting.5 (D.8.8. E.7 (b) .J .j 2.7(b). E. E.0 Fig.7 Solution: The reactance diagram is shown in Fig.j 5.7 (a) The admittance diagram is shown in Fig.8.7.
85271)(2.89655 The transfer admittance between the two sources is 0.0 j 2.(10.0 .5) (10.6896 _ Y32 Y23 Y 22 (modlfied)Y 22 (old) .06896 6.5) = .5 .u Pe = 0.7241 sin 8 p.5 j 2.45 sin 8 p.05 x 1 1.3571) =0.5)(2.3571 Node 3 or bus 3 has no connection to any source directly. it can be eliminated.3571) = .u .8527)(2.6896 and the transfer reactance = 1.85271 0.07137 0.Y 33 (2.5 CD j 2.8271 j 2.292 Power System Analysis The buses are numbered and the bus admittance matrix is obtained.j 1.3571) =  j 2.~ (2.8571  = .6896 (2) 0..j 7.07137 Y I2 (modlfied)=0 (2.2.45 P2 = or 1.5 . . Yl3 Y31 Y II (modIfied) = Y II (old) .6.85271) (10.7.896549 The modified bus admittance matrix between the two sources is CD CD (2) 2.j 10.85271 (2) 0.
4 sin 0 is the swing equation where 0 in electrical·degrees.Power System Stability 293 E 8.) = P .05)(1.6 with the swing equation Pe = 2.9 when 0.1.4 Sin 0 E8. Given M = 1 1500 = Solution: ISOf lS0x50 == H 6 1500 1 d20 1500 dt2' = O.Pe = Pa. determine the frequency of oscillation and also its period.1500 Pa E 8.8.8 p.75 p.8 For the system considered in E.5 MJIMVA Pe = 2.6 if the H constant is given by 6 MJ/MVA obtain the swing equation Solution: H d 20 The swing equation is f .s cleared on line 2 by operating the circuit breakers on both sides of the line.11 Consider example E 8.75 Sin 0 = 1.25 + j 0. Given H = 5.05 sin 28° = 0.u power is delivered.S .4 = j 0.u Pe = (1.05 sin 0 If the machine is operating at 28° and is subjected to a small transient disturbance.7659 . Solution: The net transfer reactance between EI and Va with only line 1 operating is j 0.0) jO.7 jf the 3phase fault i. determine the post fault power angle characteristic. E8. the acclerating power 7t dtIn If 0 is in electrical radians ISOx 50 P _ 6 a .9 In E8.9624167 Solution: dPe do = 2.10 Determine the swing equation for the condition in E 8.05 cos 28° = 1.1 + j 0.
7287 = 0.= I 25 = 0.8.7659 2x5.9165 = 0. Determine the critical angle.u.4113 Cos 8e = 1. .9165 80 in radians 280 = 0.294 The angular frequency of oscillation = Power System Analysis con CO n = )COS O = 2H 21tx50x1.0.5 P. Solution: Pmo 0.2739 = T = 0.5 p.13.25 sin 8 The H constant is 5 sec and initially it is delivering a load of 0.= 1.099888 = 8 elec rad/sec.09148 . Fig.2739 Hz 1t 1 1 Period of oscillation = T = fll = 1.12 The power angle characteristic for a synchronous generator supplying infinite bus is given by Pe = 1.785 sec E8.8226 1t . I f = n 21t x 4 8 = .13 Consider the system shown in Fig.280 = 2.17498 be = 79°. E.4 = Sind 80 max .5 = 7. 80 = 23°.8.578 Cos 80 = 0.13 .9215 E8. E.
4 p.45 = 2.923 Sin 8 1 = 1.4 0.25 x I = 1.lI .778 Sin 8 0 = 1.25 p.25 + 0.25 = 0. XI = X 2 = 0.7072 radian .5416 == 0.25 p.778 p.25 Pe max = 0.u 295 lEI = 1.u and IVI = 1.4665 radinas At point C P~ = 1.7437 = 0.65 8 1 = 40°.65 1.u Sin 80 = 0.lI.u Pea = 2. When both the lines are working 1.u Initially the system is operating stable while delivering a load of 1.2 = 0. Determine the stability of the system when one of the lines is switched off due to a fault.25 Sin 8 1 = 0.45 8 0 = 26°.25 p.Power System Stability x~ = 0.0 p.25 + 0.25 x I 1. Solution.25 p.u When one line is switched off pI emax = 1.923 p.
044866 02 A2 = f(1.25 O + 1.0.e.0...923 Sino}do oj = (1.5416 = 0.7072) .5 °= 2 ° ° 2 2 = 2.25 + 1. 25 1.76) 2 i.1.923Sino1.30048 .25 2 55°.0450 Maximum area available = area c d f g c = A2 max Om ax A2 max = f (P:P.25 line.7256 = 0.7072 = 1.1.296 0] 07072 Power· System Analysis A] = area abc = f(P2P~)dO= fO.25 x 1.34548 .4328 . i.2.300625 + (0.25)do 0] 07072 = 1.7599 .157 = 1.25 I 0. hence the negative sign] ES.0.923 Cos O + 1. By trial and error = + 1.25 2 = 1. Solution: Maximum value of the rotor swing is given by condition AI =A 2 AI = 0.7599 .923 Cos 0 I 1.0450 = 2.923 Cos 0 = 0.3971 »A] The system is stable [Note: area A] is below P2 = 1.13.923 (Cos O2 .25 line and area A2 is above P2 = 1.e.7072) 40°.25 (2.14 Determine the maximum value of the rotor swing in the example ES.923sino)do 04665 00 0.46 1t0 7072 (1.255759) = 0.923 Cos O + 1.)do= f 139°.25 x 0.4665 + 1.
6373 and hence 0.9 .45 = 0.55 0.15 The M constant for a power system is 3 x 104 S2/elec. SolutIOn: P el = 0. during the fault and post fault power angle characteristics are given by Pel = 2.9 ) The initial power angle 0o = SinI ( 2.2938 = 0.8. the average acclerating powr at t 0+0.00 Sin ° ° ° respectively choosing a time interval of 0.3673 0.8.33 Pa . Pmax = 2.05 x 0.4 sec.606 2 I = = 0ave 0.9 p.45 = Sin 0o = Sin 21 °.Pe = 0.303 (~t)2 P _ (0.45 Sin Pe2 and Pe 3 = = 0.9 At t = 0+.8.2938 = Pe = 0. The calculations are tabulated upto t = 0.05 second obtain the swing curve for a sustained fault on the system.606 Hence.8 Sin 2.303 .9 = 2.45 = 21.524 and 0° = 21 °. degree 297 The prefault.9 . . The prefault power transfer is 0.3673 Pa = 0 2.55. the acclerating power 0.3673 x Pe = Pmax Sin 0o = 0.8 = Pa.Power System Stability E8.2 .524 ~o = 2°.0.45 Sin ° ° 0. Sin x ° 0 = 0.05) _ _ x _ ° M a3 X 104 . just after the occurrence of fault Pmax = 0.u.33 0.55° At t = 0_ just before the occurrence of fault.
303 0.8 0.524 4. From the table it can be seen that the angle 0 increases continuously indicating instability.327° 14°. 8.25 0. 9 0.6300 Table of results for E8. 5.3574 0.2121 90.70 128.45 0.p.524 7°. 4.7036 570.4834 0.8 0.9574 0.9999 0.8 0.s P •= Pa = 0.15 0.097 2. 0 0.7999 0.0 100 80 60 1 40 20 • 0.1170 08330 1.3673 0.6709 0.55° 24°.8   2155° 21. I. 00+ °ave 2.2500 2°.05 0.1422 0.3 II °.40 0.8 0.1000 0.35 0.596 2.047 149°.5207 0.329 18°.1847 2.7875 0.6782 08357 0.9.5737 0.3263 0.977 1.4 • 0.075 31.5426 0.33 x p.304 16°.8 0.1 S.3673 0.9472 0.1623 19°.0 0.7659 0.3 0.5 t(sec)~ .8 0.s P max Sin 0.9 0.4079 0.1S.5411 108.No t (sec) Pmax (p. = 8.) Power S.7786 4.10 0.3673 0.8 0.7578 0.1 0.606 0. 3. 160 140 E (8.347 21°.15) '" " 0 \ Curve I '" tb 120 <.2290 0.s p.u.212 170.2 0.9081 1.2938  .2700 M (~t)2 M .027 2.1341 0. 6. 7.4166 0.30 0.00 73°.ystem 1nalysis Sin .20 0.3766 42°.298 Table 8.8 0.075 24°.
Sin 8 = 0.57367 + 0.075 = 29°. At t 0.Pe = 0.00 sin 8. = In this the calculations performed in the previous example E8.2.5 .339 These calculated results and further calculated results are tabulated in Table 8. Solution: As before (M2 ) M Pa = 8 .8289 2 M and A8 .5 cycles determine the swing curve and examine the stability of the system.33 5.5 cycles second 50 cycles 0.5+ Gust after the fault is cleared) Pmax becomes 2. 33 Pa Time to clear the fault = 2. since the fault in cleared at 0.264 x 0.Power System Stability 299 ES.9 .0842.05 sec.8158 = 0. and Pe = Pmax Sind 8 = 0. Pa = 8.0.S. This gives a value for P a = 0.0 p.74 = 8 = 5. 14 hold good for Dave' However.8 sin 8 and another for P e3 = 2. Then for t = 0.3289 = 2°.075 0. there will two values for Pa1 one for Pe 2 = = 0.05 are the average accelerating power at the instant of fault clearance becomes Pa ave (~t)2 = 0.0842 = 0.9 .3263. t 4 is cleared at the end of 2. t 6 If the fault in the previous example E. so that Pa = 0. at t = 8 = 24°.8158.u at the same 8 and Pe = P max Sin 8 = 0.Gust before the fault is cleared) Pmax = 0.264 + 24.05 sec. .57367 giving as before But.4079.5..
10 0.858 2.0 2.0 2.740 0.u when a 3phase fault occurs at its terminals.4079 0.1 p.05 34°.018  29.15. 4.05+ 0.33 x p. 5. Plot the swing curve for a sustained fault. The generator is transmitting an active power of 1.8038 2.98 1.08 0.55° 24.7937 0.2056 1.3673 03673 0.17 A synchronous generator represented by a voltage source of 1.8 0.264 4.9 0.p. The fact that the increase of angle 8.40 p.1196 1.1423 5.4664 2.45 0.5976 2. ES. started decreasing indicates stability of the system.2938  21.296 0.0 p.u while the infinite bus is represented by a voltage source of 1.  I.2 S.55° 21.3673 0.83 30°.2366 0.524 0.6664 1.0 p. The line has a series reactance of j0.0842 0.303 0.558 0.9 .2182 4.598 0.730 37.1165 1.545 2.4079 0. 0.2423 p.49 0.524 °ave 2.2165 0. 0. = 8.300 Table 8.4079 0.0 0.3289 0.9J67 36. Determine the critical clearing time and critical clearing angle.O\ve 3..606 0.0 2. 7.3263 0.25 0.5933 O.20 0. Solution: .1S p. 6.No t Power System Analysis Pm•• Sin /) P •= P •= (dt)2 d/) /) M Pmax Sin /) 0.339 33.15 0.075 2.3273 2.8 2.u.05 0.u in series with a transient reactance of jO.5737 0.u and an inertia constant H = 4 sec is connected to an infinit~ bus through a transmission line.39 2.3056 0.5711 Table of results for E8.6028 0. 0 0.0 2.0 2. 0O~ 2.
05) P = 5.63 P M a (4.14 rad ISO 8e .5 p.59° = = 0.59 Critical clearing time = 49.u = 0.28 0 }sin 8 0  301 COS 8 0 ] = COSI [(ISOo .05 sec 8n _ 1 =30° = ISOf ISOx50 H = 4 I = 2250 H M ISOf = 2250 = 4.S6507 rad te = 2 x 4 x 0.59 x 3.S07] = 79°.44 x 104 ([\t)2 P = (0.59 Critical clearing angle = 79°.05 x 0.Cos 30° ] = cosI[~0.S66] = COSI [l.44 x 104 ) a a Accelerating power before the occurrence of the fault = Pa.2099 sec Calculation for the swing curve _ [\8 n 8n _ l + (ISOf) [\t2 Pa(nI) H Let [\t = 0.80 = 79° .u.= 2 Sin 80  1.0 =0 Accelerating power immediately after the occrrence of the fault Pa+ = 2 Sin 80 0+1 Average acclerating powr = 2fault occurrence.S6507 Ix3. Change in the angle during 0.  0 = I p.05 s~c after .2 x 30° )Sin 30° .Power System Stability _ 8e = COSI [(1t .14x50 = 0.59 30° = 49 .
................ ... 50 .. ...14 0...... . 1.2 0............1 0......S1 = 32°.. '" .......17..~ .18 0.......... ....... : ... E.302 ~81 = 5. .......06 0....... ... : : 60 .. .. "1' ..... E......... ..rrr~.... ~................ (·······t········1·········................:...8 1... Power System Analysis Onemachine system swing curve......17 (a) Onemachine system swing curve..S1 The results are plotted in Fig. 300~~~~~~7~~~~~ 0... sec Fig...... ... :.........6 t.5 = iO.. i ... ... ..: .. : : : 70 ....!' . \.........12 0. sec 0... ... 40 ...2 t.... t············:··········· 0..... \.81 81 = 30° + 2°... .~r~..16 0. Fault cleared at Infs 90r... j..... ....... .8.. .. . ........08 0... : +...... .:...17 (b) The system is unstable.!.:............. ..... ...( ............r············\"" .... ... : : 80 ......: .. ..4 ....... Fault cleared at Infs 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0.......... !. ES...63 )( 0........4 Fig..i...... ...····· ....8.2 1...
25p.U. During the fault power angle characteristic is given by Pe = 0.. .'. Fault cleared at 0.18 In example no... " ...IS.. .1 s 70.S7 lagging power factor has a moment of inertia of 12..."i~ __~~__~~__~~__~__~~ 0.I A 2 pole. .. 30 ':'. 10~~ . 60' . . G 81'1~_P2_+_0.: :.25 p. E8.. Plot also the swing curve.. PS.u H=2.\~ : ... .17. 40 .• \" \ . ..62 Sin 0 .... if the fault is cleared in 0..3 sec 1 X = 0..:.. Onemachine system swing curve. : . E. .ll I LO 0 If a 3phase fault occurs across the generator terminals plot the swing curve..... .. : .u11118 xd = 0. Solution: The swing curve is obtained using MATLAB and plotted in Fig.:" . o.18 The system is stable.2 A 4pole synchronous generator supplies over a short line a load of 60 Mw to a load bus.000 kgm 2 . . II KV synchronous generator with a rating of 120 Mw and 0..6 0.9 Sin 0 2 Determine the critical clearing angle and the clearing time.3 0.. . : . Calculate the constants HandM. . 50 Hz. PS.Power Sy!tem Stability 303 E8......4 Consider the system operating at 50 Hz. t...7 0. .. obtain the swing curve.. determine the maximum sudden increase in the load that can be tolerated by the system without loosing stability.S...2 0. .. Problems PS..3 The prefault power angle chracteristic for a generator infinite bus system is given by PeI = 1... .' . .....5 0. :. . and the initial load supplied is I R. ~ : 50 . E8. sec ~: .9 1 o Fig.7_5P_.05 sec.. ..1 0....4 0. PS.8 0. If the maximum steady stae capacity of the transmission line is 110 Mw. :'. if the fault is cleared in 100 msec...
8. 8. If a fault occurs on one of the lines and the line is switched off.10 Discuss the method of solution for swing equation. for a sudden load increment.8 What are the various applications of equal area criterion? Explain. 8.4 Explain the term (i) critical clearing angle and (ii) critical clearing time 8. 8.3 Discuss the various methods of improving transient stability.2 Discuss the various methods of improving steady state stability. .1 Explain the terms (b) Transient stabiltiy (c) Dynamic stability (a) Steady state stability 8. 8.6 A double circuit line feeds an infinite bus from a power statio'll. 8.5 Derive an expression for the critical clearing angle for a power system consisting of a single machine supplying to an infinite bus.304 Power System Analysis Questions 8. derive an expression for the critical clearing angle.7 Explain the equal area critrion.9 State and derive the swing equations 8.
. 20 Base impedance in ohms is (a) [Base Voltage in KV (line . .to line»)2 x 1000 .to line)]X 1000 baseKVA [Base Voltage in KV (line .J3 base KVA (poUo impedance) [base KV (line ...to .J3 Base KV(line to line) BaseKVA BaseKV(lineto line) BaseKVA 3 Base KV (line to line) (b) (c) ..Ojective Questions I Base current in amperes is BaseKVA (a) 0 .line) J2 X 3 baseKVA (b) (c) 30 Impedance in ohms is (a) (poUo impedance) [base KV (line ..to line)]2 X 1000 baseKVA [Base Voltage in KV (line .to line)f baseKVA xlOOO (pouoimpedance)[baseKV (line .to line)]2 x I 000 baseKVA (b) (c) .
9.impedance on (c) ( given KVA andKV base given KVA base new KV base 5. In a graph if there are 4 nodes and 7 elements the number of links is (a) 3 (b) 4 (c) 5 8.u. 7. ( c ) Each current source is replaced by a short circuit in a graph. The dimension of the bus incidence matrix is (a) e x n (b) e x (n.impedanceon given KV A and KV base New KV A base new KV base ) ( new KV A base) (giVen KV base)2 p. Objective Questions Per unit impedance on new KVA and KV base is (a) ( p.I = kt .u. The rank of a graph is (a) n (b) nI (c) n+I where n is the number of nodes in the graph. (b) Each line segment is called an element. Which of the following is false? (a) An element of a graph is called an edge.u. Which of the following statements is true? (a) n basic cutsets are linearly independent where n is the number of nodes.impedanceon ] (giVen KVA base) ( new KV base )2 given KV A and KV base New KV A base given KV base (b) ( ](giVen KVA base) (giVen KV base)2 p. (c) The removal of k branches does not reduce the rank of a graph provided that no proper subset of this set reduces the rank of the graph by one when it is removed from the graph.I ) (c) e x e 10.306 4. 6. (b) The cut set is a minimal set of branches of the graph. If Ab and AI are the sub matrices of bus incidence matrix A containing branches and links [] only and k is the branch path incidence matrix then (a) A b kt = U (b) kt = Ab (c) AI A b.
With the addition of a branch to a partial network with usual notation.:..' ' . A b' (c) 8. The self impedance Zbb of a branch ab added to an existing partial network is given by [ ] 1+ YabXY (Zab .. A.Zbl ) (b) Zbl = Zal + "''Yabab (c) Z bl = Z 81 + "'' YabXY (ZYI • Zal ) Yabab 15.:::. Yabab . kt where 8. is the basic cut set incidence matrix containing links only.''''Yabab 1+ YabXY (ZX8 .Zxy ) (b) Zbb = Zab + ...ZYI ) (a) Zbl = Zal + ~''. the mutual impedance is given by [ ] YabXY (:ZXI .... = = 307 8 where 8 is the basic cut set incidence matrix.Objective Questions 11. Identify the correct relation (a) Y BUS = [st] [y] [B] (b) Y'oop (c) Y BR = [C t] [y] [C] [B]l [y] [B] = 13.. Which of the following statements is true? (a) There is a onetoone correspondence between links and basic cut sets. 12.ZXY ) (a) Zbb = Zab + =.. Identify the current relations (a) [Al] [y] [A] (b) [Bl] [y] [8] (c) [Cl] [z] [C] = Y'oop Z'oop = ZBR = 14. Yabab Yabxv (Zal .. (b) A...
308 Objective Questions 16.Zlj) (c) Z'J (before elimination) 19. If in q. If in q.5 + j 0. For stationery bi lateral unbalanced network elements () a RY Z ab = ZYR ab an dZ ab RR = ZYY ab ZYY ab (b) ( c) ZYR Z RY ab=ab ZRY"# ZYY ab ab RR an dZ ab= . eJ 47t! 3 (c) 1+a+a2 =0+jO 20.866 (b) a = 1. Modified impedances are computed when the fictitious node introduced for the addition of a link is eliminated. Identify the correct relation (a) a2 =  0. Then ZjJ (modified) [ ] (a) Z (before elimination) _ __IJ II 'I Z Z Zn (b) Z'I (before elimination)  ziZ . Which of the following is correct (a) VR=VRO+aVRI+a2VR2 (b) The sequence compoenets are related to the phase components through the translonnation matrix C " l: :' j a: 21. no 18 there is no mutual coupling and if "a" is the reference node (a) Zbb = zabab (b) Zbb = Zab (c) Zbb = Zab + zabab 18.no 18 there is no mutual coupling (a) Zbb = Zab (b) Zbb = Zab + zabab (c) Zbb = zabab 17.I IJ (ZII .
lI excitation and is connected to an infinite bus of voltage 1. For a 3phase stationary network element the positive impedance is given by [ (b) Z~) . A balanced three phase element with balanced excitation can be considered as a single phase element (a) true [ ] (b) false (c) some times it is true 24.Objective Questions 22.2 Z~~ 26.u.8 p.u.u. For a stationary 3phase network element ab.375 [ ] (a) P = 0.0 p. delivering power at a load angle ono o the power delivered with x d = 0. and x q = 0.1 p.6 p. Unit inertia constant H is defined as (a) Ws / Pr (b) Pr / ws (c) Ws Pr / rad .675 Neglect reluctance power (b) P = 0. (c) P = 1. For a 3phase stationary network element the negative sequence impedance is given by [ ] 27. zero sequence impedance is given by [ ] 25. When a synchronous machine is working with 1. The inertia constant H is of the order of (a) H = 4 (b) H = 8 (c) H = I 28. For balanced rotating 3phase network elements 309 (a) ZRY .ZYR ab ab ZRY ot= ZYR ab ab ( b) (c) The admittances are symmetric 23.6875 29.
8) .=1 Pd . 36. Which one of the following is not correct? (a) (b) (c) P .8.(Total load) (d) Q= . Q bus IVI bus will become a P. the state variables are (a) P andQ (b) IVI [ IVI and 8 (c) P and IVI P and 8 34. + j Sin 8) 11 Real power loss = . 'j=J n V. The number of iteration required for an nbus system in GaussSeidel method are approximately [ ] (a) n (b) n2 (c) 3 (d) n(n + \) 2 37. The number of iteration required for an nbus system in NewtonRaphson method are approximately [ ] (a) n (b) n2 (c) 3 (d) n(n + 1) 2 . In load flow studies. At a Generator bus the quantities specified are (a) IVI and 8 (c) (b)Q and IVI 33.jQ .1=1 IY'I Vi VII COS (8. = IV. = . (Total generation) .310 Objt:. At a slackbus the quantities specified are P and IVI 31. N ~ .=1 N ~ N Pg..ctive Questions 30. .  ~ .=1 ~ P. At a load bus the quantities specified are (a) P and Q (b) (b) (a) P and (c) (c) IVI and 8 PandQ Pand Q Cd) (d) (d) (d) P and 8 IVI Q and IVI IVI and 8 [ P and 32. =V' ~ Y') VJ .) 35. Which of the following is true? (a) (b) (c) (d) GaussSeidel method is a direct solution method for power flow All iterative methods ensure convergence A generator bus is also called a swing bus If the reactive generation exceeds the limit then the P.I (Cos 8.
In a tiebar system current fed into a fault has to pass through two reactors in series.(Ea 2 E +c ) + a b aE 3 .a) is given by (a) jJ3 (b) j J3 (c) I jjj (d) 1 . The speed of fast decoupled load flow method when compared to NewtonRaphson method is [ ] (a) (b) (c) (d) Veru slow almost the same double the NR method speed per iteration Five times the NR method speed per iteration 40. C11200 42. With usual notation which of the following is true for a decoupled model (a) (c) L\P = [H] L\8 L\P = [M] L\IVI 311 (b) L\Q = [L] L\8 L\IVI IVT (d) L\P = [M] 39. Eb and Ec are related to symmetrical components Yo.jJ3 44. then which of the following is true? [ ] (a) (c) Va2 =(Ea b c +aE +a2 E) 3 1 (b) (d) VaO=Ea+Eb+Ec 1 Val = .Objective Questions 38. there is no protection for busbar fautls. Phase voltages Ea. Which of the following is not true (a) (b) (c) In a feeder reactor protection. In ring system of reactor connection the voltage drop and power loss are considerable. V 1 and V 2. The operator 'a' is given by (a) EI1200 (b) (c) EI600 ( d) E J600 43. (a 2 . Which of the following is true? (a) Short circuit KVA = Bore KVA (%X) 100 100 (%X) (b) Ishort ClfCUI! = Ifull load x (c ) %Z = x 100 IZ v 41.
V= a (Za + a 2 Zb + aZ e) Ib = Ie. Id2 and Ido are delta connected network sequence currents for the same unbalnced network.J3 1 Id2 0 (d) I sl =  j. the terminal conditions are (a) Ib = Ie = 0 (c) Vb + Vc 2 ''1=1=0 b e 50.312 Objective Questions 45. then [ ] (a) (c) (b) I sO = Is2 = j . The positive sequence impedance component of three unequal impedances Za' Zb and ZC (a) (c) "3 1 (Za + aZ b + a2Z c) (b) Cd) (b) Cd) "3 1 CZa + a 2 Zb + a Zc) (Za + aZ b + a 2Z c) Va = 0. For a single linetoground fault. For a double line fault on phase band c (a) I a = 3E a =ZI + Z2 + Zo . Vb = Vc 49. In case of stardelta connected transformers (a) (b) (c) (d) IS There is only a phase shift of 90° between the sequence components on either side There is only a change in the magnitude There is change both in phase and magnitude There is no change [ ] 48.J3 1 dl 47. For the solution of 3phase star connected unbalanced load problem which method is more suitable [ ] (a) (c) Symmetrical components Thevenin's theorem (b) (d) Direct analysis Mil1man's theorem 46. If lSI' Is2 and Iso are star cQnnected network sequence current components and Idl .
(d) 0.j p.866 p.0 p.u. In Q.0. (c) (b) (d) + j \.0.5 j p.866) 54.u. (11) (a) (c) 53.9 p.9 p. in case of a doubleline to ground fault on phases b and c [ ] (i) I al = Z\ +Z\ ' (b) (d) (ii) only is correct Eo (a) (c) 52.5 . (c) .u.9 KV generator. 313 For an ungrounded neutral.j 0.u. What is the positive sequence component of the fault current in per unit. The most common type of fault to occur is (a) (c) Symmetrical 3phase fault Double line fault Single linetoground fault Double linetoground fault 56.5 + 0. 50% and 10% respectively.Objective Questions 51. The zero sequence network for the transformer connection deltastar with star point earthed is given by [ ] ~ (a) (b) 0 (c) (d) . is '[] (a) + j 0.j 0. the positive sequence component of the fault current in p.j 0.5 j p.866) +jp.No.u (b) . (52) if the fault is a linetoground fault on phase a then.j 0.u.u (b) (d) G0. star connected has positive.u.5 . 6. [] 55.No. (d) . A linetoline fault occurs at the terminals of the generator operating on noload. (. negative and zero sequence reactances of 50%. What is the negative sequence component of fault current in Q.2j p.866) G0. [] (a) . (i) only is correct (i) and (ii) are both correct both (i) and (ii) are false A 15MVA.u (b) .u.
2 p. A synchronous machine having E = 1. x. the steady state stabil ity limit will [ ] (a) increase (b) decrease ( c ) remain unaltered 62. 1 (c) 58. If the transfer reactace is 0.~x. xO+3xn +x f 3 (XO+xn+x f ) 59. If a shunt capacitor is added near the middle of the line. .u.l A star connected synchoronous machine with neutral point grounded through a reactance xn and winding zero sequence reactance Xo experiences a single lineto ground fault through an impedance xf" The total zero sequence impedance is [ ] (a) (c) xo+ xn + x f (b) Xo + 3xn + 3xf (d) In case of a turbo generator the positvie sequence reactnce Under subtransient state is more than transient state but less than steady state synchronous reactnace Under subtransient state is less than transient state and morethan synchronous reactance The transient state reactance is more than subtransient state reactance but less than synchronous reactance The transient state reactane is less than subtransient state.0 p.u is supplying power to an infinite bus with voltage 1.u 61. If the middle of the line a shunt reactor gets connected. j ( (d) j(x. Objective Questions The negative sequence reactance of a synchronous machine is given by (a) j ( x~ .314 57. 1 (b) j ( x. the steadystate stability limit will [ ] (a) increase (b) decrease ( c ) remain unaltered A synchronous generator is supplying power to an infinite bus through a transmission line.u.0 p. .6 p.u (c) 2 p.u A synchronous generator is feeding as infinite bus through a transmission line.6 p. but more than synchronous reactance. (b) 1. the steady stae power limit is (a) 0. (a) (b) (c) (d) 60. x~ 1 x~ ~ x.
For a step load disturbance. Critical clearing angle for a step load change is 68. 2n . the stability limit will [ ] (a) increase (b) decrease ( c ) remain unchanged Which of the following is correct (a) In steady state stability excitation response is important (b) In transient stability studies.Objective Questions 63. If power is transmitted during the fault period on a doubleline circuit with fault [ ] as one of the lines the critical clearing angle 8c is given by . 65.S mu X (c) EV X 66.V ~ (a) Cosu X (b) EV · ~ . Coefficient of stiffness is defines as E.no. excitation response is important (c) Dynamic stability is independent of excitation system response 64.fiH (c) f= _1 2n ~(O80 2H 67.. the frequency of oscillations is given by 1 (08 0 (a)f= . 315 If the shunt capacitor in q. (3) is shifted to the infinite bus.
0n_2 = ffir(~3/2) ~t . ~t On _ 1 = ffir (n _ I) 0n2 (c) ~OnI = 0n_l = ffi r (n2) . Objective Questions In step by step method of solution to swing equation (a) ~onI = on_I (b) ~on = On .'~t .316 69.
35. (a) (b) (c) (c) (c) (b) (b) (b) (b) (a) (c) (c) (c) (a) (b) (b) (a) (a) (c) (b) (c) (c) (c) (c) (a) 26. 48. 4. 57. 37. 56. 47. IS. 5. 68. 33. 69. 16. 31. 46. 3. 65. 59. 27. 36. 39. 28. 60. 14. 29. 49.Objective Questions 317 Answers to Objective Questions 1. 17. 21. 30. 54. 50. 23. 12. 8. 52. 43. 11. 2. 20. 10. 61. 66. (b) (c) (a) (b) (d) (d) (c) (c) (a) (a) (c) (c) (a) (a) (b) (b) (c) (b) (c) (c) (c) (b) (a) (c) (a) (a) (c) (b) (a) (a) . 25. 42. 53. 7. 32. 41. 58. (b) (b) (b) (c) (c) (c) (d) (b) (d) (d) (a) (c) (a) (d) 51. 64. 13. 19. 55. 38. 18. 9. 6. 45. 63. 67. 22. 40. 44. 62. 24. 34.
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INDEX B Base current in amperes 177 Base impedence in ohms J 77 Basic cutset incidence matrix 20 Basic cutset 10 Basic Loop incidence matrix 21 Basic loops 9 Branch path incidence matrix 19 Bus bar reactors 188 Bus incidence matrix 18 Critical clearing time tc 272 Cut set 9 D Oecoupled methods 119 Double line to ground fault 238 Dynamic stability 259 Dynamic stability 280 E Edge 6 Element node incidence matrix 18 Equal area criterion 267 c Cotree 8 Convrgence J 24 F Fast decoupled methods 120 Feeder reactors 187 Frequency of oscillations 270 Critical clearing angle 272 .
320 Power System Analysis G Gaussseidel iterative method 105 Generator reactors 187 Generator bus I 0 I Graph 6 Positive sequence components 217 Power flow 100 Positive sequence network 228 Primitive network 4 R J Rank of a graph 7 Reactance diagrams 179 Reactors I 86 Jacobian 110 L Linetoline fault 235 Load bus 101 Load flow 100 Rectangular coordinates method 110 s Sequence components 2 I 7 Sequence impedance of transformer 227 Sequence impedances 224 Sequence networks of Synchronous machines 228 Sequence reactances of Synchronous machine 228 Short circuit KVA 180 N Negative sequence components 218 Negative sequence network 229 Newtonraphson method 109 Node 6 Nonsingular 115 0 Optimal ordering 118 Operator "a" 218 Single line to ground fault 232 Singular transformation 24 Slack bus 101 Sparsity 115 Stability 259 Steady state stability 259 Stepbystep method 277 Subgraph 7 Swing equation 263 Symmetric 115 Symmetrical components 217 Synchronizing power coefficient 262 p Partial network 53 Path 7 Per unit impedence 177 Per unit quantities 176 Percentage values 179 Polar coordinates Method 112 Positive 2 I 7 .
Index 321 T Transient stability 259 Vertex 6 v Voltage controlled bus 101 a Transient stability limit 269 Tree 8 Triangular decomposition 116 z Zero sequence components 218 Zero sequence Network 230 u Uniatary transformation 222 Unsymmetrical faults 231 .
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